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Sample records for raised antistreptolysin-o titre

  1. How to use antistreptolysin O titre.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sen, E S; Ramanan, A V

    2014-12-01

    Group A streptococcus (GAS) is the cause of a wide range of acute suppurative and, following a latent period, non-suppurative diseases such as rheumatic fever and poststreptococcal glomerulonephritis. Diagnosis of the latter group requires evidence of preceding GAS infection. The bacteria produce a range of extracellular antigens, including streptolysin O, which induce an antibody response in the host. A rise in antistreptolysin O titre (ASOT) is indicative of preceding GAS infection. In clinical practice, often only a single ASOT measurement is available and its timing in relation to a possible GAS infection is unknown. Interpretation of the result in this context is liable to misdiagnosis. In order to optimise diagnosis of preceding GAS infection, at least two sequential ASOT measurements, together with simultaneous assay for anti-DNase B, a second antistreptococcal antibody, is recommended. PMID:24482289

  2. Antistreptolysin O titer in health and disease: levels and significance

    OpenAIRE

    Sahar Ezz El Arab; Nevin Mamdouh Habeeb; Alyaa Amal Kotby

    2012-01-01

    Over diagnosis of acute rheumatic fever (ARF) based on a raised antistreptolysin O titer (ASOT) is not uncommon in endemic areas. In this study, 660 children (aged 9.2 ±1.7 years) were recruited consecutively and classified as: G1 (control group, n=200 healthy children), G2 (n=20 with ARF 1st attack), G3 (n=40 with recurrent ARF), G4 (n=100 with rheumatic heart disease (RHD) on long acting penicillin (LAP)), G5 (n=100 with acute follicular tonsillitis), and G6 (n=200 healthy children with hi...

  3. Antistreptolysin O titer in health and disease: levels and significance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sahar Ezz El Arab

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Over diagnosis of acute rheumatic fever (ARF based on a raised antistreptolysin O titer (ASOT is not uncommon in endemic areas. In this study, 660 children (aged 9.2 ±1.7 years were recruited consecutively and classified as: G1 (control group, n=200 healthy children, G2 (n=20 with ARF 1st attack, G3 (n=40 with recurrent ARF, G4 (n=100 with rheumatic heart disease (RHD on long acting penicillin (LAP, G5 (n=100 with acute follicular tonsillitis, and G6 (n=200 healthy children with history of repeated follicular tonsillitis more than three times a year. Serum ASOT was measured by latex agglutination. Upper limit of normal (ULN ASOT (80th percentile was 400 IU in G1, 200 IU in G4, and 1600 IU in G6. Significantly high levels were seen in ARF 1st attack when compared to groups 1 and 5 (P<0.001 and P<0.05, respectively. ASOT was significantly high in children over ten years of age, during winter and in those with acute rheumatic carditis. ASOT showed significant direct correlation with the number of attacks of tonsillitis (P<0.05. Egyptian children have high ULN ASOT reaching 400 IU. This has to be taken into consideration when interpreting its values in suspected ARF. A rise in ASOT is less prominent in recurrent ARF compared to 1st attack, and acute and recurrent tonsillitis. Basal levels of ASOT increase with age but the pattern of increase during infection is not age dependent

  4. ASO: Antistreptolysin O titer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... complications resulting from a strep infection such as rheumatic fever or glomerulonephritis , a form of kidney disease When ... pain, fatigue and shortness of breath that suggest rheumatic fever or symptoms such as edema and dark urine ...

  5. Antistreptolysin O titer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of your heart A kidney problem called glomerulonephritis Rheumatic fever , which can affect the heart, joints, or bones ... Bisno AL. Nonsuppurative poststreptococcal sequelae: Rheumatic fever ... of Infectious Diseases. 7th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier ...

  6. Determinação de anti-estreptolisina "O" e proteína C reativa entre escolares do município de Laranjal, PR / Determination of antistreptolysin "O" and C-reactive protein among school children of Laranjal, PR

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Luiz Euribel, Prestes-Carneiro; Eloáh dos Santos Lopes, Acêncio; Andréa Cristine de Souza do Carmo, Pompei.

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Para a determinação de anti-estreptolisina "O" e proteína C reativa, no município de Laranjal-PR, foram analisados soros de 411 escolares, entre 5 a 16 anos. Para anti-estreptolisina "O", 13,6% tiveram títulos elevados e 5,1% foram reativos para proteína C reativa. Não foram observadas diferenças em [...] relação ao sexo e faixa etária. Abstract in english For antistreptolysin "O" and C-reactive protein determination, carried out in Laranjal-PR, we analyzed the serum of 411 school children aged from 5 to 16. For antistreptolysin O, 13.6% had elevated titers and 5.1% were reactive for C-reative protein. No differences related to age or sex were observe [...] d.

  7. Effect of tonsillectomy on aso-titre

    OpenAIRE

    Viswanathan, N.; Nair, S. Sasikumaran; Thulseedharan, S.

    2000-01-01

    136 children below the age of 15 suffering from chronic tonsillitis were screened. 56 patients who showed a raised ASO titre above 200iu/ml were selected for this study. All of them underwent tonsillectomy. ASO titre estimation was done after 1 month;62% after 3 months;78% after 6 months and 88% after 1 year.

  8. Musique et référentialité sur les titres des disques Blue Note

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    Philippe Carrard

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Les titres qui figurent sur la pochette des disques de la marque Blue Note peuvent dénoter le contenu musical de l’album (Boogie-Woogie Classics, le connoter (Blue Hour ou fonctionner strictement comme index (Speak No Evil. Quelle que soit leur valeur précise, ces titres permettent de revisiter un problème maintes fois soulevé par les musicologues et les sémioticiens: celui de savoir si la musique « réfère », et à quoi. Dans le cas des disques Blue Note, la question se pose d’une manière particulièrement aiguë à propos de certains enregistrements des années 1960, dont les titres (It’s Time, Right Now, Let Freedom Ring, etc. peuvent référer aux structures du jazz ou à la situation des noirs dans la société américaine, qu’il s’agit tous deux de transformer dans le sens d’une liberté accrue.The titles on the jackets of the records of the label Blue Note can denote the musical content of the album (Boogie-Woogie Classics, connote it (Blue Hour, or function strictly as indexes (Speak No Evil. Whatever their exact value might be, those titles make it possible to revisit a problem frequently raised in semiotics and musicology: the problem of knowing whether music « refers », and to what exactly. The question is especially acute in the case of some of the records released by Blue Note in the1960s, whose titles (It’s Time, Right Now, Let Freedom Ring may refer to musical structures or to the situation of African-Americans in American sociey, which have both to be changed in the sense of more freedom.

  9. Recurrences of transient synovitis of the hip.

    OpenAIRE

    Illingworth, C. M.

    1983-01-01

    Thirty six children with transient synovitis of the hip had a total of 80 recurrences, 69 of them personally observed, and 11 described by the mother. No features distinguished the initial attack of those who had a recurrence from that of the 18 children who have not so far had a recurrence. We analysed the total of 126 episodes. In 72 there was evidence of an associated infection from the history, clinical signs, and a raised antistreptolysin O titre or isolation of a pathogen from a throat ...

  10. Lymphoma associated bone marrow necrosis with raised anticardiolipin antibody.

    OpenAIRE

    Murphy, P. T.; Sivakumaran, M.; Casey, M. C.; Liddicoat, A.; Wood, J. K.

    1998-01-01

    A case of high grade B cell lymphoma presented with bone marrow necrosis, followed by development of extensive marrow fibrosis, the evolution of which was documented by serial magnetic resonance imaging and bone marrow trephine histology. A markedly raised anticardiolipin antibody titre at diagnosis suggests that lymphoma associated antiphospholipid syndrome may have contributed to the aetiology of the bone marrow necrosis.

  11. Prediction of antibody persistency from antibody titres to natalizumab

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Poul Erik H; Koch-Henriksen, Nils

    2012-01-01

    Background:In a subgroup of patients with multiple sclerosis natalizumab therapy causes generation of anti-natalizumab antibodies that may be transient or persistent. It is recommended to discontinue natalizumab therapy in persistently antibody-positive patients.Objective:To use titres of anti-natalizumab antibodies to predict persistency of antibodies.Patients and methods:In 525 consecutive natalizumab treated patients tested for anti-natalizumab antibodies 43 (8.2%) were antibody-positive. Thirty of the antibody-positive patients, who were tested both at three and at six months after treatment start, had antibody titres in blood measured using an extended ELISA method.Results:Samples from persistently positive patients (N=18) had higher titre values than samples from transiently positive patients (N=12). A cut-off value for high titre values was generated, above which patients may discontinue natalizumab therapy after three months. The method had a sensitivity of 0.83, a specificity of 1.00 and a diagnosticaccuracy of 0.90.Conclusion:An extended ELISA method for measuring anti-natalizumab antibody titres in multiple sclerosis patients on natalizumab therapy may be used for evaluation of antibody persistence. A test at three months may identify patients with high titres, who should discontinue natalizumab therapy, and patients with transient low-titre antibodies, who may continue natalizumab therapy despite development of antibodies.

  12. EFFECT OF SELENIUM SUPPLEMENTATION ON ANTIBODY TITRES AGAINST INFECTIOUS BURSAL DISEASE VACCINE IN BROILER CHICKS

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    M. Arshad, M. Siddique, M. Ashraf and H. A. Khan

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available A total of 200 chicks were raised upto 43 days of age under controlled experimental conditions. The birds were randomly divided into four groups A, B, C and D of 50 birds each at the age of day one. Birds of groups A and B were not supplemented with selenium, while those of groups C and D were given selenium @ 0.06 mg/Kg of feed from day one to day 43. The birds of groups B and D were vaccinated against infectious bursal disease (IBD at the age of day 10 and boosted at the age of day 25. The effect of selenium on humoral immune response was evaluated by recording weekly serum antibody titres against IBD through indirect haemagglutination (IHA test. The cumulative mean titres (CMT recorded in groups A, B, C and D were 15, 53, 16 and 61, respectively (P<0.05. These results indicate that selenium supplementation may help to increase post vaccination humoral immune response against IBD in broiler chicks.

  13. Child mortality following standard, medium or high titre measles immunization in West Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Knudsen, K. M.; Aaby, Peter; Whittle, H. Rowe; Samb, Badara; Simondon, Franc?ois; Sterne, J.; Fine, P.

    1996-01-01

    The World Health Organization (WHO) recommended the use of high titre measles vaccine in 1989. Subsequent long term follow-up of several trials yielded results suggesting higher mortality among children inoculated with medium and high titre vaccines compared to standard titre vaccines, although none of the individual trials found significant differences in mortality. Long term survival after standard, medium and high titre measles vaccines has been investigated in a combined analysis of all W...

  14. Raising Children Again

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in the home Teen pregnancy Parent(s) living with HIV/AIDS Domestic violence in the home Military deployment of parent(s) Grandmothers caring for or raising grandchildren suffer more stress and depression than grandmothers who aren't caregivers. These are older women who may have health ...

  15. Raising Rhino Awareness

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    In this lesson, students will begin by examining the characteristics of rhinoceros and create a poem about them. Next, students will research facts and myths about rhinoceros poaching, which was a major contributor to the decline in the rhino population. Using this information, students will create an informative pamphlet on the impact of poaching. Finally, students will look at other animals that have been threatened and create a poster to raise awareness about the fragile population of endangered animals.

  16. Sex-specific differences in mortality after high-titre measles immunization in rural Senegal.

    OpenAIRE

    Aaby, P.; Samb, B.; Simondon, F.; Knudsen, K.; Seck, A. M.; Bennett, J.; Markowitz, L.; Rhodes, P.; Whittle, H.

    1994-01-01

    Administration of high-titre measles vaccine (Edmonston-Zagreb (EZ) at > 10(5) plaque-forming units (PFU) per dose) before the age of 9 months has been recommended in areas with high measles mortality before the routine age of immunization after 9 months. The study compares the long-term survival after high-titre measles immunization at 5 months of age with that following routine immunization with standard-titre vaccine at 10 months of age. At 5 months of age the high-titre group received Edm...

  17. Equity raises questions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-01-01

    Issues raised in a round table discussion on equity in health are presented. Equity implies commitment to increase access and quality to health services as well as reducing underlying social inequities. In India, patterns of injustice and creating fairness in health care are consequently a political debate. Policy rhetorics in India have done well in terms of drawing attention to equity as exemplified in their 73rd and 74th amendment. However, there has been a poor implementation of this policy. Furthermore, the role of the health care system in the failure of implementing local health policies was cited, particularly in terms of financing health system. Meanwhile, International agencies have emphasized more issues of equity and poverty. They further expressed their desire to guide the government to more equitable health. PMID:12295421

  18. Baseline Titre of Widal amongst Healthy Blood Donors in Raichur, Karnataka

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    B. V. Peerapur

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Lack of proper knowledge ofbaseline titre of Widal test can lead to over di-agnosis of typhoid fever leading to mismanage-ment of patients. Rapid semiquantitative slideWidal test has replaced conventional tube Widaltest in many laboratories, but there is paucityof scientific data regarding how far the resultsof this rapid test correlate with that of conven-tional tube Widal test. Aims and Objectives:To evaluate baseline titre of widal using quanti-tative tube Widal test, to suggest the cut-offvalue for positive Widal test in this region, andto correlate the results obtained in quantitativetube Widal test with that of rapidsemiquantitative slide Widal test. Material andMethods: Sera of 107 apparently healthy blooddonors (AHDs were subjected to quantitativetube and semiquantitative slide Widal test toknow the titre. Results: Highest titre obtainedby tube Widal test for TO was 1:160, for TH -1:320, for AH- 1:20, and for BH- 1:80. TubeWidal titres of 1:160 were seen in 4(3.7% and 10 (9.3%respectively. TH titre of 1:320 was seen in1(0.93% and no such high titre was reportedin relation to TO. Highest titre obtained bysemiquantitative slide Widal for TO was 1:320,for TH- 1:320, for AH-1:40 and for BH- 1:160.Conclusion: We recommend TO and TH titreof > 1:320 as diagnostic of typhoid fever andfor AH and BH, titres of >1:40 and >1:160should be considered diagnostic respectivelyin our region. Because of high expected falsepositivity rate of slide Widal test even at thehigher cut-off titre of 1:320, single slide Widaltest appears to have little value in the diagnosisof typhoid fever in this region.

  19. Determination of Baseline Widal Titres Amongst Apparently Healthy Blood Donors in Ahmednagar, Maharashtra, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunjal, Shraddha Prasad; Gunjal, Prasad Niranjan; Patil, Narendra Khandu; Vanaparthi, Nagaraju; Nalawade, Anil Vasant; Banerjee, Swati; Keshav, Kher Sudheer

    2013-01-01

    Background: Enteric fever is endemic in all parts of India. The Widal agglutination test is widely used for its diagnosis. But the interpretation of Widal test depends upon the baseline titre which is prevalent amongst healthy individuals in a particular geographical area. Aim: Present study was undertaken to establish the normal baseline titre in apparently healthy blood donors and also to determine cutoff values for the Widal test. Material and Methods: One hundred and three (103) sera were tested by the Widal tube agglutination test from January 2012 to February 2013. Results: Eighty four (81.55%) sera were positive for agglutinins (titre ? 1:20) and the remaining 19 were negative. 31.64% sera were positive for agglutinins of ‘O’ antigen of Salmonella typhi (TO) at a titre of 1:40, 33.87% sera were positive for ‘H’ antigen of Salmonella typhi (TH) at a titre of 1:40 and 38.46% and 36.84% sera were positive for ‘H’ antigen of Salmonella paratyphi A (AH) and Salmonella paratyphi B (BH) respectively, both at a titre of 1:80. Conclusion: Therefore, the baseline titre for TO and TH was noted to be 1:40 and that for AH and BH was noted to be 1:80 and therefore, the cutoff level for TO and TH was ? 1:80 and that for AH and BH was ? 1:160. PMID:24551619

  20. Differences in natural antibody titres comparing free-ranging guanacos (Lama guanicoe) and capybaras (Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Racca, Andrea L; Eberhardt, Ayelen T; Moreno, Pablo G; Baldi, Cecilia; Beldomenico, Pablo M

    2014-02-01

    Natural antibodies are an important component of innate humoral immunity but have not been investigated to any great extent in wild mammals. In the current study, serum natural antibody titres were measured by hemagglutination assay for two South American herbivores, the guanaco (Lama guanicoe) and the capybara (Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris). Results indicated that capybaras had antibody titres on average more than four times higher than guanacos (median titres 1:256 and 1:4, respectively), suggesting differences in investment in constitutive humoral immunity between the two species. PMID:24321369

  1. Investigation of effects of some immunoadjuvants and routes of antigen administration in raising antibodies in rabbits against metacestode cyst antigens of Taenia multiceps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abo-Shehada, M N; Herbert, I V

    1983-07-29

    The relative efficiency of depot (Freund's complete adjuvant (FCA) and saponin), and non-depot (Corynebacterium parvum strain P. acnes I, C. parvum strain IMI585, and levamisole) immunoadjuvants were compared in raising agglutinating and precipitating antibodies against the metacestode fluid of Taenia multiceps of sheep origin (TMCF). Haemagglutinating but not precipitating antibodies were detectable during the period of primary immunisation. Precipitating antibodies of higher titre were produced for longer when TMCF was injected with immunoadjuvant than when the same volume of TMCF was injected alone. Significantly (P less than 0.05) higher indirect haemagglutination (IHA) titres were produced during the primary response following C. parvum treatment than after FCA treatment. FCA treated rabbits showed significantly (P less than 0.05) higher IHA titres than those receiving C. parvum treatment on day 42 only, during the anamnestic response. Ulcers formed at the sites of injection of depot immunoadjuvants. Significantly (P less than 0.05) higher IHA titres were produced when FCA with TMCF was injected intradermally into 10-12 sites than when the same volume was injected into 4 sites. C. parvum strain IM1585 was a better immunoadjuvant in this system than the strain P. acnes I. The intravenous route of administration yielded better titres than the intraperitoneal route when C. parvum strain P. acnes I was used. PMID:6875260

  2. The value of serum TPHA titres in selecting patients for lumbar puncture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Silva, Y; Walzman, M; Shahmanesh, M

    1991-02-01

    Between January 1981 and December 1989, 258 patients with positive syphilis serology underwent lumbar puncture. Nine patients had long-standing neurosyphilis and had lumbar punctures performed during the course of their follow-up. Of the remaining 249 only 12 demonstrated the presence of TPHA in the CSF. The serum TPHA titre for eight of these 12 patients, and seven of the nine (two having no titre reported) known neurosyphilis patients at the time of original diagnosis, was 1 in 5120 or more. The four remaining newly found CSF positive patients had serum TPHA titres of 1 in 2560. We suggest that a serum TPHA titre of 1 in 2560 or greater should be considered as a criterion when selecting patients for lumbar puncture, especially when there are no clinical signs or symptoms. PMID:1916775

  3. Sex-specific differences in mortality after high-titre measles immunization in rural Senegal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aaby, P.; Samb, B.; Simondon, F.; Knudsen, K.; Seck, A. M.; Bennett, J.; Markowitz, L.; Rhodes, P.; Whittle, H.

    1994-01-01

    Administration of high-titre measles vaccine (Edmonston-Zagreb (EZ) at > 10(5) plaque-forming units (PFU) per dose) before the age of 9 months has been recommended in areas with high measles mortality before the routine age of immunization after 9 months. The study compares the long-term survival after high-titre measles immunization at 5 months of age with that following routine immunization with standard-titre vaccine at 10 months of age. At 5 months of age the high-titre group received Edmonston-Zagreb (EZ-HT, 5 months) or Schwarz (SW-HT, 5 months) at titres > 10(5) PFU per dose, while the standard-titre group received placebo at 5 months of age and < 10(4) PFU per dose of Schwarz vaccine at 10 months (SW-std, 10 months). All the children were followed up to at least 36 months of age. The mortality ratio (MR) for infants in the EZ-HT, 5 months and SW-HT, 5 months groups was 1.32 (P = 0.089) and 1.45 (P = 0.092), respectively, which did not differ significantly from that of recipients of the SW-std, 10 months. The higher MR among recipients of the high-titre vaccines was due to the significantly lower survival among females compared with the females who received SW-std vaccine (EZ-HT, 5 months MR = 1.76, P = 0.013; SW-HT, 5 months MR = 2.14, P = 0.017). For children aged 5-10 months the high-titre measles vaccine did not increase mortality relative to unvaccinated children who had received placebo. PMID:7955026

  4. O perfil da antiestreptolisina O no diagnóstico da febre reumática aguda / Antistreptolysin O titer profile in acute rheumatic fever diagnosis

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Claudia Saad Magalhães, Machado; Katya, Ortiz; Alessandra de Lourenço Budin, Martins; Roberto Salvador, Martins; Nilton Carlos, Machado.

    2001-04-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese OBJETIVO: estabelecer o perfil dos títulos de ASO, mediante o diagnóstico diferencial da FRA com outras afecções que também cursam com níveis elevados de ASO. MÉTODOS: foram estudados 78 casos de FRA na apresentação e seguimento, 22 de coréia isolada, 45 de infecções orofaringeanas recorrentes (IOR) [...] e 23 de artrites idiopáticas juvenis (AIJ), com início ou reativação recente. A determinação seqüencial de ASO (UI/ml) foi realizada por ensaio nefelométrico automatizado (Behring®-Germany) nos períodos de 0-7 dias, 1-2 semanas, 2-4 semanas, 1-2 meses, 2-4 meses, 4-6 meses, 6-12 meses, 1-2 anos, 2-3 anos, 3-4 anos e 4-5 anos após o diagnóstico. RESULTADOS: os títulos de ASO na fase aguda da FRA apresentaram elevação significante até o intervalo de 2- 4 meses (p 960 UI/ml. CONCLUSÃO: esta reavaliação do perfil da ASO indicou uma resposta exuberante na fase aguda da febre reumática indicou ainda que os seus níveis séricos podem diferenciá-la de outras afecções que também cursam com níveis elevados de ASO, como as infecções orofaringeanas recorrentes ou as artrites idiopáticas juvenis em atividade. Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: to determine ASO titer profile by establishing ARF differential diagnoses of other diseases with high levels of ASO antibodies. METHODS: we investigated 78 patients with ARF at onset and follow-up, 22 with isolated chorea at onset, 45 with recurrent oropharyngeal tonsillitis, and 23 with [...] recent flare of juvenile idiopathic arthritis. We tested ASO with automated particle-enhanced immunonephelometric assay (Behring®-Germany). The ASO (IU/ml) titers were assessed at the following time intervals: 0-7 days, 1-2 weeks, 2-4 weeks, 1-2 months, 2-4 months, 4-6 months, 6-12 months, 1-2 years, 2-3 years, 3-4 years, and 4-5 years after onset of ARF. RESULTS: ASO titers in patients diagnosed with ARF had a significant increase up to the 2-4-month time interval (P

  5. O perfil da antiestreptolisina O no diagnóstico da febre reumática aguda Antistreptolysin O titer profile in acute rheumatic fever diagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Saad Magalhães Machado

    2001-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: estabelecer o perfil dos títulos de ASO, mediante o diagnóstico diferencial da FRA com outras afecções que também cursam com níveis elevados de ASO. MÉTODOS: foram estudados 78 casos de FRA na apresentação e seguimento, 22 de coréia isolada, 45 de infecções orofaringeanas recorrentes (IOR e 23 de artrites idiopáticas juvenis (AIJ, com início ou reativação recente. A determinação seqüencial de ASO (UI/ml foi realizada por ensaio nefelométrico automatizado (Behring®-Germany nos períodos de 0-7 dias, 1-2 semanas, 2-4 semanas, 1-2 meses, 2-4 meses, 4-6 meses, 6-12 meses, 1-2 anos, 2-3 anos, 3-4 anos e 4-5 anos após o diagnóstico. RESULTADOS: os títulos de ASO na fase aguda da FRA apresentaram elevação significante até o intervalo de 2- 4 meses (p 960 UI/ml. CONCLUSÃO: esta reavaliação do perfil da ASO indicou uma resposta exuberante na fase aguda da febre reumática indicou ainda que os seus níveis séricos podem diferenciá-la de outras afecções que também cursam com níveis elevados de ASO, como as infecções orofaringeanas recorrentes ou as artrites idiopáticas juvenis em atividade.OBJECTIVE: to determine ASO titer profile by establishing ARF differential diagnoses of other diseases with high levels of ASO antibodies. METHODS: we investigated 78 patients with ARF at onset and follow-up, 22 with isolated chorea at onset, 45 with recurrent oropharyngeal tonsillitis, and 23 with recent flare of juvenile idiopathic arthritis. We tested ASO with automated particle-enhanced immunonephelometric assay (Behring®-Germany. The ASO (IU/ml titers were assessed at the following time intervals: 0-7 days, 1-2 weeks, 2-4 weeks, 1-2 months, 2-4 months, 4-6 months, 6-12 months, 1-2 years, 2-3 years, 3-4 years, and 4-5 years after onset of ARF. RESULTS: ASO titers in patients diagnosed with ARF had a significant increase up to the 2-4-month time interval (P < 0.0001. Baseline levels were observed afterwards in patients under regular penicillin prophylaxis. The levels of ASO in ARF were also significantly higher than in patients with isolated chorea, recurrent oropharyngeal infections or juvenile idiopathic arthritis (P = 0.0025, when age-matched samples of these groups were compared. The test’s sensitivity was 73.3% and the specificity was 57.6%, and it was calculated taking into account the upper limit of normality at 320 IU/ml, as well as the established diagnosis of ARF. The test’s specificity and positive predictive value increased with rising or higher titers, being higher with titers above 960 UI/ml. CONCLUSION: this reappraisal of ASO profile in ARF patients indicates a remarkable response during the acute phase, and that points to the extent to which ASO levels may differentiate ARF from other diseases with high levels of ASO antibodies, as coincidental but unrelated streptococcal infection or chronic arthritis flareup.

  6. Evaluation of the baseline Widal titres in healthy blood donors of Uttarakhand

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    Garima Mittal

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The interpretation of Widal test depends upon the baseline titre which is prevalent amongst healthy individuals in a particular geographical area. Aim and Objective: The aim of this study was to determine the baseline Widal titre of the apparently healthy population of a tertiary care centre of Uttarakhand. Material and Methods: Blood samples were collected from healthy blood donors (n=500 of the age group of 18-60 years, of both the sexes, who attended our blood bank from September 2013 to November 2013 and were analyzed for the presence of Salmonella antibodies by carrying out the Widal tube agglutination test. Results: Of the 500 serum samples which were tested, 255 (51% serum samples were positive for agglutinins (? 1:20 and 245 were negative. The most frequently recorded titre of the reactive sera was 1:40 for the anti-O antibodies and 1:80 for the anti-H antibodies for Salmonella enterica serotype typhi and this was the baseline titre. While the baseline titre of the ‘H’ agglutinins of Salmonella enterica serotype paratyphi A was 1:20 and of paratyphi B was also1:20. Conclusions: Based on the results of our study, it has been recommended that the significant titre of 1:80 for the anti-O antibodies and of 1:160 for the anti-H antibodies may be considered as diagnostic for enteric fever in the region of Uttarakhand, India.

  7. Raising Public Awareness of Mathematics

    CERN Document Server

    Behrends, Ehrhard; Rodrigues, José Francisco

    2012-01-01

    This collective book aims to encourage and inspire actions directed towards raising public awareness of the importance of mathematical sciences for our contemporary society in a cultural and historical perspective. Mathematical societies, in Europe and around the world, can find ideas, blueprints and suggestions for activities - including concerted actions with other international organizations - directed towards raising public awareness of science, technology and other fields where mathematics plays a strong role. The material is divided into four parts: * National experiences * Exhibitions /

  8. Raising HDL cholesterol in women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danny J Eapen

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Danny J Eapen1, Girish L Kalra1, Luay Rifai1, Christina A Eapen2, Nadya Merchant1, Bobby V Khan11Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA, USA; 2University of South Florida School of Medicine, Tampa, FL, USAAbstract: High-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C concentration is essential in the determination of coronary heart disease (CHD risk in women. This is especially true in the postmenopausal state, where lipid profiles and CHD risk mimic that of age-matched men. Thus, interventions designed to reduce CHD risk by raising HDL-C levels may have particular significance during the transition to menopause. This review discusses HDL-C-raising therapies and the role of HDL in the primary prevention of CHD in women. Lifestyle-based interventions such as dietary change, aerobic exercise regimens, and smoking cessation are initial steps that are effective in raising HDL-C, and available data suggest women respond similarly to men with these interventions. When combined with pharmacotherapy, the effects of these lifestyle alterations are further amplified. Though studies demonstrating gender-specific differences in therapy are limited, niacin continues to be the most effective agent in raising HDL-C levels, especially when used in combination with fibrate or statin therapy. Emerging treatments such as HDL mimetic therapy show much promise in further raising HDL-C levels and improving cardiovascular outcomes.Keywords: high-density lipoprotein, HDL, women, cholesterol, heart disease

  9. Correlation between neutralizing antibody titre and protection from tenosynovitis in avian reovirus infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takase, K; Fujikawa, H; Yamada, S

    1996-12-01

    The relationship between neutralizing antibody titre and protection from tenosynovitis caused by avian reovirus infection was examined using actively or passively immunized chickens. Actively immunized groups which developed geometric mean neutralizing antibody titres (GMT) of 1:238 or higher exhibited good protection (more than 71%) against challenge with avian reovirus strain 58-132 via the footpad. On the other hand, 87% of passively immunized chicks, which received chicken serum hyperimmune to avian reovirus in the yolk sac and possessed GMT of 1:100 upon hatching, were protected against oral challenge. Given the age-related resistance to reoviral tenosynovitis and the half-life of maternal antibody, chicks should ideally have 1:1600 or higher maternal antibody titre at the time of hatching to be protected against oral infection until 3 weeks of age. PMID:18645900

  10. The value of serum TPHA titres in selecting patients for lumbar puncture.

    OpenAIRE

    Silva, Y.; Walzman, M.; Shahmanesh, M.

    1991-01-01

    Between January 1981 and December 1989, 258 patients with positive syphilis serology underwent lumbar puncture. Nine patients had long-standing neurosyphilis and had lumbar punctures performed during the course of their follow-up. Of the remaining 249 only 12 demonstrated the presence of TPHA in the CSF. The serum TPHA titre for eight of these 12 patients, and seven of the nine (two having no titre reported) known neurosyphilis patients at the time of original diagnosis, was 1 in 5120 or more...

  11. Fed to Raise Interest Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Missner, Emily D.

    As expected, the Federal Reserve voted to raise interest rates 0.25 percent, the fifth rate raise since June. The interest rate boost is expected to help keep inflation in check during this record period (108 months) of economic expansion. Technology companies have continued to signal healthy economic growth, and unemployment rates remain low. Despite drastic price hikes in gasoline and heating oil prices, consumers are still spending. This worries economists who watched consumers pay little heed to the last four interest rate increases. The quarter point interest rate increase will average out to an extra $1 a month on consumers's credit cards, which in this period of prosperity, will not curb consumers's spending.

  12. 50 CFR 14.23 - Live farm-raised fish and farm-raised fish eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...Live farm-raised fish and farm-raised fish eggs. 14.23 Section 14.23 Wildlife and...Live farm-raised fish and farm-raised fish eggs. Live farm-raised fish and farm-raised fish eggs meet the definition of “bred in...

  13. Solid-phase radioimmunoassay for measurement of circulating antibody titres to wheat gliadin and its subfractions in patients with adult coeliac disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ciclitira, P.J.; Ellis, H.J. (Guy' s Hospital, London (UK)); Evans, D.J. (Hammersmith Hospital, London (UK))

    1983-08-26

    A solid-phase radioimmunoassay for the measurement of circulating antibody titres to wheat gliadin is described. Using this assay, the authors have measured antibody titres to unfractionated gliadin in normal healthy controls, in coeliac patients on a gluten-free or a normal diet, and in patients with ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease. High titres of antibodies to unfractionated gliadin were observed only in the patients with untreated coeliac disease. Antibody titres to ..cap alpha.., ..beta.., ..gamma.. and ..omega.. gliadin subfractions were measured in patients with untreated coeliac disease and compared with titres in normal controls. Patients with untreated coeliac disease had higher antibody titres to the gliadin subfractions. No specific pattern of circulating antibody titres to gliadin subfractions was observed in the untreated coeliac patients which would provide a diagnostic profile. These results suggest shared antigenicity between the gliadin subfractions.

  14. Passive Leg Raising during Pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques, Nicole Ribeiro; Martinello, Caroline; Kramer, George C; Costantine, Maged M; Vadhera, Rakesh B; Saade, George R; Hankins, Gary D; Pacheco, Luis D

    2015-03-01

    Objective?To determine if passive leg raising (PLR) significantly increases cardiac output in a cohort of healthy pregnant women during the third trimester. Study Design?Using a noninvasive monitor, baseline hemodynamic measurements for arterial blood pressure, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, heart rate, cardiac output, cardiac index, stroke volume, and systemic vascular resistances were obtained with patients in the semirecumbent position. Measurements were repeated after a 3-minute PLR maneuver in supine, right lateral decubitus, and left lateral decubitus positions. Results?After 10 minutes of bed rest, the cohort's mean baseline heart rate was 80?±?12 beats/minute. Baseline stroke volume was 98?±?14 mL, mean cardiac output was 7.8?±?1.2 L/min, and mean cardiac index was 4.32?±?0.63 L/min. The baseline systemic vascular resistance value was 893?±?160 dynes/sec/cm(5). Baseline mean arterial blood pressure was 84?±?11?mm Hg. Following a PLR maneuver in the supine position, heart rate decreased significantly. No difference was noted in other measurements. Findings were similar with PLR in the left lateral decubitus. PLR in the right lateral decubitus resulted in significantly decreased heart rate, cardiac output, and cardiac index. Conclusions?PLR did not result in cardiac output recruitment in a cohort of healthy pregnant women during the third trimester. PMID:25241109

  15. Titres of antibodies to gut-derived antigens in patients with chronic schistosomiasis mansoni.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borojevic, R; Tachon, P; Bina, J C

    1982-01-01

    Serum titres of antibodies against six intestinal, one ubiquitous and one non-intestinal bacteria were determined in patients with severe hepatosplenic schistosomiasis mansoni, with light intestinal schistosomiasis and in normal subjects. No significant difference was observed among the three groups of subjects for levels of antibodies against two non-intestinal bacteria and four of the intestinal bacteria. Patients with hepatosplenic schistosomiasis had titres of antibodies against one strain of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and one strain of Escherichia coli lower than those observed in other groups of subjects. Despite the partial obliteration of the hepatic blood outflow and the elevated portal pressure, hepatic clearance of the portal blood is efficient in chronic human schistosomiasis, and unlike alcoholic liver cirrhosis, avoids excessive stimulation of the immune system by a gut-derived antigens. PMID:6819663

  16. Antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies in chronic liver diseases: prevalence, titre, specificity and IgG subclass.

    OpenAIRE

    Bansi, D.; Chapman, R.; Fleming, K.

    1996-01-01

    BACKGROUND/AIMS: Antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies are reported in patients with chronic liver disease, but controversy exists about their prevalence and specificity. We aimed to find the prevalence and specificity of antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies in chronic liver diseases by determination of antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody titre and IgG subclass. METHODS: One hundred and eight-four sera were studied: 63 primary sclerosing cholangitis, 28 autoimmune hepatitis, 34 primary bilia...

  17. Research and practice of new raising method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Traditional raising method, raising method currently used by uranium mines, and problems in use are described, and a new raising method is presented. The new method is summarized from aspects such as setting up methods of drilling platform, safety platform, pedestrian ladder,etc,the support of broken-rock zone, lighting and ventilation modes, and safety precautions. The practice has proved that the new method is safe and reliable, and can improve the drivage efficiency and reduce the cost. (authors)

  18. 29 CFR 780.616 - Operations included in raising livestock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...616 Operations included in raising livestock. Raising livestock includes such operations...feeding, and care of domestic animals ordinarily raised or used on...discussion of the meaning of raising livestock is contained...

  19. Absence of infection in pigs inoculated with high-titre recombinant PERV-A/C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaulitz, D; Mihica, D; Plesker, R; Geissler, A; Tönjes, R R; Denner, J

    2011-04-01

    Porcine endogenous retroviruses (PERVs) represent a risk for xenotransplantation using pig cells or organs since they are integrated in the genome of all pigs and infect human cells in vitro. Recombinants between PERV-A and PERV-C have been described in pigs in vivo and found de novo integrated in the genome of somatic cells, but not in the germ line. To study whether PERV-A/C can infect and have a pathogenic effect in normal pigs, German landrace pigs were inoculated with high-titre PERV-A/C. No provirus integration was found in blood cells or in various tissues, and no antibody production was observed, indicating the absence of infection. PMID:21197554

  20. What can symbiont titres tell us about co-evolution of Wolbachia and their host?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correa, C Carolina; Ballard, J William O

    2014-05-01

    There is a long-standing prediction that associations with vertically transmitted symbionts evolve towards maximisation of host reproductive success, eventually leading to mutualist symbiosis and coadaptation. Under this scenario, the regulation of symbiont titres in host tissues would be expected to be greater when partners have coevolved for a long time than when they have recently met. Wolbachia pipientis, a common vertically transmitted symbiont of invertebrates, often has the capacity to spread through the host population without being beneficial to the hosts, by means of reducing the hatch rate in crosses between uninfected females and infected males. This manipulation, namely cytoplasmic incompatibility (CI), may exert strong selection on the accuracy of infection transmission from mother to offspring, and therefore, on regulation of symbiont titres in the ova. Here, we examined the symbiont density dynamics in gonads of Drosophila simulans infected with the wMa strain of Wolbachia, known to cause mild CI and likely to be the oldest Wolbachia infection known to this fly species. Further, we compared these results with those obtained for the more recent association between D. simulans and the potent CI-inducer wHa (Correa and Ballard, 2012). We aimed to determine if the regulation of Wolbachia density in fly gonads is greater in the older association, as would be predicted solely by gradual coadaptation, or if the selection exerted by CI on reproductive fitness could also play a role, therefore showing tighter regulation on flies with the stronger CI-inducing strain. We observed that Wolbachia density in gonads of wMa infected flies changed with laboratory adaptation and were disturbed by environmental challenges, which contrasted with the stability of ovarian wHa density to the same treatments. Our observations are in line with the prediction that selection on reproductive fitness influences the evolution symbiont density regulation in Drosophila, and may provide insights into the evolutionary processes involved in the maintenance or loss of Wolbachia. PMID:24594301

  1. Raising venture capital in the biopharma industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leytes, Lev J

    2002-11-15

    Raising venture capital (VC) is both an art and a science. Future entrepreneurs should carefully consider the various issues of VC financing that have a strong impact on the success of their business. In addition to attracting the best venture capital firms, these issues include such subtle but important points as the timing of financing (especially of the first round), external support sources, desirable qualities of a VC firm, amount to be raised, establishing a productive interface between the founders and the venture capitalists, and most importantly the effects of well-executed VC funding on hiring senior executives and scientific leaders. PMID:12546855

  2. Pragmatics, Awareness Raising, and the Cooperative Principle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Neil

    2010-01-01

    In recent years, pedagogical pragmatics has sought to improve the effectiveness with which learners express and interpret meaning, through awareness-raising activities that draw on authentic materials and break away from simplistic explanations of form-function correspondences. By and large, these efforts have been informed by an inductive…

  3. Testicular Cancer May Raise Prostate Cancer Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Testicular Cancer May Raise Prostate Cancer Risk: Study But it's too soon to make ... Monday, February 23, 2015 Related MedlinePlus Pages Prostate Cancer Testicular Cancer MONDAY, Feb. 23, 2015 (HealthDay News) -- ...

  4. PTSD May Raise Women's Risk for Diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. PTSD May Raise Women's Risk for Diabetes Obesity, antidepressants ... Wednesday, January 7, 2015 Related MedlinePlus Pages Diabetes Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder Women's Health WEDNESDAY, Jan. 7, 2015 (HealthDay News) -- ...

  5. 29 CFR 780.123 - Raising of bees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Raising of bees. 780.123 Section 780...ACT General Scope of Agriculture Raising of Livestock, Bees, Fur-Bearing Animals, Or Poultry § 780.123 Raising of bees. The term...

  6. 29 CFR 780.126 - Contract arrangements for raising poultry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Contract arrangements for raising poultry. 780.126 Section...General Scope of Agriculture Raising of Livestock, Bees, Fur-Bearing Animals, Or Poultry § 780.126 Contract arrangements for raising poultry. Feed...

  7. 29 CFR 780.121 - What constitutes “raising” of livestock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...Scope of Agriculture Raising of Livestock, Bees, Fur-Bearing Animals, Or Poultry § 780... What constitutes “raising” of livestock. ...constantly changing group of animals cannot reasonably be regarded as “raising” livestock...

  8. Long-term survival in trial of medium-titre Edmonston—Zagreb measles vaccine in Guinea-Bissau: five-year follow-up

    OpenAIRE

    Aaby, P.; Lisse, I. M.; Whittle, H.; Knudsen, K.; Thaarup, J.; Poulsen, A.; Sodemann, M.; Jakobsen, M.; Brink, L.; Gansted, U.; Permin, A.; Jensen, T. G.; Andersen, H.; Da Silva, M. C.

    1994-01-01

    A trial of protective efficacy which compared medium-titre Edmonston—Zagreb (EZ) measles vaccine (104·6 p.f.u.) from the age of 4 months with the standard Schwarz (SW) measles vaccine given from the age of 9 months was started in an urban community in Guinea-Bissau in 1985. Because trials of high-titre measles vaccine have found increased mortality among female recipients, we examined whether EZ medium-titre vaccine was associated with any long-term impact on mortality, suppression of T-ce...

  9. Production of Antibody Raised Against Lipopolysaccharide (LPS of Vibrio Cholerae Non-O1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Shirzad

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cholera, an infectious disease caused by Vibrio cholerae, is primarily transmitted by ingestion of contaminated food or water. In severe cases, cholera may lead to severe dehydration, metabolic acidosis, and ultimately, hypovolemic shock and death. Methods: In this study V.cholerae non-O1 was cultured in suitable media. LPS was extracted from the surface of  bacteria by hot phenol-water method and then purified by high-speed centrifugation. For production of specific antibody against LPS, white newzeland rabbits were first immunized by whole cell bacteria and then immunized with highly purified LPS. The titre of the antiserum was determined by ELISA for each serogroup. Results: Results presented in this study indicate that serum anti-LPS antibodies raised against purified LPS of V.cholerae non-O1 can detect V.cholerae non-O1 .Conclusion: This antibody had low cross reactivity with V.cholerae O1, serotype Inaba or Ogawa. So, this antibody can be used for for detection of V. cholerae non-O1.

  10. Investigation of a persistently raised serum AST.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, C M; Connelly, M S; Kennedy, H J; Howe, G D; Tickner, T R

    1989-11-01

    The AST responsible for a raised enzyme activity, with otherwise normal biochemistry, in a single individual over a 16-month period has been characterized as an IgG (lambda)-AST complex by (i) estimation of the molecular size by gel exclusion chromatography on Sephadex G200, (ii) agarose gel electrophoresis, (iii) immunoprecipitation by anti-immunoglobulin antisera and (iv) adsorption on to protein A-agarose. PMID:2619234

  11. Raising the Higgs Mass in Supersymmetric Models

    OpenAIRE

    Delgado, Antonio

    2004-01-01

    The minimal supersymmetric standard model, and extensions, predicts a relatively light higgs particle if one supposes perturbativity until high scales. That fact is in conflict with nowadays data coming from LEPII fruitless searches for the Higgs boson. This bound is sufficient to rule out a big portion of the parameter space of the MSSM. In this letter we propose two mechanism of raising the higgs mass at tree level, thus not needing very heavy sparticles that would reintro...

  12. Hypergeometric type functions, raising and lowering operators

    CERN Document Server

    Cotfas, N

    2003-01-01

    The classical orthogonal polynomials are usually defined as particular solutions of some hypergeometric type equations. It is known that the class of these equations is larger and they are related to some Schrodinger type equations. We show that some of them define finite systems of orthogonal polynomials and analyse the corresponding associated special functions and raising/lowering operators. These functions correspond to the square integrable solutions in the case of Morse, Scarf hyperbolic and generalized Poschl-Teller type potentials.

  13. Results of power raising test on Joyo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The power raising test on the fast experimental reactor Joyo was started on April 18, 1978, and the rated output in the first period of 50 MW was achieved on July 5. The power raising test was carried out by dividing the output range into five steps, namely 15%, 30%, 50%, 80% and 100%, and at each output step, the performances and safety of the core and the plant were confirmed. The test was carried out without any trouble, and the reactor and the plant were operated normally during the test. It was proved that Joyo has the sufficiently stable operational performances as a sodium-cooled fast breeder reactor. All scheduled tests including the continuous operation for 100 hours at the rated output and the test of the capacity to eliminate decay heat after stopping the reactor were finished on September 16. The cooling system is composed of two main loops and an auxiliary systems, and each cooling system comprises primary and secondary systems. The curves showing the first start up, normal start up and stop are given. The output factor, the reactivity factor and the distribution of the outlet temperature of fuel assemblies were measured during the power raising test. The heat balance of the plant, the performances of various heat exchangers, the stability to the disturbances of reactivity and coolant temperature, the transient response at the time of abnormality and others were tested, and the results are shown. (Kako, I.)

  14. Determination of specific antibodies titre to salmonella enteritidis by elisa technique in several selected flocks of laying hens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Velhner Maja

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the antibody titre to Salmonella enteritidis (SE was examined by the ELISA method in two flocks of laying hens, where during routine bacteriological investigations Salmonellae was never isolated, and in one flock where Colysepticemia was diagnosed and Salmonella isolated accidentally. In the flocks were Salmonellae were not isolated, a titre with a high level of specific antibodies to SE was discovered (15 and 45%, while the flock with accidental findings of SE was poorly positive (5%. These results point to the necessity of introducing serological monitoring to SE so that the infection of salmonella may be discovered early and the prevalence in the flock determined, and also for the purpose of applying adequate measures that could reduce the possibility of secretion of SE through eggs.

  15. EFFECT OF VARIOUS STABILIZERS ON TITRE OF LYOPHILIZED LIVE-ATTENUATED PESTE DES PETITS RUMINANTS (PPR) VACCINE

    OpenAIRE

    M Asim, A. Rashid And A. H. Chaudhary

    2008-01-01

    Lyophilization stabilizes the biological materials by using two overlapping drying procedure i.e. primary drying by sublimation of the ice crystal from frozen material and secondary drying or desorption by evaporation of the free water adsorbed into the dried product. Three different stabilizers i.e. lactalbumin hydrolysate-sucrose, Weybridge medium and lactalbumin hydrolysate-manitol were used to lyophilize the Peste des petits ruminants (PPR) vaccine. Titre of live-attenuated PPR cell cultu...

  16. Serological diagnosis of untreated early syphilis. Importance of the differences in THA, TPHA, and VDRL test titres.

    OpenAIRE

    Sequeira, P. J.

    1983-01-01

    The treponemal haemagglutination (THA) test has been used for 11 years as a routine test for syphilis at a central serology laboratory. Among patients with untreated early syphilis the antibodies detected by the THA test usually appeared later or were of relatively lower titre than those detected by the reagin tests. This finding was confirmed by follow up of patients and by replies to questionnaires and has been incorporated in a computer program. During 1981, using the results obtained on u...

  17. Prospective study of fluctuations of lupus anticoagulant activity and anticardiolipin antibody titre in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus.

    OpenAIRE

    Out, H. J.; Vliet, M.; Groot, P. G.; Derksen, R. H.

    1992-01-01

    Fluctuations of lupus anticoagulant activity and anticardiolipin antibody titres were studied in 53 patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). The median study time was 26 months with a median number of 12 samples. Lupus anticoagulant was measured by the kaolin clotting time (KCT) and dilute Russell viper venom time (dRVVT) assays; anticardiolipin antibodies were assayed by an enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Normal and increased KCTs or dRVVTs were seen during follow up in 1...

  18. A heuristic sublevel stope optimizer with multiple raises

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    X, Bai; D, Marcotte; R, Simon.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available SciELO South Africa | Language: English Abstract in english A new heuristic sublevel mining stope optimizer is presented. The optimizer seeks the best locations and lengths of a series of vertical raises that, together with the blocks linked to each raise, define a mining stope. Five design constraints - the footwall angle, the hangingwall angle, the number [...] of raises, the maximum distance of a block from a raise, and the minimum width required to move the farthest block towards the raise - allow the shape of the sub-stopes associated with each raise to be controlled. The optimization is done on the locations and lengths of raises using a genetic algorithm to efficiently sample the parameters' space. For each raise, a local network is defined in cylindrical coordinates around the raise such as to impose the design constraints. A maxflow algorithm on the local network is used to determine the optimal sub-stope for each raise. All sub-stopes are combined to define the global stope for the entire deposit. The best global stope is obtained using a genetic algorithm to find the raise parameters providing the best profit over the entire deposit. Two synthetic cases and one real deposit are used to evaluate the new algorithm and compare the results with the single-raise optimizer. The multiple raises approach leads to significantly improved economics compared with the single-raise stope optimizer, and the dilution is also substantially reduced compared to the single-raise case.

  19. Raising children in America: Korean parents' experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, H; Dancy, B L; Lee, J

    2013-08-01

    This qualitative description study was designed to describe Korean American parents' perceptions of challenges and difficulties they encounter while raising their children in the USA. A convenience sampling of 21 parents of adolescents aged 11-14 years recruited from the Midwest Korean American community participated in the study. Data were collected using in-depth, face-to-face interviews, which took place in agreed-upon, convenient locations. All interviews were audiotaped and transcribed in Korean and the transcripts were translated into English. Qualitative content analysis revealed that the main stresses that parents encountered while raising their children in the USA were inability to advocate for children, feeling uneasy and insecure about incompatible American culture, ambivalence towards children's ethnic identities, and feeling alienated. In relation to these stresses, parents often felt inadequate, ashamed, guilty, regretful and powerless. The findings demonstrated the importance of understanding parents' feelings that are deeply embedded in the conflicted parent-child relationships and their perceptions of being parents in the USA. The present study highlights the need for and importance of providing intervention programmes for parents, particularly programmes that would empower parents, strengthen parent-child relationships and address ways to integrate two very different cultures while upholding ethnic identity and pride. PMID:22295897

  20. Gene variant raises risk for colorectal cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    A common genetic variant that affects one in three people significantly increases the risk of colorectal cancer from the consumption of red meat and processed meat, according to a study presented by researchers from the Keck School of Medicine of USC (home of the USC Norris Comprehensive Cancer Center) at the annual American Society of Human Genetics meeting. In addition to identifying a gene that raises risk for colorectal cancer from eating red or processed meat, the study — the first to identify the interactions of genes and diet on a genome-wide scale — also revealed another specific genetic variation that appears to modify whether eating more fruits, vegetables and fiber actually lowers your colorectal cancer risk.

  1. Raising the extended technicolor scale through supersymmetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We point out that by making the Extended Technicolor Models supersymmetric with the supersymmetry breaking scale #betta#sub(S) approx.= O (104-5 GeV), the Extended Technicolor scale #betta#sub(ETC) can be raised to 105-7 GeV thus avoiding the dangerous flavor changing neutral currents. Due to the presence of dimension-five operators involving scalar superpartners of techni-fermions the fermion mass formula becomes msub(f) approx.= r#betta#sub(TC)3/#betta#sub(ETC)2 with the enhancement factor rapprox.=#betta#sub(S)/#betta#sub(TC)approx.=102-3. Acceptable fermions masses can thus be obtained in spite of a large ETC scale. Other features of Supersymmetric Extended Technicolor are discussed. (orig.)

  2. Enti religiosi e fund raising: un binomio possibile (anzi, necessario

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Franceschi

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Contributo sottoposto a valutazioniSOMMARIO: 1. Premessa - 2. Il fund raising: inquadramento concettuale - 3. (segue Strategie, strumenti e tecniche di fund raising - 4. Il fund raising come fattore di potenziale sviluppo delle organizzazioni non profit - 5. Enti religiosi e fund raising: un binomio che necessita di essere consolidato (e potenziato - 6. Peculiarità dell’azione di fund raising degli enti religiosi - 7. Fund raising e aspetti economici e gestionali degli enti religiosi - 8. Considerazioni conclusive.Abstract:Religious organizations and fundraising: a possible combination (indeed necessary Fund-raising activities represent the principal livelihood and sources of growth and development for non-profit organisations. Fund-raising is, also, an increasingly important part of religious organizations life. Almost each of them engages in some kind of fund-raising activity, with the purpose of generating income to sustain the organization’s programs and activities. The present study analyzes the relationship between religious organizations and fund-raising activities: a correlation that always existed, but now calls for consolidation and improvement in order to allow religious organizations to achieve economic sustainability. Therefore, religious organizations should develop competency and capacity to design and implement fund-raising activities, through appropriate policies, tools and methodologies. In this perspective, the author examines all the facets of fund-raising activities related to the religious organizations sector and, more in general, the possible applications of business administration principles to the management of religious bodies (so-called “church management”.Parole chiave: enti religiosi; fund raising; sostenibilità economica; management

  3. Some remarks on right node raising in Romanian

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camelia Bejan

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Coordinate clauses with a common constituent in final position give rise to an interesting construction (Mary likes, but John hates cats, in which the constituent at the right edge of the first conjunct is missing. This phenomenon, known in the literature as Right Node Raising, has been analyzed either as an instance of movement or as an instance of ellipsis in the first conjunct. Starting from Hartmann (2000, Abels (2004 and Ha (2006, who argue in favour of an in-situ analysis of Right Node Raising, we focus on the licensing conditions on Right Node Raising in Romanian. The paper is organized in two sections. First we outline the deletion/ellipsis analyses of Right Node Raising constructions in English. Then we present empirical data related to the pre-Right Node Raising elements, the types of right-peripheral constituents that can be elided and the contexts which allow or block Right Node Raising in Romanian.

  4. Long-term survival in trial of medium-titre Edmonston-Zagreb measles vaccine in Guinea-Bissau : five-year follow-up

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aaby, Peter; Lisse, Ida

    1994-01-01

    A trial of protective efficacy which compared medium-titre Edmonston-Zagreb (EZ) measles vaccine (10(4.6) p.f.u.) from the age of 4 months with the standard Schwarz (SW) measles vaccine given from the age of 9 months was started in an urban community in Guinea-Bissau in 1985. Because trials of high-titre measles vaccine have found increased mortality among female recipients, we examined whether EZ medium-titre vaccine was associated with any long-term impact on mortality, suppression of T-cells, or growth. The mortality rate ratio over 5 years of follow-up was 1.12 for EZ children compared with children in the standard group (P = 0.63). Seventy-five percent of the children still residing in the area at 5 years of age took part in an immunological and anthropometric examination. There was no difference in T-cell subsets between the two groups. There was no difference in mid-upper-arm circumference, but EZ children were significantly shorter than the children in the standard group. In conclusion, medium-titre EZ was not associated with reduced survival or persistent immunosuppression.

  5. Autoantibody Levels and Clinical Disease Severity in Patients with Pemphigus: Comparison of Aggregated Anti-desmoglein ELISA Values and Indirect Immunofluorescence Titres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Doris; Ristl, Robin; Griss, Johannes; Bangert, Christine; Foedinger, Dagmar; Stingl, Georg; Brunner, Patrick M

    2014-11-26

    Detecting serum-autoantibodies by anti-Desmoglein-1 (anti-Dsg1) and anti-Dsg3 ELISAs as well as indirect immunofluorescence (IIF) are established complementary methods to diagnose pemphigus. Whether autoantibody levels also reflect clinical disease activity is still a matter of debate, as head-to-head comparisons of ELISA values and IIF titres with clinical activity over a longer treatment period are scarce. In our retrospective study, we compared aggregated repetitive intra-patient ELISA values and IIF titres with grades of clinical disease (1?=?remission, 2?=?moderate activity, 3?=?exacerbation) in 47 patients suffering from pemphigus vulgaris (PV, n?=?36) and pemphigus foliaceus (PF, n=11). We found that anti-Dsg1 ELISA values in PF and mucocutaneous PV as well as anti-Dsg3 ELISA values in PV best reflect disease activity. IIF titres, by contrast, did not show a significant association with disease severity. From these data we conclude that ELISA index values can be a valuable tool to monitor disease in patients with pemphigus, whereas IIF titres reflect clinical activity only insufficiently. PMID:25423997

  6. High bioethanol titre from Manihot glaziovii through fed-batch simultaneous saccharification and fermentation in Automatic Gas Potential Test System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moshi, Anselm P; Crespo, Carla F; Badshah, Malik; Hosea, Kenneth M M; Mshandete, Anthony Manoni; Mattiasson, Bo

    2014-03-01

    A process for the production of high bioethanol titre was established through fed-batch and simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (FB-SSF) of wild, non-edible cassava Manihot glaziovii. FB-SSF allowed fermentation of up to 390g/L of starch-derived glucose achieving high bioethanol concentration of up to 190g/L (24% v/v) with yields of around 94% of the theoretical value. The wild cassava M. glaziovii starch is hydrolysable with a low dosage of amylolytic enzymes (0.1-0.15% v/w, Termamyl® and AMG®). The Automatic Gas Potential Test System (AMPTS) was adapted to yeast ethanol fermentation and demonstrated to be an accurate, reliable and flexible device for studying the kinetics of yeast in SSF and FB-SSF. The bioethanol derived stoichiometrically from the CO2 registered in the AMPTS software correlated positively with samples analysed by HPLC (R(2)=0.99). PMID:24534761

  7. Effect of recurrent invasive pneumococcal disease on serum anti-pneumolysin IgG titres in HIV infected adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etuwewe, Onajite M.; Swann, Natalie; Hollingshead, Susan; Tolmie, Helen; Zijlstra, Ed E.; Faragher, Brian; French, Neil; Gordon, Stephen B.

    2009-01-01

    We measured serum anti-pneumolysin IgG concentrations in a prospective cohort of 34 HIV infected adults who developed recurrent pneumococcal bacteraemia, and compared baseline levels with HIV positive and HIV negative control subjects that remained free of pneumococcal disease. Anti-pneumolysin concentrations in HIV positive cases and controls were higher compared to HIV negative controls. There was no significant difference in levels between HIV positive subjects who did and did not subsequently develop pneumococcal bacteraemia (geometric means 849.1 U/ml vs. 564.6 U/ml, p = 0.059). Anti-pneumolysin IgG titres before, and after the recurrent episode of pneumococcal bacteraemia did not differ significantly (p = 0.95). High levels of anti-pneumolysin IgG do not predict protection from invasive pneumococcal disease or indicate that an effective immune response has occurred in HIV infected patients. PMID:19376181

  8. Excellence in Educational Fund Raising at America's Community Colleges and a Key Resources Guide for Educational Fund Raising.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, G. Jeremiah

    Designed to encourage and inform community college efforts to secure private financial support, this literature review and resource guide examine the current status of fund raising at community colleges and list pertinent information sources. After introductory comments advocate increased community college involvement in fund raising, the paper…

  9. Obesity Raises Women's Cancer Risk by 40 Percent, Study Finds

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Obesity Raises Women's Cancer Risk by 40 Percent, Study ... Tuesday, March 17, 2015 Related MedlinePlus Pages Cancer Obesity Women's Health TUESDAY, March 17, 2015 (HealthDay News) -- ...

  10. Smoking During Pregnancy May Raise Diabetes Risk for Daughters

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Smoking During Pregnancy May Raise Diabetes Risk for Daughters: ... Fetal Health and Development Pregnancy and Substance Abuse Smoking MONDAY, Feb. 16, 2015 (HealthDay News) -- Women whose ...

  11. 29 CFR 780.125 - Raising of poultry in general.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...term “agriculture.” The temporary feeding and care of chickens and other poultry for a few days pending sale, shipment or...is not the “raising” of poultry. However, feeding, fattening and caring for poultry over a substantial period may...

  12. Arsenic in Well Water Can Raise Level in Baby Formula

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Arsenic in Well Water Can Raise Level in Baby ... 2015) Monday, February 23, 2015 Related MedlinePlus Pages Arsenic Drinking Water Infant and Newborn Nutrition MONDAY, Feb. ...

  13. HOW TO RAISE EQUITY CAPITAL? A CASE OF POLISH COMPANIES

    OpenAIRE

    B?ach, Joanna

    2011-01-01

    The strategies of raising equity capital available to the Polish companies were studied, both in the theoretical and empirical dimension. According to the law regulations three strategies of raising equity capital were distinguished and characterized: the retaining profit strategy, the strategy based on the hybrid securities and the strategy using the issue of new shares. The empirical researches were conducted based on the aggregated data illustrating the practical application of ...

  14. X-ray sensititvity of embryonated Capillaria hepatica eggs and serum-GLDH activities and antibody titres in Mastomys natalensis infected with untreated or irradiated eggs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    X-ray irradiation of embryonated Capillaria hepatica eggs using 0.5, 1, or 2 Krd resulted in a progressive decrease of egg production of the female nematodes which had developed from irradiated first stage larvae in Mastomys natalensis. Egg production did not occur after irradiation with 3, 4, 5, 10, 30, 50, or 70 Krd. The capacity of the parasites to invade the liver was not influenced. Infection of M. natalensis using unirradiated eggs was followed by an increase of serum-GLDH-activities between days 6 and 8 post infection reaching maximum values in this period of infection. Furthermore high values have been determined after the beginning of patency. Increased activity persisted up to the end of the experiment on day 36 post infection. After infection with eggs which had received 2.2 or 5 Krd the increase of serum-GLDH-activities was decreased and occurred later in the course of infection using 5 Krd irradiated eggs. Antibodies could be demonstrated as early as one week after infection with unirradiated eggs. Employing the indirect haemagglutination test, using an aqueous extract from non-embryonated eggs as antigen, maximum titres occurred at the beginning of patency. After a nearly plateau-like course titres began to drop about 7 weeks p.i., i.e. about the end of egg production by the female worms, but antibodies were still detectable 17 weeks p.i. (end of the observation period). After infection with eggs which had received 2.2 or 5 Krd antibody development was ded 2.2 or 5 Krd antibody development was delayed. Maximum titres were somewhat (2.2 Krd) or markedly (5 Krd) lower. Thereafter titres dropped to values comparable to those of uninfected M. natalensis. The results are compared with published reports on the pathohistology of capillariasis. (orig.)

  15. Motor conduction block and high titres of anti-GM1 ganglioside antibodies: pathological evidence of a motor neuropathy in a patient with lower motor neuron syndrome.

    OpenAIRE

    Adams, D.; Kuntzer, T.; Steck, A. J.; Lobrinus, A.; Janzer, R. C.; Regli, F.

    1993-01-01

    A patient with a progressive lower motor neuron syndrome and neurophysiological evidence of motor axon loss, multifocal proximal motor nerve conduction block, and high titres of anti-ganglioside GM1 antibodies. Neuropathological findings included a predominantly proximal motor radiculoneuropathy with multifocal IgG and IgM deposits on nerve fibres associated with a loss of spinal motor neurons. These findings support an autoimmune origin of this lower motor neuron syndrome with retrograde deg...

  16. Generation of high-titre virus stocks using BrK.219, a B-cell line infected stably with recombinant Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kati, Semra; Hage, Elias; Mynarek, Martin; Ganzenmueller, Tina; Indenbirken, Daniela; Grundhoff, Adam; Schulz, Thomas F

    2015-06-01

    Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) is a gamma-2-lymphotropic human oncogenic herpesvirus associated with Kaposi's sarcoma (KS) and two B-cell lymphoproliferative diseases, primary effusion lymphoma (PEL) and multicentric Castleman's disease (MCD). KSHV establishes latency soon after infection in vivo and in vitro. Consequently, it is technically difficult to generate high-titre virus stocks required for infection experiments in tissue culture. Currently used methods of KSHV stock production involve induction of the lytic/productive cycle in PEL cell lines or in adherent cell lines harbouring recombinant KSHV genomes. In this study, the BJAB-derived B-cell line BrK.219, which is infected latently with a recombinant KSHV (rKSHV.219), is used to produce high-titre virus stocks. BrK.219 cells enter the lytic KSHV replication cycle upon cross-linking of B-cell receptors (BCRs) with anti-IgM antibodies without the need for additional, potentially toxic chemical inducers. High cell concentrations can be cultured and induced easily in spinner flasks, saving time and resources. The established protocol allows the generation of KSHV virus stocks with titres of up to 10(6)IU/ml in unconcentrated culture supernatants, representing a 10(3)-10(4)-fold improvement compared to conventional methods. PMID:25736227

  17. Prion subcellular fractionation reveals infectivity spectrum, with a high titre-low PrPres level disparity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lewis Victoria

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Prion disease transmission and pathogenesis are linked to misfolded, typically protease resistant (PrPres conformers of the normal cellular prion protein (PrPC, with the former posited to be the principal constituent of the infectious 'prion'. Unexplained discrepancies observed between detectable PrPres and infectivity levels exemplify the complexity in deciphering the exact biophysical nature of prions and those host cell factors, if any, which contribute to transmission efficiency. In order to improve our understanding of these important issues, this study utilized a bioassay validated cell culture model of prion infection to investigate discordance between PrPres levels and infectivity titres at a subcellular resolution. Findings Subcellular fractions enriched in lipid rafts or endoplasmic reticulum/mitochondrial marker proteins were equally highly efficient at prion transmission, despite lipid raft fractions containing up to eight times the levels of detectable PrPres. Brain homogenate infectivity was not differentially enhanced by subcellular fraction-specific co-factors, and proteinase K pre-treatment of selected fractions modestly, but equally reduced infectivity. Only lipid raft associated infectivity was enhanced by sonication. Conclusions This study authenticates a subcellular disparity in PrPres and infectivity levels, and eliminates simultaneous divergence of prion strains as the explanation for this phenomenon. On balance, the results align best with the concept that transmission efficiency is influenced more by intrinsic characteristics of the infectious prion, rather than cellular microenvironment conditions or absolute PrPres levels.

  18. Intestinal titres of anti-tissue transglutaminase 2 antibodies correlate positively with mucosal damage degree and inversely with gluten-free diet duration in coeliac disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tosco, A; Auricchio, R; Aitoro, R; Ponticelli, D; Primario, M; Miele, E; Rotondi Aufiero, V; Discepolo, V; Greco, L; Troncone, R; Maglio, M

    2014-09-01

    It has always been known that anti-tissue transglutaminase 2 (anti-TG2) antibodies are produced in the small intestine. Their serum titres correlate with mucosal damage degree and decrease on a gluten-free diet (GFD). We aimed to correlate intestinal anti-TG2 antibodies levels with degree of mucosal damage and GFD duration. Thirty-four active, 71 potential and 24 CD patients on GFD for at least 2 years were enrolled. Anti-TG2 deposits were detected in intestinal biopsies by double immunofluorescence. Biopsies were cultured for 24?h with medium, and with gliadin peptic tryptic digest (PTG) or A-gliadin peptide 31-43 (P31-43). Anti-TG2 antibodies secreted into supernatants were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). All active CD patients secreted high titres of anti-TG2 antibodies into culture medium that increased with the worsening of mucosal injury (Spearman's r?=?0·71; P?titres of anti-TG2 antibodies into supernatants, eight of nine negative treated patients being on GFD for more than 10 years. An inverse correlation between antibody titres and duration of GFD was found, (Spearman's r?=?-0·52; P?titres correlated positively with the degree of mucosal damage and inversely with the duration of GFD. PMID:24773630

  19. Radiosensitivity of tissue culture raised white marigold seeds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White marigold of the (Tagetes erecta L. compositae) is an important ornamental crop suited for pot and bed plants. It suffers from the problem of low seed viability and poor seed germination. The technique of in vitro regeneration has already been standardized for production of large scale quality planting materials of white marigold. For inducing greater genetic variability, seeds collected from in vitro raised plants were included in a gamma ray induced mutation breeding programme. The main objective of the present experiment was to study the radiosensitivity of tissue culture raised seeds

  20. Raising and Lowering operators of spin-weighted spheroidal harmonics

    CERN Document Server

    Shah, Abhay G

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we generalize the spin-raising and lowering operators of spin-weighted spherical harmonics to linear-in-$\\gamma$ spin-weighted spheroidal harmonics where $\\gamma$ is an additional parameter present in the second order ordinary differential equation governing these harmonics. One can then generalize these operators to higher powers in $\\gamma$. Constructing these operators required calculating the $\\ell$-, $s$- and $m$-raising and lowering operators (and various combinations of them) of spin-weighted spherical harmonics which have been calculated and shown explicitly in this paper.

  1. Raising Wages as a Strategy to Reduce Corruption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hideki Sato

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines whether raising the salaries of government tax auditors reduces their incentive to accept bribes. It evaluates an optimal tax structure and economic welfare under conditions of perfect and imperfect information in relation to conditions for bribery. The major policy implication of this paper is that it is not necessarily desirable to increase salaries as an anticorruption measure. Even if government can reduce corruption by improving civil servants’ pay, obtaining funds to do so by raising the income tax will worsen economic welfare, based on the optimal tax structure.

  2. Raising Critical Consciousness via Creative Writing in the EFL Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stillar, Scott

    2013-01-01

    This study discusses a method to promote raising critical consciousness in the English as a foreign language (EFL) classroom via creative writing activities by having students write journals and/or personal letters from the perspective of individuals from outside groups that have been marginalized or vilified in the students' dominant culture.…

  3. [Poultry meat production with varying densities in raising the broilers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ba?kov, B D; Petkov, G; Dzhankov, T; Delev, K

    1984-01-01

    Tests were carried out at two densities of raising the broilers on productional premises--16.6 and 23.6 per 1 m2 of flooring. Both the prophylactic programme and the conditions of tending and feeding were one and the same on the premises used. Each one of these was supplied with a cell in which birds were kept at the same density value as that on the other premise. Thus, four groups were formed in all: I--broilers kept at the rate of 16.6 per sq. m, II--broilers raised on the premise at 23.6/m2, III--broilers kept in a cell at 16.6 on the same premise where the other birds were kept at 23.6, and IV--broilers kept at 23.6 per sq. m. on the premise where the rate concerning the other birds was 16.6. The basic integral indices of the production effectiveness as well as the bioconversion of the dietary amino acids were followed up. It was found that during the transitional period the lower productional results with the broilers raised at higher densities were due to the action of biotic factors, and, more specifically, to the changes in the homotypical reactions that were the result of the higher density of raising. In the summer season the pesimal effect produced was a complex one, including not only the biotic factors but also the unfavourable action of the temperature and humidity regime. PMID:6730332

  4. ADHD May Raise Teens' Odds for Smoking, Drinking

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. ADHD May Raise Teens' Odds for Smoking, Drinking Researchers ... 2015) Wednesday, December 24, 2014 Related MedlinePlus Pages Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Smoking and Youth Underage Drinking WEDNESDAY, Dec. 24, ...

  5. 40 CFR 408.10 - Applicability; description of the farm-raised catfish processing subcategory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...Applicability; description of the farm-raised catfish processing subcategory. 408.10 ...POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Farm-Raised Catfish Processing Subcategory § 408.10 ...Applicability; description of the farm-raised catfish processing subcategory. The...

  6. HOW TO RAISE EQUITY CAPITAL? A CASE OF POLISH COMPANIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna B?ACH

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The strategies of raising equity capital available to the Polish companies were studied, both in the theoretical and empirical dimension. According to the law regulations three strategies of raising equity capital were distinguished and characterized: the retaining profit strategy, the strategy based on the hybrid securities and the strategy using the issue of new shares. The empirical researches were conducted based on the aggregated data illustrating the practical application of the distinguished strategies in the activity of the Polish non-financial companies in 2006 – 2009, aiming at finding changes in the strategy profile due to the impact of the global financial crisis. The achieved results can be used as a basis for further, more detail studies, also for the cross-country comparative analysis.

  7. Earth Orbit Raise Design for the ARTEMIS Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whiffen, Gregory J.; Sweetser, Theodore H.

    2012-01-01

    ARTEMIS is a mission to send two spacecraft from Earth orbit to libration orbits around the Moon Lagrange points and then into lunar orbit. Lunar flybys were used early in the mission to send the spacecraft into low-energy lunar transfers which were designed libration orbits for minimal deltaV. ARTEMIS began by raising the Earth orbits of each spacecraft to achieve the planned lunar flybys. Spacecraft conguration and operation constraints made the Earth orbit raise phase of the mission a signicant mission design challenge by itself. This paper describes the process used to and trajectories that achieved mission goals and the resulting series of Earth orbits that culminated in successful lunar flybys.

  8. Apparatus for raising or tilting a micromechanical structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, James J. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2008-09-09

    An active hinge apparatus is disclosed which can be used to raise a micromechanical structure (e.g. a plate or micromirror) on a substrate. The active hinge apparatus utilizes one or more of teeth protruding outward from an axle which also supports the micromechanical structure on one end thereof. A rack is used to engage the teeth and rotate the axle to raise the micromechanical structure and tilt the structure at an angle to the substrate. Motion of the rack is provided by an actuator which can be a mechanically-powered actuator, or alternately an electrostatic comb actuator or a thermal actuator. A latch can be optionally provided in the active hinge apparatus to lock the micromechanical structure in an "erected" position.

  9. Raising rivals' costs with environmental regulation: An intertemporal lobbying approach

    OpenAIRE

    Ko?rber, Achim

    1995-01-01

    This paper addresses the question why a lot of firms demand stricter environmental regulation. With non-identical producers within the same industry, lobbying for tighter environmental rules turns out to be an important strategy of raising rivals' costs. Furthermore, the paper explains when the potential target firms of stricter regulation in such an intra-industrial competition engage in counter-lobbying and when they remain silent.

  10. Raising Sfermion Masses by Adding Extra Matter Fields

    OpenAIRE

    Endo, Motoi; Yamaguchi, Masahiro; Yotsuyanagi, Akira

    2003-01-01

    The renormalization group flow of soft supersymmetry breaking masses is sensitive to the field contents of the theory one considers. We point out that the addition of extra vector-like matter fields to the minimal supersymmetric standard model raises the masses of squarks and sleptons relative to those of gauginos. We discuss its phenomenological implications. Besides an obvious effect to the superparticle mass spectrum, we find that radiative corrections from heavier stop l...

  11. Raising awareness of specific language impairment: The RALLI Internet campaign

    OpenAIRE

    Conti-ramsden, G.; Bishop, Dvm; Snowling, Mj; Clark, B.; Frazier Norbury, C.

    2013-01-01

    In this editorial, we discuss what is specific language impairment (SLI) and why it is a hidden disability that few people have heard about. We describe the impact on research, policy and practice of SLI being a neglected condition. We end by providing the background and rationale of a new Internet campaign, RALLI (. www.youtube.com/rallicampaign), aimed at changing this state of affairs and raising awareness of SLI. This YouTube channel has videoclips and information about SLI in Spanish. ©...

  12. Environmental NGOs in the raising debate of climate change

    OpenAIRE

    Dahan Dalmedico, Amy; Buffet, Christophe

    2009-01-01

    The issue of climate change was raising since the last 20 years, up to preempting debates about sustainable development This paper aims, in a first part, at underlining the diversity of environmental NGOs involved in climate change debate at all levels. In a second part, the text analyses how environmental NGOs interacted within climate change regime within United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) negotiations.

  13. The cholesterol-raising factor from coffee beans.

    OpenAIRE

    Urgert, R.; Katan, M. B.

    1997-01-01

    Coffee beans and some types of coffee brew - not the regular types of coffee prepared with a paper filter or with soluble coffee granules - contain the diterpenes cafestol and kahweol. Cafestol and kahweol raise the serum concentration of cholesterol and triglycerides in humans, and they also appear mildly to affect the integrity of liver cells. Both effects are transient after withdrawal of the diterpenes, and it is as yet unsure whether these effects are associated. Patients at increased ri...

  14. RAISE (Rapid Acquisition Imaging Spectrograph Experiment): Results and Instrument Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurent, Glenn T.; Hassler, Donald; DeForest, Craig; Ayres, Tom; Davis, Michael; DePontieu, Bart; Diller, Jed; Graham, Roy; Schule, Udo; Warren, Harry

    2015-04-01

    We present initial results from the successful November 2014 launch of the RAISE (Rapid Acquisition Imaging Spectrograph Experiment) sounding rocket program, including intensity maps, high-speed spectroheliograms and dopplergrams, as well as an update on instrument status. The RAISE sounding rocket payload is the fastest high-speed scanning-slit imaging spectrograph flown to date and is designed to observe the dynamics and heating of the solar chromosphere and corona on time scales as short as 100-200ms, with arcsecond spatial resolution and a velocity sensitivity of 1-2 km/s. The instrument is based on a class of UV/EUV imaging spectrometers that use only two reflections to provide quasi-stigmatic performance simultaneously over multiple wavelengths and spatial fields. The design uses an off-axis parabolic telescope mirror to form a real image of the sun on the spectrometer entrance aperture. A slit then selects a portion of the solar image, passing its light onto a near-normal incidence toroidal grating, which re-images the spectrally dispersed radiation onto two array detectors. Two full spectral passbands over the same one-dimensional spatial field are recorded simultaneously with no scanning of the detectors or grating. The two different spectral bands (1st-order 1205-1243Å and 1526-1564Å) are imaged onto two intensified Active Pixel Sensor (APS) detectors whose focal planes are individually adjusted for optimized performance. RAISE reads out the full field of both detectors at 5-10 Hz, allowing us to record over 1,500 complete spectral observations in a single 5-minute rocket flight, opening up a new domain of high time resolution spectral imaging and spectroscopy. RAISE is designed to study small-scale multithermal dynamics in active region (AR) loops, explore the strength, spectrum and location of high frequency waves in the solar atmosphere, and investigate the nature of transient brightenings in the chromospheric network.

  15. Soil information in support of policy making and awareness raising

    OpenAIRE

    Bouma, J.; Broll, G.; Crane, T. A.; Dewitte, O.; Gardi, C.; Schulte, R. P. O.; Towers, W.

    2012-01-01

    Soils play an important role in defining sustainable land-use options when facing major global environmental challenges such as food security, climate change, fresh water scarcity and biodiversity loss. Facing these problems, the 2006 EU Thematic Strategy for Soil Protection (TSSP), provides an important focal point for soil research and awareness raising. Unfortunately, the TSSP has not yet been followed up with a legally binding Framework Directive mainly because of political barriers. Two ...

  16. Level raising for p-adic Hilbert modular forms

    OpenAIRE

    Newton, James

    2014-01-01

    This paper generalises previous work of the author to the setting of overconvergent $p$-adic automorphic forms for a definite quaternion algebra over a totally real field. We prove results which are analogues of classical `level raising' results in the theory of mod $p$ modular forms. Roughly speaking, we show that an overconvergent eigenform whose associated local Galois representation at some auxiliary prime $\\l$ is (a twist of) a direct sum of trivial and cyclotomic chara...

  17. New gene variants raise risk of neuroblastoma, influence tumor progression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Researchers at the Children's Hospital of Philadelphia have discovered two gene variants that raise the risk of the pediatric cancer neuroblastoma. Using automated technology to perform genome-wide association studies on DNA from thousands of subjects, the study broadens understanding of how gene changes may make a child susceptible to this early childhood cancer, as well as causing a tumor to progress. The Children's Hospital of Philadelphia is affiliated with the Abramson Cancer Center at the University of Pennsylvania.

  18. A comparison of vaccine efficacity and mortality during routine use of high-titre Edmonston-Zagreb and Schwarz standard measles vaccines in rural Senegal

    OpenAIRE

    Aaby, Peter; Samb, Badara; Simondon, Franc?ois; Knudsen, K.; Coll Seck, A. M.; Bennett, J.; Markowitz, L.; Wittle, H.

    1996-01-01

    Vaccine efficacy and mortality in successive cohorts of children who routinely received either Edmonston-Zagreb high-titre (EZ-HT) or Schwarz standard (SW-STD) measles vaccines have been examined in a rural area of Senegal. The 2 vaccines were equally protective against measles infection (vaccination efficacy : EZ-HT 94 % ; SW-STD 93 %). Children who did not attend a scheduled session to receive measles vaccine had a higher mortality rate between 9 months and 2 years of age than did children ...

  19. Raising consciousness about the nuclear threat through music

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ungerleider, J.H.

    1987-01-01

    This dissertation examines the use of music, in particular topical collaborative group song writing, as a tool for raising consciousness about the threat of nuclear war. Consciousness raising is one way to overcome the phenomenon of denial and to increase discussion and social action in response to the nuclear threat. This dissertation measures the impact of a group song writing workshop on developing critical problem-solving in adult groups; it reviews how music is applied in psychological research and clinical work, has been used historically as a tool in social-change movements in America, and is used in the contemporary field of peace education. The perspectives of several theorists who discuss the potential of music to contribute to social change are presented. It is concluded that consciousness about the nuclear threat - in terms of naming and analyzing - can be raised by working with music's potential for developing affective, expressive, and collaborative capabilities in individuals and groups. Potential applications of the group song writing workshop are in schools, with peace organizations, music groups, and in relation to other social issues.

  20. A novel method for the measurement of hepatitis C virus infectious titres using the IncuCyte ZOOM and its application to antiviral screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Hazel; Bartlett, Christopher; Ross-Thriepland, Douglas; Shaw, Joseph; Griffin, Stephen; Harris, Mark

    2015-06-15

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a significant human pathogen infecting 3% of the world population. An infectious molecular clone capable of replicating and releasing infectious virions in cell culture has only been available since 2005, leaving a significant knowledge gap concerning post-RNA replication events such as particle assembly, trafficking and release. Thus, a fast, efficient and accurate method of measuring infectious viral titres is highly desirable. Current methods rely upon manual counting of infected cell foci and so are both labour-intensive and susceptible to human error. Here, we report a novel protocol, which utilises the IncuCyte ZOOM instrument and related software to accurately count infected cells and extrapolation of this data to produce an infectious titre, reported as infectious units per millilitre (IU/mL). This method reduces cost, time and error in experiments. We also demonstrate that this approach is amenable to high-throughput compound screening, thereby expediting the identification of novel antivirals. PMID:25796989

  1. Evaluación anátomo-histopatológica de bursa, timo y bazo de pollos de carne criados sobre cama reutilizada vs. cama nueva / Anatomical and histopathological evaluation of the bursa, thymus and spleen of broiler chickens raised in new or reused litter

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Antonio, Tambini A.; Mónica, Alba C.; Rosa, Perales C; Néstor, Falcón P.

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Peru | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Se evaluó el desarrollo anátomo-histopatológico de la bursa, timo y bazo de pollos de carne criados en cama nueva y cama reutilizada por cinco campañas. Se criaron 250 pollos machos de la línea Ross 308, la mitad en cama nueva y la otra mitad en cama reutilizada. Semanalmente, se determinaron los ín [...] dices morfométricos de bursa, timo y bazo, y la relación entre bursa y bazo por grupo. Los órganos linfoides fueron evaluados mediante histopatología, y los títulos de anticuerpos contra las enfermedades de Gumboro, Newcastle, Bronquitis Infecciosa, Anemia Infecciosa y Reovirus, al inicio y final de la crianza (49 días), se determinaron por la prueba de ELISA. Se encontró diferencia estadística (p Abstract in english The anatomo-histopathological development of the bursa, thymus and spleen of broiler chickens raised in new and reused litter through five campaigns was evaluated. Two hundred and fifty male chickens of the Ross 308 line were raised, half in new and half in reused litter. On a weekly basis, the morp [...] hometric indexes of bursa, thymus and spleen, and the relation bursa/spleen were recorded. The lymphoid organs were evaluated by histopathology and ELISA test was used to determine antibody titres for Gumboro, Newcastle, Infectious Bronchitis, Infectious Anemia, and Reovirus at the beginning and end of the study (49 days). Statistical difference was found (p

  2. Issues Raised in Relation to Radioactive Waste Management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nirex has undertaken various consultations with different stakeholders to identify their issues and concerns about radioactive waste management in general and specific aspects of Nirex's work. This paper will outline what dialogue techniques Nirex has undertaken and the issues and concerns that people have raised during the events. It will outline some of the work that Nirex is undertaking to address stakeholders' issues and concerns. Nirex has used a variety of dialogue techniques co-ordinated under the Nirex Involvement Programme to engage with stakeholders about the work we undertake. We are now trying to address the issues, concerns, scenarios and questions raised in our work programme. Key lessons that we have learned in undertaking the dialogues include: The importance of appropriate facilitation and organisation of meetings; The need for a clear purpose for meetings; Being flexible to the needs of the attendees and the issues they raise; Providing feedback to those who participate and following up issues. Through engaging with the public Nirex has learned that: Radioactive waste is not an everyday concern for people; The public can, will and want to engage with the issue of radioactive waste management. This includes engaging with the ethical debate. To facilitate this Nirex and others need to: Provide information in a neutral form outlining the pros and cons and including various people's opinions; Use proactive techniques to allow access and space for people ques to allow access and space for people to discuss the issues; Demonstrate how people's opinions have been taken into account. People understand the issues very differently to the way institutions understand them. There is a need for institutions to learn to understand public concerns and the ways in which the public understand issues, as well as for the public to understand the institutional positions better. We are using these insights to develop our future work in this area

  3. Raising the Awareness of Development Progress in Distributed Agile Projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sultan Alyahya

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses a computer-based holistic approach to raise the awareness of development progress in distributed agile projects. The approach analyses how the technical activities (i.e. source code versioning, unit testing, acceptance testing, integration and releasing affects development progress and provides automatic mechanisms that help co-ordinate progress change with distributed team members. The approach has been evaluated through practical scenarios and has validated these through a research prototype. The result shows that the use of the holistic approach can provide better awareness of progress to team members than the traditional approach that relies on informal communications.

  4. Tenneco raises $75 million for independents' E and P

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tenneco Gas's ventures group, Houston, has raised $75 million to invest in gas exploration and production by independent operations on the U.S. Gulf Coast. Institutional investors committed $50 million to the fund and a group of industrial investors $25 million. Tenneco the the fund will expand to accommodate additional investors through this year. This paper reports that the company's ventures group is evaluating acquisition and drilling opportunities with independents. Ventures group capital will be invested in independent exploratory, development, and producing properties

  5. Some remarks on right node raising in Romanian

    OpenAIRE

    Camelia Bejan

    2008-01-01

    Coordinate clauses with a common constituent in final position give rise to an interesting construction (Mary likes, but John hates cats), in which the constituent at the right edge of the first conjunct is missing. This phenomenon, known in the literature as Right Node Raising, has been analyzed either as an instance of movement or as an instance of ellipsis in the first conjunct. Starting from Hartmann (2000), Abels (2004) and Ha (2006), who argue in favour of an in-situ analysis of Right N...

  6. Technological characteristics of rabbit meat with raised n-3 PUFA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Cavani

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The dietary use of linseed in animal feeding has been proposed by many authors as a vegetable way (in alternative to fish oil or fish meal to raise meat PUFA and mainly ?- linolenic acid (C18:3 n-3 (Bernardini et al., 1999; Mattews et al., 2000; Riley et al., 2000; Rey et al., 2001. However, increasing amounts of PUFA could impair the technological characteristics of the meat for further processing (Enser, 1999. Main problems are concerned with lipid stability and meat colour changes over time which are related with both the out coming of rancid flavour and detrimental effects on the appearance of packaged further processed meat products...

  7. An Effective Method for Information Security Awareness Raising Initiatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AliMaqousi

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Increasingly, all kinds of organizations and institutions are adopting the E-business model to conduct theiractivities and provide E-Services for their customers. In the process, whether they know it or not, thoseorganizations are also opening themselves up to the risk of information security breaches. Thereforeprotecting an organization’s ICT infrastructure, IT systems, and Data is a vital issue that is oftenunderestimated. Research has shown that one of the most significant threats to information security comesnot from external attack but rather from the system's users, because they are familiar with theinfrastructure and have access to its resources, but may be unaware of the risks. Moreover, using onlytechnological solutions to protect an organization’s assets is not enough; there is a need to consider thehuman factor by raising users’ security awareness. Our contribution to this problem is to propose anInformation Security Awareness Program that aims at raising and maintaining the level of users’ securityawareness. This paper puts forward a general model for an information security awareness program anddescribes how it could be incorporated into an organization’s website through the process of developmentlife cycle.

  8. Raised Relief Mars Globe Brings the Red Planet Closer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    The Mars Globe 20x is the first digitally produced raised relief globe to be sold at retail establishments. The rises and dips of the Martian landscape have been multiplied by 20 to make the shapes more noticeable to human touch and sight. They make this globe, with its over 1 million elevation points, a visually stunning introduction to the planet. Spectrum 3D used the NASA digital land elevation data to aim lasers that then shaped and defined the master globe s surface. Subsequent copies were then made by creating a master globe mold. The molded copies are hand finished by workers who remove errant edges or lines that may appear on the raw globes and then paint the surfaces. The result is a globe that measures in at 18 inches in diameter, roughly 1:15,729,473 scale of the actual planet. The exaggerated raised relief is like having a 3-D digital microscope for planetary shapes. This makes the landmarks easier to learn and understand, as it provides easy visuals for orientation. People have a natural propensity for understanding 3-D shapes more easily than numbers or words. The 3-D globes appeal to both the kinetic and visual learning aspects of the brain, making it easy for people to readily memorize the landmarks and to make a mental model that they will remember for a long time.

  9. Civil engineering work to raise the level of Route Goward

    CERN Multimedia

    2013-01-01

    Civil engineering work to raise the level of Route Goward will take place during Long Shutdown 1. The work will begin on 18 March 2013 and is expected to last around 5 months.   Route Goward runs over the top of the PS tunnel and is the only access route to the inside of the ring. The layer of shielding backfill beneath this road is the thinnest anywhere on the PS ring. As the purpose of this shielding is to protect against the ionising radiation emitted by the accelerator when in operation, this road has been classified as a “supervised radiation area” according to radiation protection regulations. This classification was merely a temporary solution and, on the recommendation of the PS Radiation Working Group (PSRWG), the decision has been taken to raise the surface level permanently by around 2 m in order to increase the thickness of the shielding and thus lower the dose rate to that of a non-designated area. As the PS tunnel itself is unable to withstand the weight of t...

  10. School District Interests and Challenges Buying Chicken Raised without Antibiotics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathryn J. A. Colasanti

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The overuse of antibiotics in animal agriculture is recognized as contributing to human antibiotic resistance. With large meat purchases, particularly chicken, school districts have an opportunity to leverage their buying power to engage with this issue. However, few school food service professionals have done so and little is known about their awareness, attitudes, or experiences. This research surveyed 36 school districts affiliated with School Food FOCUS, which works on procurement reform with many of the largest school districts in the country. Questions were designed to solicit familiarity with the issue of antibiotic use in poultry production, attitudes, and extent of relevant action taken. Motivations and barriers for purchasing poultry raised with minimal, safe and sustainable use of antibiotics as well as fresh (raw poultry, which has been found to be an affordable way to menu antibiotic-free chicken, were assessed. Results revealed that this issue is important to respondents but difficult to address due to more immediate concerns. Barriers are experienced with purchasing both chicken raised without antibiotics and preparing fresh chicken. Product cost was perceived as a particularly high barrier. Responding to concerns of parents and the community was a top motivation.

  11. THE CHALLENGES OF RAISING REVENUES AND RESTRUCTURING SUBSIDIES IN MALAYSIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suresh Narayanan

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Malaysia has run deficit budgets in all but five years since 1970 but past deficits have been managed thanks to substantial oil revenues and high domestic savings. However, the slow growth or decline of several traditional sources of revenue and the rising subsidy bill since 2007 have given pause for reflection on the traditional approach to fiscal management. In this paper, it is argued that fiscal management must not only centre around reducing non-productive expenditures and wasteful leakages but must also confront the problem of reducing and restructuring subsidies, particularly to petrol and petroleum-related products. The global dip in petroleum process has fortuitously provided the respite needed for such an exercise and should not lull policy makersinto complacency. When the economy recovers from the currentdownswing, a solid revenue raising instrument such as the value-addedtax must be introduced in order to wean the economy away from thecurrent over reliance on petroleum-based taxes.

  12. Raising sfermion masses by adding extra matter fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Endo, Motoi; Yamaguchi, Masahiro; Yotsuyanagi, Akira

    2004-02-05

    The renormalization group flow of soft supersymmetry breaking masses is sensitive to the field contents of the theory one considers. We point out that the addition of extra vector-like matter fields to the minimal supersymmetric standard model raises the masses of squarks and sleptons relative to those of gauginos. We discuss its phenomenological implications. Besides an obvious effect to the superparticle mass spectrum, we find that radiative corrections from heavier stop loops increase the lightest CP-even Higgs boson mass. We also discuss impact on models with no-scale boundary conditions. It turns out that, unlike the minimal case, staus can become heavier than a B-ino like neutralino, which is cosmologically favored.

  13. Raising sfermion masses by adding extra matter fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The renormalization group flow of soft supersymmetry breaking masses is sensitive to the field contents of the theory one considers. We point out that the addition of extra vector-like matter fields to the minimal supersymmetric standard model raises the masses of squarks and sleptons relative to those of gauginos. We discuss its phenomenological implications. Besides an obvious effect to the superparticle mass spectrum, we find that radiative corrections from heavier stop loops increase the lightest CP-even Higgs boson mass. We also discuss impact on models with no-scale boundary conditions. It turns out that, unlike the minimal case, staus can become heavier than a B-ino like neutralino, which is cosmologically favored

  14. Intensional Verbs Without Type-Raising or Lexical Ambiguity

    CERN Document Server

    Dalrymple, M; Pereira, F; Saraswat, V; Dalrymple, Mary; Lamping, John; Pereira, Fernando; Saraswat, Vijay

    1994-01-01

    We present an analysis of the semantic interpretation of intensional verbs such as seek that allows them to take direct objects of either individual or quantifier type, producing both de dicto and de re readings in the quantifier case, all without needing to stipulate type-raising or quantifying-in rules. This simple account follows directly from our use of logical deduction in linear logic to express the relationship between syntactic structures and meanings. While our analysis resembles current categorial approaches in important ways, it differs from them in allowing the greater type flexibility of categorial semantics while maintaining a precise connection to syntax. As a result, we are able to provide derivations for certain readings of sentences with intensional verbs and complex direct objects that are not derivable in current purely categorial accounts of the syntax-semantics interface. The analysis forms a part of our ongoing work on semantic interpretation within the framework of Lexical-Functional G...

  15. [Louis Braille (1809-1852)--inventor of raised dots system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maciejewicz, Piotr; Kopacz, Dorota

    2005-01-01

    Louis Braille was born on January 4th 1809 in Coupvray, France. An injury to his eye at the age of three, resulted in total loss of vision. In 1819 he entered the Institute for Blind Youth in Paris. There he would live, study, and later teach. When he was fifteen, he developed system of reading and writing by means of raised dots, which is known today as Braille. The basis of the Braille system is known as a Braille cell. The cell is comprised of six dots numbered in a specific order. Each dot or combination of dots represents a letter of the alphabet. This Braille system has established itself internationally and formed the basic Braille for all languages. PMID:16619834

  16. Fabry disease: raising awareness of the disease among physicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carubbi, Francesca; Bonilauri, Lisa

    2012-10-01

    Fabry disease is an X-linked inherited lysosomal disorder due to dysfunctions of the lysosomal enzyme alpha-galactosidase A, causing insufficient breakdown of glycolipids, which are stored in the eyes, kidneys, autonomic nervous system, skin, vessels and cardiovascular system. Manifestations of Fabry disease include progressive renal and cardiac insufficiency, neuropathic pain, stroke and cerebral disease, skin and gastrointestinal symptoms. Clinical onset usually occurs in childhood, but many severe patients are diagnosed in adulthood. Females may be severely affected as males and both may die prematurely due to stroke, heart disease and renal failure. Enzyme replacement therapy can stabilize or reduce the progression of the disease. There is a need to improve the knowledge of Fabry disease, as an early therapy may prevent complications of the disease. This brief overview aims to raise awareness of the signs and symptoms of Fabry disease and to summarize the effects of treatments. PMID:23073862

  17. Design of a Hybrid Propulsion System for Orbit Raising Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boman, N.; Ford, M.

    2004-10-01

    A trade off between conventional liquid apogee engines used for orbit raising applications and hybrid rocket engines (HRE) has been performed using a case study approach. Current requirements for lower cost and enhanced safety places hybrid propulsion systems in the spotlight. For evaluating and design of a hybrid rocket engine a parametric engineering code is developed, based on the combustion chamber characteristics of selected propellants. A single port cylindrical section of fuel grain is considered. Polyethylene (PE) and hydroxyl-terminated polybutadiene (HTPB) represents the fuels investigated. The engine design is optimized to minimize the propulsion system volume and mass, while keeping the system as simple as possible. It is found that the fuel grain L/D ratio boundary condition has a major impact on the overall hybrid rocket engine design.

  18. Raise the management level of EPC contracting in six aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear power construction develops rapidly today and EPC contracting for nuclear power projects, as a strategic decision of CNNC, has become a tendency. The target of engineering management can be smoothly realized or achieved by doing a good job in the following six aspects:effective communication between divisions of project department, high-degree consistency of managerial concepts for project management staff, clear objective for different divisions in the project department, presence of rules to be observed in construction management work, avoidance of human-initiated errors in the project, and clear distinction of management control concept. It is hoped that, through exchange and practice, management procedures and consciousness for EPC contracting can be further standardized and thus the level of management for EPC contracting will be raised finally. (authors)

  19. Raising chickens in city backyards: the public health role.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollock, S L; Stephen, C; Skuridina, N; Kosatsky, T

    2012-06-01

    There is increasing interest in raising chickens in urban settings across North America. Current regulations on backyard chickens vary by jurisdiction due to concerns about perceived health threats. Proposed negative impacts on public health and community well-being include infectious diseases acquired through rearing practices or consumption of eggs, inappropriate waste management, interaction with pests and predators and nuisance factors such as noise and odour. Proposed benefits are derived largely from the human-animal bond and from feelings of autonomy over food selection. The importance or validity of claims of positive and negative effects cannot be supported by literature specific to the urban agriculture context. Public health practitioners might approach this issue in a manner analogous to concerns over keeping domestic pets. PMID:22083301

  20. Research Raising the Bilingual Teaching Level of Chinese in College

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Sun

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available China’s admission to the World Trade Organization (WTO, compounded by the rapid global economic growth – over the last decade – had created exuberant need for skilled manpower in China. This is evident by the demand for skilled talent in inter-disciplinary fields related to foreign language training. Mastering foreign language is considered a scarce resource in China as these specialist skilled persons will provide an important trans-culture bridging link with the Western World. The need for such niche skilled manpower had created challenges to Chinese universities to develop accelerated bilingual training programs to cater for such a demand. China’s Education Authorities recognize this requirement and had set priorities to administer the local universities to provide such bilingual courses. This article has discussed the professional course bilingual education necessity, analyzes concrete questions which Chinese universities bilingual education exists, and proposed the measures and the suggestions which raises the standard of bilingual education level.

  1. 13 CFR 119.20 - Should grantees and subgrantees raise conflict of interest matters with SBA?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...grantees and subgrantees raise conflict of interest matters with SBA? 119...grantees and subgrantees raise conflict of interest matters with SBA? Each...provide SBA with a copy of its conflicts of interest policies prior to...

  2. Deletion of a Helicoverpa armigera nucleopolyhedrovirus gene encoding a virion structural protein (ORF107) increases the budded virion titre and reduces in vivo infectivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Xiaoyu; Long, Gang; Wang, RanRan; Hou, Songwang; Wang, Huiyuan; Zheng, Yueting; Sun, Xiulian; Westenberg, Marcel; Deng, Fei; Wang, Hualin; Vlak, Just M; Hu, Zhihong

    2007-12-01

    The open reading frame Ha107 of Helicoverpa armigera single nucleocapsid nucleopolyhedrovirus (HearNPV) encodes a putative protein of 51 kDa with homologues in a few group II NPVs and a granulovirus. Ha107 was transcribed as polyadenylated transcripts in infected HzAM1 insect cells. The transcripts were initiated at two distinct locations, one upstream of Ha106 (superoxide dismutase gene, sod) and the second upstream of Ha107. By Western blot analysis, two forms of the HA107 protein were detected in infected cells, a major polypeptide of 48 kDa and a minor one of 51 kDa. Western blot and immunoelectron microscopy analyses further showed that the HA107 protein was associated with the nucleocapsids of both budded virions (BVs) and occlusion-derived virions. A Ha107 knockout virus expressing enhanced green fluorescent protein and polyhedrin was constructed using bacmid technology. A one-step virus growth curve indicated that the BV titre of the knockout virus was significantly higher than that of the parental virus and a Ha107 repair virus. Bioassays indicated that the knockout virus was able to infect third-instar H. armigera larvae; however, its median lethal dose (LD50) was significantly higher than those of the parental virus and Ha107 repair virus. These data indicate that Ha107 encodes a non-essential structural protein of HearNPV virions and that deletion of this gene increases the BV titre and LD50 of the occluded virus. PMID:18024900

  3. Mumps virus infection in vaccinated patients can be detected by an increase in specific IgG antibodies to high titres: a retrospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borgmann, S; Schwab, F; Santibanez, S; Mankertz, A

    2014-11-01

    Mumps outbreaks in highly vaccinated populations with genotype G have been reported repeatedly. Detection of these outbreaks can be difficult in a setting with relatively high vaccination coverage when acute cases of mumps are routinely diagnosed by IgM serology since this marker is not reliable for diagnosis of mumps re-infection. To learn whether diagnostic tests performed in a large private laboratory may be useful to detect mumps outbreaks retrospectively, we reviewed the results of almost 7000 mumps tests. Two groups were compared: group 1 comprised of 3438 samples from patients submitted by physicians and clinicians (it was assumed that these patients visited their doctor due to acute disease). Group 2 comprised of 3398 samples submitted from company medical officers and occupational physicians. Since these patients usually attend for routine check-ups and certification of immunity to vaccine-preventable diseases, these samples comprised a control group. From July 2010 to May 2011, a mumps virus outbreak with more than 300 cases occurred in Bavaria, Southeast Germany. Our study includes samples received for serological mumps tests from January 2009 until December 2011 (36 months). The two groups were analysed with regard to the number of IgM-positive cases per month and the level of IgG titre. We found a marked increase for both parameters in group 1 during the time of the outbreak, while the samples submitted by the occupational medical physicians did not display significant alterations. These parameters reflect the outbreak with high accuracy, indicating that a retrospective analysis of IgG titres may be a useful tool for detection of mumps outbreaks when, as was the case in Germany, (i) a nationwide notification system has not been implemented and (ii) a highly vaccinated population is affected. PMID:24423404

  4. Trustees and the Fund-Raising Role: Facing the Hard Truth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howe, Fisher

    1983-01-01

    It is proposed that nonprofit institutions having trouble raising funds often have a board that is indifferent, distracted by other commitments, or unwilling to face up to its fund-raising responsibility. Five fundamental principles of fund-raising that focus on donor attitudes are outlined, and specific problems of board participation are…

  5. Raised Plasma Aldosterone and Natriuretic Peptides in Atrial Fibrillation.

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dixen, U; SØby-Rasmussen, C

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND AIMS: During atrial fibrillation (AF), the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) may be activated. In this study, our aim was to evaluate at a long-term follow-up visit the levels of plasma aldosterone and natriuretic peptides as markers of neurohormonal remodeling in patients with earlier, documented AF in relation to present heart rhythm, clinical data, and the left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF). We hypothesized that increased levels of aldosterone and natriuretic peptides were significantly associated with present AF as markers of RAAS activation during the arrhythmia. METHODS: We studied 158 patients with earlier ECG-documented AF followed by restored sinus rhythm (SR) attending a follow-up visit 2.6 years (mean) after primary inclusion. RESULTS: At follow-up, 93 patients had SR. Heart rhythm at follow-up visit (SR/AF), plasma aldosterone, plasma N-terminal pro Brain Natriuretic Peptide (Nt-proBNP), plasma N-terminal pro Atrial Natriuretic Peptide (Nt-proANP), LVEF, medication, and clinical characteristics were recorded. Standard linear multiple regression analysis including age, sex, weight, hypertension, congestive heart failure, ischemic heart disease, present AF at follow-up, total duration of AF disease, ongoing medication, and the LVEF as explanatory variables showed that only ongoing treatment with diuretics was significantly associated (likelihood ratio test, p = 0.0057) with a raised log-transformed plasma aldosterone, although present AF at follow-up was related to a high aldosterone level (p = 0.09). For the natriuretic peptides, present AF at follow-up (p < 0.0001), age (p < 0.0001), female gender (p = 0.0047), ischemic heart disease (p = 0.0154), and ongoing treatment with sotalol (p = 0.0003) were all independently associated with high log-transformed plasma Nt-proANP. Likewise, present AF at follow-up (p = 0.0008) as well as age (p < 0.0001) were associated with high log-transformed plasma Nt-proBNP. CONCLUSIONS: In patients with earlier AF, AF at long-term follow-up visit was independently associated with raised levels of Nt-proANP and Nt-proBNP and to some extent with plasma aldosterone indicating neurohormonal activation during arrhythmia. Copyright 2007 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  6. Raised plasma aldosterone and natriuretic peptides in atrial fibrillation.

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dixen, U; Ravn, L

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND AIMS: During atrial fibrillation (AF), the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) may be activated. In this study, our aim was to evaluate at a long-term follow-up visit the levels of plasma aldosterone and natriuretic peptides as markers of neurohormonal remodeling in patients with earlier, documented AF in relation to present heart rhythm, clinical data, and the left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF). We hypothesized that increased levels of aldosterone and natriuretic peptides were significantly associated with present AF as markers of RAAS activation during the arrhythmia. METHODS: We studied 158 patients with earlier ECG-documented AF followed by restored sinus rhythm (SR) attending a follow-up visit 2.6 years (mean) after primary inclusion. RESULTS: At follow-up, 93 patients had SR. Heart rhythm at follow-up visit (SR/AF), plasma aldosterone, plasma N-terminal pro Brain Natriuretic Peptide (Nt-proBNP), plasma N-terminal pro Atrial Natriuretic Peptide (Nt-proANP), LVEF, medication, and clinical characteristics were recorded. Standard linear multiple regression analysis including age, sex, weight, hypertension, congestive heart failure, ischemic heart disease, present AF at follow-up, total duration of AF disease, ongoing medication, and the LVEF as explanatory variables showed that only ongoing treatment with diuretics was significantly associated (likelihood ratio test, p = 0.0057) with a raised log-transformed plasma aldosterone, although present AF at follow-up was related to a high aldosterone level (p = 0.09). For the natriuretic peptides, present AF at follow-up (p < 0.0001), age (p < 0.0001), female gender (p = 0.0047), ischemic heart disease (p = 0.0154), and ongoing treatment with sotalol (p = 0.0003) were all independently associated with high log-transformed plasma Nt-proANP. Likewise, present AF at follow-up (p = 0.0008) as well as age (p < 0.0001) were associated with high log-transformed plasma Nt-proBNP. CONCLUSIONS: In patients with earlier AF, AF at long-term follow-up visit was independently associated with raised levels of Nt-proANP and Nt-proBNP and to some extent with plasma aldosterone indicating neurohormonal activation during arrhythmia. Copyright 2007 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  7. Raised plasma aldosterone and natriuretic peptides in atrial fibrillation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dixen, U; Ravn, L

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND AIMS: During atrial fibrillation (AF), the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) may be activated. In this study, our aim was to evaluate at a long-term follow-up visit the levels of plasma aldosterone and natriuretic peptides as markers of neurohormonal remodeling in patients with earlier, documented AF in relation to present heart rhythm, clinical data, and the left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF). We hypothesized that increased levels of aldosterone and natriuretic peptides were significantly associated with present AF as markers of RAAS activation during the arrhythmia. METHODS: We studied 158 patients with earlier ECG-documented AF followed by restored sinus rhythm (SR) attending a follow-up visit 2.6 years (mean) after primary inclusion. RESULTS: At follow-up, 93 patients had SR. Heart rhythm at follow-up visit (SR/AF), plasma aldosterone, plasma N-terminal pro Brain Natriuretic Peptide (Nt-proBNP), plasma N-terminal pro Atrial Natriuretic Peptide (Nt-proANP), LVEF, medication,and clinical characteristics were recorded. Standard linear multiple regression analysis including age, sex, weight, hypertension, congestive heart failure, ischemic heart disease, present AF at follow-up, total duration of AF disease, ongoing medication, and the LVEF as explanatory variables showed that only ongoing treatment with diuretics was significantly associated (likelihood ratio test, p = 0.0057) with a raised log-transformed plasma aldosterone, although present AF at follow-up was related to a high aldosterone level (p = 0.09). For the natriuretic peptides, present AF at follow-up (p < 0.0001), age (p < 0.0001), female gender (p = 0.0047), ischemic heart disease (p = 0.0154), and ongoing treatment with sotalol (p = 0.0003) were all independently associated with high log-transformed plasma Nt-proANP. Likewise, present AF at follow-up (p = 0.0008) as well as age (p < 0.0001) were associated with high log-transformed plasma Nt-proBNP. CONCLUSIONS: In patients with earlier AF, AF at long-term follow-upvisit was independently associated with raised levels of Nt-proANP and Nt-proBNP and to some extent with plasma aldosterone indicating neurohormonal activation during arrhythmia. Copyright 2007 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  8. Paroxysmal non-kinesigenic dyskinesia, post-streptococcal syndromes and psychogenic movement disorders: a diagnostic challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peila, Elena; Mortara, Paolo; Cicerale, Alessandro; Pinessi, Lorenzo

    2015-01-01

    We report a case of a 15-year-old boy presenting with sudden attacks of hyperkinetic movements of the limbs, trunk and neck. Clinical features were suggestive of paroxysmal non-kinesigenic dyskinesia, but the elevated antistreptolysin O antibody titre and history of recurrent upper airways infection led us to consider a post-streptococcal syndrome as a possible diagnosis. The patient started therapy with benzathine penicillin, sodium valproate and clonazepam without any significant improvement. A successive psychiatric assessment revealed the presence of a psychogenic movement disorder. Psychodynamic psychotherapy and individual counselling were started with progressive improvement of psychological symptoms and gradual resolution of hyperkinetic episodes, without any recurrence recorded during the follow-up (10?months). PMID:25795754

  9. Raising environmental awareness in the Baltic Sea area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Partanen-Hertell, M.; Harju-Autti, P.; Kreft-Burman, K.; Pemberton, D.

    1999-10-01

    This report provides information, findings and action proposals for increasing environmental awareness in the Baltic Sea area. It is intended to serve the European Union, HELCOM and other international, national, local as well as sectoral actors in their activities related to environmental awareness and public participation. The countries in the Baltic Sea area are in different stages of environmental awareness. The demand for environmental information, education and training as well as the possibilities to improve the situation are also varying considerably. To investigate these issues, a questionnaire was sent to 850 key persons in the whole area representing various professional groups - politicians, administrators, researchers, educators, farmers, business, media, NGOs etc. Opinions on the levels of environmental awareness - which consists of motivation, knowledge and skills - and the state of the environment in different countries were also compared. On the basis of the questionnaire, interviews and an international workshop, proposals for raising environmental awareness around the Baltic Sea were created. The proposals were targeted to action levels, which were connected to geographical areas - region, subregion, nation, local or professional/occupational groups. In addition, a case example was made for Helsinki Commission by formulating some proposals for creating a new information and communication policy. The methods used in this project may also be applied in other multinational regions, such as in the Mediterranean. (orig.)

  10. Raising antibodies against circulating foetal cells from maternal peripheral blood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    SØrensen, Morten Dræby; Melchjorsen, Connie Jenning

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Cells of foetal origin circulating in the maternal peripheral bloodstream present a unique source for non-invasive prenatal diagnostics. The aims of this study were to raise antibodies against identified circulating foetal cells from the maternal blood, test the properties of these antibodies and to determine the foetal cell type recognised by the antibodies. METHOD: Cells from a male foetus were identified in a maternal blood sample by FISH analysis of the X- and Y- chromosomes. The identified cells were subjected to phage display selection using a novel single cell selection strategy. Selected antibodies were tested by immunocytochemistry on foetal and adult tissue arrays, an endothelial cell line, and peripheral blood mononuclear cells. RESULTS: Three identified foetal cells subjected to antibody selection, yielded a total of 12 antibodies. Three antibodies gave distinct staining patterns on tissue arrays, and endothelial cells. One antibody, SF1.3, shows specific staining of a subpopulation of peripheral blood mononuclear cells, including a fraction of CD34 positive cells. CONCLUSION: These findings indicate that the identified foetal cells could have been progenitor cells of haematopoietic origin. The antibody SF1.3 could be a potential tool toward non-invasive prenatal diagnostics.

  11. The Potential of Book Floods for Raising Literacy Levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elley, Warwick B.

    2000-07-01

    The problem of raising literacy levels in developing countries is particularly challenging when pupils have their schooling in a non-native language. One promising strategy which has been tried and evaluated in the schools of several developing countries is the Book Flood approach. This article summarises the findings of Book Flood studies in Niue, Fiji, Singapore, Sri Lanka, South Africa, Solomon Islands, and several other countries. The evidence is now strong that it is possible to double the rate of reading acquisition of Third World primary school pupils with a "Book Flood" of about 100 high-interest books, per class, and short teacher training sessions. The benefits for reading skill and enthusiasm are consistent across diverse cultures, mother tongues and age levels, and they appear to generate corresponding improvements in children's writing, listening comprehension, and related language skills. Such skills are typically found to develop very slowly under traditional textbook styles of teaching. The problems of cost per school and cultural suitability of imported books are addressed. Several countries have adopted Book Flood programmes on a national scale, and others are currently planning to do so.

  12. Leptospirosis control on an intensive raising pig farm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teši? M.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Leptospirosis is an infective disease which represents serious health and economic problems in pig raising. The disease is caused by bacteria from genus Leptospira interrogans, which has over 250 serotypes and is isolated from most animal species and also from humans in almost every country in the world. In farm conditions the disease is seldom manifested as a clinically apparent illness. More often is manifested as reduced conception rate increased abortion rate and increased birth of dead and non-vital piglets. The leptospirosis control and eradication program was made for a state owned farm with a capacity of about 1500 sows and over 30000 fattened animals per year. The farm had an on going endemic leptospirosis infection and subsequent progressive economic losses. We detected 29,80% seropositive sows and gilts in which serotypes pomona and icterhaemorrhagiae were isolated. Serologic examination of blood was performed again after program implementation, and no positive animals were found, while production and economic results were improved. The control of leptospirosis and the eradication program for a five-year period were based on detailed quantification of economics losses. Using cost-benefit analysis the necessary inputs and planned outputs were defined, and program evolution was made on the basis of net present value and benefit/cost ratio.

  13. Toward raising the higher level of radiological nursing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The role and purpose of nursing in the radiological field are discussed with essentials of radiological nursing for raising its higher level and needed fundamental education. The discussion is from the thought that, at Fukushima Nuclear Power Plant Accident (Mar. 2011), general medical staff including nurses are rather insufficient of radiological knowledge like the exposure, radiation effect and risk. In the medical radiological field, nurses are expected to play roles of arranging the circumstance for patient's ease like explanation about health effect/risk, appropriate nursing of them after radiological diagnosis, radiation protection of nurses themselves, and of environment. At such an emergency as the Accident, care for the acutely exposed victims, their decontamination and responding to patient's concern are necessary. At the later phase, also needed are nursing of victims undergoing health management done by authorities and of radiological workers concerned as well as the third item above. Therefore, fundamentals of radiological knowledge such as physics, exposure, health effects, protection, contamination, legal rules and risk communication are required in the education of nurses. Otherwise, this education can be conducted as a part of safety security and physical assessment. The Accident also gives us the importance of radiological risk communication with its victims. (T.T.)

  14. Wilson disease in septuagenarian siblings: Raising the bar for diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ala, Aftab; Borjigin, Jimo; Rochwarger, Arnold; Schilsky, Michael

    2005-03-01

    Wilson Disease (WD) usually presents in the first decades of life, although rare patients have a later presentation. We report the clinical features, diagnostic evaluation, and outcome with treatment of two septuagenarian siblings evaluated as part of a research trial for treatment of neurological WD. The index case was a 72-year-old woman who suffered progressive neurological disability, then developed sub-fulminant liver failure. Her sibling was a 70-year-old man with minimal neurological symptoms and a mild depressive disorder. His liver biopsy revealed only steatosis and minimal fibrosis and an elevated hepatic copper content (671 mug/g dry weight liver). Molecular studies demonstrated compound heterozygosity for disease specific ATP7B mutations E1064A and H1069Q in both patients. Both individuals were treated with trientine and Zn followed by Zn maintenance therapy. Over the last 5 years, the clinical course stabilized and improved, although the index case recently died from bronchopneumonia. In conclusion, advanced age and different clinical presentations of these two subjects with identical ATP7B mutations raises the question of the degree of penetrance for these and other ATP7B mutations. Environmental and extragenic factors are pivotal determinants of disease phenotype. We suggest that WD must be considered at all ages in patients with hepatic disease, neurological disease, or psychiatric symptoms. PMID:15723329

  15. An under-met and over-met expectations model of employee reactions to merit raises.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaubroeck, John; Shaw, Jason D; Duffy, Michelle K; Mitra, Atul

    2008-03-01

    The authors developed a model of how raise expectations influence the relationship between merit pay raises and employee reactions and tested it using a sample of hospital employees. Pay-for-performance (PFP) perceptions were consistently related to personal reactions (e.g., pay raise happiness, pay-level satisfaction, and turnover intentions). Merit pay raises were strongly related to reactions only among employees with high raise expectations and high PFP perceptions. The interactive effects of under-met/over-met expectations and PFP perceptions were mediated by the extent to which participants saw the raise as generous and they were happy with the raises they received. The authors discuss the implications of these findings for expectation-fulfillment theories, merit pay research, and the administration of incentives. PMID:18361641

  16. Late Pleistocene raised beaches of coastal Estremadura, central Portugal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benedetti, Michael M.; Haws, Jonathan A.; Funk, Caroline L.; Daniels, J. Michael; Hesp, Patrick A.; Bicho, Nuno F.; Minckley, Thomas A.; Ellwood, Brooks B.; Forman, Steven L.

    2009-12-01

    We present new stratigraphic, sedimentological, and chronological data for a suite of tectonically raised beaches dating to Marine Isotope Stages 5, 4, and 3 along the Estremadura coast of west-central Portugal. The beach deposits are found in association with ancient tidal channels and coastal dunes, pollen bearing mud and peat, and Middle Paleolithic archaeological sites that confirm occupation of the coastal zone by Neanderthal populations. The significance of these deposits is discussed in terms of the archaeological record, the tectonic and geomorphic evolution of the coast, and correlation with reconstructions of global climate and eustatic sea-level change. Direct correlation between the Estremadura beach sections is complicated by the tectonic complexity of the area and the age of the beach deposits (which are near or beyond the limit of radiocarbon dating). Evidence from multiple sites dated by AMS radiocarbon and optical luminescence methods suggests broad synchroneity in relative sea-level changes along this coast during Marine Isotope Stage 3. Two beach complexes with luminescence and radiocarbon age control date to about 35 ka and 42 ka, recording a rise in relative sea level around the time of Heinrich Event 4 at 39 ka. Depending on assumptions about eustatic sea level at the time they were deposited, we estimate that these beaches have been uplifted at rates of 0.4-4.3 mm yr -1 by the combined effects of tectonic, halokinetic, and isostatic processes. Uplift rates of 1-2 mm yr -1 are likely if the beaches represent sea level stands at roughly 40 m below modern, as suggested by recent eustatic sea level reconstructions. Evidence from coastal bluffs and the interior of the study area indicates extensive colluvial, fluvial, and aeolian sedimentation beginning around 31 ka and continuing into the Holocene. These geomorphic adjustments are related to concomitant changes in climate and sea level, providing context that improves our understanding of Late Pleistocene landscape change and human occupation on the western Iberian margin.

  17. 137Cs in a raised bog in central Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosén, K; Vinichuk, M; Johanson, K J

    2009-07-01

    The vertical distribution of (137)Cs activity in peat soil profiles and (137)Cs activity concentration in plants of various species was studied in samples collected at two sites on a raised bog in central Sweden. One site (open bog) was in an area with no trees and only a few sparsely growing plant species, while the other (low pine) was less than 100 m from the open bog site and had slowly growing Scots pine, a field layer dominated by some ericaceous plants and ground well-covered by plants. The plant samples were collected in 2004-2007 and were compared with samples collected in 1989 from the same open bog and low pine sites. Ground deposition of (137)Cs in 2005 was similar at both sites, 23,000 Bq m(-2). In the open bog peat profile it seems to be an upward transport of caesium since a clear peak of (137)Cs activity was found in the uppermost 1-4 cm of Sphagnum layers, whereas at the low pine site (137)Cs was mainly found in deeper (10-12 cm) layers. The migration rate was 0.57 cm yr(-1) at the open bog site and the migration centre of (137)Cs was at a depth of 10.7, while the rate at the low pine site was 0.78 cm yr(-1) and the migration centre was at 14.9 cm. Heather (Calluna vulgaris) was the plant species with the highest (137)Cs activity concentrations at both sites, 43.5 k Bq(-1) DM in 1989 decreasing to 20.4 in 2004-2007 on open bog and 22.3 k Bq kg(-1) DM in 1989 decreasing to 11.2 k Bq(-1) DM by the period 2004-2007 on the low pine site. (137)Cs transfer factors in plants varied between 0.88 and 1.35 on the open bog and between 0.48 and 0.69 m(2)kg(-1) DM at the low pine site. PMID:19386400

  18. 137Cs in a raised bog in central Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The vertical distribution of 137Cs activity in peat soil profiles and 137Cs activity concentration in plants of various species was studied in samples collected at two sites on a raised bog in central Sweden. One site (open bog) was in an area with no trees and only a few sparsely growing plant species, while the other (low pine) was less than 100 m from the open bog site and had slowly growing Scots pine, a field layer dominated by some ericaceous plants and ground well-covered by plants. The plant samples were collected in 2004-2007 and were compared with samples collected in 1989 from the same open bog and low pine sites. Ground deposition of 137Cs in 2005 was similar at both sites, 23 000 Bq m-2. In the open bog peat profile it seems to be an upward transport of caesium since a clear peak of 137Cs activity was found in the uppermost 1-4 cm of Sphagnum layers, whereas at the low pine site 137Cs was mainly found in deeper (10-12 cm) layers. The migration rate was 0.57 cm yr-1 at the open bog site and the migration centre of 137Cs was at a depth of 10.7, while the rate at the low pine site was 0.78 cm yr-1 and the migration centre was at 14.9 cm. Heather (Calluna vulgaris) was the plant species with the highest 137Cs activity concentrations at both sites, 43.5 k Bq-1 DM in 1989 decreasing to 20.4 in 2004-2007 on open bog and 22.3 k Bq kg-1-1 DM in 1989 decreasing to 11.2 k Bq-1 DM by the period 2004-2007 on the low pine site. 137Cs transfer factors in plants varied between 0.88 and 1.35 on the open bog and between 0.48 and 0.69 m2 kg-1 DM at the low pine site.

  19. A Survey of Raised Curvilinear Features in Aeolis Mensae, Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enga, M.; Burr, D. M.

    2007-12-01

    Raised curvilinear features (RCFs) are seen on the surface of Mars in the Aeolis Mensae/western Medussae Fossae Formation. The sinuous plan form of these RCFs and their frequently networked appearance suggest their formation by some manner of aqueous flow. In order to gain a better understanding of the formation mechanisms and the hydroclimatic implications of these RCFs, we conducted a survey focused on a region spanning -8N to 4 N and 138E to 159E, centered on the two western lobes of the Medussae Fossae Formation. All THEMIS-VIS data within this region (478 images) up to the July 2007 release were examined. RCFs were then noted with a location and elevation and put into a database. Where required, THEMIS-VIS images were mosaicked to provide coverage of aerially broad or extensive RCFs and RCF networks. Based on our initial characterizations, we developed a morphological classification scheme to categorize more than 150 RCFs found in this area. The classification scheme includes five types of individual morphologies and five types of network morphologies, which have been cross-correlated, allowing us to determine the most common morphologic combinations. The RCFs range in size from small features, less than 10km in length, to large features spanning several hundred square kilometers. Their location in and around the Amazonian-aged Medusae Fossae Formation suggests that these RCFs formed during the Amazonian epoch, Mars' youngest time-stratigraphic epoch. However, possible clustering of RCFs around the margins of the western Medusae Fossae Formation lobes implies that a significant portion of these features may be located in the time- stratigraphic unit beneath the Medusae Fossae Formation, and therefore may predate the Medusae Fossae Formation. Elevational data derived from gridded Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter (MOLA) topography indicate that these RCFs are located throughout an elevational range spanning ~2300 m, suggesting that, whenever their formation occurred, it occurred over a geologically significant period of time. Current hypotheses for the formation mechanisms of these RCFs include inverted fluvial channels and glaciofluvial eskers. Some association with impact craters is also noted, although the exact nature of that association is still unclear. Continued work will focus on determining the formation mechanisms for each class of RCF and more accurate determination of their time-stratigraphic epoch(s) of formation.

  20. {sup 137}Cs in a raised bog in central Sweden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosen, K. [Department of Soil and Environment, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, SLU, Ulls vag 17, Box 7014, SE-75007, Uppsala (Sweden)], E-mail: klas.rosen@mv.slu.se; Vinichuk, M. [Department of Soil and Environment, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, SLU, Ulls vag 17, Box 7014, SE-75007, Uppsala (Sweden); Department of Ecology, Zhytomyr State Technological University, 103 Cherniakhovsky Str., 10005 Zhytomyr (Ukraine); Johanson, K.J. [Department of Soil and Environment, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, SLU, Ulls vag 17, Box 7014, SE-75007, Uppsala (Sweden)

    2009-07-15

    The vertical distribution of {sup 137}Cs activity in peat soil profiles and {sup 137}Cs activity concentration in plants of various species was studied in samples collected at two sites on a raised bog in central Sweden. One site (open bog) was in an area with no trees and only a few sparsely growing plant species, while the other (low pine) was less than 100 m from the open bog site and had slowly growing Scots pine, a field layer dominated by some ericaceous plants and ground well-covered by plants. The plant samples were collected in 2004-2007 and were compared with samples collected in 1989 from the same open bog and low pine sites. Ground deposition of {sup 137}Cs in 2005 was similar at both sites, 23 000 Bq m{sup -2}. In the open bog peat profile it seems to be an upward transport of caesium since a clear peak of {sup 137}Cs activity was found in the uppermost 1-4 cm of Sphagnum layers, whereas at the low pine site {sup 137}Cs was mainly found in deeper (10-12 cm) layers. The migration rate was 0.57 cm yr{sup -1} at the open bog site and the migration centre of {sup 137}Cs was at a depth of 10.7, while the rate at the low pine site was 0.78 cm yr{sup -1} and the migration centre was at 14.9 cm. Heather (Calluna vulgaris) was the plant species with the highest {sup 137}Cs activity concentrations at both sites, 43.5 k Bq{sup -1} DM in 1989 decreasing to 20.4 in 2004-2007 on open bog and 22.3 k Bq kg{sup -1} DM in 1989 decreasing to 11.2 k Bq{sup -1} DM by the period 2004-2007 on the low pine site. {sup 137}Cs transfer factors in plants varied between 0.88 and 1.35 on the open bog and between 0.48 and 0.69 m{sup 2} kg{sup -1} DM at the low pine site.

  1. Production of antibody fragment (Fab) throughout Escherichia coli fed-batch fermentation process: Changes in titre, location and form of product

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Reza, Jalalirad.

    2013-05-15

    Full Text Available Background: Recombinant proteins, including antibodies and antibody fragments, often contain disulfide bond bridges that are necessary for their folding, stability and function. Production of disulfide-bond-containing proteins in the periplasm of Escherichia coli has been very useful, due to unique [...] characteristics of the periplasm, for obtaining fully active and correctly folded products and for alleviating downstream processing. Results: In this study, fed-batch cultivation of Escherichia coli (E. coli) for production of Fab D1.3, which is an anti-hen egg white lysozyme (HEWL) antibody fragment was carried out at 37ºC, and the bacterial cells were induced by adding 0.1 mM IPTG to the culture medium. Fermentor was sampled over the course of fermentation; the bacterial cells were centrifugally separated from the culture broth and subjected to osmotic shock (with excluding HEWL) and sonication procedures. The resulting fractions were analysed for Fab using a combination of ELISA, SDS-PAGE and Western blotting and changes in product titre, location, and form was assessed throughout growth. It was shown that osmotic shock released the Fab from the periplasm very efficiently and its efficacy was 20-45% more than sonication. This study demonstrates that, at high cell density cultivation in fermentor, target product can appear inside and outside the cells, depending on the time of induction. The maximum amount of Fab (47 mg/l) in the periplasm was reached at 14 hrs cultivation (4 hrs post induction), being suitable time for cell harvest, selective periplasmic extraction and downstream capture. The Fab increasingly leaked into the culture medium, and reached its maximum culture medium titre of ~78 mg/l after 6 hrs post induction. After 16 hrs cultivation (6 hrs post induction) the amount of Fab remained constant in different locations within and outside the cells. Western blot analysis of cell fractions showed that certain amount of the Fab was also produced in the cells as insoluble form. Conclusions: In this work we showed that the production of Fab in the periplasm during high cell density cultivation of E. coli in fermentor can be challenging as the product may appear in various locations within and outside the cells. To exploit the advantages of the periplasmic expression systems for purification in downstream processing, bacterial cells should be harvested when they maintain the majority of the target protein in their periplasmic space (i.e. 4 hrs post induction).

  2. Primary antiphospholipid syndrome: features of patients with raised anticardiolipin antibodies and no other disorder.

    OpenAIRE

    Mackworth-young, C. G.; Loizou, S.; Walport, M. J.

    1989-01-01

    Raised levels of serum antiphospholipid antibodies have most commonly been reported in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). There remains, however, a group of patients with raised antiphospholipid antibody levels who do not have any other well defined disease, but do have clinical features associated with these raised antibodies. The clinical, haematological, and serological features of 20 such patients are reported. Antiphospholipid antibody levels were measured by a solid phase...

  3. The colour of climate : A study of raised bogs in south-central Sweden

    OpenAIRE

    Borgmark, Anders

    2005-01-01

    This thesis focuses on responses in raised bogs to changes in the effective humidity during the Holocene. Raised bogs are terrestrial deposits that can provide contiguous records of past climate changes. Information on and knowledge about past changes in climate is crucial for our understanding of natural climate variability. Analyses on different spatial and temporal scales have been conducted on a number of raised bogs in south-central Sweden in order to gain more knowledge about Holocene c...

  4. Raising public awareness of nuclear science in action

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Department of Training and Consulting was created at the Soltan Institute for Nuclear Studies about 7 years ago. Its main goal consists in dissemination of knowledge of nuclear physics and its applications with special emphasis on the use of radiation in everyday life, its biological effects and the risks connected with the use of nuclear radiation. The second important goal is to counteract social radiophobia. Last but not least, is presentation of the scientific and technological achievements of the Institute. The main target groups are secondary-school teachers and their pupils who in spite of various obstacles in organisation of travels to Otwierk, are coming in mass. During last 4 years we accepted more than 20,000 visitors from all over Poland. In addition to lectures themselves and lectures with experimental demonstrations two permanent exhibitions are displayed permanently. One is called 'Nuclear Wastes: Problems, Solutions', the other one is displaying 1:10 model of nuclear power plant (VVER-440-type), both extremely useful in discussing the problems of nuclear wastes, and organisation and use of the nuclear power plants. Very specific place in the Department is quite unique Laboratory of Atomic and Nuclear Physics, dedicated to secondary schools' students although it is also used by university students and in teachers' trainings. Number of basic experiments from nuclear physics can be carried out by students, so the very basis of atomic and nucleats, so the very basis of atomic and nuclear physics can be learnt on experimental basis. The experimental park can also be used in any professional courses on e.g. radiation protection. The need of having this type of units at the otherwise research institute is clearly seen by the systematically growing number of visitors, and their demands for educational material. One can also see some direct results: the groups who visited our centre were winning in all-Poland conquest for a project from radioactivity (organised on 100th Anniversary of Nobel Prize for Maria Skodowska-Curie), the schools - after visiting us - try to organise their own minisymposia on the radioactivity, the visitors seem to receive proper message about the real risk connected with nuclear radiation. The latter is judged by the fact that very seldom we encounter typical symptoms of radio phobia after the visit to our Department. We are strongly convinced that our work will result in an increased interest of students in physics, and may regain the popularity of nuclear physics among the students. This is necessary if the nuclear energy is going to be developed and used safely in the country. We also believe that similar educational centres, if wherever absent, should be organised in other nuclear centres in Europe and all of them should form a network in which new didactical methods would be worked out and the experience could be easily evaluated and exchanged between the network's partners. The paper presents motivation, present status, methodology and results of our more than 5-years experience in raising public awareness of nuclear problems in various social groups. (author)

  5. Chinese Food Safety: A Case Study of Pig-Raising Industry

    OpenAIRE

    He, Ge; Chen, Minghong

    2012-01-01

    This paper introduces the Shuanghui scandal, which is affected Chinese food safety to some extend. On that base, the causes of the food safety problems in pig-raising industry in China are explained. Finally, some suggestion was presented to improve the safety in china.
    Keywords: Food safety; Pig-raising industry; Chinese agricultural

  6. Factors Associated with the Empowerment of Japanese Families Raising a Child with Developmental Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakimizu, Rie; Fujioka, Hiroshi; Yoneyama, Akira; Iejima, Atsushi; Miyamoto, Shinya

    2011-01-01

    We identified factors associated with the empowerment of Japanese families using the Family Empowerment Scale (FES) to contribute to the improvement of empowerment in Japanese families raising a child with developmental disorders (DDs). The study was conducted in 350 caregivers who raised children aged 4-18 years with DDs in urban and suburban…

  7. Titres of specific antibodies to poliovirus type 3 and tetanus toxoid in saliva and serum of children with recurrent upper respiratory tract infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardinale, F; Gentile, V; Brunetti, L; Hanson, L A; Armenio, L

    2001-02-01

    A study of antibody levels (in saliva and blood) against common vaccine antigens was performed in a population of 32 children suffering from recurrent upper respiratory tract infections (URTI). None of the patients had primary or secondary immunodeficiency syndromes or other known predisposing factors for respiratory diseases. Titres of the isotype-specific antibodies immunoglobulin A (IgA), immunoglobulin M (IgM), and immunoglobulin G (IgG) against two vaccine antigens--poliovirus type 3 (P3) and tetanus toxoid (TT), a viral antigen and a bacterial antigen, respectively--were measured in unstimulated saliva and serum, both in patients and in 24 healthy children (controls), by using a standard enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). In addition, levels of total IgA and avidity of IgA antibodies to both P3 and TT in saliva were evaluated. No difference was found between patients and controls as to levels of total IgA, or specific IgA and IgM antibodies against both P3 and TT in saliva. Furthermore, the avidity of salivary IgA antibodies against the two antigens did not differ between the two populations. However, the average concentrations of saliva-specific IgG antibodies to both the viral and the bacterial antigen were significantly lower (p <0.01 for P3 and p <0.05 for TT, respectively) in saliva of children with recurrent URTI, whereas no difference was found in serum for any immunoglobulin isotype determined compared with healthy individuals. The results of the present study provide suggestive evidence for the existence of subtle IgG-restricted defects in antibody responses at the mucosal level, but not at the serum level, in some children with undue susceptibility to URTI. PMID:11251864

  8. Raising Generation Tech Preparing Your Children for a Media-Fueled World

    CERN Document Server

    Taylor, Jim

    2012-01-01

    Today's children are being raised as 'digital natives' in a world dominated by popular culture and technology. TV shows, computers, video games, social networking sites, advertisements, and cell phones too often have an unnecessarily strong-and negative? influence on children.  But pulling the plug just isn't an option in a world where being connected is essential for success. In Raising Generation Tech,  noted parenting and new-media expert Dr. Jim Taylor explores how popular culture and technology shape children's lives. The essential message from Raising Generation Tech is that excessive

  9. Parents? experiences of raising pre-school aged children in an outer-Melbourne growth corridor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, Fiona Jane; Rich, Stephanie; Stockdale, Rebecca; Shelley, Julia

    2014-05-01

    There is growing concern about the outer-suburbs in Australia as healthy places to raise children. This paper aimed to explore this from the perspectives of parents raising preschool-age children in an outer-Melbourne municipality. Findings showed that parents were positive about the natural environment as well as the provision of recreation areas and generally felt their neighbourhoods were a safe place for raising children. However, car-dependency, housing estate design and limited local job opportunities all appeared to contribute to social isolation amongst families. Using the Environments for Health Framework, this paper makes suggestions to improve liveability for families in this municipality. PMID:24681970

  10. Mercury in Seafood May Raise Risk of Autoimmune Diseases in Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Mercury in Seafood May Raise Risk of Autoimmune Diseases ... February 10, 2015 Related MedlinePlus Pages Autoimmune Diseases Mercury Women's Health TUESDAY, Feb. 10, 2015 (HealthDay News) -- ...

  11. Captive spider monkeys (Ateles geoffroyi) arm-raise to solicit allo-grooming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheel, Matthew H; Edwards, Dori

    2012-03-01

    Old World monkeys solicit allo-grooming from conspecifics. However, there are relatively few studies of allo-grooming among spider monkeys, and descriptions of allo-grooming solicitation among spider monkeys are anecdotal. In this study, eighty-one hours of video, shot over eight weeks, captured 271 allo-grooming bouts among small groups of captive spider monkeys. Six of eight monkeys made heretofore unreported arm-raises that solicited higher than normal rates of allo-grooming. Allo-grooming bout durations following arm-raises also tended to be longer than bouts not preceded by arm-raises. The efficacy of the arm-raise at soliciting allo-grooming suggests spider monkeys are capable of intentional communication. PMID:22206992

  12. Raising the level of radioresistance of cultivated plants seeds by using natural antioxidant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Investigations showed possibility of raising radioresistance and viability (Liupinus angustifolius, Hordeum vulgare, Triticum aestivum) seeds by using natural antioxidant (aqueous solution of extraction of Urtica Dioica) which inhibit lipid peroxidation and protein protection

  13. Taiwan's plan to dispose of nuclear waste in North Korea stirs protests, raises questions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As the furor raised by the Taiwan endash North Korea deal illustrates, the technical issues of nuclear waste disposal are inseparable from the social and political concerns.copyright 1997 American Institute of Physics

  14. Early Onset Hot Flashes May Point to Raised Heart Disease Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Early Onset Hot Flashes May Point to Raised Heart Disease Risk Studies found that the daily frequency of ... Preidt Thursday, March 5, 2015 Related MedlinePlus Pages Heart Disease in Women Menopause THURSDAY, March 3, 2015 (HealthDay ...

  15. Weight-Loss Surgery May Lower Some Pregnancy Complications, Raise Others

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Weight-Loss Surgery May Lower Some Pregnancy Complications, Raise ... Fetal Health and Development Health Problems in Pregnancy Weight Loss Surgery WEDNESDAY, Feb. 25, 2015 (HealthDay News) -- ...

  16. Report of geophysical raising of the amethyst and agate in two quarries in Artigas district Uruguay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In a geophysical raising of amethyst and agate was studied the possibility to apply a better suitable geophysical method. The conclusion was that the electromagnetic VLF method was suitable to identify the zones.

  17. Severe Hot Flashes During Menopause May Raise Hip Fracture Risk Later

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page, please enable JavaScript. Severe Hot Flashes During Menopause May Raise Hip Fracture Risk Later: Study Researchers ... MedlinePlus Pages Bone Density Hip Injuries and Disorders Menopause THURSDAY, Dec. 18, 2014 (HealthDay News) -- A new ...

  18. Grandparents Raising Grandchildren in the United States: Changing Family Forms, Stagnant Social Policies

    OpenAIRE

    Baker, Lindsey A.; Silverstein, Merril; Putney, Norella M.

    2008-01-01

    As a consequence of increased divorce rates, the proliferation of single-parent families, and patterns of economic stagnation, parents are increasingly relying on extended family to care for children. In the past few decades, a substantial increase in the number of grandparents raising grandchildren has been observed within the United States. Grandparents who raise their grandchildren are particularly vulnerable, as are the grandchildren in their care; however, U.S. policy currently presents ...

  19. Business models for media firms :does competition matter for how they raise revenue?

    OpenAIRE

    Kind, Hans Jarle; Nilssen, Tore; Sørgard, Lars

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to analyze how competitive forces may influence the way media firms like TV channels raise revenue. A media firm can either be financed by advertising revenue, by direct payment from the viewers (or the readers, if we consider newspapers), or by both. We show that the scope for raising revenues from consumer payment is constrained by other media firms offering close substitutes. This implies that the less differentiated the media firms content, the larger is the...

  20. Business models for media firms : does competition matter for how they raise revenue?

    OpenAIRE

    Kind, Hans Jarle; Nilssen, Tore; Sørgard, Lars

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to analyze how competitive forces may influence the way media firms like TV channels raise revenue. A media firm can either be financed by advertising revenue, by direct payment from the viewers (or the readers, if we consider newspapers), or by both. We show that the scope for raising revenues from consumer payment is constrained by other media firms offering close substitutes. This implies that the less differentiated the media firms' content, the larger is th...

  1. Chinese Food Safety: A Case Study of Pig-Raising Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ge HE

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available

    This paper introduces the Shuanghui scandal, which is affected Chinese food safety to some extend. On that base, the causes of the food safety problems in pig-raising industry in China are explained. Finally, some suggestion was presented to improve the safety in china.
    Keywords: Food safety; Pig-raising industry; Chinese agricultural

  2. Status of tuberculosis in bovine animals raised by tuberculosis infected patients in Western Chitwan, Nepal

    OpenAIRE

    Ip, Dhakal; Kr, Pandey; Subedi S; Sadaula A; Kc, G.; Dhakal S; Pandey G

    2012-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Bovine tuberculosis (bTB) is an important public health concern worldwide. This study was conducted to determine the status of bTB in animals raised by tuberculosis patients in Western Chitwan, Nepal.MATERIALS AND METHODS: This cross-sectional study was conducted from August, 2011 to January, 2012. A total of 100 bovines (cattle and buffalo) raised in 60 farms of tuberculosis patients were tested with single intradermal tuberculin test considering various animal factors. Well de...

  3. Competition between Sphagnum mosses in European raised bogs : the effect of a changing climate

    OpenAIRE

    Robroek, B. J. M.

    2007-01-01

    Sphagnum mosses are key-stone species in European raised bogs, and as such play an important role in the functioning of the ecosystem and its response to environmental change. Within Sphagnum, species may vary widely in their characteristics, making the identity of the dominant Sphagnum species an important factor explaining ecosystem response. We conducted several glasshouse and field studies, aimed at investigating how the main Sphagnum species in European raised bog respond to changes in c...

  4. The revenue raising capabilities of a VAT system in developing countries

    OpenAIRE

    Azaria, N. T.; Robinson, Zurika; Robinson, Z. Clausen

    2005-01-01

    The paper attempts to elaborate on the revenue-raising capabilities (economic efficiency and viability) of a value-added tax (VAT) system, particularly in developing countries. The analysis concentrates on the effect of a VAT on tax revenues raised, and the main objective is to determine whether a VAT system generates greater benefits than previously-utilised sales taxes, i.e. pre-existing sales taxes (PEST). Using a panel data regression analysis, our results indicate that while all countrie...

  5. Falsely raised TSH levels due to human anti?mouse antibody interfering with thyrotropin assay

    OpenAIRE

    Krishnan, S. G. S.; Pathalapati, R.; Kaplan, L.

    2006-01-01

    The case of a 39?year?old woman who was referred for weight gain and amenorrhoea is reported. Laboratory evaluation showed high levels of thyroid?stimulating hormone (TSH). The patient was started on increasing doses of levothyroxine for subclinical hypothyroidism. TSH remained persistently raised and the patient became thyrotoxic. Evaluation at another laboratory showed normal levels of TSH, raising the possibility of interfering substances. TSH levels were normalised with the addition...

  6. Raising tibet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, T M; Copeland, P; Kidd, W S; Yin, A

    1992-03-27

    Thermochronologic, sedimentologic, oceanographic, and paleoclimatic studies suggest that rapid uplift and unroofing of southern Tibet began about 20 million years ago and that the present elevation of much of the Tibetan plateau was attained by about 8 million years ago. Hypotheses advanced to explain the tectonic evolution of the India-Asia collision, which began about 40 to 50 million years ago, predict the timing and rates of crustal thickening of the southern margin of Asia. However, these models do not predict the prominently enhanced early Miocene denudation and uplift that are manifested in a variety of geological records. A model involving continental extrusion, development of a crustal-scale thrust ramp of the Main Central Thrust beneath the Gangdese belt, and lithospheric delamination provides a history consistent with these observations. PMID:17749419

  7. Potential limitations for potato yields in raised soil field systems near Lake Titicaca

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lozada Diego Sánchez de

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available During the last two decades, various non-governmental organizations have strongly encouraged Bolivian farmers in the Altiplano region near Lake Titicaca to resume the ancestral agricultural practice of constructing raised fields. In addition to improved drainage and possibilities this practice affords for sub-irrigation, advocated benefits of this system traditionally include frost mitigation and high crop yields. Until recently, reliable data to assess the extent of these benefits were unfortunately lacking. In this context, field experiments on raised fields were designed and carried out at two locations in the Bolivian Altiplano to obtain reliable potato yield and temperature data. Observed yields ranged from 2.73 to 10.80 t ha-1 at the first site, where salinity caused significant yield variability (R² = 0.79. At the second site, yields per raised platform varied between 8.25 and 33.45 t ha-1. However, comparable yields were obtained in flat control plots in spite of a mid-season frost, and the minimum temperatures differed only by 1ºC in the conventional plots relative to the raised fields. These results suggest that, under the experimental conditions, the potential benefits of raised fields in terms of frost mitigation or increased yields might only be observable in exceptionally bad years, when extreme frosts wipe out entire potato crops on conventional fields. Nevertheless, it is argued that in spite of these marginally supportive observations, raised-field agriculture may still be a viable option for farmers to consider if the water-filled channels between the raised fields are managed for fish and fertilizer production.

  8. Similarities between female meadow voles mating during post-partum oestrus and raising two concurrent litters and females raising only one litter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    del Barco-Trillo, Javier; Ferkin, Michael H

    2006-01-01

    In many species of small mammals, females undergo post-partum oestrus soon after delivering a litter, becoming pregnant while suckling the previous litter. Females raising two concurrent litters need to allocate many more resources to reproduction than females raising only one litter. Consequently, there may be differences between litters raised concurrently or singly. We investigated this issue in the meadow vole, Microtus pennsylvanicus, a species in which most females in the wild reproduce during post-partum oestrus. Specifically, we tested the hypothesis that the development of pups in two concurrent litters differs from that of pups in a single litter. To test this hypothesis, we measured the following variables for concurrent and singly reared litters: gestation length; litter size; sex ratio; bodyweight of males and females at different ages; total litter weight at weaning; growth rates; and intra-litter variation in body mass. Except for bodyweight of males at 60 days of age, which was higher in the first of the concurrent litters, none of the variables differed among the litters. These results indicate that females are able to adjust to differing loads of maternal care to provide equivalent resources to concurrent litters and singly reared litters. PMID:17032583

  9. Raised fields in the Llanos de Moxos, Bolivia - description and analysis of their morphology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Leonor; Lombardo, Umberto; Veit, Heinz

    2014-05-01

    The disturbance of Pre Columbian populations on Amazonian ecosystems is being actively debated. The traditional view of amazon being an untouched landscape because of its poor soils and harsh climate has been challenged and the extreme opposite idea of highly modified landscapes with complex societies is growing. Recent research has led to new impulses and issues requesting about the agricultural strategies people developed to survive in this climate. The Llanos de Moxos, situated in the Bolivian Lowlands in south-eastern Amazonia is one important region which was densely altered and where a great variety of earthworks can be found. One of the most impressive earth works are the raised fields, which are earth platforms for cultivation of differing shape and dimension that are elevated above the landscapes natural surface. In contrast to the "terra preta" formation where artefacts and amendments like charcoal and kitchen waste have been clearly identified, raised fields have shown to be artefact poor and studies up till now couldn't find any evidence of additional amendments which could have improved soil quality in the long term. As a result the function and productivity of raised fields is still not well understood and is being actively discussed. Detailed investigations on raised fields located in the indigenous community of Bermeo, in the vicinity of San Ignacio de Moxos provides data showing a novel explanation of the Pre-Columbian management of raised fields, and a chronological sequence of their utilization and abandonment. OSL dating has shown that the raised fields had been in use since as early as 600 AD. Comparison of Geochemistry with a reference profile, away from raised fields, showed that there is no evidence for manure amendments deriving from kitchen waste or animal residues suggesting a rather extensive use of those fields. Complementary the description of intern morphology and laboratory analysis of this raised fields, combined with radiocarbon dating of charcoal, points towards separate periods of management and use, indicating temporarily cultivation similar to shifting cultivation. This finding supports the idea that the construction of raised fields in the llanos de Moxos could have resulted from the need to extend the cultivation ground by draining land which is flooded during the rainy season.

  10. Irreligious Socialization? The Adult Religious Preferences of Individuals Raised with No Religion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen M. Merino

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent birth cohorts of Americans are more likely than previous cohorts to be raised outside of a religious tradition. In addition, those raised with no religion are increasingly likely to have no religious preference as adults. Despite their growing numbers, individuals raised with no religion have received little attention from scholars. The adult religious preferences of these individuals provide researchers with a unique opportunity to test theories of religion and social change. Using General Social Survey data, I examine the adult religious preferences and beliefs of individuals raised with no religion. I provide evidence of a shift in socialization and social influences experienced by those who report growing up with no religion. Compared with earlier cohorts raised with no religion, more recent cohorts have had more secular upbringings and tend to be more secular, liberal, and wary of organized religion as adults. They are also more likely to have a religiously unaffiliated spouse, if they marry at all. Results from a logistic regression analysis indicate that these trends explain much of the cohort differences in the likelihood of remaining unaffiliated as an adult.

  11. The water balance as an approach to assessing groundwater dependency in raised bog wetlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regan, Shane

    2014-05-01

    The management of raised bogs, as active peat-forming ecosystems, requires an understanding of the relationships between regional hydrology and wetland ecohydrological processes. Marginal drainage, sphagnum moss species. In undisturbed bog systems the recharge rate of water seeping through the bog body to the regional groundwater table is in the order of 40 mm/ year. The downward seepage rate in Clara is > 100 mm/ year. A reduction in pore water pressure, due to drainage of the regional groundwater table, has disturbed the structure of the peat substratum and induced water loss from peat storage, resulting in the ecohydrological modification of the bog surface. Numerical modelling of a simulated raised groundwater table reduces the leakage rate to between 30 and 50 mm/ year. The significance is that the hydraulic gradient of the regional groundwater table is an important environmental supporting condition in raised bog ecosystems, implying indirect groundwater dependence.

  12. Management of raised blood pressure in New Zealand: a discussion document.

    OpenAIRE

    Jackson, R.; Barham, P.; Bills, J.; Birch, T.; Mclennan, L.; Macmahon, S.; Maling, T.

    1993-01-01

    A report to the National Advisory Committee on Core Health and Disability Support Services, New Zealand, on the management of raised blood pressure recommends that decisions to treat raised blood pressure should be based primarily on the estimated absolute risk of cardiovascular disease rather than on blood pressure alone. In general, patients with a blood pressure of 150-170 mm Hg systolic or 90-100 mm Hg diastolic, or both, should be given treatment to lower blood pressure if the risk of a ...

  13. Obtaining raised density connections by thermosonic microwelding in 3D integrated microcircuits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lanin V. L.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The authors consider the processes of obtaining raised density microwelded connections in 3D-integrated microcircuits by the thermosonic microwelding. The processes include the use of the raised frequencies of ultrasound, application of the microinstrument with a thinning of the working end and precision devices for ball formation, which provide reproducibility of connections quality. At a small step of contact pads, the use of a wire of small diameter (not more than 25 µm is necessary for devices with a multilevel arrangement of leads and chess arrangement of contact pads on the chip, providing the maximum length of the formed crosspieces does not exceed 4—5 mm.

  14. A study on a systematic method for evaluating values of raised concerns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this study is to develop a methodology that can externalise potential concerns and evaluate the values of the concerns raised in corporations. By implementing this methodology into corporate governance, it is expected to improve the work environment and enhance the capability for the corporate governance through supporting the internal autonomic purification. This study comprises of: case studies of past wrongdoings in corporations such as JCO and Tokyo Electric Power Company (TEPCO); identifying the viewpoints for evaluating values of raised concerns; developing a model to evaluate the values. (author)

  15. Dermatomyositis presenting with symptomatic dermographism and raised troponin T: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahim Kartini F

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Dermatomyositis is an important inflammation of skin and muscles. Generalised itch is frequent in the condition; however, symptomatic dermographism has not previously been reported as a presenting feature. Case presentation A 32-year-old Caucasian Scottish woman was diagnosed with dermatomyositis after initial presentation with symptomatic dermographism. No underlying neoplasm was found and her condition was successfully treated with systemic corticosteroids and high-dose human immunoglobulin infusions. At presentation, her troponin T and creatine phosphokinase enzymes were highly raised. Conclusion Symptomatic dermographism may be a presenting feature of dermatomyositis. Dermatomyositis is one of many conditions that can result in a raised troponin T.

  16. Elucidating the mechanism behind the lipid-raising effect of cafestol

    OpenAIRE

    Boekschoten, M. V.

    2004-01-01

    The objective of this thesis was to identify genes that control the response of serum lipid levels to diet. To this end we used cafestol as model substance for a food component that affects serum lipids and therefore health. Cafestol is a cholesterol?raising diterpene present in coffee beans and unfiltered coffee types.A possible explanation for the cholesterol-raising effect of cafestol is inhibition of bile acid synthesis. This is observed in APOE3Leiden mice upon treatment with cafestol....

  17. Different and Wonderful: Raising Black Children in a Race-Conscious Society.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopson, Darlene Powell; Hopson, Derek S.

    This book offers practical guidance to black parents on how to raise children with positive racial identities and self-identities. Part 1 explains the development of racial identity in the various phases of childhood as it is fostered in the family. Part 2 discusses how to help children navigate the larger world during the school years and beyond.…

  18. Material Hardship in U.S. Families Raising Children with Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parish, Susan L.; Rose, Roderick A.; Grinstein-Weiss, Michal; Richman, Erica L.; Andrews, Megan E.

    2008-01-01

    Researchers analyzed the 2002 wave of the National Survey of America's Families, conducted by the Urban Institute and Child Trends, and examined material hardship in families raising children with disabilities. Measures of hardship included food insecurity, housing instability, health care access, and telephone disconnection. The research…

  19. Food and drug administration regulation of drugs that raise blood pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blankfield, Robert P; Iftikhar, Imran H

    2015-01-01

    Although it is recognized that a systolic blood pressure (SBP) increase ? 2 mm Hg or a diastolic blood pressure (DBP) increase ? 1 mm Hg increases the risk of heart attacks and strokes in middle-aged adults, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) lacks an adequate policy for regulating medications that increase blood pressure (BP). Some FDA reviewers consider a clinically significant increase in BP to occur only if a drug raises SBP ? 20 mm Hg or if a drug raises DBP ? 10 to 15 mm Hg. In recent years, numerous drugs have been regulated or taken off the market due to cardiovascular safety concerns. The list includes rofecoxib (Vioxx), valdecoxib (Bextra), nonselective nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, sibutramine (Meridia), and phenylpropanolamine. It is probable that the hypertensive effect of these drugs explains why they increase the risk of adverse cardiovascular events. Other drugs, notably serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors and drugs used to treat attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, were approved without cardiovascular safety data despite the fact that they raise BP comparable to valdecoxib and sibutramine. It is the responsibility of the FDA to ensure that drugs are properly labeled regarding risk. Even if a drug raises BP only modestly, FDA guidelines for new drug approvals should include a requirement for cardiovascular safety data. However, such guidelines will not address the problem of how to obtain cardiovascular safety data for the many already approved drugs that increase BP. The FDA should play a role in obtaining cardiovascular safety data for such drugs. PMID:24803642

  20. The relative contribution of edema and hemorrhage to raised intrathecal pressure after traumatic spinal cord injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonard, Anna V; Thornton, Emma; Vink, Robert

    2015-03-15

    Raised intrathecal pressure (ITP) after traumatic spinal cord injury (SCI) is a critically important aspect of injury development that may result in significantly greater tissue damage and worsened functional outcome. Raised ITP is caused by the accumulation of blood and/or water (edema), and while their occurrence after traumatic SCI has been well established, the relative contribution of both processes to the development of ITP after SCI has not yet been determined. Accordingly, the current study investigates the temporal profile of raised ITP after traumatic SCI in relation to both hemorrhage and edema development. A closed balloon compression injury was induced at T10 in New Zealand White rabbits. Animals were thereafter assessed for spinal water content (edema), ITP, lesion and hemorrhage volume, and albumin immunoreactivity from 5?h to 1 week post-SCI. Early increases in ITP at 5?h post-injury were associated with significant increases in blood volume. ITP, however, was maximal at 3 days post-SCI, at which time there was an associated significant increase in edema that persisted for 1 week. We conclude that raised ITP after traumatic SCI is initially driven by volumetric increases in hemorrhage, while edema becomes the primary driver of ITP at 3 days post-injury. PMID:25111333

  1. Ruled by Hetero-Norms? Raising Some Moral Questions for Teachers in South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhana, Deevia

    2014-01-01

    Thirty-eight countries in Africa regard homosexuality as punishable by law with South Africa remaining a standout country advancing constitutional equality on the basis of sexual orientation. In the context of homophobic violence, however, concerns have been raised about schools' potential to improve the educational, moral and social outcomes…

  2. Gift Club Programs: A Survey of How 44 Institutions Raise Money.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peirce, Susan P.

    This publication addresses fund raising gift clubs and presents reprinted articles on the topic and the results of a survey of gift club programs and techniques at higher education institutions and independent elementary and secondary schools. Gift clubs are programs that motivate donors to give more generously by recognizing those who give at…

  3. Strategy for Fund Raising When You Are the New Kid on the Block.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danbury, Carla

    1981-01-01

    Presents fund-raising strategies used by the Houston Community College system. Describes solutions to problems of lack of college awareness and gaining corporate support. Considers the establishment of foundations affiliated with, but not part of, the college and the use of alumni and private sector contributions and federal inner city renewal…

  4. Raising Children in Chinese Immigrant Families: Evidence from the Research Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Karen

    2006-01-01

    Children of Chinese culture are raised differently from children of other cultural groups. There is research evidence which contends that, regardless of where they live, the child-rearing practices within Chinese immigrant families are still influenced by Chinese traditional culture. Some studies also point out that Chinese immigrant parents…

  5. Evaluation of Preparatory Measures for Coping with Anxiety Raised by Media Coverage of Terrorism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slone, Michelle; Shoshani, Anat

    2006-01-01

    This study examines effects of television broadcasts of terrorism on viewers' anxiety and raises suggestions for 2 intervention strategies to moderate elevated anxiety. Participants were 120 young Israeli adults randomly allocated to a terrorism or a nonterrorism television broadcast and assigned to 1 of 3 intervention conditions prior to…

  6. Rotating Night Shift Work May Raise Risks of Heart Disease, Lung Cancer: Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Rotating Night Shift Work May Raise Risks of Heart Disease, Lung Cancer: Study Research can't prove cause- ... Tuesday, January 6, 2015 Related MedlinePlus Pages Cancer Heart Diseases Occupational Health MONDAY, Jan. 5, 2015 (HealthDay News) -- ...

  7. Recurrent Attacks of Raised Intracranial Pressure in Case of Tuberculous Arachnoiditis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. O. Ameli

    1960-01-01

    Full Text Available A ase of recurre'nt raised interacranial pressure is described. At operation posterio-rcfossa arachnoiditis was found. Histological examination suggested a Tuberculous etiology. Four months after the operation she died from an apparently acute tuberculoua meningiti

  8. A Hands-On Activity to Raise Awareness about Healthy Sun Exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    João Fonseca, Maria; Costa, Patrício; Lencastre, Leonor; Tavares, Fernando

    2015-01-01

    Excessive exposure to solar ultraviolet (UV) radiation causes sunburn and has been consistently associated with increased susceptibility to melanoma and skin ageing. Acknowledging the need to promote healthy sun exposure habits, numerous educational initiatives have been developed to raise public awareness towards this issue. However, studies…

  9. Microbiological quality of ground beef from conventionally-reared cattle and "raised without antibiotics" label claims.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeJeune, Jeffrey T; Christie, Nicholas P

    2004-07-01

    The contamination of the food supply with pathogens and antimicrobial-resistant bacteria has emerged as an important health concern. We compared the microbiological quality of 77 samples of ground beef from conventionally raised cattle with 73 samples of ground beef from cattle raised without antimicrobial agents. Contamination with coliforms (1.7 log CFU/g) and Escherichia coli (0.51 log CFU/g) and Shiga toxin 2-producing E. coli (6% prevalence) was similar in both sample groups. Neither Salmonella. E. coli O157, nor vancomycin-resistant enterococci were isolated from any sample. Prevalence of E. coli resistant to ampicillin (39%), amoxicillin/clavulanic acid (23%), ceftriaxone (5%), tetracycline (19%), streptomycin (19%), kanamycin (11%), sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim (2%), and gentamicin (1%) was similar in both groups. E. coli resistant to ciprofloxacin was not identified. Resistance to ceftiofur and chloramphenicol was more prevalent in beef from conventionally raised cattle at 18 and 30%, respectively, compared to 5 and 12% prevalence in beef from cattle raised without antimicrobial agents. These results do not correlate with the frequency of subtherapeutic use of these two antibiotics in beef production. Other factors in addition to, or in lieu of, the subtherapeutic use of specific antimicrobial agents in the preharvest stages of beef production may contribute significantly to the occurrence of antimicrobial-resistant bacteria in ground beef. PMID:15270497

  10. 137Cs deposition in peat profiles on a raised bog in central Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Distribution of 137Cs depositions within peat profiles in open bog and nearby (low pine) sites in raised bog are shown and discussed. A possible involvement of Sphagnum moss in radionuclide binding and retention in such nutrient poor ecosystem is suggested. (au)

  11. 137Cs deposition in peat profiles on a raised bog in central Sweden; Forests ecosystems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosen, K.; Vinichuk, M.; Galan, P.R.; Johanson, K.J. (Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Dept. of Soil Sciences, Uppsala (Sweden))

    2009-06-15

    Distribution of 137Cs depositions within peat profiles in open bog and nearby (low pine) sites in raised bog are shown and discussed. A possible involvement of Sphagnum moss in radionuclide binding and retention in such nutrient poor ecosystem is suggested. (au)

  12. Murder-suicide involving BC doctor raises troubling questions about euthanasia.

    OpenAIRE

    Wilson, V.

    1995-01-01

    The deaths last September of a British Columbia physician and his wife have raised troubling questions about euthanasia and Alzheimer's disease. Police described the deaths of Dr. Tom Powell and his wife Dr. Lorraine Miles, a retired dentist, as a murder-suicide. Friends of the couple wonder if more lenient laws concerning euthanasia and assisted suicide might have saved Miles' life.

  13. Flap raising on pulsatile perfused cadaveric tissue: a novel method for surgical teaching and exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolff, Klaus-Dietrich; Fichter, Andreas; Braun, Christian; Bauer, Florian; Humbs, Martin

    2014-10-01

    Exercising flap raising procedures on cadavers is considered a prerequisite to prepare for clinical practise. To improve teaching and create conditions as realistic as possible, a perfusion device was developed providing pulsatile flow through the vessels of different donor sites. A plastic bag filled with red stained tab water was placed into a pump, which was driven by an electric motor. The bag was set under rhythmic compression with variable frequency and pressure. The pedicles of the radial forearm, anterolateral thigh, rectus abdominis, fibular and iliac crest flap were cannulated at the origin from their source arteries. Flap raising was performed under pulsatile perfusion in 15 fresh bodies and subsequently in 6 Thiel-embalmed cadavers during a flap raising course. We regularly observed staining of the skin and skin bleeding in fresh bodies and less reliable in embalmed cadavers. All flap pedicles showed pulsatile movements, and the radial pulse became palpable. Most perforators of the anterolateral thigh and osteocutaneous fibular flap could be identified by their pulse. Bleeding from bony tissue and venous return was seldom observed. We conclude that pulsatile perfusion of cadaveric tissue creates more realistic conditions for flap raising and improves teaching for beginners and advanced surgeons. PMID:24938642

  14. Awareness-Raising in the TEFL Phonology Classroom: Student Voices and Sociocultural and Psychological Considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lawrence Jun

    2004-01-01

    This paper reports on two phases of a study of a group of advanced TEFL (teachers-of-English-as-a-foreign-language) students. To raise their awareness of the importance of discourse intonation while they were receiving teacher training, this study focuses on examining their sociocultural and psychological inclinations in the choice of phonological…

  15. Thermo-hydraulic analysis for SCWR during power-raising phase of startup

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The study of thermal characteristics during startup is one of the most important aspects for safety analysis of supercritical water-cooled reactor (SCWR). According to the given sliding pressure mode of SCWR, thermal analysis on temperature-raising phase and power-raising phase of startup are carried out. Considering the radial heterogeneity of power distribution,thermal characteristics for different assemblies during startup are also put forward. The results show that,during temperature-raising phase with core power increased only, the temperature of moderator, coolant and fuel cladding in inner assemblies are increased with little amplitude. During power-raising phase with core power and feed-water flow rate increased, the coolant temperature keeps unchanged, but the moderator temperature is decreased. With a greater variation of power, fuel cladding temperature shows a greater increase. Furthermore, considering the uneven distribution of radial power, thermo-hydraulic characteristics with uneven cladding temperature distribution shows a certain horizontal heterogeneity for different fuel assemblies, which becomes serious as flow rate and power increase. By adjusting flow rate distribution in different fuel assemblies or changing power setting during startup, the cladding temperature difference could be effectively reduced, which provides a certain reference for startup optimization of SCWR. (authors)

  16. Educational Fund Raising: Principles and Practice. American Council on Education Series on Higher Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worth, Michael J., Ed.

    This volume offers 36 papers on higher education fundraising. Major topics treated are the development function, foundations of fund raising, annual giving, major gifts, campaigns, corporate and foundation support, special constituencies, managing development programs, special considerations for institutions, and special considerations for the…

  17. Math, Science, and Web-Based Activities to Raise Awareness about Nutrition and Obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuercher, Deborah K.

    2011-01-01

    The incidence of child obesity in the United States is increasing at an alarming rate. This article provides information about nutrition, obesity, and related health conditions and suggests some classroom activities to raise awareness about these issues and empower students to live healthier, more active lives. A list of recommended health-related…

  18. Navigating Interdependence: How Adolescents Raised Solely by Grandparents Experience Their Family Relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolbin-MacNab, Megan L.; Keiley, Margaret K.

    2009-01-01

    This study examined how adolescents raised solely by grandparents navigated their relationships with their parents and grandparents and how these relationships were influenced by the caregiving context. Forty-one adolescents participated in qualitative, semistructured interviews. Findings suggest that relationships with parents were primarily…

  19. A RAISE Specification Framework and Justification assistant for the Duration Calculus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haxthausen, Anne Elisabeth; Xia, Yong

    1998-01-01

    RAISE is a product consisting of a development method, an associated formal specification language (RSL) and a collection of computer-based tools. RAISE has turned out to be useful in the development of many kinds of software systems.However, RSL has no ``real-time'' features, and hence, it is difficult to specify real-time applications using RSL. The Duration Calculus (DC) is aformalism which can be used for that. However, DC is ``just'' a logic,and for practical purposes it would be nice to have a richer language providing modules, facilities for declaring symbols to beused in DC formulas etc. The goal of our work is two-fold:(1) to extend RSL with real-time features, and (2) to provide a specification language and tools support (e.g. a syntax and type checker, a justification assistant, etc.) for DC. A first step towards this goal, could be to combine DC and RSL achieving the power of both.So far, we have encoded DC in RSL and set up a proof assistant tool to verify (encoded) DC formulas using the RAISE Justification tools. This paper first introduces a RAISE specification framework for DC, and then explains how the justification assistant is set up.

  20. Does Raising the State Compulsory School Attendance Age Achieve the Intended Outcomes? REL 2014-005

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackey, Philip E.; Duncan, Teresa G.

    2013-01-01

    Maryland recently raised its compulsory school attendance age from 16 to 18 in two stages: from 16 to 17 at the beginning of the 2014-15 school year and from 17 to 18 at the beginning of the 2016-17 school year (Maryland Senate Bill 362, 2012). The Maryland State Department of Education, a member of Regional Educational Laboratory…

  1. Noise, What Noise? Raising Awareness of Auditory Health among Future Primary-School Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jimenez-Tejada, M. -P.; Hodar, J. A.; Gonzalez-Garcia, F.

    2012-01-01

    We study the perception of acoustic contamination and its deleterious effects on students preparing to become school teachers and analyse their acoustic habits, with the aim of raising their awareness concerning this problem. We designed a number of activities, applied during a practical lesson, in which students evaluated some of their…

  2. Materialistic Aspects of Raising Resource of Pressurized Water Reactors for Low-Power Nuclear Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The opportunity of using ships reactors for low-power nuclear plants is considered. Some aspects of working constructional materials on cases of water-water reactors of ships nuclear units are considered. Advantages of raising resource of ships reactors are shown

  3. Firearms law raises issue of MDs' duty to predict and report potentially violent patients.

    OpenAIRE

    Capen, K.

    1995-01-01

    The possibility that an amendment to new firearms legislation would require physicians to report potentially violent patients raises the controversial issues of physicians' legal duty to warn and the ability of physicians and other health care professionals to predict violent behaviour. For these reasons, it will be necessary to follow carefully any proposed amendments to the legislation.

  4. Repigmentation of extensive inflammatory vitiligo with raised borders using early and aggressive treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunasekera, Nicole; Murphy, George F; Sheth, Vaneeta M

    2015-01-01

    In?ammatory vitiligo with raised borders (IVRB) is a rare subtype of vitiligo described as having a rim of raised erythema at the periphery of the depigmented patches. The etiology is poorly understood, and there are few reports of successful treatment of the condition in the literature. We report a 38-year-old South Asian male who presented with diffuse depigmented macules and patches surrounded by blue-gray rims involving a large body surface area. Light microscopy revealed inflammatory vitiligo. He was treated with 2 courses of oral prednisone and whole-body narrow-band ultraviolet B (NB-UVB) therapy, which resulted in cessation of disease spread as well as substantial repigmentation. Our observation suggests that early and aggressive treatment can lead to significant and rapid improvement in patients with IVRB. PMID:25413601

  5. Monitoring and performance analysis of AGR boilers during commissioning and power raising

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The installed boiler plant, for two 1300 MW AGR stations, is comprehensively instrumented for boiler control, performance assessment and component monitoring to ensure the integrity and safe operation of the plant during normal and faulty operating conditions. Plant instrumentation and computer systems installed at site for vibration analysis during the engineering runs and data acquisition during the power raising stage have been described. The results, from early rig investigations and the vibration testing during the unfueled engineering runs, indicate that the behaviour of the plant within the practical range of operating conditions is free from vibration problems. Also the analysis of the steady state thermal and hydrodynamic behaviour of the boiler plant during the power raising phase confirms the methods and computer models used for the boiler design. (author)

  6. The needs and use of programs by service providers working with grandparents raising grandchildren.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fruhauf, Christine A; Pevney, Brooke; Bundy-Fazioli, Kimberly

    2015-03-01

    Grandparents who raise grandchildren often need support services. Yet, little is known about what service providers' need in order to better serve grandparents. As a result, qualitative methods were used to understand service providers' views about programs and services they use when assisting grandparents raising grandchildren. We conducted telephone interviews with professional service providers (N = 16) from agencies serving grandparents. Data were transcribed verbatim and transcripts were analyzed using an inductive, constant comparison approach. Findings revealed two themes reflecting the types of services and support mechanisms providers' use with grandparent caregivers and providers' needs and recommendations to better serve grandparent caregivers. Participants fully supported continual funding for the Kinship Care System Navigator position and discussed the importance of community providers sharing a common voice and working together. It is important that professionals who serve grandparent caregivers are knowledgeable and willing to collaborate with other providers to meet grandparents' needs. PMID:25681386

  7. Raising Children in an Evangelical Family Environment: Biblical Principles Applied to the Family

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ljubinka Jambrek

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available As Creator, God designed the family and determined the standards and rules for living and functioning in the family. As a basic unit of society, the family is to reflect God’s glory. God’s plan for marriage and the family has not changed, only the human approach to this institution has changed. Therefore, it is vital to re-emphasize how important it is that the family functions according to biblical standards. This article deals with raising children in an evangelical environment which assumes God’s presence, the reading and keeping of God’s Word, love between the parents, prayer, and worship of God. Clear goals for raising children are presented. This work offers valuable and lived examples of biblical discipline. It discusses the topic of discipline from childhood to the teen ages, trust, responsibility, communication and relationship with God. Finally, the article points out the importance of times of family worship.

  8. The New Ways to Raise Capital: An Exploratory Study of Crowdfunding

    OpenAIRE

    Matteo Rossi

    2014-01-01

    Purpose – Paper aims is to describe, analyze and to increase the knowledge of the emerging crowdfunding phenomenon. This can be defined as the practice of funding a project or venture by raising a lot of small quantities of money from a huge number of people. Even though the number of academic studies has been increasing, the coverage of the population is relatively weak and not well understood by entrepreneurs and individual investors.Design/Methodology/Findings - The research can be class...

  9. The Correlation between Age, Body Weight and Testicular Parameters in Murrah Buffalo Bulls Raised in Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Da Luz, Patri?cia Aparecida Cardoso; Santos, Paulo Ramos Da Silva; Andrighetto, Cristiana; Jorge, Andre? Mendes; Assis Neto, Anto?nio Chaves

    2012-01-01

    Buffalo are an economically important source for meat and milk production, especially in Brazil. However, important aspects of their biology remain unknown thus far. Herein, we describe the reproductive characteristics of male Murrah buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) raised under extensive management conditions by applying biometrics associated with testicular weight. We analyzed seven males, divided into two groups: G1, which consisted of four 18-month-old animals, and G2, which consi...

  10. The Radial Velocity Signature of Tides Raised in Stars Hosting Exoplanets

    OpenAIRE

    Arras, Phil; Burkart, Joshua; Quataert, Eliot; Weinberg, Nevin N.

    2011-01-01

    Close-in, massive exoplanets raise significant tides in their stellar hosts. We compute the radial velocity (RV) signal due to this fluid motion in the equilibrium tide approximation. The predicted radial velocities in the observed sample of exoplanets exceed 1 m/s for 17 systems, with the largest predicted signal being ~30 m/s for WASP-18 b. Tidally-induced RV's are thus detectable with present methods. Both tidal fluid flow and the epicyclic motion of a slightly eccentric ...

  11. Late Quaternary environmental changes in Marguerite Bay, Antarctic Peninsula, inferred from lake sediments and raised beaches

    OpenAIRE

    Hodgson, Dominic A.; Roberts, Stephen J.; Smith, James A.; Verleyen, Elie; Sterken, Mieke; Labarque, Minke; Sabbe, Koen; Vyverman, Wim; Allen, Claire S.; Leng, Melanie J.; Bryant, Charlotte

    2013-01-01

    The Antarctic Peninsula is one of the fastest-warming regions on Earth, but its palaeoenvironmental history south of 63° latitude is relatively poorly documented, relying principally on the marine geological record and short ice cores. In this paper, we present evidence of late-Quaternary environmental change from the Marguerite Bay region combining data from lake sediment records on Horseshoe Island and Pourquoi-Pas Island, and raised beaches at Horseshoe Island, Pourquoi-Pas Island and Cal...

  12. Enhanced Rate of Multiplication of Tissue Cultured Raised Banana (MUSA) Plants in the Field

    OpenAIRE

    Aish Muhammad; Iqbal Hussain; Muhammad Faheem Akbar; Hamid Rashid

    2003-01-01

    Multiplication rate of banana plants c.v. Basrai in the field was studied. The results showed that plants raised through culture produced 7.45 suckers plant-1 after 14 months of planting. On the other hand, number of suckers produced by banana plants propagated conventionally were 4015 in the same period of time. The results indicated that tissue culture plants produced 44% more suckers. This enhanced rate of multiplication may overcome the limited sucker production in the field.

  13. What Meaning does Raising a Child with Autism have for Parents? A Qualitative Exploration

    OpenAIRE

    Jardine, Kirsten Marie

    2008-01-01

    Introduction: Children with autism experience difficulties in social interaction and communication which are often manifested behaviourally. The nature of these difficulties means that the task of parenting is often challenging. This study therefore aims to explore which aspects of raising a child with autism are most meaningful for parents. It will also investigate what, if any, are the positive aspects related to the experience of having a child with autism. Method: A q...

  14. Your Genes, Your Choices: Exploring the Issues Raised by Genetic Research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baker, C.

    1999-05-31

    Your Genes, Your Choices provides accurate information about the ethical, legal, and social implications of the Human Genome Project and genetic research in an easy-to-read style and format. Each chapter in the book begins with a brief vignette, which introduces an issue within a human story, and raises a question for the reader to think about as the basic science and information are presented in the rest of the chapter.

  15. Raised serum hCG in a male patient caused by primary jejunal choriocarcinoma.

    OpenAIRE

    Chan, G. S.; Ng, W. K.; Chua, D. T.; Wu, P. C.

    1998-01-01

    A rare case of primary choriocarcinoma of the jejunum occurred in a 45 year old Chinese man. This tumour was associated with massive melaena and a markedly raised serum human chorionic gonadotrophin (beta-hCG) concentration. Necropsy examination showed no primary lesion in other possible sites including testes, mediastinum, and pineal gland. Histologically, the tumour showed morphology typical of choriocarcinoma with no adenocarcinomatous element identified. The presence of choriocarcinoma in...

  16. RAISE: a simple and novel method of generating random insertion and deletion mutations

    OpenAIRE

    Fujii, Ryota; Kitaoka, Motomitsu; Hayashi, Kiyoshi

    2006-01-01

    Although proteins may be artificially improved by random insertion and deletion mutagenesis methods, these procedures are technically difficult, and the mutations introduced are no more variable than those introduced by the introduction of random point mutations. We describe here a three-step method called RAISE, which is based on gene shuffling and can introduce a wide variety of insertions, deletions and substitutions. To test the efficacy of this method, we used it to mutate TEM ?-lactama...

  17. Emissions from soil fumigation in two raised bed production systems tarped with low permeability films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Ruijun; Gao, Suduan; Thomas, John E; Dickson, Donald W; Ajwa, Husein; Wang, Dong

    2013-10-01

    Raised beds are used to produce some high-value annual fruit and vegetable crops such as strawberry in California (CA) and tomato in Florida (FL), USA. Pre-plant soil fumigation is an important tool to control soil-borne pests in the raised beds. However, fumigant emissions have detrimental environmental consequences. Field trials were conducted to evaluate emissions of 1,3-dichloropropene (1,3-D) and chloropicrin (CP) in two different production systems with raised beds covered by different tarps. In the CA trial, InLine (60.8% 1,3-D and 33.3% CP) was drip-applied at 340 kg ha(-1) to 5 cm deep in the beds (30 cm high and 107 cm wide) tarped with polyethylene (PE) or virtually impermeable film (VIF). In the FL trial, carbonated Telone C35 (63.4% 1,3-D and 34.7% CP) was shank-applied at 151 kg ha(-1) to 20 cm deep in the beds (22 cm high and 76 cm wide) tarped with totally impermeable film (TIF). Emissions from tarped beds relative to furrows were contrary between the two trials. For the CA trial, the emission was 47% of applied 1,3-D and 27% of applied CP from PE tarped beds and 31% of applied 1,3-D and 15% of applied CP from VIF tarped beds, while that from uncovered furrows wassoil properties, soil water content, and fumigant carbonation. The results indicate that strategies for emission reduction must consider the differences in agronomic production systems. Modifying raised bed configuration and fumigant application technique in coarse textured soils with TIF tarping can maximize fumigation efficiency and emission reduction. PMID:23899923

  18. How high the temperature of a liquid be raised without boiling?

    OpenAIRE

    Das, Mala; Chatterjee, B. K.; Roy, B.; Roy, S. C.

    2000-01-01

    How high the temperature of a liquid be raised beyond its boiling point without vaporizing (known as the limit of superheat) is an interesting subject of investigation. A new method of finding the limit of superheat of liquids is presented here. The superheated liquids are taken in the form of drops suspended in visco elastic gel. The nucleation is detected acoustically by a sensitive piezo-electric transducer, coupled to a multi channel scaler and the nucleation is observed...

  19. Experimentally transmitted marble spleen disease in pen-raised wild turkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iltis, J P; Jakowski, R M; Wyand, D S

    1975-10-01

    Pen-raised North American wild turkeys (Meleagris gallopavo L.) were experimentally infected with marble spleen disease (MSD) to determine their susceptibility to this disease. Gross and microscopic lesions were consistent with experimental MSD in pheasants and domestic turkeys: an enlarged mottled spleen, intranuclear inclusion bodies, and absence of pulmonary edema and hemorrhage. Detectable levels of viral antigen were not demonstrable in sera of turkeys using the agar gell precipitin test. PMID:1195488

  20. Specific Language Impairment (SLI: The Internet Ralli Campaign to Raise Awareness of SLI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Conti-Ramsden Gina

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available In this short article, we discuss what is specific language impairment (SLI and why it is a hidden disability that few people have heard about. We describe the impact on research, policy and practice of SLI being a neglected condition. We end by providing the background and rationale of a new internet campaign, RALLI (www.youtube.com/rallicampaign, aimed at changing this state of affairs and raising awareness of SLI.

  1. Information technologies and subjective well-being: Does the internet raise material aspirations?

    OpenAIRE

    Lohmann, Steffen

    2013-01-01

    Existing work on the economics of well-being suggests that a person's subjective well-being depends to a large degree on his relative standing within his social environment. In this paper, we examine whether access to modern information and telecommunication technologies has an impact on relative concerns by raising material aspirations. We use cross-sectional data from the fifth wave of the World Values Survey and provide empirical evidence that people who regularly use the internet as a sou...

  2. Raised bed technology for wheat crop in irrigated areas of punjab, pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present paper analyzes the determinants of adoption of raised bed planting of wheat in irrigated areas of Punjab, Pakistan. Wheat is an important staple food of Pakistan. It contributes 13 % to the value added in agriculture and 2.6 % to the GDP. The agrarian economy of Pakistan is continuously under stress due to the low yield of almost all the crops and constrained with many problem. One of the most important issues of agriculture is water shortage which is increasing day by day and is a major challenge now a days. Therefore, water saving becomes the utmost need of the hour. The national research system is now putting their focus and efforts to manage the precious water through various modern/latest water saving models to draw some solid method of irrigation with less wastage. Raised bed planting method is also one of the modern methods of planting crop with significant water saving. The study was planned and conducted by the Social Sciences Research Institute, Faisalabad in 2011-12 to assess the determinants of the adoption of the raised bed technology for wheat crop in irrigated Punjab, Pakistan. The study was conducted at three sites of the districts Faisalabad and Toba Tek Singh where the Water Management Research Institute, University of Faisalabad promoted the raised bed technology for wheat crop. A sample of 63 farmers was interviewed in detail to understand the whole system and the factors contributing to the adoption of the technology. The study revealeption of the technology. The study revealed that adopters typically have a more favorable resource base and tend to variously outperform non-adopters. More access to education and other social indicators increases the chances to adopt new technologies by the farming community. However, the small farmers can also be benefited with the technology with proper education regarding the technology in the area with good social mobilization for the conservation of scarce and valuable farm resources. (author)

  3. International Technology Mergers & Acquisitions and Raising the Competitiveness of China Equipment Manufacturing Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiuling Liu

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Developing and strengthening the competitiveness of the equipment manufacturing industry is that needs solving the weighty problem. China equipment manufacturing enterprises could acquire the core technique with international tech-nology mergers & acquisitions. This is an important strategy that could facilitate raising innovation capital and R&D level of the enterprise by a wide margin. This paper analyses the problems of China equipment manufacturing industry, advantages of international technology mergers & acquisitions and puts forward appropriate proposals and measures.

  4. Some problems raised by siting of nuclear power station on the sea coast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siting of nuclear power station on the sea coast, besides usual, raises additional problems, different from those when the power station is inland. In this paper, the most important among these problems are pointed out, as well as some of their solutions. This applies, primarily, to several of high power nuclear station cooling layout. In our general approach to that problem, the role of siting in general safety, economy and bio-ecology are particularly considered. (author)

  5. Structural evaluation of WIPP disposal room raised to Clay Seam G.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Byoung Yoon (Sandia National Laboratories, Carlsbad, NM); Holland, John F. (Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM)

    2007-09-01

    An error was discovered in the ALGEBBRA script used to calculate the disturbed rock zone around the disposal room and the shear failure zone in the anhydrite layers in the original version. To correct the error, a memorandum of correction was submitted according to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Quality Assurance program. The recommended course of action was to correct the error, to repeat the post-process, and to rewrite Section 7.4, 7.5, 8, and Appendix B in the original report. The sections and appendix revised by the post-process using the corrected ALGEBRA scripts are provided in this revision. The original report summarizes a series of structural calculations that examine effects of raising the WIPP repository horizon from the original design level upward 2.43 meters. Calculations were then repeated for grid changes appropriate for the new horizon raised to Clay Seam G. Results are presented in three main areas: (1) Disposal room porosity, (2) Disturbed rock zone characteristics, and (3) Anhydrite marker bed failure. No change to the porosity surface for the compliance re-certification application is necessary to account for raising the repository horizon, because the new porosity surface is essentially identical. The disturbed rock zone evolution and devolution are charted in terms of a stress invariant criterion over the regulatory period. This model shows that the propagation of the DRZ into the surrounding rock salt does not penetrate through MB 139 in the case of both the original horizon and the raised room. Damaged salt would be expected to heal in nominally 150 years. The shear failure does not occur in either the upper or lower anhydrite layers at the moment of excavation, but appears above and below the middle of the pillar one day after the excavation. The damaged anhydrite is not expected to heal as the salt in the DRZ is expected to.

  6. Raising Students' Awareness of Cross-Cultural Contrastive Rhetoric Via an E-Learning Course

    OpenAIRE

    Jinghui Wang; Minjie Xing; Kenneth Spencer

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated the potential impact of e-learning on raising overseas students' cultural awareness and explored the possibility of creating an interactive learning environment for them to improve their English academic writing. The study was based on a comparison of Chinese and English rhetoric in academic writing, including a comparison of Chinese students' writings in Chinese with native English speakers' writings in English and Chinese students' writings in English with the help o...

  7. Cerebrovascular reactivity among native-raised high altitude residents: an fMRI study

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang Jiaxing; Yan Xiaodan; Gong Qiyong; Weng Xuchu

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background The impact of long term residence on high altitude (HA) on human brain has raised concern among researchers in recent years. This study investigated the cerebrovascular reactivity among native-born high altitude (HA) residents as compared to native sea level (SL) residents. The two groups were matched on the ancestral line, ages, gender ratios, and education levels. A visual cue guided maximum inspiration task with brief breath holding was performed by all the subjects whi...

  8. Raising Awareness of Grey Literature in an Academic Community Using the Cognitive Behavioral Theory

    OpenAIRE

    Lin, Yongtao; Vaska, Marcus; Greynet, Grey Literature Network Service

    2009-01-01

    Cognitive skill training, part of cognitive behavior management, is based on the cognitive behavioral theory. The principle that thinking controls behavior has been widely used by educators to develop methods to improve the performance of students, while clinicians provide multifaceted health promotion and psychological counseling programs. The plan of our educational project is to raise awareness among students, faculty members, and researchers of material not produced via standard commercia...

  9. Costly revenue-raising and the case for favoring import-competing industries

    OpenAIRE

    Matschke, Xenia

    2005-01-01

    A standard finding in the political economy of trade policy literature is that we should expect export-oriented industries to attract more assistance than import-competing industries. In reality, however, trade policy is heavily biased toward supporting import industries. This paper shows within a standard protection for sale framework, how the costliness of raising revenue via taxation may make export subsidies less desirable and import tariffs more desirable. The model is then estimated and...

  10. Chromosome comparison between populations of the collared peccary, Tayassu tajacu, raised in captivity

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Patrícia, Carvalho de Souza; André, Salim Khayat; Igor, Chamon Seligmann; Rommel Mario, Rodríguez Burbano.

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Argentina | Language: English Abstract in english The collared peccary (Tayassu tajacu) is widely distributed over the American continent, being found from the south of the USA to the north of Argentina. In Brazil, it is spread all over the country, being one of the potential species to be raised in captivity. Therefore, the cytogenetic techniques [...] could be a potential tool for reproductive monitoring of animals raised in captivity, mainly when destined for commercial purposes. This study had the objective of determining the chromosome number of two populations raised in captivity and characterizing them by GTG banding. For this purpose, an analysis was made of mitotic metaphases obtained from lymphocyte cultures made from blood samples of 11 animals, six of which from the Northeast and five from the North of Brazil. The results of this analysis showed the same karyotype pattern for the species (2n=30 chromosomes and NF=48), besides corresponding to the South American pattern of the species, i.e., without a translocation between autosomes 1 and 8, chromosome X acrocentric, and no differences were found between the two populations studied. However, chromosomal polymorphisms were observed compared to data from the literature on populations from North and South America.

  11. Burst protection device for largely cylindrical steam raising units, preferably of pressurized water nuclear power stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This burst protection device controls forces to be expected in an accident by resolving them into axial (vertical) and radial (horizontal) components, which are taken by a large number of elements stressed in tension. The steam raising unit is surrounded by a containment, but remains easily accessible. The containment consists of a steel jacket, lid and floor. Several cylindrical sections above one another form the steel jacket, which surrounds the steam raising unit with an intermediate insulating layer of concrete. The insulating concrete cylinder is of several times the thickness of the steel jacket, and also consists of cylindrical sections. An outer supporting ring for the lid and floor of the containment have outside diameters which project beyond the jacket. Prestressed circumferential vertical tension ropes between the supporting ring and floor take any additional tensional forces. The lid is domed with downward curvature towards the upper boiler dome. Internal bursting forces produce compressive stresses in the lid, which thus pass along its outside diameter into the surrounding ring. The lid, which is devided along one diameter, makes dismantling and access to the boiler easy even with a central steam pipe going upwards. The floor of the burst protection is also the floor of the steam raising unit. It is of several times the thickness of the tube floor, which, with its spacing above the floor forms the usual inlet and outlet space for the reactor cooling water. The main coolant pump installed there is driven by an external motor through a floor penetration. (HP)

  12. Communicating adaptation with emotions: the role of intense experiences in raising concern about extreme weather.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleftheria Vasileiadou

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Adaptation to extreme weather is often considered as having a low urgency and being a low priority governance option, even though the intensity of extreme weather events is expected to increase as a result of climate change. An important issue is how to raise an adequate level of concern among individuals, policy makers, and broader decision makers in companies and organizations so that adaptation to extreme events becomes mainstream practice. We conducted 40 indepth interviews with individuals from different sectors in The Netherlands to identify the different types of experiences with extreme events, as well as the relationship between such experiences and the level of concern about extreme weather. Our results indicate that individuals who have experienced an intense, life-threatening event have a significantly higher level of concern than those without such an experience. Professional experience and secondhand experience through participating in information events do not significantly affect the level of concern about extreme events. This suggests limited intervention possibilities for communication of adaptation, as well as for raising support for adaptation measures. Framing adaptation measures in relation to personal circumstances and emotions during extreme events could help raise concern about extreme weather events, as well as societal support for adaptation measures.

  13. Enteric bacterial pathogens with zoonotic potential isolated from farm-raised deer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    French, Elizabeth; Rodriguez-Palacios, Alex; LeJeune, Jeffrey T

    2010-09-01

    The raising of captive white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) is a growing agricultural industry in Ohio as it is in several other areas of the United States and around the world. Pooled fecal samples were collected from 30 white-tailed deer confinement facilities. Samples were cultured for five enteric bacterial pathogens. Premise prevalence rates were as follows: Escherichia coli O157, 3.3%; Listeria monocytogenes, 3.3%; Salmonella enterica, 0%; Yersinia enterocolitica, 30%; and Clostridium difficile, 36.7%. The ail virulence gene could not be amplified from any of the Y. enterocolitica isolates recovered. Toxigenic strains of C. difficile polymerase chain reaction ribotype 078, an emerging C. difficile genotype of humans and food animals, were recovered from 4 of 11 (36.4%) C. difficile-positive deer farms. Venison from farm-raised deer might become contaminated with foodborne pathogens, deer farmers may have occupational exposure to these zoonotic agents, and farm-raised deer could be a reservoir from which the environment and other livestock may become contaminated with a number of potentially zoonotic bacteria. PMID:20575673

  14. Structural evaluation of WIPP disposal room raised to Clay Seam G

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report summarizes a series of structural calculations that examine effects of raising the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant repository horizon from the original design level upward 2.43 meters. These calculations allow evaluation of various features incorporated in conceptual models used for performance assessment. Material presented in this report supports the regulatory compliance re-certification, and therefore begins by replicating the calculations used in the initial compliance certification application. Calculations are then repeated for grid changes appropriate for the new horizon raised to Clay Seam G. Results are presented in three main areas: 1. Disposal room porosity, 2. Disturbed rock zone characteristics, and 3. Anhydrite marker bed failure. No change to the porosity surface for the compliance re-certification application is necessary to account for raising the repository horizon, because the new porosity surface is essentially identical. The disturbed rock zone evolution and devolution are charted in terms of a stress invariant criterion over the regulatory period. This model shows that the damage zone does not extend upward to MB 138, but does reach MB 139 below the repository. Damaged salt would be expected to heal in nominally 100 years. The anhydrite marker beds sustain states of stress that promote failure and substantial marker bed deformation into the room assures fractured anhydrite will sustain in the proximity of the disposal roomsximity of the disposal rooms

  15. Structural evaluation of WIPP disposal room raised to Clay Seam G.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Byoung Yoon; Holland, John F.

    2004-01-01

    This report summarizes a series of structural calculations that examine effects of raising the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant repository horizon from the original design level upward 2.43 meters. These calculations allow evaluation of various features incorporated in conceptual models used for performance assessment. Material presented in this report supports the regulatory compliance re-certification, and therefore begins by replicating the calculations used in the initial compliance certification application. Calculations are then repeated for grid changes appropriate for the new horizon raised to Clay Seam G. Results are presented in three main areas: 1. Disposal room porosity, 2. Disturbed rock zone characteristics, and 3. Anhydrite marker bed failure. No change to the porosity surface for the compliance re-certification application is necessary to account for raising the repository horizon, because the new porosity surface is essentially identical. The disturbed rock zone evolution and devolution are charted in terms of a stress invariant criterion over the regulatory period. This model shows that the damage zone does not extend upward to MB 138, but does reach MB 139 below the repository. Damaged salt would be expected to heal in nominally 100 years. The anhydrite marker beds sustain states of stress that promote failure and substantial marker bed deformation into the room assures fractured anhydrite will sustain in the proximity of the disposal rooms.

  16. Orbit Determination Accuracy Analysis of the Magnetospheric Multiscale Mission During Perigee Raise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pachura, Daniel A.; Vavrina, Matthew A.; Carpenter, J. R.; Wright, Cinnamon A.

    2014-01-01

    The Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) Flight Dynamics Facility (FDF) will provide orbit determination and prediction support for the Magnetospheric Multiscale (MMS) mission during the missions commissioning period. The spacecraft will launch into a highly elliptical Earth orbit in 2015. Starting approximately four days after launch, a series of five large perigee-raising maneuvers will be executed near apogee on a nearly every-other-orbit cadence. This perigee-raise operations concept requires a high-accuracy estimate of the orbital state within one orbit following the maneuver for performance evaluation and a high-accuracy orbit prediction to correctly plan and execute the next maneuver in the sequence. During early mission design, a linear covariance analysis method was used to study orbit determination and prediction accuracy for this perigee-raising campaign. This paper provides a higher fidelity Monte Carlo analysis using the operational COTS extended Kalman filter implementation that was performed to validate the linear covariance analysis estimates and to better characterize orbit determination performance for actively maneuvering spacecraft in a highly elliptical orbit. The study finds that the COTS extended Kalman filter tool converges on accurate definitive orbit solutions quickly, but prediction accuracy through orbits with very low altitude perigees is degraded by the unpredictability of atmospheric density variation.

  17. Measuring Metacognition and Reaction Time: Further Findings on the Performances of General Education, Low-Achieving, and Institutionally Raised Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Hilawani, Yasser A.; Abdullah, Ahmad A.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to use the picture format to examine in depth the metacognitive performances and reaction time in general education, low-achieving, and institutionally raised students. Results revealed that institutionally raised students, unlike low-achieving students, took significantly the longest reaction time to finish the test…

  18. Where Are We With HDL Raising and Inhibition of Cholesteryl Ester Transfer for Heart Disease Risk Reduction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purpose: To review recent research in the area of high density lipoprotein (HDL) raising and coronary heart disease (CHD) risk reduction. Recent Findings: It is known that a decreased HDL cholesterol is an important CHD risk factor, and that raising HDL cholesterol has been associated with CHD risk...

  19. Improving fumigant efficiency by deep application and totally impermeable film covering raised-beds for strawberry production

    Science.gov (United States)

    The coastal California (CA) is the primary productive strawberry region where strawberry is mainly grown in raised-beds covered by polyethylene (PE). Over 55% of raised-bed production systems have fumigants applied directly through irrigation drip-tapes, which are buried near soil surface for soil-b...

  20. Ideologies, Struggles and Contradictions: An Account of Mothers Raising Their Children Bilingually in Luxembourgish and English in Great Britain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirsch, Claudine

    2012-01-01

    Researchers have studied family language planning within bilingual family contexts but there is a dearth of studies that examine language planning of multilingual parents who raise their children in one of the world's lesser spoken languages. In this study I explore the ideologies and language planning of Luxembourgish mothers who are raising

  1. Proof support for RAISE - by a Reuse Approach Based on Institutions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindegaard, Morten Peter

    2004-01-01

    Formal methods are mathematically based methods for developing software. Such methods usually involve that software and requirements are specified in a formal specification language, after which it is verified that the software meets the requirements. RAISE is a formal method with the associated specification language RSL and a proof system. Computer-based proof tools are available for RAISE, but a higher degree of automation is desired. Isabelle/HOL is a proof assistant for higher-order logic (HOL). It is an instantiation of the generic proof assistant Isabelle which offers a suitable degree of automation and flexibility. In order to use the Isabelle/HOL proof assistant for the RAISE method, translation from RSL to HOL is considered. The translation is based on institutions which formalize the informal notion of "a logical system". Institutions and morphisms between institutions are presented together with specifications over institutions and model-theoretic semantics of specifications. The concept of "light institution comorphisms" is introduced as a modification of well-known institution comorphisms, and it is proved that a light institution comorphism enables sound reuse of proof assistants when it has certain properties. Moreover, the concept of looser semantics of specifications is introduced as a model-theoretic description of the semantics of RSL specifications, and an equivalence result is proved. An institution for an applicative, deterministic subset of RSL, referred to as "mRSL", is defined. Then, a well-known institution for HOL is presented, and Isabelle/HOL is briefly described. An institution comorphism from the mRSL institution to the HOL institution is defined, providing a translation from mRSL to Isabelle/HOL, and it is proved that the light institution comorphism has the properties that enable sound reuse of the Isabelle/HOL proof assistant. The use of the translation is described in connection with three examples: logical circuits, a generalized railway crossing, and an encoding of Duration Calculus in RSL. In Danish: Formelle metoder er matematisk baserede metoder til udvikling af programmel. Sådanne metoder involverer som regel, at programmel og krav beskrives i et formelt specifikationssprog, hvorefter det verificeres, at programmellet opfylder de ønskede krav. RAISE er en formel metode med det tilhørende specifikationssprog RSL og et bevissystem. Der findes datamatbaserede bevisværktøjer til RAISE, men en højere grad af automation er ønskværdig. Isabelle/HOL er en bevisfører for højereordens logik (HOL). Bevisføreren er en instantiering af den generiske bevisfører Isabelle, der tilbyder en passende grad af automation og fleksibilitet. Med henblik på at benytte bevisføreren Isabelle/HOL i forbindelse med RAISE metoden, betragtes oversættelse fra RSL til HOL. Oversættelsen baseres på institutioner, der formaliserer det uformelle begreb "logisk system ". Institutioner og morfier mellem institutioner gennemgås sammen med specifikationer over institutioner og modelteoretisk semantikaf specifikationer. Begrebet "let institutionscomorfi" introduceres som en modifikation af velkendte institutionscomorfier, og det bevises, at en let institutionscomorfi muliggør sund genbrug af bevisførere, når den har visse egenskaber. Derudover introduceres begrebet løsere semantik af specifikationer som en modelteoretisk beskrivelse af semantikken af RSL- specifikationer, og et ækvivalensresultat bevises. Der defineres en institution for en applikativ, deterministisk delmængde af RSL, der benævnes "mRSL". Herefter præsenteres en velkendt institution for HOL, og Isabelle/HOL gennemgås kort. Der defineres en let institutionscomorfi fra mRSL- institutionen til HOL-institutionen, hvorved der fås en oversættelse fra mRSL til Isabelle/HOL, og det bevises, at den definerede lette institutionscomorfi har de egenskaber, der muliggør sund genbrug af bevisføreren Isabelle/HOL. Brugen af den definerede oversættelse beskrives i forbindelse med tre eksempler: logiske kredsløb, en jernbaneoverskæring

  2. A large blood pressure-raising effect of nitric oxide synthase inhibition in humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sander, M.; Chavoshan, B.; Victor, R. G.; Blomqvist, C. G. (Principal Investigator)

    1999-01-01

    In experimental animals, systemic administration of nitric oxide synthase (NOS) inhibitors causes large increases in blood pressure that are in part sympathetically mediated. The aim of this study was to determine the extent to which these conclusions can be extrapolated to humans. In healthy normotensive humans, we measured blood pressure in response to two NOS inhibitors, NG-monomethyl-L-arginine (L-NMMA) and NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME), the latter of which recently became available for use in humans. The major new findings are 3-fold. First, L-NAME produced robust increases in blood pressure that were more than 2 times larger than those previously reported in humans with L-NMMA and approximated those seen in experimental animals. L-NAME (4 mg/kg) raised mean arterial pressure by 24+/-2 mm Hg (n=27, Pinhibitors, a 12-fold higher dose of L-NMMA (50 mg/kg) raised mean arterial pressure by 15+/-2 mm Hg (n=4, PL-NAME). Second, the L-NAME-induced increases in blood pressure were caused specifically by NOS inhibition because they were reversed by L-arginine (200 mg/kg, n=12) but not D-arginine (200 mg/kg, n=6) and because NG-nitro-D-arginine methyl ester (4 mg/kg, n=5) had no effect on blood pressure. Third, in humans, there is an important sympathetic component to the blood pressure-raising effect of NOS inhibition. alpha-Adrenergic blockade with phentolamine (0.2 mg/kg, n=9) attenuated the L-NAME-induced increase in blood pressure by 40% (P<0.05). From these data, we conclude that pharmacological inhibition of NOS causes large increases in blood pressure that are in part sympathetically mediated in humans as well as experimental animals.

  3. Growth curve of locally adapted pantaneiro cows raised under natural conditions

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Eleonora Araújo, Barbosa; Andréa Alves do, Egito; Urbano Gomes Pinto de, Abreu; Raquel Soares, Juliano; Joseane Padilha da, Silva; Arthur da Silva, Mariante; Alexandre Floriani, Ramos.

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english The objective of this study was to use morphometric and ultrasound evaluations to estimate the growth curve of the Pantaneiro cattle breed, raised in its natural habitat, aiming at the re-insertion of this breed in production systems. One hundred and three females, aging from months to 11 years, and [...] raised on native pastures, were evaluated. The animals belonged to the Conservation Nucleus of Embrapa Pantanal, located in the Pantanal of Mato Grosso do Sul (Brazil). Weight, thoracic perimeter (TP), body length (BL), rump height (RH), height at withers (HW), hip height (HH), depth (DP), distance between the ilia (DI) (cm) and rib-eye area (REA) were measured. To relate the measurements with the age of the animals, the univariate regression model was used, assigning the variable response to gamma distribution. The Pearson correlation between variables was also estimated. The inflection point of the growth curve was 37 months for HH; between 38 and 39 months for TP and HW; between 40 and 41 months for DI, HH and DP; and 45 months for BL. The REA results could not fit in a statistical model. The majority of the variables presented a correlation above 60% among themselves, except for REA × Age, of 15.81%; REA × HW, of 34.44%; HH × Age, of 46.19; HH × DI, of 58.07%; REA × HH, of 24.57%; and REA × TP, of 39.9%. The cows showed maturity age at 40 months, which may have occurred because they were raised in natural farming conditions. In Pantaneiro cows reared in extensive systems only on natural pastures, the use of ultrasound is not effective to estimate the curve of muscular development, perhaps because this breed was not selected for weight gain.

  4. Bio-Economic Evaluation of the Performance of Rabbits Raised under Two Different Housing Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mobolaji-Bukola, PU.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to evaluate the bio-economic performance of rabbits raised under two different housing systems: conventional hutch with cage system as control (A and the non-conventional floor housing system (B. Thirty six adult rabbits of medium size breed category of both sexes aged 5-6 months comprising Chinchilla (20, New Zealand White (10, Dutch (6 were used in the study which lasted 24 weeks. Fifteen does and 3 bucks were each randomly but equally assigned to both housing systems. Data on individual and group treatments were analysed with a one-way analysis of variance and students' ttest, employed in testing differences between the means. A benefit-cost analysis was used to evaluate the relative cost effectiveness of each housing option. Results obtained showed that rabbits raised on floor performed better (6 kittens < 0.05 biologically than those reared in hutched (3 kittens. For example, significant final weights (1.9 kg and weight gains (0.4 kg were observed in rabbits reared on floor as against those in hutch 1.6 kg and 0.09 kg. From an economic viewpoint, rabbits raised on floor contributed higher positive income (N 58.2 per unit of meat produced than rabbits reared in hutch or cage. Rate of return on investment in the former was estimated at about 50%. The floor housing system which is the cheaper, more productive and cost-effective is therefore recommended for farmers who are lacking the fundamental factors of production namely land and particularly capital as observed in the study location or environment.

  5. Effects of different raising systems on colour and quality characteristics of turkish pekin duck meats

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    E., Lacin; M.I., Aksu; M., Macit; A., Yildiz; M., Karaoglu; N., Esenbuga; M.A., Yoruk.

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available SciELO South Africa | Language: English Abstract in english The current trial was conducted to determine the influence of different raising systems on the meat quality properties of male Turkish Pekin ducks. Ninety male ducklings were randomly allocated to three experimental groups: an animal-fish integrated farming group (IG), a non-animal-fish integrated f [...] arming group (NIG) and a poultry house group (PHG). All ducklings were fed a starter diet from weeks 2 to 6 and a finisher diet from weeks 6 to 10. Feed and water were offered ad libitum. At the end of the trial all ducks were slaughtered and the carcasses were stored at 3 °C for 24 hours, after which L*, a* and b* values of the carcass skins were measured. After standard dissection of carcasses, pectoralis muscles were obtained on which pH, colour (L*, a*, b*, C and H), total aerobic mesophilic, total aerobic psychrotrophic, lactic acid bacteria, Micrococcus/Staphylococcus, yeast-mould and Enterobacteriaceae counts were determined. The different raising systems of the ducks had significant effects on the pH, total aerobic mesophilic, Enterobacteriaceae, and L* and b* values of the pectoralis muscle. The lowest pH, total aerobic mesophilic and Enterobacteriaceae counts were found in the PHG group. The lowest L* values for the pectoralis muscle were found in the IG group while the highest a* value was recorded in the IG group. Significant differences in skin colour were observed between the experimental groups. For all production groups, all microbial counts were found to be within acceptable ranges. However, pH, total aerobic mesophilic and Enterobacteriaceae results were found to be lower in the PHG group than in the other groups. Different raising systems were thus found to affect the meat and skin colour of ducks, which may influence the preference of consumers.

  6. Comparison of free range broiler chicken strains raised in confined or semi-confined systems

    OpenAIRE

    Al, Santos; Nk, Sakomura; Er, Freitas; Cms, Fortes; Envm, Carrilho

    2005-01-01

    The present study was carried out to compare the growth curve, performance and carcass yield of two broiler strains, Paraíso Pedrês (PP) and ISA Label (ISA), raised in confined or semi-confined systems. It was used a completely randomized design with five replicates, consisting of 20 and 29 birds in semi-confined and confined systems, respectively. Semi-confined birds had free access to pasture at 28 days of age. Performance data were recorded weekly by building growth curves as well as cal...

  7. Studies on the Genetic Constitution of Black and White Dairy Cattles Raised in Tahirova State Farm

    OpenAIRE

    Yahya Tuncay Tuna

    2004-01-01

    In this study 1504 individual milk yield records were analysed to evaluate the breeding potential of dairy cattles raised in Tahirova State Farm. Milk yields records of 468 Black and White cattle were obtained from the period of 1978-1995. Heritability of reproductive (first breeding age-FBE; first calving age-FCA; calving interval-Cl; service period-SP and days in dry-DID) and milk yield (lactation length-LL., 305 day milk yield-305d-MY) traits were estimated from the data. Phenotypic correl...

  8. Device for emergency cooling of steam raising plant of a nuclear power station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The steam blown off is condensed and the condensate obtained is taken back via a closed circuit as feed water for the steam raising unit. The blow off line projects into the water and gas space, which contains bundles of heat exchanger pipes. To increase the thermal syphon effect, the end of the blow off line is made as a steam distribution nozzle, with an angle of 900 and having 15000, 5mm diameter nozzle openings. This provides an effective nozzle cross section of about 0.3 sq. metres. (DG)

  9. Building America Case Study: Raised Ceiling Interior Duct System, New Smyrna, Florida (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2014-09-01

    One of BA-PIRC's longtime Habitat for Humanity partners, S.E. Volusia CO (SEVHFH), was interested in building a home to the new Challenge Home standards. SEVHFH routinely builds ENERGY STAR V3.1 homes. The only modification to their design needed to comply with the Challenge Home criteria was the interior duct requirement. Unwilling to incur the added costs of a foam roof deck or wall heights above 8 feet to accommodate a fur-down chase SEVHFH opted to build a fur-up or raised ceiling chase.

  10. Investigation of monoclonal antibodies raised to human ovarian carcinoma cell lines

    OpenAIRE

    Blacoe-masterson, Allan

    1998-01-01

    Monoclonal antibodies (MAb) were generated to multidrug resistant (MDR) and sensitive variants of the ovarian carcinoma cell line OAW42 which over-express the M D R associated protem LRP/MVP MAb 3/B6 was raised to the intrinsically resistant variant OAW42-SR Immunofluorescence and immunocytochemical analysis indicated that the antigen detected by MAb 3/B6 was expressed primarily on the external surface of the plasma membrane but was also found to be expressed in the cytoplasm of a series of h...

  11. Brainstem tegmental necrosis and olivary hypoplasia: raising awareness of a rare neuropathologic correlate of congenital apnea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katsetos, Christos D; Anderson, Carol E; Guzman, Miguel A; Pascasio, Judy Mae; de Chadarévian, Jean-Pierre; Legido, Agustin

    2014-06-01

    This case study describes an instance of death in an early term female newborn with congenital apnea in the clinical setting of multiple congenital anomalies (retrognathia, posteriorly rotated ears, camptodactyly, and arthrogryposis) and prenatal history of polyhydramnios. Postmortem neuropathologic findings were significant for tegmental necrosis in the caudal pons and medulla characterized by a coalescence of microcalcifications accompanied by neuronal loss, axonal spheroids, gliosis, and a concomitant hypoplasia of the inferior olives. This report raises awareness of the rare lethal entity of brainstem tegmental necrosis and olivary hypoplasia and its nosological relationship to the Möbius syndrome in the context of differential diagnosis of congenital apnea owing to central respiratory dysfunction. PMID:25149959

  12. Does Raising the Early Retirement Age Increase Employment of Older Workers?*

    OpenAIRE

    Staubli, Stefan; Zweimu?ller, Josef

    2013-01-01

    Two pension reforms in Austria increased the early retirement age (ERA) from 60 to 62 for men and from 55 to 58.25 for women. We find that raising the ERA increased employment by 9.75 percentage points among affected men and by 11 percentage points among affected women. The reforms had large spillover effects on the unemployment insurance program but negligible effects on disability insurance claims. Specifically, unemployment increased by 12.5 percentage points among men and by 11.8 percenta...

  13. RUMINAL CONDITION BETWEEN MADURA CATTLE AND ONGOLE CROSSBRED CATTLE RAISED UNDER INTENSIVE FEEDING

    OpenAIRE

    Umar, M.; Arifin, M.; Purnomoadi, A.

    2011-01-01

    Each four young bulls of Madura cattle and Ongole Crossbred (OC) cattle were used to study the efficiency of ruminal fermentation by comparing the proportion of Volatile Fatty Acid (VFA) of these two breeds which were raised under intensive feeding. All the cattle were in about 1.5 years-old with an average body weight of 147.75 ± 14.57 kg and 167 ± 22.57 kg, for Madura and OC cattle, respectively. They were fed Napier grass (Pennisetum purpureum) hay, and concentrate feeding consists of po...

  14. Behaviour of carbon dioxide and water vapour flux densities from a disturbed raised peat bog

    OpenAIRE

    Nieveen, J. P.; Jacobs, A. F. G.

    2002-01-01

    Measurements of carbon dioxide and water vapour flux densities were carried out for a disturbed raised peat bog in the north of the Netherlands during an 18 month continuous experiment. Tussock grass (sp. Molinea caerulae) mainly dominated the vegetation of the bog area. The maximum leaf area index (LAI) of the vegetation reached a numerical value of about 1.7 in mid-August. When the LAI is large enough (LAI > 0.2), a mean net uptake of carbon dioxide is observed with a clear daily pattern. ...

  15. Nuclear development strategic and policy issues raised by the transition from thermal to fast nuclear systems

    CERN Document Server

    2009-01-01

    The renewed interest in nuclear energy triggered by concerns about global climate change and security of supply could lead to substantial growth in nuclear electricity generation and expanded interest in fast neutron reactors with closed fuel cycles. Moving from the current fleet of thermal neutron reactors to fast neutron systems will require many decades and extensive RD&D efforts. This book identifies and analyses key strategic and policy issues raised by such a transition, and provides guidance to decision makers on the best approaches for implementing transition scenarios.

  16. Studies on the Genetic Constitution of Black and White Dairy Cattles Raised in Tahirova State Farm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yahya Tuncay Tuna

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study 1504 individual milk yield records were analysed to evaluate the breeding potential of dairy cattles raised in Tahirova State Farm. Milk yields records of 468 Black and White cattle were obtained from the period of 1978-1995. Heritability of reproductive (first breeding age-FBE; first calving age-FCA; calving interval-Cl; service period-SP and days in dry-DID and milk yield (lactation length-LL., 305 day milk yield-305d-MY traits were estimated from the data. Phenotypic correlation`s between reproductive traits and between milk yield traits were also calculated.

  17. Raising the Higgs Mass in Supersymmetry with t-t' Mixing

    OpenAIRE

    Faroughy, C.; Grizzard, K.

    2014-01-01

    In this article we propose a new strategy to address the Little Hierarchy problem. We show that the addition of a fourth generation with vector-like quarks to the minimal supersymmetric standard model (MSSM) can raise the predicted value of the physical Higgs mass by mixing with the top sector. The mixing requires a larger top quark Yukawa coupling (by up to $\\sim 6 %$) to produce the same top mass. Since loop corrections to $m_h$ go as $y_{top}^4$, this will in turn increas...

  18. Bio-Economic Evaluation of the Performance of Rabbits Raised under Two Different Housing Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Mobolaji-bukola, Pu; Allison-oguru, Ea; Berepubo, Na; Oruwari, Bm

    2002-01-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the bio-economic performance of rabbits raised under two different housing systems: conventional hutch with cage system as control (A) and the non-conventional floor housing system (B). Thirty six adult rabbits of medium size breed category of both sexes aged 5-6 months comprising Chinchilla (20), New Zealand White (10), Dutch (6) were used in the study which lasted 24 weeks. Fifteen does and 3 bucks were each randomly but equally assigned to both housing ...

  19. Raising students and educators awareness of radioactive materials transport through creative classroom materials and exhibits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The public is concerned about how the shipping and handling of radioactive materials affects them and their environment. Through exhibit showings doing professional education conferences and smaller, focussed workshops, the United States Department of Energy (DOE) has found teachers and students to be an especially interested audience for hazardous and radioactive materials transportation information. DOE recognizes the importance of presenting educational opportunities to students about scientific and societal issues associated with planning for and safely transporting these types of materials. Raising students' and educators' awareness of hazardous and radioactive materials transport through creative classroom materials and exhibits may help them make informed decisions as adults about this often controversial and difficult issue

  20. Parent experiences raising young people with type 1 diabetes and celiac disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, Kerri; Freeborn, Donna; Roper, Susanne Olsen; Mandleco, Barbara; Anderson, Ashley; Dyches, Tina

    2015-01-01

    Authors of this qualitative descriptive study interviewed 30 parents concerning their experiences raising a child or adolescent with type 1 diabetes (T1D) and celiac disease (CD). Analysis revealed six themes: (a) health complications of T1D, (b) challenges of daily disease management, (c) financial concerns, (d) the young person's emotional/mental health, (e) experiences with healthcare providers, and (f) experiences with people outside the family and at school. Results suggest nurses need to be sensitive to challenges young people living with T1D and CD and their parents face, conduct ongoing assessments, and provide time during interactions to adequately address concerns. PMID:25305541

  1. Mama `poma´, dad `apple´: Raising a Child with Catalan in Australia.

    OpenAIRE

    Victòria Gras

    2014-01-01

    The decision to speak Catalan to my daughter came naturally to me. How else would I tell a story, sing a lullaby or make her laugh but in the language I was told stories, sung lullabies to and made to laugh since I was a new-born! However, whereas the choice to speak one’s mother tongue to your children is not questioned anymore in Spain, making this same choice when you live elsewhere seems to raise a lot of eyebrows. In this article I will reflect, from my own experience...

  2. Raised middle-finger: electrocortical correlates of social conditioning with nonverbal affective gestures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wieser, Matthias J; Flaisch, Tobias; Pauli, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Humans form impressions of others by associating persons (faces) with negative or positive social outcomes. This learning process has been referred to as social conditioning. In everyday life, affective nonverbal gestures may constitute important social signals cueing threat or safety, which therefore may support aforementioned learning processes. In conventional aversive conditioning, studies using electroencephalography to investigate visuocortical processing of visual stimuli paired with danger cues such as aversive noise have demonstrated facilitated processing and enhanced sensory gain in visual cortex. The present study aimed at extending this line of research to the field of social conditioning by pairing neutral face stimuli with affective nonverbal gestures. To this end, electro-cortical processing of faces serving as different conditioned stimuli was investigated in a differential social conditioning paradigm. Behavioral ratings and visually evoked steady-state potentials (ssVEP) were recorded in twenty healthy human participants, who underwent a differential conditioning procedure in which three neutral faces were paired with pictures of negative (raised middle finger), neutral (pointing), or positive (thumbs-up) gestures. As expected, faces associated with the aversive hand gesture (raised middle finger) elicited larger ssVEP amplitudes during conditioning. Moreover, theses faces were rated as to be more arousing and unpleasant. These results suggest that cortical engagement in response to faces aversively conditioned with nonverbal gestures is facilitated in order to establish persistent vigilance for social threat-related cues. This form of social conditioning allows to establish a predictive relationship between social stimuli and motivationally relevant outcomes. PMID:25054341

  3. Ischemia deteriorates the spike encoding of rat cerebellar Purkinje cells by raising intracellular Ca2+

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ischemia-induced excitotoxicity at cerebellar Purkinje cells is presumably due to a persistent glutamate action. To the fact that they are more vulnerable to ischemia than other glutamate-innervated neurons, we studied whether additional mechanisms are present and whether cytoplasm Ca2+ plays a key role in their ischemic excitotoxicity. Ischemic changes in the excitability of Purkinje cells were measured by whole-cell recording in cerebellar slices of rats with less glutamate action. The role of cytoplasm Ca2+ was examined by two-photon cellular imaging and BAPTA infusion in Purkinje cells. Lowering perfusion rate to cerebellar slices deteriorated spike timing and raised spike capacity of Purkinje cells. These changes were associated with the reduction of spike refractory periods and threshold potentials, as well as the loss of their control to spike encoding. Ischemia-induced functional deterioration at Purkinje neurons was accompanied by cytoplasm Ca2+ rise and prevented by BAPTA infusion. Therefore, the ischemia destabilizes the spike encoding of Purkinje cells via raising cytoplasm Ca2+ without a need for glutamate, which subsequently causes their excitotoxic death

  4. ESR dating of raised coral reefs from Kish Island, Persian Gulf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preusser, F.; Radtke, U.; Fontugne, M.; Haghipour, A.; Hilgers, A.; Kasper, H. U.; Nazari, H.; Pirazzoli, P. A.

    2003-05-01

    Electron spin resonance (ESR) dating of raised coral reefs from Kish Island, Persian Gulf, Iran, was used for the calculation of uplift rates. From the methodological point of view, it has been demonstrated that concentrations of uranium, as needed for the calculation of dose rates, determined by instrumental neutron activation analyses were significantly lower than the results of inductively coupled plasma—mass spectrometry and are probably systematically underestimated. The ESR ages for the corals show no increase with elevation as was expected due to field observations. This apparent discrepancy is explained by the dicyclic nature of the palaeo-reef. Average uplift rates for Kish Island are between ˜0.13 and ˜0.24 mm a -1. This is consistent with previous estimates based on 230Th/ 234U dating of raised marine deposits from the nearby Iranian mainland and Qeshm Island, Strait of Hormuz, but contrary to results based on 14C dating that predicted uplift rates as high as 3 mm a -1 in that area. It is once more demonstrated that 14C dates >20 ka from this context often have to be interpreted as minimum ages.

  5. Grandparents Raising Grandchildren in the United States: Changing Family Forms, Stagnant Social Policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Lindsey A; Silverstein, Merril; Putney, Norella M

    2008-01-01

    As a consequence of increased divorce rates, the proliferation of single-parent families, and patterns of economic stagnation, parents are increasingly relying on extended family to care for children. In the past few decades, a substantial increase in the number of grandparents raising grandchildren has been observed within the United States. Grandparents who raise their grandchildren are particularly vulnerable, as are the grandchildren in their care; however, U.S. policy currently presents many barriers, gaps, and unintended consequences for grandparent caregivers. In this paper, we use two theoretical paradigms 1) structural lag and 2) the political economy of aging perspective to argue that U.S. policy has not kept pace with the reality of the family and - as a result - those families who are most vulnerable often receive the least support. We propose that as family forms become more diverse a redefinition of the family to one that is less bound by residence and biology, to one based more on function, will be required. PMID:20585408

  6. Increasing Public Participation through Awareness Raising Activities: A Case Study in Trao Reef Marine Reserve, Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hang Thi Minh Tran

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available In the last few decades, community-based management has evolved to become an effective approach in managing natural resources and solving environmental problems around the world. In this approach, stakeholder participation is considered as a very important factor contributing to the success or failure of the management effort. To promote and enhance stakeholder participation, awareness raising activities could be conducted in various innovative forms. This is clearly illustrated in the case of Trao Reef, a locally-managed marine reserve in central Vietnam. The paper reviews the management approach applied to Trao Reef, focusing on analysis of stakeholder participation. The high level of environmental awareness of the local community contributed to the successful outcome of the project. Many communication activities and awareness raising campaigns were organized within the community to get them involved in all steps of the management process. The project enhanced the marine resources and ecosystem health, and helped to build a more sustainable livelihood and living lifestyle for the local community. Trao Reef has become a role model for effective environmental management that harmonizes the socio-economic benefits of the local community and nature conservation.

  7. Work performed by a Classical-"reversible"-Carnot cycle Raising's distribution for the small "driving weights"

    CERN Document Server

    Liberto, F

    2000-01-01

    The expansions or the compressions of the ideal gas in the quasi-static Carnot cycle, can be performed (on adiabatic or isothermal way) by slowly increasing or decreasing the external pressure by means of small weights acting on the piston of the vessel containing the gas. We call them shortly the ``driving weights'' (dw). Let N be their number, a large one. To determine the work performed by the ideal gas in the cycle the ``driving weights'' must be handled carefully. If we let them move on-off the piston only horizontally, their vertical motions will be due only to the gas. Here we show that, at the end, while some of them will have moved down (will have negative raising) the remaining ones (the majority) will have moved up (will have positive raising) so that the total work performed by the ideal gas equals the total variation of the gravitational potential energy of the ``driving weghts''. The cycle is performed in 2N time-steps. For each step t_i, with i in 1,..,2N, we give H(t_i), and DH(t_{i-1},t_i), r...

  8. Some phenotypic traits of mules raised in Sirnak province of Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Yilmaz

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research study is to determine mules raised in province of Sirnakmorphologically. This study was conducted to define body dimensions by analyzing sex and age by comparing with province of Ordu, region of East Anatolian, mean of Turkish, and UK mules. Data were analyzed for ANOVA and Student’s T-Test using the Minitab 16 statistical programme. In this study a total of 38 mules, 18 males and 20 females, were used in three age groups (3-5, 6-8 and 9-18 years. Descriptive statistics of morphologic traits were for withers height 132.7±0.67, height at rump 133.7±0.73, body length 135.1±0.84, heart girth circumference 147.7±0.76, chest depth 60.6±0.34, cannon circumference 16.9±0.16, and head length 56.8±0.26 cm. In this study the distributions of coat colour were for bay colour 47.7%, black 7.9%, mouse gray 5.3%, white 31.6% and chestnut 10.5%. It was observed that growthis nearly complete at 3 years of age and then there was a small difference in body size. The present data showed that mules raised in province of Sirnak were slightly larger in body sizes than UK, East Anatolian, Turkish and Ordu mules.

  9. Raising the dead without a Red Sea-Dead Sea canal? Hydro-economics and governance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenberg, D. E.

    2010-12-01

    Seven decades of extractions have dramatically reduced Jordan River flows, lowered the Dead Sea level, opened sink holes, and caused other environmental problems. The fix Jordan, Israel, and the Palestinians propose would build an expensive multipurpose canal from the Red Sea to the Dead Sea that would also generate hydropower and desalinated water. This paper compares the Red-Dead project to alternatives that may also raise the Dead Sea level. Hydro-economic model results for the Jordan-Israel-Palestinian inter-tied water systems show two restoration alternatives are more economically viable than the proposed Red-Dead project. Many decentralized new supply, wastewater reuse, conveyance, conservation, and leak reduction projects and programs in each country can together increase economic benefits and reliably deliver up to 900 MCM/year to the Dead Sea. Similarly, a smaller Red-Dead project that only generates hydropower can deliver large flows to the Dead Sea when the sale price of generated electricity is sufficiently high. However, for all restoration options, net benefits fall and water scarcity rises as flows to the Dead Sea increase. This finding suggests (i) each country has no individual incentive to return water to the Dead Sea, and (ii) outside institutions that seek to raise the Dead must also offer countries direct incentives to deliver water to the Sea besides building the countries new infrastructure.

  10. Raising Climate Finance from International Transport Sectors. Identification and Analysis of Governance Structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faber, J. [CE Delft, Delft (Netherlands); Pahuja, N.; Garg, A. [The Energy and Resources Institute TERI, New Delhi (India)

    2012-03-15

    Market based instruments (MBIs) for maritime transport have the potential to reduce emissions while at the same time raising funds for climate policies in developing countries. GHG emissions from international aviation and maritime transport accounted for approximately 5% of global anthropogenic emissions in 2005 and are rising rapidly. There is a clear need to address these emissions in order not to undermine policies for mitigating land based emissions. Developing countries need financial support to carry out climate policies, both adaptation and mitigation. The UN Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) makes policies by developing countries conditional on climate finance. In the current economic and financial circumstances, there is a need for new sources of finance. The governance of such MBIs should ensure that they are neither an international tax nor require hypothecation of fiscal revenues, while they should provide new and additional finance. MBIs which are in fact an international tax would not be politically feasible, and likewise hypothecation would be opposed by many states. This report finds that an emissions trading scheme (ETS) can satisfy these criteria, provided that: (1) it transfers a share of allowances directly to developing countries in order to ensure there is no net incidence on them; developing countries could auction these allowances in order to raise revenue; (2) it transfers allowances to the Green Climate Fund to support climate policies; auctioning these allowances would provide revenues for the Fund; (3) it transfers allowances to IMO or another organisation in order to finance fuel-efficiency improvements in international transport.

  11. DETERMINATION OF ZERDAVA DOG (KAPI KOPEGI RAISED IN NORTHEAST OF TURKEY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orhan YILMAZ

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This is the first document on Turkish Zerdava dogs raised in northeast of Turkey. This study was carried out to define the morphologic traits of the Turkish Zerdava dogs raised in east of Turkey comparing with some other native dog breeds of Turkey. To this end, a total of 39 (19 male and 20 female dogs was analyzed using the Minitab 15 statistical software program using ANOVA and Student’s t-Test. Descriptive statistics and comparison results were for height at shoulders 51.2±0.35, height at rump 51.6±0.28, body length 56.3±0.35, heart girth circumference 50±1.43, chest width 25.6±0.22, cannon circumference 9.4±0.14, and head length 19.4±0.17 cm respectively. The overall results of the study demonstrated that Turkish Zerdava dogs had a very close resemblance to the Turkish Kangal (Karabash and Akbash Shepherd dogs related with body measurements. The Zerdava dogs reach mature body weight and size at around 18 months of age.

  12. Increasing efficiency of the 'Strela' machine with pneumatic motor. [Raise drilling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zavertnev, V.I.; Lipkovich, V.A.

    1986-04-01

    Dongiprouglemash investigated factors which influence productivity of the 'Strela' equipment for raise drilling in the Central Donbass. Effects of compressed air pressure used by the pneumatic motors of the 'Strela' machine (nominal pressure 0.35 to 0.4 MPa, actual pressure 0.14 to 0.3 MPa) on productivity and drilling efficiency were analyzed. Increasing air pressure to 0.6 MPa would increase 'Strela' productivity 1.8 to 2.0 times. Effects of mechanical properties of sedimentary rocks and coal on drilling were evaluated. Correlations of coal rank with coal mechanical properties were analyzed. The optimum drilling conditions for selected types of sedimentary rocks and coal are discussed. Recommendations are made for revolution rates and haulage rates. Types of pneumatic motors for the 'Strela' machine are reviewed. Types of cutting tools used by the 'Strela' system are described. Effects of automatic control systems on drilling efficiency, cutting tool wear and energy consumption are discussed. Recommendations are made for increasing efficiency of raise drilling by the 'Strela' drilling equipment.

  13. Characteristics of milk production traits of Balkan goats raised under “low-input” production systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladan Bogdanovi?

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available In order to analyse dairy production traits (milk yield in full lactation, milk fat content, daily milk yield and length of lactation of Balkan goats raised under “low-input” production systems, data on 440 lactation records from 118 does raised on 9 farms in south-east part of Serbia were used. General linear model, used for analysing variability of lactation length, was consisting of following fixed effects: farm, year of birth, year of production and number of lactation. Model for milk yield in full lactation, milk fat content and daily milk yield was consisting of farms, year of birth, year of production and number of lactation as fixed effects and length of lactation as covariate. The highest milk yield (392 kg and the highest milk fat content (3.89 % were achieved in III lactation. Effects of farm, year of production and number of lactation were very significant sources of variation (P<0.001 for milk yield, daily milk yield and milk fat content, while the year of birth as factor of phenotypic variation in these traits expressed no such consistency. Highly significant sources of variation (P<0.001 for the length of lactation were farm and year of production, while the length of lactation had a significant influence (P<0.001 only for total milk yield variability.

  14. Persistent structural adaptation in the lungs of guinea pigs raised at high altitude.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravikumar, Priya; Bellotto, Dennis J; Hsia, Connie C W

    2015-03-01

    Laboratory guinea pigs raised at high altitude (HA, 3800m) for up to 6mo exhibit enhanced alveolar growth and remodeling (Hsia et al., 2005. Resp. Physiol. Neurobiol. 147, 105-115). To determine whether initial HA-induced structural enhancement persists following return to intermediate altitude (IA), we raised weanling guinea pigs at (a) HA for 11-12mo, (b) IA (1200m) for 11-12mo, and (c) HA for 4 mo followed by IA for 7-8mo (HA-to-IA). Morphometric analysis was performed under light and electron microscopy. Body weight and lung volume were similar among groups. Prolonged HA residence increased alveolar epithelium and interstitium volumes while reducing alveolar-capillary blood volume. The HA-induced gains in type-1 epithelium volume and alveolar surface area were no longer present following return to IA whereas volume increases in type-2 epithelium and interstitium and the reduction in alveolar duct volume persisted. Results demonstrate persistent augmentation of some but not all aspects of lung structure throughout prolonged HA residence, with partial reversibility following re-acclimatization to IA. PMID:25534146

  15. Frank-ter Haar syndrome associated with sagittal craniosynostosis and raised intracranial pressure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bendon Charlotte L

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Frank-ter Haar syndrome is a rare disorder associated with skeletal, cardiac, ocular and craniofacial features including hypertelorism and brachycephaly. The most common underlying genetic defect in Frank-ter Haar syndrome appears to be a mutation in the SH3PXD2B gene on chromosome 5q35.1. Craniosynostosis, or premature fusion of the calvarial sutures, has not previously been described in Frank-ter Haar syndrome. Case presentation We present a family of three affected siblings born to consanguineous parents with clinical features in keeping with a diagnosis of Frank-ter Haar syndrome. All three siblings have a novel mutation caused by the deletion of exon 13 of the SH3PXD2B gene. Two of the three siblings also have non-scaphocephalic sagittal synostosis associated with raised intracranial pressure. Conclusion The clinical features of craniosynostosis and raised intracranial pressure in this family with a confirmed diagnosis of Frank-ter Haar syndrome expand the clinical spectrum of the disease. The abnormal cranial proportions in a mouse model of the disease suggests that the association is not coincidental. The possibility of craniosynostosis should be considered in individuals with a suspected diagnosis of Frank-ter Haar syndrome.

  16. Research Concerning the Economic Efficiency in Carabasa Sheep Breed Raising in Various Sized Farms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agatha Popescu

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper aimed to analyze the economic efficiency in two farms dealing with Carabasa Breed raising as follows:Farm1-86 sheep flock, of which 62 ewes, producing in average 146 liters milk/head/year and Farm 2-297 sheepstock, of which 255 ewes, with 140 liters/head milk yield. Economic efficiency was comparatively analyzed basedon: gross product, production cost, variable and fixed cost, gross margin, profit, profit rate, farm economic size. Theboth farms registered profit, but Farm 2, the largest one taking into account the number of sheep, recorded a highereconomic efficiency: 1.5 lambs/ewe, 22.50 kg cottage cheese/ewe, 1.17 Easter lambs/ewe, Euro 148 feedingcost/sheep, Euro 0.30/liter milk cost, Euro 233 income/ewe, Euro 61 profit/ewe, Euro 68 gross margin/ewe and a35.55% profit rate. With Euro 17,274 profit at farm level, Farm 2 was considered a commercial middle sized farm,ESU 7.19 and Farm 1 a very small farm, ESU 1.04. As a conclusion, breeders raising Carabasa Breed, an excellentbiological resource for milk and meat for Romanian sheep farming, have to increase farm size in order to go up theprofitability and competitiveness of their farms.

  17. Compromised metamorphosis and thyroid hormone changes in wood frogs (Lithobates sylvaticus) raised on reclaimed wetlands on the Athabasca oil sands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hersikorn, Blair D; Smits, Judit E G

    2011-02-01

    The wet landscape approach to oil sands tailings reclamation in the Athabasca Oil Sands region involves creating wetlands from fluid tailings in mined-out pits. We measured time to metamorphosis, thyroid hormone status, and detoxification enzyme (EROD) induction in Wood frog (Lithobates sylvaticus) tadpoles raised on reclaimed oil sands wetlands of different ages [young (? 7 yr) vs. old (> 7 yr)] and compared data with tadpoles raised on reference (control) wetlands. Metamorphosis was delayed or never occurred in tadpoles raised in young tailings; those exposed to older tailings developed similarly to those in reference wetlands. Thyroid hormone disruption likely played an important role in the metamorphosis delay as the T3:T4 ratio was lowest in tadpoles raised in young, tailings-affected wetlands. Our findings suggest tailings wetlands become less toxic with age, and that these amphibians will be able to complete their life cycle in tailing wetlands that have sufficiently detoxified with age. PMID:21036440

  18. Faculty Pay Up 5.9 Pct. to $35,470; Best Raise in 15 Years, AAUP Says.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heller, Scott

    1987-01-01

    While faculty salaries rose more overall, there are continuing signs of salary compression, with lower-ranking faculty getting larger raises than higher-ranking faculty, and faculty continue to lose purchasing power. (MSE)

  19. 76 FR 41854 - Aqua Society, Inc., Centurion Gold Holdings, Inc., and PowerRaise, Inc.; Order of Suspension of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-15

    ...SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION [File No. 500-1] Aqua Society, Inc., Centurion Gold Holdings, Inc., and PowerRaise...and accurate information concerning the securities of Aqua Society, Inc. because it has not filed any periodic reports...

  20. Role of hypertonic saline and mannitol in the management of raised intracranial pressure in children: A randomized comparative study

    OpenAIRE

    Upadhyay Piyush; Tripathi V; Singh R; Sachan D

    2010-01-01

    Objective : To compare the efficacy and side effects of 3% hypertonic saline and mannitol in the management of raised intracranial pressure in children. Design : Prospective randomized study. Setting : Pediatric intensive care unit (PICU) in a tertiary care hospital. Subject : 200 patients with raised intracranial pressure. Materials and Methods : Patients were randomized into two statistically comparable groups; Group A (n = 98) was treated with mannitol while Group B (n = 100) was tr...

  1. How NaCl raises blood pressure: a new paradigm for the pathogenesis of salt-dependent hypertension

    OpenAIRE

    Blaustein, Mordecai P.; Leenen, Frans H. H.; Chen, Ling; Golovina, Vera A.; Hamlyn, John M.; Pallone, Thomas L.; Huysse, James W.; Zhang, Jin; Wier, W. Gil

    2011-01-01

    Excess dietary salt is a major cause of hypertension. Nevertheless, the specific mechanisms by which salt increases arterial constriction and peripheral vascular resistance, and thereby raises blood pressure (BP), are poorly understood. Here we summarize recent evidence that defines specific molecular links between Na+ and the elevated vascular resistance that directly produces high BP. In this new paradigm, high dietary salt raises cerebrospinal fluid [Na+]. This leads, via the Na+-sensing c...

  2. Competition between Sphagnum magellanicum and Eriophorum angustifolium as affected by raised CO2 and increased N deposition

    OpenAIRE

    Heijmans, M. M. P. D.; Klees, H.; Berendse, F.

    2002-01-01

    The competition between peat mosses (Sphagnum) and vascular plants as affected by raised CO2 and increased N deposition was studied in a glasshouse experiment by exposing peat monoliths with monocultures and mixtures of Sphagnummagellanicum and Eriophorumangustifolium to ambient (350 ppmv) or raised (560 ppmv) atmospheric CO2 concentrations, combined with low (no N addition) or high (5 g m2 yr1 added) N deposition. Growth of the two species was monitored for three growing seasons. The presen...

  3. At the Roots of Finnish Elementary Education – How Were Children Raised in the First Finnish Elementary Schools?

    OpenAIRE

    Uusiautti, Satu; Paksuniemi, Merja; Ma?a?tta?, Kaarina

    2013-01-01

    This study dissects the history of Finnish elementary education and the way children were raised during the initial phase of Finnish education in the 18th century. The development of Finnish education was studied through contemporary decrees and laws and studies of Finnish school history. The preliminary aim was to focus on the principles and practices of raising children in Finnish schools. This study focuses on (1) describing the birth, goals, and practices of Finnish elementary education a...

  4. Barberry treatment reduces serum anti-heat shock protein 27 and 60 antibody titres and high-sensitivity c-reactive protein in patients with metabolic syndrome: a double-blind, randomized placebo-controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zilaee, Marzie; Kermany, Tayyebeh; Tavalaee, Shima; Salehi, Maryam; Ghayour-Mobarhan, Majid; Ferns, Gordon A A

    2014-08-01

    Metabolic syndrome is an important risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD). The heat shock proteins (HSPs) are associated with risk factors for CVD. The aim of the present study was to survey the effect of barberry on antibody titres to HSPs and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) in patients with metabolic syndrome. In our study, subjects (N=106, 79 women and 27 men, 18-65 years old) with metabolic syndrome were randomized into two groups: a group of patients who received three capsules of barberry and a control group who received three capsules of placebo for 6 weeks. Antibodies against HSPs 27, 60/65 and 70, hs-CRP and lipid profile were determined in patients before (week 0) and after (week 6) intervention. spss software (version 16.0; Inc, Chicago, IL) was used for data analysis. Results showed that barberry had no significant effect on serum level of anti-HSPs 65 and 70. But there was a significant decrease in anti-HSP 27 in both case and control groups (p=0.001 and phs-CRP levels and improved lipid profile. PMID:24536039

  5. Raising money with tax incentives: an overview of how U.S. tax credits are marketed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article outlines a method for using certain U.S. income tax credits to raise investment capital. With proper structuring, these tax credits can essentially be ''sold'' to outside investors. A project which may not have sufficient income to take advantage of tax benefits, such as the 29 alternative fuel credit, may sell an interest in the project to commercial investors who can use tax credits. The investors provide cash for the project in return for the tax credits, as well as a portion of the income generated by the project. This article outlines how this type of arrangement can be structured and which tax credits are available for ''sale''. It also identifies possible sources of investment money, issues that an investor will likely consider before investing in such a project, and the potential pitfalls of such a project. (author)

  6. Characterization of mouse mammary tumour specific cell surface antigens with rabbit antisera raised against such cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Several categories of newly expressed cell surface antigens may be detected in RNA tumour virus transformed cells, such as viral structural proteins, embryonic or fetal antigens and non-virion, virus-associated tumour specific cell surface antigens (TCSAs). It is possible that the mammary tumour-bearing mouse is immunologically tolerant to particular TCSAs. Such antigens would not be detected in the homologous system. To examine this possibility the authors raised sera in rabbits against MuMTV-induced mouse mammary tumour cells. The sera were tested in a humoral cytotoxicity assay and in a membrane immunofluorescence assay against mouse mammary tumour cells and against control cells. Sera were subsequently subjected to different absorption procedures. (Auth.)

  7. Seroepidemiological survey on Japanese encephalitis virus in swine raising on the southern border of Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antarasena, C.

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available From February to March 1999, a seroepidemiological survey on Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV was carried out. One thousand and thirteen serum samples of swine were collected from 37 farms in 4 provinces at the southern border of Thailand; Songkhla, Yala, Narathiwat and Satun. Japanese encephalitis virus antibody was measured using microtiter hemagglutination inhibition (HI test. The results indicated that 95.12 - 99.42% of the breeder pigs had JE-HI antibodies at > 1:40 compared with 89.08% of the gilts. The percentages of seropositive animals were 49.75%, 50.65% and 100% in fattening pigs, weaning and suckling piglets, respectively. The study demonstrated a high exposure rate of JEV infection among swine population raised on the southern border of Thailand.

  8. Dependence of UV effect on quality of light during raising of seedlings (Lactuca sativa L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greenhouse seedlings of Lactuca sativa L. show a decreased rate of photosynthesis under normal outdoor light conditions due to the effect of UV-light. In this study, the relationship between the declining rate of photosynthesis and the amount of UV in the spectrum was investigated. The determination was made in climatized gas exchange chambers under Xenon arc lamps (XBO 2500 W, Osram). The amount of UV in the spectrum was varied by the use of different surface mirrors made by aluminium evaporation. A linear relationship between the amount of UV-light in the spectrum and the rate of decrease of photosynthesis was obtained with 12 hour radiation. The decrease in photosynthesis is less when the plants are raised under UV-light lamps. (orig.)

  9. Issues raised by FERC Order No. 636 and their implications for GRI. Topical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaske, J.S.

    1994-02-01

    Issues posed by the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission's (FERC) Order No. 636 are analyzed. This FERC order, issued on April 8, 1992, required pipelines to restructure their operations and fundamentally change the way they operate their systems. The report consists of five sections. Section 1 summarizes the background and provisions of Order No. 636 and the issues raised by restructuring, the challenges, and possible future changes to the rules. Section 2 discusses effects on gas markets and the structure of the natural gas industry. Sections 3 and 4 focus on the implications for local distribution companies and electric power generators, respectively. The final section addresses the implications for Gas Research Institute (GRI), both for research programs and funding arrangements. Five areas are identified where GRI might undertake additional research efforts as a result of Order No. 636 and related industry changes.

  10. Economic growth to raise U.S. oil products, natural gas demand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An accelerating economy will raise consumption of oil products and natural gas in the US this year. Contributing to demand growth will be the slump that began late last year in prices for crude oil and petroleum products. Some price recovery is likely in 1994, but there's little reason to expect a major increase. With oil production falling and demand rising, imports will have to climb again this year. OGJ projects a 2.6% increase this year following a 6.6% increase last year. Imports are expected to fill a record high 49.3% of US oil demand this year. The paper discusses energy and the economy, overall energy use, energy by source, the electrification trend, energy supplies, imports, refining operations, the growth of margins, and the energy demand of motor gasoline, jet fuel, distillate fuels, residual fuel oils, other petroleum products, and natural gas

  11. Most frequent nematode parasites of artificially raised pheasants (Phasianus colchicus L and measures for their control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavlovi? Ivan

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Helminthoses have an important role in the pathology of artificially raised game pheasants. During the period 1997-2002. we examined a total of 1893 pheasant poults aged from 4 to 14 weeks and 1432 adult birds at several pheasanteries in Serbia. The following nematode species were found: Syngamus trachea, Ascaridia galli, A. columbae, Heterakis gallinarum, H. isolonche Capillaria gallinae (sin. C. caudinflata, C. columbae (sin. C. obsignata and C. phasianis. The intensity of infection in total was not high, except for infection with ascaridata and gapeworms, and depended of age of the examined birds. Consisting of anthelmintic drugs mixed with meal gave the most favourable results in therapy on rhe medicated food.

  12. Raising energy efficiency and cutting greenhouse gas emissions : an analysis of publicly funded petroleum research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-11-01

    From the preface: This brochure is based on an analysis study that ascertained that since 2004 the Research Council's PETROMAKS and DEMO 2000 programmes have allocated funding to more than 80 projects carried out by the research community and private industry relating to climate challenges. Once these projects have been concluded, they will have received a total of over half a billion kroner in public funding. There is no doubt that many of the measures recommended by these projects will have positive impacts on the environment. Many of these research findings can contribute to making processes more energy efficient or to directly reducing emissions of greenhouse gases. The brochure presents a selection of these projects. A complete list of projects under the PETROMAKS and DEMO 2000 programmes which address raising energy efficiency may be found at the end of the brochure.(eb)

  13. Using consciousness-raising principles to inform modern knowledge translation practices in women's health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poole, Nancy

    2008-06-01

    In traditional models of knowledge translation in health care, the "expert" researcher disseminates empirical knowledge in a top-down manner to practitioners. Newer approaches extend our view of who needs to be involved in knowledge translation, what counts as evidence, and how knowledge exchange can be facilitated. Multisectoral participation and processes for collective synthesis of evidence increase the potential for the application of knowledge in practice and policy in ways that are mutually reinforcing and address structural inequities. The author examines the use of feminist consciousness-raising practices in virtual communities of practice as a viable framework for knowledge translation on complex health issues. Using the preliminary findings ofa study, she discusses how collective analysis in collaborative processes--which is at the heart of feminist action research--leads to engaged action by participants. PMID:18714899

  14. How high the temperature of a liquid be raised without boiling?

    CERN Document Server

    Das, M; Roy, B; Roy, S C; Das, Mala

    2000-01-01

    How high the temperature of a liquid be raised beyond its boiling point without vaporizing (known as the limit of superheat) is an interesting subject of investigation. A new method of finding the limit of superheat of liquids is presented here. The superheated liquids are taken in the form of drops suspended in visco elastic gel. The nucleation is detected acoustically by a sensitive piezo-electric transducer, coupled to a multi channel scaler and the nucleation is observed as a funtion of time and with increase of temperature. The limit of superheat measured by the present method supersedes all other measurements and theoretical predictions in reaching closest to the critical temperature and warrants improved theoretical predictions.

  15. Genetic diversity of a large set of horse breeds raised in France assessed by microsatellite polymorphism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mériaux Jean-Claude

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The genetic diversity and structure of horses raised in France were investigated using 11 microsatellite markers and 1679 animals belonging to 34 breeds. Between-breed differences explained about ten per cent of the total genetic diversity (Fst = 0.099. Values of expected heterozygosity ranged from 0.43 to 0.79 depending on the breed. According to genetic relationships, multivariate and structure analyses, breeds could be classified into four genetic differentiated groups: warm-blooded, draught, Nordic and pony breeds. Using complementary maximisation of diversity and aggregate diversity approaches, we conclude that particular efforts should be made to conserve five local breeds, namely the Boulonnais, Landais, Merens, Poitevin and Pottok breeds.

  16. Mind the gap: the distributional effects of raising the early eligibility age and full retirement age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, Anya

    2012-01-01

    Policymakers have proposed increases to the early eligibility age (EEA) and/or full retirement age (FRA) to address increasing life expectancy and Social Security solvency issues. This analysis uses the Social Security Administration's Modeling Income in the Near Term, version 6 (MINT6) model to compare three retirement-age increases suggested by the Social Security Advisory Board: increase the gap between the EEA and FRA by raising only the FRA, increase both the EEA and FRA to maintain a 4-year gap between them, and increase both the EEA and FRA to maintain a 5-year gap between them. Although all three options would improve system solvency by similar proportions, their effect on individual beneficiaries in the future would vary. Benefit reductions are greater under the proposals with more months between the EEA and FRA, while the option that maintains a 4-year gap results in benefit increases for some beneficiaries compared with current law. PMID:23397744

  17. Imaging of bone tumors using a monoclonal antibody raised against human osteosarcoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The radiolabeled monoclonal antibody 791T/36 raised against a human osteosarcoma was injected into 20 patients with known or suspected bone tumors. Gamma camera images were acquired at 48 or 72 hours after injection, and assessed for antibody localization. Positive images were obtained in all five osteosarcomas and four other primary malignant sarcomas. Two of the four other primary bone tumors gave positive images. Three patients with trauma had negative images as did one patient with Paget's disease. Two patients with suppurative disease gave positive images. The antibody localized in the majority of malignant sarcomas tested. In one tumor where tissue was available, a tumor:non-tumor ratio of 2.8:1 was measured. Repeat imaging was performed in five patients. Immunoscintigraphy using the monoclonal antibody 791T/36 has shown tumor localization in patients with bone and soft tissue sarcomas

  18. Variants in the deep circumflex iliac artery: clinical considerations in raising iliac osteocutaneous free flaps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, K; Nozaki, M; Okagaki, M; Nishikage, M; Kikuchi, Y

    1999-10-01

    Anomalies of the deep circumflex iliac artery do occur, although they are uncommon. Recently, two cases of these anomalies were encountered by the authors during elevation of iliac osteocutaneous free flaps. In the first case, the deep circumflex iliac artery was absent, and the nourishing artery of the flap was instead connected to the large iliolumbar artery. In the second case, the ascending branch, deriving from the deep circumflex iliac artery as usual, had a separate takeoff directly from the external iliac artery, and provided blood supply to the overlying skin as a musculocutaneous perforator that transversed the three muscle layers of the abdominal wall. This ascending branch was assumed to be a duplication of the deep circumflex iliac artery. Ascertaining the divergence of the deep circumflex iliac artery from the external iliac artery before beginning to raise the flap, and careful dissection of the artery, are essential for minimizing problems in flap transfer. PMID:10566582

  19. Grammar Consciousness-Raising Activities and Iranian EFL Learners' Attitudes toward English Language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farrokhlagha Heidari

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The first purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of consciousness-raising (C-R activities on learning grammatical structures by Iranian EFL learners. The second one was to investigate the effect of gender through C-R activities and tasks. Finally, this study wanted to investigate the Iranian students’ attitudes toward learning English prior to and after applying the C-R activities. An attitude questionnaire was use to investigate the participants' attitudes toward learning English before and after applying C-R activities. Data analysis indicated that using C-R activities in is significantly more effective than the traditional approaches. Regarding gender, male outperformed females. Therefore, it is recommended that other teachers consider C-R activities as useful options in teaching other aspects of language.  Based on the statistics and findings, Iranian students’ attitudes toward learning English language were not much different prior to and after applying C-R activities.

  20. Identification, rearing, and distribution of stick insects of Madeira Island: an example of raising biodiversity awareness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguiar, António M F; Pombo, Dora Aguin; Gonçalves, Ysabel M

    2014-01-01

    Two species of stick insects are currently known to be present in the Macaronesian archipelagos: Clonopsis gallica (Charpentier) (Phasmatodea: Bacillidae) on the Canary Islands and in the Azores and Carausius morosus (Sinéty) (Phasmatidae) in the Azores. Here, we provide the first reliable records of the presence and distribution of C. gallica and C. morosus on Madeira Island. Egg and adult stages are briefly described along with some notes on the life history of these species in captivity. Data on islandwide distribution are based on specimens donated by the public in response to an article published in a daily newspaper. This method of data collection raised great popular interest in stick insects. The role of newspapers as a means of communicating awareness in biodiversity issues is discussed. PMID:25373196

  1. Atmospheric flux of agricultural fumigants from raised-bed, plastic-mulch crop production systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chellemi, Dan O.; Ajwa, Husein A.; Sullivan, David A.

    2010-12-01

    Atmospheric emission of methyl isothiocyanate (MITC), chloropicrin (CP), 1,3-dichloropropene (1,3-D), and dimethyl disulfide (DMDS) were measured in the field under fumigant application scenarios representative of raised bed-plastic-mulched crop production systems. For three fumigation sites located in Florida, cumulative emissions of 1,3-D, MITC and CP were less than 11%, 6% and 2%, respectively. For three fumigation sites in located in Georgia, cumulative emissions of MITC and CP were film used to cover soil following application. This study demonstrated reduced atmospheric emissions of agricultural fumigants under commercial production conditions when applied using good agricultural practices including soil water contents above field capacity, uniform soil tilth in the fumigation zone and the use of metalized or virtually impermeable films to further reduce fumigant emissions. The results of this study show a need for regional flux studies due to the various interactions of soil and climate with local agricultural land management practices.

  2. Bog discharge from different viewpoints: comparison of Ingram's theory with observations from an Estonian raised bog

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oosterwoud, Marieke; van der Ploeg, Martine; van der Zee, Sjoerd

    2013-04-01

    Raised bogs are typically dome shaped and have a groundwater level located close to the soil surface. Besides their typical dome shape, these peatlands are often characterized by a pronounced surface topography consisting of pools, wet depressions (hollows), stretches of Sphagnum species (lawns), drier mounds (hummocks) and higher drier areas with terrestrial vegetation (ridges). These peat bodies drain laterally by gravity to adjacent areas with lower groundwater levels. The integrity of these bogs is only ascertained when water is stored in the peat body in periods of precipitation deficit and efficiently removed in wet periods. This is realized by the fact that the bog's top layer, often called acrotelm, has a variable hydraulic conductivity. In response to precipitation its hydraulic conductivity increases, whereas, under evaporative demand the water table lowers and therefore also the hydraulic conductivity decreases. Ingram proposed a model based on the Dupuit-Forchheimer approximation for Darcy's law that assumes vertical flow is negligible, and the slope of the water table is equal to the hydraulic gradient. U- Hm2- K = L2 (1) where U is net recharge (P-ET), K is horizontal hydraulic conductivity, Hm is hydraulic head above a flat bottom at the centre of the bog, L is half the width of the bog along the cross section. This model incorporates the assumption that all net rainfall reaching the water table will be discharged to the stream. Ingram's model does not consider local heterogeneities in surface topography, like pool-ridge patterns. We hypothesize that under drier conditions it is likely that pool-ridge patterning will inhibit water from flowing along the surface gradient. Under wet conditions, however, pools can become connected and water can move through the upper highly permeable layer of ridges. In this study, we investigated the influence of ridge-pool patterning on the horizontal water flow through a raised bog and compared it with Ingram's approach. Our study site was Mannikjarve, a raised bog located centrally in Estonia and part of the larger Endla Nature Reserve. The size of the bog is approximately 2 km2. Mannikjarve is characterized by a surface pattern of different microtopes consisting of ridge-pool, hollow-ridge, hummock-hollow, Sphagnum lawn, and margin forest. We created a flow-net based on the raised bogs surface elevation. This flow-net defines the direction of lateral flow in the acrotelm. Based on the flow-net we divided the bog into sub-catchments representing the area contributing to discharge at the outlets of the bog. The measured discharge was used in a double mass analysis to calculate discharge ratio's. We assume that changes in discharge ratio's can be relate to changes in contributing area as a result of variable water flow paths. Furthermore, we compared the measured discharges with calculated discharge according to Ingram's model. Based on several reasonable estimates for input parameters, the observed discharges cannot be reproduced with the Ingram model. Furthermore, discharge ratio's between different sub-catchments within the peatland appear to be not constant over time, thus suggesting a shift in water divides that depends on atmospheric events.

  3. Petrology and organic geochemistry of peat samples from a raised bog in Kalimantan (Borneo)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dehmer, J. (Lehrstuhl fuer Erdoel und Kohle, Aachen (Germany))

    1993-04-01

    Two peat cores, from the margin and centre of a tropical raised bog from Sebangau River near Palangkaraya in Kalimantan, Indonesia, were investigated to illustrate the changes during peatification using coal petrographic and organic geochemical techniques. These methods included a maceral analysis on polished peat blocks under reflected white and blue light excitation using the brown coal maceral nomenclature. Soxhlet extraction was carried out and an estimate of the humic composition was undertaken on the residues. GC and GC-MS analysis of the alkane and aromatic fractions were also made to identify biomarkers present in the peat. Results of this study show that peats from the margin of the raised bog were more decomposed than peats from the centre. Tissue content, extract yield and alkaline insoluble/acid soluble humic acid fraction support these results. Not only were there differences between the two locations of the peat cores, but also differences arose with respect to depth in both cores: the basal peats were more decomposoed than the peats from the upper layers. This was a result of their differing environments of deposition. The biomarker composition of the alkane fraction included long chain n-alkanes from n-C[sub 23] to n-C[sub 35], with an odd over even predominance, and interestingly n-alkanes from n-C[sub 36] to n-C[sub 40] with an even over odd predominance peaking at n-C[sub 38]. Pentacyclic triterpenoids were mainly represented by 17[alpha], 21[beta] (H)-homohopane and hop-17 (21)-ene. Biomarkers in the aromatic fraction included polyaromatic triterpenoids derived from [alpha]- and [beta]- amyrin. 45 refs., 8 figs., 6 tabs.

  4. Characterisation of a panel of monoclonal antibodies raised against recombinant HCV core protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferns, R B; Tuke, P W; Sweenie, C H

    1996-11-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) has as yet no practical culture system so any antigen or antibody studies must be carried out using recombinant antigens. In this study, HCV core sequence was amplified by PCR, inserted into pRSET, and expressed in E. coli. The resultant core protein was purified using nickel affinity chromatography which bound the six histidine tag attached to the N-terminus of the protein. After elution in imidazole buffer, the core protein was used to immunise Balb/c mice and monoclonal antibodies against HCV core were raised. Six monoclonals were examined in a variety of assays. All of them recognised the p27 kDa protein which they were raised against and 2D2 and 3D7 recognised the core component of an HCV Recombinant Immunoblot Assay (RIBA). None of the antibodies recognised the linear peptides in an Innolia HCV assay. 2D2 showed cytoplasmic granular staining in 1-5% of cells in frozen section of HCV infected livers. Cross-competition assays between themselves and human anti-HCV core positive sera divided the antibodies into two main groups (I and II), with a sub-division of group I into a and b. Group I antibodies were unable to be inhibited by human anti-HCV sera whereas group II antibodies were inhibited by these sera (up to 62%). Epitopes recognised by all the monoclonals were probably conformational with the group I epitope being located within the first 105 amino acids of the core sequence and the group II epitope between amino acids 105 and 160. PMID:8923286

  5. Sweet Potato and Cassava Can Modify Cholesterol Profile in Humans with Moderately Raised Serum Cholesterol Levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theressa F. Aviles

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Sweet potato (kamote and cassava are good sources of dietary fiber and resistant starch and are staple foods in the Philippines. The objective of the study is to determine changes in glucose and lipid profile after consumption of sweet potato and cassava in humans with moderately raised serum glucose and lipid profile. Sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas, Super Taiwan variety, and cassava (Manihot esculenta were used as test foods while white bread was used as the control food. Fifty-nine apparently healthy human adults were fed with the test foods for 90 days and grouped into three: Control, Sweet potato and Cassava. After an overnight fast, 10 mL blood samples were taken from the study participants for total cholesterol, HDL-C, LDL-C, triglycerides, glucose and hemoglobin A1C measurements. Height/weight and percent fat mass were also determined. The groups given sweet potato and cassava significantly increased HDL-C (P 0.05. There was a significant decrease in LDL-C in the cassava group (P 0.05. The group given slice bread significantly increased serum triglycerides (P 0.05. No significant results were observed with regards to BMI, percent fat, glucose, HbA1C, and total cholesterol. In conclusion, sweet potato and cassava increased HDL-C and decreased LDL-C in humans with moderately raised serum glucose and cholesterol levels. Sustainable intake of sweet potato and cassava may be promising in the prevention for risk of cardiovascular diseases as well as obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus.

  6. An awareness-raising E-learning approach for children living in a high diabetic population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaalan, Khaled; Al-Mansoori, Mona; Tawfik, Hissam

    2014-03-01

    Recent epidemiological studies have shown an increased incidence of diabetes worldwide. In United Arab Emirates (UAE), where this study on Emirati children was conducted, over 20% of the population has diabetes. With such a high incidence, there is a need to raise the awareness of the disease in order to reduce the growing number of cases and manage the disease more effectively. This research aims to identify the needs of affected children and proposes a design for an E-learning prototype that can pedagogically raise their awareness and knowledge of the disease. The use of a prototype was chosen in order to validate and refine the usability of the system, and to quickly evaluate user-interface designs without the need for an expensive working model to help refine and develop the system design. The system requirements were identified through a set of interviews with kindergarten teachers, curriculum design experts in UAE, and diabetes nutrition specialists and clinicians. The rationale behind the interview was to identify the optimal age group, describe the appropriate level of the instructional materials and activities, and propose a suitable learning approach that could facilitate and improve diabetes awareness among this age group. The prototype was evaluated by children, teachers, parents (or guardians) and nutrition specialists. We followed a three-stage software development based on a user-informed approach model for stepwise refinement that ranged from prototype to final design. The evaluation results indicate that the proposed computer-supported learning approach can generate positive learning and behavior in children while reducing the time needed to complete awareness tasks when compared to traditional methods; thus making learning more engaging and allowing children to learn at their own pace. PMID:24517457

  7. Hydrophobicity of 43 potting media: Its implications for raising seedlings in revegetation programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gautam, Resham; Ashwath, Nanjappa

    2012-04-01

    SummaryThe practice of using nursery-raised seedlings is becoming popular in revegetation programs, as this will allow rapid establishment of plants. However, this practice often results in low survival of seedlings in the field, especially in the tropics under rain fed conditions. Part of this can be attributed to hydrophobicity of the media being used in raising the seedlings. Hydrophobicity is the property of potting media which make the media not able to readily absorb water from the surrounding soil once the media dry out. Thus, 41 commercially available potting media and media components and two soil samples (Control) were assessed for hydrophobicity at different moisture levels via Water Droplet Penetration Test (WDPT). At the driest state (oven dried samples), the tested media were classified into five hydrophobicity classes, viz., extremely hydrophobic (WDP time >3600 s, 28% of the tested media), severely hydrophobic (WDP time 600-3600 s, 35%), strongly hydrophobic (WDP time 60-600 s, 21%), slightly hydrophobic (WDP time 5-60 s, 12%) and non-hydrophobic (WDP time MPN) adapted from a "Sheen Screen" method suggested that the number of wax degrading bacteria were similar amongst the non-hydrophobic and hydrophobic media. This indicates that the bacterial number may not be an important factor for breaking down hydrophobicity but most likely it is the bacterial activity that plays an important role in this process. Since the majority of the tested potting media were hydrophobic in nature (under dry conditions), and hydrophobicity affects survival of seedlings in the field, we recommend testing of potting media for hydrophobicity as a complimentary requirement of the Australian Standards. Studies should also be undertaken to identify the constituents of potting media that are responsible for imparting hydrophobicity to the media, and to identify treatments (e.g., lime or detergents or surfactants) that would help minimise hydrophobicity in the potting media.

  8. Metabolic changes of masseter muscle in experimental unilateral bite-raised rat determined by {sup 31}P-MRS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nishide, Naoto [Kyoto Prefectural Univ. of Medicine (Japan)

    1997-05-01

    Occlusal interference is known to alter the functional activity of masticatory muscle, but no alteration of the energy metabolism of masticatory muscle which has gone occlusal interference has been reported. The purpose of this study was to investigate the energy metabolism in rat masseter muscle during masticatory movements following unilateral bite-raising. A bite-raising splint (1 mm) was fixed on the unilateral upper molar of experimental rats, and after 2, 4 and 6 weeks, the rats were anesthetized and masticatory movements were induced by electrical stimulation applied to the masseter muscle (with a biting force of 40 g, a frequency of 5 Hz and a stimulation time of 32 min). {sup 31}P Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy of the masseter muscle were recorded during a sequence of rest, stimulation and recovery periods, and the resonance signal area ratio of PCr and Pi ((PCr)/(PCr + Pi)) and the muscle pH were determined. After 4 and 6 weeks following the bite-raising, the masseter of the bite-raised side showed a decrease in the (PCr)/(PCr + Pi) ratio compared with a control group during stimulation (p<0.05). Neither the bite-raised side masseter at 2 weeks and the contralateral side at 4 weeks showed any differences compared with the control. The muscle pH during stimulation was similar in both the control and the bite-raised groups of rats. These findings suggest that the occlusal alteration induced by unilateral bite-raising reduces the masseter energy level during mastication. (author)

  9. Metabolic changes of masseter muscle in experimental unilateral bite-raised rat determined by 31P-MRS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Occlusal interference is known to alter the functional activity of masticatory muscle, but no alteration of the energy metabolism of masticatory muscle which has gone occlusal interference has been reported. The purpose of this study was to investigate the energy metabolism in rat masseter muscle during masticatory movements following unilateral bite-raising. A bite-raising splint (1 mm) was fixed on the unilateral upper molar of experimental rats, and after 2, 4 and 6 weeks, the rats were anesthetized and masticatory movements were induced by electrical stimulation applied to the masseter muscle (with a biting force of 40 g, a frequency of 5 Hz and a stimulation time of 32 min). 31P Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy of the masseter muscle were recorded during a sequence of rest, stimulation and recovery periods, and the resonance signal area ratio of PCr and Pi ((PCr)/(PCr + Pi)) and the muscle pH were determined. After 4 and 6 weeks following the bite-raising, the masseter of the bite-raised side showed a decrease in the (PCr)/(PCr + Pi) ratio compared with a control group during stimulation (p<0.05). Neither the bite-raised side masseter at 2 weeks and the contralateral side at 4 weeks showed any differences compared with the control. The muscle pH during stimulation was similar in both the control and the bite-raised groups of rats. These findings suggest that the occlusal alteration induced by unilateral bite-raising reduces the masseter energy level dursing reduces the masseter energy level during mastication. (author)

  10. Aspectos epidemiológicos da caprinocultura cearense / Epidemiological aspects of the raising goat in Ceará State, Brazil

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    R.R., Pinheiro; A.M.G., Gouveia; F.S.F., Alves; J.P.A., Haddad.

    2000-10-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O desenvolvimento da caprinocultura na região Nordeste do Brasil é severamente afetado por inúmeros fatores, entre eles a alta incidência de doenças. Objetivou-se conhecer o atual manejo sanitário empregado e os problemas sanitários existentes na opinião do criador do Ceará. O trabalho foi realizado [...] nas várias regiões criadoras de caprinos de raças leiteiras, nativas ou sem raça definida. Foram selecionadas 127 propriedades onde se aplicou um questionário. A percentagem média de mortalidade de animais foi de 22,8% e 4,6% em jovens e adultos, respectivamente. Os sinais clínicos relatados, por ordem, foram: anemia e edema de barbela (81,9% dos criatórios), diarréia (78,7%), aborto (75,6%), pododermatite (67,7%), linfadenite (66,9%), ectoparasitoses (63,8%), mamite (51,2%), pneumonia (44,9%), lesões vesiculares de pele (35,4%), ceratoconjuntivite (29,1%), problemas de ordem nervosa (26,8%), malformação fetal (15%), criptorquidismo (11%), prolapso de vagina/útero (11%) e artrite (8,7%). Pode-se concluir que o manejo sanitário dos caprinos desses criatórios é precário, independente do tipo de exploração ou regime de criação, a mortalidade de animais, principalmente de jovens, é considerada alta. Mesmo em criatórios com exploração leiteira não existe uma preocupação rigorosa com higiene e qualidade do leite. Abstract in english The development of the goat raising in the Northeastern region of Brazil is hardly affected by several factors, among them, the high incidence of illness. The aim of this study was to assess the adopted sanitary management and the healthy problems according to Ceara’s goat breeders. The work was car [...] ried out in many regions of dairy and native goat raising. There were selected 127 properties where a questionnaire was applied. Mean percentage of animals’ mortality was 22.8 and 4.6% for young and adult, respectively. Reported clinical signs were: anemia and dewlap edema (81.9% of the properties), diarrhea (78.7%), abortion (75.6%), foot rot (67.7%), lymphadenitis (66.9%), external parasites (63.8%), mastitis (51.2%), pneumonia (44.9%), goat pox (35.4%), keratoconjunctivitis (29.1%), nervous disorders (26.8%), fetal malformation (15%), cryptorchidism (11%), uterus/vagina prolapsed (11%), arthritis (8.7%), foot and mouth disease (2.4%) and rabies (0.8%). It could be concluded that the goats’ sanitary management of those properties is precarious, independently either the exploitation way or the raising regimen; the animals’ mortality, especially the youngest ones, is considered high; and even in dairy properties there is a lack of rigid worry concerning about hygiene and milk quality.

  11. Puberty and sexual maturity in Anglo-Nubian male goats raised in semi-intensive system

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Luiz Eduardo Barreto de, Souza; Jurandir Ferreira da, Cruz; Milton Rezende, Teixeira Neto; Rita de Cássia Santos, Nunes; Maria Helena Coelho, Cruz.

    1533-15-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to characterize the sexual development in Anglo-Nubian male goats raised in semi-intensive system. Eight animals were monitored every fifteen days, from the 12th to the 44th week for age at penis detachment, live weight, scrotal circumference, seminal parameters (volu [...] me, aspect, concentration, wave motion, progressive individual motility, vigor and spermatic abnormalities) and serum testosterone levels. Serum testosterone levels were determined in blood samples collected at the 20th, 28th and 38th weeks of age. Penis detachment occurred at 102.9 ± 15.4 days of age. Live weight and scrotal circumference at 20th and 44th weeks of age ranged from 25.9 ± 3.5 to 44.7 ± 4.7 kg and from 21.2 ± 1.6 cm to 26.0 ± 1.5 cm, respectively. The ejaculate volume ranged from 0.38 ± 0.05 to 0.96 ± 0.04 mL, concentration ranged from 1.33 ± 0.64 to 3.54 ± 0.14.10(9) mL-1 and the progressive individual motility varied from 48.0 ± 10.52% to 82.0 ± 3.74%, at the same age. The number of defective spermatozoa (major and minor) was 32.2 ± 5.8% vs. 8.80 ± 2.9% at the 20th and the 44th week of age, respectively. Serum testosterone level was 2.70 ± 1.40 ng.mL-1 at the 20th week, 8.50 ± 4.66 ng.mL-1 at the 28th week and 2.21 ± 2.28 ng.mL-1 at the 38th week of age. Age showed a correlation with live weight, scrotal circumference, and all the qualitative parameters of semen except for volume, with all other qualitative parameters of semen, and the correlation among sperm abnormalities and the other traits was negative. Serum testosterone levels and andrological parameters of Anglo-Nubian goats raised in semi-intensive system are closely related to age. In those animals, puberty is reached at the 20th week and sexual maturity is reached at the 38th week of age.

  12. Peripheral and gastrointestinal immune systems of healthy cattle raised outdoors at pasture or indoors on a concentrate-based ration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reilly Petrina

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite an increasing preference of consumers for beef produced from more extensive pasture-based production systems and potential human health benefits from the consumption of such beef, data regarding the health status of animals raised on pasture are limited. The objective of this study was to characterise specific aspects of the bovine peripheral and the gastrointestinal muscosal immune systems of cattle raised on an outdoor pasture system in comparison to animals raised on a conventional intensive indoor concentrate-based system. Results A number of in vitro functional tests of immune cells suggested subtle differences between the animals on the outdoor versus indoor production systems. There was a decrease in the number of neutrophils and monocytes engaged in phagocytosis in outdoor cattle (P P P P P P P Conclusion Despite distinctly contrasting production systems, only subtle differences were identified in the peripheral immune parameters measured between cattle raised at pasture in comparison to animals raised on a conventional intensive indoor concentrate-based production system.

  13. The New Ways to Raise Capital: An Exploratory Study of Crowdfunding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matteo Rossi

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose – Paper aims is to describe, analyze and to increase the knowledge of the emerging crowdfunding phenomenon. This can be defined as the practice of funding a project or venture by raising a lot of small quantities of money from a huge number of people. Even though the number of academic studies has been increasing, the coverage of the population is relatively weak and not well understood by entrepreneurs and individual investors.Design/Methodology/Findings - The research can be classified as an exploratory research. It focuses on how the crowdfunding works. The research addresses the following research questions: What is crodwfunding? Which are the main characteristics of this phenomenon? Wihic are the principal strengths and the main weaknesses of crowdfunding? The findings expose purposes, characteristics, roles and tasks, and investment size of crowd-funding activity.Practical implications - The findings have implications for service managers interested in managing crowd-funding initiatives and to improve the activity of the consumers.Originality/value - The paper analyses a new emergent phenomenon. It aims to define the user/costuemr’s role from co-creation to investment.

  14. STUDY ABOUT CORPORAL INDICATORS IN JUVENILE OF RUSSIAN STURGEON (ACIPENSER GÜELDENSTAEDTI RAISED IN RECIRCULATING SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z.T. SZELEI

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Studies were conducted on a population of Russian sturgeon (Acipenser gu?eldenstaedti age between 132-175 days, raised in recirculation system. Based on body weight, the population was divided into two categories: 50-100 g and 100-150 g. On the 42 individuals were performed determinations of weight, length, width, height and circumference. It was also determined the number of shields which comprise the five lines of shields, which are endowed with Russian sturgeons. On the basis of weighing and measurements taken have resulted following body indices: the index of profile (height, the index of thickness (width spinal, the fattening index (Fulton index, quality index and the index of fleshiness. At the lot of Russian sturgeons with average body weight of 127.55 ± 3.75 g, body length is 76.27% of total body length, head length is 20.11% of the total length of the body, caudal peduncle length measured 16.39% of total body length and length of snout reaches 45.56% of head length. Index of profile (height has highlighted that juvenile Russian sturgeon has an elongated body and a straight back.

  15. Comparison of free range broiler chicken strains raised in confined or semi-confined systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AL Santos

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available The present study was carried out to compare the growth curve, performance and carcass yield of two broiler strains, Paraíso Pedrês (PP and ISA Label (ISA, raised in confined or semi-confined systems. It was used a completely randomized design with five replicates, consisting of 20 and 29 birds in semi-confined and confined systems, respectively. Semi-confined birds had free access to pasture at 28 days of age. Performance data were recorded weekly by building growth curves as well as calculating the growth rate. After reaching the recommended body weight (2.5 kg, male birds were slaughtered for physicochemical analysis of carcass, parts and organs. Semi-confined PP and ISA birds showed higher growth potential, higher weight gain, lower feed intake and better feed-to-gain ratio than confined birds. No interactions were observed for carcass yield and meat quality characteristics. Males presented higher yields of feet, drumstick, thigh, drumstick + thigh, and heart, while females presented higher breast and abdominal fat yield. Breast meat from ISA Label birds was more yellowish than from PP, whereas less soft meat was observed in semi-confined birds.

  16. Comparison of free range broiler chicken strains raised in confined or semi-confined systems

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    AL, Santos; NK, Sakomura; ER, Freitas; CMS, Fortes; ENVM, Carrilho.

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english The present study was carried out to compare the growth curve, performance and carcass yield of two broiler strains, Paraíso Pedrês (PP) and ISA Label (ISA), raised in confined or semi-confined systems. It was used a completely randomized design with five replicates, consisting of 20 and 29 birds in [...] semi-confined and confined systems, respectively. Semi-confined birds had free access to pasture at 28 days of age. Performance data were recorded weekly by building growth curves as well as calculating the growth rate. After reaching the recommended body weight (2.5 kg), male birds were slaughtered for physicochemical analysis of carcass, parts and organs. Semi-confined PP and ISA birds showed higher growth potential, higher weight gain, lower feed intake and better feed-to-gain ratio than confined birds. No interactions were observed for carcass yield and meat quality characteristics. Males presented higher yields of feet, drumstick, thigh, drumstick + thigh, and heart, while females presented higher breast and abdominal fat yield. Breast meat from ISA Label birds was more yellowish than from PP, whereas less soft meat was observed in semi-confined birds.

  17. How can we raise Tc in RO1-xFxFeAs superconductors?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    By the discovery of RO1-xFxFeAs (R = lanthanide) superconductors in the beginning of 2008, it was shown for the first time that a non-cuprate superconductor can reach a superconducting transition temperature Tc above 50 K. This offers new opportunities for the development of new high temperature superconductors. However, the superconductors with the highest Tc show the most difficulties in formation of the right phase. Problems are the incorporation of fluorine and the homogeneity of the samples. A further challenge is the structural instability for rare earth elements with small ion radius (64?Z?71). In our studies, several opportunities to overcome these difficulties are evaluated: 1. variation of the grain size of the initial powder 2. use of slightly non-stoichiometric initial composition 3. high-pressure synthesis As a result, we raise the Tc of the material with a nominal composition GdO1-xFxFeAs from 20 up to 40 K. In a SmO0.9F0.1FeAs-compound could be observed superconductivity above 50 K after a small As-reduction at the surface of the sample. Measurements of the final composition and structure will animate the discussion about the requirements for realization of the superconducting state.

  18. Raising New Zealand’s Terrorism Threat Level: Is Transparency Important in National Security?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Shortt

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In mid-October 2014, ten years after the New Zealand Government confirmed the establishment of a Combined Threat Assessment Group (CTAG to advise it on a range of potential threats, the prime minister announced, for the first time, the raising of New Zealand’s domestic terrorism threat level. Unfortunately, the assessment that gave rise to the threat level’s change (or a version of it was not made public. Therefore, how were New Zealanders or others expected to properly understand the environment giving rise to the threat changes, and to judge whether the assessors got the setting right. This paper argues increased public transparency is appropriate when additional security measures resulting from a change in threat perception impact citizens’ lives and cost tax-payers more money. In presenting this argument, the paper briefly describes the role of threat assessments and how threat levels are set. In the absence of a public version of New Zealand’s threat assessment giving a cohesive, concise and transparent outline of the threat environment, the paper presents publicly available information from well-informed high office holders to see if that provides alternative and suitable transparency. Finally, the paper compares New Zealand’s terrorism threat assessment transparency processes with those of four countries with similar characteristics to New Zealand to see if alternative models of public transparency are available for consideration.

  19. Student exchange for nursing students: does it raise cultural awareness'? A descriptive, qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohman, Doris M; Borglin, Gunilla

    2014-05-01

    With free movement for citizens within the European Union and with distant parts of our globe becoming more accessible, cultural awareness and cultural competence are becoming important skills for nurses. Internationalisation and raising awareness of other cultural contexts are essential elements in Swedish higher education, thus explaining the variety of student exchange programmes that are available. The aim of this study was to explore Swedish nursing students' perceptions of student exchange and their experiences. Data were collected through group interviews and then analysed following the principles of content analysis. Our analysis resulted in three categories: Preparing to go abroad, Reasons for going abroad and From expectation to experience. Cultural aspects and cultural awareness were emphasised as strong motivational factors, both personal and professional, behind participation in student exchange programmes. Information was also highlighted as a crucial means of reaching potential students as well as the power of knowledge through personal experience. This study highlights the importance of student exchange in expanding the individual student's personal and professional horizons. It also stresses the importance of including a transcultural nursing element in nursing curricula. PMID:24406034

  20. Analysis of the stress raising action of flaws in laser clad deposits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ? Laser clad defects are 0D-pores/inclusions, 1D-clad waviness or 2D-planar defects. ? Surface pore of laser clad bar initiates fatigue cracks. ? Side edge surface pores are more critical than in-clad surface pores. ? Smaller notch radius and angle of as-laser clad surface raises stress significantly. ? Planar inner defects grow faster towards surface. - Abstract: Fatigue cracking of laser clad cylindrical and square section bars depends upon a variety of factors. This paper presents Finite Element Analysis (FEA) of the different macro stress fields generated as well as stress raisers created by laser cladding defects for four different fatigue load conditions. As important as the defect types are their locations and orientations, categorized into zero-, one- and two-dimensional defects. Pores and inclusions become critical close to surfaces. The performance of as-clad surfaces can be governed by the sharpness of surface notches and planar defects like hot cracks or lack-of-fusion (LOF) are most critical if oriented vertically, transverse to the bar axis. The combination of the macro stress field with the defect type and its position and orientation determines whether it is the most critical stress raiser. Based on calculated cases, quantitative and qualitative charts were developed as guidelines to visualize the trends of different combinations

  1. The Radial Velocity Signature of Tides Raised in Stars Hosting Exoplanets

    CERN Document Server

    Arras, Phil; Quataert, Eliot; Weinberg, Nevin N

    2011-01-01

    Close-in, massive exoplanets raise significant tides in their stellar hosts. We compute the radial velocity (RV) signal due to this fluid motion in the equilibrium tide approximation. The predicted radial velocities in the observed sample of exoplanets exceed 1 m/s for 17 systems, with the largest predicted signal being ~30 m/s for WASP-18 b. Tidally-induced RV's are thus detectable with present methods. Both tidal fluid flow and the epicyclic motion of a slightly eccentric orbit produce an RV signal at twice the orbital frequency. If care is not taken, the tidally induced RV may, in some cases, be confused with a finite orbital eccentricity. Indeed, WASP-18 b is reported to have an eccentric orbit with small e=0.009 and pericenter longitude \\omega=-\\pi/2. Whereas such a close alignment of the orbit and line of sight to the observer requires fine tuning, this phase in the RV signal is naturally explained by the tidal velocity signature of an e=0 orbit. Additionally, the equilibrium tide estimate for the ampli...

  2. When ethical reform became law: the constitutional concerns raised by recent legislation in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Yi-Chen

    2014-07-01

    In an effort at ethical reform, Taiwan recently revised the Hospice Palliative Care Law authorising family members or physicians to make surrogate decisions to discontinue life-sustaining treatment if an incompetent terminally ill patient did not express their wishes while still competent. In particular, Article 7 of the new law authorises the palliative care team, namely the physicians, to act as sole decision-makers on behalf of the incompetent terminally ill patient's best interests if no family member is available. However, the law fails to provide guidance as to what constitutes the patient's best interests or what specific procedures the treating physicians should follow, and so has raised constitutional concerns. It may be difficult to translate ethical reform into law but it is not impossible if essential requirements are carefully followed. First, there must be substantial nexus between the purpose of the statute and the measures provided under the statute. Second, advocates need to convince the public that futility or waste has amounted to a public health emergency so as to justify lower procedural requirements. Third, a remedy or compensation should be available if the surrogate decisions have not been appropriately made. Fourth,minimum procedural safeguards are necessary even though the statute is intended to reduce the procedural burdens of making surrogate decisions on behalf of incompetent patients who lack family members and did not express their wishes while still competent. PMID:24131902

  3. Molecular characterization and differentiation of five horse breeds raised in Algeria using polymorphic microsatellite markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berber, N; Gaouar, S; Leroy, G; Kdidi, S; Tabet Aouel, N; Saïdi Mehtar, N

    2014-10-01

    In this study, genetic analyses of diversity and differentiation were performed on five horse breeds raised in Algeria (Barb, Arab-Barb, Arabian, Thoroughbred and French Trotter). All microsatellite markers were highly polymorphic in all the breeds. A total of 123 alleles from 14 microsatellite loci were detected in 201 horses. The average number of alleles per locus was the highest in the Arab-Barb horses (7.86) and lowest in the thoroughbred breed (5.71), whereas the observed and expected heterozygosities per breed ranged from 0.71 (Thoroughbred) to 0.752 (Barb) and 0.71 (Thoroughbred) to 0.77 (Arab-Barb), respectively. The genetic differentiation between the breeds was significant (p < 0.01) based on the infinitesimal model (FST ). Three different approaches for evaluating the genetic relationships were applied. Genetic distances, the factorial correspondence analysis and structure analysis showed that a significant amount of genetic variation is maintained in the native horse populations and the other breeds. The Barb and Arab-Barb breeds seem to be the most genetically related and support the decision to consider the breeds as same population. PMID:24834806

  4. Does Raising the Early Retirement Age Increase Employment of Older Workers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staubli, Stefan; Zweimüller, Josef

    2013-12-01

    Two pension reforms in Austria increased the early retirement age (ERA) from 60 to 62 for men and from 55 to 58.25 for women. We find that raising the ERA increased employment by 9.75 percentage points among affected men and by 11 percentage points among affected women. The reforms had large spillover effects on the unemployment insurance program but negligible effects on disability insurance claims. Specifically, unemployment increased by 12.5 percentage points among men and by 11.8 percentage points among women. The employment response was largest among high-wage and healthy workers, while low-wage and less healthy workers either continued to retire early via disability benefits or bridged the gap to the ERA via unemployment benefits. Taking spillover effects and additional tax revenues into account, we find that for a typical birth-year cohort a one year increase in the ERA resulted in a reduction of net government expenditures of 107 million euros for men and of 122 million euros for women. PMID:24319299

  5. Raising the Higgs Mass in Supersymmetry with t-t' Mixing

    CERN Document Server

    Faroughy, C

    2014-01-01

    In this article we propose a new strategy to address the Little Hierarchy problem. We show that the addition of a fourth generation with vector-like quarks to the minimal supersymmetric standard model (MSSM) can raise the predicted value of the physical Higgs mass by mixing with the top sector. The mixing requires a larger top quark Yukawa coupling (by up to $\\sim 6 %$) to produce the same top mass. Since loop corrections to $m_h$ go as $y_{top}^4$, this will in turn increase the predicted value of the physical Higgs mass, a point not previously emphasized in the literature. In the presence of mixing, for A-terms and soft masses around 900 GeV, a Higgs mass of 125 GeV can be generated while retaining perturbativity of the gauge couplings, evading constraints from electroweak precision measurements (EWPM) and recent LHC searches, and pushing the Landau pole for the top Yukawa above the GUT scale. Soft masses can be as low as 800 GeV in parts of parameter space with a Landau pole at $\\sim 10^{10}$ GeV. However,...

  6. The Quality of Liquid Fermented Products for Alternative Use of Antibiotics for Animal Raising

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The chemical properties of liquid fermented products (LFP) as probiotics substance for alternative uses of antibiotic were studied. The LFP of 235 were sampling from markets and farmers during 2005-2006. The total count of bacteria, fungi, lactic acid bacteria (LAB), Actinomyces and coliform bacteria were conducted. Chemical analysis of LFP showed medium nitrogen (0.01- 0.55%), maximum sugar contents (0.02 - 19.40%), high lactic acid contents (0.34 - 13.01%) and low pH (2.9-5.0). LFPs were free from fecal coliform and Escherichia coil (Ec); but in LAB (1.0 - 1.25x107 cfu/ml) and high Actinomyces (1.0 - 7.5 x 106 cfu/ml). LFPs inhibited Staphylococcus aureus (Sa), Samonella typhimurium (STM), Escherichia coil (Ec) and Ec 0157 at maximum yield by using Minimal Inhibition Concentration (MIC). But Pseudomonas aeruginosa (Pa) could medium inhibited. Therefore LFP samples are suitable as probiotics for alternative use of antibiotic for animal raising.

  7. Rope NDT as means to raise safety of crane and elevator use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steel rope NDT by magnetic flaw detectors is usual for mine hoist inspection through the world. But it is no ordinary by crane and especially by elevator inspection. However, magnetic NDT statistic data of 60 crane and 227 elevator ropes in use shows that about 23% of crane and 9% of elevator ropes should be discarded in accordance with actual discarding criterion in Russia. Russian State Rules for crane safe exploitation require the magnetic NDT while periodically inspection. But not all the inspecting companies meet it in Russia, contenting themselves by visual inspection only. This is not objective and does not provide rope inner faults detection. That is a reason of rope break rather high percentage in general statistics of crane accidents and damages. Investigation of accidents with crane ropes in Moscow region in 2001 shows that they would de prevented by the magnetic NDT fulfilled timely. The elevator rope NDT problem is not so sharp but attention should de attracted to it to raise safety of elevators. (author)

  8. Fibroblastic rheumatism: the first case with infiltration of multinuclear giant cells and raised blood lead level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, X W; Huo, J; Wang, J M; Yuan, J Y; Ma, Y Y; Wang, Q Y

    2015-04-01

    Fibroblastic rheumatism (FR) is a rare condition characterized by symmetrical polyarthritis and multiple cutaneous nodules. Approximately 30 cases have been reported worldwide to date. Laboratory tests are not particular useful to confirm the disease. Diagnosis is mainly dependent on the characteristic histopathological features: thickened collagen fibres with spindle-shaped cell proliferation in the skin lesion. We report a case of a 48-year-old Chinese man with typical clinical features of FR. In addition to the characteristic histopathological findings, multinuclear giant cell infiltration in skin lesions was detected, in this case. The evaluation of microelements revealed a raised blood lead level) of 129 ?g/L (normal range 0-99 ?g/L) These two features have never been described in the previous medical literature on FR. Thus, we propose that examining the infiltrated cells in detail in histopathological studies and inspecting the levels of lead and other microelements in the blood may increase our understanding of the pathogenesis of FR. PMID:25545215

  9. What is the normal response to structural differentiation within the slump and straight leg raise tests?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrington, Lee; Bendix, Katie; Cornwell, Catherine; Fielden, Nicola; Hankey, Karen

    2008-08-01

    The purpose of the study was to assess the effect of structural differentiation or sensitising manoeuvres on responses of normal subjects to standard neurodynamic tests of straight leg raise (SLR) and slump test. Eighty-eight (39 males and 49 females) asymptomatic subjects were examined (aged 18-39 mean age 21.9+/-4.1 years). Knee flexion angle was measured using a goniometer during the slump test in two conditions cervical flexion and extension. Hip flexion angle was measured using a goniometer during SLR test in two conditions; ankle dorsi-flexion and neutral. The change in knee flexion, following addition of the structural differentiating manoeuvre to the slump test, was a significant increase in knee flexion angle for both males (change in knee angle; 6.6+/-4.7 degrees /18.7+/-17.5%, p0.05). During the SLR test, a significant reduction in hip flexion occurred following structural differentiation for both groups (change in hip angle; males = 9.5+/-8.3 degrees /21.5+/-18.8%, p0.05). Structural differentiating manoeuvres have a significant effect on test response in terms of range of movement even in normal asymptomatic individuals. These responses should be taken into account during the assessment clinical reasoning process. PMID:17395520

  10. Growth of high-cost intensity-modulated radiotherapy for prostate cancer raises concerns about overuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Bruce L; Zhang, Yun; Skolarus, Ted A; Hollenbeck, Brent K

    2012-04-01

    To study the impact of new, expensive, and unproven therapies to treat prostate cancer, we investigated the dissemination of intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT). IMRT is an innovative treatment for prostate cancer that delivers higher doses of radiation with improved precision compared to alternative radiotherapies. We observed rapid adoption of this new treatment among men diagnosed with prostate cancer from 2001 through 2007, despite uncertainty about its relative effectiveness. We compared patient and disease characteristics of those receiving IMRT and the previous radiation standard of care, three-dimensional conformal therapy; assessed intermediate-term outcomes; and examined potential factors associated with the increased use of IMRT. We found that in the early period of IMRT adoption (2001-03) men with high-risk disease were more likely to receive IMRT, whereas after IMRT's initial dissemination (2004-07) men with low-risk disease had fairly similar likelihoods of receiving IMRT as men with high-risk disease. This raises concerns about overtreatment, as well as considerable health care costs, because treatment with IMRT costs $15,000-$20,000 more than other standard therapies. As health care delivery reforms gain traction, policy makers must balance the promotion of new, yet unproven, technology with the risk of overuse. PMID:22492892

  11. Genetic diversity and differentiation of exotic and American commercial cattle breeds raised in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brasil, B S A F; Coelho, E G A; Drummond, M G; Oliveira, D A A

    2013-01-01

    The Brazilian cattle population is mainly composed of breeds of zebuine origin and their American derivatives. Comprehensive knowledge about the genetic diversity of these populations is fundamental for animal breeding programs and the conservation of genetic resources. This study aimed to assess the phylogenetic relationships, levels of genetic diversity, and patterns of taurine/zebuine admixture among 9 commercial cattle breeds raised in Brazil. Analysis of DNA polymorphisms was performed on 2965 animals using the 11 microsatellite markers recommended by the International Society of Animal Genetics. High genetic diversity was detected in all breeds, even though significant inbreeding was observed within some. Differences among the breeds accounted for 14.72% of the total genetic variability, and genetic differentiation was higher among taurine than among zebuine cattle. Of note, Nelore cattle presented with high levels of admixture, which is consistent with the history of frequent gene flow during the establishment of this breed in Brazil. Furthermore, significant genetic variability was partitioned within the commercial cattle breeds formed in America, which, therefore, comprise important resources of genetic diversity in the tropics. The genetic characterization of these important Brazilian breeds may now facilitate the development of management and breeding programs for these populations. PMID:24301922

  12. Escherichia coli contamination of fish raised in integrated pig-fish aquaculture systems in Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dang, Son Thi Thanh; Dalsgaard, Anders

    2012-07-01

    Integrated livestock-fish aquaculture utilizes animal excreta and urine as pond fertilizers to enhance growth of plankton and other microorganisms eaten by the fish. In Vietnam, pigs are commonly integrated with fish and horticulture in household-based VAC systems (vuon = garden; ao = pond; chuong = pigsty), but the level of fecal contamination in the fish produced is unknown. This study was carried out to assess the level Escherichia coli contamination of fish meat and gut contents of grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus), silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix), and rohu (Labeo rohita) cultured in randomly selected five VAC ponds (with pig manure) and five non-VAC ponds (without pig manure) at sites in periurban Hanoi, Vietnam. Fish muscle tissue samples contained E. coli at carp, grass carp, and rohu, respectively, about 100 times higher than the contamination of fish from the control ponds. The results indicate that muscle tissue of fish raised in VAC systems has a low level of fecal contamination despite high levels of E. coli in their gut. Thus, a critical point to control food safety of such fish is the prevention of fecal cross-contamination during degutting and cleaning of the fish at markets and in the home. PMID:22980016

  13. Analysis of the hydrology of raised bogs in the Irish Midlands : A case study of Raheenmore Bog and Clara Bog

    OpenAIRE

    Schaaf, S.

    1999-01-01

    In the framework of the Irish-Dutch Raised Bog Project the hydrology of two raised bogs in the Irish Midlands, Raheenmore Bog and Clara Bog, was studied.The work focuses on relationships in the bog system and how they are affected by drain-age and turf cutting along margins. The concept of diplotelmy, a differentiation of the bog body into a shallow highly permeable top layer called acrotelm and a subjacent deep poorly permeable peat layer called catotelm, is followed. Some measuring methods ...

  14. Enhancement of oscillatory activity in the endopiriform nucleus of rats raised under abnormal oral conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshimura, Hiroshi; Hasumoto-Honjo, Miho; Sugai, Tokio; Segami, Natsuki; Kato, Nobuo

    2014-02-21

    Endopiriform nucleus (EPN) is located deep to the piriform cortex, and has neural connections with not only neighboring sensory areas but also subcortical areas where emotional and nociceptive information is processed. Well-balanced oral condition might play an important role in stability of brain activities. When the oral condition is impaired, several areas in the brain might be affected. In the present study, we investigated whether abnormal conditions of oral region influence neural activities in the EPN. Orthodontic appliance that generates continuous force and chronic pain-related stress was fixed to maxillary incisors of rats, and raised. Field potential recordings were made from the EPN of brain slices. We previously reported that the EPN has an ability to generate membrane potential oscillation. In the present study, we have applied the same methods to assess activities of neuron clusters in the EPN. In the case of normal rats, stable field potential oscillations were induced in the EPN by application of low-frequency electrical stimulation under the medium with caffeine. In the case of rats with the orthodontic appliance, stable field potential oscillations were also induced, but both duration of oscillatory activities and wavelet number were increased. The enhanced oscillations were depressed by blockade of NMDA receptors. Thus, impairment of oral health under application of continuous orthodontic force and chronic pain-related stress enhanced neural activities in the EPN, in which up-regulation of NMDA receptors may be concerned. These findings suggest that the EPN might be involved in information processing with regard to abnormal conditions of oral region. PMID:24406147

  15. Soil fate of agricultural fumigants in raised-bed, plasticulture systems in the southeastern United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chellemi, Dan O; Ajwa, Husein A; Sullivan, David A; Alessandro, Rocco; Gilreath, James P; Yates, Scott R

    2011-01-01

    Soil concentrations and degradation rates of methyl isothio-cyanate (MITC), chloropicrin (CP), 1,3-dichloropropene (1,3-D), and dimethyl disulfide (DMDS) were determined under fumigant application scenarios representative of commercial raised bed, plastic mulched vegetable production systems. Five days after application, 1,3-D, MITC, and CP were detected at concentrations up to 3.52, 0.72, and 2.45 ?g cm, respectively, in the soil atmosphere when applications were made in uniformly compacted soils with a water content >200% of field capacity and covered by a virtually impermeable or metalized film. By contrast, DMDS, MITC, and CP concentrations in the soil atmosphere were 0.81, 0.02, and 0.05 ?g cm, respectively, 5 d after application in soil containing undecomposed plant residue, numerous large (>3 mm) clods, and water content below field capacity and covered by low-density polyethylene. Ranked in order of impact on the persistence of fumigants in soil were soil water content (moisture), soil tilth (the physical condition of soil as related to its fitness as a planting bed), the type of plastic film used to cover fumigated beds, and soil texture. Fumigants were readily detected 13 d after application when applied in uniformly compacted soils with water contents >200% of capacity and covered by a virtually impermeable or metalized film. By contrast, 1,3-D and MITC had dissipated 5 d after application in soils with numerous large (>3 mm) clods and water contents below field capacity that were covered by low-density polyethylene. Soil degradation of CP, DMDS, and MITC were primarily attributed to biological mechanisms, whereas degradation of 1,3-D was attributed principally to abiotic factors. This study demonstrates improved soil retention of agricultural fumigants in application scenarios representative of good agricultural practices. PMID:21712590

  16. Fourth and Fifth Amendment issues raised by Chemical Weapons Convention inspections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanzman, E.A. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Economics and Law Section

    1994-10-21

    The Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC) offers a unique challenge to the United States system of constitutional law. This discussion is about the Fourth and Fifth Amendment issues raised by the CWC and about how federal implementing legislation can allow verification inspections to take place in the United States under the Chemical Weapons Convention while remaining in compliance with the Constitution. By implementing legislation, the author means a federal statute that would be enacted separately from Senate approval of the Convention itself. Although implementing legislation is a relatively unusual accompaniment to a treaty, it will be necessary to the CWC, and the Administration has submitted a bill that was under consideration in the last Congress and presumably will be reintroduced early next year. The Fourth and Fifth Amendment problems posed by the CWC arise from the verification inspection scheme embodied in the treaty. The CWC depends heavily on on-site inspections to verify compliance with its key requirements. These include destroying all chemicals weapons stockpiles and bringing potential chemical weapons precursors under international control. The Convention contains four distinct kinds of inspections: systematic inspections of chemical weapons storage and destruction facilities, routine inspections of various declared facilities, challenge inspections, and a variant on challenge inspections in cases of alleged use of chemical weapons. All inspections are supposed to be only as intrusive as necessary to carry out the Convention. These inspections will be carried out by inspectors employed by the Organization for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons (OPCW), located in The Hague, which is responsible for enforcing the Convention. Generally, the inspected State Party is permitted to assign observers to accompany the inspectors.

  17. Dark Skies Ahead? Activities to Raise Awareness during the International Year of Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Constance E.; Isbell, D.; Pompea, S.

    2007-12-01

    "Dark Skies as a Universal Resource” is one of 7 themes targeted for the International Year of Astronomy in 2009. The theme's goal is to raise public awareness of the impact of artificial lighting on local environments and the ongoing loss of a dark night sky as a natural resource for much of the world's population. To reach this goal, activities are being developed which highlight dark skies preservation issues 1) through new technology (e.g., programs at planetaria, blogging, podcasting); 2) at events such as star parties and observatory open houses; 3) in arts, entertainment and storytelling (e.g., art competitions, documentaries, lectures, native American traditions); 4) through unaided-eye and digital-meter star count programs involving citizen-scientists; and 5) by relating them to public health, economic issues, ecological consequences, energy conservation, safety and security. A centerpiece of the Dark Skies theme is the unaided-eye and digital-meter versions of the GLOBE at Night program. The unaided-eye version directs citizen-scientists on how to observe and record the brightness of the night sky by matching its appearance toward the constellation of Orion with one of 7 stellar maps of different limiting magnitudes. For the "digital” version, low-cost meters are used by citizen-scientists to measure the integrated sky brightness. Data sets and maps of both versions are supplied on-line for further capstone activities. In the presentation, we will outline the activities being developed as well as plans for funding, implementation, marketing and the connections to the global cornerstone IYA project, "Dark Skies Awareness".

  18. A REAPPRAISAL OF MAPUCHE TEXTILE PRODUCTION AND SHEEP RAISING DURING THE NINETEENTH CENTURY

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    MANUEL, LLORCA-JAÑA.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: English Abstract in spanish Este artículo trata sobre la crianza de ovejas y la producción de lana de los mapuche durante gran parte del siglo XIX, y sobre la percepción que los compradores tenían de los productos lanares. Basado en reportes consulares británicos y diarios de viajeros, escritos después de la Independencia de C [...] hile, el artículo entrega nueva y consistente información que sostiene que la producción textil mapuche era de alta calidad y muy importante para toda la economía; que el comercio mapuche de lanas era comparable al europeo antes del año 1850; y que la industria lanar mapuche era, por cierto, más desarrollada que la existente en Chile, principal mercado de las exportaciones mapuche. También muestra que esta superioridad sobre la industria lanar chilena incluía la producción de materias primas para la producción textil, principalmente, lana sin procesar. Abstract in english This paper is about Mapuche sheep raising and woollens production during the first three quarters of the nineteenth century, as well as about the perception customers had of Mapuche wool manufactures. Based on the British consular reports and travellers' diaries written after Chile gained independen [...] ce, this article provides new and stronger evidence to support the case that Mapuche textile production was of high-quality and very important for their entire economy; that the Mapuche woollens trade was comparable to European industries before the 1850s; and that the Mapuche wool industry was certainly more developed than the one existing in Chile, the main market for Mapuche exports. This article also shows that this superiority over the Chilean woollens industry included the production of the main raw material used to produce woollens, namely raw wool.

  19. BER Analysis of OFDM with Raised Cosine Window and Equalization using Rician Channel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikhil Bhardwaj*

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Wireless communications is emerging as the largest sectors of telecommunications industry. It is the one area that promises a lot of prospects for growth in the coming century. The major challenges for the future research and study in this field include utilizing the limited available spectrum efficiently and improved link reliability between communicating equipment. The environment in which the communication equipments are required to be operating suffers from fading and interference from other users. Frequency selective fading channels can model such hostile conditions that exist in the environment. The Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM technique that is a multi-carrier technique for data transmission is best suited for such channel models. OFDM is thus characterized by the presence of many sub-carriers. These sub-carriers among the different users bear an orthogonal relation with each other. Here the user spectrums have the flexibility to overlap thereby leading to an enhanced spectrum efficiency of the system. This flexibility is provided by this orthogonal relationship between the sub-carriers as it is necessary in overcoming deteriorating effects such as ICI or Inter-Carrier Interference which is responsible for reducing the BER (Bit Error Rate performance of the system. Here, it is observed that for the traditional OFDM system the SNR of 55 dB is achieved as compared to the simulated result (involving RC (Raised Cosine window and Equalization techniques of an SNR value of 31 dB; for the bit error rate value of 10?2.9 under Rician channel. So, an improvement of 24 dB is achieved with the proposed OFDM system. Thus, the BER performance of the system shows improvement.

  20. Gonadal differentiation in frogs, Rana japonica and R. brevipoda, raised from UV irradiated eggs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The gonadal differentiation of anurans, Rana japonica and R. brevipoda, was examined in animals raised from eggs which had been irradiated at the vegetal hemisphere with UV (9300 erg/mm2) at the 2-cell stage. In R. japonica about 70% of the larvae at stage I from the pressed and UV-irradiated eggs were germ cell free, but at a stage immediately after metamorphosis all animals had at least some germ cells, although their gonads often were extremely small and poorly differentiated. When male animals matured sexually, many of them had abnormal gonads. However, all of them were shown by artificial means to be capable of fertilization. In the nonpressed and irradiated group, no larvae were germ cell free and the animals immediately after metamorphosis showed nearly normal gonadal differentiation except for the presence of a few degenerate oocytes in the ovaries. The results in R. brevipoda were basically similar to those in R. japonica. In both species, sex ratios were determined at two stages, the first immediately after metamorphosis and the other when the animals matured, as based on gonad morphology and histology and on external sexually dimorphic characters as well. Sex ratios at these two stages in frogs from the pressed and irradiated eggs differed markedly in R. brevipoda. The ratio was normal at metamorphosis but high M/F ratios occurred when animals became mature. That sex reversal took place in this species as well as in R. japonica (in which sex-ratio deviation R. japonica (in which sex-ratio deviation was not statistically significant) was supported by the sex ratios of the progenies of these supernumerary males

  1. RUMINAL CONDITION BETWEEN MADURA CATTLE AND ONGOLE CROSSBRED CATTLE RAISED UNDER INTENSIVE FEEDING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Umar

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Each four young bulls of Madura cattle and Ongole Crossbred (OC cattle were used to study the efficiency of ruminal fermentation by comparing the proportion of Volatile Fatty Acid (VFA of these two breeds which were raised under intensive feeding. All the cattle were in about 1.5 years-old with an average body weight of 147.75 ± 14.57 kg and 167 ± 22.57 kg, for Madura and OC cattle, respectively. They were fed Napier grass (Pennisetum purpureum hay, and concentrate feeding consists of pollard, soybean meal and rice bran for 10 weeks. Parameters measured were concentration of VFA at 0, 3 and 6 h post-feeding and pH. The concentration of VFA in both Madura and OC cattle was peaked at 3 h post-feeding, being 136.1 mmol and 158.9 mmol, respectively, and then were decreased at 6 h post-feeding at a level of 58.1 and 98.2 mmol, respectively. The proportion of acetic acid in Madura and OC cattle were 53.33% and 52.0% of total VFA, respectively, while the proportion of propionic acid and butyric acid were 28.80% and 17.87% for Madura cattle, and 30.71% and 17.28% for OC cattle, respectively. In addition, the Acetic/Propionic ratios were 1.85 and 1.69 for Madura and OC cattle, respectively. Rumen pH conditions of both cattle breeds tended to be basic, i.e. Madura cattle was ranged at 8.0-8.4, while the PO cattle was ranged at 7.6-8.4. In conclusion, both cattle breeds (Madura and OC cattle have a similar efficiency to utilize the feeds in the rumen.

  2. Cerebrovascular reactivity among native-raised high altitude residents: an fMRI study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Jiaxing

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The impact of long term residence on high altitude (HA on human brain has raised concern among researchers in recent years. This study investigated the cerebrovascular reactivity among native-born high altitude (HA residents as compared to native sea level (SL residents. The two groups were matched on the ancestral line, ages, gender ratios, and education levels. A visual cue guided maximum inspiration task with brief breath holding was performed by all the subjects while Blood-Oxygenation-Level-Dependent (BOLD functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI data were acquired from them. Results Compared to SL controls, the HA group showed generally decreased cerebrovascular reactivity and longer delay in hemodynamic response. Clusters showing significant differences in the former aspect were located at the bilateral primary motor cortex, the right somatosensory association cortex, the right thalamus and the right caudate, the bilateral precuneus, the right cingulate gyrus and the right posterior cingulate cortex, as well as the left fusiform gyrus and the right lingual cortex; clusters showing significant differences in the latter aspect were located at the precuneus, the insula, the superior frontal and temporal gyrus, the somatosensory cortex (the postcentral gyrus and the cerebellar tonsil. Inspiratory reserve volume (IRV, which is an important aspect of pulmonary function, demonstrated significant correlation with the amount of BOLD signal change in multiple brain regions, particularly at the bilateral insula among the HA group. Conclusions Native-born HA residents generally showed reduced cerebrovascular reactivity as demonstrated in the hemodynamic response during a visual cue guided maximum inspiration task conducted with BOLD-fMRI. This effect was particularly manifested among brain regions that are typically involved in cerebral modulation of respiration.

  3. A REPOSITORY DESIGNED TO RAISE THE STUDENTS’ KNOWLEDGE AND AWARENESS ON NANOSCIENCE AND NANOTECHNOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GABRIEL GORGHIU

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available As defined in the information technology area, a repository represents a digital collection in which data is preserved and maintained in an organized and structured manner. This comes helpful for many projects that envisage sharing specific databases, files or resources for being accessed or distributed. More, several free and open-source software solutions for designing open-access repositories are available at present, having features very similar to the systems built for document management. Trying to implement such digital collection, as extra-readings and references related to Nanoscience and Nanotechnology area, in the frame of the LLP KA3-ICT project no. 511787-LLP-1-2010-1-TR-KA3-KA3MP: “Nano-Tech Science Education”, it was set up a repository/database for being used by students, Science prospective teachers and teachers, as a part of a Virtual Lab, which represents the main project product - an experimental virtual aid created for Science education. The Lab mainly consists of experimental room, podcasting room and repository, and serves as a platform for Science lessons, as a database of teaching materials, and as a hub for science-learning-related graphic aids and recorded and illustrated appealing experiments on Nanoscience and Nanotechnology. Its repository includes articles, books, chapters, posters, videos, experiments, methodological documents which introduce in fact, actual findings and researches developed in different countries. Basically, the main role of the repository is to update the virtual lab users’ knowledge and to raise their awareness on Nanoscience and Nanotechnology. The paper presents the features of the designed repository, its main services, and specific developments. As this is an instrument under continuous updating, the paper offers also a status of its actual structure and content.

  4. Platelet-collagen interaction: inhibition by a monoclonal antibody raised against collagen receptor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors have previously reported that polyclonal antibody raised against the purified platelet collagen receptor cross reacted with glycoprotein IIb-IIIa complex of platelets. In order to study the receptor function further, the authors prepared a monoclonal antibody to the collagen receptor (65K). Platelet collagen receptor was purified as described previously by the authors. Mice were immunized by injection of purified 65K protein emulsified in complete Freund's adjuvant, and hybridomas were obtained from the fusion of spleen cells of immunized mice with myeloma cells (SP 2/0). The assay for antibody was performed with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The hybridoma cells producing specific anti-65K protein were subcloned and the subcloned cells were injected into peritoneal cavity of Pristane-Primed mice. Immunoglobulin G(IgG) was isolated from ascitic fluids by an Affigel Blue chromatography. The Fab' fragments were isolated from papain digested IgG followed by an Affigel Blue chromatography. Immunoblot experiments using the monoclonal IgG of solubilized platelet membrane proteins following NaDodSO4-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis showed that the monoclonal IgG reacted with the antigen specifically. It did not react with glycoprotein IIb-IIIa. The isolated IgG and Fab' fragments inhibited competitively the binding of radiolabelled ?1(I) to washed platelets and soluble collagen- as well as fibrillar collagen-induced but not ADP-induced platelet aggregation. This indicates that collagen-induced platelet aggregation is mediated through interaction of collagen with 65K platelet receptor

  5. Tetrahydrocurcumin Protects against Cadmium-Induced Hypertension, Raised Arterial Stiffness and Vascular Remodeling in Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sangartit, Weerapon; Kukongviriyapan, Upa; Donpunha, Wanida; Pakdeechote, Poungrat; Kukongviriyapan, Veerapol; Surawattanawan, Praphassorn; Greenwald, Stephen E.

    2014-01-01

    Background Cadmium (Cd) is a nonessential heavy metal, causing oxidative damage to various tissues and associated with hypertension. Tetrahydrocurcumin (THU), a major metabolite of curcumin, has been demonstrated to be an antioxidant, anti-diabetic, anti-hypertensive and anti-inflammatory agent. In this study, we investigated the protective effect of THU against Cd-induced hypertension, raised arterial stiffness and vascular remodeling in mice. Methods Male ICR mice received CdCl2 (100 mg/l) via drinking water for 8 weeks. THU was administered intragastrically at dose of 50 or 100 mg/kg/day concurrently with Cd treatment. Results Administration of CdCl2 significantly increased arterial blood pressure, blunted vascular responses to vasoactive agents, increased aortic stiffness, and induced hypertrophic aortic wall remodeling by increasing number of smooth muscle cells and collagen deposition, decreasing elastin, and increasing matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 and MMP-9 levels in the aortic medial wall. Supplementation with THU significantly decreased blood pressure, improved vascular responsiveness, and reversed the structural and mechanical alterations of the aortas, including collagen and elastin deposition. The reduction on the adverse response of Cd treatment was associated with upregulated eNOS and downregulated iNOS protein expressions, increased nitrate/nitrite level, alleviated oxidative stress and enhanced antioxidant glutathione. Moreover, THU also reduced the accumulation of Cd in the blood and tissues. Conclusions Our results suggest that THU ameliorates cadmium-induced hypertension, vascular dysfunction, and arterial stiffness in mice through enhancing NO bioavailability, attenuating oxidative stress, improving vascular remodeling and decreasing Cd accumulation in other tissues. THU has a beneficial effect in moderating the vascular alterations associated with Cd exposure. PMID:25502771

  6. Meat Quality of Thai Indigenous Chickens Raised Indoors or with Outdoor Access

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wittawat Molee

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine the effect of rearing system on meat quality of Thai indigenous chickens. Three hundred and sixty 1 day old chicks were randomly allocated into 2 treatments: indoor treatment, housing in an indoor pen (5 birds/m2 or outdoor access treatment, housing in an indoor pen (5 birds/m2 with access to a grass paddock (1 bird/m2 from 8 weeks of age until slaughter. All birds were provided with the same diet during the experimental period. At 16th weeks of age, 24 birds per treatment were slaughtered to evaluate the quality of breast and thigh meat. The results showed that there was no difference in nutrient composition of breast meat among treatments (p>0.05. However, thigh meat from outdoor access treatment had higher protein content than that of indoor treatment (p0.05. Breast and thigh meat from outdoor access treatment had a higher shear force value (p = 0.05 than from indoor treatment. Thigh meat from outdoor access treatment was higher in soluble, insoluble and total collagen contents compared with indoor treatment (p<0.05. Breast and thigh meat from outdoor access treatment was less red (a*; p<0.05 and more yellow (b*; p<0.05 than those from indoor treatment. Breast skin from outdoor access treatment had more yellow than that of indoor treatment (p<0.05. The data indicated that Thai indigenous chickens raised with outdoor access could significantly increase shear value and collagen content in meat and increase yellow color in breast skin.

  7. The peroxisome-proliferator ciprofibrate induces hypergastrinemia without raising gastric pH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinsen, T C; Nesjan, N; Rønning, K; Sandvik, A K; Waldum, H L

    1996-10-01

    The ECL-cell hyperplasia and ECL-cell carcinoids occurring during long-term treatment with ciprofibrate, have been attributed to hypergastrinemia secondary to an inhibitory effect on acid secretion. However, nobody has given any explanation of the mechanism by which ciprofibrate and related phenoxyisobutyrate derivates inhibit acid secretion. Moreover, the reported inhibition of acid secretion has only been moderate, in contrast to the profound inhibition of acid secretion needed to induce similar ECL-cell changes. To re-examine the effect of ciprofibrate on gastric acidity and serum gastrin, we randomly assigned 33 male Fisher rats into three treatment groups (100 or 20 mg/kg/day of ciprofibrate and control) during a period of 4 weeks. Daily assessments of gastric acidity was done by gastric intubation, using a tube with a diameter of 2.0 mm allowing the introduction of an infant pH-catheter. Measurements were done in all animals 5 days a week. Ciprofibrate did not raise gastric pH. On the contrary, the highest dose increased the acidity. Serum gastrin levels measured in blood taken by vein puncture before the initiation of the drug treatment and on the last day of the 4 week treatment period, revealed a dose-related significant hypergastrinemic effect of ciprofibrate. The slight increase in gastric acidity in the ciprofibrate high-dose group is most likely due to the hypergastrinemia provoked by the drug. This hypergastrinemia is therefore not secondary to an inhibition of acid secretion, but may be due to a direct effect of ciprofibrate on the G-cell. The ECL-cell hyperplasia and the ECL-cell carcinoids, which develop during treatment with peroxysome-proliferators are thus due to hypergastrinemia, which is not secondary to inhibition of acid secretion. PMID:8895482

  8. In vivo protection against Tityus serrulatus scorpion venom by antibodies raised against a discontinuous synthetic epitope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duarte, Clara Guerra; Alvarenga, Larissa Magalhães; Dias-Lopes, Camila; Machado-de-Avila, Ricardo Andrés; Nguyen, Christophe; Molina, Frank; Granier, Claude; Chávez-Olórtegui, Carlos

    2010-02-01

    Scorpion stings cause human fatalities in numerous countries. Serotherapy is the only specific means to try to circumvent the noxious effects of venom toxins. TsNTxP is a natural anatoxin from the venom of the scorpion Tityus serrulatus that may be useful to raise therapeutic anti-venom sera. Linear epitopes recognized by anti-TsNTxP antibodies have previously been mapped. Here, we attempted to identify discontinuous epitopes in TsNTxP since neutralizing epitopes are often associated with such complex entities. One hundred and fifty-three octadecapeptides with the general formula (P1)-(Gly-Gly)-(P2) were synthesized by the Spot method on cellulose membranes. P1 and P2 were octapeptides from the TsNTxP N-terminal and C-terminal sections, respectively. Each sequence of eight amino acids was frameshifted in turn by three residues, in order to cover TsNTxP entire sequence. Binding of neutralizing anti-TsNTxP rabbit antibodies to spotted peptides revealed GREGYPADGGGLPDSVKI as the more reactive peptide sequence. This epitope was made from the first eight residues of the protein (GREGYPAD) and from residues 47 to 54 (GLPDSVKI) of the C-terminal part of TsNTxP. BALB/c mice were immunized with synthetic GREGYPADGGGLPDSVKI peptide conjugated to ovalbumin. One week after the last immunization, in vivo protection assays showed that immunized mice could resist a challenge by an amount of T.serrulatus whole venom equivalent to 1.75 LD(100), a dose that killed all control non-immune mice. Based on molecular models of TsNTxP and related Tityus toxins, we found that the above peptide matches with a discontinuous epitope, well exposed at the toxin molecular surface which contains residues known to be important for the bioactivity of toxins. PMID:19948263

  9. Courses for "Soil Practitioner" and other measures for raising soil awareness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartl, Wilfried

    2014-05-01

    Today, unfortunately, little use is made of the findings of rhizosphere research in practice. Therefore the author, together with the organic farmers` associations Distelverein and Bio Austria, developed the education programme "Soil Practitioner" for organic farmers. The 9-days` course focuses on the topics nutrient dynamics in soil, plant-root interactions, soil management, humus management and practical evaluation of soil functions. A second series of courses developed by Bio Forschung Austria aims at improving organic matter management on farm level. In order to enable the farmers to estimate if the humus content of their fields is increasing or decreasing, they are familiarized with the humus balancing method. In a second step, humus balances of farmers' fields are calculated and the results are discussed together. Another activity to raise soil awareness is the "Mobile Soil Laboratory", which is presented at various events. The soil functions are demonstrated to the public using special exhibits, which illustrate for example infiltration rate in soils with and without earthworms, or water holding capacity of soils with and without earthworms or erosion intensity on soil blocks from adjacent plots which had been cultivated with different crop rotations. The habitat function of soil is illustrated with portable rhizotrons, which show the ability of plants to root surprisingly deep and to penetrate compacted soil layers. Another exhibit shows a habitat preference test between differently fertilized soils with earthworms as indicator organisms. In the "Mobile Soil Laboratory", visitors are also invited to watch live soil animals through the binocular microscope. They are supplied with information on the soil animals` habitat and behaviour and on how agriculture benefits from biologically active soil. And last but not least, the "Root Demonstration Arena" at our institute features a 3-m-deep excavation lined with large viewing windows into the soil profile, where visitors can observe the root growth of different plants.

  10. Evolução de títulos sorológicos, nas provas de soroaglutinação em placa, antígeno acidificado tamponado e fixação de complemento, em bezerras Nelore vacinadas aos 18 meses de idade com Brucella abortus amostra B 19 / Evolution of serological antibody titres by the plate agglutination, rose Bengal and complement fixation tests in Nelore heifers (Bos indicus) vaccinated at 18 months of age with Brucella abortus strain 19

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Luis A., Mathias; Lucila F., Chaves; Anne A., Chen; Raul J. S., Girio; Walter, Valério Neto.

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Com o objetivo de estudar a persistência da resposta sorológica, através das provas de soroaglutinação em placa, rosa Bengala e fixação de complemento, 108 bezerras, com idade ao redor de 18 meses, foram vacinadas com uma dose padrão da vacina preparada com Brucella abortus amostra B 19. Foram obtid [...] as amostras de soro sangüíneo antes da vacinação e após 45 dias, 6, 12 e 18 meses. Antes da vacinação, todas as bezerras apresentaram resultados negativos nos três testes. Após 45 dias, todas apresentaram título a partir de 1/100 na prova de soroaglutinação em placa e todas apresentaram resultado positivo no teste rosa Bengala, ao passo que dois animais apresentaram título 1/2 e os demais apresentaram título a partir de 1/4 na reação de fixação de complemento. Após um ano de vacinação, a grande maioria das bezerras já não apresentava título sorológico significativo. Considerando o risco a que estão sujeitos animais que vivem em áreas endêmicas e em propriedades onde a doença ocorre, e considerando a acentuada redução de título sorológico observada na grande maioria dos animais, pode-se concluir que, no caso bezerras de raças zebuínas em áreas endêmicas e que não tenham sido vacinadas na idade regulamentar, é mais vantajoso vaciná-las com a amostra B 19 aos 18 meses de idade do que deixá-las expostas a um elevado risco de infecção por Brucella. Abstract in english One hundred and eight Nelore heifers (Bos indicus) about 18 months of age were vaccinated with a standard dosage (60-120 x 10(9) viable organisms) of Brucella abortus strain 19 vaccine, aiming at to study the persistence of serological antibody titres by the plate agglutination, rose Bengal and comp [...] lement fixation tests. Serum samples were collected just before vaccination and after 45 days, 6, 12 and 18 months. Before the vaccination, all the heifers showed negative results by the three tests. After 45 days, all the heifers had titres higher than or equal to 1/100 by the plate agglutination test and all of them showed positive results by the rose Bengal plate test, while 2 animals had titre 1/2 and 106 animals had titres higher than or equal to 1/4 by the complement fixation test. One year after the vaccination, most of the heifers did not show significant serological antibody titres. Considering the risk to which animals in endemic areas and infected herds are subjected, and considering the clear reduction of the serological antibody titres shown by most of the vaccinated heifers, one may assume that, in case of Nelore heifers in endemic areas and that were not vaccinated between 3 and 8 months of age, it would be more reasonable to vaccinate them at 18 months of age than to expose them to a high risk of Brucella infection.

  11. Evolução de títulos sorológicos, nas provas de soroaglutinação em placa, antígeno acidificado tamponado e fixação de complemento, em bezerras Nelore vacinadas aos 18 meses de idade com Brucella abortus amostra B 19 Evolution of serological antibody titres by the plate agglutination, rose Bengal and complement fixation tests in Nelore heifers (Bos indicus vaccinated at 18 months of age with Brucella abortus strain 19

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis A. Mathias

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de estudar a persistência da resposta sorológica, através das provas de soroaglutinação em placa, rosa Bengala e fixação de complemento, 108 bezerras, com idade ao redor de 18 meses, foram vacinadas com uma dose padrão da vacina preparada com Brucella abortus amostra B 19. Foram obtidas amostras de soro sangüíneo antes da vacinação e após 45 dias, 6, 12 e 18 meses. Antes da vacinação, todas as bezerras apresentaram resultados negativos nos três testes. Após 45 dias, todas apresentaram título a partir de 1/100 na prova de soroaglutinação em placa e todas apresentaram resultado positivo no teste rosa Bengala, ao passo que dois animais apresentaram título 1/2 e os demais apresentaram título a partir de 1/4 na reação de fixação de complemento. Após um ano de vacinação, a grande maioria das bezerras já não apresentava título sorológico significativo. Considerando o risco a que estão sujeitos animais que vivem em áreas endêmicas e em propriedades onde a doença ocorre, e considerando a acentuada redução de título sorológico observada na grande maioria dos animais, pode-se concluir que, no caso bezerras de raças zebuínas em áreas endêmicas e que não tenham sido vacinadas na idade regulamentar, é mais vantajoso vaciná-las com a amostra B 19 aos 18 meses de idade do que deixá-las expostas a um elevado risco de infecção por Brucella.One hundred and eight Nelore heifers (Bos indicus about 18 months of age were vaccinated with a standard dosage (60-120 x 10(9 viable organisms of Brucella abortus strain 19 vaccine, aiming at to study the persistence of serological antibody titres by the plate agglutination, rose Bengal and complement fixation tests. Serum samples were collected just before vaccination and after 45 days, 6, 12 and 18 months. Before the vaccination, all the heifers showed negative results by the three tests. After 45 days, all the heifers had titres higher than or equal to 1/100 by the plate agglutination test and all of them showed positive results by the rose Bengal plate test, while 2 animals had titre 1/2 and 106 animals had titres higher than or equal to 1/4 by the complement fixation test. One year after the vaccination, most of the heifers did not show significant serological antibody titres. Considering the risk to which animals in endemic areas and infected herds are subjected, and considering the clear reduction of the serological antibody titres shown by most of the vaccinated heifers, one may assume that, in case of Nelore heifers in endemic areas and that were not vaccinated between 3 and 8 months of age, it would be more reasonable to vaccinate them at 18 months of age than to expose them to a high risk of Brucella infection.

  12. The Methods Applied by Pre-School Teachers to Raise the Curiosity of Children and Their Views

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buyuktaskapu Soydan, Sema; Erbay, Filiz

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine the strategies used by pre-school teachers in order to raise curiosity in children. Based on this aim, sample is composed of 52 pre-school teachers working in kindergartens affiliated to Ministry of National Education. Study data were collected via qualitative research methods. Research data were gathered…

  13. The Children Should Lead Us: Diane Ehrensaft's "Gender Born, Gender Made--Raising Healthy Gender-Nonconforming Children"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beemyn, Genny

    2013-01-01

    This article reviews Diane Ehrensaft's "Gender Born, Gender Made: Raising Healthy Gender-Nonconforming Children", a thoughtful and practical guide that can help parents, other family members, and therapists better understand and support children and youth whom the author refers to as "gender creative." Ehrensaft's work is at the forefront of a…

  14. Enhancing Tutorial Learning Experiences: A Programme to Develop Sessional-Tutor Teaching Skills by Raising Awareness about Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truuvert, Toomas

    2014-01-01

    This article outlines the trial of a programme to enhance tutorial learning experiences by raising sessional-tutor awareness about learning, and reflects on its results. The author developed the programme for an introductory undergraduate unit in finance with historically very large enrolments, diverse student populations, and high failure rates.…

  15. Pizza Parties, Pep Rallies, and Practice Tests: Strategies Used by High School Principals to Raise Percent Proficient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollingworth, Liz; Dude, David J.; Shepherd, Julie K.

    2010-01-01

    This study explores ways high school principals are responding to the demands of education reform to raise student test scores on achievement tests used for accountability purposes. Anecdotal evidence suggests administrators have instituted pizza parties and pep rallies to motivate students to do their best and practice tests to prepare students…

  16. Nutrients and chemical residues in one- to two-pound Mississippi farm-raised channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allen, W.H. Jr. (The Catfish Institute, Belzoni, MS (USA)); Klatt, L.V. (Hazleton Laboratories America, Inc., Madison, WI (USA)); Ratnayake, W.M.N.; Ackman, R.G. (Technical Univ. of Nova Scotia, Halifax (Canada)); Nettleton, J.A.

    Composite samples of Mississippi farm-raised channel catfish (FRCC) fillets were analyzed at four different seasons for the following: proximate composition, cholesterol, fatty acids, eight vitamins, eleven minerals, four heavy metals and a variety of environmentally persistent chlorinated hydrocarbon pesticides and PCBs.

  17. 1,3-dichloropropene and chloropicrin emissions following simulated drip irrigation to raised beds under plastic films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Using laboratory soil chambers a non-scaled representation of an agricultural raised bed was constructed. For a sandy loam soil, a drip application of 1,3-dichloropropene (1,3-D) and chloropicrin (CP) under both high density polyethylene (HDPE) and virtually impermeable film (VIF) was performed at 5...

  18. Factors Related to Annual Fund-Raising Contributions from Individual Donors to NCAA Division I-A Institutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, Douglas E.; Southall, Richard M.; Stotlar, David; Mundfrom, Daniel J.

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify selected factors related to annual fundraising program contributions at National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) Division I-A (D I-A) institutions and develop an equation for estimating an annual fund-raising goal. Based on a review of the literature, 15 potential predictor variables were selected…

  19. Compromised metamorphosis and thyroid hormone changes in wood frogs (Lithobates sylvaticus) raised on reclaimed wetlands on the Athabasca oil sands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hersikorn, Blair D., E-mail: blair.hersikorn@usask.c [Toxicology Centre, University of Saskatchewan, 44 Campus Drive, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, S7N 5B3 (Canada); Smits, Judit E.G., E-mail: judit.smits@ucalgary.c [Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Calgary, 3280 Hospital Drive NW, Calgary, Alberta, T2N 4Z6 (Canada)

    2011-02-15

    The wet landscape approach to oil sands tailings reclamation in the Athabasca Oil Sands region involves creating wetlands from fluid tailings in mined-out pits. We measured time to metamorphosis, thyroid hormone status, and detoxification enzyme (EROD) induction in Wood frog (Lithobates sylvaticus) tadpoles raised on reclaimed oil sands wetlands of different ages [young ({<=}7 yr) vs. old (>7 yr)] and compared data with tadpoles raised on reference (control) wetlands. Metamorphosis was delayed or never occurred in tadpoles raised in young tailings; those exposed to older tailings developed similarly to those in reference wetlands. Thyroid hormone disruption likely played an important role in the metamorphosis delay as the T3:T4 ratio was lowest in tadpoles raised in young, tailings-affected wetlands. Our findings suggest tailings wetlands become less toxic with age, and that these amphibians will be able to complete their life cycle in tailing wetlands that have sufficiently detoxified with age. - This work provides guidance for reclamation of oil sands tailings and shows the usefulness of frogs and caging studies in environmental toxicology.

  20. Does Raising the State Compulsory School Attendance Age Achieve the Intended Outcomes? Summary. REL 2014-005

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackey, Philip E.; Duncan, Teresa G.

    2013-01-01

    Maryland raised its compulsory school attendance age from 16 to 18 in two stages: from 16 to 17 at the beginning of the 2014/15 school year and from 17 to 18 at the beginning of the 2016/17 school year (Maryland Senate Bill 362, 2012). The Maryland State Department of Education (MSDE) sought technical assistance from the Regional Educational…

  1. Is the Week over yet? Insight for Educators about Social Network Support among Cyber Mothers Raising Children with ASD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanke, Jayme; Doktor, Judy; Shrestha, Sabita; Zeman, Laura Dreuth

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the motivation to participate in social networks maintained by mothers who blog and raise children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). The qualitative data analyzed in this study originated from a larger project that examined the perceptions, experiences, and meanings among mothers who maintained public blogs while parenting…

  2. Strategic Planning, Marketing & Public Relations, and Fund-Raising in Higher Education: Perspectives, Readings, and Annotated Bibliography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryans, Cynthia C.; Shanklin, William L.

    Perspectives on college and university strategic planning, marketing and public relations, and fund-raising are offered. Also included are previously published journal articles by experts in this area, annotated bibliographies of books and journal articles on these subjects, author/title and subject indexes, and a directory of publishers. Three…

  3. Compromised metamorphosis and thyroid hormone changes in wood frogs (Lithobates sylvaticus) raised on reclaimed wetlands on the Athabasca oil sands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The wet landscape approach to oil sands tailings reclamation in the Athabasca Oil Sands region involves creating wetlands from fluid tailings in mined-out pits. We measured time to metamorphosis, thyroid hormone status, and detoxification enzyme (EROD) induction in Wood frog (Lithobates sylvaticus) tadpoles raised on reclaimed oil sands wetlands of different ages [young (?7 yr) vs. old (>7 yr)] and compared data with tadpoles raised on reference (control) wetlands. Metamorphosis was delayed or never occurred in tadpoles raised in young tailings; those exposed to older tailings developed similarly to those in reference wetlands. Thyroid hormone disruption likely played an important role in the metamorphosis delay as the T3:T4 ratio was lowest in tadpoles raised in young, tailings-affected wetlands. Our findings suggest tailings wetlands become less toxic with age, and that these amphibians will be able to complete their life cycle in tailing wetlands that have sufficiently detoxified with age. - This work provides guidance for reclamation of oil sands tailings and shows the usefulness of frogs and caging studies in environmental toxicology.

  4. Data-Driven Learning and Awareness-Raising: An Effective Tandem to Improve Grammar in Written Composition?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Luisa Pérez Cañado

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available The present paper, framed within the ECTS scheme currently being piloted at the University of Jaén, reports on a study carried out in the second semester of the academic year 2004-5 with English Philology freshmen at this University. One of its aims, described in an initial section of the paper, was to determine whether the use of Computer Assisted Language Learning (CALL, and Data-Driven Learning (DDL, could help raise awareness of and thus remediate the grammar weaknesses of such pupils under four categories (articles, verb tenses, verbal complementation, and prepositions. The procedure, outlined subsequently, involved using DDL to raise awareness of the main grammar mistakes in these headings, which had been previously identified in first year students’ production through the use of an UCLEE-error-tagged written learner corpus. Two one-hour seminars were employed weekly, each one with a group of 40 students, to raise awareness of these mistakes with the help of web-based resources. Four were the steps undertaken: initial attempts on the part of the students to identify the mistakes in the seven headings; a session provided by the authors on CALL as a means to raise awareness of, identify, and solve written mistakes; use of these electronic resources to contrast their initial error identification; and explicit correction of the mistakes in each category. The results and implications, discussed in a final section, highlight that DDL and awareness-raising – albeit in some categories more than in others – indeed constitute an effective tandem when it comes to improving grammatical aspects in written composition at University level.

  5. Raising awareness for research on earth walls, and earth scientific aspects

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Ancker, Hanneke; Jungerius, Pieter Dirk; Baas, Henk; Groenewoudt, Bert; Peen, Charlotte

    2013-04-01

    A conference to raise awareness In the Netherlands, little research on earth walls has been done. To improve attention for earth walls, a number of organisations, including Geoheritage NL, organized a conference at the RCE, the Cultural Heritage Agency of the Netherlands. The conference* presented a state-of-the-art of research done. The book with the presentations, and extra case studies added, was published in December 2012. The book concludes with a research action list, including earth science research, and can be downloaded freely from the internet. It has English summaries. The earth science aspects Historical earth walls do not only add cultural value to a landscape, but also geodiversity value. Apart from geomorphological aspects, the walls contain information about past land- and climate conditions: - They cover up a former topography, a past landscape. A relevant source of scientific information where lands are levelled, as is the case in many parts of The Netherlands; - The soil formation under the earth wall is a reference soil. The soil formation in the top of the wall gives insight in the rate of soil formation in relationship with the age and parent material of the wall; - The soil profiles of different age have ecological significance. Older walls with a more pronounced soil formation often hold forest flora that has disappeared from the surrounding environment, such as historical bush or tree species, autogenetic DNA material or a specific soil fauna; - The materials in the earth walls tell about the process of wall-building. Paleosols and sedimentary structures in the earth walls, in the gullies and colluvial fans along the walls contain information about past land management and climate. - The eroded appearance of the earth walls is part of their history, and contain information about past management and land conditions, has ecological relevance, for example for insects, and is often visually more interesting. Insight in the rates of erosion are important for earth wall maintenance. A reconnaissance study of earth science aspects of earth walls in Ede The poster further presents a reconnaissance study in the municipality Ede describing differences in morphology, geology and soil profile development. E.g. totally black plaggen A-like horizons occur over 1 m thick, as well as differences in brown B-horizons from 0 cm, 2-3 cm to 15-20 cm. Inferred from cultural data, 2-3 cm B-horizons have an age of about two - three hundred years. Reference Henk Baas, Bert Groenwoudt, Pim Jungerius, Hans Renes (eds.), 2012. Tot hier toe en niet verder - historische wallen in het Nederlandse landschap., RCE - Cultural Heritage Agency of the Netherlands, Amersfoort (includes English summaries)

  6. Microsatellite based genetic diversity and relationships among ten Creole and commercial cattle breeds raised in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Almeida Leonardo D

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Brazil holds the largest commercial cattle populations worldwide. Local cattle breeds can be classified according to their origin, as exotic or Creole. Exotic breeds imported in the last 100 years, both zebuine and taurine, currently make up the bulk of the intensively managed populations. Locally adapted Creole breeds, originated from cattle introduced by the European conquerors derive from natural selection and events of breed admixture. While historical knowledge exists on the Brazilian Creole breeds very little is known on their genetic composition. The objective of this study was to assess the levels of genetic diversity, phylogenetic relationships and patterns of taurine/zebuine admixture among ten cattle breeds raised in Brazil. Results Significant reduction of heterozygosity exists due both to within-population inbreeding and to breed differentiation in both subspecies (taurine and zebuine. For taurine breeds the number of markers that contribute to breed differentiation is larger than for zebuine. A consistently similar number of alleles was seen in both subspecies for all microsatellites. Four Creole breeds were the most genetically diverse followed by the zebuine breeds, the two specialized taurine breeds and the Creole Caracu. Pairwise genetic differentiation were all significant indicating that all breeds can be considered as genetically independent entities. A STRUCTURE based diagram indicated introgression of indicine genes in the local Creole breeds and suggested that occasional Creole introgression can be detected in some Zebuine animals. Conclusion This study reports on a comprehensive study of the genetic structure and diversity of cattle breeds in Brazil. A significant amount of genetic variation is maintained in the local cattle populations. The genetic data show that Brazilian Creole breeds constitute an important and diverse reservoir of genetic diversity for bovine breeding and conservation. The genetic data was able to shed light on a number of issues related to the local breeds origin and structure. The Brazilian Creole breeds are all important and viable targets for conservation for they display peculiar traits both phenotypic and of cultural and historical nature that deserve conservation efforts.

  7. Grammatical consciousness-raising: a problem-solving, process-focused approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wendy R. Kilfoil

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available How can we address the teaching of English as a second language in South African secondary schools given what we know about the nature of language acquisition, learners' lack of exposure to mother tongue English speakers and their widely divergent language experience at primary school/eve!? This paper argues that grammatical consciousness-raising should be the basis of the secondary school syllabus. Current syllabuses do not adequately consider language acquisition processes. Although their aims are defined as 'communicative: syllabuses continue to focus on what language should be taught, with the result that they remain essentially lists of structures and functions. Syllabuses should be completely redesigned to develop a coherent process-focused, problemsolving approach to second language teaching. At the moment there is a distinct reluctance to make any definitive pronouncements about the place of language instruction in the classroom. This has a detrimental effect on both teachers and learners. The only way to cope with the developing language needs of the learner in the secondary school is through a more conscious study of how language is used in natural discourse. A more deliberate language control on the part of the learner will enhance the efficacy of extensive listening, speaking, reading and writing activities designed to supply input which is a necessary but not sufficient criterion for acquisition at this leveL Hoe kan ons die onderrig van Engels as 'n tweede taal in Suid-Afrikaanse sekondere skole aanspreek, gegee ons kennis van die aard van taalverwerwing, die leerders se gebrek aan blootstelling aan Engels-moederlaalsprekers en hul uiteenlopende taalondervinding op laerskoolvlak? Hierdie arlikel voer aan dat grammatikale bewustheidsopskerping die basis van die sekondere skoolleerplan behoorl te wees. Huidige leerplanne neem nie taalverwerwingsprosesse voldoende in ag nie. Alhoewel hulle doelstellings as kommunikatief beskryf word, fokus leerplanne steeds op wafter taalinhoude onderrig moet word. Gevolglik bly leerplanne hoofsaaklik lyste van strukture en funksies. Leerplanne behoorl heeltemal herontwerp te word om 'n samehangende proses-gefokusde, probleemoplossingsbenadering tot tweede taalonderrig te ontwikkel. Tans is daar 'n duidelike onwilligheid om enige definitiewe uitspraak te !ewer oor die plek van taalonderrig in die klaskamer. Dit het 'n nadelige uitwerking op onderwysers en ook die leerders. Die enigste manier waarop die ontwikkelende taalbehoeftes van die sekondere skoolleerling geakkommodeer kan word, is deur 'n meer bewuste studie te maak van hoe taal in 'n natuurlike diskoers gebruik word. 'n Meer doelbewuste taalbeheer aan die kant van die leerder sal die doeltreffendheid van ekstensiewe luister-, praat-, lees- en skryfaktiwiteite bevorder. Hierdie aktiwiteite verskaf die nodige taalinsette, maar is op sigself onvoldoende om taalverwerwing op hierdie vlak te verseker.

  8. Seven steps to raise world security. Op-Ed, published in the Finanical Times

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In recent years, three phenomena have radically altered the security landscape. They are the emergence of a nuclear black market, the determined efforts by more countries to acquire technology to produce the fissile material usable in nuclear weapons and the clear desire of terrorists to acquire weapons of mass destruction. The IAEA has been trying to solve these new problems with existing tools. But for every step forward, we have exposed vulnerabilities in the system. The system itself - the regime that implements non-proliferation treaty needs reinforcement. Some of the necessary remedies can be taken in New York at the Meeting to be held in May, but only if governments are ready to act. With seven straightforward steps, and without amending the treaty, this conference could reach a milestone in strengthening world security. The first step: put a five-year hold on additional facilities for uranium enrichment and plutonium separation. Second, speed up existing efforts, led by the US global threat reduction initiative and others, to modify the research reactors worldwide operating with highly enriched uranium - particularly those with metal fuel that could be readily employed as bomb material. Third, raise the bar for inspection standards by establishing the 'additional protocol' as the norm for verifying compliance with the NPT. Fourth, call on the United Nations Security Council to act swiftly and decisively in the case of any country that withdraws from the NPT, in terms of the threat the withdrawal poses to international peace and security. Fifth, urge states to act on the Security Council's recent resolution 1540, to pursue and prosecute any illicit trading in nuclear material and technology. Sixth, call on the five nuclear weapon states party to the NPT to accelerate implementation of their 'unequivocal commitment' to nuclear disarmament, building on efforts such as the 2002 Moscow treaty between Russia and the US. Last, acknowledge the volatility of longstanding tensions that give rise to proliferation, in regions such as the Middle East and the Korean peninsula, and take action to resolve existing security problems and, where needed, provide security assurances. None of these steps will work in isolation. Each requires a concession from someone. But with leadership from all sides, this package of proposals will create gains for everyone. This opportunity will come again - in 2010. But given current trends, the international community cannot afford to wait another five years

  9. A stacked record of late-Holocene moisture variability from three raised bogs in Maine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clifford, M. J.; Booth, R. K.

    2011-12-01

    During the past century, drought has caused substantial social, economic, and ecological changes in North America. Semi-arid regions of the western United States have been particularly vulnerable to drought and drought impacts. However, drought has been less frequent and severe in humid regions of North America during the past century, leading to the perception that these regions are not particularly vulnerable to hydroclimatic change. Although the tree-ring record provides a detailed perspective on drought frequency and duration for the past millennium in the western US, much less is known about the long-term history of water balance in humid regions like the Northeast. To better understand the long-term history of moisture variability in this region, we developed records of past hydroclimate variability spanning the past 3000 years from three raised bogs in Maine. We used testate amoeba-inferred water table depths and measurements of the degree of peat decomposition to reconstruct the paleohydrology at each site. Proxy hydroclimate records from these bogs were combined (stacked), creating a single, regional record of hydroclimate variability. Our results reveal that droughts longer or more severe than any recorded during the 20th century have been common in the region, with particularly prominent multidecadal-to-centennial scale droughts centered on ~1800 yr BP, ~1650 yr BP, ~850 yr BP, and ~550 yr BP. Hydroclimate variability was greatest during the Medieval Climate Anomaly, a time period of relative warmth in much of the Northern Hemisphere. Droughts in Maine during the past century have been associated with northerly wind anomalies and anomalously cool sea surface temperatures in the adjacent northwestern North Atlantic, patterns that are likely associated with broader circulation features such as those associated with the North Atlantic Oscillation. Droughts of the past 3000 years may have been characterized by similar responses to the coupled ocean-atmosphere system, although mechanisms and dynamics remain unclear. Although drought risks in humid regions such as eastern North America have been less studied because of lack of recent occurrence, our data reveal that this region has been vulnerable to persistent and prolonged droughts in the recent past.

  10. Ovarian changes during the reproductive cycle of the Tupinambis merianae lizard raised in a temperate environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manes, Mario E.

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available El ciclo reproductor de hembras de Tupinambis merianae criadas en ambiente templado consiste de tres fases gonadales: previtelogénica, vitelogénica y postovulatoria o lútea. Durante la fase previtelogénica, que ocupa gran parte del verano, el otoño e invierno, los ovarios son pequeños, pesan menos de 4 g y contienen solamente folículos no vitelogénicos, los cuales se desarrollan lentamente a partir de los nidos germinales, alcanzando unos 5 mm de diámetro. Debido a una maduración gonadal asincrónica entre ambos sexos, las cópulas acontecen cuando los ovarios son aún previtelogénicos. Luego sobreviene una corta e intensa vitelogénesis, durante la cual los folículos crecen uniformemente incrementando unas 6 veces su diámetro (cerca de 30 mm, mientras que la masa ovárica total alcanza unos 400 g. El proceso culmina entre los 15 y 20 días, con una ovulación generalizada y la subsiguiente oviposición. Como consecuencia, los ovarios postovulatorios aparecen reducidos a unos 5 g, con una superficie casi enteramente cubierta de cicatrices foliculares, las cuales pronto desarrollan cuerpos lúteos. La detención del ciclo ovárico, con atresia folicular previtelogénica masiva, como resultado del aislamiento de las hembras, permite concluir sobre la existencia de estímulos sexuales promotores de la vitelogénesis. The reproductive cycle of Tupinambis merianae females raised in a temperate environment consists of three gonadal phases: previtellogenic, vitellogenic and postovulatory or luteal phases. During the previtellogenic phase, which takes great part of the summer, autumn and winter, the ovaries are small, weigh less than 4 g, and contain only nonvitellogenic follicles, which develop slowly from germinal beds, until they are almost 5 mm diameter. Due to an asynchronous gonadal maturation in both sexes, matings occur when ovaries are still previtellogenic. Then comes a short and intense vitellogenesis, during which follicles grow steadily increasing around 6 times their diameter (close to 30 mm, while the total ovarian mass reaches almost 400 g. The process culminates between the 15th and 20th day, with a widespread ovulation and a subsequent oviposition. As a consequence, postovulatory ovaries appear reduced to 5 g approximately, with a surface almost entirely covered with follicular scars, which soon developed luteal bodies. Blockade of the ovarian cycle, with a massive previtellogenic follicular atresia, as a result of females isolation leads to conclude on the existence of sexual stimuli promoting vitellogenesis.

  11. Education and Raising Awareness of Seismic Risk in the Black Sea Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florin Balan, Stefan; Alcaz, Vasile; Trifonova, Petya; Uker, Nalan; Tataru, Dragos

    2014-05-01

    The Project "Black Sea Earthquake Safety Net(work)" ESNET has the intention to educate and raise awareness of seismic risk in the Black Sea Basin in four countries: Moldova, Romania, Bulgaria and Turkey. The project is financed through "The Black Sea Basin Joint Operational Programme", an EU operational programmes under European Neighborhood & Partnership Instrument (ENPI). The programme is financed by ENPI. The participation of Turkey is financed by Instrument for Pre-accession Assistance. It is implemented during the period 2007 - 2013. The project wants to contribute to the prevention of natural disasters generated by earthquakes in Black Sea Basin by developing a joint monitoring and intervention concept. All the countries involved in the project have their own studies, strategies, prevention and intervention systems in case of earthquakes, but until now there has not been an integrated approach so far in the Black Sea Basin. Given the cross-border character of seismic activity, it is necessary to have a cross-border approach on prevention, monitoring and intervention in case of earthquakes. Main objectives : 1. The assessment of the disaster potential, with accent on the seismic risk degree and the earthquakes effects in the intervention area. For achieving the main objective is to have an accurate and up-to-date assessment of the potential of disasters provoked by earthquakes in the project area/regions. This assessment will be carried out at national level and will be used in designing the common concept/approach for dealing with earthquakes at regional level, thus ensuring the cross-border character of the objective. 2.To develop an integrated seismic monitoring and intervention concept. This integrated concept, built on the basis of the previous objective, will have a cross-border relevance and is at the core of the action. The monitoring and intervention in case of earthquakes will be coordinated among the participating countries based on this, thus a more effective and efficient approach being ensured. 3. To increase the capacity of local institutions emergency intervention units for joint response activities in case of disasters. By involving the local emergency units and public administration in the project activities, especially in trainings, conferences and consultations, a better cooperation at cross-border level will be achieved. Step by step, the respective bodies will increase the cooperation and will benefit from each others expertise. Target groups : Research institutions and universities; Emergency intervention units; Local public authorities; NGOs. Final beneficiaries of the project: the population in the regions of the project. The project has a high educational perspective through its: a)training activities and b)training tools applied in the process. A) the training of 20 people from the emergency units from each country (80 in total) by experts in risk management. B) The Seismic Safety Web Portal of the project presenting all activities, maps and materials posted by members of the network agreement and not only. Also for changing expertise, opinions and long distance conferences is available a special software communication tool. An educational book is printed in 3 languages to be distributed in partner countries with main results.

  12. Water saving in chufa cultivation using flat raised beds and drip irrigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascual-Seva, N.; San Bautista, A.; López-Galarza, S.; Maroto, J. V.; Pascual, B.

    2012-04-01

    Chufa (Cyperus esculentus L. var. sativus), also known as tiger nut, is a typical crop in the Region of Valencia (Spain). Its tubers are used to produce a beverage called horchata. Chufa has been cultivated traditionally in ridges and furrow irrigated. Currently, the quality of water used is acceptable, there are no limitations on supply, and water is not expensive; therefore, large amounts of water are used. The European Water Framework Directive 2000/60 is based on the precautionary principle, considering preventive action for measures to be taken; thus, water use is an issue to improve. Moreover, drought periods are becoming more frequent and extended, and water is being diverted to other uses. In this two year study (2007-2008), we analysed how yield and irrigation water use efficiency (IWUE) are affected by two cultivation factors: planting strategy and irrigation system. Three planting strategies were analysed: ridges (R) and flat raised beds, with two (B2) and three (B3) plant rows along them, while two irrigation systems were compared, furrow (FI) and drip irrigation (DI). Within the beds, the effect of the position of the plant row was considered, differing among plants grown in the north (n), central (c), and south (s) rows. Distances between ridge and bed axes were 60, 80 and 120 cm for R, B2 and B3, respectively. Irrigation was based on the Volumetric Soil Water Content (VSWC), which was continuously monitored with capacitance sensors (ECH2O EC-5 in FI and multidepth capacitance sensors C-Probe in DI). Each irrigation session started when the VSWC in R dropped to 60% and 80% of field capacity in FI and DI, respectively. Each DI session lasted 60 min in 2007; while in 2008 the installation was automated, stopping each session when the sum of the VSWC at 10, 20, and 30 cm soil depth reached its corresponding field capacity value. With both irrigation systems, beds were irrigated simultaneously with ridges and with the same irrigation duration. Plants from the different plant rows were sampled periodically and later fractionated into leaves, roots, and tubers, to examine the evolution of the different plant organs. The results showed that there were no differences among planting strategies in 2007; however, in 2008, R produced lower yields than the two types of beds. The interaction between the experimental years and the irrigation strategy did affect the yield significantly, obtaining higher yields with DI than with FI, which led to higher yields in 2007 than in 2008. Regarding the IWUE, DI gave the highest values, especially in 2008. Ridges led to the highest IWUE with DI, and the lowest IWUE with FI. When comparing the different planting lines, the highest yield was obtained in the southern row. It can be concluded that modifications to the planting strategy and the irrigation system within the traditional cultivation practices of the chufa crop would increase IWUE and lead to major water savings.

  13. The Soil Atlas of Africa: raising awareness and educate to the importance of soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewitte, Olivier; Jones, Arwyn; Bosco, Claudio; Spaargaren, Otto; Montanarella, Luca

    2010-05-01

    The richness of African soil resources need to be protected for future generations. A number of threats are affecting the functioning of African soils, not only for the purpose of agricultural production, but also for other important environmental services that soil delivers to all of us. This is of particular importance once we know that many health-related problems in Africa are indirectly related to the services of soils. To raise the awareness of the general public, policy makers and other scientists to the importance of soil in Africa, the Joint Research Centre of the European Commission is to produce the first ever Soil Atlas of Africa. This is in collaboration with the African Union Commission, the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO), the Africa Soil Science Society, ISRIC - World Soil Information and scientists from both Europe and Africa. The Atlas compiles existing information on different soil types as easily understandable maps (both at regional and continental scale) covering the African continent. The Soil Atlas of Africa intends to produce derived maps at continental scale with descriptive text (e.g. vulnerability to desertification, soil nutrient status, carbon stocks and sequestration potential, irrigable areas and water resources) as well as specific maps to illustrate threats such as soil erosion for instance. For each regional overview, large scale examples of soil maps and derived products are presented too. The Atlas will be published as a hardcover book containing 174 A3 pages, which will allow soils maps to be displayed at the A2 scale. Both French and English versions of the Atlas will be edited. The Atlas will be sold at a low cost and will be for free for educational purpose (Schools and Universities). A digital version on CD and eventually freely downloadable on internet will also be available. Together with the publication of the Atlas, associated datasets on soil characteristics for Africa will be made available. These datasets will be useful for making broad distinction among soil types and provide general trends at the global and regional scales. The datasets will be made accessible for free downloading from the portals of the SOIL Action (http://eusoils.jrc.ec.europa.eu/) and the ACP Observatory for Sustainable Development (http://acpobservatory.jrc.ec.europa.eu). The Atlas links the theme of soil with rural development and, at the same time, supports the goals of the EU Thematic Strategy for Soil Protection in conserving a threatened natural resource that is vital to human existence. Not only climate change, but also desertification and loss of biodiversity are strongly affecting soils globally, making the "Soil Atlas of Africa" relevant to a much larger community of stakeholders involved in the implementation of the three "Rio-Conventions" and allowing to explore possible synergies among international multilateral agreements towards global soil protection.

  14. Effect of Antibodies Raised in Bovine and Guineapigs on The Genetic Characters of Seroytpe Asia1 FMD Virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Sanyal

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present work, the effect of antibodies (raised in Bovine against IND 63/72 and in Guineapigs against IND 63/72 and IND 491/97 on foot-and-mouth disease serotype Asia1 vaccine strain IND 63/72 was compared by analyzing the data obtained in nucleotide sequencing. The Nr viruses (neutralization resistant viruses which were selected by growing them in the presence of antibodies (Bovine Vaccinate Serum, BVS and Guineapig Serum, GPS showed certain characteristic features like common changes in the structural protein coding P1 region of this virus. This shows that the virus responds equally to the antibodies raised in both bovine (natural host and guineapig (experimental host. The result hereIn extends the finding that selection exerted by host antibody also plays a major role in the rapid evolution of FMD Virus serotype Asia1.

  15. The costs of raising children and the effectiveness of policies to support parenthood in European countries: a Literature Review

    OpenAIRE

    Letablier, Marie-the?re?se; Luci, Angela; Math, Antoine; The?venon, Olivier

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to produce an overview of available knowledge about the following issues: ? the costs (to parents) of parenthood and of raising children in European Countries; ? the effectiveness, in the short and long term, of various policy measures in avoiding or compensating for those costs; 8 ? the impact of different policy instruments aimed at supporting families according to various policy objectives, e.g. achieving family projects, reconciling family and working l...

  16. The WBC raising effect and the side effects of LPS-701 injection of cervix cancer patients receiving radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports that LPS-701, an endotoxin extracted and purified by the authors' laboratory from Salmonella typhoid bacilli, has a marked effect on raising the white blood cell count of cervix cancer patients receiving radiotherapy, while the systemic and local side effects are slight. It is suggested that injection of LPS-701 can be used as a non-specific immunological stimulating agent for patients receiving radiotherapy. (Auth.)

  17. How the Entrepreneurial Top Management Team Setup Influences Firm Performance and the Ability to Raise Capital: A Literature Review

    OpenAIRE

    Konstantin Maschke; Dodo zu Knyphausen-Aufseß

    2012-01-01

    This paper reviews research findings on entrepreneurial top management teams within the last 20 years. It concentrates on team-based management factors and their influence on a new venture’s growth and ability to raise capital. This paper integrates recent findings and provides an overview of the current state of research. Moreover, it contributes to the overall topic by proposing five clusters of major team-specific influences, derives determinants of success and failure, and reveals recom...

  18. The Release of a Captive-Raised Female African Elephant (Loxodonta africana) in the Okavango Delta, Botswana

    OpenAIRE

    Stephen Harris; Kate Evans; Moore, Randall J.

    2013-01-01

    Wild female elephants live in close-knit matrilineal groups and housing captive elephants in artificial social groupings can cause significant welfare issues for individuals not accepted by other group members. We document the release of a captive-raised female elephant used in the safari industry because of welfare and management problems. She was fitted with a satellite collar, and spatial and behavioural data were collected over a 17-month period to quantify her interactions with the wild ...

  19. Performance and organ morphology of broilers fed microbial or antimicrobial additives and raised in batteries or floor pens

    OpenAIRE

    Aa, Pedroso; Jfm, Menten; Amc, Racanicci; Fa, Longo; Job, Sorbara; Jb, Gaiotto

    2003-01-01

    This study was conducted to determine the effect of microbial or antimicrobial additives on the performance and organ morphology of broilers raised in batteries or in floor pens. The effect of microbial additives on the presence of oocysts in the litter was also studied. Experiments 1 and 2 consisted of four treatments (non-supplemented control diet or diet supplemented with avilamycin, bacitracin methylene disalicylate or enramycin) and six repetitions in a randomized block design. In Experi...

  20. Analyzing the benefit of optical transmission systems based on Root Raised Cosine PS-QPSK and a flexible channel grid

    OpenAIRE

    Seck, Aida; Ramantanis, Petros; Vuong, Jordi; Bendimerad, Djalal Falih; Lepers, Catherine; Benkelfat, Badr-eddine; Frignac, Yann

    2013-01-01

    We numerically investigate the multi-channel transmission performance of Polarization Switched Quadrature Phase Shift Keying (PSQPSK) and we compare it to the performance of Polarization-Division-Multiplexed QPSK (PDM-QPSK), using Root Raised Cosine (RRC) spectral shaping, in the context of a flexible channel grid. We point out the impact of the roll-off factor and the potential influence of different dispersion compensation scenarios. Finally, the advantage of PS-QPSK against PDM-QPSK is pre...

  1. Inadvertent raising of levels in the FFTF primary sodium pumps. Final unusual occurrence report, HEDL 79-34 (FFTF-58)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The final unusual occurrence report describes the inadvertent raising of the sodium level in the FFTF primary sodium pumps during system testing. This event is now judged to have caused permanent deformation of the primary pump shaft on loop 1 during a period when pump rotation was stopped and sodium level in the pump tank was inadvertently increased. The shaft was subsequently removed, straightened, and returned to service in the spare FFTF pump

  2. Raising livestock in resource-poor communities of the North West Province of South Africa - a participatory rural appraisal study

    OpenAIRE

    Getchell, J. K.; Vatta, A. F.; Motswatswe, P. W.; Krecek, R. C.; Moerane, R.; Pell, A. N.; Tucker, T. W.; Leshomo, S.

    2012-01-01

    A participatory research model was used in six village communities in the Central Region of the North West Province of South Africa in order to achieve the following broad objectives : to obtain information on the challenges owners face in raising livestock in these areas and to evaluate the livestock owners' level of knowledge of internal parasites in their animals. Information obtained at participatory workshops clearly indicated a need for improvements in water supply, schools, job creatio...

  3. Multidisciplinary Engagement with Nanoethics Through Education—The Nanobio-RAISE Advanced Courses as a Case Study and Model

    OpenAIRE

    Schuurbiers, Daan; Sleenhoff, Susanne; Jacobs, Johannes F.; Osseweijer, Patricia

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents and evaluates two advanced courses organised in Oxford as part of the European project Nanobio-RAISE and suggests using their format to encourage multidisciplinary engagement between nanoscientists and nanoethicists. Several nanoethicists have recently identified the need for ‘better’ ethics of emerging technologies, arguing that ethical reflection should become part and parcel of the research and development (R&D) process itself. Such new forms of ethical deliberation...

  4. The cholesterol-raising diterpenes from coffee beans increase serum lipid transfer protein activity levels in humans.

    OpenAIRE

    Tol, A.; Urgert, R.; Jong-caesar, R.; Gent, T.; Scheek, L. M.; Roos, B.; Katan, M. B.

    1997-01-01

    Cafestol and kahweol–diterpenes present in unfiltered coffee— strongly raise serum VLDL and LDL cholesterol and slightly reduce HDL cholesterol in humans. The mechanism of action is unknown. We determined whether the coffee diterpenes may affect lipoprotein metabolism via effects on lipid transfer proteins and lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase in a randomized, double-blind cross-over study with 10 healthy male volunteers. Either cafestol (61–64 mg/day) or a mixture of cafestol (60 mg...

  5. Competition between Spagnum magellanicum and Eriophorum angustifolium as affected by raised CO{sub 2} and increased N deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heijmans, M.M.P.D.; Klees, H.; Berendse, F. [Wageningen Univ., Dept. of Environmental Sciences, Nature Conservation and Plant Ecology Group, Wageningen (Netherlands)

    2002-06-01

    The competition between peat mosses (Sphagnum) and vascular plants as affected by raised CO{sub 2} and increased N deposition was studied in a glass house experiment by exposing peat monoliths with monocultures and mixtures of Sphagnum magellanicum and Eriophorum angustifolium to ambient (350 ppmv) or raised (560 ppmv) atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentrations, combined with low (no N addition) or high (5 g m{sup -2} yr{sup -1} added) N deposition. Growth of the two species was monitored for three growing seasons. The presence of Eriophorum did not affect Sphagnum biomass, because Eriophorum density did not become high enough to severely shade the moss surface. In contrast, Sphagnum had a negative effect on Eriophorum biomass, particularly on the number of flowering stems. Possibly, the presence of a living Sphagnum layer decreased nutrient availability to Eriophorum by immobilising nutrients mineralised from the peat. Raised CO{sub 2} and/or increased N deposition did not change these competitive relationships between Sphagnum and Eriophorum, but had independent effects. Raised CO{sub 2} had a positive effect both on Sphagnum and Eriophorum biomass, though on Eriophorum the effect was transient, probably because of P limitation. Nitrogen addition had a direct negative effect on Sphagnum height growth in the first growing season, but by the third year an increased shoot density had cancelled this out, so no N effect on Sphagnum biomass was present at the end of the experiment. The response of Eriophorum to N addition was small; N availability appeared not to limit its growth. (au)

  6. Progressive HIV infection in the presence of a raised CD4+ count : HIV/HTLV-1 co-infection

    OpenAIRE

    Haeri Mazanderani, A. F.; Ebrahim, Osman

    2013-01-01

    There are a number of pathophysiological causes for a normal or raised CD4 count in the context of progressive HIV infection. These include various co-infections, previous splenectomy, and lymphoproliferative disorders. Such circumstances can both confound HIV diagnosis and delay initiation of chemoprophylaxis and highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). We describe the case of a patient co-infected with HIV and human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) who, prior to HAART in...

  7. Multiple Stressors in Agricultural Streams: A Mesocosm Study of Interactions among Raised Water Temperature, Sediment Addition and Nutrient Enrichment

    OpenAIRE

    Piggott, Jeremy J.; Lange, Katharina; Townsend, Colin R.; Matthaei, Christoph D.

    2012-01-01

    Changes to land use affect streams through nutrient enrichment, increased inputs of sediment and, where riparian vegetation has been removed, raised water temperature. We manipulated all three stressors in experimental streamside channels for 30 days and determined the individual and pair-wise combined effects on benthic invertebrate and algal communities and on leaf decay, a measure of ecosystem functioning. We added nutrients (phosphorus+nitrogen; high, intermediate, natural) and/or sedimen...

  8. Evolución del título de anticuerpos contra el receptor tipo M de la fosfolipasa A2 y respuesta clínica en pacientes con nefropatía membranosa idiopática tratados con tacrolimus / Evolution of antibody titre against the M-type phospholipase A2 receptor and clinical response in idiopathic membranous nephropathy patients treated with tacrolimus

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Alfons, Segarra-Medrano; Elias, Jatem-Escalante; Clara, Carnicer-Cáceres; Irene, Agraz-Pamplona; M. Teresa, Salcedo; Naiara, Valtierra; Elena, Ostos-Roldán; Karla V., Arredondo; Juliana, Jaramillo.

    Full Text Available SciELO Spain | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Introducción y objetivos: Se ha descrito que el nivel de anticuerpos circulantes contra el receptor tipo M de la fosfolipasa A2 tiene correlación significativa con la actividad clínica de la enfermedad en la nefropatía membranosa idiopática (NMI). Sin embargo, la utilidad de la monitorización del tí [...] tulo de anticuerpos como predictor de respuesta clínica tras el inicio del tratamiento no ha sido formalmente analizada. En el siguiente estudio se analiza el valor predictivo de la evolución del título de anticuerpos anti-PLA2R sobre la respuesta clínica en enfermos con NMI tratados con tacrolimus. Pacientes y métodos: 36 enfermos con síndrome nefrótico secundario a NMI, con criterios de indicación de tratamiento inmunosupresor, fueron tratados con tacrolimus en monoterapia. Se determinó el nivel de anticuerpos anti-PLA2R antes del tratamiento y a los 3, 6, 9 y 12 meses tras su inicio. Se analizó el valor predictivo de la pendiente de reducción en el título de anticuerpos y de la reducción absoluta y relativa en el título de anticuerpos a los 3 y 6 meses sobre el tiempo hasta la remisión y sobre la probabilidad de remisión a los 6, 9 y 12 meses. Resultados: La reducción relativa en el título de anticuerpos anti-PLA2R fue significativamente mayor en los enfermos que presentaron remisión y precedió a la respuesta clínica. No se apreció asociación entre el título de anticuerpos previo al tratamiento con el tiempo medio de respuesta o la respuesta a los 12 meses. La pendiente de reducción en el título de anticuerpos se asoció significativamente con el tiempo hasta la evidencia de remisión. La reducción relativa en el título de anticuerpos anti-PLA2R a los 3 meses tuvo una elevada sensibilidad y especificidad para predecir la respuesta a los 6 y 9 meses, pero no a los 12 meses, mientras que la reducción relativa en el título de anticuerpos a los 6 meses tuvo una elevada sensibilidad y especificidad para predecir la respuesta a los 12 meses. Conclusión: En enfermos con NMI asociada a anticuerpos anti-PLA2R, la monitorización del título de anticuerpos tras el inicio del tratamiento es útil para estimar el período de tiempo hasta la remisión y para predecir la probabilidad de remisión a los 12 meses. Abstract in english Introduction and objectives: The level of circulating antibodies against M-type phospolipase A2 receptor has been reported as having a significant correlation with clinical activity in idiopathic membranous nephropathy. However, the usefulness of monitoring antibody titre as a predictor of clinical [...] response following the onset of treatment has not been formally analysed. The predictive value of the evolution of anti-PLA2R antibody titre on the clinical response of idiopathic membranous nephropathy patients treated with tacrolimus is analysed in the following study. Patients and method: 36 patients with nephrotic syndrome secondary to idiopathic membranous nephropathy with immunosuppressive treatment indication criteria were treated with tacrolimus in monotherapy. The level of anti-PLA2R antibodies was determined before treatment and at 3, 6, 9 and 12 months after the onset of treatment. The study analysed the predictive value of the reduction in antibody titre and the relative and absolute reduction in antibody titre at 3 and 6 months over the period until remission and on the probability of remission at 6, 9 and 12 months. Results: The relative reduction in the anti-PLA2R antibody titre was significantly greater in those patients with remission and it preceded the clinical response. No association was observed between the antibody titre prior to treatment and the mean response time or the response at 12 months. Reduction in antibody titre is significantly associated with the time until signs of remission. Relative reduction in anti-PLA2R antibody titre at 3 months had a high sensitivity and specificity to predict the response at 6 and 9 months, but not at 12 months; however the relative

  9. Behavior comparisons for whooping cranes raised by costumed caregivers and trained for an ultrallght?led migration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, G.H.

    2008-01-01

    The successful reintroduction program being run by the Whooping Crane Eastern Partnership using whooping cranes (Grus americana) trained to fly behind ultralight aircraft depends on a supply of these trained crane colts each year. The crane colts are hatched from eggs contributed by the various partners and trained to follow costume clad humans and ultralight aircraft at USGS Patuxent Wildlife Research Center, Laurel, Maryland, USA. After several seasons of raising small numbers of crane colts (7-14), we wanted to increase the number of birds being trained, but were restrained by limits in our facilities. By altering the established husbandry and training program to allow the use of a recently modified facility, we have increased the number of colts raised for this release program. However, we did not know whether the new facility and husbandry regime would significantly alter the behavior of the colts. Therefore, we have begun a two year study to determine if there are differences in the behavior of cranes raised by the two methods, and if any of the differences discovered relate directly to whooping crane survival and migration skills in the release program.

  10. Anti-Tribbles homolog 2 (TRIB2) autoantibodies in narcolepsy are associated with recent onset of cataplexy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kawashima, Minae; Lin, Ling

    2010-01-01

    Recent studies have found increased autoantibodies against Tribbles homolog 2 (anti-TRIB2) and anti-streptolysin O (ASO) in narcolepsy. In this study, we replicated this finding with a primary focus on recent onset cases.

  11. Should governments in Europe be more aggressive in pushing for gender equality to raise fertility? The first "YES"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurent Toulemon

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Together with three colleagues, I have been asked by the MPIDR to debate the following question: "Should governments in Europe be more aggressive in pushing for gender equality to raise fertility? Setting aside the "lighthearted" side of this "Rostocker Debate," (12 minutes for each speech, one minute for each comment, I saw this as a good opportunity to think about the stakes behind the question. In order to address this complex issue, it is necessary to think about the many "preliminary questions" that we have to ponder before responding: Why should fertility be raised? Are political measures legitimate? Are they efficient? On what basis are we qualified to give "expert" opinions on such a topic? When the question comes to the fore, we as scholars are sometimes asked to provide an answer. It would, of course, be more comfortable not to answer, but our interlocutors (politicians, journalists, teachers, and also funding agencies often want a definite response one way or the other. Even though our position may be a matter of politics as well as a matter of science, we must give an answer. The empirical evidence shows that European countries where gender inequality is lower are also the countries where fertility is the highest. This is the evidence-based response that we can give to that question. European countries need to find a new equilibrium after the end of the baby boom period, when gender equality was very low. In all countries, the empowerment of women is underway, thanks to the economic independence given by work-related income. Increasing gender equality is an efficient way to reduce the opportunity costs of having and raising children, and thus to increase fertility. Finally, "pushing for gender equality" may have many positive effects other than raising fertility, and has few negative side effects. Gender equality is thus a convenient political aim per se; an institutional goal which leaves many political questions open. So, yes, we agree that governments in Europe should be more aggressive in pushing for gender equality to raise fertility!

  12. Study of the lateral raise in foot wear for the management of medial compartment degenerative joint disease of knee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A wide spread disease, which may lead the patient to severe outcomes e.g. pain, loss of joint motion, inflexibility and even disability, is Knee osteoarthritis (OA). It is most common among adults of older age and should not be ignored at all. Literature does not show any clear pathogenesis for occurrence of Knee OA, but most of the indications point toward biomechanical stresses which may influence the articular cartilage and sub chondral bone. Objective: The Aim of this study is to become aware of the effects of physical therapy with and without laterally raised footwear in the management of medial knee osteoarthritis. Methodology: We have used experimental comparative study in 35 patients which were randomly selected from Department of Physiotherapy, Fatima Memorial Hospital, Shadman, Lahore. The study consisted of 2 groups, Group I (Experimental Group): In experimental group, patients were treated with laterally raised foot wear and physical therapy both. Group II (Control Group): Whereas in control group patients were treated by physical therapy alone. Kellgren and Lawrence (KL) scale was used to assess radiograph of the knee joints after an anteroposterior weight-bearing standing. The assessment of disease in patients was done by using the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities (WOMAC) Index, Muscle flexibility, Muscle strengthening and Tolerance scales. Results: In group-I the mean age of patients observed was 59.52+-13.66 years and 65+-12.87 years in Group-II. In Group-I, 9 (52.9%) patients were males and 8 (47.1%) patients were females while in Group-II, 9 patients (50%) were male and 9 (50%) were female. In Group-I 2 (11.8%) patients used flat and open shoes, 6 (35.3%) used flat and close shoe, 3 (17.6%) patients used dress shoes and 2 (11.8%) used flat shoes. In Group-I, the frequency of patients wearing laterally raised foot wear in terms of duration was; 5 (29.4%) patients for 20 days, 4 (23.5%) for 24 days, 4 (23.5%) for 25 days, whilst 2 patients used it for 26 and 30 days respectively. Among 10 (58.8%) patients the use of lateral raised foot wear was intermittent wile in 7 (41.2%) patients the use of lateral raised foot wear was continuous. Overall Group-I presented better results compared to Group-II in this study. Conclusion: We have concluded in our study that the physical therapy with laterally raised footwear is a successful treatment in the management of medial knee OA. In laterally raised footwear the physical therapy is an effective method in terms of relief of pain in patient, improvement in function by stiffness reduction and. this treatment method is recommended for the management of medial knee OA. (author)

  13. World Health Organisation--supervised interlaboratory comparison of ELISAs for the serological detection of Salmonella enterica serotype Enteritidis in chickens.

    OpenAIRE

    Barrow, P. A.; Desmidt, M.; Ducatelle, R.; Guittet, M.; Heijden, H. M.; Holt, P. S.; Huis In T Velt, J. H.; Mcdonough, P.; Nagaraja, K. V.; Porter, R. E.; Proux, K.; Sisak, F.; Staak, C.; Steinbach, G.; Thorns, C. J.

    1996-01-01

    A collaborative exercise, supervised by the World Health Organisation, was set up to compare ELISAs used for the serological detection of Salmonella enteritica serotype Enteritidis in chickens. The aim was to ascertain how far agreement could be reached on the interpretation of optical density readings for high titre, intermediate titre and low titre sera. Two sets of sera were sent to 14 participants. The first set compared high, medium and low titre sera raised in specified-pathogen-free an...

  14. Performance and organ morphology of broilers fed microbial or antimicrobial additives and raised in batteries or floor pens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AA Pedroso

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to determine the effect of microbial or antimicrobial additives on the performance and organ morphology of broilers raised in batteries or in floor pens. The effect of microbial additives on the presence of oocysts in the litter was also studied. Experiments 1 and 2 consisted of four treatments (non-supplemented control diet or diet supplemented with avilamycin, bacitracin methylene disalicylate or enramycin and six repetitions in a randomized block design. In Experiment 1, 288 day-old chicks were housed in heated batteries in a environmentally controlled room, 12 chicks per cage; in Experiment 2, 1,200 day-old chicks were housed in a curtain-sided experimental house, with concrete floor and rice hulls as litter material, 50 chicks per pen. Experiments 3 and 4 were carried out similarly to Experiments 1 and 2, respectively, but the treatments consisted of microbial additives (non-supplemented control diet or Bacillus subtilis added to the feed plus Lactobacillus reuteri and Lactobacillus johnsonii added to the water, undefined microflora added to the water or live yeast added to the feed. The antibiotics did not affect the performance of birds raised in batteries, but improved feed conversion, weight gain and live weight when chickens were kept on the floor pens. Microbial additives did not affect bird performance in any environment; however, treatments affected liver weight. Microbial agents increased intestinal weight in floor-raised broilers. No relationship was seen between the use of microbial additives and the presence of oocysts in the litter.

  15. Performance and organ morphology of broilers fed microbial or antimicrobial additives and raised in batteries or floor pens

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    AA, Pedroso; JFM, Menten; AMC, Racanicci; FA, Longo; JOB, Sorbara; JB, Gaiotto.

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to determine the effect of microbial or antimicrobial additives on the performance and organ morphology of broilers raised in batteries or in floor pens. The effect of microbial additives on the presence of oocysts in the litter was also studied. Experiments 1 and 2 consiste [...] d of four treatments (non-supplemented control diet or diet supplemented with avilamycin, bacitracin methylene disalicylate or enramycin) and six repetitions in a randomized block design. In Experiment 1, 288 day-old chicks were housed in heated batteries in a environmentally controlled room, 12 chicks per cage; in Experiment 2, 1,200 day-old chicks were housed in a curtain-sided experimental house, with concrete floor and rice hulls as litter material, 50 chicks per pen. Experiments 3 and 4 were carried out similarly to Experiments 1 and 2, respectively, but the treatments consisted of microbial additives (non-supplemented control diet or Bacillus subtilis added to the feed plus Lactobacillus reuteri and Lactobacillus johnsonii added to the water, undefined microflora added to the water or live yeast added to the feed). The antibiotics did not affect the performance of birds raised in batteries, but improved feed conversion, weight gain and live weight when chickens were kept on the floor pens. Microbial additives did not affect bird performance in any environment; however, treatments affected liver weight. Microbial agents increased intestinal weight in floor-raised broilers. No relationship was seen between the use of microbial additives and the presence of oocysts in the litter.

  16. Sea-level standstill and dominant hermatypic coral from the holocene raised reef terraces at the Kikai Island, Ryukyu Islands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coral reef terraces are one of the best recorders of biological response to environmental change events (e.g., sea-level changes). Kikai Island provides a rare opportunity to show biological and ecological frameworks (e.g., competition, coexistence, and succession) during a recent geological period. The island is fringed by raised Holocene raised reef terraces, which formed as a result of periodic tectonic uplifts. This study aims to characterize the spatial and temporal changes of corals at this island during the Holocene. The analysis is based on topographical and biological data obtained for the three sites (Shidooke, Kadon, and Nakugama reefs). Three raised reef terraces (Terrace II, III, and IV) grew from 7300 to 4500 years ago (during 2800 years), from 4500 to 2900 years ago (during 1600 years), and from 2900 to 1800 years ago (during 1100 years), respectively. Terrace II and III were uplifted 1-2 m around 4500 years ago and around 2900 years ago. Terrace IV was uplifted 1-2 m around 1800 years ago. The modern reef has been composed of corals for 1800 years. Sixteen coral genera and 53 species were recorded from the reef terraces. Terrace III and IV were dominated by four coral species (A. digitifera, A. robusta, G. retiformis, and F. stelligera), but Terrace II was predominantly composed of A. digitifera and A. robusta. These biological and ecological variations between the terraces represent a growth strategy responding to differences of reef growth time and/og to differences of reef growth time and/or insolation. (author)

  17. Limits to sustained energy intake. XVIII. Energy intake and reproductive output during lactation in Swiss mice raising small litters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Zhi-Jun; Song, De-Guang; Su, Zhen-Cheng; Wei, Wen-Bo; Liu, Xian-Bin; Speakman, John R

    2013-06-15

    Limits to sustained energy intake (SusEI) during lactation in Swiss mice have been suggested to reflect the secretory capacity of the mammary glands. However, an alternative explanation is that milk production and food intake are regulated to match the limited growth capacity of the offspring. In the present study, female Swiss mice were experimentally manipulated in two ways - litter sizes were adjusted to be between 1 and 9 pups and mice were exposed to either warm (21°C) or cold (5°C) conditions from day 10 of lactation. Energy intake, number of pups and litter mass, milk energy output (MEO), thermogenesis, mass of the mammary glands and brown adipose tissue cytochrome c oxidase activity of the mothers were measured. At 21 and 5°C, pup mass at weaning was almost independent of litter size. Positive correlations were observed between the number of pups, litter mass, asymptotic food intake and MEO. These data were consistent with the suggestion that in small litters, pup requirements may be the major factor limiting milk production. Pups raised at 5°C had significantly lower body masses than those raised at 21°C. This was despite the fact that milk production and energy intake at the same litter sizes were both substantially higher in females raising pups at 5°C. This suggests that pup growth capacity is lower in the cold, perhaps due to pups allocating ingested energy to fuel thermogenesis. Differences in observed levels of milk production under different conditions may then reflect a complex interplay between factors limiting maternal performance (peripheral limitation and heat dissipation: generally better when it is cooler) and factors influencing maximum pup growth (litter size and temperature: generally better when it is hotter), and may together result in an optimal temperature favouring reproduction. PMID:23720804

  18. Raised marsh deposits near Cartagena de Indias, evidence of eustatic and climatic instability during the upper Holocene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The marsh deposits cropping out near Galerazamba are located at 15 m above sea level and at a distance of 1,250 m from the present day Cienaga El Totumo. This location suggests frequent changes in the sea level. A radiocarbon age of 4,150±50 yr BP was obtained from mollusc remains at the Cienaga El Totumo. The age of the marsh corresponds to a dry climate period according to paleoenvironmental data from the northern part of South America. The Cienaga El Totumo retreated during this dry episode. The fossil biota content found in these raised marsh deposits is poorly diversified and corresponds to the inner part of the marsh.

  19. How the Entrepreneurial Top Management Team Setup Influences Firm Performance and the Ability to Raise Capital: A Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantin Maschke

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews research findings on entrepreneurial top management teams within the last 20 years. It concentrates on team-based management factors and their influence on a new venture’s growth and ability to raise capital. This paper integrates recent findings and provides an overview of the current state of research. Moreover, it contributes to the overall topic by proposing five clusters of major team-specific influences, derives determinants of success and failure, and reveals recommendations for further research.

  20. Raising the Dead without a Red Sea-Dead Sea Canal? A hydro-economic-institutional analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenberg, D. E.

    2010-12-01

    Presently, just 100 million cubic meters per year (MCM/year) of the 1,000+ MCM/year that historically flowed in the lower Jordan River reach the Dead Sea. Israeli, Jordanian, and Syrian dam and extraction projects built over seven decades have principally caused the reduced flow, associated falling Dead Sea level, shrinking surface area, sink holes, salinity, and other catastrophic problems. These problems will be magnified in the face of up to 20% reductions in precipitation expected with climate change. The fix proposed by Jordan, Israel, and Palestine—and now under study by the World Bank—envisions building a $US 5 billion multipurpose canal from the Red Sea to the Dead Sea that would also generate hydropower and desalinated water. Yet alternatives to raise the Dead Sea level that could take advantage of hydrologic variability remain unstudied. Here we show system-wide hydrologic and economic impacts of and discusses institutional management for alternatives to raise the Dead Sea level. Hydro-economic model results for the inter-tied Israel-Jordan-Palestinian water systems show the desalination component of the Red Sea-Dead Sea project is economically unviable. Further, many decentralized new supply, wastewater reuse, conveyance, conservation, and leak reduction projects and programs in each country together increase economic benefits and can reliably deliver up to 900 MCM/year to the Dead Sea. In all cases, results show that net benefits fall and water scarcity rises as the flow volume delivered to the Dead Sea increases. These findings suggest that (i) each country has little individual incentive to allow water to flow to the Dead Sea, and (ii) outside institutions—such as the World Bank—that seek to raise the Dead should instead offer the countries direct incentives to deliver water rather than build them new infrastructure. The work expands the set of viable options to raise the Dead Sea level and can help the World Bank and others recommend whether to move forward with the Red Sea-Dead Sea project.

  1. Development of cross border gas transmission projects raise challenging issues. Case studies: The transmed and the Maghreb/Europe pipelines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Development of cross border gas transmission projects raise complex and interdependent issues whose successful resolution require not only technical and management strengths but also a close cooperation between the key players involved in the game. In this paper we shall attempt to explain some of the major issues encountered during the appraisal and construction of long distance gas pipeline schemes. The information used derive essentially from the experience gained during the development of the Trans-mediterranean and the Maghreb/Europe pipelines. Running through the various issues we shall also identify and then discuss a number of factors which contributed to the successful implementation of these two projects. (au)

  2. Rhoptry-Associated Protein 1-Binding Monoclonal Antibody Raised against a Heterologous Peptide Sequence Inhibits Plasmodium falciparum Growth In Vitro

    OpenAIRE

    Moreno, Rafael; Po?ltl-frank, Friederike; Stu?ber, Dietrich; Matile, Hugues; Mutz, Michael; Weiss, Niklaus A.; Pluschke, Gerd

    2001-01-01

    Monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) specific for Plasmodium falciparum rhoptry-associated protein 1 (RAP-1) were generated and tested for inhibition of parasite growth in vitro. The majority of indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA)-positive MAbs raised against recombinant RAP-1 positions 23 to 711 (rRAP-123–711) recognized epitopes located in the immunodominant N-terminal third of RAP-1. MAbs specific for the building block 35.1 of the synthetic peptide malaria vaccine SPf66 also yielded an IFA ...

  3. Occurrence of heavy metals and antibiotic resistance in bacteria from internal organs of american bullfrog (Rana catesbeiana) raised in Malaysia

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    SW, Lee; M, Najiah; W, Wendy; M, Nadirah; SH, Faizah.

    Full Text Available A total of 40 bacteria have been successfully isolated from internal organs of the American bullfrog (Rana catesbeiana) raised in Malaysia, namely, eight isolates of Aeromonas spp., 21 of Edwardsiella spp., six of Flavobacterium spp. and five of Vibrio spp. In terms of antibiotic susceptibility test [...] ing, each isolate was tested against 21 antibiotics, resulting in 482 (57.3%) cases of sensitivity and 61 (7.3%) cases of partial sensitivity. Meanwhile, 297 (35.4%) bacterial isolates were registered as resistant. The multiple antibiotic resistance (MAR) index of each bacterial species indicated that bacteria from raised bullfrogs have been exposed to tested antibiotics with results ranging from 0.27 to 0.39. Additionally, high percentages of heavy metal resistance among these isolates were observed, with values ranging from 85.0 to 100.0%. The current results provided us information on bacterial levels of locally farmed bullfrogs exposed to copper, cadmium, chromium as well as 21 types of antibiotics.

  4. Triple immunofluorescence staining with antibodies raised in the same species to study the complex innervation pattern of intrapulmonary chemoreceptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brouns, Inge; Van Nassauw, Luc; Van Genechten, Jeroen; Majewski, Mariusz; Scheuermann, Dietrich W; Timmermans, Jean-Pierre; Adriaensen, Dirk

    2002-04-01

    A general problem in immunocytochemistry is the development of a reliable multiple immunolabeling method when primary antibodies must be used that originate in the same species. We have developed a protocol for the immunodetection of three antigens in a single tissue preparation, using unconjugated primary antibodies raised in the same species. Immunocytochemical detection of neuronal nitric oxide synthase, calcitonin gene-related peptide, and calbindin D28k in the lung of rats demonstrated that part of the pulmonary neuroepithelial bodies are selectively contacted by at least three different nerve fiber populations. The first antigen was detected using tyramide signal amplification, a very sensitive method allowing a dilution of the first primary antibody far beyond the detection limit of fluorescently labeled secondary antibodies. The second antigen was visualized by a fluorophore-conjugated secondary monovalent Fab antibody that at the same time blocks the access of the third secondary antibody to the second primary antibody. Moreover, the monovalence of the Fab fragment prevents the third primary antibody from binding with the second-step secondary antibody. The triple staining technique described here is generally applicable, uses commercially available products only, and allows the detection of three antigens in the same preparation with primary antibodies that are raised in the same species. PMID:11897811

  5. The development and use of geomechanical models for use in the raising of the Thirsk arch dam, Summerland, BC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schlotfeldt, P.; Palleske, C. [Golder Associates Ltd., Squamish, BC (Canada)

    2009-07-01

    The Thirsk Dam and spillway on the Trout River in Summerland, British Columbia were completed in 1941. The dam was recently upgraded to increase total storage capacity and to refurbish the ageing infrastructure to comply with more stringent safety requirements. The upgrades included raising the arch dam by 5.3 metres; constructing new anchored thrust blocks on each abutment; constructing a new 190 m long concrete gravity spillway dam with a maximum height of 14 m; constructing a new earth-fill saddle dam; constructing 7 anchored foundation plinths; and adding a new concrete skin to the downstream face to increase the thickness of the arch. This upgrade increased the storage capacity by 96 per cent and provided adequate support to meet current dam safety regulations. In order to complete the upgrades, it was necessary to develop an understanding of the geotechnical parameters for the site for use in the analysis and design of anchorage, reinforcement and foundations of the raised structures. This paper described how the geological model was first developed and how it was applied during the design of the arch and spillway dams. The geological model was modified for local anomalies and unforeseen rock mass conditions. The paper also described the methods used to characterize the foundation rock mass and estimate rock mass strength and deformability properties. The models provided a three-dimensional understanding of potential failure mechanisms. 9 refs., 1 tab., 6 figs.

  6. The Axillary Approach to Raising the Latissimus Dorsi Free Flap for Facial Re-Animation: A Descriptive Surgical Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Daniel; Grobbelaar, Adriaan

    2015-01-01

    The latissimus dorsi flap is popular due to the versatile nature of its applications. When used as a pedicled flap it provides a robust solution when soft tissue coverage is required following breast, thoracic and head and neck surgery. Its utilization as a free flap is extensive due to the muscle's size, constant anatomy, large caliber of the pedicle and the fact it can be used for functional muscle transfers. In facial palsy it provides the surgeon with a long neurovascular pedicle that is invaluable in situations where commonly used facial vessels are not available, in congenital cases or where previous free functional muscle transfers have been attempted, or patients where a one-stage procedure is indicated and a long nerve is required to reach the contra-lateral side. Although some facial palsy surgeons use the trans-axillary approach, an operative guide of raising the flap by this method has not been provided. A clear guide of raising the flap with the patient in the supine position is described in detail and offers the benefits of reducing the risk of potential brachial plexus injury and allows two surgical teams to work synchronously to reduce operative time. PMID:25606493

  7. Findings about final storage resulting from processing the doubts raised by the Federal Government. Consequences arising to the Gorleben site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Effective November 4, 2005, the German Federal Office for Radiation Protection (B/S) presented a synthesis report on ''Conceptual and safety-related Technical Questions Associated with the Final Storage of Radioactive Waste. A Comparison of Types of Host Rock.'' The report is the evaluation, by BfS, of the findings resulting from work on the twelve questions expressed by the federal government in the agreement with the power utilities, which were meant to raise doubt about the suitability of the Gorleben salt dome and which could not be elucidated any further by continued exploration. On the bases of this reasoning, exploration of the Gorleben salt dome was interrupted for at least three years and not more than ten years pending clarification of the conceptual and safety-related technical questions. The BfS synthesis report marks a conclusion of work on the doubts raised which makes it appear worthwhile to draw attention to the conclusions to be drawn from the report with respect to further procedures in the final storage of radioactive waste. The findings relevant to the doubts expressed are singled out, evaluated, and the conclusions drawn by BfS are examined. The outcome is that, in principle, salt is a suitable host rock. No doubt about the suitability of the Gorleben salt dome can be derived from the reports. There are no remaining questions which could serve as a reason for continuing the moratorium. (orig.)

  8. Father's occupational exposure to radiation and the raised level of childhood leukemia near the Sellafield Nuclear Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The first indications that childhood leukemia rates may be raised near the Sellafield nuclear plant in West Cumbria, England, came from largely anecdotal evidence in a television program Windscale: The Nuclear Laundry shown during 1983. During subsequent years, various epidemiological studies have investigated the claim in more detail. Geographical analyses of childhood leukemia incidence in the northern region and mortality in England and Wales using routinely available data made the first contribution. As a result, it was confirmed that leukemia rates in the area, particularly the neighboring village of Seascale, were high compared to other districts, although not totally extreme. Cohort studies of children born in Seascale or attending schools in Seascale were carried out to resolve some of the difficulties of interpretation of geographical analysis. Cohort studies indicated that the excess of leukemia was concentrated among children born in Seascale and was not found among those moving in after birth and suggested that any causal factors may be acting before birth or very early in life. A case-control study of leukemia (and lymphoma) among young people in West Cumbria has examined potentially important individual factors in detail. The study demonstrated a relationship between the raised incidence of leukemia in children and father's recorded external radiation dose during work at Sellafield before his child's conception. The association can effectively explain stThe association can effectively explain statistically the observed geographical excess

  9. Cell motility in models of wounded human skin is improved by Gap27 despite raised glucose, insulin and IGFBP-5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Catherine S; Berends, Rebecca F; Flint, David J; Martin, Patricia E M

    2013-02-15

    Reducing Cx43 expression stimulates skin wound healing. This is mimicked in models when Cx43 function is blocked by the connexin mimetic peptide Gap27. IGF-I also stimulates wound healing with IGFBP-5 attenuating its actions. Further, the IGF-I to IGFBP-5 ratio is altered in diabetic skin, where wound closure is impaired. We investigated whether Gap27 remains effective in augmenting scrape-wound closure in human skin wound models simulating diabetes-induced changes, using culture conditions with raised glucose, insulin and IGFBP-5. Gap27 increased scrape-wound closure in normal glucose and insulin (NGI) and to a lesser extent in high glucose and insulin (HGI). IGF-I enhanced scrape-wound closure in keratinocytes whereas IGFBP-5 inhibited this response. Gap27 overcame the inhibitory effects of IGFBP-5 on IGF-I activity. Connexin-mediated communication (CMC) was reduced in HGI, despite raised Cx43, and Gap27 significantly decreased CMC in NGI and HGI. IGF-I and IGFBP-5 did not affect CMC. IGF-I increased keratinocyte proliferation in NGI, and Gap27 increased proliferation in NGI to a greater extent than in HGI. We conclude that IGF-I and Gap27 stimulate scrape-wound closure by independent mechanisms with Gap27 inhibiting Cx43 function. Gap27 can enhance wound closure in diabetic conditions, irrespective of the IGF-I:IGFBP-5 balance. PMID:23262023

  10. Effect of feeding on fatty acid composition of muscles and adipose tissues in young goats raised in the Argan tree forest of Morocco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bas, P; Dahbi, E; El Aich, A; Morand-Fehr, P; Araba, A

    2005-10-01

    The characteristics of meat from goats raised in the Argan tree forest in the south-western part of Morocco were studied in two experiments. Each experiment was carried out on three groups of six male goats. They were reared either indoors (IC) and fed concentrate or outdoors where they grazed in the Argan tree forest and were offered concentrate (OC) or only Argan fruit pulp (OS). Outdoor-raised goats had a very low growth rate in the first experiment (34 g/d), whereas it was relatively high in the second experiment (64 g/d) in which herbaceous vegetation availability was higher. In each experiment, omental (OM) and perirenal (PR) weights were the lowest in the two groups of goats raised outdoors. Lipid and cholesterol contents in muscles were lower in goats raised in the Argan tree forest than in those raised indoors. Outdoor-raised goats had particularly high proportions of odd-chain fatty acids (FA), branched-chain (FA) of the iso and anteiso series in adipose tissues and muscles and higher n-6 and n-3 polyunsaturated FA (PUFA) proportions and a lower n-6:n-3 PUFA ratio than indoor-raised goats. Indoor-raised goats had a higher proportion of palmitic acid and a lower proportion of archidic acid than outdoor-raised goats. In indoor-raised goats, the proportions of ?9 straight-chain mono-unsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) (C(16:1n-7) and cis C(18:1n-9)) were relatively higher than those of total MUFA, because of lower percentages of some MUFA, such as C(16:1n-9) and other isomers of oleic acid. The low fat content and FA profile of the meat from the goats reared in the Argan tree forest conveyed beneficial characteristics to this meat in regards to human health. The relatively high contents of branched-chain FA of iso and anteiso series and PUFA in the meat from goats raised in the Argan tree forest could be considered as a sign of typicity. PMID:22064232

  11. Site Productivity of Clone and Seed Raised Plantations of Eucalyptus urophylla and Eucalyptus grandis in Southeast Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Reyna Pérez-Sandoval; Armando Gómez-Guerrero; Aurelio Fierros-González; Horwath, William R.

    2012-01-01

    The relationship between soil variables and forest productivity of Eucalyptus urophylla (Eu) and E. grandis (Eg) was studied in commercial forest plantations (CFP) in Huimanguillo, Tabasco, Mexico. The group of Eu included seed and clone raised plantations and the Eg group included only seed raised plantations. Tree measurements and soil sampling were carried out at 56 500-m2 plots. Two soil depths (0 - 20 and 20 - 40 cm) were sampled and analyzed for phy...

  12. The impact of increased awareness on forest governance. A case study of the Mama Misitu awareness raising campaign in forest adjacent villages in Southern Tanzania.

    OpenAIRE

    Meinich, Siri

    2011-01-01

    In response to the alarming rate of deforestation and forest degradation caused by illegal forest activities in Southern Tanzania, a collaborative civil society initiative called Mama Misitu was set up to raise awareness at village level regarding good forest governance and tosupport the implementation of participatory forest management (PFM). This study looks at how raised awareness may influence the key factors of good governance; participation, accountability and legal enforcement. The stu...

  13. A radiographic study on the development of the antebrachium in Great Dane pups, raised under standardized conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiographic examination of the antebrachium was performed in 16 healthy Great Danes, raised under standardized conditions, at six-week intervals from 9 to 27 weeks of age. The dogs were fed according to the National Research Council's nutrient requirements of dogs (1974). The development of the secondary ossification centers and the growth in length of the radius and ulna were noted. In the majority of dogs changesin the shape and structure of the distal ulnar metaphysis resembled disturbances in cartilage maturation and bone maturation and remodelling. An improvement in the radiographic appearance of the distal ulnar metaphysis was noted at the age of 27 weeks. It is concluded that the delicate processes that are involved in skeletal development may be frequently disturbed in fast growing, giant-breed dogs, without causing clinical problems

  14. Constraining Holocene Uplift Rates For The Serrania Del Baudo, Northwestern Colombia, Using Luminescence Dating On A Raised Beach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, J.; Shen, Z.; Mauz, B.

    2013-12-01

    A beach deposit on the southern tip of the Serrania del Baudo, perched 4.5 m above spring high tide, was dated at ~3,000 years using optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) dating. The average uplift rate necessary to raise this deposit is ~1.5 mm/yr. This rate combines the long-term regional deformation associated with the subduction of the Nazca Plate under the South American Plate and the collision of the Choco Block microplate against the South American continent, as well as uplift from local faults. We propose that rapid emergence probably as several pulses, each involving decimeter scale coseismic uplift, is likely to have occurred to elevate the beach above the intertidal zone and offset destructive wave erosion in this sand-limited coast.

  15. Bridging the gap between farmers and consumers : Value creation and mediation in “pasture-raised beef” food networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bedoin, Florence; Kristensen, Troels

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this article is to explore how different quality dimensions (safety, aesthetics, ethics and rooted ness) are created in food networks; how these qualities are transferred until the consumers; and how this process is supported by the organisation of the food network. Our postulate is that combining the quality and organisation dimensions and exploring the link between them will provide an interesting perspective for improving the sharing of values in food networks. This framework is applied to five case studies of “pasture-raised beef” food networks in France, representing a diversity of organisations such as public label scheme, cooperate owned brand and direct sell from farmer to consumer. The results highlight the importance of the role of certification and personal commitment for the creation, and also for the mediation of added-value.

  16. Radioactive contamination of a pig raised at a farm within 20 km of the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A mixed breed pig that was raised at a farm within 20 km of the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant on the day of the accident was moved to a clean area 17 days after the accident, slaughtered and sampled 41 days after arriving at the clean area. The ?-ray spectrum of belly, ham, loin, and heart were measured using a Ge semiconductor detector. Even though the animal had been kept in a clean area for 41 days, contamination with radioisotopic caesium was detected in pork. The pig had been kept inside a piggery and had been fed non-contaminated imported feed in both Fukushima and clean area of its all life. Broadcasts reported that feeding rice straw poses a risk of radioactive contamination of beef in Japan, but rice straw might not be the sole source of contamination. For the safety of future generations, it is necessary to monitor not only beef but also other animal products for food safety. (author)

  17. Spectroscopic biofeedback on cutaneous carotenoids as part of a prevention program could be effective to raise health awareness in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Ruo-Xi; Köcher, Wolfgang; Darvin, Maxim E; Büttner, Monika; Jung, Sora; Lee, Bich Na; Klotter, Christoph; Hurrelmann, Klaus; Meinke, Martina C; Lademann, Jürgen

    2014-11-01

    The cutaneous carotenoid concentration correlates with the overall antioxidant status of a person and can be seen as biomarker for nutrition and lifestyle. 50 high school students were spectroscopically measured for their cutaneous carotenoid concentrations initially in a static phase, followed by an intervention phase with biofeedback of their measured values, living a healthy lifestyle and on healthy food this time. The volunteers showed higher carotenoid concentrations than found in previous studies. A significant correlation of healthy lifestyle habits and a high antioxidant status could be determined. Subjects improved their nutritional habits and significantly increased their carotenoid concentration during intervention. Follow-up five months later showed a consolidation of the increase. The investigations show that a healthy diet and a well-balanced lifestyle correlate with a high cutaneous antioxidant concentration and that spectroscopic biofeedback measurement of cutaneous carotenoids as part of an integrated prevention program is a feasible and effective means to raise the health awareness in adolescents. PMID:25538973

  18. Reproductive status and synchronization of oestrus for predetermined insemination of Philippine carabaos (swamp buffalo) raised by smallholder farmers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There is an urgent need to improve size, and meat and milk productivity of the Philippine carabao, a swamp type of water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis), through crossbreeding with the riverine type. Studies were conducted to assess the reproductive status of carabaos raised by smallholder farmers, determine conception rates of buffaloes to artificial insemination (AI) through oestrus synchronization, and examine the patterns of plasma progesterone in cyclic and acyclic carabao heifers. Approximately 20% of carabaos raised by smallholder farmers were diagnosed pregnant by rectal palpation. This low pregnancy rate may be due to a combination of factors such as the failure to submit for examination carabaos exhibiting external signs of pregnancy, the deliberate postponement of breeding for working females, the inability of bulls to gain access to carabaos in oestrus which are tethered at night, or the high incidence of anoestrus or suboestrus. The reproductive problems in non-pregnant animals were cystic (19.5%), infantile (25.7%), and dormant ovaries (51.3%), and pathology of the uterus and cervix (3.5%). Both feeding and management practices in different locations influenced the nutritional status of female carabaos examined. Animals in good body condition were either cycling or pregnant. A 30-40% conception rate was achieved by synchronization of oestrus and insemination with frozen semen at 72 and 96 h later. Based on progesterone radioimmunoassay and rectal palpation of radioimmunoassay and rectal palpation of the ovaries, anoestrus in carabao heifers was due either to a failure of cycling animals to exhibit oestrus or those with inactive ovaries. (author)

  19. Long term survival of patients with raised pulmonary arterial systolic pressure utilizing echocardiography—a five-year prospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maw Pin Tan

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Background Pulmonary arterial systolic pressure (PASP can be estimated with transthoracic echocardiography. However, the sig¬nificance of raised PASP on routine echocardiography is uncertain. In this study, we evaluated the mortality and hospitalization rates of subjects with raised PASP in a cohort of patients referred directly by their general practitioners for routine outpatient (open access echocardiography for further analysis of suspected heart failure. Results A total of 485 subjects were referred for open access echocardiography at our hospital in 2002. A cohort of 209/485 (43% consecutive subjects with measurable tricuspid regurgitation were followed for a minimum of five years investigating hospitalization rates and survival. Some 62 of 209 (30% subjects had pulmonary hypertension (PH. Subjects with PH were significantly more likely to have four or more hospital admissions (22% vs. 8%; P 30 days of cumulative hospital stay over five years (29% vs. 13%; P < 0.01. PH was significantly associated with mortality (P = 0.003, while moderate to severe PH was an independent predictor of mortality (hazard ratio: 4.31; 95% confidence interval (95% CI: 1.51–12.30. Records from the Office of National Statistics revealed that subjects with PH were more likely to have chronic lung diseases recorded as immediate or contributory causes of death (50% vs. 14%; P < 0.05. Conclusions PASP ? 36 mmHg on routine echocardiography is associated with recurrent hospital admissions, prolonged hospitalizations and increased cause of mortality. Therefore, the diagnosis of PH on echocardiography deserves further clinical evaluation, with future studies designed at defining a suitable diagnostic strategy.

  20. Raising mutants and transgenic Oryza sativa L. for salinity stress tolerance using gamma radiation and RNAi tools

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plant breeding efforts are being undertaken at warfoot at various National and International Laboratories to yield salinity tolerant genotypes. Random mutations, an approach that causes changes in nucleotide sequences, resulting in expression of genes conferring tolerance against stress has been utilized for generating gene pool for salinity tolerance. In our laboratory, mutations were induced in salt-sensitive rice variety - IR64 using mutagenic gamma radiations. Seeds for M3 populations were obtained and screened for salt stress sensitive/tolerant lines. Out of 1200 lines 23 putative salinity-tolerant have been identified and further multiplied in order to obtain M4 lines for screening at microplot levels. Details pertaining to these lines and their characterization will be presented. Employing contemporary tools of genetic engineering - development of novel stress- tolerant plants had so far been attempted by transfer of genes encoding protective protein or enzymes involved in stress responses and adaptation. Since the first step in the stress response is the perception of stress stimulus, we have aimed to clone and characterize an osmosensor or stress receptor gene from rice (Oryza sativa L cv IR64). This putative osmosensor (OsHkl) is actually a member of two component system inducible by various abiotic stresses like high and low temperature, salinity, drought as well as exogenous application of stress hormone ABA. We have raised transgenicess hormone ABA. We have raised transgenic indica rice plants which are altered in expression (either overexpression or underexpression) for this gene to understand the role of this putative osmosensor in salinity stress response. This understanding will be given another leap forward by the analysis of similar transgenic lines which have been created for the SOS2 gene - believed to play an important role as a component of the the initial signal transduction machinery of plants. The observations and detailed analysis pertaining to these mutants and transgenic plants will be presented. (author)

  1. Cell motility in models of wounded human skin is improved by Gap27 despite raised glucose, insulin and IGFBP-5

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wright, Catherine S.; Berends, Rebecca F. [Department of Life Sciences, School of Health and Life Sciences, Glasgow Caledonian University, 70 Cowcaddens Road, Glasgow G4 0BA (United Kingdom); Flint, David J. [Strathclyde Institute of Pharmacy and Biomedical Sciences, University of Strathclyde, 161 Cathedral Street, Glasgow G4 0RE (United Kingdom); Martin, Patricia E.M., E-mail: Patricia.Martin@gcu.ac.uk [Department of Life Sciences, School of Health and Life Sciences, Glasgow Caledonian University, 70 Cowcaddens Road, Glasgow G4 0BA (United Kingdom)

    2013-02-15

    Reducing Cx43 expression stimulates skin wound healing. This is mimicked in models when Cx43 function is blocked by the connexin mimetic peptide Gap27. IGF-I also stimulates wound healing with IGFBP-5 attenuating its actions. Further, the IGF-I to IGFBP-5 ratio is altered in diabetic skin, where wound closure is impaired. We investigated whether Gap27 remains effective in augmenting scrape-wound closure in human skin wound models simulating diabetes-induced changes, using culture conditions with raised glucose, insulin and IGFBP-5. Gap27 increased scrape-wound closure in normal glucose and insulin (NGI) and to a lesser extent in high glucose and insulin (HGI). IGF-I enhanced scrape-wound closure in keratinocytes whereas IGFBP-5 inhibited this response. Gap27 overcame the inhibitory effects of IGFBP-5 on IGF-I activity. Connexin-mediated communication (CMC) was reduced in HGI, despite raised Cx43, and Gap27 significantly decreased CMC in NGI and HGI. IGF-I and IGFBP-5 did not affect CMC. IGF-I increased keratinocyte proliferation in NGI, and Gap27 increased proliferation in NGI to a greater extent than in HGI. We conclude that IGF-I and Gap27 stimulate scrape-wound closure by independent mechanisms with Gap27 inhibiting Cx43 function. Gap27 can enhance wound closure in diabetic conditions, irrespective of the IGF-I:IGFBP-5 balance. - Highlights: ? Human organotypic and keratinocyte ‘diabetic’ skin models were used to demonstrate the ability of Gap27 to improve scrape-wound closure. ? Gap27 enhanced scrape-wound closure by reducing Cx43-mediated communication, whereas IGFBP-5 retarded cell migration. ? IGF-I and IGFBP-5 did not affect connexin-mediated pathways. ? Gap27 can override altered glucose, insulin, IGF-I, and IGFBP-5 in ‘diabetic’ skin models and thus has therapeutic potential.

  2. A conceptual lignocellulosic 'feed+fuel' biorefinery and its application to the linked biofuel and cattle raising industries in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It has been argued by some that the substitution of biofuels for gasoline could increase greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, rather than reduce them. The increase is attributed to the indirect land use change effects of planting new grain and corn crops around the world to replace those progressively being devoted to ethanol production. In this paper, indirect effects are minimised by allowing land to be used for both food and fuel, rather than for one or the other. We present a sugarcane 'feed+fuel' biorefinery, which produces bioethanol and yeast biomass, a source of single-cell protein (SCP), that can be used as a high-protein animal feed supplement. The yeast SCP can partially substitute for grass in the feed of cattle grazing on pasture and thereby potentially release land for increased sugarcane production, with minimal land use change effects. Applying the concept conservatively to the Brazilian ethanol and livestock industry our model demonstrates that it would be technically feasible to raise ethanol production threefold from the current level of 27 GL to over 92 GL. The extra ethanol would meet biofuel market mandates in the US without bringing any extra land into agricultural or pastoral use. The analysis demonstrates a viable way to increase biofuel and food production by linking two value chains as called for by industrial ecology studies. - Highlights: ? A proposed sugarcane 'feed+fuel' biorefinery producing bioethanol and yeast. ? Yeast used as a high-pol and yeast. ? Yeast used as a high-protein animal feed supplement. ? In cattle grazing, yeast substitutes for grass to release land for biomass production. ? In Brazil our model demonstrates ethanol production raised threefold.

  3. Identical Twins Raised Apart

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farnsworth, David L.

    2015-01-01

    This article describes a bivariate data set that is interesting to students. Indeed, this particular data set, which involves twins and IQ, has sparked more student interest than any other set that I have presented. Specific uses of the data set are presented.

  4. Russia raises contract demands

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2010-01-01

    25. märtsil teatas Venemaa, et ostab Prantsusmaalt helikopterikandja Mistral ainult koos täisvarustusega - koos kõigi juhtimis- ja navigeerimisseadmete ja relvastusega. Kaitseväe juhataja Ants Laaneotsa, peaminister Andrus Ansipi, Läti kaitseministri Imants Liegise ja Leedu kaitseministri Rasa Jukneviciese arvamused

  5. Raising a "Green Generation"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leger-Ferraro, Susan

    2010-01-01

    These days, "going green" is at the forefront of conversation in political, entertainment, and corporate circles. Yet to truly impact change, future generations must carry the torch of transformation. To ensure success, adults need to begin the practices with the fertile minds of young children in early education. Practicing sustainability is not…

  6. Raising the Bar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, Bryan D.; Gambero, Lori; Allen, Michael; Juarez, Alejandro

    2012-01-01

    The Fresno (California) Unified School District has one of the highest poverty levels in the nation. The district is made up of approximately 84% Hispanic students, and 70% of their parents speak only Spanish in the home. Many students have difficulty passing the California High School Exit Examination (CAHSEE), which is required to receive a…

  7. Raising Confident Kids

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... KidsHealth in the Classroom What Other Parents Are Reading Measles: What to Know Vaccines: FAQs NBA Exercise ... up to bat for the first time, kids face a lot of uncharted territory. Naturally, parents want ...

  8. Raising a Fit Preschooler

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... videos and DVDs), on the computer, and playing video games — to no more than 1-2 hours per ... Parents MORE ON THIS TOPIC Introducing Preschoolers to Music Is Your Preschooler Too Active? Sleep and Your ...

  9. UK raises the stakes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main impetus for the steady increase in the United Kingdom is wind energy installed capacity, which now stands at around 300 MW, has been, it is argued, the privatisation of the electric power industry, and its accompanying Non-Fossil Fuel Obligation agreements. However despite government enthusiasm for new renewable energy schemes, permits to start construction have been difficult to obtain from local planning authorities. Ambitious targets for increases in wind power generation will most likely be met through the construction of offshore wind farms, with capacities of up to 100 MW each. The issue of pricing and the desirability, or otherwise, of financial incentives may also cause some difficulties. (UK)

  10. Mendelian Randomization Studies Do Not Support a Role for Raised Circulating Triglyceride Levels Influencing Type 2 Diabetes, Glucose Levels, or Insulin Resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Silva, N. Maneka G.; Freathy, Rachel M.; Palmer, Tom M.; Donnelly, Louise A.; Luan, Jian'an; Gaunt, Tom; Langenberg, Claudia; Weedon, Michael N.; Shields, Beverley; Knight, Beatrice A.; Ward, Kirsten J.; Sandhu, Manjinder S.; Harbord, Roger M.; McCarthy, Mark I.; Smith, George Davey; Ebrahim, Shah; Hattersley, Andrew T.; Wareham, Nicholas; Lawlor, Debbie A.; Morris, Andrew D.; Palmer, Colin N.A.; Frayling, Timothy M.

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE The causal nature of associations between circulating triglycerides, insulin resistance, and type 2 diabetes is unclear. We aimed to use Mendelian randomization to test the hypothesis that raised circulating triglyceride levels causally influence the risk of type 2 diabetes and raise normal fasting glucose levels and hepatic insulin resistance. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS We tested 10 common genetic variants robustly associated with circulating triglyceride levels against the type 2 diabetes status in 5,637 case and 6,860 control subjects and four continuous outcomes (reflecting glycemia and hepatic insulin resistance) in 8,271 nondiabetic individuals from four studies. RESULTS Individuals carrying greater numbers of triglyceride-raising alleles had increased circulating triglyceride levels (SD 0.59 [95% CI 0.52–0.65] difference between the 20% of individuals with the most alleles and the 20% with the fewest alleles). There was no evidence that the carriers of greater numbers of triglyceride-raising alleles were at increased risk of type 2 diabetes (per weighted allele odds ratio [OR] 0.99 [95% CI 0.97–1.01]; P = 0.26). In nondiabetic individuals, there was no evidence that carriers of greater numbers of triglyceride-raising alleles had increased fasting insulin levels (SD 0.00 per weighted allele [95% CI ?0.01 to 0.02]; P = 0.72) or increased fasting glucose levels (0.00 [?0.01 to 0.01]; P = 0.88). Instrumental variable analyses confirmed that genetically raised circulating triglyceride levels were not associated with increased diabetes risk, fasting glucose, or fasting insulin and, for diabetes, showed a trend toward a protective association (OR per 1-SD increase in log10 triglycerides: 0.61 [95% CI 0.45–0.83]; P = 0.002). CONCLUSIONS Genetically raised circulating triglyceride levels do not increase the risk of type 2 diabetes or raise fasting glucose or fasting insulin levels in nondiabetic individuals. One explanation for our results is that raised circulating triglycerides are predominantly secondary to the diabetes disease process rather than causal. PMID:21282362

  11. In situ stress determination by the overcoring of large surface strain gauge rosettes on the walls of a raise-bored shaft at the Underground Research Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    AECL Research is conducting a series of experiments to examine the influence of scale on measured in situ stresses in granite rock. The ventilation raise rosette overcoring experiment is one such test. This experiment, modelled on a previous test conducted in Australia, consisted of overcoring four 120-mm strain gauge rosettes glued to the surface of a 1.8-m-diameter bored raise. The in situ stresses were calculated from the measured strains using the equations for stresses around a cylindrical excavation in an elastic material. The possibility of excavation disturbance around the ventilation raise was investigated using overcore stress measurements, elastic modulus tests on retrieved core, and visual inspection of thin sections obtained from removed core. The effect of a stress-dependent elastic modulus (referred to as non-linear elastic behaviour) is also addressed. Results from the ventilation raise rosette overcoring experiment suggest that rosette overcoring in a bored raise is an acceptable stress-measurement method. The effects of scale and excavation damage on the stress measurements were not considered to be significant; however, if the elastic modulus of the rock is strongly stress-dependent, non-linear elastic behaviour may have a small effect on the measured stresses

  12. Issues of Meaning and Interpretation Raised by Diagetic versus Non-diagetic Use of Music in Television and Film

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grund, Cynthia M.

    2008-01-01

    Issues of Meaning and Interpretation Rasied by Diagetic versus Non-diagetic Use of Music in Television and Film. When music occurs in the soundtrack of a film or television show, it can either be attributed to a source within the narrative, so that the characters can hear it, or it can be "background" music, available to the viewer, but not to the characters. In this presentation, we will explore the complex of issues related to meaning and interpretaiton raised by diagetic v non-diagetic use of music in television and film. Matters to be addressed include: How is it of significance to the interpretation of a scene whether or not music is used diagetically or non-diagetically? How important is the role of the presence or absence of a musical soundtrack to a correct understanding of a scene? Is it of consequence whether or not the music is written specifically for a scene or is antecedently available to the public as recorded music? Will the increasing fragmentation - bordering on balkanization - of shared public musical experience now on the rise due to increasingly differentiated listening venues and internet sites result in a growing impoverishment of audience ability to appreciate - and even to understand! - cinema and television narratives within an adequate intermedial context? Finally, to what extent do we structure the narrative of our own lived experience by means of a "soundtrack" wherein elements of diagetic and nondiagetic use of music are present?

  13. Performance and nutritional evaluation of beef cattle raised on pasture, castrated at different ages, with and without supplementation

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Anilza Andréia da, Rocha; Mário Fonseca, Paulino; Henrique Jorge, Fernandes; Lívia Vieira de, Barros; Sidnei Antonio, Lopes; Leandro, Galon; Aline Gomes da, Silva; Daniel Mageste de, Almeida.

    1016-10-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english The objective of this study was to evaluate performance and nutritional traits of beef cattle raised on pastures, castrated at different ages, with and without supplementation. Forty-four crossbred young bulls with predominance of Zebu breed at initial average age of 120±30 days were used in the exp [...] eriment. Animals were distributed in a completely randomized design in a factorial arrangement with four ages of castration and two supplementation systems. The animals were distributed into four groups and placed on Brachiaria decumbens Stapf pastures, where they were fed concentrate supplementation or mineral salt ad libtum (control). Animals were castrated at 120, 240 and 360 days of age with average body weight of 115, 175 and 276 kg, castrated or not, in each supplementation group. Concentrate supplement composition and the amount supplied to the animals varied according to the time of the year and development phase of the animals. Trials were carried out to evaluate nutritional variables in each of the following phases: suckling, growth in the dry season and growth in the dry/rainy transition season. Concentrate supplementation improved the use of pasture, although it may have caused substitutive effect in all seasons evaluated. Castration of the animals before the dry season impaired animal development until the following dry/rainy transition season, especially when carried out during weaning. Concentrate supply may reduce some effects of this stress.

  14. Investigating the Effect of Consciousness-raising Techniques on Learning the English Tense System by EFL Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir H. Abdalla

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This study explores the effect Consciousness-raising techniques (henceforth, C-R techniques can have on the learning of the English tense system. The sample of the study (n=100 was randomly drawn from beginning EFL students at Taif University, KSA. The experimental design was used to carry out the study. The sample was divided into an experimental group (n=50 and a control group (n=50. Data for the study was collected via a test the researcher designed and administered to the two groups of the study. In addition to that, a special treatment of learning tasks   and activities was given to the study's experimental group only. The data collection instrument (i.e. the test comprised six questions relating to the form and uses of the present and past simple tenses. Data was then analysed by SPSS. The results of the study were statistically significant in favour of the experimental group (t-test value 1.072, the two-tailed level of significance .006 and p < 05.

  15. The Release of a Captive-Raised Female African Elephant (Loxodonta africana in the Okavango Delta, Botswana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Harris

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Wild female elephants live in close-knit matrilineal groups and housing captive elephants in artificial social groupings can cause significant welfare issues for individuals not accepted by other group members. We document the release of a captive-raised female elephant used in the safari industry because of welfare and management problems. She was fitted with a satellite collar, and spatial and behavioural data were collected over a 17-month period to quantify her interactions with the wild population. She was then monitored infrequently for a further five-and-a-half years. We observed few signs of aggression towards her from the wild elephants with which she socialized. She used an area of comparable size to wild female elephants, and this continued to increase as she explored new areas. Although she did not fully integrate into a wild herd, she had three calves of her own, and formed a social unit with another female and her calf that were later released from the same captive herd. We recommend that release to the wild be considered as a management option for other captive female elephants.

  16. Live weight and some morphological characteristics of Turkish Tazi (Sighthound raised in Province of Konya in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Yilmaz

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to determine the distributions of body coat colour and the body measurements of the Turkish Tazi (Sighthound raised in province of Konya by comparing with some other Sighthound breeds from different regions of Turkey and UK. To this end, a total of 41 (18 male and 23 female Tazi dogs was analyzed with the Minitab 16 statistical software program using ANOVA and Student’s t-Test. Descriptive statistics for live weight 18.4±0.31, withers height 62.0±0.44, height at rump 62.1±0.50, body length 60.7±0.55, heart girth circumference 63.9±0.64, chest depth 23.1±0.21, abdomen depth 13.9±0.21, chest width 17.4±0.25, haunch width 16.4±0.18, thigh width22.3±0.26, tail length 45.7±0.37, limb length 38.9±0.31, cannon circumference10.2±0.11, head length 24.0±0.36 and ear length 12.8±0.19 cm respectively. In this study the distributions of body coat colour of the sampled Tazi, as percentages, for black was 48.8%, dun 17.1%, brown 19.5%, white 7.3% and piebald 7.3% respectively.

  17. Performance and nutritional evaluation of beef cattle raised on pasture, castrated at different ages, with and without supplementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anilza Andréia da Rocha

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate performance and nutritional traits of beef cattle raised on pastures, castrated at different ages, with and without supplementation. Forty-four crossbred young bulls with predominance of Zebu breed at initial average age of 120±30 days were used in the experiment. Animals were distributed in a completely randomized design in a factorial arrangement with four ages of castration and two supplementation systems. The animals were distributed into four groups and placed on Brachiaria decumbens Stapf pastures, where they were fed concentrate supplementation or mineral salt ad libtum (control. Animals were castrated at 120, 240 and 360 days of age with average body weight of 115, 175 and 276 kg, castrated or not, in each supplementation group. Concentrate supplement composition and the amount supplied to the animals varied according to the time of the year and development phase of the animals. Trials were carried out to evaluate nutritional variables in each of the following phases: suckling, growth in the dry season and growth in the dry/rainy transition season. Concentrate supplementation improved the use of pasture, although it may have caused substitutive effect in all seasons evaluated. Castration of the animals before the dry season impaired animal development until the following dry/rainy transition season, especially when carried out during weaning. Concentrate supply may reduce some effects of this stress.

  18. A COMPARISON BETWEEN MULLIGAN TRACTION STRAIGHT LEG RAISE TECHNIQUE VS MUSCLE ENERGY TECHNIQUE ON HAMSTRING TIGHTNESS IN ASYMPTOMATIC MALE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesudas Mazumdar

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Background and Purpose: The Hamstring muscles of the back thigh are found to be the most prevalent for the tightness in the body. The purpose of this study is to compare effectiveness of Mulligan Traction Straight Leg Raise and Muscle Energy Technique methods in increasing range of motion and flexibility of knee joint. Methods: The 60 subjects (n = 60 with hamstring tightness randomly divided into two groups. Each group consist of 30 male subjects. However group A had 28 as two dropout and group B had 26 as four dropout . Group A was treated with Mulligan TSLR and Group B had MET. The total treatment session was 3 times a week on alternate days for three consecutive weeks. The outcome measures were measured by active knee extension ROM by universal Goniometer. Results: Independent t-test and paired t- test were used to analyse the data. The inter group comparison ROM score showed high significant difference after 3 weeks between the groups. The results of the study showed that MET may increase Knee ROM significantly more then Mulligan TSLR when applied for 3 weeks. Conclusion: This study led to interference that Mulligan TSLR and MET are effective in reducing the hamstring tightness. When both groups are compared MET was found to be more effective than TSLR .

  19. Mesoscale Raised Rim Depressions (MRRDs) on Earth: A Review of the Characteristics, Processes, and Spatial Distributions of Analogs for Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burr, Devon M.; Bruno, Barbara C.; Lanagan, Peter D.; Glaze, Lori; Jaeger, Windy L.; Soare, Richard J.; Tseung, Jean-Michel Wan Bun; Skinner, James A. Jr.; Baloga, Stephen M.

    2008-01-01

    Fields of mesoscale raised rim depressions (MRRDs) of various origins are found on Earth and Mars. Examples include rootless cones, mud volcanoes, collapsed pingos, rimmed kettle holes, and basaltic ring structures. Correct identification of MRRDs on Mars is valuable because different MRRD types have different geologic and/or climatic implications and are often associated with volcanism and/or water, which may provide locales for biotic or prebiotic activity. In order to facilitate correct identification of fields of MRRDs on Mars and their implications, this work provides a review of common terrestrial MRRD types that occur in fields. In this review, MRRDs by formation mechanism, including hydrovolcanic (phreatomagmatic cones, basaltic ring structures), sedimentological (mud volcanoes), and ice-related (pingos, volatile ice-block forms) mechanisms. For each broad mechanism, we present a comparative synopsis of (i) morphology and observations, (ii) physical formation processes, and (iii) published hypothesized locations on Mars. Because the morphology for MRRDs may be ambiguous, an additional tool is provided for distinguishing fields of MRRDs by origin on Mars, namely, spatial distribution analyses for MRRDs within fields on Earth. We find that MRRDs have both distinguishing and similar characteristics, and observation that applies both to their mesoscale morphology and to their spatial distribution statistics. Thus, this review provides tools for distinguishing between various MRRDs, while highlighting the utility of the multiple working hypotheses approach.

  20. Purification of mummichog (Fundulus heteroclitus) gonadotropins and their subunits, using an immunochemical assay with antisera raised against synthetic peptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimizu, Akio; Yamashita, Michiaki

    2002-01-01

    To detect mummichog gonadotropins (GtHs) and their subunits immunochemically, fragment peptides with amino acid sequences corresponding to cDNA data were synthesized, and antisera were raised against them. In the case of GtH-IIbeta, large loops such as the second loop and the "seat belt" structure (deduced from the hCG 3D structural data) were considered to be favorable regions for antigen, although further examination is needed to determine if this is the case of GtH-Ibeta and GtH-alpha. In the purification process, glycoprotein was extracted from acetone-dried mummichog pituitary and separated by various liquid chromatography procedures. Each fraction was assayed by immunoblotting with the appropriate antisera against synthetic peptides. Subunits (GtH-alpha, GtH-Ibeta, and GtH-IIbeta) were obtained through gel filtration, anion-exchange chromatography, and reverse-phase HPLC. Intact bioactive GtH-I and GtH-II were obtained through gel filtration, anion-exchange chromatography, and hydrophobic chromatography. Both GtH-I and GtH-II dissociated into subunits under acidic conditions. Nominal MW of each subunit was estimated from SDS-PAGE as 23,000 for GtH-alpha from GtH-I, 22,000 for GtH-alpha from GtH-II, 18,000 for GtH-Ibeta, and 21,000 for GtH-IIbeta. PMID:11825037

  1. Repeatability of measuring sciatic nerve excursion during a modified passive straight leg raise test with ultrasound imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridehalgh, Colette; Moore, Ann; Hough, Alan

    2012-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to establish the reliability of a frame-by-frame cross correlation method of assessing longitudinal sciatic nerve excursion motion using real time ultrasound imaging during a modified passive straight leg raise (SLR) test. Eighteen asymptomatic participants (age range 19-68 years) lay on their sides on a purpose made jig and the sciatic nerve in the posterior thigh was imaged during knee extension at 30° and then 60° of hip flexion (HF). Participants were re-tested ?48 h later. The ultrasound images were analysed off-line using cross correlation software. Results demonstrated excellent repeatability of in vivo sciatic nerve excursion during a modified SLR (HF30° ICC 0.92, CI 0.79-0.97, SEM 0.69; HF60° ICC 0.96, CI 0.89-0.99, SEM 0.87). The authors also identify points of good practise to ensure an accurate as possible measurement of nerve excursion using this method. These include breaking down larger movements into sub-components, visually tracking the moving nerve during the tracking procedure, and ensuring the optimal image is captured prior to analysis. The use of ultrasound imaging in lower limb nerve dysfunction will enhance the understanding of how nerves move in vivo during neurodynamic testing, as well as being able to identify possible alteration to nerve movements in patients with neuropathic pain states. PMID:22795391

  2. Methanogen colonisation does not significantly alter acetogen diversity in lambs isolated 17 h after birth and raised aseptically.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagen, Emma J; Mosoni, Pascale; Denman, Stuart E; Al Jassim, Rafat; McSweeney, Christopher S; Forano, Evelyne

    2012-10-01

    Reductive acetogenesis is not competitive with methanogenesis in adult ruminants, whereas acetogenic bacteria are the dominant hydrogenotrophs in the early rumen microbiota. The ecology of hydrogenotrophs in the developing rumen was investigated using young lambs, raised in sterile isolators, and conventional adult sheep. Two lambs were born naturally, left with their dams for 17 h and then placed into a sterile isolator and reared aseptically. They were inoculated with cellulolytic bacteria and later with Methanobrevibacter sp. 87.7 to investigate the effect of methanogen establishment on the rumen acetogen population since they lacked cultivable representatives of methanogens. Putative acetogens were investigated by acetyl-CoA synthase and formyltetrahydrofolate synthetase gene analysis and methanogens by methyl coenzyme reductase A gene analysis. Unexpectedly, a low abundant but diverse population of methanogens (predominantly Methanobrevibacter spp.) was identified in isolated lambs pre-inoculation with Mbb. sp 87.7, which was similar to the community structure in conventional sheep. In contrast, potential acetogen diversity in isolated lambs and conventional sheep was different. Potential acetogens affiliated between the Lachnospiraceae and Clostridiaceae in conventional sheep and with the Blautia genus and the Lachnospiraceae in isolated lambs. The establishment of Mbb. sp. 87.7 (1,000-fold increase in methanogens) did not substantially affect acetogen diversity. PMID:22383121

  3. The pitfalls in arbitration and litigation of nuclear power plant disputes - issues raised by cases involving nuclear steam generator failures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Achilles' Heel for successful power plant operations for pressurized water nuclear reactors has been the performance of nuclear steam generators. Steam generators have been replaced or plans for replacement have been announced at nuclear plants in Belgium, France, Brazil, Korea, Japan, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Yugoslavia and the United States. The cost of replacing these massive components can exceed US $ 100 million for each plant. This problem of component failures has thus far spawned thirteen legal actions against the original equipment manufacturer, involving over 70 steam generators, in international arbitration and United States (U.S.) Federal Courts. Other claims by utilities, both in the United States and in Europe, have been settled short of litigation. The case for liability of the component designer and manufacturer involves issues of fact relating to materials, corrosion mechanisms, the effects of water purity and temperature on corrosion, system integration with the component, potential safety issues, predictions of component life based on corrosion rates, and the efficacy of remedial actions. The manner in which these issues are raised before an arbitral tribunal and before a U.S. District Court judge and jury are very different. This paper will discuss some of the competing considerations involved in the two different systems for dispute resolution. (author)

  4. Does population screening for Chlamydia trachomatis raise anxiety among those tested? Findings from a population based chlamydia screening study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Low Nicola

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The advent of urine testing for Chlamydia trachomatis has raised the possibility of large-scale screening for this sexually transmitted infection, which is now the most common in the United Kingdom. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of an invitation to be screened for chlamydia and of receiving a negative result on levels of anxiety, depression and self-esteem. Methods 19,773 men and women aged 16 to 39 years, selected at random from 27 general practices in two large city areas (Bristol and Birmingham were invited by post to send home-collected urine samples or vulvo-vaginal swabs for chlamydia testing. Questionnaires enquiring about anxiety, depression and self-esteem were sent to random samples of those offered screening: one month before the dispatch of invitations; when participants returned samples; and after receiving a negative result. Results Home screening was associated with an overall reduction in anxiety scores. An invitation to participate did not increase anxiety levels. Anxiety scores in men were lower after receiving the invitation than at baseline. Amongst women anxiety was reduced after receipt of negative test results. Neither depression nor self-esteem scores were affected by screening. Conclusion Postal screening for chlamydia does not appear to have a negative impact on overall psychological well-being and can lead to a decrease in anxiety levels among respondents. There is, however, a clear difference between men and women in when this reduction occurs.

  5. Holocene raised beach stratigraphy and sea-level history of Kizahasi Beach, Skarvsnes, Luetzow-Holm Bay, Antarctica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Twelve radiocarbon (14C) dates of in situ fossil shells of Laternula elliptica from deltaic sediments from the raised Kizahasi Beach with well-marked stepped topography allow us to define Holocene relative sea-level change at Skarvsnes, Luetzow-Holm Bay region. The upper edge of a step usually corresponds to the upper end of a topset bed of deltaic sediments. The sedimentary structures and topography from near to the present high-tide line to shallow marine depths are similar to the deltaic sedimentary structures preserved in the stepped topography. Considering this similarity, the elevation of the upper end of topset beds, and the relationship to foreset or bottomset beds, indicates the elevation of a former high-tide level at the time the shell was alive. This relationship can be applied to the estimation of the elevation of former shorelines and the reconstruction of Holocene relative sea-level change. Stable sea levels are identified at 17-13 m a.s.l. during 7200-5500 14C yr BP, at 11-9 m during 5000-4500 14C yr BP, and at 14C yr BP. (author). 18 refs., 6 figs.; 1 tab

  6. Using the emanuel et Al. Framework to assess ethical issues raised by a biomedical research ethics committee in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsoka-Gwegweni, Joyce M; Wassenaar, Douglas R

    2014-12-01

    The Emanuel, Wendler, and Grady framework was designed as a universal tool for use in many settings including developing countries. However, it is not known whether the work of African health research ethics committees (RECs) is compatible with this framework. The absence of any normative or empirical weighting of the eight principles within this framework suggests that different health RECs may raise some ethical issues more frequently than others when reviewing protocols. We used the Emanuel et al. framework to assess, code, and rank the most frequent ethical issues considered by a biomedical REC during review of research protocols for the years 2008 to 2012. We extracted data from the recorded minutes of a South African biomedical REC for the years 2008 to 2012, designed the data collection sheet according to the Emanuel et al. framework, and removed all identifiers during data processing and analysis. From the 98 protocols that we assessed, the most frequent issues that emerged were the informed consent, scientific validity, fair participant selection, and ongoing respect for participants. This study represents the first known attempt to analyze REC responses/minutes using the Emanuel et al. framework, and suggests that this framework may be useful in describing and categorizing the core activities of an REC. PMID:25747689

  7. Health implications of radionuclide levels in cattle raised near U mining and milling facilities in Ambrosia Lake, New Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study was conducted to determine radionuclide tissue levels in cattle raised near U mining and milling facilities. Ambrosia Lake, New Mexico, has been the site of extensive U mining for 30 y and contains several underground U mines, a processing mill, and two large U tailings piles. Ten cows were purchased from two grazing areas in Ambrosia Lake and ten control animals were purchased from Crownpoint, New Mexico. Muscle, liver, kidney, and bone tissue taken from these animals, and environmental samples, including water, grasses and soil collected from the animals' grazing areas, were analyzed for 238U, 234U, 230Th, 226Ra, 210Pb, and 210Po. Mean radionuclide levels in cattle tissue and environmental samples from Ambrosia Lake were higher in almost every comparison than those found in respective controls. Liver and kidney tissues were particularly elevated in 226Ra and 210Po. Radiation dose commitments from eating cattle tissue with these radionuclide concentrations were calculated. We concluded that the health risk to the public from eating exposed cattle is minimal, unless large amounts of this tissue, especially liver and kidney, are ingested

  8. 1,3-dichloropropene and chloropicrin emissions following simulated drip irrigation to raised beds under plastic films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashworth, D J; Luo, L; Xuan, R; Yates, S R

    2010-08-01

    Using laboratory soil chambers a nonscaled representation of an agricultural raised bed was constructed. For a sandy loam soil, 1,3-dichloropropene (1,3-D) and chloropicrin (CP) were applied at 5 cm depth with an excess of water (simulated drip irrigation). Application was made under both high density polyethylene (HDPE) and virtually impermeable film (VIF) covering the soil bed (the furrow was left uncovered). Soil gas distribution of the fumigants, together with emissions into the headspace above the bed, sidewall and furrow were determined over time. Total emissions from the HDPE treatment were cis 1,3-D 28%, trans 1,3-D 24%, and CP 8%. Due to its lower permeability, the values for VIF were 13%, 7%, and 1.5%, respectively. With HDPE, the majority (86-93%) of the emissions occurred from the bed, while for VIF the majority (92-99%) of the emissions was from the furrow. Compared to a range of literature values for shank injection, the use of drip application appears to offer a benefit in reducing 1,3-D and CP emissions. However, the most meaningful comparison is with our previous data for simulated shank injection where the same soil was covered (completely) with the same plastic films (1). In this comparison, only 1,3-D emissions under HDPE were lower with drip application; 1,3-D emissions under VIF and CP emissions under both films were greater with the drip application. PMID:20597537

  9. [DZNep raises miR-200c expression to delay the invasion and migration of MGC-803 gastric carcinoma cells].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ning, Xiang-Hong; Guo, Rong; Han, Lei; Zhang, An-Ling; Liu, Xi; Li, Zhao-Xia; Kang, Chun-Sheng; Zhang, Qing-Yu

    2015-02-25

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the regulatory effects of histone methylation modifications on the expression of miR-200c, as well as invasion and migration of gastric carcinoma cells. Gastric carcinoma cell line, MGC-803, were treated by 2.5 ?mol/L histone methyltransferase inhibitor, DZNep. The expression of miR-200c was detected by real-time quantitative PCR (qRT-PCR). The epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) indicators (ZEB1/2 and E/N-cadherin), EZH2, EED, SUZ12 and H3K27me3 expressions were detected by Western blot. Cell migration and invasion abilities were detected by Transwell and scratch tests. The result showed that, compared with DMSO (control) group, DZNep significantly increased the expression of miR-200c to about 2.1 times, inhibited ZEB1, ZEB2, and N-cadherin expressions, and activated E-cadherin expression; Also, DZNep decreased the protein expressions of EZH2, EED, SUZ12 and H3K27me3; Moreover, DZNep could inhibit MGC-803 cell invasive and migrative abilities, as well as MMP9 expression. These results suggest DZNep raises miR-200c expression to delay the invasion and migration of gastric carcinoma cells, and the underlying mechanisms involve the regulations of EMT-related proteins and polycomb repressive complex 2. PMID:25672630

  10. Tick loads in cattle raised on sweet and sour rangelands in the low-input farming areas of South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marufu, Munyaradzi C; Chimonyo, Michael; Mapiye, Cletos; Dzama, Kennedy

    2011-02-01

    The objective of this study was to compare tick loads and prevalence in Nguni and non-descript cattle in the sweet (palatable throughout the year) and sour (palatable only in the rainy season) communal rangelands of the Eastern Cape Province, South Africa. Engorged adult female ixodid ticks were collected and identified seasonally from 144 cattle raised on sweet and sour rangelands from August 2007 to April 2008. Three tick species were identified in the sweet and sour rangelands namely Rhipicephalus appendiculatus, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) decoloratus, and Rhipicephalus evertsi evertsi with prevalences of 71.1%, 29.2%, and 40.2%, respectively. Hyalomma species (19.0%) occurred only in the sour rangeland. Higher tick counts were recorded in the hot-wet season than in the cool-dry season (P Cattle in the sweet rangeland had significantly lower tick loads than those in the sour rangeland in all the seasons except the hot-dry season. The Nguni breed had lower (P tick loads of R. appendiculatus in the hot-wet and post-rainy season and Hyalomma species in all seasons than the non-descript cattle. The use of a tick-resistant Nguni breed in the integrated control of ticks on cattle in the communal areas of South Africa is recommended. PMID:20967568

  11. Fatty acid profiles in meat from Caiman yacare (Caiman crocodilus yacare) raised in the wild or in captivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vicente-Neto, João; Bressan, Maria Cristina; Faria, Peter Bitencourt; E Vieira, Josye Oliveira; Cardoso, Maria das Graças; Glória, Maria Beatriz de Abreu; da Gama, Luis Telo

    2010-08-01

    Chemical composition and fatty acid profiles were determined in Caiman yacare meat originating from the neck and tail cuts of animals raised in the wild (n=6) or in captivity (n=6), slaughtered at a live weight of approximately 6 kg. All experimental methods were approved by the appropriate environmental protection agencies. Most chemical components were affected by the origin-cut interaction, with the tail cut of wild animals having the highest amount of intramuscular fat (19.2% of DM) and the lowest of moisture (71.8%) and protein (77.0% of DM). Yacare meat had low amounts of SFA (35.1%), which were similar (P>0.05) in the cuts and origins studied. The total amount of PUFA was higher (P<0.05) in wild (31.0%) than in captive animals (23.6%), and n-3 fatty acids had means of about 5% and 2% for the same groups, respectively (P<0.05). In general, the FA profile of intramuscular fat in yacare meat had a desirable PUFA/SFA ratio above 0.4. PMID:20435419

  12. Raising livestock in resource-poor communities of the North West Province of South Africa - a participatory rural appraisal study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.K. Getchell

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available A participatory research model was used in six village communities in the Central Region of the North West Province of South Africa in order to achieve the following broad objectives : to obtain information on the challenges owners face in raising livestock in these areas and to evaluate the livestock owners' level of knowledge of internal parasites in their animals. Information obtained at participatory workshops clearly indicated a need for improvements in water supply, schools, job creation, and health services. Lack of pasture for grazing livestock was also cited as being important. Other most frequently mentioned livestock problems included 'gall sickness' (a vaguely defined condition not necessarily referring to anaplasmosis, parasites (both external and internal, chicken diseases and ingestion of plastic bags discarded in the environment. When livestock owners were questioned during individual interviews, most were able to identify the presence of parasites in either the live or dead animal. However, it seems likely that this is limited to the identification of tapeworms. It was found that most livestock owners use a combination of treatments, ranging from traditional to folklore to commercial. There were some difficulties in using the participatory methods since it was the first time that the facilitators and the communities had been exposed to them. Many communities had difficulty in dealing with the concept of finding solutions within the community, which is such an integral part of participatory methods.

  13. Finite-dimensional matrix representations of the operator of differentiation through the algebra of raising and lowering operators: general properties and explicit examples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The relationship between the algebra of finite-dimensional matrices acting as raising and lowering operators on a given set of vectors and the operators of multiplication by a variable xi and of differentiation with respect to xi are tersely reviewed. A number of matrix formulae implied by this relationship is reported and the possibility to implement them in explicit form is highlighted by referring to a remarkably neat construction of matrices of order n, defined explicitly in terms of n arbitrary numbers and satisfying the algebra of raising and lowering operators. (author)

  14. Design and evaluation of modified screen net house for off-season vegetable raising in composite climate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Currently the use of conventional screen net houses for off-season vegetable raising in north India composite climate is not so effective and has many constructional and operational limitations like poor structural design, higher constructional cost, no greenhouse effect in winter and higher plant temperatures in summer. Similarly, the use of polyethylene sheet covered greenhouses also has problems like much higher constructional and operational costs and higher inside air temperatures in summers. In this study, modified designs of 500 m2 (one kanal) and 250 m2 (half kanal) screen net house have been presented particularly suitable for composite climate (where both winters as well as summers are harsh) as a replacement for conventional net house and polyethylene sheet covered greenhouse design. To make these designs low cost and more effective, low tunnels (covered with low density polyethylene sheet) have been designed and used in winter over the plant rows to generate localized greenhouse effect for faster plant growth. By doing so, average daily air temperature under the tunnels was raised about 9-10 deg. C above the open field air temperature. In this way, huge cost of covering the net house or greenhouse during winter with costly polyethylene sheet could be saved. Similarly, in extreme summer when the ambient air temperature exceeded 40 deg. C (during the fruiting stage of the crop) a 50% shade net was used inside the modified net house at 2as used inside the modified net house at 2.5 m height (instead of using active cooling system) resulting in 4-6 deg. C drop in the plant temperature. Experimental evaluation of the modified net house was conducted during winter and summer months of year 2007-08 (December to June) by growing brinjal crop and compared with conventional net house, polyethylene sheet greenhouse and in open field condition. It was observed that due to the combined effect of low tunnels (in winter) and shade net (in summer), the micro-climatic parameters like air temperature, plant temperature, solar radiation and light intensity remained within desirable range during different stages of crop growth resulting in 37.6% and 11.5% increase in the yield of brinjal crop as compared to conventional net house and PE covered greenhouse yield, respectively, at 31 deg. N latitude. Economic analysis of the modified net house was also conducted and compared with the conventional net house and PE covered greenhouse of the same area. It was observed that 500 m2 area modified net house (coupled with low tunnels and shade net) produces highest yield and has the highest net present worth (Rs 3,35,324) and the lowest payback period (5.2 years) as compared to the conventional net house (Rs 2,04,712 and 6.5 years) and PE covered greenhouse (Rs 1,52,614 and 10.5 years). On the other hand for 250 m2 modified net house, the net present worth and payback period was Rs 1,20,417 and 9.7 years as compared to Rs 65,497 and 11.5 years and Rs 10,616 and 17 years for conventional net house and PE covered greenhouse.

  15. Design and evaluation of modified screen net house for off-season vegetable raising in composite climate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sethi, V.P. [Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Punjab Agricultural Univ., Ludhiana 141004 (India); Dubey, R.K. [Dept. of Floriculture and Landscaping, Punjab Agricultural Univ., Ludhiana 141004 (India); Dhath, A.S. [Dept. of Vegetable Crops, Punjab Agricultural Univ., Ludhiana 141004 (India)

    2009-12-15

    Currently the use of conventional screen net houses for off-season vegetable raising in north India composite climate is not so effective and has many constructional and operational limitations like poor structural design, higher constructional cost, no greenhouse effect in winter and higher plant temperatures in summer. Similarly, the use of polyethylene sheet covered greenhouses also has problems like much higher constructional and operational costs and higher inside air temperatures in summers. In this study, modified designs of 500 m{sup 2} (one kanal) and 250 m{sup 2} (half kanal) screen net house have been presented particularly suitable for composite climate (where both winters as well as summers are harsh) as a replacement for conventional net house and polyethylene sheet covered greenhouse design. To make these designs low cost and more effective, low tunnels (covered with low density polyethylene sheet) have been designed and used in winter over the plant rows to generate localized greenhouse effect for faster plant growth. By doing so, average daily air temperature under the tunnels was raised about 9-10 C above the open field air temperature. In this way, huge cost of covering the net house or greenhouse during winter with costly polyethylene sheet could be saved. Similarly, in extreme summer when the ambient air temperature exceeded 40 C (during the fruiting stage of the crop) a 50% shade net was used inside the modified net house at 2.5 m height (instead of using active cooling system) resulting in 4-6 C drop in the plant temperature. Experimental evaluation of the modified net house was conducted during winter and summer months of year 2007-08 (December to June) by growing brinjal crop and compared with conventional net house, polyethylene sheet greenhouse and in open field condition. It was observed that due to the combined effect of low tunnels (in winter) and shade net (in summer), the micro-climatic parameters like air temperature, plant temperature, solar radiation and light intensity remained within desirable range during different stages of crop growth resulting in 37.6% and 11.5% increase in the yield of brinjal crop as compared to conventional net house and PE covered greenhouse yield, respectively, at 31 N latitude. Economic analysis of the modified net house was also conducted and compared with the conventional net house and PE covered greenhouse of the same area. It was observed that 500 m{sup 2} area modified net house (coupled with low tunnels and shade net) produces highest yield and has the highest net present worth (Rs 3,35,324) and the lowest payback period (5.2 years) as compared to the conventional net house (Rs 2,04,712 and 6.5 years) and PE covered greenhouse (Rs 1,52,614 and 10.5 years). On the other hand for 250 m{sup 2} modified net house, the net present worth and payback period was Rs 1,20,417 and 9.7 years as compared to Rs 65,497 and 11.5 years and Rs 10,616 and 17 years for conventional net house and PE covered greenhouse. (author)

  16. The raised coral reef complex of the Kenyan coast: Tridacna gigas U-series dates and geological implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Accordi, Giovanni; Brilli, Mauro; Carbone, Federico; Voltaggio, Mario

    2010-08-01

    The Kenyan coast is characterized by a raised fossil reef complex cut by a series of morphological terraces. Shallow subtidal coralgal facies containing Tridacna gigas shells are found at different heights along the coast. Alpha-spectrometric U-series methods were applied to 18 T. gigas samples from different locations along this reef complex with an elevation range from 0 to 15 m above present sea level to obtain chronological information. Apparent U-Th ages, based on the assumption of closed system behaviour, correspond to early marine isotope stage (MIS) 5 ( n = 17) and MIS 7 ( n = 1). However, initial 234U/ 238U activity ratios exhibit a wide range, in many cases much greater than present seawater, which is likely to be associated with diagenetic alteration and migration of U-series isotopes. For this reason, we attempted a form of open system isochron dating after separating the Tridacna samples into three different groups on the basis of current elevation and distribution along the coast. An 'isochron' age of 120 ± 4 ka (1 ?) was obtained for the higher elevation group, placed in the terraced central coastal area; another age, statistically undistinguishable from the previous one, of 118 ± 7 ka (1 ?) was obtained for the group confined along the northern coast. These two groups correspond to a transgressive-regressive cycle connected to the maximum sea level highstand during the MIS 5e. A third 'isochron' age of 100 ± 4 ka (1 ?) was obtained for the group confined along the southern coast, encompassing part of the isotopic substages MIS 5c and d. Based on these data, and on the ecology of T. gigas whose optimal present-day depth range can be considered of 3-10 m below sea level, a maximum tectonic coastal uplift rate of between, respectively, 0.12 and 0.18 mm a -1 was calculated for the period since formation of these shells, and then the paleobathymetry of Tridacna facies has been inferred.

  17. Influence of growth rate and onset of boar contact on puberty attainment of replacement gilts raised in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roongsitthichai, Atthaporn; Olanratmanee, Em-On; Tummaruk, Padet

    2014-10-01

    This study aimed to investigate the influence of growth rate and onset of boar contact on age at first observed estrus of the replacement gilts raised in Thailand. In total, 766 gilts were measured for body weight and backfat thickness prior to insemination. Body weight was further calculated for growth rate. Estrus detection was performed twice a day by back pressure test with an existence of mature boars with high libido. The first date of boar exposure and that of first observed estrus were individually recorded. Due to growth rate, they were classified into three groups: high (>700 g/day), moderate (600-700 g/day), and low (gilts were grouped into two categories: early (gilts expressed first observed estrus, averagely, at age 205.1?±?34.1 days, had a growth rate of 615.5?±?57.6 g/day, and first contact with boars at 160.7?±?19.9 days of age. The gilts with low growth rate expressed first estrus later than those with moderate (208.6?±?2.0 vs 198.0?±?3.2 days, P?=?0.033) and high growth rate (208.6?±?2.0 vs 193.9?±?6.7 days, P?=?0.005) groups. Together with the influence of boar exposure, the gilts contacted boar earlier with high growth rate showed first estrus at age 180.3?±?10.1 days, whereas those with later boar contact with low growth rate showed first estrus at age 197.9?±?3.2 days. In summary, the replacement gilts should have high growth rate and contact boar early to attain puberty faster and possess decent subsequent reproductive performance. PMID:25023230

  18. Late Holocene ecohydrological and carbon dynamics of a UK raised bog: impact of human activity and climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, T. Edward; Swindles, Graeme T.; Roucoux, Katherine H.

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the ecohydrological responses of peatlands to climate change is particularly challenging over the late Holocene owing to the confounding influence of anthropogenic activity. To address this, a core spanning the last ˜2400 years from a raised bog in northern England was analysed using a comprehensive suite of proxy methods in an attempt to elucidate the drivers of change. A testate amoebae-based transfer function was used to quantitatively reconstruct changes in water table depth, supported by humification analysis and a plant macrofossil-derived hydroclimatic index. Pollen and plant macrofossil data were used to examine regional and local vegetation change, and human impacts were inferred from charcoal and geochemistry. Chronological control was achieved through a Bayesian age-depth model based on AMS radiocarbon dates and spheroidal carbonaceous particles, from which peat and carbon accumulation rates were calculated. Phases of both increased and decreased bog surface wetness (inferred effective precipitation) are present, with dry phases at c. AD 320-830, AD 920-1190 and AD 1850-present, and a marked period of increased effective precipitation at c. AD 1460-1850. Coherence with other records from across Northern Europe suggests that these episodes are primarily driven by allogenic climatic change. Periods of high bog surface wetness correspond to the Wolf, Spörer and Maunder sunspot activity minima, suggesting solar forcing was a significant driver of climate change over the last ˜1000 years. Following the intensification of agriculture and industry over the last two centuries, the combined climatic and anthropogenic forcing effects become increasingly difficult to separate due to increases in atmospheric deposition of anthropogenically derived pollutants, fertilising compounds, and additions of wind-blown soil dust. We illustrate the need for multiproxy approaches based on high-resolution palaeoecology and geochemistry to examine the recent trajectories of peatlands.

  19. Effects of rigor status during high-pressure processing on the physical qualities of farm-raised abalone (Haliotis rufescens).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Brianna H; Greenberg, Neil J; Yang, Tom C; Skonberg, Denise I

    2015-01-01

    High-pressure processing (HPP) is used to increase meat safety and shelf-life, with conflicting quality effects depending on rigor status during HPP. In the seafood industry, HPP is used to shuck and pasteurize oysters, but its use on abalones has only been minimally evaluated and the effect of rigor status during HPP on abalone quality has not been reported. Farm-raised abalones (Haliotis rufescens) were divided into 12 HPP treatments and 1 unprocessed control treatment. Treatments were processed pre-rigor or post-rigor at 2 pressures (100 and 300 MPa) and 3 processing times (1, 3, and 5 min). The control was analyzed post-rigor. Uniform plugs were cut from adductor and foot meat for texture profile analysis, shear force, and color analysis. Subsamples were used for scanning electron microscopy of muscle ultrastructure. Texture profile analysis revealed that post-rigor processed abalone was significantly (P values increased with pressure to 68.9 at 300 MPa for pre-rigor processed foot, 73.8 for post-rigor processed foot, 90.9 for pre-rigor processed adductor, and 89.0 for post-rigor processed adductor. Scanning electron microscopy images showed fraying of collagen fibers in processed adductor, but did not show pressure-induced compaction of the foot myofibrils. Post-rigor processed abalone meat was more tender than pre-rigor processed meat, and post-rigor processed foot meat was lighter in color than pre-rigor processed foot meat, suggesting that waiting for rigor to resolve prior to processing abalones may improve consumer perceptions of quality and market value. PMID:25471900

  20. Feasibility of repetitive lung function measurements by raised volume rapid thoracoabdominal compression during methacholine challenge in young infants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Loland, L.; Bisgaard, H.

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The aim of the study was to evaluate the feasibility of lung function measurements by the raised volume rapid thoracoabdominal compression (RVRTC) technique during bronchial methacholine challenge in young infants. METHOD: Four hundred two healthy infants were tested at 1 month of age with RVRTC during repeated methacholine challenges with quadrupling doses from 0.037 to 16.674 mumol. RESULTS: Measurement of baseline lung function was successful in 99% and the provocative dose (PD) was achieved in 79% of infants by forced expiratory volume in 0.5 s (FEV(0.5)). Additionally, the PD was successfully measured in 87% by transcutaneous oxygen pressure. No serious adverse events were observed during testing or after discharge from the clinic. The methacholine dose range was appropriate as PD could be determined in the majority of infants. FEV(0.5) values in 21% of infants dropped > 40% during the test. Short-lasting, self-limiting episodes of hypoxemia of < 80% occurred in 1% of infants and bradycardia < 90 beats/min in 19% of infants. The most common observations by parents were changes in the patterns of sleeping (95%), eating (57%), and behavior (58%) of the infant after hospital discharge. The mean acceptability rating among parents was 8 on a scale from 1 to 10, with 13% rating < or = 5. It took one operator 3 h to complete the test, with the actual lung function testing accounting for half the time. CONCLUSION: This very comprehensive experience with standardized measurements of lung function by RVRTC during methacholine challenge in young infants in a single center leads us to conclude that the test is feasible and safe to perform in asymptomatic young infants Udgivelsesdato: 2008/1

  1. The effects of moderately raised classroom temperatures and classroom ventilation rate on the performance of schoolwork by children (RP-1257)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wargocki, Pawel; Wyon, David Peter

    2007-01-01

    Two independent field intervention experiments were carried out in school classrooms in late summer (in 2004 and 2005). The air temperature was manipulated by either operating or idling split cooling units installed for the purpose. In one of these experiments, the outdoor air supply rate was also manipulated. The conditions were established for one week at a time in a blind crossover design with repeated measures on two classes of 10- to 12-year-old children. Six to eight exercises exemplifying different aspects of schoolwork (numerical and language-based) were performed as part of normal lessons. Pupils indicated their environmental perceptions and the intensity of any symptoms on visual analogue scales. Their thermal sensation changed from slightly too warm to neutral, and the performance of two numerical and two language-based tests was significantly improved when the temperature was reduced from 25 degrees C to 20 degrees C (77 degrees F to 68 degrees F). When the outdoor air supply rate was increased from 5.2 to 9.6 L/s (11.0 to 20.3 cfm) per person, their performance of four numerical exercises improved significantly, confirming the results of previously reported experiments in the same series. The above improvements were mainly in terms of the speed at which tasks were performed, with negligible effects on error rate. Most school classrooms worldwide experience raised air temperatures during increased thermal loads, e.g., in warm weather; these results show that providing some means of avoiding elevated temperatures would improve educational attainment.

  2. Genetic evidence that raised sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) levels reduce the risk of type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perry, John R B; Weedon, Michael N

    2010-01-01

    Epidemiological studies consistently show that circulating sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) levels are lower in type 2 diabetes patients than non-diabetic individuals, but the causal nature of this association is controversial. Genetic studies can help dissect causal directions of epidemiological associations because genotypes are much less likely to be confounded, biased or influenced by disease processes. Using this Mendelian randomization principle, we selected a common single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) near the SHBG gene, rs1799941, that is strongly associated with SHBG levels. We used data from this SNP, or closely correlated SNPs, in 27 657 type 2 diabetes patients and 58 481 controls from 15 studies. We then used data from additional studies to estimate the difference in SHBG levels between type 2 diabetes patients and controls. The SHBG SNP rs1799941 was associated with type 2 diabetes [odds ratio (OR) 0.94, 95% CI: 0.91, 0.97; P = 2 x 10(-5)], with the SHBG raising allele associated with reduced risk of type 2 diabetes. This effect was very similar to that expected (OR 0.92, 95% CI: 0.88, 0.96), given the SHBG-SNP versus SHBG levels association (SHBG levels are 0.2 standard deviations higher per copy of the A allele) and the SHBG levels versus type 2 diabetes association (SHBG levels are 0.23 standard deviations lower in type 2 diabetic patients compared to controls). Results were very similar in men and women. There was no evidence that this variant is associated with diabetes-related intermediate traits, including several measures of insulin secretion and resistance. Our results, together with those from another recent genetic study, strengthen evidence that SHBG and sex hormones are involved in the aetiology of type 2 diabetes.

  3. Raising the pKa limit of "soft" nucleophiles in palladium-catalyzed allylic substitutions: application of diarylmethane pronucleophiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sha, Sheng-Chun; Zhang, Jiadi; Carroll, Patrick J; Walsh, Patrick J

    2013-11-20

    The Tsuji-Trost allylic substitution reaction provides a useful and efficient approach to construct C-C bonds between sp(3)-hybridized carbons. The widely accepted paradigm for classifying the mode of attack of nucleophiles on palladium ?-allyl intermediates in the Tsuji-Trost reaction is based on the pKa of the pronucleophile: (1) stabilized or "soft" carbon nucleophiles and heteroatom nucleophiles (e.g., pronucleophiles with pKa's 25). One of the keys to the continuing development of allylic substitution processes remains broadening the scope of "soft" nucleophiles. Herein we report a general method for the room temperature Pd-catalyzed allylic substitution with diarylmethane derivatives (pKa's up to 32). The synthetic significance of the method is that it provides a rapid access to products containing allylated diarylmethyl motifs. The method is general for a wide range of nucleophiles derived from diarylmethanes and heterocyclic derivatives. A procedure for the Pd-catalyzed allylic substitutions to afford diallylation products with quaternary centers is also described. With triarylmethanes and alkylated diarylmethanes the corresponding allylated products are isolated. We anticipate that the described method will be a valuable complement to the existing arsenal of nucleophiles in Pd-catalyzed allylic substitutions. Mechanistic studies show that the nucleophile derived from diphenylmethane undergoes external attack on ?-allyl palladium species under our reaction conditions. This unexpected observation indicates that diarylmethane derivatives behave as "soft" or stabilized nucleophiles. The results of this study indicate that the cutoff between "soft" and "hard" nucleophiles should be raised from a pronucleophile pKa of 25 to at least 32. PMID:24147620

  4. Raising the pKa Limit of “Soft” Nucleophiles in Palladium-Catalyzed Allylic Substitutions. Application of Diarylmethane Pronucleophiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sha, Sheng-Chun; Zhang, Jiadi; Carroll, Patrick J.

    2013-01-01

    The Tsuji-Trost allylic substitution reaction provides a useful and efficient approach to construct C-C bonds between sp3-hybridized carbons. The widely accepted paradigm for classifying the mode of attack of nucleophiles on palladium ?-allyl intermediates in the Tsuji-Trost reaction is based on the pKa of the pronucleophile: (1) stabilized or “soft” carbon nucleophiles and heteroatom nucleophiles (e.g., pronucleophiles with pKa’s 25). One of the keys to the continuing development of allylic substitution processes remains broadening the scope of “soft” nucleophiles. Herein we report a general method for the room temperature Pd-catalyzed allylic substitution with diarylmethane derivatives (pKa’s up to 32). The synthetic significance of the method is that it provides a rapid access to products containing allylated diarylmethyl motifs. The method is general for a wide range of nucleophiles derived from diarylmethanes and heterocyclic derivatives. A procedure for the Pd-catalyzed allylic substitutions to afford diallylation products with quaternary centers is also described. With triarylmethanes and, alkylated diarylmethanes the corresponding allylated products are isolated. We anticipate that the described method will be a valuable complement to the existing arsenal of nucleophiles in Pd-catalyzed allylic substitutions. Mechanistic studies show that the nucleophile derived from diphenylmethane undergoes external attack on ?-allyl palladium species under our reaction conditions. This unexpected observation indicates that diarylmethane derivatives behave as “soft” or stabilized nucleophiles. The results of this study indicate that the cutoff between “soft” and “hard” nucleophiles should be raised from a pronucleophile pKa of 25 to at least 32. PMID:24147620

  5. Note on Some Issues Raised at the Athens International Symposium on "The Child in the World of Tomorrow" (Athens, Greece, July 2-8, 1978).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guest, Iain

    This article reports on some of the important issues in seven general content areas (infancy, family, women, society, health, education, and children's rights) which were raised at the June, 1978, Athens International Symposium on The Child in the World of Tomorrow. Problems of both developed and developing countries are addressed. The notes on…

  6. Layering Precision Land Leveling and Furrow Irrigated Raised Bed Planting: Productivity and Input Use Efficiency of Irrigated Bread Wheat in Indo-Gangetic Plains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. L. Jat

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Stagnating yield and declining input use efficiency in irrigated wheat of the Indo-Gangetic Plain (IGP coupled with diminishing availability of water for agriculture is a major concern of food security in South Asia. The objective of our study was to establish an understanding of how wheat yield and input use efficiency can be improved and how land leveling and crop establishment practices can be modified to be more efficient in water use through layering of precision-conservation crop management techniques. The “precision land leveling with raised bed” planting can be used to improve crop yield, water and nutrient use efficiency over the existing “traditional land leveling with flat” planting practices. We conducted a field experiment during 2002-2004 at Modipuram, India to quantify the benefits of alternate land leveling (precision land leveling and crop establishment (furrow irrigated raised bed planting techniques alone or in combination (layering precision-conservation in terms of crop yield, water savings, and nutrient use efficiency of wheat production in IGP. The wheat yield was about 16.6% higher with nearly 50% less irrigation water with layering precision land leveling and raised bed planting compared to traditional practices (traditional land leveling with flat planting. The agronomic (AE and uptake efficiency (UE of N, P and K were significantly improved under precision land leveling with raised bed planting technique compared to other practices.

  7. Identification of one polymorphism from the PAPP-A2 gene associated to fertility in Romosinuano beef heifers raised under a subtropical environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this study was to identify single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) associated to fertility in female cows raised under a subtropical environment. Re-sequencing of 9 genes associated to GH-IGF endocrine pathway located in bovine chromosome 5, identified 75 SNP useful for associative ge...

  8. "It's Going to Stop in This Generation": Women with a History of Child Abuse Resolving to Raise Their Children without Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Sioux

    2011-01-01

    In this article, Sioux Hall promotes using a strengths-based approach to examine the interruption of the intergenerational cycle of child abuse and explores the strategies that women who were abused by a parent as children used to raise their children without abuse. She documents the mothers' uses of strategies such as vowing to protect and…

  9. Midazolam / ketamine induction and isoflurane maintenance of anaesthesia in a 2-month-old, hand-raised African buffalo (Syncerus caffer : clinical communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.F. Stegmann

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The use of a midazolam / ketamine combination for induction of anaesthesia in a 2-month-old, hand-raised buffalo calf (Syncerus caffer described to allow endotracheal intubation for the maintenance of anaesthesia with isoflurane and oxygen. Intraoperative complications were hypotension and hypothermia. For postoperative analgesia meloxicam and butorphanol was administered intramuscularly.

  10. Effect of Bacillus Subtilis-based Direct-fed Microbials on Immune Status in Broiler Chickens Raised on Fresh or Used Litter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, K W; Lillehoj, H S; Jang, S I; Lee, S H; Bautista, D A; Siragusa, G R

    2013-11-01

    Type of dietary direct-fed microbials (DFMs) or poultry litter could directly influence the composition of gut microbiota. Gut microbiota plays an important role in shaping the developing immune system and maintaining the homeostasis of the mature immune system in mammal and chickens. The present study was carried out to investigate the interaction among litter, DFMs and immunity in broiler chickens exposed to a field-simulated environment. Immune status of broiler chickens was assessed by serum antibodies against Eimeria spp. and Clostridium spp. and intestinal cytokine mRNA expression. The current experimental design had a 3 ×2 factorial arrangement of treatments with three types of litter, i.e., fresh litter or used litter that was obtained from a farm with no disease outbreak (used litter) or a farm with history of a gangrenous dermatitis outbreak (GD litter), and two dietary treatments with or without DFMs. It was found that either DFM addition or type of litter significantly affected anticoccidial antibody levels of broiler chickens at d 42. In general, dietary DFMs increased the anticoccidial antibodies in the fresh-litter raised chickens, but lowered the levels in the GD-litter raised chickens. Serum antibodies against Clostridium perfringens ?-toxin were significantly (ptype of litter or DFMs. Of interest, dietary DFMs lowered interferon-?, interleukin 1beta, and CXCLi2 cytokine mRNA expression in chickens raised on fresh litter but increased them in GD-litter raised chickens. In conclusion, dietary DFMs modulate various immune parameters of broiler chickens, but the DFM-mediated effects were dependent upon the type of litter on which chickens were raised. PMID:25049746

  11. Raised marine terraces in the Northern Calabrian Arc (Southern Italy: a ~ 600 kyr-long geological record of regional uplift

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Cucci

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available The Sibari Plain in the Northeastern Calabrian Arc displays a well-developed suite of marine terraces. This paper deals with i the identification and correlation of the terraces; ii their age assignment and a tentative reconstruction of the uplift history of the area; iii the relationships between terraces and major faults in the study area and between uplift in the Plain and pattern of Quaternary uplift throughout the Calabrian Arc. Identifying wavecut platforms and inner-edge fragments over a linear extent of ~ 100 km was achieved by photo interpretation, 1:25 000 scale map analyses and field survey. Morphological evidence led to the correlation of the identified fragments into five complete strandlines (numbered #1 to #5 lowest to highest, at elevations ranging from 60 m to ~ 650 m. Analysis of two parameters of the emerged platform-cliff systems, namely the platform-cliff ratio and the dissection percentage, further testifies that the two lowest terraces are strongly correlative. A 130 kyr AAR age of in situ fossil samples of Glycymeris collected at 114 m elevation within the deposit of Terrace #2 indicates a key correlation of T#2 with MIS 5.5 (the peak of the last interglacial, 124 kyr, i.e. an uplift rate of ~ 0.98 mm/yr for this strandline. The other four terraces have been tentatively associated with MIS 5.3, 7, 9 and 15. Geological observations independent of geochronological evidence provide consistent lower age boundaries for the terraces and supply further constraints to this interpretation. Investigating the relations between setting of the terraces and location of major tectonic structures in the region is suggestive of no recent activity of two previously recognized faults, the «Sangineto Line» and the «Corigliano-Rossano Line». Instead, some limited anomalies that affect the terraces are tentatively associated with the activity of the Castrovillari Fault. Therefore, sustained uplift has been the long-term dominant process of tectonic deformation in the study area over the past 124 kyr, possibly 600 kyr. Rates and history of uplift in the Sibari Plain are largely comparable with those observed in the whole Calabrian Arc, confirming that the uplift driving mechanism is deep-seated and closely connected to the Tyrrhenian subduction as already pointed out by several authors. Despite a dearth of Holocene raised paleoshorelines, it is suggested that similarly to what was observed only few tens of kilometres north and south of the Sibari Plain, the Late Pleistocene rise is still active today and that without Holocene uplift the Plain should have been far less developed and attractive for human settlement.

  12. READY: a web-based geographical information system for enhanced flood resilience through raising awareness in citizens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albano, R.; Sole, A.; Adamowski, J.

    2015-02-01

    As evidenced by the EU Floods Directive (2007/60/EC), flood management strategies in Europe have undergone a shift in focus in recent years. The goal of flood prevention using structural measures has been replaced by an emphasis on the management of flood risks using non-structural measures. One implication of this is that it is no longer public authorities alone who take responsibility for flood management. A broader range of stakeholders, who may experience the negative effects of flooding, also take on responsibility to protect themselves. Therefore, it is vital that information concerning flood risks are conveyed to those who may be affected in order to facilitate the self-protection of citizens. Experience shows that even where efforts have been made to communicate flood risks, problems persist. There is a need for the development of new tools, which are able to rapidly disseminate flood risk information to the general public. To be useful, these tools must be able to present information relevant to the location of the user. Moreover, the content and design of the tool need to be adjusted to laypeople's needs. Dissemination and communication influences both people's access to and understanding of natural risk information. Such a tool could be a useful aid to effective management of flood risks. To address this gap, a Web-based Geographical Information System, (WebGIS), has been developed through the collaborative efforts of a group of scientists, hazard and risk analysts and managers, GIS analysts, system developers and communication designers. This tool, called "READY: Risk, Extreme Events, Adaptation, Defend Yourself", aims to enhance the general public knowledge of flood risk, making them more capable of responding appropriately during a flood event. The READY WebGIS has allowed for the visualization and easy querying of a complex hazard and risk database thanks to a high degree of interactivity and its easily readable maps. In this way, READY has enabled fast exploration of alternative flood scenarios or past calamitous events. Combined also with a system of graphic symbols designed ad hoc for communication of self-protection behaviors, it is believed READY could lead to an increase in citizen participation, informed discussion and consensus building. The platform has been developed for a site-specific application, i.e. the Basilicata Region, Italy, has been selected as pilot application area. The goal of the prototype is to raise citizen awareness of flood risks, and to build social capacity and enhanced resilience to flood events.

  13. Population genetic structure, linkage disequilibrium and effective population size of conserved and extensively raised village chicken populations of Southern Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khanyile, Khulekani S.; Dzomba, Edgar F.; Muchadeyi, Farai C.

    2015-01-01

    Extensively raised village chickens are considered a valuable source of biodiversity, with genetic variability developed over thousands of years that ought to be characterized and utilized. Surveys that can reveal a population's genetic structure and provide an insight into its demographic history will give valuable information that can be used to manage and conserve important indigenous animal genetic resources. This study reports population diversity and structure, linkage disequilibrium and effective population sizes of Southern African village chickens and conservation flocks from South Africa. DNA samples from 312 chickens from South African village and conservation flocks (n = 146), Malawi (n = 30) and Zimbabwe (n = 136) were genotyped using the Illumina iSelect chicken SNP60K BeadChip. Population genetic structure analysis distinguished the four conservation flocks from the village chicken populations. Of the four flocks, the Ovambo clustered closer to the village chickens particularly those sampled from South Africa. Clustering of the village chickens followed a geographic gradient whereby South African chickens were closer to those from Zimbabwe than to chickens from Malawi. Different conservation flocks seemed to have maintained different components of the ancestral genomes with a higher proportion of village chicken diversity found in the Ovambo population. Overall population LD averaged over chromosomes ranged from 0.03 ± 0.07 to 0.58 ± 0.41 and averaged 0.15 ± 0.16. Higher LD, ranging from 0.29 to 0.36, was observed between SNP markers that were less than 10 kb apart in the conservation flocks. LD in the conservation flocks steadily decreased to 0.15 (PK) and 0.24 (VD) at SNP marker interval of 500 kb. Genomewide LD decay in the village chickens from Malawi, Zimbabwe and South Africa followed a similar trend as the conservation flocks although the mean LD values for the investigated SNP intervals were lower. The results suggest low effective population sizes particularly in the conservation flocks. The utility and limitations of the iselect chicken SNP60K in village chicken populations is discussed. PMID:25691890

  14. READY: a web-based geographical information system for enhanced flood resilience through raising awareness in citizens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Albano

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available As evidenced by the EU Floods Directive (2007/60/EC, flood management strategies in Europe have undergone a shift in focus in recent years. The goal of flood prevention using structural measures has been replaced by an emphasis on the management of flood risks using non-structural measures. One implication of this is that it is no longer public authorities alone who take responsibility for flood management. A broader range of stakeholders, who may experience the negative effects of flooding, also take on responsibility to protect themselves. Therefore, it is vital that information concerning flood risks are conveyed to those who may be affected in order to facilitate the self-protection of citizens. Experience shows that even where efforts have been made to communicate flood risks, problems persist. There is a need for the development of new tools, which are able to rapidly disseminate flood risk information to the general public. To be useful, these tools must be able to present information relevant to the location of the user. Moreover, the content and design of the tool need to be adjusted to laypeople's needs. Dissemination and communication influences both people's access to and understanding of natural risk information. Such a tool could be a useful aid to effective management of flood risks. To address this gap, a Web-based Geographical Information System, (WebGIS, has been developed through the collaborative efforts of a group of scientists, hazard and risk analysts and managers, GIS analysts, system developers and communication designers. This tool, called "READY: Risk, Extreme Events, Adaptation, Defend Yourself", aims to enhance the general public knowledge of flood risk, making them more capable of responding appropriately during a flood event. The READY WebGIS has allowed for the visualization and easy querying of a complex hazard and risk database thanks to a high degree of interactivity and its easily readable maps. In this way, READY has enabled fast exploration of alternative flood scenarios or past calamitous events. Combined also with a system of graphic symbols designed ad hoc for communication of self-protection behaviors, it is believed READY could lead to an increase in citizen participation, informed discussion and consensus building. The platform has been developed for a site-specific application, i.e. the Basilicata Region, Italy, has been selected as pilot application area. The goal of the prototype is to raise citizen awareness of flood risks, and to build social capacity and enhanced resilience to flood events.

  15. A longitudinal study on growth and growth variables in dogs of four large breeds raised in domestic environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trangerud, C; Grøndalen, J; Indrebø, A; Tverdal, A; Ropstad, E; Moe, L

    2007-01-01

    The main objective of this study was to describe the growth patterns of 4 large dog breeds [Newfoundland (NF), Labrador retriever (LR), Leonberger (LEO), and Irish wolfhound (IW)] raised in domestic environments and concomitant changes in 2 growth-related clinical variables: total serum alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and the circumference of the distal radius and ulna (CDRU). The second objective was to investigate whether these measurements were affected by a range of independent variables like age, sex, litter number, and birth weight. Seven hundred dogs were included in the study, and BW data, separated by breed and sex, were fitted to the Gompertz function. Birth weight, adjusted for litter number, differed significantly between sexes for 3 breeds (LEO, P = 0.004; NF, P = 0.02; LR, P = 0.009) and approached significance for IW (P = 0.07). Estimated mean BW increased rapidly during the first 100 d after birth in all 4 breeds, then plateaued, with maturity being reached between 351 (female LR) and 413 d (male NF). Estimated mature BW ranged from 30.8 kg for the female LR up to 65.7 kg for the male IW. Weight gain, as expressed by the derivative of the Gompertz function, reached its peak in the smallest breed (LR) at the youngest age, 89 d for the females and 95 d for males. Log-transformed BW was significantly related to age, breed, and sex, and the age x sex and age x breed interactions. Within breeds, age, birth weight, and litter number had a significant effect on log-transformed BW. The estimated average CDRU increased from 90 d of age toward a peak at 180 d. Thereafter, CDRU declined and stabilized at about 1 yr of age. The estimated total ALP concentrations decreased from 90 to 360 d of age, after which they stabilized, at mean concentrations varying among breeds from 98 to 131 IU/L. Maximum least squares mean total ALP concentrations were found at 3 mo of age in all breeds, with the greatest least squares mean concentration in the IW breed (713 IU/L). In a mixed model analysis of the complete data set, total ALP was affected (P < 0.001) by age, breed, and the interaction of age x breed. This study described the main factors influencing growth and provided reference data for other studies, including those related to nutrition and disorders of growth. PMID:17179542

  16. Clinical significance of sialic acid in acute rheumatic fever with and without carditis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maher H. Gomaa

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: In Egypt, acute rheumatic fever (ARF is the most common cause of acquired heart disease. ARF is a clinical syndrome without a specific diagnostic test or single pathognomonic feature, so the aim of this study is to investigate the utility of using serum total sialic acid (TSA in differentiation between children suffering from ARF with and without carditis. Methods: In the present study, 62 children were divided into three groups: first group, 16 healthy children; second group, 20 patients suffering from chronic rheumatic heart disease (RHD; and third group, 26 patients suffering from ARF, subdivided into three subgroups as (A 10 patients suffering from arthritis without carditis, (B 10 patients with carditis but without congestive heart failure (CHF, and (C 6 patients with carditis and CHF. Antistreptolysin O titre (ASOT by latex agglutination test, erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR by Westergren method, C-reactive protein (CRP by turbidimetric immunoassay method, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH activity by kinetic method, immunoglobulin levels by radial immunodifussion assay (RID, cardiac troponin I (cTnI by ELISA test kit and TSA by diphenylamine (DPA method were performed. Results: Significant elevated values of ESR, CRP, LDH, IgG and IgA were obtained in ARF as compared to both control and RHD groups; significant values of IgM were found between B and C as compared to control and RHD groups; cTnI showed insignificant difference between all groups; values of TSA showed highly significant difference between ARF as compared to both control and RHD groups as well as between RHD and control groups; significant difference was found between B and C groups as compared to group A. Conclusion: The results of the present study point out the possibility that the levels of TSA could be of help in differentiation between ARF patients with and without carditis. [J Exp Integr Med 2012; 2(4: 305-311

  17. Dealing with raised seismic loads in WWER: Mathematical analysis and optimisation of pointwise damping in substructures and piping systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the present time, nuclear power utilities are often confronted with the demand to increase the safety level of a nuclear power plant against the seismic event. In many cases the level of the earthquake excitation is redefined - mostly raised to a higher value. This may lead to expensive plant reconstruction. However, in many practical cases it is possible to use reserves in substructures and piping systems coming from the fact, that the earthquake analyses made in the past were generally rather conservative. Performing a more precise analysis using modem software on high performance hardware available today, the amount of effort for reconstruction of the plant and its components can significantly be reduced. A relative inexpensive way to reduce the structural response due to the earthquake excitation is given by using viscous dampers, e.g. WWER plant Bohunice. Because viscous dampers do not constrain the structure (e.g. thermal stresses are not increased), their installing into the structural system will not negatively influence the original design. For example, there is no need for new static or fatigue analysis. By their mechanical nature, dampers affect the structure pointwise. Such pointwise damping is, in general, not of the usual Rayleigh type (i.e. proportional damping), and is therefore called non-proportional. Its most significant feature is a dissipation of the mechanical energy of the structural system. The mathematical counterpart of this physical fact is described by the loss of positive-definiteness and symmetry of the structural matrices in the state space. This leads to the complex-valued eigenvalues and modal shapes, causing specific algorithmic problems and significant increase of the calculation effort. Another problem is given by the fact, that there is a shift of natural frequencies and a change of the corresponding free vibration modes due to damping. Therefore, relating of damped to undamped free-vibration modes of a structure is a difficult problem, which complicates the physical interpretation of the complex-valued free-vibration modes and, of course, makes the optimisation of the structure with respect to damping more difficult. In the present paper, the method for analysis of damped eigenvalue problem is presented solving the above difficulties. It is based on Jacobi method for J-symmetric matrices. For each specific value and position of pointwise damping in the structure, it calculates the damped natural frequencies and modal damping as well as the corresponding free-vibration modal shapes on mathematically exact way. Moreover, it enables the optimisation of the pointwise damping in the structure using the modal flow analysis. The method starts with the undamped free-vibration behaviour, which can either be calculated or measured in the existing structure. For each damping in the range of interest, the damped free-vibration parameters are calculated and drawn in the modal flow diagram. The constructing engineer can design the dampers in the structure in such a way that the natural frequencies, in the range of which the vibration amplification is expected (calculated or observed by tests), are neutralised by overdamping of the corresponding free-vibration modes

  18. Efecto de la arborización en la crianza de los búfalos de río / Arborisation effect on the raising of river buffaloes

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Leonel, Simón; Maykel, Galloso.

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Venezuela | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish La crianza de los búfalos ha tenido un desarrollo satisfactorio a partir de su introducción en el país, desde hace relativamente poco tiempo, de ahí la necesidad de mejorar sus condiciones de manejo y explotación. Por este motivo se investigó el efecto de la arborización en la crianza de los búfalos [...] de río, para lo cual se seleccionaron dos unidades con 30 búfalas lecheras cada una y sus crías para comparar el efecto de la arborización utilizando la tecnología de silvopastoreo racional con Leucaena leucocephala comparado con un monocultivo de gramíneas sin arborización. Para la comparación se realizó un diagnostico inicial para conocer las características propias de cada unidad, determinándose la composición química de los suelos y florística de las áreas y mensualmente se determinó la disponibilidad de materia seca de los pastos para regular la carga animal en el pastizal. Se procedió de esta manera durante 4 años en la determinación de los indicadores productivos de leche por búfala, lactancia y área, el comportamiento reproductivo y los ingresos económicos. Los resultados obtenidos en el sistema arborizado fueron superiores en 0,72 kg leche/anim/d 279,8 kg/lactancia 1,49 kg/ha/d y 42 días más de lactancia, reflejándose positivamente en los ingresos por la venta de la leche por búfala, hectárea y lactancia en moneda nacional y peso cubano convertible. Todos los indicadores analizados favorecieron al sistema de producción arborizado con leucaena con la tecnología de silvopastoreo racional. Abstract in english The raising of buffaloes has been having a satisfactory development from its introduction in the country, since a relatively a short period of time, and there is the need to improve the conditions of handling and operation. For this reason, it was investigated the effect of the arborisation in the r [...] aising of river buffaloes, for which in two units were selected with 30 milk buffaloes each one and their young to compare the effect of the arborization using the technology of rational tree grazing with Leucaena leucocephala compared to a monoculture of grasses without arborization. To compare, an initial diagnostic was done to know the characteristics of each unit and determining both the soil chemical and floristic composition of the areas and monthly determined the availability of dry matter of the grass to regulate the animal rate in the pasture. We proceed this way for the next 4 years in the determination of the productive milk indicators by buffalo, lactancy and area, the reproductive behaviour, and the economic income. The results obtained in the arborizated system were superior in 0.72 kg milk/anim/d, 279.8 kg/ lactancy, 1.49 kg/ha/d and 42 days of lactancy, being reflected more positively in the income by the milk sale by buffalo, hectare, and lactancy in the national currency and convertible Cuban money. All the analyzed indicators favoured the tree production system with Leucaena, with the technology of rational tree grazing.

  19. Post-release ranging behaviour of hand-raised black rhinoceros, Diceros bicornis, L. in Matusadona National Park, Zimbabwe with recommendations for management of introduction to the wild

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Matipano

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Hand-raised rhinos would preferentially settle at sites close to areas where human activity was significant. Hand-raised rhinos that attached themselves to sites of human activity tended to move less widely and to have smaller seasonal ranges than those that moved away from human settlements. These rhinos had no fear of humans and some animals would move along established roads into hostile areas outside the park. These factors made hand-raised rhinos more vulnerable to poaching than their wild counterparts. Management of hand-raised rhinos with regards to ranging behaviour is discussed in the text.

  20. In-vitro Immune Response of FMD Virus Serotype Asia1 Vaccine Strain (IND 491/97 to the Antibodies Raised in Bovine and Guineapigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Hemadri

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the response of Foot-and-Mouth Disease serotype Asia1 vaccine strain IND 491/97 to the immune pressure [antibodies raised in Bovine against IND 63/72 and in Guineapigs against IND 63/72 and IND 491/97] exerted in-vitro in BHK-21 cell culture system was analyzed in terms of genetic alterations at the nucleotide level. The Nr (neutralization resistant viruses which were selected by growing in the presence of antibodies (Bovine Vaccinate Serum, BVS and Guineapig Serum, GPS showed certain individual and also common changes in the structural protein coding P1 region. This shows that the virus responds to the antibodies raised in both bovine (natural host and guineapig (experimental host. The result herein further extends the role of the host antibody in the rapid evolution of FMD Virus.

  1. Using theory to identify beliefs associated with support for policies to raise the price of high-fat and high-sugar foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niederdeppe, Jeff; Porticella, Norman; Shapiro, Michael A

    2012-01-01

    Public policies designed to dramatically raise the price of high-fat and high-sugar foods have received substantial attention from researchers and the media. Although econometric studies suggest that these policies could reduce obesity rates, they are likely to face substantial public opposition. This study used the theory of perceived responsibility and social motivation as a framework to analyze data from a politically diverse convenience sample of 500 adults in upstate New York. The authors examined associations between attribution beliefs and policy support to identify what types of scientific evidence and accompanying messages appear most likely to generate public support for price-raising policies. Results suggest that public health advocates and health communicators could benefit from an increased emphasis on advertising for unhealthy foods as a cause of obesity and the food industry's (manufacturers, advertisers, markets, and restaurants) responsibility for addressing the problem. PMID:22059780

  2. Caracterização da curva de crescimento de fêmeas Crioulas Lageanas criadas em condições naturais / Growth curve characterization of Crioula Lagena cows raised under natural conditions

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    E.A., Barbosa; A.A., Egito; V.M.V., Martins; E., Martins; J.P., Silva; A.F., Ramos.

    1281-12-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese [...] Abstract in english Morphometry and ultrasound of carcasses were used to estimate the growth curve of Criola Lageana cows, raised under natural conditions. A total of 111 cows, raised under extensively production system in Central Plateau of Santa Catarina, were evaluated. Morphometrics and ultrasound measurements were [...] related with the age of the animals using the targeted univariate regression model, assigning the variable response to gamma distribution. The inflection points of the growth curve were 24 and 25 months for withers height and hip height, between 27 and 29 for weight, body length, rump length, thorax perimeter, depth and distance between ilea. For ribeye area (REA), inflection point was 18 months. The Crioula Lageana cows presented greater growth velocity around 27 months, showing good productive performance under the natural conditions of the Central Plateau of Santa Catarina.

  3. The DA6-147 monoclonal antibody raised against the HLA-DR alpha chain identifies a cryptic epitope on the BoLA-DR alpha chain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ababou, A; Davis, W C; Levy, D

    1993-01-01

    By combining immunoprecipitation of BoLA molecules with monoclonal antibodies raised against 2 different major histocompatibility class II antigens, TH14B and TH81A, and western blotting using the anti-HLA DR alpha monoclonal antibody DA6-147, we characterized an epitope conserved on BoLA- and HLA-DR alpha chains. This epitope, not accessible on intact cells, was revealed after cell lysis. In addition, these results allowed us to define TH14B as an anti-BoLA-DR monoclonal antibody whereas TH81A, raised against the products of a second MHC locus, is probably an anti-BoLA-DQ monoclonal antibody. PMID:7505154

  4. Fungos aeróbios no intestino grosso de borregos e de ovelhas criados em pastagens tropicais Aerobic fungi in the large intestine of lambs and ewes raised on tropical pastures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.E.S. Freitas

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Fungi populations were evaluated in large intestine from sheep raised in the North of Minas Gerais, Brazil. The samples were from 39 Santa Inês crossbred ewes and 30 lambs raised on Tanzania grass (Panicum maximum cv. Tanzania, both supplemented with mineral mixtures. The clinical specimens were directly collected from rectal ampoule with sterile swabs. The development of fungal mycelium was observed in all lamb samples and positive cultures were observed in 34 ewe specimens (87.2%. After microculture of 40 colonies from lambs, 34 isolates of the genus Aspergillus, three of Paecilomyces spp., one Acremonium sp., and one Trichoderma sp. were identified. Out of the 39 isolates from ewes, 15 Paecilomyces spp., 11 Aspergillus spp., 11 Malbranchea spp., and one Onychocola sp. were identified. The results showed the predominance of the genus Aspergillus in the lambs, while the genus Paecilomyces, Malbranchea, and Aspergillus were predominant, in ewes.

  5. Relative economic benefits of tactical anthelmintic treatment and urea-molasses block supplementation of Boer goats raised under extensive grazing conditions at Onderstepoort, Pretoria, South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Harrison, L. J. S.; Wijk, E. F.; Stenson, M. O.; Smith, M. F.; Pearson, R. A.; Krecek, R. C.; Vatta, A. F.

    2010-01-01

    The potential economic benefits of combining tactical anthelmintic treatment for gastrointestinal nematodes and nutritional supplementation with urea-molasses blocks were examined in Boer goats raised under extensive grazing conditions in the summer rainfall area of South Africa. Eight groups of nine goats were monitored over a 12-month period from 1 October 2002 to 9 October 2003. Ad libitum nutritional supplementation wi...

  6. Muscle Characteristics, Meat Tenderness and Nutritional Qualities Traits of Borgou, Lagunaire and Zebu Fulani Bulls Raised on Natural Pasture in Benin

    OpenAIRE

    Salifou, C. F. A.; Dahouda, M.; Houaga, I.; Picard, B.; Hornick, J. L.; Micol, D.; Kassa, S. K.; Farougou, S.; Mensah, G. A.; Clinquart, A.; Youssao, A. K. I.

    2013-01-01

    This study was carried out to evaluate muscle characteristics, meat ten derness and nutritional qualities of Benin indigenous cattle raised on natural pasture. Thus, 10 Zebu Fulani, 10 Borgou and 5 Lagunaire were slaughtered at 5 years old and their Longissimus thoracis muscle samples were collected for analyses. Lactate dehydrogenase activity of Zebu Fulani was higher (p0.05). As for isocitrate dehydrogenase, citrate synthase, cytochrome oxidase and phosphofructokinase, no significant differ...

  7. Effect of culture season and stocking density on the growth and production of giant freshwater prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii de Ma) raised in northern Thailand

    OpenAIRE

    Baysa, Rodrigo P.

    2007-01-01

    This study evaluated the effects of culture season and different stocking density on productivity of freshwater prawn that was raised in northern Thailand. The experiment was conducted at the Faculty of Fisheries Technology and Aquatic Resources, Maejo University, Chiang Mai, Thailand. This study was divided into two experiments; each treatment was replicated three times. The first experiment investigated the effect of climatic condition on the culture and production of freshwater prawn post ...

  8. Testing hypotheses of the Last Glacial Maximum ice cap over South Georgia using glacio-isostatic adjustment modelling of raised marine features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bentley, Mike; Evans, David; Barlow, Natasha; Brader, Martin

    2014-05-01

    There are at least two alternate hypotheses as to the size of the ice cap over South Georgia during the Last Glacial Maximum. The first of these suggests that the ice cap was extensive, with ice grounded well out on the continental shelf around South Georgia including in various cross-shelf troughs. This view of ice cap extent has been developed largely from marine geological and geophysical data. A second, contrasting hypothesis, is that the ice cap was much more restricted and that the ice margin remained in the inner fjords along the north coast of the island. The restricted hypothesis is based largely on terrestrial evidence of geomorphology supported by cosmogenic surface exposure dating and radiocarbon dating of lake sediments. Here we use glacio-isostatic adjustment (GIA) modelling constrained by raised marine features (beaches, rock platforms etc) to test between these two widely contrasting hypotheses. Because raised marine features record the GIA following deglaciation they can be sensitive to former ice sheet extent and thickness, and thus have the potential to distinguish between the extensive and restricted ice cap hypotheses. We report new data on raised marine features from a range of sites along the north coast of South Georgia, and integrate these with previously published reports of raised marine features to develop a relative sea-level database. We have used a GIA model to explore several ice cap extent scenarios where each scenario provides predicted relative sea level histories that can be tested against the database. We discuss the utility of such modelling for distinguishing between the two ice cap hypotheses.

  9. “Norm-Oriented Interpretation Learning” and Resource Use: The Concept of “Open-Didactic Exploration” as a Contribution to Raising Awareness of a Responsible Resource Use

    OpenAIRE

    Anna Bliesner; Christa Liedtke; Maria Jolanta Welfens; Carolin Baedeker; Marco Hasselkuß; Holger Rohn

    2014-01-01

    It is widely accepted that environmental awareness is essential, yet does not inevitably lead to responsible use of resources. Additional factors on the individual level include the meaning constructed by the term “resources” and the individual and social norms that influence the relevant behavior. Current didactic concepts do not take into account such aspects. Therefore, this article uses a didactic-psychological approach for designing an educational concept for raising awareness for a ...

  10. The Swedish parental benefit and its effects on childbearing : - An empirical study of whether raised compensation levels within the parental benefit cause increased probabilities of having children

    OpenAIRE

    Viklund, Ida

    2010-01-01

    In this study I analyze the Swedish parental benefit system focusing on a certain component, the basic level, and its effects on childbearing. The basic level consists of a fixed monetary amount given to parents. The compensation level was raised three times between 2002 and 2004, which would, according to economic theories, imply increased incentives for having children. I use longitudinal data of women in fertile age between 1993 and 2005. Applying a difference-in-differences model on compa...

  11. Genetic characterization of a betanodavirus isolated from a clinical disease outbreak in farm-raised tilapia Oreochromis niloticus (L.) in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keawcharoen, J; Techangamsuwan, S; Ponpornpisit, A; Lombardini, E D; Patchimasiri, T; Pirarat, N

    2015-01-01

    Betanodavirus infection was diagnosed in larvae of farm-raised tilapia Oreochromis niloticus (L.), in central Thailand. Extensive vacuolar degeneration and neuronal necrosis were observed in histological sections with positive immunohistochemical staining for betanodavirus. Molecular phylogenetic analysis was performed based on the nucleotide sequences (1333 bases) of the capsid protein gene. The virus strain was highly homologous (93.07-93.88%) and closely related to red-spotted grouper nervous necrosis virus (RGNNV). PMID:24164433

  12. Chemistry of fracture-filling raised ridges in Yellowknife Bay, Gale Crater: Window into past aqueous activity and habitability on Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Léveillé, Richard J.; Bridges, John; Wiens, Roger C.; Mangold, Nicolas; Cousin, Agnes; Lanza, Nina; Forni, Olivier; Ollila, Ann; Grotzinger, John; Clegg, Samuel; Siebach, Kirsten; Berger, Gilles; Clark, Ben; Fabre, Cécile; Anderson, Ryan; Gasnault, Olivier; Blaney, Diana; Deflores, Lauren; Leshin, Laurie; Maurice, Sylvestre; Newsom, Horton

    2014-11-01

    The ChemCam instrument package on the Curiosity rover was used to characterize distinctive raised ridges in the Sheepbed mudstone, Yellowknife Bay formation, Gale Crater. The multilayered, fracture-filling ridges are more resistant to erosion than the Sheepbed mudstone rock in which they occur. The bulk average composition of the raised ridges is enriched in MgO by 1.2-1.7 times (average of 8.3-11.4 wt %; single-shot maximum of 17.0 wt %) over that of the mudstone. Al2O3 is anticorrelated with MgO, while Li is somewhat enriched where MgO is highest. Some ridges show a variation in composition with different layers on a submillimeter scale. In particular, the McGrath target shows similar high-MgO resistant outer layers and a low-MgO, less resistant inner layer. This is consistent with the interpretation that the raised ridges are isopachous fracture-filling cements with a stratigraphy that likely reveals changes in fluid composition or depositional conditions over time. Overall, the average composition of the raised ridges is close to that of a Mg- and Fe-rich smectite, or saponite, which may also be the main clay mineral constituent of the host mudstone. These analyses provide evidence of diagenesis and aqueous activity in the early postdepositional history of the Yellowknife Bay formation, consistent with a low salinity to brackish fluid at near-neutral or slightly alkaline pH. The fluids that circulated through the fractures likely interacted with the Sheepbed mudstone and (or) other stratigraphically adjacent rock units of basaltic composition and leached Mg from them preferentially.

  13. The expanding role of lipoprotein apheresis in the treatment of raised lipoprotein(a) in ischaemic heart disease and refractory angina

    OpenAIRE

    Khan, Tina Z.; Pottle, Alison; Pennell, Dudley J.; Barbir, Mahmoud S.

    2014-01-01

    It is increasingly recognised that lipoprotein(a) [Lp(a)], an inherited, genetically-determined form of LDL-cholesterol, is an independent cardiovascular risk factor and predictor of adverse cardiovascular outcomes. Lp(a) is felt to increase cardiovascular risk via its pro-thrombotic effect and by enhancing intimal lipoprotein deposition. Lipoprotein apheresis is currently the most effective treatment for raised Lp(a). There is a growing body of evidence suggesting that aggressively lowering ...

  14. Nrf2, a master regulator of detoxification and also antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and other cytoprotective mechanisms, is raised by health promoting factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pall, Martin L; Levine, Stephen

    2015-02-25

    The transcription factor Nrf2, nuclear factor erythroid-2-related factor 2, activates the transcription of over 500 genes in the human genome, most of which have cytoprotective functions. Nrf2 produces cytoprotection by detoxification mechanisms leading to increased detoxification and excretion of both organic xenobiotics and toxic metals; its action via over two dozen genes increases highly coordinated antioxidant activities; it produces major anti-inflammatory changes; it stimulates mitochondrial biogenesis and otherwise improves mitochondrial function; and it stimulates autophagy, removing toxic protein aggregates and dysfunctional organelles. Health-promoting nutrients and other factors act, at least in part by raising Nrf2 including: many phenolic antioxidants; gamma- and delta-tocopherols and tocotrienols; long chain omega-3 fatty acids DHA and EPA; many carotenoids of which lycopene may be the most active; isothiocyanates from cruciferous vegetables; sulfur compounds from allium vegetables; terpenoids. Other health promoting, Nrf2 raising factors include low level oxidative stress (hormesis), exercise and caloric restriction. Raising Nrf2 has been found to prevent and/or treat a large number of chronic inflammatory diseases in animal models and/or humans including various cardiovascular diseases, kidney diseases, lung diseases, diseases of toxic liver damage, cancer (prevention), diabetes/metabolic syndrome/obesity, sepsis, autoimmune diseases, inflammatory bowel disease, HIV/AIDS and epilepsy. Lesser evidence suggests that raising Nrf2 may lower 16 other diseases. Many of these diseases are probable NO/ONOO(-) cycle diseases and Nrf2 lowers effects of NO/ONOO(-) cycle elements. The most healthful diets known, traditional Mediterranean and Okinawan, are rich in Nrf2 raising nutrients as apparently was the Paleolithic diet that our ancestors ate. Modern diets are deficient in such nutrients. Nrf2 is argued to be both lifespan and healthspan extending. Possible downsides to too much Nrf2 are also discussed. Nrf2 is not a magic bullet but is likely to be of great importance in health promotion, particularly in those regularly exposed to toxic chemicals. PMID:25672622

  15. Potential limitations for potato yields in raised soil field systems near Lake Titicaca / Limitações potenciais para produtividade da batata em solos de campos elevados no Lago Titicaca

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Diego Sánchez de, Lozada; Philippe, Baveye; Robert F., Lucey; Ricardo, Mamani; Walter, Fernandez.

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Nas últimas duas décadas várias organizações não governamentais entusiasmaram lavradores bolivianos da região do Altiplano, próximo ao Lago Titicaca, a reassumir a prática ancestral de construir campos elevados. Além de sua drenagem melhorada e das possibilidades de implementar a sub-irrigação, as v [...] antagens desse sistema tradicional incluem a mitigação da geada e altas produtividades. Até recentemente não havia dados para avaliar estes benefícios. Neste contexto, experimentos realizados em campos elevados foram planejados e executados em dois locais dentro do Altiplano boliviano, para obter dados confiáveis em relação à produtividade da batata e das temperaturas reinantes. As produtividades observadas variaram de 2,73 a 10,80 t ha-1 no primeiro local, no qual a salinidade provocou uma variabilidade significante na produtividade (R² = 0,79). No segundo local, as produtividades nas plataformas elevadas variaram de 8,25 a 33,45 t ha-1. Entretanto, produtividades comparáveis foram obtidas nas áreas controle, mesmo na presença de uma geada no meio da estação e de uma diferença de apenas 1ºC entre as parcelas convencionais e as elevadas. Estes resultados sugerem que nas condições dos experimentos, os benefícios dos cultivos elevados, em termos de mitigação de geada ou produtividade aumentada, poderão apenas ser observados em anos excepcionalmente ruins, quando geadas fortes extirpam a totalidade da plantas dos cultivos convencionais. Entretanto, pode-se argumentar que mesmo com estas observações marginais de apoio, a agricultura em campos elevados poderia ser uma opção viável para agricultores se nos canais repletos de água entre os campos elevados fosse adotada a piscicultura e produção de fertilizantes. Abstract in english During the last two decades, various non-governmental organizations have strongly encouraged Bolivian farmers in the Altiplano region near Lake Titicaca to resume the ancestral agricultural practice of constructing raised fields. In addition to improved drainage and possibilities this practice affor [...] ds for sub-irrigation, advocated benefits of this system traditionally include frost mitigation and high crop yields. Until recently, reliable data to assess the extent of these benefits were unfortunately lacking. In this context, field experiments on raised fields were designed and carried out at two locations in the Bolivian Altiplano to obtain reliable potato yield and temperature data. Observed yields ranged from 2.73 to 10.80 t ha-1 at the first site, where salinity caused significant yield variability (R² = 0.79). At the second site, yields per raised platform varied between 8.25 and 33.45 t ha-1. However, comparable yields were obtained in flat control plots in spite of a mid-season frost, and the minimum temperatures differed only by 1ºC in the conventional plots relative to the raised fields. These results suggest that, under the experimental conditions, the potential benefits of raised fields in terms of frost mitigation or increased yields might only be observable in exceptionally bad years, when extreme frosts wipe out entire potato crops on conventional fields. Nevertheless, it is argued that in spite of these marginally supportive observations, raised-field agriculture may still be a viable option for farmers to consider if the water-filled channels between the raised fields are managed for fish and fertilizer production.

  16. ATLANTIC-DIP: raised maternal body mass index (BMI) adversely affects maternal and foetal outcomes in glucose tolerant women classified using International Association of Diabetes and Pregnancy Study Groups (IADPSG) criteria

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Dennedy, MC

    2011-09-15

    Background and aims: Raised maternal body mass index (BMI), in association with hyperglycaemia is associated with adverse pregnancy outcome. Whether BMI has an independent effect on adverse pregnancy outcome is not clear. We aimed to investigate the effects of raised maternal BMI on pregnancy outcome in glucose tolerant women, classified using the IADPSG criteria.\\r\

  17. An in vivo comparison of the efficacy of CSL box jellyfish antivenom with antibodies raised against nematocyst-derived Chironex fleckeri venom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winter, Kelly L; Isbister, Geoffrey K; Jacoby, Tamara; Seymour, Jamie E; Hodgson, Wayne C

    2009-06-01

    Although CSL box jellyfish antivenom (AV) remains the primary treatment for Chironex fleckeri envenoming, there has been considerable debate regarding its clinical effectiveness. Animal studies have shown that AV is largely ineffective in preventing C. fleckeri-induced cardiovascular collapse. This study examined the effectiveness of CSL box jellyfish AV (ovine IgG), raised against 'milked' venom, and polyclonal rabbit IgG antibodies (Ab) raised against nematocyst-derived venom. A venom dose of 30microg/kg, i.v., which causes an initial presser response (34+/-5mmHg; n=7) followed by cardiovascular collapse, was used in all experiments. A bolus dose of AV (3000U/kg, i.v.) or Ab (12mg; i.e. an equivalent protein 'load' to 3000U/kg AV), administered 15min prior to a bolus dose of venom, did not significantly attenuate the effects of venom. The venom response was also not significantly attenuated when AV (3000U/kg) was given as a bolus dose 10-60min prior to venom infusion. However, when the venom was incubated with either AV (3000U/kg) or Ab (12mg) for 3h prior to infusion, the effect of the venom was almost abolished. The results of this study demonstrate that antibodies raised against both 'milked' and nematocyst-derived venom are able to neutralise the cardiovascular collapse produced by the venom. However, large amounts of AV are required and must be preincubated with the venom to be protective. This indicates a very rapid action of the toxin(s) and that AV is unlikely to be clinically effective because it cannot be administered early enough. PMID:19429250

  18. Economic feasibility study to Raise the operational capacity of the Electron Beam Accelerator at the National Centre for Radiation Research and Technology, atomic Energy Authority, Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The study aims to investigate the economic feasibility to raise the operational capacity of the accelerator at the National Center for Radiation Research and Technology, Atomic Energy Authority, Egypt, through proposal of additional processing of power cables as it have 4 thousand operating hours per year of total 6 thousand hours per year. The study involved three sections; the first section included the technical aspects and marketing, the second section was concerned with financial analysis, and the third section included the national return of the project. In the first part, the electronic and technical requirements of the accelerator were studied to raise the capacity of the accelerator and to identify the time trend of demand for services in marketing. The second section included the financial feasibility of the project which was carried out through two parts; the first part deal with the analysis of costs of the project including identifying of investment, spending, labor costs, operating expenses, the annual installment of the annual depreciation expense with the total annual costs and operating costs per hour and ton. The second part was carried out to evaluated business profitability of the project, preparation of the annual cash flow, calculation of the internal rate of return, payback period of capital, and the analysis of sensitivity of the project in terms of its ability to achieve profitable business in the event of increasing costs and decreasing revent of increasing costs and decreasing revenue. The third section was carried out to raise the operational capacity of the accelerator at the Egyptian Atomic Energy Authority to generate added value for national income, and to study the social rate of return for the project and examine the project's ability to provide new employment opportunities. The study showed the possibility and the importance of the project implemented at the level of private investment and national security.

  19. Can radiographers be trained to deliver an intervention to raise breast cancer awareness, and thereby promote early presentation of breast cancer, in older women?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aims: To assess the feasibility of training radiographers to deliver a one-to-one intervention to raise breast cancer awareness among older women. The ultimate aim is to increase the likelihood of early presentation of breast cancer by older women and improve survival from the disease. Method: Four radiographers were trained to deliver a 10-min scripted one-to-one intervention. Key elements of training included rehearsal of the intervention using role-play with actors and colleagues and practice interviews with women attending NHS breast screening clinics. All practice interventions were videotaped to facilitate positive, constructive feedback on performance. Competence to deliver the intervention was assessed on delivery of the key messages and the style of delivery. Radiographers' experiences of training and intervention delivery were collated from reflective diaries. Results: Three radiographers were assessed as competent after training and all four increased in confidence to deliver the intervention. Reported benefits to radiographers included increased awareness of communication skills and enhanced interaction with women attending breast screening. Radiographers reported challenges relating to mastering the prescriptive nature of the intervention and to delivering complex health messages within time constraints. Discussion: It was feasible but challenging for radiographers to be trained to deliver a one-to-one intervention designed to raise breast cancer awarenesn designed to raise breast cancer awareness and thereby to promote early presentation of breast cancer. If the intervention is found to be cost-effective it may be implemented across the NHS Breast Screening Programme with diagnostic radiographers playing a key role in promoting early presentation of breast cancer.

  20. Timing of the most recent Neoglacial advance and retreat in the South Shetland Islands, Antarctic Peninsula: insights from raised beaches and Holocene uplift rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simms, Alexander R.; Ivins, Erik R.; DeWitt, Regina; Kouremenos, Peter; Simkins, Lauren M.

    2012-07-01

    The timing of the most recent Neoglacial advance in the Antarctic Peninsula is important for establishing global climate teleconnections and providing important post-glacial rebound corrections to gravity-based satellite measurements of ice loss. However, obtaining accurate ages from terrestrial geomorphic and sedimentary indicators of the most recent Neoglacial advance in Antarctica has been hampered by the lack of historical records and the difficulty of dating materials in Antarctica. Here we use a new approach to dating flights of raised beaches in the South Shetland Islands of the northern Antarctic Peninsula to bracket the age of a Neoglacial advance that occurred between 1500 and 1700 AD, broadly synchronous with compilations for the timing of the Little Ice Age in the northern hemisphere. Our approach is based on optically stimulated luminescence of the underside of buried cobbles to obtain the age of beaches previously shown to have been deposited immediately inside and outside the moraines of the most recent Neoglacial advance. In addition, these beaches mark the timing of an apparent change in the rate of isostatic rebound thought to be in response to the same glacial advance within the South Shetland Islands. We use a Maxwell viscoelastic model of glacial-isostatic adjustment (GIA) to determine whether the rates of uplift calculated from the raised beaches are realistic given the limited constraints on the ice advance during this most recent Neoglacial advance. Our rebound model suggests that the subsequent melting of an additional 16-22% increase in the volume of ice within the South Shetland Islands would result in a subsequent uplift rate of 12.5 mm/yr that lasted until 1840 AD resulting in a cumulative uplift of 2.5 m. This uplift rate and magnitude are in close agreement with observed rates and magnitudes calculated from the raised beaches since the most recent Neoglacial advance along the South Shetland Islands and falls within the range of uplift rates from similar settings such as Alaska.