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Sample records for raised antistreptolysin-o titre

  1. Antistreptolysin O titer in health and disease: levels and significance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alyaa Amal Kotby

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Over diagnosis of acute rheumatic fever (ARF based on a raised antistreptolysin O titer (ASOT is not uncommon in endemic areas. In this study, 660 children (aged 9.2 ±1.7 years were recruited consecutively and classified as: G1 (control group, n=200 healthy children, G2 (n=20 with ARF 1st attack, G3 (n=40 with recurrent ARF, G4 (n=100 with rheumatic heart disease (RHD on long acting penicillin (LAP, G5 (n=100 with acute follicular tonsillitis, and G6 (n=200 healthy children with history of repeated follicular tonsillitis more than three times a year. Serum ASOT was measured by latex agglutination. Upper limit of normal (ULN ASOT (80th percentile was 400 IU in G1, 200 IU in G4, and 1600 IU in G6. Significantly high levels were seen in ARF 1st attack when compared to groups 1 and 5 (P<0.001 and P<0.05, respectively. ASOT was significantly high in children over ten years of age, during winter and in those with acute rheumatic carditis. ASOT showed significant direct correlation with the number of attacks of tonsillitis (P<0.05. Egyptian children have high ULN ASOT reaching 400 IU. This has to be taken into consideration when interpreting its values in suspected ARF. A rise in ASOT is less prominent in recurrent ARF compared to 1st attack, and acute and recurrent tonsillitis. Basal levels of ASOT increase with age but the pattern of increase during infection is not age dependent

  2. Antistreptolysin O Levels in Patients with Behcet’s Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Hulya Uzkeser; Saliha Karatay; Kadir Yildirim; Ali Karakuzu; Muhammed Hamidullah Uyanik

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Behcet’s disease is a multisystem inflammatory disorder, and its etiology has not been defined clearly yet. In this study, we aimed to investigate the antistreptolysin O (ASO) levels of patients with Behcet’s disease. Materials and Methods: Thirty patients with Behcet’s disease and 30 healthy controls were enrolled in this study. We measured erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), serum C-reactive protein (CRP), and ASO levels in both groups.Results: There was no statistically signif...

  3. Is raised helicobacter pylori antibody titre enough to decide retreatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background: Helicobacter pylori infection causes a rise in its antibodies which take almost a year to come to baseline following successful eradication treatment. Checking these values in between a year may give falsely high values and many patients may thus be over treated. Aims: To serially determine Helicobacter pylori antibody titres in patients after giving them triple therapy for H. pylori eradication and see how these values drop over time. Study type, Settings and duration: Longitudinal study conducted in Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Pakistan Medical Research Council, Research Centre, Jinnah Post Graduate Medical Centre, Karachi, from May 2006 to April 2010. Subjects and Methods: Over the period of four years, 186 patients who were found positive for campylobacter like organism test during endoscopy were further tested for anti H. pylori IgG titre before being treated for H. pylori. Patients were given triple therapy comprising of Omeprazole (20 mg twice daily), Amoxicillin (1 gm twice daily) and Clarythromycin (500 mg twice daily) for a week and were followed at 1, 3, 6 and 12 months to check symptomatic relief and they were tested again for H.Pylori antibody titres. Data was collected on pre-designed proforma which included patient's demography, symptoms and diagnosis. Results: Out of 186 patients who had a positive campylobacter like organism test, 173 patients consented to participate in the study. Serology for H.Pylori was positive in 119(68%) cases. A decline in mean antibody titres was observed as 11%, 21.5%, 54.7% and 59.2% at 1, 3, 6 and 12 months respectively. Conclusions: Sensitivity of serology for diagnosing H. pylori infection is good but using these as a tool for monitoring response to treatment is doubtful. A slow drop in H.pylori antibodies was seen over 12 months and therefore, physicians are cautioned not to retreat the already treated cases till about one year post treatment. Policy message: H. pylori antibodies should be checked on regular basis to diagnose new cases but it should not be used in previously treated patients to retreat. (author)

  4. PREVALENCE OF ANTI-STREPTOLYSIN O ANTIBODIES AT BANKE REGION NEPAL

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    Salman Khan

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Serum levels of anti-streptolysin O antibodies (ASO in the routine evaluation of patients with rheumatic conditions. Prevalence of elevated serum ASO titer in patients which were coming in OPD & IPD of Nepalgunj Medical College & teaching hospital with various clinical conditions.Method: This was a retrospective cross sectional study, which was performed in the centrallaboratory of Microbiology at Nepalgunj Medical College and teaching Hospital, Banke, Nepal during the period of September 2010 to April 2012. The serum samples were tested for Antistreptolysin O (ASO antibodies by latex agglutination test.Results: Total 308 patients including 40.91% male and 50.09% female were tested for ASO serum levels.140 were positive and 168 were negative .In 140positive cases 57 were male and 83 were female. In 168 negative cases 69 were male and 99 were female.Conclusion: The prevalence of Anti-streptolysin O (ASO antibody in total cases was 45.45%.In male was 45.24% and in female was 45.60%.the highest percentage was found in age group 0-21years. The presence of elevated streptococcal antibody titers in such a population, which probably reflects a high background prevalence of streptococcal infections, should be taken into consideration when evaluating the role of the group A streptococcus in non-purulent complications ofinfections.

  5. Valores referenciales de antiestreptolisina O en estudiantes de 10 a 15 años del Municipio "Francisco Linares Alcántara": Estado Aragua, Venezuela / Antistreptolysin O reference values in students of 10 to 15 years of the Municipality "Francisco Linares Alcantara": Aragua state, Venezuela

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Clara Nancy, Gutiérrez G; Nurys Alejandra, Guzmán H; Yuccely Andreína, González M; Juan, Luis-León; Luis Manuel, Pérez-Ybarra; María Zoiret, Chacón H.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available La respuesta serológica más útil para evidenciar la infección por estreptococo beta hemolítico del grupo A,es la determinación de antiestreptolisina O (ASTO). La faringitis estreptocócica es la infección más frecuentemente causada por estos microorganismos, que puede conllevar a complicaciones no su [...] purativas como la fiebre reumática aguda y la glomerulonefritis. Dichas complicaciones pueden prevenirse mediante un diagnóstico y tratamiento oportuno. Para la determinación de ASTO en Venezuela se emplean reactivos importados cuyos valores referenciales han sido establecidos en poblaciones y latitudes diferentes a la de nuestro país; por lo que el objetivo del presente estudio es determinar los valores referenciales de ASTO en 203 estudiantes de 10 a 15 años de edad inscritos en cuatro instituciones del Municipio "Francisco Linares Alcántara", estado Aragua, mediante una investigación de tipo descriptivo de corte transversal. De cada estudiante se recolectó una muestra de sangre total para la determinación de ASTO empleando pruebas de neutralización y aglutinación. Se determinó la concordancia entre los títulos positivos de ASTO por ambos métodos; se calculó la sensibilidad, especificidad y valores predictivos positivo y negativo de la prueba de aglutinación. Los resultados refieren como valor referencial para el método de neutralización hasta 250 Unidades Todd/mL y para la técnica aglutinación hasta 400 Unidades Internacionales/mL. La concordancia fue débil entre ambas pruebas y se obtuvo una sensibilidad, especificidad, valores predictivos positivo y negativo de 100%, 60%, 24,2% y 100%, respectivamente. Se sugiere la divulgación de los resultados de este estudio en los centros de salud del municipio mencionado. Abstract in english The most useful for evidence of streptococcal infection of group A beta hemolytic serological response is the determination of antistreptolysin O (ASO). Strep throat is most common infection caused by these organisms, which can lead to non-suppurative complications such as acute rheumatic fever and [...] glomerulonephritis.These complications can be prevented by proper diagnosis and treatment. For determination of ASO in Venezuela imported reagents are used whose reference values have been established in different populations and latitudes; so the aim of this study is to determine the reference values of ASO titlesin 203 students aged 10 to 15 years old enrolled in four institutions of the Municipality "Francisco Linares Alcántara", Aragua state, through an investigation of cross-sectional descriptive.Each student a sample of whole blood was collected for determination of ASO titles using neutralization tests and agglutination.The correlation between positive ASO titles were determined by both methods, the sensitivity, specificity and positive and negative predictive values of the agglutination test was calculated.The results refer to as reference value for the method of neutralization to 250 Todd Units/mL and for technical agglutination 400 International Units/mL. The concordance was weak between the two tests and obtained sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values of 100%, 60%, 24.2% and 100%, respectively. The disclosure in the health centers in the mentioned municipality of referential values of ASO found in this study is suggested.

  6. Estimating viral titres in solutions with low viral loads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brownie, C; Statt, J; Bauman, P; Buczynski, G; Skjolaas, K; Lee, D; Hotta, J; Roth, N J

    2011-07-01

    An important consideration in the manufacture of products derived from animal or human sources is the virus reduction capacity of the manufacturing process as estimated using validated bench-scale models of relevant manufacturing steps. In these studies, manufacturing process intermediates are spiked with virus and processed using the bench-scale model and the resulting viral titres of input and output samples are typically determined using cell-based infectivity assays. In these assays, the Spearman-Kärber (SK) method is commonly used to estimate titres when there is one or more positive observation (i.e., the presence of any viral cytopathic effect). The SK method is most accurate when the proportion of positive observations ranges from 0.9 across dilutions but can be biased otherwise. Maximum likelihood (ML) based on a single-hit Poisson model is an alternative widely used estimation method. We compared SK with ML and found the methods to have similar properties except for situations in which the concentration of virus is low but measurable. In this case, the SK method produces upwardly biased estimates of titres. Based on our results, we recommend the use of either ML or SK at most virus concentrations; however, at low virus concentrations ML is preferred. PMID:21783380

  7. Social interactions and antibody titres in young male chickens (Gallus domesticus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegel, H S; Latimer, J W

    1975-05-01

    The influence of social interactions on established antibody titres to a Salmonella pullorum antigen was determined in several Athens Randombred families. In two experiments, a large-bodied, aggresive family and a small-bodied, relatively non-aggressive family were placed in three social environments: (1) Four-bird control groups with no changes in membership once formed; (2) three-bird resident groups to which a new fourth bird was introduced daily; (3) the single bird that had been moved to a new group each day. The normal rate of decline in antibody titres was significantly accelerated in birds that were introduced as new members daily (group 3), but only in members of the small non-aggressive family. In a third experiment, using families relatively close in size and aggressiveness, the effects of social grouping on antibody titres were not significant. PMID:1172392

  8. O perfil da antiestreptolisina O no diagnóstico da febre reumática aguda / Antistreptolysin O titer profile in acute rheumatic fever diagnosis

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Claudia Saad Magalhães, Machado; Katya, Ortiz; Alessandra de Lourenço Budin, Martins; Roberto Salvador, Martins; Nilton Carlos, Machado.

    2001-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: estabelecer o perfil dos títulos de ASO, mediante o diagnóstico diferencial da FRA com outras afecções que também cursam com níveis elevados de ASO. MÉTODOS: foram estudados 78 casos de FRA na apresentação e seguimento, 22 de coréia isolada, 45 de infecções orofaringeanas recorrentes (IOR) [...] e 23 de artrites idiopáticas juvenis (AIJ), com início ou reativação recente. A determinação seqüencial de ASO (UI/ml) foi realizada por ensaio nefelométrico automatizado (Behring®-Germany) nos períodos de 0-7 dias, 1-2 semanas, 2-4 semanas, 1-2 meses, 2-4 meses, 4-6 meses, 6-12 meses, 1-2 anos, 2-3 anos, 3-4 anos e 4-5 anos após o diagnóstico. RESULTADOS: os títulos de ASO na fase aguda da FRA apresentaram elevação significante até o intervalo de 2- 4 meses (p 960 UI/ml. CONCLUSÃO: esta reavaliação do perfil da ASO indicou uma resposta exuberante na fase aguda da febre reumática indicou ainda que os seus níveis séricos podem diferenciá-la de outras afecções que também cursam com níveis elevados de ASO, como as infecções orofaringeanas recorrentes ou as artrites idiopáticas juvenis em atividade. Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: to determine ASO titer profile by establishing ARF differential diagnoses of other diseases with high levels of ASO antibodies. METHODS: we investigated 78 patients with ARF at onset and follow-up, 22 with isolated chorea at onset, 45 with recurrent oropharyngeal tonsillitis, and 23 with [...] recent flare of juvenile idiopathic arthritis. We tested ASO with automated particle-enhanced immunonephelometric assay (Behring®-Germany). The ASO (IU/ml) titers were assessed at the following time intervals: 0-7 days, 1-2 weeks, 2-4 weeks, 1-2 months, 2-4 months, 4-6 months, 6-12 months, 1-2 years, 2-3 years, 3-4 years, and 4-5 years after onset of ARF. RESULTS: ASO titers in patients diagnosed with ARF had a significant increase up to the 2-4-month time interval (P

  9. O perfil da antiestreptolisina O no diagnóstico da febre reumática aguda Antistreptolysin O titer profile in acute rheumatic fever diagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Saad Magalhães Machado

    2001-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: estabelecer o perfil dos títulos de ASO, mediante o diagnóstico diferencial da FRA com outras afecções que também cursam com níveis elevados de ASO. MÉTODOS: foram estudados 78 casos de FRA na apresentação e seguimento, 22 de coréia isolada, 45 de infecções orofaringeanas recorrentes (IOR e 23 de artrites idiopáticas juvenis (AIJ, com início ou reativação recente. A determinação seqüencial de ASO (UI/ml foi realizada por ensaio nefelométrico automatizado (Behring®-Germany nos períodos de 0-7 dias, 1-2 semanas, 2-4 semanas, 1-2 meses, 2-4 meses, 4-6 meses, 6-12 meses, 1-2 anos, 2-3 anos, 3-4 anos e 4-5 anos após o diagnóstico. RESULTADOS: os títulos de ASO na fase aguda da FRA apresentaram elevação significante até o intervalo de 2- 4 meses (p 960 UI/ml. CONCLUSÃO: esta reavaliação do perfil da ASO indicou uma resposta exuberante na fase aguda da febre reumática indicou ainda que os seus níveis séricos podem diferenciá-la de outras afecções que também cursam com níveis elevados de ASO, como as infecções orofaringeanas recorrentes ou as artrites idiopáticas juvenis em atividade.OBJECTIVE: to determine ASO titer profile by establishing ARF differential diagnoses of other diseases with high levels of ASO antibodies. METHODS: we investigated 78 patients with ARF at onset and follow-up, 22 with isolated chorea at onset, 45 with recurrent oropharyngeal tonsillitis, and 23 with recent flare of juvenile idiopathic arthritis. We tested ASO with automated particle-enhanced immunonephelometric assay (Behring®-Germany. The ASO (IU/ml titers were assessed at the following time intervals: 0-7 days, 1-2 weeks, 2-4 weeks, 1-2 months, 2-4 months, 4-6 months, 6-12 months, 1-2 years, 2-3 years, 3-4 years, and 4-5 years after onset of ARF. RESULTS: ASO titers in patients diagnosed with ARF had a significant increase up to the 2-4-month time interval (P < 0.0001. Baseline levels were observed afterwards in patients under regular penicillin prophylaxis. The levels of ASO in ARF were also significantly higher than in patients with isolated chorea, recurrent oropharyngeal infections or juvenile idiopathic arthritis (P = 0.0025, when age-matched samples of these groups were compared. The test’s sensitivity was 73.3% and the specificity was 57.6%, and it was calculated taking into account the upper limit of normality at 320 IU/ml, as well as the established diagnosis of ARF. The test’s specificity and positive predictive value increased with rising or higher titers, being higher with titers above 960 UI/ml. CONCLUSION: this reappraisal of ASO profile in ARF patients indicates a remarkable response during the acute phase, and that points to the extent to which ASO levels may differentiate ARF from other diseases with high levels of ASO antibodies, as coincidental but unrelated streptococcal infection or chronic arthritis flareup.

  10. A solid-phase radioimmunoassay for measurement of circulating antibody titres to wheat gliadin and its subfractions in patients with adult coeliac disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A solid-phase radioimmunoassay for the measurement of circulating antibody titres to wheat gliadin is described. Using this assay, the authors have measured antibody titres to unfractionated gliadin in normal healthy controls, in coeliac patients on a gluten-free or a normal diet, and in patients with ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease. High titres of antibodies to unfractionated gliadin were observed only in the patients with untreated coeliac disease. Antibody titres to ?, #betta#, #betta# and #betta# gliadin subfractions were measured in patients with untreated coeliac disease and compared with titres in normal controls. Patients with untreated coeliac disease had higher antibody titres to the gliadin subfractions. No specific pattern of circulating antibody titres to gliadin subfractions was observed in the untreated coeliac patients which would provide a diagnostic profile. These results suggest shared antigenicity between the gliadin subfractions. (Auth.)

  11. Solid-phase radioimmunoassay for measurement of circulating antibody titres to wheat gliadin and its subfractions in patients with adult coeliac disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ciclitira, P.J.; Ellis, H.J. (Guy' s Hospital, London (UK)); Evans, D.J. (Hammersmith Hospital, London (UK))

    1983-08-26

    A solid-phase radioimmunoassay for the measurement of circulating antibody titres to wheat gliadin is described. Using this assay, the authors have measured antibody titres to unfractionated gliadin in normal healthy controls, in coeliac patients on a gluten-free or a normal diet, and in patients with ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease. High titres of antibodies to unfractionated gliadin were observed only in the patients with untreated coeliac disease. Antibody titres to ..cap alpha.., ..beta.., ..gamma.. and ..omega.. gliadin subfractions were measured in patients with untreated coeliac disease and compared with titres in normal controls. Patients with untreated coeliac disease had higher antibody titres to the gliadin subfractions. No specific pattern of circulating antibody titres to gliadin subfractions was observed in the untreated coeliac patients which would provide a diagnostic profile. These results suggest shared antigenicity between the gliadin subfractions.

  12. Nephelometry compared with differential antibody titre in routine rheumatoid factor measurements.

    OpenAIRE

    Knight, R K; Pritchard, M H

    1982-01-01

    The comparative merits of agglutination techniques (differential agglutination titre (DAT)/latex slide test) and nephelometry for the routine measurements of IgM rheumatoid factors have been studied in this 2-part paper. The first part investigates the errors inherent in standard DAT measurements, and the second determines the rate of false positive results in an elderly nonrheumatoid population. It was found that the errors in agglutination techniques are due to differences in setting up the...

  13. High juvenile hormone titre and abdominal activation of JH signalling may induce reproduction of termite neotenics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saiki, R; Gotoh, H; Toga, K; Miura, T; Maekawa, K

    2015-08-01

    Termite castes are a key example of polyphenism, in which reproductive division of labour is clearly seen in colonies. The reproductive castes in termites include primary and neotenic reproductives; primary reproductives found a new colony whereas neotenics succeed them in the reproductive role when the primary reproductives die or become senescent. Neotenics usually differentiate from nymphs or workers by developing functional gonads while retaining juvenile characteristics; however, the developmental mechanism during neotenic differentiation remains poorly understood. Juvenile hormone (JH) mediates a number of aspects of developmental regulation in caste differentiation in termites. In the present study we quantified JH titres in neotenic reproductives of Reticulitermes speratus, and compared these with other developmental stages. In addition, expression changes in JH signalling gene homologues (Methoprene-tolerant [Met], Krüppel-homolog1, Broad-Complex) in the head, thorax and abdomen were investigated during neotenic differentiation. Finally, we examined the function of Met in reproduction of neotenics by RNA interference (RNAi). Our results showed that the JH titres of neotenics were significantly higher than those of nymphs and workers. JH signalling genes were highly expressed in neotenic abdomens, compared with those in workers and nymphs. Met RNAi resulted in the inhibition of vitellogenin gene expression in newly moulted neotenics. These results suggest that the fertility of neotenics might be controlled by a large increase of JH titres and body-part-specific activation of JH signalling pathways. PMID:25847681

  14. Widal agglutination titre: a rapid serological diagnosis of typhoid fever in developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To study the reliability of a single Widal test and to find out the diagnostic significance of 'O' and 'H' agglutinin titre in the diagnosis of typhoid fever. Community-based case-control study conducted from Jan 2001 to June 2007. The blood samples were collected from the medical and out door department of Sir Ganga Ram Hospitals, Lahore. The diagnostic value of an acute phase single Widal agglutination test for suspected typhoid fever was evaluated in 733 consecutive patients with fever lasting 6 or more days. In 733 patients with fever 84 (11.45%) were positive for Widal test. A noteworthy rise 1/320 of H and/or O agglutinin titre was observed in 86 (11.3%) of patients with typhoid fever. In the absence of vaccination an elevated level of H and/or O agglutinin titre of 1: 320 is of diagnostic value for typhoid fever especially in our setting where a single sample of serum is relied on for the diagnosis of typhoid fever. (author)

  15. String Vacuous Overt Verb Raising.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koisumi, Masatoshi

    2000-01-01

    Presents evidence for overt verb raising in Japanese, thereby defending the validity of the head parameter with its two values (head initial and head final). Explores consequences of the overt verb raising analysis of Japanese to various aspects of syntactic theory. (Author/VWL)

  16. Raising Awareness in Science Education for Women (RAISE-W)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faherty, Jacqueline K.; Holford, M.

    2014-01-01

    Raising Awareness in Science Education for Women (RAISE-W) is a 501c non profit corporation whose mission is to aid in increasing and retaining the number of women - especially underrepresented females - engaged in scientific teaching and research. Initiated by a Protein Chemist and an Astronomer, our ultimate goal has been to develop informational tools and create innovative outreach programs for women across all STEM fields. At present RAISE-W is recruiting women at the undergraduate, graduate, and early career stages to participate in a unique, 1-year, executive coaching program modeled after those used in the business sector.

  17. Titre français

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Yanzhong

    2009-01-01

    L'objectif de ce travail était l'étude systématique de composés de type BaSn1-xMxO3-d (M= Y, Gd, Sc, In, ...) pour lesquels des propriétés de conduction protonique étaient attendues. Nous avons tout d'abord développé une méthode de synthèse originale par polymérisation d'acide acrylique qui nous a permis d'obtenir des poudres nanométriques pures, puis des céramiques denses après frittage. Nous avons ensuite étudié l'influence de la nature et de la teneur en dopant sur les propriétés structura...

  18. Distracted Driving Raises Crash Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... such as eating, talking on the phone, or texting—raises the risk of a crash. NIH-funded ... other object; almost 4 times more likely when texting; and 3 times more likely when eating. Experienced ...

  19. Raising Public Awareness of Mathematics

    CERN Document Server

    Behrends, Ehrhard; Rodrigues, José Francisco

    2012-01-01

    This collective book aims to encourage and inspire actions directed towards raising public awareness of the importance of mathematical sciences for our contemporary society in a cultural and historical perspective. Mathematical societies, in Europe and around the world, can find ideas, blueprints and suggestions for activities - including concerted actions with other international organizations - directed towards raising public awareness of science, technology and other fields where mathematics plays a strong role. The material is divided into four parts: * National experiences * Exhibitions /

  20. Chorea.

    OpenAIRE

    Hu, MT; Butterworth, R.; Giovannoni, G.; Church, A; Logsdail, S

    2009-01-01

    Two weeks after starting the oral contraceptive pill, a 16-year-old girl developed increasingly violent chorea and an evolving psychosis with prominent hallucinations, ideas of reference, and paranoia. An erythematous skin rash subsequently developed and Sydenham's chorea (SC) was diagnosed. Following neuroleptic medication and steroids, her chorea and psychosis subsided. This case illustrates that severe psychotic features can occur in SC. It is recommended that antistreptolysin O titres and...

  1. Raising HDL cholesterol in women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danny J Eapen

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Danny J Eapen1, Girish L Kalra1, Luay Rifai1, Christina A Eapen2, Nadya Merchant1, Bobby V Khan11Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA, USA; 2University of South Florida School of Medicine, Tampa, FL, USAAbstract: High-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C concentration is essential in the determination of coronary heart disease (CHD risk in women. This is especially true in the postmenopausal state, where lipid profiles and CHD risk mimic that of age-matched men. Thus, interventions designed to reduce CHD risk by raising HDL-C levels may have particular significance during the transition to menopause. This review discusses HDL-C-raising therapies and the role of HDL in the primary prevention of CHD in women. Lifestyle-based interventions such as dietary change, aerobic exercise regimens, and smoking cessation are initial steps that are effective in raising HDL-C, and available data suggest women respond similarly to men with these interventions. When combined with pharmacotherapy, the effects of these lifestyle alterations are further amplified. Though studies demonstrating gender-specific differences in therapy are limited, niacin continues to be the most effective agent in raising HDL-C levels, especially when used in combination with fibrate or statin therapy. Emerging treatments such as HDL mimetic therapy show much promise in further raising HDL-C levels and improving cardiovascular outcomes.Keywords: high-density lipoprotein, HDL, women, cholesterol, heart disease

  2. Raising HDL cholesterol in women

    OpenAIRE

    Eapen, Danny J.; Kalra, Girish L; Rifai, Luay; Eapen, Christina A; Merchant, Nadya; Bobby V Khan

    2010-01-01

    High-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) concentration is essential in the determination of coronary heart disease (CHD) risk in women. This is especially true in the postmenopausal state, where lipid profiles and CHD risk mimic that of age-matched men. Thus, interventions designed to reduce CHD risk by raising HDL-C levels may have particular significance during the transition to menopause. This review discusses HDL-C-raising therapies and the role of HDL in the primary prevention of CHD...

  3. Is AKH titre modulated by oxidative stress in the Colorado potato beetle (CPB) leptinotarsa decemlineata fed on genetically modified potatoes?.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kodrík, Dalibor; Krishnan, Natraj; Habuštová, Oxana

    Manchester : European Society for Comparative Endocrinology, 2006. s. 87-87. [Conference of European Comparative Endocrinologists /23./. 29.08.2006-02.09.2006, Manchester] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50070508 Keywords : AKH titre Subject RIV: ED - Physiology

  4. Prompt immune tolerance induction at inhibitor diagnosis regardless of titre may increase overall success in haemophilia A complicated by inhibitors: experience of two U.S. centres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakar, C; Manco-Johnson, M J; Lail, A; Donfield, S; Maahs, J; Chong, Y; Blades, T; Shapiro, A

    2015-05-01

    Current guidelines recommend delaying the start of immune tolerance induction (ITI) until the inhibitor titre is success. This study was conducted to evaluate ITI outcome relative to time to start ITI from inhibitor detection irrespective of inhibitor titre. Data were retrospectively collected from two U.S. haemophilia treatment centres (HTCs) on subjects with severe/moderate factor VIII (FVIII) deficiency with inhibitors who underwent ITI. Outcomes were defined pragmatically: success--negative inhibitor titre and ability to use FVIII concentrate for treatment/bleed prevention; partial success--inhibitor titre 1 to 3 years without achieving success/partial success, or ITI discontinuation. Fifty-eight subjects were included; 32 of 39 (82%) with high-responding inhibitor (HRI) achieved success, 7 failed. HRI subjects were subdivided based on ITI start time: 23/39 subjects started within 1 month of detection and 22/23 (96%) achieved success. Of these 23, 13 started ITI with an inhibitor titre ?10 BU; all were successes. Eleven of 39 HRI subjects had an interval >6 months until ITI start; 7 (64%) achieved success. Time from inhibitor detection to ITI start may play a critical role in outcome. A titre ?10 BU at ITI start did not influence outcome in subjects when ITI was initiated within 1 month of detection. Prompt ITI should be considered a viable therapeutic option in newly identified patients with inhibitors regardless of current inhibitor titre. PMID:25581638

  5. Determination of specific antibodies titre to salmonella enteritidis by elisa technique in several selected flocks of laying hens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Velhner Maja

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the antibody titre to Salmonella enteritidis (SE was examined by the ELISA method in two flocks of laying hens, where during routine bacteriological investigations Salmonellae was never isolated, and in one flock where Colysepticemia was diagnosed and Salmonella isolated accidentally. In the flocks were Salmonellae were not isolated, a titre with a high level of specific antibodies to SE was discovered (15 and 45%, while the flock with accidental findings of SE was poorly positive (5%. These results point to the necessity of introducing serological monitoring to SE so that the infection of salmonella may be discovered early and the prevalence in the flock determined, and also for the purpose of applying adequate measures that could reduce the possibility of secretion of SE through eggs.

  6. Prospective study of fluctuations of lupus anticoagulant activity and anticardiolipin antibody titre in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus.

    OpenAIRE

    Out, H.J.; Vliet,M.van; de Groot, P G; Derksen, R H

    1992-01-01

    Fluctuations of lupus anticoagulant activity and anticardiolipin antibody titres were studied in 53 patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). The median study time was 26 months with a median number of 12 samples. Lupus anticoagulant was measured by the kaolin clotting time (KCT) and dilute Russell viper venom time (dRVVT) assays; anticardiolipin antibodies were assayed by an enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Normal and increased KCTs or dRVVTs were seen during follow up in 1...

  7. Relationship between haemagglutination-inhibiting antibody titres and clinical protection against influenza: development and application of a bayesian random-effects model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megas Françoise

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Antibodies directed against haemagglutinin, measured by the haemagglutination inhibition (HI assay are essential to protective immunity against influenza infection. An HI titre of 1:40 is generally accepted to correspond to a 50% reduction in the risk of contracting influenza in a susceptible population, but limited attempts have been made to further quantify the association between HI titre and protective efficacy. Methods We present a model, using a meta-analytical approach, that estimates the level of clinical protection against influenza at any HI titre level. Source data were derived from a systematic literature review that identified 15 studies, representing a total of 5899 adult subjects and 1304 influenza cases with interval-censored information on HI titre. The parameters of the relationship between HI titre and clinical protection were estimated using Bayesian inference with a consideration of random effects and censorship in the available information. Results A significant and positive relationship between HI titre and clinical protection against influenza was observed in all tested models. This relationship was found to be similar irrespective of the type of viral strain (A or B and the vaccination status of the individuals. Conclusion Although limitations in the data used should not be overlooked, the relationship derived in this analysis provides a means to predict the efficacy of inactivated influenza vaccines when only immunogenicity data are available. This relationship can also be useful for comparing the efficacy of different influenza vaccines based on their immunological profile.

  8. Capture market share, raise prices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robbins RA

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available No abstract available. Article truncated after 150 words. Two principles in medical economics central to the Affordable Care Act (ACA were dealt blows by recently published studies. The first principle is the belief that economies of scale will result in lower prices. The theory is that larger insurers will have lower prices because they are more administratively efficient. The second principle is that provider-owned health plans, usually hospitals, will reduce premiums. The theory is that by controlling doctors over charging health plans in a fee-for-service model will lower prices. The first study published in Technology Science found that the largest insurer in each of the states served by HealthCare.gov raised their prices in 2015 by an average of over 10 per cent compared to smaller competitors in the same market (1. Those steeper price hikes for monthly premiums did not seem warranted by the level of health claims which did not significantly differ as a percentage of premiums ...

  9. Raised houses reduce mosquito bites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gil Vilfrido

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In many parts of continental Africa house construction does not appear to impede entry of malaria vectors and, given their generally late biting cycle, the great majority of transmission takes place indoors. In contrast, many houses in São Tomé, 140 km off the coast of Gabon, are raised on stilts and built of wooden planks. Building on stilts is a time-honoured, but largely untested, way of avoiding mosquito bites. Exposure may also be affected by mosquito activity times and age composition of host-seeking females. A study was therefore undertaken on the island of São Tomé to determine if exposure to Anopheles gambiae, the only vector on the island, varied with house construction or time of the night. Methods A series of all-night landing collections were undertaken out of doors at ground level, inside houses at ground level, on the verandas of, and inside houses built on stilts. The gonotrophic age of an unselected sample of insects from the first three hours of landing collection (18:00–21:00 was determined by dissection. In addition, 1,149 miniature light-trap collections were obtained from 125 houses in the study area. Numbers collected were related to house construction. Results Biting of An. gambiae took place primarily outside at ground level. Less than one third of biting occurred inside houses. Houses built on stilts had half the number of An. gambiae in them compared to those built at ground level. Conversely houses with an eaves gap had more An. gambiae in them than houses without such a gap. Gonotrophic age did not affect house entry rates in An. gambiae. House construction affected Culex quinquefasciatus less than An. gambiae. Mean density per house, derived from a series of 1,490 randomly assigned light-trap collections, was over-dispersed with 18% of houses having 70% of the vectors. Conclusion House construction plays an important role in determining exposure to malaria vectors in São Tomé. Neighbours can have very different exposure levels. Recommendations for improvement in control are given.

  10. A rapid assay for Hendra virus IgG antibody detection and its titre estimation using magnetic nanoparticles and phycoerythrin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yuan; Pallister, Jackie; Lapierre, Florian; Crameri, Gary; Wang, Lin-Fa; Zhu, Yonggang

    2015-09-15

    Detection of Hendra viral IgG antibody in animal sera is useful for surveillance following a virus outbreak. The commonly used enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and fluorescence-based Luminex assay typically consist of three steps and take at least several hours to complete. We have simplified the procedure to two steps in an effort to develop a rapid procedure for IgG antibody, but not IgM antibody, detection. This is achieved by conjugating the fluorescence label R-phycoerythrin directly onto the IgG binding protein Protein G. The use of magnetic nanoparticles, due to their large specific surface area, has helped reduce each of the binding steps to 20 min. As a result, the whole assay can be completed in 60 min. We also demonstrate a method to quickly estimate IgG antibody titres by assaying the sera at only two dilutions (i.e. 1:20 and 1:1000) and using the fluorescence ratio at these dilutions as an indicator of antibody titre. The results of this approach correlated well with the well-regarded serum neutralization test in virus antibody assays. This protocol reported here can be adopted in Luminex assays, fluorescence-linked immunosorbent assays and assays on microfluidics platforms for rapid antibody surveillance of Hendra and other viruses. PMID:26141730

  11. Sleep Apnea May Raise Risk of Depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 154827.html Sleep Apnea May Raise Risk of Depression Study suggests popular apnea treatment could help ease ... with sleep apnea are at increased risk for depression, but continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) therapy for ...

  12. The Logic of the RAISE Specification Language

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    George, Chris; Haxthausen, Anne Elisabeth

    2008-01-01

    This chapter describes the logic of the RAISE Specification Language, RSL. It explains the particular logic chosen for RAISE, and motivates this choice as suitable for a wide spectrum language to be used for designs as well as initial specifications, and supporting imperative and concurrent specifications as well as applicative sequential ones. It also describes the logical definition of RSL, its axiomatic semantics, as well as the proof system for carrying out proofs. Finally, a case study illu...

  13. The Logic of the RAISE Specification Language

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    George, Chris; Haxthausen, Anne Elisabeth

    2003-01-01

    This paper describes the logic of the RAISE Specification Language, RSL. It explains the particular logic chosen for RAISE, and motivates this choice as suitable for a wide spectrum language to be used for designs as well as initial specifications, and supporting imperative and concurrent specifications as well as applicative sequential ones. It also describes the logical definition of RSL, its axiomatic semantics, as well as the proof system for carrying out proofs.

  14. The role of antibody affinity and titre in immunity to Schistosoma mansoni following vaccination with highly irradiated cercariae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sera from rabbits and rats vaccinated with highly irradiated cercariae of Schistosoma mansoni (VRabS, VRatS) were found to be of substantially higher affinity than sera from CBA mice vaccinated four times (4 x CVMS), single sex sera (SSS) or chronic infection sera (CIS). In contrast, immunoprecipitation studies demonstrated that sera from vaccinated LA mice (LVMS) recognized 125I-labelled schistosomular surface antigens more intensely than sera from vaccinated HA mice (HVMS). However, peritoneal macrophages from HA and LA mice in the presence of HVMS, LVMS or 4 x CVMS, and naive macrophages activated in vitro with interferon-gamma (IFN-?)/lipopolysaccharide (LPS) mediated comparable levels of schistosomula killing in vitro. The experiments described here provide evidence that the titre of antibody rather than its affinity may be a more critical factor in the development of optimal immunity to S. mansoni. (author)

  15. The role of antibody affinity and titre in immunity to Schistosoma mansoni following vaccination with highly irradiated cercariae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vignali, D.A.A.; Devey, M.E.; Bickle, Q.D.; Taylor, M.G. (London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine (UK))

    1990-02-01

    Sera from rabbits and rats vaccinated with highly irradiated cercariae of Schistosoma mansoni (VRabS, VRatS) were found to be of substantially higher affinity than sera from CBA mice vaccinated four times (4 x CVMS), single sex sera (SSS) or chronic infection sera (CIS). In contrast, immunoprecipitation studies demonstrated that sera from vaccinated LA mice (LVMS) recognized {sup 125}I-labelled schistosomular surface antigens more intensely than sera from vaccinated HA mice (HVMS). However, peritoneal macrophages from HA and LA mice in the presence of HVMS, LVMS or 4 x CVMS, and naive macrophages activated in vitro with interferon-gamma (IFN-{gamma})/lipopolysaccharide (LPS) mediated comparable levels of schistosomula killing in vitro. The experiments described here provide evidence that the titre of antibody rather than its affinity may be a more critical factor in the development of optimal immunity to S. mansoni. (author).

  16. Consciousness-Raising, Error Correction and Proofreading

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Josephine

    2015-01-01

    The paper discusses the impact of developing a consciousness-raising approach in error correction at the sentence level to improve students' proofreading ability. Learners of English in a foreign language environment often rely on translation as a composing tool and while this may act as a scaffold and provide some support, it frequently leads to…

  17. People on the Farm: Raising Beef Cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crain, Robert L.

    This booklet provides information on raising beef cattle through profiles of two families, the Ritschards of Colorado and the Schuttes of Missouri. Through descriptions of daily life for these families, the booklet discusses the way of life on modern beef cattle farms and the problems and decisions faced by farmers. The booklet explains how…

  18. Head raising analysis and case revaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ager Gondra

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper shows that Basque relative clause construction follows the Head Raising Analysis: the CP of the relative clause is a complement to the external D and the Head of the relative clause, base-generated inside the TP, moves to the specifier position of the CP. This analysis predicts that the raised DPwill show a TP-internal Case. However, this is not the case, and the DP manifests the Case associated with the main clause. In order to address these Case inconsistencies, Precariousness Condition is proposed. This condition states that a DCase valued u-feature is precarious until it is sent to Spell-Out and therefore, the value is visible for further targeting by a c-commanding Probe.  Evidence for this multiple Agree operation comes from a DP long distance extraction.

  19. Raising Female Employment : Reflections and Policy Tools

    OpenAIRE

    Garibaldi, Pietro; Wasmer, Etienne

    2004-01-01

    While there is consensus on the need to raise the time spent in the market by European women, it is not clear how these goals should be achieved. Tax wedges, assistance in the job search process, and part-time jobs are policy instruments that are widely debated in policy circles. The paper presents a simple model of labor supply with market frictions and heterogenous home production where the effects of these policies can be coherently analyzed. We show that subsidies to labor ...

  20. Simultaneous saccharification and fermentation of steam exploded duckweed: Improvement of the ethanol yield by increasing yeast titre.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, X; Moates, G K; Elliston, A; Wilson, D R; Coleman, M J; Waldron, K W

    2015-10-01

    This study investigated the conversion of Lemna minor biomass to bioethanol. The biomass was pre-treated by steam explosion (SE, 210°C, 10 min) and then subjected to simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) using Cellic® CTec 2 (20 U or 0.87 FPU g(-1) substrate) cellulase plus ?-glucosidase (2 U g(-1) substrate) and a yeast inoculum of 10% (v/v or 8.0×10(7) cells mL(-1)). At a substrate concentration of 1% (w/v) an ethanol yield of 80% (w/w, theoretical) was achieved. However at a substrate concentration of 20% (w/v), the ethanol yield was lowered to 18.8% (w/w, theoretical). Yields were considerably improved by increasing the yeast titre in the inoculum or preconditioning the yeast on steam exploded liquor. These approaches enhanced the ethanol yield up to 70% (w/w, theoretical) at a substrate concentration of 20% (w/v) by metabolising fermentation inhibitors. PMID:26210138

  1. Simultaneous saccharification and fermentation of steam exploded duckweed: Improvement of the ethanol yield by increasing yeast titre

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, X.; Moates, G.K.; Elliston, A.; Wilson, D.R.; Coleman, M.J.; Waldron, K.W.

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the conversion of Lemna minor biomass to bioethanol. The biomass was pre-treated by steam explosion (SE, 210 °C, 10 min) and then subjected to simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) using Cellic® CTec 2 (20 U or 0.87 FPU g?1 substrate) cellulase plus ?-glucosidase (2 U g?1 substrate) and a yeast inoculum of 10% (v/v or 8.0 × 107 cells mL?1). At a substrate concentration of 1% (w/v) an ethanol yield of 80% (w/w, theoretical) was achieved. However at a substrate concentration of 20% (w/v), the ethanol yield was lowered to 18.8% (w/w, theoretical). Yields were considerably improved by increasing the yeast titre in the inoculum or preconditioning the yeast on steam exploded liquor. These approaches enhanced the ethanol yield up to 70% (w/w, theoretical) at a substrate concentration of 20% (w/v) by metabolising fermentation inhibitors. PMID:26210138

  2. Raising female employment : reflexions and policy tools

    OpenAIRE

    Garibaldi, Pietro; Wasmer, Etienne

    2003-01-01

    While there is consensus on the need to raise the time spent in the market by European women, it is not clear how these goals should be achieved. Tax wedges, assistance in the job search process, and part-time jobs are policy instruments that are widely debated in policy circles. The paper presents a simple model of labour supply with market frictions and heterogenous home production where the effects of these policies can be coherently analysed. We show that subsidies to labour market entry ...

  3. A heuristic sublevel stope optimizer with multiple raises

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    X, Bai; D, Marcotte; R, Simon.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available A new heuristic sublevel mining stope optimizer is presented. The optimizer seeks the best locations and lengths of a series of vertical raises that, together with the blocks linked to each raise, define a mining stope. Five design constraints - the footwall angle, the hangingwall angle, the number [...] of raises, the maximum distance of a block from a raise, and the minimum width required to move the farthest block towards the raise - allow the shape of the sub-stopes associated with each raise to be controlled. The optimization is done on the locations and lengths of raises using a genetic algorithm to efficiently sample the parameters' space. For each raise, a local network is defined in cylindrical coordinates around the raise such as to impose the design constraints. A maxflow algorithm on the local network is used to determine the optimal sub-stope for each raise. All sub-stopes are combined to define the global stope for the entire deposit. The best global stope is obtained using a genetic algorithm to find the raise parameters providing the best profit over the entire deposit. Two synthetic cases and one real deposit are used to evaluate the new algorithm and compare the results with the single-raise optimizer. The multiple raises approach leads to significantly improved economics compared with the single-raise stope optimizer, and the dilution is also substantially reduced compared to the single-raise case.

  4. Raising children in America: Korean parents' experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, H; Dancy, B L; Lee, J

    2013-08-01

    This qualitative description study was designed to describe Korean American parents' perceptions of challenges and difficulties they encounter while raising their children in the USA. A convenience sampling of 21 parents of adolescents aged 11-14 years recruited from the Midwest Korean American community participated in the study. Data were collected using in-depth, face-to-face interviews, which took place in agreed-upon, convenient locations. All interviews were audiotaped and transcribed in Korean and the transcripts were translated into English. Qualitative content analysis revealed that the main stresses that parents encountered while raising their children in the USA were inability to advocate for children, feeling uneasy and insecure about incompatible American culture, ambivalence towards children's ethnic identities, and feeling alienated. In relation to these stresses, parents often felt inadequate, ashamed, guilty, regretful and powerless. The findings demonstrated the importance of understanding parents' feelings that are deeply embedded in the conflicted parent-child relationships and their perceptions of being parents in the USA. The present study highlights the need for and importance of providing intervention programmes for parents, particularly programmes that would empower parents, strengthen parent-child relationships and address ways to integrate two very different cultures while upholding ethnic identity and pride. PMID:22295897

  5. Management of raised intracranial pressure in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, J

    2000-10-01

    Children suffer a significant number of head injuries as a result of their high activity levels, immature developmental skills and increased head-to-body mass ratio. Primary brain injury is irreversible, but secondary insults can be limited. Central to this is the management of raised intracranial pressure (ICP). The pathophysiology of head injury can explain some of the causes of raised ICP. Monitoring of ICP is important and this is closely linked to the maintenance of an adequate cerebral perfusion pressure and the importance of normovolaemia. Other interventions that have been shown to limit rises in ICP are appropriate use of positioning, mechanical ventilation and drug therapy. Less common therapies include jugular venous bulb oxygen saturation monitoring and the use of trometamol (THAM). Most nursing interventions do not actively reduce ICP, but they are central to its management. Reducing stimuli, avoiding cluster care, manual hyperinflation and limiting routine endotracheal suction may prevent an accumulative rise in ICP. Based on this literature review, it is possible to divide these interventions into first and second tier treatments, as shown in the protocol. Much of the suggested management will occur simultaneously, but it is important to assess the child's own response to each intervention and thus tailor treatment to minimize secondary brain injury. PMID:11000606

  6. Les femmes et les enfants, prisonniers politiques ou déportés à titre préventif pendant la guerre civile grecque

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina Alexopoulos

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Les conditions et stratégies de survie des milliers de femmes condamnées ou déportées de la guerre civile grecque permettent d'établir une typologie.Pendant la guerre civile grecque (1946-1949 des milliers de personnes sont emprisonnées, déportées dans des camps de concentration ou exilées dans des îles, une population hétéroclite d’hommes et de femmes, persécutés pour leurs idées, leurs origines ou même des liens de parenté avec les communistes. Dans la présente étude, nous nous intéresserons à un groupe lui-même peu homogène, les femmes et les enfants, prisonniers politiques ou déportés à titre préventif pendant le conflit. Après un bref rappel de la pratique de la déportation et une esquisse de typologie de la réclusion, nous étudierons les conditions de détention et les stratégies de survie des femmes, souvent emprisonnées avec leurs enfants, leur statut au sein des prisonniers politiques ainsi que le sens de l'engagement politique dans leur système de valeurs.During the Greek Civil War (1946-1949 thousands of persons were imprisoned, deported to concentration camps or exiled on the islands, a heteroclite population of men and women, persecuted for their ideas, their origins or even their association with the Communists. In the present study, we are interested in a not particularly homogeneous group of women and children, political prisoners or deportees who had been detained for preventive reasons during the conflict. Following a brief summary of the practice of deportation and a typological sketch of the imprisonment, we shall study the detention conditions and the survival strategies of the women, often imprisoned with their children, their status vis-à-vis the political prisoners as well as the meaning of political commitment in their value system.

  7. Against Raising Hope of Raising the Dead: Contra Moody and Kubler-Ross.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vicchio, Stephen J.; And Others

    1979-01-01

    Kubler-Ross and Moody have made assertions about survival after death. They argued that the subjects were not dead, but in the process of dying. An alternative explanation to this "glimpse of the afterlife" approach is offered. Other theological objections are raised to the Moody/Kubler-Ross approach. (Author)

  8. Fund-Raising While You Shop: A Look at Fund-Raising Sites on the Internet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seydel, Angela

    2000-01-01

    Explains how school fund-raising can be done over the Internet through electronic commerce. Discusses online retailers who donate percentage of sales to schools who have registered; Web sites that coordinate online retailers for schools, who also take a percentage of the sales; loss of revenue for local businesses; and marketing. (LRW)

  9. Raise Smoking Age to 21, U.S. Pediatricians Urge

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... news/fullstory_155354.html Raise Smoking Age to 21, U.S. Pediatricians Urge And regulate e-cigarettes the ... products and e-cigarettes should be raised to 21 across the United States, according to a new ...

  10. 29 CFR 780.125 - Raising of poultry in general.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...Poultry § 780.125 Raising of poultry in general. (a) The term “poultry” includes domesticated fowl and game birds. Ducks and pigeons are included. Canaries...included. (b) The “raising” of poultry includes the breeding,...

  11. Verb-raising and Numeral Classifiers in Japanese: Incompatible Bedfellows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukushima, Kazuhiko

    2003-01-01

    Examines verb raising in Japanese and looks at Koizumi's (2000) evidence for verb-raising based on data involving, among other things, numeral classifiers. Demonstrates that Koizumi's evidence based on numeral classifiers does not support his claim that verb-raising occurs in Japanese. (Author/VWL)

  12. 29 CFR 780.126 - Contract arrangements for raising poultry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Contract arrangements for raising poultry. 780.126 Section... General Scope of Agriculture Raising of Livestock, Bees, Fur-Bearing Animals, Or Poultry § 780.126 Contract arrangements for raising poultry. Feed dealers and processors sometimes enter into...

  13. 29 CFR 780.125 - Raising of poultry in general.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Raising of poultry in general. 780.125 Section 780.125... General Scope of Agriculture Raising of Livestock, Bees, Fur-Bearing Animals, Or Poultry § 780.125 Raising of poultry in general. (a) The term “poultry” includes domesticated fowl and game birds. Ducks...

  14. Natural prevalence of antibody titres to GTF of S. mutans in saliva in high and low caries active children

    OpenAIRE

    Kirtaniya B; Chawla H; Tiwari A; Ganguly N; Sachdev V

    2009-01-01

    The present study was conducted to find out the role of natural immunity against dental caries. Whole stimulated saliva of various caries from active children was collected. Antigen glucosyltransferase (GTF) was prepared from Streptococcus mutans serotype C and the antibody titre was estimated using ELISA. Salivary IgG, s-IgA and total immunoglobulins (IgG + s-IgA+ IgM) concentration were assayed. The result showed an increased level of salivary IgG concentration with the increa...

  15. Raising the standards: marine pollution prevention

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morris, P. [Australian Parliament, Canberra, ACT (Australia)

    1996-12-31

    The Australian National Audit Office (ANAO) conducted an audit in 1994 on Australia`s oil spill response strategy. A series of recommendations were made, the most important of which concerned the need for effective programs to maintain equipment readiness. In this paper the comments of the review committee are summarized. It highlighted three areas: the need to introduce a more stringent form of risk analysis into the planning process; the need for an active deterrent that conveyed a message that Australia had the mechanisms to catch offenders who spill oil in Australian waters; and the need to address the issue of crew competence. The task of raising the standards requires ongoing vigilance. Vigilance to ensure improvement in crew standards, the quality of ship management, and that flag states carry out their obligations and responsibilities. There is a need for determination to sweep substandard ships from the seas, and to ensure seafarers are fairly treated. Most importantly, Australia requires a commitment to avoiding complacency in any form. (author).

  16. A novel method for the measurement of hepatitis C virus infectious titres using the IncuCyte ZOOM and its application to antiviral screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Hazel; Bartlett, Christopher; Ross-Thriepland, Douglas; Shaw, Joseph; Griffin, Stephen; Harris, Mark

    2015-06-15

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a significant human pathogen infecting 3% of the world population. An infectious molecular clone capable of replicating and releasing infectious virions in cell culture has only been available since 2005, leaving a significant knowledge gap concerning post-RNA replication events such as particle assembly, trafficking and release. Thus, a fast, efficient and accurate method of measuring infectious viral titres is highly desirable. Current methods rely upon manual counting of infected cell foci and so are both labour-intensive and susceptible to human error. Here, we report a novel protocol, which utilises the IncuCyte ZOOM instrument and related software to accurately count infected cells and extrapolation of this data to produce an infectious titre, reported as infectious units per millilitre (IU/mL). This method reduces cost, time and error in experiments. We also demonstrate that this approach is amenable to high-throughput compound screening, thereby expediting the identification of novel antivirals. PMID:25796989

  17. Enti religiosi e fund raising: un binomio possibile (anzi, necessario

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Franceschi

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Contributo sottoposto a valutazioniSOMMARIO: 1. Premessa - 2. Il fund raising: inquadramento concettuale - 3. (segue Strategie, strumenti e tecniche di fund raising - 4. Il fund raising come fattore di potenziale sviluppo delle organizzazioni non profit - 5. Enti religiosi e fund raising: un binomio che necessita di essere consolidato (e potenziato - 6. Peculiarità dell’azione di fund raising degli enti religiosi - 7. Fund raising e aspetti economici e gestionali degli enti religiosi - 8. Considerazioni conclusive.Abstract:Religious organizations and fundraising: a possible combination (indeed necessary Fund-raising activities represent the principal livelihood and sources of growth and development for non-profit organisations. Fund-raising is, also, an increasingly important part of religious organizations life. Almost each of them engages in some kind of fund-raising activity, with the purpose of generating income to sustain the organization’s programs and activities. The present study analyzes the relationship between religious organizations and fund-raising activities: a correlation that always existed, but now calls for consolidation and improvement in order to allow religious organizations to achieve economic sustainability. Therefore, religious organizations should develop competency and capacity to design and implement fund-raising activities, through appropriate policies, tools and methodologies. In this perspective, the author examines all the facets of fund-raising activities related to the religious organizations sector and, more in general, the possible applications of business administration principles to the management of religious bodies (so-called “church management”.Parole chiave: enti religiosi; fund raising; sostenibilità economica; management

  18. Lowering and raising operators for some special orthogonal polynomials

    OpenAIRE

    Koornwinder, Tom H.

    2005-01-01

    This paper discusses operators lowering or raising the degree but preserving the parameters of special orthogonal polynomials. Results for one-variable classical (q-)orthogonal polynomials are surveyed. For Jacobi polynomials associated with root system BC_2 a new pair of lowering and raising operators is obtained.

  19. A longitudinal evaluation of anti-FVIII antibodies demonstrated IgG4 subclass is mainly correlated with high-titre inhibitor in haemophilia A patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montalvão, S A L; Tucunduva, A C; Siqueira, L H; Sambo, A L A; Medina, S S; Ozelo, M C

    2015-09-01

    The development of inhibitory antibodies against factor VIII (FVIII) (inhibitor) is the major complication in haemophilia A patients. The FVIII-binding antibodies development comprises a polyclonal immunoglobulin (Ig) G response. Recent studies showed strong correlation between the presence of neutralizing anti-FVIII antibodies (inhibitors) and IgG4 subclass. The aim of this study was to evaluate anti-FVIII IgG subclasses in haemophilia A patients with inhibitor both in a cross-sectional and in a longitudinal analysis. Inhibitors were determined by Nijmegen-Bethesda assay. Anti-FVIII IgG subclasses were performed by ELISA, and samples from 20 healthy individuals were used to validate the test. We studied 25 haemophilia A patients with inhibitor, previously treated exclusively with plasma-derived FVIII concentrates or bypassing agents. The IgG subclasses distributions were evaluated in two groups of patients classified according to inhibitor response. IgG1 and IgG4 antibodies were most prominent in haemophilia A patients with inhibitors when compared with IgG2 and IgG3. This study reports for the first time the behaviour of FVIII-binding IgG1 and IgG4 subclasses in a longitudinal analysis, in a clinical setting, of high-response inhibitor haemophilia A patients, showing the correlation of IgG4 and the inhibitor titres. In spite of being considered a non-pathologic antibody subclass with anti-inflammatory properties in other situations, IgG4 is correlated with the presence of high-titre inhibitor in the haemophilia setting. The comprehension of the IgG4 role in immune response may be crucial to establish the process for designing specific tolerance to FVIII. PMID:25708525

  20. Haematopoietic depletion in vaccine-induced neonatal pancytopenia depends on both the titre and specificity of alloantibody and levels of MHC I expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Charlotte R; MacHugh, Niall D; Connelley, Timothy K; Degnan, Kathryn; Morrison, W Ivan

    2015-07-01

    Bovine Neonatal Pancytopenia (BNP) is a disease of calves characterised by haematopoietic depletion, mediated by ingestion of alloantibodies in colostrum. It has been linked epidemiologically to vaccination of the dams of affected calves with a particular vaccine (Pregsure) containing a novel adjuvant. Evidence suggests that BNP-alloantibodies are directed against MHC I molecules, induced by contaminant bovine cellular material from Madin-Darby Bovine Kidney (MDBK) cells used in the vaccine's production. We aimed to investigate the specificity of BNP-alloantibody for bovine MHC I alleles, particularly those expressed by MDBK cells, and whether depletion of particular cell types is due to differential MHC I expression levels. A complement-mediated cytotoxicity assay was used to assess functional serum alloantibody titres in BNP-dams, Pregsure-vaccinated dams with healthy calves, cows vaccinated with an alternative product and unvaccinated controls. Alloantibody specificity was investigated using transfected mouse lines expressing the individual MHC I alleles identified from MDBK cells and MHC I-defined bovine leukocyte lines. All BNP-dams and 50% of Pregsure-vaccinated cows were shown to have MDBK-MHC I specific alloantibodies, which cross-reacted to varying degrees with other MHC I genotypes. MHC I expression levels on different blood cell types, assessed by flow cytometry, were found to correlate with levels of alloantibody-mediated damage in vitro and in vivo. Alloantibody-killed bone marrow cells were shown to express higher levels of MHC I than undamaged cells. The results provide evidence that MHC I-specific alloantibodies play a dominant role in the pathogenesis of BNP. Haematopoietic depletion was shown to be dependent on the titre and specificity of alloantibody produced by individual cows and the density of surface MHC I expression by different cell types. Collectively, the results support the hypothesis that MHC I molecules originating from MDBK cells used in vaccine production, coupled with a powerful adjuvant, are responsible for the generation of pathogenic alloantibodies. PMID:26055292

  1. Differences in female-male mortality after high-titre measles vaccine and association with subsequent vaccination with diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis and inactivated poliovirus : reanalysis of West African studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aaby, Peter; Jensen, Henrik

    2003-01-01

    Females given high-titre measles vaccine (HTMV) have high mortality; diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis (DTP) vaccination might be associated with increased female mortality. We aimed to assess whether DTP or inactivated poliovirus (IPV) administered after HTMV was associated with increased female-male mortality ratio.

  2. Sleep Apnea May Raise Women's Heart Risk, but Not Men's

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_155148.html Sleep Apnea May Raise Women's Heart Risk, But Not ... HealthDay News) -- The nighttime breathing disturbance known as sleep apnea can boost a woman's risk for heart ...

  3. Infants and Toddlers (Ages 0-3) - Raising Healthy Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Conditions Safety in the Home & Community Raising Healthy Teens Risk Behaviors Engaging Parents in School Health Other Resources Information for Health Care Professionals & Researchers Browse All Parent Topics Parent Videos Social Media Tools Get Email Updates To receive email updates ...

  4. Could PMS Raise Women's Risk for High Blood Pressure?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 155890.html Could PMS Raise Women's Risk for High Blood Pressure? Study found rise in odds for hypertension in ... severe PMS may be at heightened risk for high blood pressure later in life. While the study couldn't ...

  5. Black Women at Raised Risk of Carrying Breast Cancer Genes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Black Women at Raised Risk of Carrying Breast Cancer Genes In study of those under 50 with invasive ... More Health News on: African American Health Breast Cancer Genes and Gene Therapy Recent Health News Related MedlinePlus ...

  6. Common Gene Variant May Raise Miscarriage Risk, Study Finds

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... nih.gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_155048.html Common Gene Variant May Raise Miscarriage Risk, Study Finds Associated ... 2015 (HealthDay News) -- Scientists report that a common gene variant may be linked to both early pregnancy ...

  7. Parents: ABCs of Raising Safe and Healthy Kids

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Compartir Parents: ABCs of Raising Safe and Healthy Kids Click on a letter below to find out ... cancer. Breastfeeding Top of Page C Compliment Your Kids Compliment your kids when they do something good. ...

  8. Kidney Woes Tied to Raised Cancer Risk, Study Finds

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... You Are Here: Home ? Latest Health News ? Article URL of this page: https://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_155691.html Kidney Woes Tied to Raised Cancer Risk, Study Finds Dialysis, organ transplant may boost odds for certain ...

  9. Widely Used Antibiotics May Raise Heart Risks, Review Finds

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... You Are Here: Home ? Latest Health News ? Article URL of this page: https://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_155614.html Widely Used Antibiotics May Raise Heart Risks, Review Finds Macrolides were linked to small, but significant, chances ...

  10. Rapid Acquisition Imaging Spectrograph (RAISE) Renewal Proposal Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The optical design of RAISE is based on a new class of UV/EUV imaging spectrometers that use  only two reflections to provide quasi-stigmatic performance...

  11. Incidence and aetiology of a raised hemidiaphragm after cardiopulmonary bypass.

    OpenAIRE

    Large, S. R.; Heywood, L J; Flower, C D; Cory-Pearce, R.; Wallwork, J.; English, T A

    1985-01-01

    A raised hemidiaphragm has been reported as an uncommon complication of cardiopulmonary bypass, possibly resulting from cold injury to the phrenic nerve. At Papworth Hospital myocardial protection during cardiac arrest relies in part on irrigation of the pericardial cavity with large volumes of Hartmann's solution at 4 degrees C. Retrospective review of the chest radiographs of 100 consecutive patients undergoing cardiopulmonary bypass showed that 31 had a raised left hemidiaphragm soon after...

  12. Lacunar infarcts in polycythaemia with raised packed cell volumes.

    OpenAIRE

    Pearce, J M; Chandrasekera, C. P.; Ladusans, E J

    1983-01-01

    Lacunar (small deep cerebral infarcts) infarction is described in association with raised packed cell volumes. Two patients had polycythaemia vera, one stress polycythaemia. They presented with transient ischaemic episodes and were shown by computed tomography to have lacunes deep in the basal ganglia and internal capsule. Such lesions may be caused by small vessel occlusions related to increased viscosity and impaired oxygen consumption by adjacent tissues. Finding a raised packed cell volum...

  13. A practice of advancing return shaft by raised shaft technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Advance of super-high raise has been a difficult problem in the underground construction of mines. A main return shaft of a uranium mine was advanced by raised shaft technique. The technique has advantages such as high efficience, safety and economy. Monthly shaft completion averaged 85 m, the highest was up to 120 m. Blasting efficience was above 92%. A reference is provided for similar projects. (authors)

  14. Bisimulatioll abstraction for selecting software compollents ill RAISE

    OpenAIRE

    Estevez, Elsa Clara; Janowski, Thomas

    1999-01-01

    Sorne questions and problems arise when working with ComponentBased Design. One of these is the abstraction needed to decide suitability of a component for the designo Bisimulation is a relation between the states of two systems expressing that we cannot distinguish between them by observation. RAISE is a formal approach to industrial software engineering based on higher-order logic. In this paper we present how to apply bisimulations to compare RAISE modules. We present concepts of strong an...

  15. Reduction, fusion and raising in English and Spanish

    OpenAIRE

    Garrudo Carabias, Francisco

    1991-01-01

    The reduction of clauses, together with the fusion of structures, is a source of syntactic problems especially isomorphism and structural ambiguity both in English and Spanish. Raising and Equi-NP Deletion are the processes responsible for them. Raising operates in English more often than in Spanish and under different conditions. The syntactic complication of these phenomena for a non-native speaker and the advantage of a possible reference to similar cases, although more restricted, in Span...

  16. Production of antibody fragment (Fab) throughout Escherichia coli fed-batch fermentation process: Changes in titre, location and form of product

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Reza, Jalalirad.

    2013-05-15

    Full Text Available Background: Recombinant proteins, including antibodies and antibody fragments, often contain disulfide bond bridges that are necessary for their folding, stability and function. Production of disulfide-bond-containing proteins in the periplasm of Escherichia coli has been very useful, due to unique [...] characteristics of the periplasm, for obtaining fully active and correctly folded products and for alleviating downstream processing. Results: In this study, fed-batch cultivation of Escherichia coli (E. coli) for production of Fab D1.3, which is an anti-hen egg white lysozyme (HEWL) antibody fragment was carried out at 37ºC, and the bacterial cells were induced by adding 0.1 mM IPTG to the culture medium. Fermentor was sampled over the course of fermentation; the bacterial cells were centrifugally separated from the culture broth and subjected to osmotic shock (with excluding HEWL) and sonication procedures. The resulting fractions were analysed for Fab using a combination of ELISA, SDS-PAGE and Western blotting and changes in product titre, location, and form was assessed throughout growth. It was shown that osmotic shock released the Fab from the periplasm very efficiently and its efficacy was 20-45% more than sonication. This study demonstrates that, at high cell density cultivation in fermentor, target product can appear inside and outside the cells, depending on the time of induction. The maximum amount of Fab (47 mg/l) in the periplasm was reached at 14 hrs cultivation (4 hrs post induction), being suitable time for cell harvest, selective periplasmic extraction and downstream capture. The Fab increasingly leaked into the culture medium, and reached its maximum culture medium titre of ~78 mg/l after 6 hrs post induction. After 16 hrs cultivation (6 hrs post induction) the amount of Fab remained constant in different locations within and outside the cells. Western blot analysis of cell fractions showed that certain amount of the Fab was also produced in the cells as insoluble form. Conclusions: In this work we showed that the production of Fab in the periplasm during high cell density cultivation of E. coli in fermentor can be challenging as the product may appear in various locations within and outside the cells. To exploit the advantages of the periplasmic expression systems for purification in downstream processing, bacterial cells should be harvested when they maintain the majority of the target protein in their periplasmic space (i.e. 4 hrs post induction).

  17. Radiosensitivity of tissue culture raised white marigold seeds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White marigold of the (Tagetes erecta L. compositae) is an important ornamental crop suited for pot and bed plants. It suffers from the problem of low seed viability and poor seed germination. The technique of in vitro regeneration has already been standardized for production of large scale quality planting materials of white marigold. For inducing greater genetic variability, seeds collected from in vitro raised plants were included in a gamma ray induced mutation breeding programme. The main objective of the present experiment was to study the radiosensitivity of tissue culture raised seeds

  18. Concrete creep with multiaxial stress and at raised temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The knowledge of the creep behaviour of concrete under multiaxial stress at raised temperatures is necessary for the design and calculation of prestressed-concrete reactor pressure vessels due to the loading conditions prestressing and internal temperature. Therefore, in addition to the research programmes on the behaviour of concrete under multiaxial short-term stress at normal temperature done at the 'Institut fuer Massivbau' in the framework of the prestressed-concrete pressure vessel programme, the influences of raised temperature is experimentally tested. (orig./LH)

  19. Raising and Lowering operators of spin-weighted spheroidal harmonics

    CERN Document Server

    Shah, Abhay G

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we generalize the spin-raising and lowering operators of spin-weighted spherical harmonics to linear-in-$\\gamma$ spin-weighted spheroidal harmonics where $\\gamma$ is an additional parameter present in the second order ordinary differential equation governing these harmonics. One can then generalize these operators to higher powers in $\\gamma$. Constructing these operators required calculating the $\\ell$-, $s$- and $m$-raising and lowering operators (and various combinations of them) of spin-weighted spherical harmonics which have been calculated and shown explicitly in this paper.

  20. 'Yo-Yo' Dieting Won't Raise Cancer Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 153934.html 'Yo-Yo' Dieting Won't Raise Cancer Risk, Study Finds People trying to lose weight should ... HealthDay News) -- "Yo-yo dieting" does not increase cancer risk, a new study suggests. This type of dieting, ...

  1. Language Strategies To Raise Achievement in Business Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seliet, Hala; Swift, Helen

    1999-01-01

    Describes the difficulties low achieving students, many of whom are from ethnic minorities, have in dealing with the language of Business Studies in the British curriculum and suggests some strategies to raise language awareness within the discipline and increase the business vocabularies of students. (SLD)

  2. With Dwindling Resources, Colleges Recalibrate Fund-Raising Staffs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masterson, Kathryn

    2009-01-01

    After several years of aggressive hiring, some college fund-raising operations are now cutting back as both revenue and investment income fall. The regrouping could slow growth plans on many campuses at a time when the need for private support has never been greater. Often the colleges cutting employees are laying off back-office staff members and…

  3. Raising Cultural Awareness in the English Language Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, Jerrold

    2013-01-01

    This article discusses how teachers can incorporate cultural knowledge into English language classes, exploring elements of culture, intercultural phenomena, and high-context and low-context cultures. Activities offered by the author to raise cultural awareness include web quests, role plays, cultural observations, and culture journals.

  4. Raising Standards through INQUIRE in Pre-Service Teacher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elster, D.; Barendziak, T.; Haskamp, F.; Kastenholz, L.

    2014-01-01

    Raising standards through inquiry-based science education (IBSE)--what are the challenges for pre-service teacher education? What do ongoing teachers and active teachers learn from each other when planning, conducting and evaluating minds-on and hands-on IBSE activities in the classroom? What do they learn "beyond" IBSE? The Bremen…

  5. Evaluación anátomo-histopatológica de bursa, timo y bazo de pollos de carne criados sobre cama reutilizada vs. cama nueva / Anatomical and histopathological evaluation of the bursa, thymus and spleen of broiler chickens raised in new or reused litter

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Antonio, Tambini A.; Mónica, Alba C.; Rosa, Perales C; Néstor, Falcón P.

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Se evaluó el desarrollo anátomo-histopatológico de la bursa, timo y bazo de pollos de carne criados en cama nueva y cama reutilizada por cinco campañas. Se criaron 250 pollos machos de la línea Ross 308, la mitad en cama nueva y la otra mitad en cama reutilizada. Semanalmente, se determinaron los ín [...] dices morfométricos de bursa, timo y bazo, y la relación entre bursa y bazo por grupo. Los órganos linfoides fueron evaluados mediante histopatología, y los títulos de anticuerpos contra las enfermedades de Gumboro, Newcastle, Bronquitis Infecciosa, Anemia Infecciosa y Reovirus, al inicio y final de la crianza (49 días), se determinaron por la prueba de ELISA. Se encontró diferencia estadística (p Abstract in english The anatomo-histopathological development of the bursa, thymus and spleen of broiler chickens raised in new and reused litter through five campaigns was evaluated. Two hundred and fifty male chickens of the Ross 308 line were raised, half in new and half in reused litter. On a weekly basis, the morp [...] hometric indexes of bursa, thymus and spleen, and the relation bursa/spleen were recorded. The lymphoid organs were evaluated by histopathology and ELISA test was used to determine antibody titres for Gumboro, Newcastle, Infectious Bronchitis, Infectious Anemia, and Reovirus at the beginning and end of the study (49 days). Statistical difference was found (p

  6. HOW TO RAISE EQUITY CAPITAL? A CASE OF POLISH COMPANIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna B?ACH

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The strategies of raising equity capital available to the Polish companies were studied, both in the theoretical and empirical dimension. According to the law regulations three strategies of raising equity capital were distinguished and characterized: the retaining profit strategy, the strategy based on the hybrid securities and the strategy using the issue of new shares. The empirical researches were conducted based on the aggregated data illustrating the practical application of the distinguished strategies in the activity of the Polish non-financial companies in 2006 – 2009, aiming at finding changes in the strategy profile due to the impact of the global financial crisis. The achieved results can be used as a basis for further, more detail studies, also for the cross-country comparative analysis.

  7. Why Mergers Reduce Profits, and Raise Share Prices

    OpenAIRE

    Fridolfsson, Sven-Olof; Stennek, Johan

    1999-01-01

    We demonstrate a 'preemptive merger mechanism' which may explain the empirical puzzle why mergers reduce profits, and raise share prices. A merger may confer strong negative externalilties on the firms outside the merger. If being an 'insider' is better than being an 'outsider', firms may merge to preempt their partner merging with someone else. Furthermore, the pre-merger value of a merging firm is low, since it reflects the risk of becoming an outsider. These results are derived in a model ...

  8. Raising awareness of specific language impairment: The RALLI Internet campaign

    OpenAIRE

    Conti-Ramsden, G; Bishop, DVM; Snowling, MJ; Clark, B.; Frazier Norbury, C

    2013-01-01

    In this editorial, we discuss what is specific language impairment (SLI) and why it is a hidden disability that few people have heard about. We describe the impact on research, policy and practice of SLI being a neglected condition. We end by providing the background and rationale of a new Internet campaign, RALLI (. www.youtube.com/rallicampaign), aimed at changing this state of affairs and raising awareness of SLI. This YouTube channel has videoclips and information about SLI in Spanish. © ...

  9. The cholesterol-raising factor from coffee beans.

    OpenAIRE

    Urgert, R.; Katan, M B

    1996-01-01

    Coffee beans and some types of coffee brew - not the regular types of coffee prepared with a paper filter or with soluble coffee granules - contain the diterpenes cafestol and kahweol. Cafestol and kahweol raise the serum concentration of cholesterol and triglycerides in humans, and they also appear mildly to affect the integrity of liver cells. Both effects are transient after withdrawal of the diterpenes, and it is as yet unsure whether these effects are associated. Patients at increased ri...

  10. Existential Questions Raised in Never Let Me Go

    OpenAIRE

    Mahinthan, Sarah; Nicolaysen, Isolde; Olsen, Alice Rita; Thorarinsdottir, Inga Dora

    2008-01-01

    In this report, we discuss the existential questions raised in Never Let Me Go, by Kazuo Ishiguro. In order to cover both dimensions of Text & Sign, as well as Science & Philosophy, we take an analytical and philosophical approach. Firstly, we analyze symbolic events using the Romberg model to shed light on the characters’ existential struggle. Secondly, we apply relevant theories by Jean-Paul Sartre and Albert Camus, to explain how the society in the novel is Absurd. Finally, we address ...

  11. Environmental NGOs in the raising debate of climate change

    OpenAIRE

    Dahan Dalmedico, Amy; Buffet, Christophe

    2009-01-01

    The issue of climate change was raising since the last 20 years, up to preempting debates about sustainable development This paper aims, in a first part, at underlining the diversity of environmental NGOs involved in climate change debate at all levels. In a second part, the text analyses how environmental NGOs interacted within climate change regime within United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) negotiations.

  12. Does Stock Market Development Raise Economic Growth? Evidence from Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Abu Nurudeen

    2009-01-01

    This paper investigates whether stock market development raises economic growthin Nigeria, by employing the error correction approach. The econometric results indicate thatstock market development (market capitalization-GDP ratio) increases economic growth.The recommendations therein include: removal of impediments to stock market developmentwhich include tax, legal, and regulatory barriers; development of the nation’s infrastructureto create an enabling environment for where business can str...

  13. Raising Rebels : Participation and Recruitment in Civil War

    OpenAIRE

    Eck, Kristine

    2010-01-01

    Why do some individuals choose to participate in rebellion, and what recruitment tactics can rebel groups use to affect this decision? These questions are central to the study of civil war because rebel groups must raise troops in order to challenge the government and to survive as an organization. Indeed, much of the civil war literature builds on participation as a key causal mechanism, yet it is rarely specified in theoretical or empirical models. The dissertation attempts to open this bla...

  14. Supersensitive gastrin assay using antibodies raised against a cholecystokinin homolog

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rehfeld, Jens F; Ericsson, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Peptide hormones may occur in particularly low amounts in samples from small animals. Hence, in a rat microdialysis study conventional immunoassays were not sufficiently sensitive to measure gastrin in the dialysis samples. We therefore exploited the observation that antibodies raised against the homologous hormone cholecystokinin (CCK) occasionally bind gastrin peptides with significantly higher affinity than the proper ligand. The immunoassay thus established could detect 1.0 pmol/l in 15 ?l m...

  15. RAISE (Rapid Acquisition Imaging Spectrograph Experiment): Results and Instrument Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurent, Glenn T.; Hassler, Donald; DeForest, Craig; Ayres, Tom; Davis, Michael; DePontieu, Bart; Diller, Jed; Graham, Roy; Schule, Udo; Warren, Harry

    2015-04-01

    We present initial results from the successful November 2014 launch of the RAISE (Rapid Acquisition Imaging Spectrograph Experiment) sounding rocket program, including intensity maps, high-speed spectroheliograms and dopplergrams, as well as an update on instrument status. The RAISE sounding rocket payload is the fastest high-speed scanning-slit imaging spectrograph flown to date and is designed to observe the dynamics and heating of the solar chromosphere and corona on time scales as short as 100-200ms, with arcsecond spatial resolution and a velocity sensitivity of 1-2 km/s. The instrument is based on a class of UV/EUV imaging spectrometers that use only two reflections to provide quasi-stigmatic performance simultaneously over multiple wavelengths and spatial fields. The design uses an off-axis parabolic telescope mirror to form a real image of the sun on the spectrometer entrance aperture. A slit then selects a portion of the solar image, passing its light onto a near-normal incidence toroidal grating, which re-images the spectrally dispersed radiation onto two array detectors. Two full spectral passbands over the same one-dimensional spatial field are recorded simultaneously with no scanning of the detectors or grating. The two different spectral bands (1st-order 1205-1243Å and 1526-1564Å) are imaged onto two intensified Active Pixel Sensor (APS) detectors whose focal planes are individually adjusted for optimized performance. RAISE reads out the full field of both detectors at 5-10 Hz, allowing us to record over 1,500 complete spectral observations in a single 5-minute rocket flight, opening up a new domain of high time resolution spectral imaging and spectroscopy. RAISE is designed to study small-scale multithermal dynamics in active region (AR) loops, explore the strength, spectrum and location of high frequency waves in the solar atmosphere, and investigate the nature of transient brightenings in the chromospheric network.

  16. HOMO-raising strategies in aminocatalysis, from Enamine to Tetraenamine

    OpenAIRE

    Dourado, Jorge Manuel de Carvalho Marques

    2013-01-01

    In this Master Thesis two different HOMO-raising strategies in aminocatalysis - enamine activation and tetraenamine activation were studied. For the tetraenamine activation concept, it was rationalized that the condensation between 2-(cyclohepta-1,3,5-trien 1-yl)acetate and the TMS-protected diraylprolinol ether aminocatalyst would provide the desired tetraenamine intermediate. The novelty of this concept was further explored by the studied of the [4+2]-cycloaddition between the tetraen...

  17. Raising consciousness about the nuclear threat through music

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ungerleider, J.H.

    1987-01-01

    This dissertation examines the use of music, in particular topical collaborative group song writing, as a tool for raising consciousness about the threat of nuclear war. Consciousness raising is one way to overcome the phenomenon of denial and to increase discussion and social action in response to the nuclear threat. This dissertation measures the impact of a group song writing workshop on developing critical problem-solving in adult groups; it reviews how music is applied in psychological research and clinical work, has been used historically as a tool in social-change movements in America, and is used in the contemporary field of peace education. The perspectives of several theorists who discuss the potential of music to contribute to social change are presented. It is concluded that consciousness about the nuclear threat - in terms of naming and analyzing - can be raised by working with music's potential for developing affective, expressive, and collaborative capabilities in individuals and groups. Potential applications of the group song writing workshop are in schools, with peace organizations, music groups, and in relation to other social issues.

  18. Pathogenesis of optic disc edema in raised intracranial pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayreh, Sohan Singh

    2016-01-01

    Optic disc edema in raised intracranial pressure was first described in 1853. Ever since, there has been a plethora of controversial hypotheses to explain its pathogenesis. I have explored the subject comprehensively by doing basic, experimental and clinical studies. My objective was to investigate the fundamentals of the subject, to test the validity of the previous theories, and finally, based on all these studies, to find a logical explanation for the pathogenesis. My studies included the following issues pertinent to the pathogenesis of optic disc edema in raised intracranial pressure: the anatomy and blood supply of the optic nerve, the roles of the sheath of the optic nerve, of the centripetal flow of fluids along the optic nerve, of compression of the central retinal vein, and of acute intracranial hypertension and its associated effects. I found that, contrary to some previous claims, an acute rise of intracranial pressure was not quickly followed by production of optic disc edema. Then, in rhesus monkeys, I produced experimentally chronic intracranial hypertension by slowly increasing in size space-occupying lesions, in different parts of the brain. Those produced raised cerebrospinal fluid pressure (CSFP) and optic disc edema, identical to those seen in patients with elevated CSFP. Having achieved that, I investigated various aspects of optic disc edema by ophthalmoscopy, stereoscopic color fundus photography and fluorescein fundus angiography, and light microscopic, electron microscopic, horseradish peroxidase and axoplasmic transport studies, and evaluated the effect of opening the sheath of the optic nerve on the optic disc edema. This latter study showed that opening the sheath resulted in resolution of optic disc edema on the side of the sheath fenestration, in spite of high intracranial CSFP, proving that a rise of CSFP in the sheath was the essential pre-requisite for the development of optic disc edema. I also investigated optic disc edema with raised CSFP in patients, by evaluating optic disc and fundus changes by stereoscopic fundus photography and fluorescein fundus angiography. Based on the combined information from all the studies discussed above, it is clear that the pathogenesis of optic disc edema in raised intracranial pressure is a mechanical phenomenon. It is primarily due to a rise of CSFP in the optic nerve sheath, which produces axoplasmic flow stasis in the optic nerve fibers in the surface nerve fiber layer and prelaminar region of the optic nerve head. Axoplasmic flow stasis then results in swelling of the nerve fibers, and consequently of the optic disc. Swelling of the nerve fibers and of the optic disc secondarily compresses the fine, low-pressure venules in that region, resulting in venous stasis and fluid leakage; that leads to the accumulation of extracellular fluid. Contrary to the previous theories, the various vascular changes seen in optic disc edema are secondary and not primary. Thus, optic disc edema in raised CSFP is due to a combination of swollen nerve fibers and the accumulation of extracellular fluid. My studies also provided information about the pathogeneses of visual disturbances in raised intracranial pressure. PMID:26453995

  19. The Role of Public Relations in a Successful Fund-Raising Campaign.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Michael F.; Bumgardner, Larry G.

    1991-01-01

    Pepperdine University's (California) 1980s fund-raising campaign was designed to raise overall institutional visibility, establish an image of quality education, improve institutional image in the business community, increase fund-raising momentum, and raise significant money for immediate capital needs. Theme, staffing, and advertising were key…

  20. Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome and acute post-streptococcal glomerulonephritis mimicking breakthrough seizures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamille Abdool

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available We report the case of a 14-year-old boy with a past history of primary generalized seizures, who had been seizure-free for 2 years on sodium valproate and presented with generalized tonic clonic seizures suggestive of breakthrough seizures. Examination revealed hypertension, impetiginous lesions of the lower limbs, microscopic hematuria, elevated antistreptolysin O titre and low complement levels consistent with acute post-streptococcal glomerulonephritis. Cranial magnetic resonance imaging (MRI demonstrated changes consistent with posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome. Hypertension was controlled with intravenous nitroglycerin followed by oral captopril and amlodipine. Brain MRI changes returned normal within 2 weeks. The nephritis went in to remission within 2 months and after 8 months the patient has been seizure free again. Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome appeared to have neither short nor intermediate effect on seizure control in this patient. The relationship between posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome and seizures is reviewed.

  1. Pas de titre en français

    OpenAIRE

    Muhammad, Naveed

    2013-01-01

    La réalisation des missions spatiales repose de plus en plus souvent sur la coopération entre différents engins spatiaux. Parmi les opérations de proximité, ! le rendez-vous orbital est une pratique aussi ancienne que la ! conquête spatiale, qui continue de générer de nombreux travaux de recherche. Cependant, les motivations et les objectifs des récentes missions de rendez-vous orbital ont largement évolués. En effet, les besoins d'une autonomie accrue, d'une sécurité améliorée, d'une plus gr...

  2. Raising the Awareness of Development Progress in Distributed Agile Projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sultan Alyahya

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses a computer-based holistic approach to raise the awareness of development progress in distributed agile projects. The approach analyses how the technical activities (i.e. source code versioning, unit testing, acceptance testing, integration and releasing affects development progress and provides automatic mechanisms that help co-ordinate progress change with distributed team members. The approach has been evaluated through practical scenarios and has validated these through a research prototype. The result shows that the use of the holistic approach can provide better awareness of progress to team members than the traditional approach that relies on informal communications.

  3. Finding funds under your nose with capital raising techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, J P; Price, J B

    1988-07-01

    As competition increases and patient utilization and reimbursement decline, financial managers are faced with exhausted debt capacity and increasing needs for capital. It appears to be an impossible situation. However, techniques that create underlying value can be used to raise needed capital without jeopardizing a hospital's debt capacity and credit rating. These techniques--off-balance sheet financing, sale/leaseback of undervalued assets, sale or lease of existing services, and debt restructuring--create additional sources of capital without threatening future debt capacity. PMID:10287783

  4. Single mothers raising children with "male-positive" attitudes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doherty, William J; Craft, Shonda M

    2011-03-01

    Among the challenges facing single mothers, a particularly difficult one is how to help children develop "male-positive" attitudes in situations when the parents have broken up and children have no active relationship with the father. Despite a large academic literature on single mothering, there is strikingly little discussion on this topic. Using symbolic interactionism and family systems theory, we offer psychoeducational messages for single mothers who want to raise their children with male-positive attitudes. We also call for a new cultural conversation on an issue ignored for too long. PMID:21361924

  5. Determination of Akbash Shepherd Dog raised in Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    Y?lmaz, Orhan; Ertu?rul, Mehmet

    2012-01-01

    This study was carried out to determine the body measurements of the Turkish Akbash Shepherd Dogs raised in provinces of Afyon, Ankara, Eskisehir and Manisa by comparing with some other dog breeds of Turkey by minding factors of sex, region and age. For this purpose, a total of 59 (34 male and 25 female) dogs was included in the study and the data were statistically analysed. Descriptive statistics and comparison results for live weight 44.9±0.80 kg, and height at shoulders 75.3±0.59, height ...

  6. Civil engineering work to raise the level of Route Goward

    CERN Multimedia

    2013-01-01

    Civil engineering work to raise the level of Route Goward will take place during Long Shutdown 1. The work will begin on 18 March 2013 and is expected to last around 5 months.   Route Goward runs over the top of the PS tunnel and is the only access route to the inside of the ring. The layer of shielding backfill beneath this road is the thinnest anywhere on the PS ring. As the purpose of this shielding is to protect against the ionising radiation emitted by the accelerator when in operation, this road has been classified as a “supervised radiation area” according to radiation protection regulations. This classification was merely a temporary solution and, on the recommendation of the PS Radiation Working Group (PSRWG), the decision has been taken to raise the surface level permanently by around 2 m in order to increase the thickness of the shielding and thus lower the dose rate to that of a non-designated area. As the PS tunnel itself is unable to withstand the weight of t...

  7. Soil nitrogen and carbon impacts of raising chickens on pasture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryals, R.; Leach, A.; Tang, J.; Hastings, M. G.; Galloway, J. N.

    2014-12-01

    Chicken is the most consumed meat in the US, and production continues to intensify rapidly around the world. Chicken manure from confined feeding operations is typically applied in its raw form to nearby croplands, resulting in hotspots of soil nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions. Pasture-raised chicken is an alternative to industrial production and is growing in popularity with rising consumer demand for more humanely raised protein sources. In this agricultural model, manure is deposited directly onto grassland soils where it is thought to increase pools of soil carbon and nitrogen. The fate of manure nitrogen from pasture-raised chicken production remains poorly understood. We conducted a controlled, replicated experiment on a permaculture farm in Charlottesville, Virginia (Timbercreek Organics) in which small chicken coops (10 ft x 12 ft) were moved daily in a pasture. We measured manure deposition rates, soil inorganic nitrogen pools, soil moisture, and soil N2O and CO2 emissions. Measurements were made for the 28-day pasture life of three separate flocks of chickens in the spring, summer, and fall. Each flock consisted of approximately 200-300 chickens occupying three to five coops (~65 chickens/coop). Measurements were also made in paired ungrazed control plots. Manure deposition rates were similar across flocks and averaged 1.5 kgdrywt ha-1 during the spring grazing event and 4.0 kgdrywt ha-1 during the summer and fall grazing events. Manure deposition was relatively constant over the four weeks pasture-lifetime of the chickens. Compared to control plots, grazed areas exhibited higher soil N2O and CO2 fluxes. The magnitude of these fluxes diminished significantly over the four-week span. Soil gas fluxes significantly increased following rainfall events. For a given rainfall event, higher fluxes were observed from transects that were grazed more recently. Soil gaseous reactive nitrogen losses were less in this pasture system compared to cultivated field amended with raw chicken manure. These results suggest that pasture manure management may have a smaller impact on gaseous reactive nitrogen pollution.

  8. Ritual Purity Associated with Birth and Raising a Child

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Gancheva

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Hygiene of the body is an important element of family rites associated with the birth and raising of a child. It depends on both ?oran requirements of Islam, and rituals for acquiring new social status on a level of Islam taught within the family. The report follows this boundary between the Koranic tradition and the Islam in traditional folk customs, connected with the ritual purity in customs related to childbirth and child rearing of Bulgarian Sunni-Muslims. The main focus is on customs relating to the child and the woman in labor during the first 40 days after birth, and one of the biggest and most important celebrations in Muslim family - the circumcision ceremony of boys at the age of 6-7 years, called syunnet.

  9. Air flow management in raised floor data centers

    CERN Document Server

    Arghode, Vaibhav K

    2016-01-01

    The Brief discuss primarily two aspects of air flow management in raised floor data centers. Firstly, cooling air delivery through perforated tiles will be examined and influence of the tile geometry on flow field development and hot air entrainment above perforated tiles will be discussed. Secondly, the use of cold aisle containment to physically separate hot and cold regions, and minimize hot and cold air mixing will be presented. Both experimental investigations and computational efforts are discussed and development of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) based models for simulating air flow in data centers is included. In addition, metrology tools for facility scale air velocity and temperature measurement, and air flow rate measurement through perforated floor tiles and server racks are examined and the authors present thermodynamics-based models to gauge the effectiveness and importance of air flow management schemes in data centers.

  10. Raise the management level of EPC contracting in six aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear power construction develops rapidly today and EPC contracting for nuclear power projects, as a strategic decision of CNNC, has become a tendency. The target of engineering management can be smoothly realized or achieved by doing a good job in the following six aspects: effective communication between divisions of project department, high-degree consistency of managerial concepts for project management staff, clear objective for different divisions in the project department, presence of rules to be observed in construction management work, avoidance of human-initiated errors in the project, and clear distinction of management control concept. It is hoped that, through exchange and practice, management procedures and consciousness for EPC contracting can be further standardized and thus the level of management for EPC contracting will be raised finally. (authors)

  11. Design of a Hybrid Propulsion System for Orbit Raising Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boman, N.; Ford, M.

    2004-10-01

    A trade off between conventional liquid apogee engines used for orbit raising applications and hybrid rocket engines (HRE) has been performed using a case study approach. Current requirements for lower cost and enhanced safety places hybrid propulsion systems in the spotlight. For evaluating and design of a hybrid rocket engine a parametric engineering code is developed, based on the combustion chamber characteristics of selected propellants. A single port cylindrical section of fuel grain is considered. Polyethylene (PE) and hydroxyl-terminated polybutadiene (HTPB) represents the fuels investigated. The engine design is optimized to minimize the propulsion system volume and mass, while keeping the system as simple as possible. It is found that the fuel grain L/D ratio boundary condition has a major impact on the overall hybrid rocket engine design.

  12. THE CHALLENGES OF RAISING REVENUES AND RESTRUCTURING SUBSIDIES IN MALAYSIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suresh Narayanan

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Malaysia has run deficit budgets in all but five years since 1970 but past deficits have been managed thanks to substantial oil revenues and high domestic savings. However, the slow growth or decline of several traditional sources of revenue and the rising subsidy bill since 2007 have given pause for reflection on the traditional approach to fiscal management. In this paper, it is argued that fiscal management must not only centre around reducing non-productive expenditures and wasteful leakages but must also confront the problem of reducing and restructuring subsidies, particularly to petrol and petroleum-related products. The global dip in petroleum process has fortuitously provided the respite needed for such an exercise and should not lull policy makersinto complacency. When the economy recovers from the currentdownswing, a solid revenue raising instrument such as the value-addedtax must be introduced in order to wean the economy away from thecurrent over reliance on petroleum-based taxes.

  13. Does Stock Market Development Raise Economic Growth? Evidence from Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abu Nurudeen

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates whether stock market development raises economic growthin Nigeria, by employing the error correction approach. The econometric results indicate thatstock market development (market capitalization-GDP ratio increases economic growth.The recommendations therein include: removal of impediments to stock market developmentwhich include tax, legal, and regulatory barriers; development of the nation’s infrastructureto create an enabling environment for where business can strive; employment of policies thatwill increase the productivity and efficiency of firms as well encourage them to access capitalon the stock market; enhancement of the capacity of the Nigeria Security and ExchangeCommission to facilitate the growth of the stock market, restore the confidence of stockmarket participants and safeguard the interest of shareholders by checking sharp practicesof market operators (particularly speculators.

  14. Intensional Verbs Without Type-Raising or Lexical Ambiguity

    CERN Document Server

    Dalrymple, M; Pereira, F; Saraswat, V; Dalrymple, Mary; Lamping, John; Pereira, Fernando; Saraswat, Vijay

    1994-01-01

    We present an analysis of the semantic interpretation of intensional verbs such as seek that allows them to take direct objects of either individual or quantifier type, producing both de dicto and de re readings in the quantifier case, all without needing to stipulate type-raising or quantifying-in rules. This simple account follows directly from our use of logical deduction in linear logic to express the relationship between syntactic structures and meanings. While our analysis resembles current categorial approaches in important ways, it differs from them in allowing the greater type flexibility of categorial semantics while maintaining a precise connection to syntax. As a result, we are able to provide derivations for certain readings of sentences with intensional verbs and complex direct objects that are not derivable in current purely categorial accounts of the syntax-semantics interface. The analysis forms a part of our ongoing work on semantic interpretation within the framework of Lexical-Functional G...

  15. Problems raised by radium collection and final processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radium, in its different physico-chemical states and in source form, whether sealed or not, has been the first radionuclide to be used by industry and medicine. Progressively given up and replaced by other radionuclides providing a more attractive efficiency/safety ratio, waste of radium and compounds are currently often stored in totally unsuitable places. Considering the 1622 years radioactive half-life of radium, the radiological hazards bound to that natural radionuclide are important enough to start urgently the collection of this type of waste by a specialized organism. The problems raised by radium collection and final processing, including the on site conditioning and the conveying to the selected storage places, are the subject of the present paper. (author)

  16. Raising chickens in city backyards: the public health role.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollock, S L; Stephen, C; Skuridina, N; Kosatsky, T

    2012-06-01

    There is increasing interest in raising chickens in urban settings across North America. Current regulations on backyard chickens vary by jurisdiction due to concerns about perceived health threats. Proposed negative impacts on public health and community well-being include infectious diseases acquired through rearing practices or consumption of eggs, inappropriate waste management, interaction with pests and predators and nuisance factors such as noise and odour. Proposed benefits are derived largely from the human-animal bond and from feelings of autonomy over food selection. The importance or validity of claims of positive and negative effects cannot be supported by literature specific to the urban agriculture context. Public health practitioners might approach this issue in a manner analogous to concerns over keeping domestic pets. PMID:22083301

  17. High efficacy plasma display panel with vertically raised bus electrodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors propose a high efficacy alternating current plasma display panel utilizing vertically raised multilayer bus electrodes. The cell structure was designed to provide an opposite discharge mode and low discharge current in a relatively long gap. The test panels having discharge gaps of 330, 350, and 370 ?m were fabricated and basic properties of the panel were investigated in terms of current-voltage characteristics, luminance, and luminous efficiency. The cells with proposed structure show higher luminance and lower current simultaneously. The improvement in luminous efficiency is found to be a factor of 2 compared with the conventional coplanar structure having an electrode gap of 60 ?m. Emission spectra and spatio-temporal distribution of infrared light in discharge were measured. It is shown that high luminous efficiency of proposed cell originates from high excitation efficiency, low surface loss of charged particles, and enlarged discharge volume

  18. Status of RAISE, the Rapid Acquisition Imaging Spectrograph Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurent, Glenn T.; Hassler, D. M.; DeForest, C.; Ayres, T. R.; Davis, M.; De Pontieu, B.; Schuehle, U.; Warren, H.

    2013-07-01

    The Rapid Acquisition Imaging Spectrograph Experiment (RAISE) sounding rocket payload is a high speed scanning-slit imaging spectrograph designed to observe the dynamics and heating of the solar chromosphere and corona on time scales as short as 100 ms, with 1 arcsec spatial resolution and a velocity sensitivity of 1-2 km/s. The instrument is based on a new class of UV/EUV imaging spectrometers that use only two reflections to provide quasi-stigmatic performance simultaneously over multiple wavelengths and spatial fields. The design uses an off-axis parabolic telescope mirror to form a real image of the sun on the spectrometer entrance aperture. A slit then selects a portion of the solar image, passing its light onto a near-normal incidence toroidal grating, which re-images the spectrally dispersed radiation onto two array detectors. Two full spectral passbands over the same one-dimensional spatial field are recorded simultaneously with no scanning of the detectors or grating. The two different spectral bands (1st-order 1205-1243Å and 1526-1564Å) are imaged onto two intensified Active Pixel Sensor (APS) detectors whose focal planes are individually adjusted for optimized performance. The telescope and grating are coated with B4C to enhance short wavelength (2nd order) reflectance, enabling the instrument to record the brightest lines between 602-622Å and 761-780Å at the same time. RAISE reads out the full field of both detectors at 5-10 Hz, allowing us to record over 1,500 complete spectral observations in a single 5-minute rocket flight, opening up a new domain of high time resolution spectral imaging and spectroscopy. We present an overview of the project, a summary of the maiden flight results, and an update on instrument status.Abstract (2,250 Maximum Characters): The Rapid Acquisition Imaging Spectrograph Experiment (RAISE) sounding rocket payload is a high speed scanning-slit imaging spectrograph designed to observe the dynamics and heating of the solar chromosphere and corona on time scales as short as 100 ms, with 1 arcsec spatial resolution and a velocity sensitivity of 1-2 km/s. The instrument is based on a new class of UV/EUV imaging spectrometers that use only two reflections to provide quasi-stigmatic performance simultaneously over multiple wavelengths and spatial fields. The design uses an off-axis parabolic telescope mirror to form a real image of the sun on the spectrometer entrance aperture. A slit then selects a portion of the solar image, passing its light onto a near-normal incidence toroidal grating, which re-images the spectrally dispersed radiation onto two array detectors. Two full spectral passbands over the same one-dimensional spatial field are recorded simultaneously with no scanning of the detectors or grating. The two different spectral bands (1st-order 1205-1243Å and 1526-1564Å) are imaged onto two intensified Active Pixel Sensor (APS) detectors whose focal planes are individually adjusted for optimized performance. The telescope and grating are coated with B4C to enhance short wavelength (2nd order) reflectance, enabling the instrument to record the brightest lines between 602-622Å and 761-780Å at the same time. RAISE reads out the full field of both detectors at 5-10 Hz, allowing us to record over 1,500 complete spectral observations in a single 5-minute rocket flight, opening up a new domain of high time resolution spectral imaging and spectroscopy. We present an overview of the project, a summary of the maiden flight results, and an update on instrument status.

  19. 29 CFR 780.124 - Raising of fur-bearing animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 false Raising of fur-bearing animals. 780.124 Section 780.124 Labor...Raising of Livestock, Bees, Fur-Bearing Animals, Or Poultry § 780.124 Raising of fur-bearing animals. (a) The term “fur-bearing...

  20. 76 FR 54072 - Emergency Assistance for Livestock, Honeybees, and Farm-Raised Fish Program, Livestock Indemnity...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-31

    ...Honeybees, and Farm-Raised Fish Program--10.091. Tree...Honeybees, and Farm- Raised Fish Program 0 4. Revise Sec. 760...honeybees, and farm-raised fish. * * * * * (f) * * * (1...commercial use as part of a farming operation on the day they...

  1. Amino acid geochronology of raised beaches in south west Britain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowen, D. Q.; Sykes, G. A.; Reeves (nee Henry), Alayne; Miller, G. H.; Andrews, J. T.; Brew, J. S.; Hare, P. E.

    Based on (1) the epimerization of L:isoleucine to D:alloisoleucine ( {D}/{L} ratios) in Patella vulgata, Littorina littorea, L. littoralis, L. saxatilis, Littorina species and Nucella lapillus from raised beaches in south west Britain, (2) statistical analysis of the {D}/{L} ratios, and (3) lithostratigraphic and geomorphic evaluation, three ( {D}/{L}) Stages are proposed. The {D}/{L} ratios for all the species measured are converted to a Patella vulgata standard. The three ( {D}/{L}) Stages are: (1) The Minchin Hole ( {D}/{L}) Stage, {D}/{L} ratios 0.175 ± 0.014, defined at a stratotype in Minchin Hole Cave, Gower, Wales. (2) A provisionally defined, but as yet, unamed ( {D}/{L}) Stage, because of the current unavailability of a suitable stratotype, with {D}/{L} ratios of 0.135 ± 0.014 (3) The Pennard ( {D}/{L}) Stage, {D}/{L} ratios 0.105 ± 0.016, defined at a stratotype in Minchin Hole Cave, Gower, Wales. Two geochronological models of the three high sea-level events representing the {D}/{L} Stages are constrained by uranium-series age determinations on stalagmite interbedded with marine beds in Minchin Hole and Bacon Hole Caves, Gower, Wales. A potential 'fixed point' in model evaluation is an age determination which is equivalent to Oxygen Isotope Sub-stage 5e (122 ka). The two models are:

  2. Leptospirosis control on an intensive raising pig farm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teši? M.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Leptospirosis is an infective disease which represents serious health and economic problems in pig raising. The disease is caused by bacteria from genus Leptospira interrogans, which has over 250 serotypes and is isolated from most animal species and also from humans in almost every country in the world. In farm conditions the disease is seldom manifested as a clinically apparent illness. More often is manifested as reduced conception rate increased abortion rate and increased birth of dead and non-vital piglets. The leptospirosis control and eradication program was made for a state owned farm with a capacity of about 1500 sows and over 30000 fattened animals per year. The farm had an on going endemic leptospirosis infection and subsequent progressive economic losses. We detected 29,80% seropositive sows and gilts in which serotypes pomona and icterhaemorrhagiae were isolated. Serologic examination of blood was performed again after program implementation, and no positive animals were found, while production and economic results were improved. The control of leptospirosis and the eradication program for a five-year period were based on detailed quantification of economics losses. Using cost-benefit analysis the necessary inputs and planned outputs were defined, and program evolution was made on the basis of net present value and benefit/cost ratio.

  3. Toward raising the higher level of radiological nursing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The role and purpose of nursing in the radiological field are discussed with essentials of radiological nursing for raising its higher level and needed fundamental education. The discussion is from the thought that, at Fukushima Nuclear Power Plant Accident (Mar. 2011), general medical staff including nurses are rather insufficient of radiological knowledge like the exposure, radiation effect and risk. In the medical radiological field, nurses are expected to play roles of arranging the circumstance for patient's ease like explanation about health effect/risk, appropriate nursing of them after radiological diagnosis, radiation protection of nurses themselves, and of environment. At such an emergency as the Accident, care for the acutely exposed victims, their decontamination and responding to patient's concern are necessary. At the later phase, also needed are nursing of victims undergoing health management done by authorities and of radiological workers concerned as well as the third item above. Therefore, fundamentals of radiological knowledge such as physics, exposure, health effects, protection, contamination, legal rules and risk communication are required in the education of nurses. Otherwise, this education can be conducted as a part of safety security and physical assessment. The Accident also gives us the importance of radiological risk communication with its victims. (T.T.)

  4. Parental Stress in Raising a Child with Disabilities in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naveen Mehrotra

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available  Purpose: To determine the parenting stress and its determinants among parents of children with disabling conditions in India.Methods: The Parenting Stress Index – short form and a few open ended questions were administered to a convenience sample of sixty-six patient families in July, 2009 in the cities of New Delhi and Faridabad regions of Northern India through six non- governmental organizations (NGOs that serve children with disabling conditions. Results: Female sex of the child was associated with higher stress related to failure of the child to meet parent’s expectations and to satisfy the parents in their parenting role. Parents engaged in more lucrative and prestigious occupations had more stress than parents engaged in less prestigious and lucrative occupations irrespective of their income. Many parents reported receiving little support from their extended families in taking care of their child. Religion was found to be a common coping resource used by the parents.Conclusion and Implications: Higher parenting stress in parents of girls raises the possibility of abuse and neglect. Little support from informal family resources underscores the need for developing formal resources for supporting the parents. The specific resources of parenting stress among parents of different socioeconomic status should be explored in future studies so that appropriate interventions can be planned.doi 10.5463/DCID.v23i2.119

  5. Raised Vaginal Fluid Fibronectin Level Indicates Premature Rupture of Membrane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amrita Bhowmik

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Premature rupture of membrane (PROM is one of the common complications of pregnancy that has major impact on fetal and neonatal outcome. It is the commonest clinical event where a normal pregnancy becomes suddenly a high-risk one for mother and fetus or neonate. Objective: The study was undertaken to investigate whether raised fibronectin level in vaginal fluid may indicate premature rupture of membrane. Materials and Methods: This cross sectional study was conducted in the department of Obstetrics and Gynecology in Sir Salimullah Medical College & Mitford Hospital, Dhaka during the period of January 2006 to December 2007. A total of 114 pregnant women with gestational age 28th week up to 40th week were included. Sixty were PROM (Group I and 54 were non-PROM (Group II subjects. Fibronectin in vaginal fluid was measured by an immunochemical reaction by nephelometer. Statistical analysis was done by SPSS version 10.0. Results: The PROM patients had significantly higher concentration of fibronectin (225.77 ± 115.18 ng/mL compared to that in non-PROM subjects (8.04 ± 16.17 ng/mL (p < 0.001. Conclusion: It can be concluded that in cases of unequivocal rupture or intactness of the membranes, the result of the fibronectin test corresponds well with the clinical situation. So fibronectin is a sensitive test for detection of amniotic fluid in the vagina.

  6. Late Pleistocene raised beaches of coastal Estremadura, central Portugal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benedetti, Michael M.; Haws, Jonathan A.; Funk, Caroline L.; Daniels, J. Michael; Hesp, Patrick A.; Bicho, Nuno F.; Minckley, Thomas A.; Ellwood, Brooks B.; Forman, Steven L.

    2009-12-01

    We present new stratigraphic, sedimentological, and chronological data for a suite of tectonically raised beaches dating to Marine Isotope Stages 5, 4, and 3 along the Estremadura coast of west-central Portugal. The beach deposits are found in association with ancient tidal channels and coastal dunes, pollen bearing mud and peat, and Middle Paleolithic archaeological sites that confirm occupation of the coastal zone by Neanderthal populations. The significance of these deposits is discussed in terms of the archaeological record, the tectonic and geomorphic evolution of the coast, and correlation with reconstructions of global climate and eustatic sea-level change. Direct correlation between the Estremadura beach sections is complicated by the tectonic complexity of the area and the age of the beach deposits (which are near or beyond the limit of radiocarbon dating). Evidence from multiple sites dated by AMS radiocarbon and optical luminescence methods suggests broad synchroneity in relative sea-level changes along this coast during Marine Isotope Stage 3. Two beach complexes with luminescence and radiocarbon age control date to about 35 ka and 42 ka, recording a rise in relative sea level around the time of Heinrich Event 4 at 39 ka. Depending on assumptions about eustatic sea level at the time they were deposited, we estimate that these beaches have been uplifted at rates of 0.4-4.3 mm yr -1 by the combined effects of tectonic, halokinetic, and isostatic processes. Uplift rates of 1-2 mm yr -1 are likely if the beaches represent sea level stands at roughly 40 m below modern, as suggested by recent eustatic sea level reconstructions. Evidence from coastal bluffs and the interior of the study area indicates extensive colluvial, fluvial, and aeolian sedimentation beginning around 31 ka and continuing into the Holocene. These geomorphic adjustments are related to concomitant changes in climate and sea level, providing context that improves our understanding of Late Pleistocene landscape change and human occupation on the western Iberian margin.

  7. Raise Management Standards of Property Tax on Transnational Corporations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying-hui CUI

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available
    As China joined WTO, more and more foreign multinational companies will enter China. They run enterprises within the territory of China. This will inevitably play an active role in promoting the economic construction of China. But we should pay attention to some foreign multinational companies in China that often reduce the incomes of Chinese branch companies by utilizing transfer prices. Thus they achieve the goal of evading payment of duty. These make the tax revenue of Chinese Government fall sharply. So it is very important to raise management level of property tax to the multinational companies. This text explains the loss caused by the foreign businessmen using improper means to transfer prices. They import raw materials at a high price and export the products at a low price. Also the corresponding measures are made out in this paper.
    Key words: Multinational companies, Import at a high price and export at a low price, Current capital, Transfer prices
    Résumé: Avec l’adhésion de la Chine à l’OMC, de plus en plus nombreux sont les entreprises transnationales qui s’investiraient en Chine. Cela poussera inévitablement la construction économique de la Chine. Néanmoins, nons devons noter que, actuellement, des entreprises étrangères en Chine diminuent les profits des filiales chinoise en transférant les prix et atteint ainsi leur but d’éviter la taxe. De cet effet, les recettes fiscales de la Chine diminuent considérablement. Donc, il est très important d’améliorer le viveau de gestion fiscale à l’égard des entreprises transnationales. Cet article expose d’abord le déficit provoqué par les actions malhonnêtes de commerçants étrangers qui transfèrent les prix avec des moyens illégitimes pour acheter les ressources productives à haut prix et vendre les produits à bas prix, et propose ensuite des contre-mesures.
    Mots-Clés: entreprise transnationale, acheter cher et vendre moins cher, fonds liquides

  8. The nanotechnological inventions raise competitive ability of the products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VLASOV Vladimir Alexeevich

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A brief description of the nanotechnological inventions is given. The inventions in the area of nanotechnologies and nanomaterials produce a profound effect in construction, housing and communal services and adjacent economic fields as they allow us: to obtain high strength and durability of surfaces of the details, to provide different materials with hydrophil properties, to increase efficiency of transformation of light energy into electrical one etc., and in general – to raise competitive ability of the products. For example, the method of production of solar element and a unit of solar elements (RU 2532137 comprises following stages: formation of pn-transfer in semiconductor base plate, formation of passivating layer on the light-receptive surface and/or non light-receptive surface of semiconductor base plate and formation of power robbing electrodes on the light-receptive surface and non light-receptive. A film of aluminium oxide is formed as passivating layer, its thickness is up to 40 nm, and lectrode is formed by baking conductive paste under the temperature 500–900??°C for 1 second – 30 inutes with formation of sintered product. The sintered product penetrates through passivating layer setting electric contact between electrode and base plate. The formation of aluminium ide with specified thickness on the surface of base plate makes it possible to achieve good passivating characteristics and good electric contact between silica and electrode only by eans of baking conductive paste, that is standard technology. Moreover the baking stage which was necessary to get the effect of film passivation for aluminium oxide in the past now can be cancelled to decrease costs. The specialists may be also interested in the following nanotechnological inventions: reinforced flaked element made of natural or conglomerate stone and its multilayer protective coating (RU 2520193; fine organic suspension of carbon metal-containing nanostructures and the method to produce it (RU 2515858; the method of production of carbon nanomaterial (RU 2509053; the method to produce nanopowder of zinc oxide with the surface modification for the use in construction sealing materials (RU 2505379; building structures reinforcement composition (RU 2493337; nanostructured thermoelectric material (RU 2528338; conglutination composition for metal articles (RU 2526991; the method of nanosize structures formation ???????? (RU 2529458 etc.

  9. Prevalence of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in Organically and Naturally Raised Beef Cattle ? †

    OpenAIRE

    Reinstein, S.; Fox, J. T.; Shi, X; Alam, M. J.; Renter, D. G.; Nagaraja, T. G.

    2009-01-01

    We determined the prevalence of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in organically and naturally raised beef cattle at slaughter and compared antibiotic susceptibility profiles of the isolates to those of isolates from conventionally raised beef cattle. The prevalences of E. coli O157:H7 were 14.8 and 14.2% for organically and naturally raised cattle, respectively. No major difference in antibiotic susceptibility patterns among the isolates was observed.

  10. On the control/raising ambiguity with aspectual verbs : a structural account

    OpenAIRE

    Fukuda, Shin

    2007-01-01

    In what follows, I first briefly review Perlmutter (1968, 1970), in which it is argued that aspectual verbs are ambiguous between control and raising. I suggest that while the argument for the raising analysis is solid, the arguments supporting the control analysis of aspectual verbs are less so. As an alternative hypothesis to consider, I introduce the structural ambiguity hypothesis. In Section 3, I review three recent analyses of control and raising. Although there are important difference...

  11. The "Geoparks" as a way to raise geoconservation in Kazakhstan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fishman, Ilya; Kazakova, Julia; Abdov, Nurlan

    2013-04-01

    Kazakhstan is one of the nine largest countries of the world and not only has significant mineral resources but rich geological heritage. However, to date geology is considered only as a way to search for minerals due to the established traditions. Faced with a geologist, we usually ask: "What are you looking for?". But the man with the hammer must answer the more important question - about the future of the Planet and Humanity. But it is necessary to save and to study the stone chronicle page for this. Only history of the Earth, recorded in the annals of rock sheets, gives a scientific answer on the fate of Planet and Mankind, and allows realistically assess the risk of disasters, floods, global warming, etc. During 20 years we are trying to give a push to protection and use of geological heritage of Kazakhstan. In our country this new direction gets accustomed with large labor. The spread of the world experience on geoconservation, the databases created of the geological heritage of Kazakhstan, numerous performances in the scientific press and the media has not lead to real steps to preserve and use geodiversity in our country. Today we are trying to raise the idea of geoconservation in Kazakhstan based on Geoparks. A project "Geological study of the geoparks development in Kazakhstan" is developed. 12 representative areas were selected on a background of the database that includes 500 sites of geological heritage, embracing a large variety of geological processes in all regions of Kazakhstan. On October 31st, 2012 in Astana the "Kazakh Geographical Society" held an international conference including "Geoparks" section. At the conference reports of all the regions of Kazakhstan representatives were presented, as well as European countries with extensive experience in geoconservation and geoparks creation (Portugal, Bulgaria, Turkey). The conference was supported by UNESCO. Album "Millions of years before the Silk Road", which represents the future Kazakhstan Geoparks, was published. Geoparks of Kazakhstan extremely visually represent global geological processes. Ustuyrt plateau is a part of a tectonic system Caspian-Aral-Ustyurt. The study of the plateau as part of a tectonic megasystem Caspian-Aral Ustyurt allows us to understand the nature of largest intercontinental hollow of the world (the "country-crater" by Alexander von Humboldt). As a result, the Caspian Sea is considered today as a "window into the mantle". Paleovolcanic area Shuyldak is relict of Devonian Ural Ocean World standard of volcanic structures of ancient mid-ocean type. It is an illustrative base of plate tectonics. At the Kokshetau National Park the world's largest diamond deposit is explored. 2.5 billion carats is more than in all the deposits in Yakutia. This technical microdiamonds that are not mined. The field is interesting not only for geologists, but for mass tourism too. National Park Burabaj linked to the ancient granite-metamorphic dome. For nearly a billion years (from Proterozoic to Mesozoic) metamorphic complexes and granite melts had been formed which compose the foundation of modern scenic lake and forest landscape.

  12. Raising public awareness of nuclear science in action

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Department of Training and Consulting was created at the Soltan Institute for Nuclear Studies about 7 years ago. Its main goal consists in dissemination of knowledge of nuclear physics and its applications with special emphasis on the use of radiation in everyday life, its biological effects and the risks connected with the use of nuclear radiation. The second important goal is to counteract social radiophobia. Last but not least, is presentation of the scientific and technological achievements of the Institute. The main target groups are secondary-school teachers and their pupils who in spite of various obstacles in organisation of travels to Otwierk, are coming in mass. During last 4 years we accepted more than 20,000 visitors from all over Poland. In addition to lectures themselves and lectures with experimental demonstrations two permanent exhibitions are displayed permanently. One is called 'Nuclear Wastes: Problems, Solutions', the other one is displaying 1:10 model of nuclear power plant (VVER-440-type), both extremely useful in discussing the problems of nuclear wastes, and organisation and use of the nuclear power plants. Very specific place in the Department is quite unique Laboratory of Atomic and Nuclear Physics, dedicated to secondary schools' students although it is also used by university students and in teachers' trainings. Number of basic experiments from nuclear physics can be carried out by students, so the very basis of atomic and nuclear physics can be learnt on experimental basis. The experimental park can also be used in any professional courses on e.g. radiation protection. The need of having this type of units at the otherwise research institute is clearly seen by the systematically growing number of visitors, and their demands for educational material. One can also see some direct results: the groups who visited our centre were winning in all-Poland conquest for a project from radioactivity (organised on 100th Anniversary of Nobel Prize for Maria Skodowska-Curie), the schools - after visiting us - try to organise their own minisymposia on the radioactivity, the visitors seem to receive proper message about the real risk connected with nuclear radiation. The latter is judged by the fact that very seldom we encounter typical symptoms of radio phobia after the visit to our Department. We are strongly convinced that our work will result in an increased interest of students in physics, and may regain the popularity of nuclear physics among the students. This is necessary if the nuclear energy is going to be developed and used safely in the country. We also believe that similar educational centres, if wherever absent, should be organised in other nuclear centres in Europe and all of them should form a network in which new didactical methods would be worked out and the experience could be easily evaluated and exchanged between the network's partners. The paper presents motivation, present status, methodology and results of our more than 5-years experience in raising public awareness of nuclear problems in various social groups. (author)

  13. Seismic monitoring experiment of raise boring in 2014

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In Olkiluoto, Posiva Oy has operated a local seismic network since February 2002. The purpose of the microearthquake measurements at Olkiluoto is to improve understanding of the structure, behaviour and long term stability of the bedrock. The studies include both tectonic and excavation-induced microearthquakes. An additional task of monitoring is related to safeguarding of ONKALO. The possibility to excavate an illegal access to ONKALO has been concerned when the safeguards are discussed. Therefore all recorded explosions in the Olkiluoto area and in ONKALO are located. If a concentration of explosions is observed, the origin of that is found out. Also a concept of hidden illegal explosions, detonated at the same time as the real excavation blasts, has been examined. According to the experience gained in Olkiluoto, it can be concluded that, as long the seismic network is in operation and the results are analysed by a skilled person, it is practically impossible to do illegal undetected excavation by blasting within the Olkiluoto seismic network area. In this report a possibility of seismic monitoring of undeclared excavation done by tunnel boring machine (TBM) has been investigated. In the earlier investigations the instruments were at the ground surface and the sensors were triaxial short period (1 Hz) geophones or broadband geophones. The characteristics (frequency content, polarity and amplitude) of the continuous seismic vibration generated by TMB were studied. The onset time of the seismic signal were not distinguished. Altogether 16 new 10 kHz accelerometers were installed in boreholes inside ONKALO March 2012. The sensors comprised a new subnetwork that monitored the raise boring of two shafts done 2014, from the level -455 m to the level -290 m. The aim was to record the seismic signal generated when the drill bit hits the rock at the moment the tunnel boring begins. Altogether 113 seismic signals generated by the drill bit were located during the experiment. The location accuracy was from few meters to few tens of meters in horizontal direction. In vertical direction the location accuracy was not as good and depended strongly on the vertical distribution of recordings. When the TBM is running continuous strong vibration is generated. This is usually observed by the Posiva's permanent seismic network. This study presents a method that can be used, if the location of the TBM or tunnel cannot be verified by the documentation of construction works or by field studies. Posiva's permanent seismic network can be designed so that it takes the possible undeclared TBM into account. The sensor types used in monitoring of the ONKALO's excavation induced seismicity are also suitable for monitoring the hits of the TBM's drill bit. If necessary, the network can be tuned to operate temporarily in a more sensitive mode for that purpose. (orig.)

  14. Seismic monitoring experiment of raise boring in 2014

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saari, J.; Malm, M. [AaF-Consult Oy, Espoo (Finland)

    2015-01-15

    In Olkiluoto, Posiva Oy has operated a local seismic network since February 2002. The purpose of the microearthquake measurements at Olkiluoto is to improve understanding of the structure, behaviour and long term stability of the bedrock. The studies include both tectonic and excavation-induced microearthquakes. An additional task of monitoring is related to safeguarding of ONKALO. The possibility to excavate an illegal access to ONKALO has been concerned when the safeguards are discussed. Therefore all recorded explosions in the Olkiluoto area and in ONKALO are located. If a concentration of explosions is observed, the origin of that is found out. Also a concept of hidden illegal explosions, detonated at the same time as the real excavation blasts, has been examined. According to the experience gained in Olkiluoto, it can be concluded that, as long the seismic network is in operation and the results are analysed by a skilled person, it is practically impossible to do illegal undetected excavation by blasting within the Olkiluoto seismic network area. In this report a possibility of seismic monitoring of undeclared excavation done by tunnel boring machine (TBM) has been investigated. In the earlier investigations the instruments were at the ground surface and the sensors were triaxial short period (1 Hz) geophones or broadband geophones. The characteristics (frequency content, polarity and amplitude) of the continuous seismic vibration generated by TMB were studied. The onset time of the seismic signal were not distinguished. Altogether 16 new 10 kHz accelerometers were installed in boreholes inside ONKALO March 2012. The sensors comprised a new subnetwork that monitored the raise boring of two shafts done 2014, from the level -455 m to the level -290 m. The aim was to record the seismic signal generated when the drill bit hits the rock at the moment the tunnel boring begins. Altogether 113 seismic signals generated by the drill bit were located during the experiment. The location accuracy was from few meters to few tens of meters in horizontal direction. In vertical direction the location accuracy was not as good and depended strongly on the vertical distribution of recordings. When the TBM is running continuous strong vibration is generated. This is usually observed by the Posiva's permanent seismic network. This study presents a method that can be used, if the location of the TBM or tunnel cannot be verified by the documentation of construction works or by field studies. Posiva's permanent seismic network can be designed so that it takes the possible undeclared TBM into account. The sensor types used in monitoring of the ONKALO's excavation induced seismicity are also suitable for monitoring the hits of the TBM's drill bit. If necessary, the network can be tuned to operate temporarily in a more sensitive mode for that purpose. (orig.)

  15. The Critical Role of Stewardship in Fund Raising: The Coaches vs. Cancer Campaign.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worley, Debra A.; Little, Jennifer K.

    2002-01-01

    Examines the critical role of stewardship in the process of fund raising. Uses the Coaches vs. Cancer campaign to illustrate the limitations of the public relations ROPE (research, objectives, planning, and evaluation) model in explaining fund raising success, and supports K.S. Kelly's contention that addition of a fifth step to the model, the…

  16. Beleaguered "Pygmalion": A History of the Controversy over Claims That Teacher Expectancy Raises Intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spitz, Herman H.

    1999-01-01

    Reviews the claim, endorsed by many psychologists and educators, that raising teachers' expectations of their students' potential will raise student intelligence. Reviews the original study by R. Rosenthal and L. Jacobsen (1968) and the controversy that followed and discusses the consequences for educational policy and practice. (SLD)

  17. Factors Associated with the Empowerment of Japanese Families Raising a Child with Developmental Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakimizu, Rie; Fujioka, Hiroshi; Yoneyama, Akira; Iejima, Atsushi; Miyamoto, Shinya

    2011-01-01

    We identified factors associated with the empowerment of Japanese families using the Family Empowerment Scale (FES) to contribute to the improvement of empowerment in Japanese families raising a child with developmental disorders (DDs). The study was conducted in 350 caregivers who raised children aged 4-18 years with DDs in urban and suburban…

  18. Raising the Achievement of White Working Class Pupils: Good Practice in Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Kirstin; Demie, Feyisa

    2015-01-01

    This research identifies strategies that schools have used to raise achievement among white working class pupils in multiracial schools. The methodological approach comprises case studies of schools and focus group interviews to ascertain the views of teachers, parents and children about strategies that worked to raise achievement. The study…

  19. Raising Generation Tech Preparing Your Children for a Media-Fueled World

    CERN Document Server

    Taylor, Jim

    2012-01-01

    Today's children are being raised as 'digital natives' in a world dominated by popular culture and technology. TV shows, computers, video games, social networking sites, advertisements, and cell phones too often have an unnecessarily strong-and negative? influence on children.  But pulling the plug just isn't an option in a world where being connected is essential for success. In Raising Generation Tech,  noted parenting and new-media expert Dr. Jim Taylor explores how popular culture and technology shape children's lives. The essential message from Raising Generation Tech is that excessive

  20. Raise the Standard: A Practical Handbook for Raising Ethnic Minority and Bilingual Pupils' Achievement Based on Successful Policy and Practice in Cities across the European Community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Phil, Comp.

    This handbook has been produced by member cities of the Developing Intercultural Education through Cooperation between European Cities (DIECEC) Network as an overview and synthesis of actions that have been successful in raising the academic achievement of ethnic minority and bilingual students. This practical guide is a synthesis of proven…

  1. Serving in Middle East May Raise Skin Cancer Risk in U.S. Vets

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... html Serving in Middle East May Raise Skin Cancer Risk in U.S. Vets Study cites limited use of ... wars in Iraq and Afghanistan are at increased risk for skin cancer because of long hours spent in the desert ...

  2. California gull chicks raised near colony edges have elevated stress levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herring, Garth; Ackerman, Joshua T.

    2011-01-01

    Coloniality in nesting birds represents an important life history strategy for maximizing reproductive success. Birds nesting near the edge of colonies tend to have lower reproductive success than individuals nesting near colony centers, and offspring of edge-nesting parents may be impaired relative to those of central-nesting parents. We used fecal corticosterone metabolites in California gull chicks (Larus californicus) to examine whether colony size or location within the colony influenced a chick's physiological condition. We found that chicks being raised near colony edges had higher fecal corticosterone metabolite concentrations than chicks raised near colony centers, but that colony size (ranging from 150 to 11,554 nests) had no influence on fecal corticosterone levels. Fecal corticosterone metabolite concentrations also increased with chick age. Our results suggest that similarly aged California gull chicks raised near colony edges may be more physiologically stressed, as indicated by corticosterone metabolites, than chicks raised near colony centers.

  3. Sources of Saturated Fat, Stearic Acid, & Cholesterol Raising Fat among the US Population, 2005–06

    Science.gov (United States)

    The purpose of this research was to identify the contributions of specific foods to intake of saturated fat, stearic acid, and "cholesterol raising fat" (defined as saturated fat minus stearic acid) in the US population age 2 years and older.

  4. Report of geophysical raising of the amethyst and agate in two quarries in Artigas district Uruguay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In a geophysical raising of amethyst and agate was studied the possibility to apply a better suitable geophysical method. The conclusion was that the electromagnetic VLF method was suitable to identify the zones.

  5. The social context of kentish raising: issues in old english sociolinguistics

    OpenAIRE

    Graeme Trousdale

    2005-01-01

    This article considers issues in Old English sociolinguistics, in relation to specific changes affecting the low front vowels in ninth-century Kentish, as manifest in spelling variation in charters of the time. This change is referred to as Kentish Raising (Hogg 1988). It is suggested that variationist sociolinguistics is not an appropriate framework within which to explain Kentish Raising, since the nature of the data is such that a variationist approach is untenable. A reconstruction of the...

  6. Review and recommendations on management of refractory raised intracranial pressure in aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage

    OpenAIRE

    Mak CH; Lu YY; Wong GK

    2013-01-01

    Calvin Hoi Kwan Mak, Yeow Yuen Lu, George Kwok Chu Wong Department of Surgery, Prince of Wales Hospital, Shatin, Hong Kong Abstract: Intracranial hypertension is commonly encountered in poor-grade aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage patients. Refractory raised intracranial pressure is associated with poor prognosis. The management of raised intracranial pressure is commonly referenced to experiences in traumatic brain injury. However, pathophysiologically, aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage is...

  7. The revenue raising capabilities of a VAT system in developing countries

    OpenAIRE

    Azaria, N.T.; Robinson, Zurika; Robinson, Z. Clausen

    2005-01-01

    The paper attempts to elaborate on the revenue-raising capabilities (economic efficiency and viability) of a value-added tax (VAT) system, particularly in developing countries. The analysis concentrates on the effect of a VAT on tax revenues raised, and the main objective is to determine whether a VAT system generates greater benefits than previously-utilised sales taxes, i.e. pre-existing sales taxes (PEST). Using a panel data regression analysis, our results indicate that while all countrie...

  8. Status of tuberculosis in bovine animals raised by tuberculosis infected patients in Western Chitwan, Nepal

    OpenAIRE

    Dhakal IP; Pandey KR; Subedi S; Sadaula A; KC G; Dhakal S; Pandey G

    2012-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Bovine tuberculosis (bTB) is an important public health concern worldwide. This study was conducted to determine the status of bTB in animals raised by tuberculosis patients in Western Chitwan, Nepal.MATERIALS AND METHODS: This cross-sectional study was conducted from August, 2011 to January, 2012. A total of 100 bovines (cattle and buffalo) raised in 60 farms of tuberculosis patients were tested with single intradermal tuberculin test considering various animal factors. Well de...

  9. Competition between Sphagnum mosses in European raised bogs : the effect of a changing climate

    OpenAIRE

    Robroek, B.J.M.

    2007-01-01

    Sphagnum mosses are key-stone species in European raised bogs, and as such play an important role in the functioning of the ecosystem and its response to environmental change. Within Sphagnum, species may vary widely in their characteristics, making the identity of the dominant Sphagnum species an important factor explaining ecosystem response. We conducted several glasshouse and field studies, aimed at investigating how the main Sphagnum species in European raised bog respond to changes in c...

  10. Evidence of streptococcal origin of acute non-necrotising cellulitis: a serological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karppelin, M; Siljander, T; Haapala, A-M; Aittoniemi, J; Huttunen, R; Kere, J; Vuopio, J; Syrjänen, J

    2015-04-01

    Bacteriological diagnosis is rarely achieved in acute cellulitis. Beta-haemolytic streptococci and Staphylococcus aureus are considered the main pathogens. The role of the latter is, however, unclear in cases of non-suppurative cellulitis. We conducted a serological study to investigate the bacterial aetiology of acute non-necrotising cellulitis. Anti-streptolysin O (ASO), anti-deoxyribonuclease B (ADN) and anti-staphylolysin (ASTA) titres were measured from acute and convalescent phase sera of 77 patients hospitalised because of acute bacterial non-necrotising cellulitis and from the serum samples of 89 control subjects matched for age and sex. Antibiotic treatment decisions were also reviewed. Streptococcal serology was positive in 53 (69%) of the 77 cases. Furthermore, ten cases without serological evidence of streptococcal infection were successfully treated with penicillin. Positive ASO and ADN titres were detected in ten (11%) and three (3%) of the 89 controls, respectively, and ASTA was elevated in three patients and 11 controls. Our findings suggest that acute non-necrotising cellulitis without pus formation is mostly of streptococcal origin and that penicillin can be used as the first-line therapy for most patients. PMID:25403372

  11. Raising the topic of weight in general practice: perspectives of GPs and primary care nurses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackburn, Maxine; Stathi, Afroditi; Keogh, Edmund; Eccleston, Christopher

    2015-01-01

    Objective To explore general practitioners’ (GPs) and primary care nurses’ perceived barriers to raising the topic of weight in general practice. Design A qualitative study using the Theoretical Domains Framework (TDF). 34 semistructured interviews were conducted to explore views, opinions and experiences of initiating a discussion about weight. Content and thematic analyses were used to analyse the interview transcripts. Setting General practices located in one primary care trust in the South West of England. Participants 17 GPs and 17 nurses aged between 32 and 66?years. The modal age range for GPs was 30–39?years and for nurses, 40–49?years. Results Barriers were synthesised into three main themes: (1) limited understanding about obesity care, (2) concern about negative consequences, and (3) having time and resources to raise a sensitive topic. Most barriers were related to raising the topic in more routine settings, rather than when dealing with an associated medical condition. GPs were particularly worried about damaging their relationship with patients and emphasised the need to follow their patient's agenda. Conclusions Uncertainty about obesity, concerns about alienating patients and feeling unable to raise the topic within the constraints of a 10?min consultation, is adding to the reluctance of GPs and nurses to broach the topic of weight. Addressing these concerns through training or by providing evidence of effective interventions that are feasible to deliver within consultations may lead to greater practitioner engagement and willingness to raise the topic. PMID:26254471

  12. THE SOCIAL CONTEXT OF KENTISH RAISING: ISSUES IN OLD ENGLISH SOCIOLINGUISTICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graeme Trousdale

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available This article considers issues in Old English sociolinguistics, in relation to specific changes affecting the low front vowels in ninth-century Kentish, as manifest in spelling variation in charters of the time. This change is referred to as Kentish Raising (Hogg 1988. It is suggested that variationist sociolinguistics is not an appropriate framework within which to explain Kentish Raising, since the nature of the data is such that a variationist approach is untenable. A reconstruction of the social, political and cultural situation in ninth-century Kent is provided, which examines Mercian influence in the period, and suggests that a Mercian-driven change from above (Second Fronting cannot be the source of Kentish Raising. Finally, it is proposed that recent work in genetic anthropology, which seeks to discover more about the nature and extent of the continental migrations, may be useful in understanding the social context in which the varieties of Old English existed and developed.

  13. The Contribution of Io-Raised Tides to Europa's Diurnally-Varying Surface Stresses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhoden, Alyssa Rose; Hurford, Terry A,; Manga, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Europa's icy surface records a rich history of geologic activity, Several features appear to be tectonic in origin and may have formed in response to Europa's daily-varying tidal stress [I]. Strike-slip faults and arcuate features called cycloids have both been linked to the patterns of stress change caused by eccentricity and obliquity [2J[3]. In fact, as Europa's obliquity has not been directly measured, observed tectonic patterns arc currently the best indicators of a theoretically supported [4] non-negligible obliquity. The diurnal tidal stress due to eccentricity is calculated by subtracting the average (or static) tidal shape of Europa generated by Jupiter's gravitational field from the instantaneous shape, which varies as Europa moves through its eccentric orbit [5]. In other words, it is the change of shape away from average that generates tidal stress. One might expect tidal contributions from the other large moons of Jupiter to be negligible given their size and the height of the tides they raise on Europa versus Jupiter's mass and the height of the tide it raises on Europa, However, what matters for tidally-induced stress is not how large the lo-raised bulge is compared to the Jupiter-raised bulge but rather the differences bet\\Veen the instantaneous and static bulges in each case. For example, when Europa is at apocenter, Jupiter raises a tide 30m lower than its static tide. At the same time, 10 raises a tide about 0.5m higher than its static tide. Hence, the change in Io's tidal distortion is about 2% of the change in the Jovian distortion when Europa is at apocenter

  14. GRAMMATICAL SYLLABUS AND EFL TEXTBOOKS: THE NEED FOR CONSCIOUSNESS-RAISING ACTIVITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sasan Baleghizadeh

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the role of the grammatical syllabus in EFL settings is examined. To this end, the grammatical syllabus and its shortcomings are first explored. It is then argued that the grammatical syllabus is perhaps the best channel through which grammar instruction can take shape, and hence the importance of grammar instruction is discussed. Finally, the concept of consciousness-raising activities is introduced and it is suggested that the explicit presentation of grammar in traditional EFL textbooks still used in certain settings be replaced by consciousness-raising activities.

  15. Obtaining raised density connections by thermosonic microwelding in 3D integrated microcircuits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lanin V. L.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The authors consider the processes of obtaining raised density microwelded connections in 3D-integrated microcircuits by the thermosonic microwelding. The processes include the use of the raised frequencies of ultrasound, application of the microinstrument with a thinning of the working end and precision devices for ball formation, which provide reproducibility of connections quality. At a small step of contact pads, the use of a wire of small diameter (not more than 25 µm is necessary for devices with a multilevel arrangement of leads and chess arrangement of contact pads on the chip, providing the maximum length of the formed crosspieces does not exceed 4—5 mm.

  16. An Educational Trial about Creative Robot Making with the Aim of Raising Students? Motivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsutsumi, Hirotaka; Fukuda, Katsumi

    In recent years, the necessity for education which helps to raise students? motivation toward engineering has become acutely recognized. In response to this need, the Mechanical Engineering Department of Tokyo National College of Technology has been striving to increase its focus on education that nurtures creativity. This paper describes an educational trial which focuses on creative robot making. In particular, some educational innovations and their effects are presented. Based on favorable responses from students, this educational trial would seem to indicate that the methods employed have a positive effect on raising student motivation.

  17. Detecting tissue deterioration after brain injury: regional blood flow level versus capacity to raise blood flow

    OpenAIRE

    Feuerstein, Delphine; Takagaki, Masatoshi; Gramer, Markus; Manning, Andrew; Endepols, Heike; Vollmar, Stefan; YOSHIMINE, TOSHIKI; Strong, Antony J; Graf, Rudolf; Backes, Heiko

    2014-01-01

    Regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) is spatially and temporally adjusted to local energy needs. This coupling involves dilation of vessels both at the site of metabolite exchange and upstream of the activated region. Deficits in upstream blood supply limit the ‘capacity to raise rCBF' in response to functional activation and therefore compromise brain function. We here demonstrate in rats that the ‘capacity to raise rCBF' can be determined from real-time measurements of rCBF using laser speck...

  18. Dermatomyositis presenting with symptomatic dermographism and raised troponin T: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahim Kartini F

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Dermatomyositis is an important inflammation of skin and muscles. Generalised itch is frequent in the condition; however, symptomatic dermographism has not previously been reported as a presenting feature. Case presentation A 32-year-old Caucasian Scottish woman was diagnosed with dermatomyositis after initial presentation with symptomatic dermographism. No underlying neoplasm was found and her condition was successfully treated with systemic corticosteroids and high-dose human immunoglobulin infusions. At presentation, her troponin T and creatine phosphokinase enzymes were highly raised. Conclusion Symptomatic dermographism may be a presenting feature of dermatomyositis. Dermatomyositis is one of many conditions that can result in a raised troponin T.

  19. A study on a systematic method for evaluating values of raised concerns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this study is to develop a methodology that can externalise potential concerns and evaluate the values of the concerns raised in corporations. By implementing this methodology into corporate governance, it is expected to improve the work environment and enhance the capability for the corporate governance through supporting the internal autonomic purification. This study comprises of: case studies of past wrongdoings in corporations such as JCO and Tokyo Electric Power Company (TEPCO); identifying the viewpoints for evaluating values of raised concerns; developing a model to evaluate the values. (author)

  20. DETERMINATION OF ZERDAVA DOG (KAPI KOPEGI) RAISED IN NORTHEAST OF TURKEY

    OpenAIRE

    Yilmaz, Orhan; Ertugrul, Mehmet

    2012-01-01

    This is the first document on Turkish Zerdava dogs raised in northeast of Turkey. This study was carried out to define the morphologic traits of the Turkish Zerdava dogs raised in east of Turkey comparing with some other native dog breeds of Turkey. To this end, a total of 39 (19 male and 20 female) dogs was analyzed using the Minitab 15 statistical software program using ANOVA and Student’s t-Test. Descriptive statistics and comparison results were for height at shoulders 51.2±0.35, height a...

  1. Murder-suicide involving BC doctor raises troubling questions about euthanasia.

    OpenAIRE

    Wilson, V

    1995-01-01

    The deaths last September of a British Columbia physician and his wife have raised troubling questions about euthanasia and Alzheimer's disease. Police described the deaths of Dr. Tom Powell and his wife Dr. Lorraine Miles, a retired dentist, as a murder-suicide. Friends of the couple wonder if more lenient laws concerning euthanasia and assisted suicide might have saved Miles' life.

  2. Differential equations for multiple orthogonal polynomials with respect to classical weights: raising and lowering operators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We obtain a lowering operator for multiple orthogonal polynomials having orthogonality conditions with respect to r element of N classical weights. These multiple orthogonal polynomials are generalizations of the classical orthogonal polynomials. Combining the lowering operator with the raising operators, which have been obtained earlier in the literature, we then also obtain a linear differential equation of order r + 1

  3. Consciousness Raising and Noticing through Focus on Form: Grammar Task Performance versus Formal Instruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fotos, Sandra S.

    1993-01-01

    Research is presented that investigates the amount of learner noticing produced by two types of grammar consciousness-raising treatments: teacher-fronted grammar lessons and interactive, grammar problem-solving tasks. Results indicate that task performance is as effective as formal instruction in promoting noticing. (Contains 33 references.)…

  4. Integrating Grammar Instruction and Communicative Language Use through Grammar Consciousness-Raising Tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fotos, Sandra S.

    1994-01-01

    A study of three grammar consciousness-raising tasks dealing with word order among Japanese university students showed that the tasks successfully promoted both proficiency gains and second-language negotiated interaction in participants. Negotiation quantity was determined by the combination of task features present rather than the nature of the…

  5. African American Grandchildren Raised in Grandparent-Headed Families: An Exploratory Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelch-Oliver, Karia

    2011-01-01

    There has been an increase in grandparents raising their grandchildren due to parental absence. This family structure has affected urban, single, low-income African Americans at a higher rate than any other racial group. Research on grandchildren reared in grandparent-headed families (GHF) states these children are at risk of significant…

  6. A Relational Frame Training Intervention to Raise Intelligence Quotients: A Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassidy, Sarah; Roche, Bryan; Hayes, Steven C.

    2011-01-01

    The current research consisted of 2 studies designed to test the effectiveness of automated multiple-exemplar relational training in raising children's general intellectual skills. In Study 1, 4 participants were exposed to multiple exemplar training in stimulus equivalence and the relational frames of SAME, OPPOSITE, MORE THAN, and LESS THAN…

  7. A biological mechanism for Bayesian feature selection: Weight decay and raising the LASSO.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connor, Patrick; Hollensen, Paul; Krigolson, Olav; Trappenberg, Thomas

    2015-07-01

    Biological systems are capable of learning that certain stimuli are valuable while ignoring the many that are not, and thus perform feature selection. In machine learning, one effective feature selection approach is the least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (LASSO) form of regularization, which is equivalent to assuming a Laplacian prior distribution on the parameters. We review how such Bayesian priors can be implemented in gradient descent as a form of weight decay, which is a biologically plausible mechanism for Bayesian feature selection. In particular, we describe a new prior that offsets or "raises" the Laplacian prior distribution. We evaluate this alongside the Gaussian and Cauchy priors in gradient descent using a generic regression task where there are few relevant and many irrelevant features. We find that raising the Laplacian leads to less prediction error because it is a better model of the underlying distribution. We also consider two biologically relevant online learning tasks, one synthetic and one modeled after the perceptual expertise task of Krigolson et al. (2009). Here, raising the Laplacian prior avoids the fast erosion of relevant parameters over the period following training because it only allows small weights to decay. This better matches the limited loss of association seen between days in the human data of the perceptual expertise task. Raising the Laplacian prior thus results in a biologically plausible form of Bayesian feature selection that is effective in biologically relevant contexts. PMID:25897512

  8. Using the Implicit Association Test as an Unconsciousness Raising Tool in Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casad, Bettina J.; Flores, Abdiel J.; Didway, Jessica D.

    2013-01-01

    People are reluctant to admit they harbor implicit biases. Students (N = 68) from four social psychology courses completed an assignment designed to raise awareness about implicit biases. After completing an Implicit Association Test (IAT), students answered six essay questions, read two articles on the IAT, and answered five additional essay…

  9. Math, Science, and Web-Based Activities to Raise Awareness about Nutrition and Obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuercher, Deborah K.

    2011-01-01

    The incidence of child obesity in the United States is increasing at an alarming rate. This article provides information about nutrition, obesity, and related health conditions and suggests some classroom activities to raise awareness about these issues and empower students to live healthier, more active lives. A list of recommended health-related…

  10. Swimming kinematics and respiratory behaviour of Xenopus laevis larvae raised in altered gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fejtek, M.; Souza, K.; Neff, A.; Wassersug, R.

    1998-01-01

    We examined the respiratory behaviours and swimming kinematics of Xenopus laevis tadpoles hatched in microgravity (Space Shuttle), simulated microgravity (clinostat) and hypergravity (3 g centrifuge). All observations were made in the normal 1 g environment. Previous research has shown that X. laevis raised in microgravity exhibit abnormalities in their lungs and vestibular system upon return to 1 g. The tadpoles raised in true microgravity exhibited a significantly lower tailbeat frequency than onboard 1 g centrifuge controls on the day of landing (day0), but this behaviour normalized within 9 days. The two groups did not differ significantly in buccal pumping rates. Altered buoyancy in the space-flight microgravity tadpoles was indicated by an increased swimming angle on the day after landing (day1). Tadpoles raised in simulated microgravity differed to a greater extent in swimming behaviours from their 1 g controls. The tadpoles raised in hypergravity showed no substantive effects on the development of swimming or respiratory behaviours, except swimming angle. Together, these results show that microgravity has a transient effect on the development of locomotion in X. laevis tadpoles, most notably on swimming angle, indicative of stunted lung development. On the basis of the behaviours we studied, there is no indication of neuromuscular retardation in amphibians associated with embryogenesis in microgravity.

  11. Breeding strategy of US farm-raised channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus affects progeny production and performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    catfish propagation for decades has been dependent on random mating of male and female channel catfish in ponds. It is simple and has been fairly successful in fulfilling the needs of the US farm-raised catfish industry. However, natural pond spawning is unreliable, unpredictable, and incurs 30 t...

  12. Ruled by Hetero-Norms? Raising Some Moral Questions for Teachers in South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhana, Deevia

    2014-01-01

    Thirty-eight countries in Africa regard homosexuality as punishable by law with South Africa remaining a standout country advancing constitutional equality on the basis of sexual orientation. In the context of homophobic violence, however, concerns have been raised about schools' potential to improve the educational, moral and social outcomes…

  13. A Hands-On Activity to Raise Awareness about Healthy Sun Exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    João Fonseca, Maria; Costa, Patrício; Lencastre, Leonor; Tavares, Fernando

    2015-01-01

    Excessive exposure to solar ultraviolet (UV) radiation causes sunburn and has been consistently associated with increased susceptibility to melanoma and skin ageing. Acknowledging the need to promote healthy sun exposure habits, numerous educational initiatives have been developed to raise public awareness towards this issue. However, studies…

  14. Raising Literacy Levels Using Digital Learning: A Design-Based Approach in New Zealand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jesson, Rebecca; McNaughton, Stuart; Wilson, Aaron

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports on a design-based intervention in urban primary and secondary schools serving culturally diverse students from low socio-economic status (SES) communities. The intervention capitalises on a partially implemented programme in seven schools which use digital devices (netbooks) and applications to raise literacy levels. Learning…

  15. The British Conservative Government and the Raising of the School Leaving Age, 1959-1964

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCulloch, Gary; Cowan, Steven; Woodin, Tom

    2012-01-01

    This paper establishes and explains the important role of the Conservative Government of 1959-1964 in supporting the raising of the school leaving age in Britain from the age of 15 to 16. This was a significant and high-profile national issue that generated much educational, social and political debate around conflicting priorities during this…

  16. Material Hardship in U.S. Families Raising Children with Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parish, Susan L.; Rose, Roderick A.; Grinstein-Weiss, Michal; Richman, Erica L.; Andrews, Megan E.

    2008-01-01

    Researchers analyzed the 2002 wave of the National Survey of America's Families, conducted by the Urban Institute and Child Trends, and examined material hardship in families raising children with disabilities. Measures of hardship included food insecurity, housing instability, health care access, and telephone disconnection. The research…

  17. Challenges and Opportunities for Vocational Education and Training in the Light of Raising the Participation Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acquah, Daniel K.; Huddleston, Prue

    2014-01-01

    By 2015, all young people must participate in some form of education and training until they are aged 18. This review discusses the challenges and opportunities involved if vocational education and training is to contribute to this raising of the participation age. We argue that as well as ensuring that young people who have made a full-time…

  18. The Role of Online Communication in Raising Awareness of Bilingual Identity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marley, Dawn

    2013-01-01

    Children of binational couples are often raised in the community of one of the parents and, thus, have limited exposure to the language of the other parent. This study focuses on a British/Moroccan family in the UK, where English is the dominant home language and Moroccan Arabic is the "other" language. Analysis of "live"…

  19. "The Lesbian and Gay Parenting Handbook: Creating and Raising Our Families," by April Martin. Book Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallon, Gerald P.

    1997-01-01

    Found the book a thoughtful, articulate, well-written, and informative work that powerfully challenges traditional thinking about the suitability of gays and lesbians to raise children. Successfully completes the goal of writing a book for and about both lesbian mothers and gay fathers, as well as serving as a valuable resource to child welfare…

  20. Students' Borrowing Quintuples in Decade, Raising the Spectre of a "Debtor Generation."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evangelauf, Jean

    1987-01-01

    The rapid and substantial rise in college student indebtedness has raised concern about young people's ability to repay loans and the impact on the national economy, the borrowers' economic well-being, equality of access to higher education, and even the educational process itself. (MSE)

  1. Evaluation of Preparatory Measures for Coping with Anxiety Raised by Media Coverage of Terrorism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slone, Michelle; Shoshani, Anat

    2006-01-01

    This study examines effects of television broadcasts of terrorism on viewers' anxiety and raises suggestions for 2 intervention strategies to moderate elevated anxiety. Participants were 120 young Israeli adults randomly allocated to a terrorism or a nonterrorism television broadcast and assigned to 1 of 3 intervention conditions prior to…

  2. Preparing FCS Professionals: Using Simulations to Raise Awareness and Change Stereotypes, Prejudice, and Discrimination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heiden, Kathleen; Harpel, Tammy

    2013-01-01

    Many universities offer courses in multiculturalism to broaden students' perspectives, but are the courses effective? This article explores the effects of using simulations to raise awareness and challenge students' perspectives of stereotypes, prejudice, and discrimination. The results of three simulation activities are presented. Three…

  3. Educational Fund Raising: Principles and Practice. American Council on Education Series on Higher Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worth, Michael J., Ed.

    This volume offers 36 papers on higher education fundraising. Major topics treated are the development function, foundations of fund raising, annual giving, major gifts, campaigns, corporate and foundation support, special constituencies, managing development programs, special considerations for institutions, and special considerations for the…

  4. An assessment of behavioral syndromes in rangeland-raised beef cattle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Individuals in most animal groups exhibit consistent behavioural differences across situations or over time known as behavioural syndromes. We conducted a study with a herd of young rangeland-raised cows to determine whether animals exhibited consistent differences in foraging behaviours across cont...

  5. Raising Students' Intercultural Awareness and Preparing Them for Intercultural Business (Communication) by E-Mail

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerritsen, Marinel; Verckens, Jan Pieter

    2006-01-01

    In this article, the authors report on an assignment which tries to raise students' intercultural awareness. The assignment, an intercultural e-mail project, was developed during the past 2 academic years for the course Introduction to Intercultural Communication for 1st-year students of Business Communication of the Radboud University (Nijmegen,…

  6. Stress and Coping in African American Grandparents Who Are Raising Their Grandchildren

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Mary Ellen Trail; Aday, Lu Ann

    2006-01-01

    This study investigated the degree of stress in 50 African American grandparents ("M" = 63.12 years) who are raising their grandchildren and identified the importance of caregiver characteristics, the caregiving situation, and specific coping strategies that influence stress. Data were collected via interview at senior centers and churches in…

  7. The Impact of Development Office Structure on Fund-Raising Efficiency for Research and Doctoral Institutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grunig, Stephen D.

    1995-01-01

    Based on survey data from 70 universities, this study concludes that differences in the organizational structure of development offices have no significant effect on fund-raising efficiency. However, because decentralized offices may be able to expand their activities more rapidly than centralized programs, decentralization may facilitate overall…

  8. An Efficient In vitro Hardening Technique of Tissue Culture Raised Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.R. Deb

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Micropropagation has been extensively used for the rapid multiplication of many plants species. However, its wider use is restricted often by the high percentage of plant loss or damaged when transferred to ex vitro condition. To acclimatize the micropropagated plants, different workers have employed different approach toward successful establishment of in vitro raised plants under ex vitro condition. In the present study, a successful attempt has been made to acclimatize the tissue culture raised plants which is cost effective compare to other existing hardening technique. Tissue culture raised orchid seedlings were acclimatized and hardened in vitro by using 1/10th liquid MS basal medium subsequently replaced by tap water with chips of charcoal, bricks and decayed wood as an alternate substratum. The newly formed roots under this condition firmly attached to the charcoal chips with the passage of time, similar to velamenous root attach to the trunk of a tree. Charcoal and moss substratum was more suitable than bricks for epiphytic species and decayed woods for terrestrial. The researchers report the novel and efficient one step hardening technique for tissue culture raised orchid seedlings which will reduce the production cost.

  9. Raising a Child with Intellectual Disabilities in Ethiopia: What Do Parents Say?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weldeab, Chernet Tekle; Opdal, Liv Randi

    2007-01-01

    Parental experiences in raising children with intellectual disability in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia are described. Using a qualitative research approach, interviews from eleven families formed a rich contextual data base, in addition to informal observations, informal conversations, discussions with key informants, and document review. Findings show…

  10. Reply to the criticism raised by Pennington on our pipi-Production Amplitudes

    OpenAIRE

    Ishida, Muneyuki; Ishida, Shin; Ishida, Taku

    1998-01-01

    A recent criticism raised by M.R.Pennington on our pipi-production amplitudes seems to be due to his misunderstanding on our description, and is not right. Essential point of the relation between our scattering and production amplitudes is, in connection to the unitarity and the final state interaction theorem, briefly explained.

  11. RAISING ENVIRONMENTAL AWARENESS OF STUDENTS THROUG RESEARCH ACTIVITIES AT THE UNVIERSITY MUSEUM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Vasilevna Khrabrova

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The article looks at raising environmental awareness of students in the course of research performed at the university museum. The author assumes that environmental museum of a university can become the space for innovation and exploration that could raise environmental awareness of students. In order to ensure proper pedagogical conditions there was elaborated a concept of raising environmental awareness of students with the help of a university museum. The article follows the main stages of creation of the exposition by the students, which was devoted to the 5th year of environmental disaster, which was the result of a series of shipwrecks on the ‘black Sunday’ of 11 November, 2007 in the Kerch Strait.The author assumes that the exposition is essential to shed light on real events, present them more vividly, follow the history of certain exhibits and emphasize the unbearable living conditions for the birds dying in the oil slick. The exposition unveils core problems of oil contamination of the world ocean. The exhibits prove the actual fact and foster deeper understanding of the situation. They help to picture the tragic events of the black Sunday more vividly and evoke feelings and emotions, which make the students their witnesses and participants.The author follows the process of raising environmental awareness of students and looks at the results before and after their involvement in research at the environmental museum with the help of the method by E.V. Asafova and concludes that engaging students in research through creating ecological exposition can considerably raise their environmental awareness.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12731/2218-7405-2013-8-24

  12. A Review on Some Parameters of Environment in Youth Intensive Raising of Japanese Quail

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucian Ioni??

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to review the state-of-art of scientific research on some environmentalparameters recommended by the literature in the intensive raising of young quails. As a result ofthe research it can be said that the temperature in the raising area of the young Japanese quailvaries between 35 º - 37.8 º C in the first week of life, after which it decreases by 3-4 ° C / week.The relative humidity in the shelter of young quails in the first week of raising must bemaintained at 80% (made with trays of water; then it should decrease at the value of 70%. Lightregime recommended for intensive young quails raising can be 24 hours light per day to 42 daysor can choose a program of light of 24 hours a day during the first 7 days of life, after which itcan be reducde up to 16 hours a day until the age of 42 days. Light intensity should be between20 lux and 45 lux for the first 7 days of life of the youth, then can be reduced by 20 to 5 lux untilthe age of 41 days. Density per area unit in the house is of 150 chicken / sqm (for ground riasing,reaching the age of 6 weeks at a density of 100 chicks / sqm or 250 chicken / sqm cage (in thecase of youth raising in batteries The number of chickens decreases to 250 for 1.5 sqm of cagearea in the second week of life and 250 chicken for 2 sqm cage area in the third week.

  13. Evolución del título de anticuerpos contra el receptor tipo M de la fosfolipasa A2 y respuesta clínica en pacientes con nefropatía membranosa idiopática tratados con tacrolimus / Evolution of antibody titre against the M-type phospholipase A2 receptor and clinical response in idiopathic membranous nephropathy patients treated with tacrolimus

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Alfons, Segarra-Medrano; Elias, Jatem-Escalante; Clara, Carnicer-Cáceres; Irene, Agraz-Pamplona; M. Teresa, Salcedo; Naiara, Valtierra; Elena, Ostos-Roldán; Karla V., Arredondo; Juliana, Jaramillo.

    Full Text Available Introducción y objetivos: Se ha descrito que el nivel de anticuerpos circulantes contra el receptor tipo M de la fosfolipasa A2 tiene correlación significativa con la actividad clínica de la enfermedad en la nefropatía membranosa idiopática (NMI). Sin embargo, la utilidad de la monitorización del tí [...] tulo de anticuerpos como predictor de respuesta clínica tras el inicio del tratamiento no ha sido formalmente analizada. En el siguiente estudio se analiza el valor predictivo de la evolución del título de anticuerpos anti-PLA2R sobre la respuesta clínica en enfermos con NMI tratados con tacrolimus. Pacientes y métodos: 36 enfermos con síndrome nefrótico secundario a NMI, con criterios de indicación de tratamiento inmunosupresor, fueron tratados con tacrolimus en monoterapia. Se determinó el nivel de anticuerpos anti-PLA2R antes del tratamiento y a los 3, 6, 9 y 12 meses tras su inicio. Se analizó el valor predictivo de la pendiente de reducción en el título de anticuerpos y de la reducción absoluta y relativa en el título de anticuerpos a los 3 y 6 meses sobre el tiempo hasta la remisión y sobre la probabilidad de remisión a los 6, 9 y 12 meses. Resultados: La reducción relativa en el título de anticuerpos anti-PLA2R fue significativamente mayor en los enfermos que presentaron remisión y precedió a la respuesta clínica. No se apreció asociación entre el título de anticuerpos previo al tratamiento con el tiempo medio de respuesta o la respuesta a los 12 meses. La pendiente de reducción en el título de anticuerpos se asoció significativamente con el tiempo hasta la evidencia de remisión. La reducción relativa en el título de anticuerpos anti-PLA2R a los 3 meses tuvo una elevada sensibilidad y especificidad para predecir la respuesta a los 6 y 9 meses, pero no a los 12 meses, mientras que la reducción relativa en el título de anticuerpos a los 6 meses tuvo una elevada sensibilidad y especificidad para predecir la respuesta a los 12 meses. Conclusión: En enfermos con NMI asociada a anticuerpos anti-PLA2R, la monitorización del título de anticuerpos tras el inicio del tratamiento es útil para estimar el período de tiempo hasta la remisión y para predecir la probabilidad de remisión a los 12 meses. Abstract in english Introduction and objectives: The level of circulating antibodies against M-type phospolipase A2 receptor has been reported as having a significant correlation with clinical activity in idiopathic membranous nephropathy. However, the usefulness of monitoring antibody titre as a predictor of clinical [...] response following the onset of treatment has not been formally analysed. The predictive value of the evolution of anti-PLA2R antibody titre on the clinical response of idiopathic membranous nephropathy patients treated with tacrolimus is analysed in the following study. Patients and method: 36 patients with nephrotic syndrome secondary to idiopathic membranous nephropathy with immunosuppressive treatment indication criteria were treated with tacrolimus in monotherapy. The level of anti-PLA2R antibodies was determined before treatment and at 3, 6, 9 and 12 months after the onset of treatment. The study analysed the predictive value of the reduction in antibody titre and the relative and absolute reduction in antibody titre at 3 and 6 months over the period until remission and on the probability of remission at 6, 9 and 12 months. Results: The relative reduction in the anti-PLA2R antibody titre was significantly greater in those patients with remission and it preceded the clinical response. No association was observed between the antibody titre prior to treatment and the mean response time or the response at 12 months. Reduction in antibody titre is significantly associated with the time until signs of remission. Relative reduction in anti-PLA2R antibody titre at 3 months had a high sensitivity and specificity to predict the response at 6 and 9 months, but not at 12 months; however the relative reduction in the antibody titre at 6 months had a hig

  14. Device for inspection and/or repair of a pipe of a steam raising unit of a nuclear power station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eddy current sensors are introduced into the pipe from the steam raising unit chamber. The two-part device on the supporting pillar is used to support the sensors and to position them, and so is an arm connected to it via a clutch. It is accommodated inside the steam raising chamber, but can be operated remotely from outside the steam raising chamber. This reduces the radiation loading of the operating staff. (DG)

  15. Ethical and practical challenges raised by an adult day program's caregiver satisfaction survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madeo, Anica; Feld, Sheila; Spencer, Beth

    2008-01-01

    A consumer satisfaction survey was completed by 21 caregivers to persons with dementia, who participated in Silver Club, a person-centered Adult Day Service program. Two themes emerged: caregivers expressed high program satisfaction based on joint benefits to members and caregivers, and they desired more information about the nature of the members' daily participation. These findings raised two important issues for program staff. First, Adult Day Service programs are often referred to and marketed as providing caregiver respite. This approach does not acknowledge caregivers' interest in programs that meet the needs of their loved ones, and may lead to reluctance to use programs that only stress the value of respite. Second, caregivers' desires for detailed feedback about members' program participation raise ethical and practical challenges within person-centered models of care. Collecting feedback from both participants and their caregivers can help monitor and improve services provided by person-centered Adult Day Service programs. PMID:18955721

  16. Custodial grandparents raising grandchildren: lack of legal relationship is a barrier for services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Etten, Deborah; Gautam, Ramraj

    2012-06-01

    In the United States, the majority of custodial grandparents are raising their grandchildren without a legal relationship. The lack of a legal relationship (i.e., foster care, custody, adoption) is a barrier for obtaining services and has resulted in limited access to information and public services, inadequate financial assistance, and difficulty providing medical and educational consent. This situation arises not only as a consequence of eligibility criteria, but also because children being raised by custodial grandparents remain outside the child welfare system. Federal and state policies were not designed for this population; subsequently, the majority of grandparent caregivers remain without access to services and support. In this article, perceptions of custodial grandparents concerning family obligations and the child welfare system as a barrier to pursuing a legal relationship are reviewed. Challenges with existing financial and health services, educational needs of grandparents and providers, and suggestions for policy changes are presented. PMID:22587642

  17. Currents and electric fields induced in the human body when the arms are raised

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Ronold W. P.

    1997-06-01

    The current induced in the human body when exposed to an incident electromagnetic field with the electric vector parallel to the length of the body and the magnetic field perpendicular to the chest was determined in an earlier study with the arms in close contact with the body. The analysis is now extended to the case when both arms are raised by an arbitrary angle. Formulas are derived for the current in the arms and the body when the latter is far from the earth, when it is barefoot on wet earth, and when it is standing on the earth with rubber-soled shoes. The current in the arms is shown to consist of two parts, that induced by the component of the incident electric field parallel to the arms and that generated in them by their connection to the body. The current in the body is significantly increased as the arms are raised.

  18. Raising argument strength using negative evidence: A constraint on models of induction

    OpenAIRE

    Heussen, Daniel; Voorspoels, Wouter; Verheyen, Steven; Storms, Gerrit; Hampton, James A

    2011-01-01

    Both intuitively and according to similarity-based theories of induction, relevant evidence raises argument strength when it is positive and lowers it when it is negative. Three experiments test the hypothesis that argument strength can actually increase when negative evidence is introduced. Two kinds of argument were compared through forced choice or sequential evaluation: single positive arguments (e.g., Shostakovich’s music causes alpha waves in the brain, therefore Bach’s music causes alp...

  19. Identifying Identity : Using Second Life in the Teaching of Sociolinguistics for the Raising of Gender Awareness

    OpenAIRE

    Deutschmann, Mats; Steinvall, Anders

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents further innovative use of virtual worlds under the pilot stages of ASSIS (A Second Step in Second Life), a project funded by Umeå University. One of the aims of the project is to make use of the affordances offered by Second Life in order to raise sociolinguistic language awareness among teacher trainees and other students studying courses in sociolinguistics. Several experiments were conducted where creative use of the avatar in combination with so-called “voice morphing”...

  20. Active methodologies as strategies in nursing teaching: Raising awareness towards healthy habits

    OpenAIRE

    Luciara Fabiane Sebold; Silvana Silveira Kempfer

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To identify how the use of active methodology may influence healthy habits in nursing students. Method: A qualitative Assistential Convergent Research, undertaken with 43 students of the Nursing Graduation Course, at a Federal University in Southern Brazil. Data were collected with a semi-structured tool, from May to July 2008. Data were organized into categories and analysed according to scientific publications in the area. Results: Three study categories raised from the study: Ch...

  1. Mother and Soldier: Raising a Child with a Disability in a Low-Income Military Family

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Nancy E.; Wall, Shavaun M.; Liebow, Harriet; Sabatino, Christine A.; Timberlake, Elizabeth M.; Farber, Michaela Z.

    2005-01-01

    This article presents the results of a study of six low-income women, each of whom is raising a child with a suspected or diagnosed disability while also serving as an active member of the armed forces. Their experiences as they attempt to strike a balance between the highly demanding work role of the military and their role as a mother of a child…

  2. The processing of raising and nominal control: an eye-tracking study

    OpenAIRE

    Sturt, Patrick; Kwon, Nayoung

    2015-01-01

    According to some views of sentence processing, the memory retrieval processes involved in dependency formation may differ as a function of the type of dependency involved. For example, using closely matched materials in a single experiment, Dillon et al. (2013) found evidence for retrieval interference in subject-verb agreement, but not in reflexive-antecedent agreement. We report four eye-tracking experiments that examine examine reflexive-antecedent dependencies, combined with raising (e.g...

  3. Specific Language Impairment (SLI: The Internet Ralli Campaign to Raise Awareness of SLI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Conti-Ramsden Gina

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available In this short article, we discuss what is specific language impairment (SLI and why it is a hidden disability that few people have heard about. We describe the impact on research, policy and practice of SLI being a neglected condition. We end by providing the background and rationale of a new internet campaign, RALLI (www.youtube.com/rallicampaign, aimed at changing this state of affairs and raising awareness of SLI.

  4. The cholesterol-raising factor from boiled coffee does not pass a paper filter.

    OpenAIRE

    van Dusseldorp, M; Katan, M B; Vliet, T. van; Demacker, P.N.M.; Stalenhoef, A.F.H.

    1991-01-01

    Previous studies have indicated that consumption of boiled coffee raises total and low density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, whereas drip-filtered coffee does not. We have tested the effect on serum lipids of consumed coffee that was first boiled and then filtered through commercial paper coffee filters. Sixty-four healthy volunteers consumed six cups per day of this boiled and filtered coffee for 17 days. Then, they were randomly divided into three groups, which, for the next 79 days, recei...

  5. Raising Awareness of Grey Literature in an Academic Community Using the Cognitive Behavioral Theory

    OpenAIRE

    Lin, Yongtao (University of Calgary); Vaska, Marcus (University of Calgary); GreyNet, Grey Literature Network Service

    2009-01-01

    Cognitive skill training, part of cognitive behavior management, is based on the cognitive behavioral theory. The principle that thinking controls behavior has been widely used by educators to develop methods to improve the performance of students, while clinicians provide multifaceted health promotion and psychological counseling programs. The plan of our educational project is to raise awareness among students, faculty members, and researchers of material not produced via standard commercia...

  6. An Efficient In vitro Hardening Technique of Tissue Culture Raised Plants

    OpenAIRE

    C.R. Deb; T. Imchen

    2010-01-01

    Micropropagation has been extensively used for the rapid multiplication of many plants species. However, its wider use is restricted often by the high percentage of plant loss or damaged when transferred to ex vitro condition. To acclimatize the micropropagated plants, different workers have employed different approach toward successful establishment of in vitro raised plants under ex vitro condition. In the present study, a successful attempt has been made to acclimatize the tissue culture r...

  7. Enhanced Rate of Multiplication of Tissue Cultured Raised Banana (MUSA) Plants in the Field

    OpenAIRE

    Aish Muhammad; Iqbal Hussain; Muhammad Faheem Akbar; Hamid Rashid

    2003-01-01

    Multiplication rate of banana plants c.v. Basrai in the field was studied. The results showed that plants raised through culture produced 7.45 suckers plant-1 after 14 months of planting. On the other hand, number of suckers produced by banana plants propagated conventionally were 4015 in the same period of time. The results indicated that tissue culture plants produced 44% more suckers. This enhanced rate of multiplication may overcome the limited sucker production in the field.

  8. Your Genes, Your Choices: Exploring the Issues Raised by Genetic Research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baker, C.

    1999-05-31

    Your Genes, Your Choices provides accurate information about the ethical, legal, and social implications of the Human Genome Project and genetic research in an easy-to-read style and format. Each chapter in the book begins with a brief vignette, which introduces an issue within a human story, and raises a question for the reader to think about as the basic science and information are presented in the rest of the chapter.

  9. International Technology Mergers & Acquisitions and Raising the Competitiveness of China Equipment Manufacturing Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Xiuling Liu; Li Cai; Huiping Tan

    2012-01-01

    Developing and strengthening the competitiveness of the equipment manufacturing industry is that needs solving the weighty problem. China equipment manufacturing enterprises could acquire the core technique with international tech-nology mergers & acquisitions. This is an important strategy that could facilitate raising innovation capital and R&D level of the enterprise by a wide margin. This paper analyses the problems of China equipment manufacturing industry, advantages of internat...

  10. What Meaning does Raising a Child with Autism have for Parents? A Qualitative Exploration

    OpenAIRE

    Jardine, Kirsten Marie

    2008-01-01

    Introduction: Children with autism experience difficulties in social interaction and communication which are often manifested behaviourally. The nature of these difficulties means that the task of parenting is often challenging. This study therefore aims to explore which aspects of raising a child with autism are most meaningful for parents. It will also investigate what, if any, are the positive aspects related to the experience of having a child with autism. Method: A q...

  11. Ethical and legal issues raised by cord blood banking - the challenges of the new bioeconomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Cameron L; Aparicio, Lorena C; Kerridge, Ian H

    2013-08-19

    • Cord blood banking raises ethical and legal issues which highlight the need for careful regulatory approaches to the emerging bioeconomy. • Consent processes for both private and public banking should be inclusive and representative of the different familial interests in the cord blood. • Property law is a potentially useful way of understanding the mechanisms for donation to both public and private banks. • Increasing tensions between public and private models of banking may require the adoption of hybrid forms of banking. PMID:23984790

  12. Raising Students' Awareness of Cross-Cultural Contrastive Rhetoric Via an E-Learning Course

    OpenAIRE

    Jinghui Wang; Minjie Xing; Kenneth Spencer

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated the potential impact of e-learning on raising overseas students' cultural awareness and explored the possibility of creating an interactive learning environment for them to improve their English academic writing. The study was based on a comparison of Chinese and English rhetoric in academic writing, including a comparison of Chinese students' writings in Chinese with native English speakers' writings in English and Chinese students' writings in English with the help o...

  13. Structural evaluation of WIPP disposal room raised to clay seam G

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An error was discovered in the ALGEBBRA script used to calculate the disturbed rock zone around the disposal room and the shear failure zone in the anhydrite layers in the original version. To correct the error, a memorandum of correction was submitted according to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Quality Assurance program. The recommended course of action was to correct the error, to repeat the post-process, and to rewrite Section 7.4, 7.5, 8, and Appendix B in the original report. The sections and appendix revised by the post-process using the corrected ALGEBRA scripts are provided in this revision. The original report summarizes a series of structural calculations that examine effects of raising the WIPP repository horizon from the original design level upward 2.43 meters. Calculations were then repeated for grid changes appropriate for the new horizon raised to Clay Seam G. Results are presented in three main areas: (1) Disposal room porosity, (2) Disturbed rock zone characteristics, and (3) Anhydrite marker bed failure. No change to the porosity surface for the compliance re-certification application is necessary to account for raising the repository horizon, because the new porosity surface is essentially identical. The disturbed rock zone evolution and devolution are charted in terms of a stress invariant criterion over the regulatory period. This model shows that the propagation of the DRZ into the surrounding rock salt does not penetrate through MB 139 in the case of both the original horizon and the raised room. Damaged salt would be expected to heal in nominally 150 years. The shear failure does not occur in either the upper or lower anhydrite layers at the moment of excavation, but appears above and below the middle of the pillar one day after the excavation. The damaged anhydrite is not expected to heal as the salt in the DRZ is expected to

  14. Building a Wetland Management Game for Awareness Raising and Negotiation Support

    OpenAIRE

    Milhau, F.

    2010-01-01

    Wetlands are ecosystems of great importance as they host specific fauna and flora and provide multiple ecosystem services. Nevertheless, in many cases, their uncontrolled use for human activities put a threat on their integrity. The role-playing game Wet-WAG has been developed by Cemagref, in the framework of the European project WETwin, to raise awareness of stakeholders and support negotiations about small wetland management. The game is applied to the Ga-Mampa wetland in South Africa. T...

  15. Bivariate raising and lowering differential operators for eigenfunctions of a 2D Fourier transform

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We define a two-dimensional (2D) Fourier transform that self-reproduces a one-parameter family of bivariate Hermite functions; these are eigenfunctions of a Hamiltonian differential operator of second order, whose exponential is that transform. We find explicit forms of the bivariate raising and lowering partial differential operators of first degree for the eigenfunctions of this 2D Fourier transform. (paper)

  16. How high the temperature of a liquid be raised without boiling?

    OpenAIRE

    Das, Mala; Chatterjee, B. K.; Roy, B; Roy, S. C.

    2000-01-01

    How high the temperature of a liquid be raised beyond its boiling point without vaporizing (known as the limit of superheat) is an interesting subject of investigation. A new method of finding the limit of superheat of liquids is presented here. The superheated liquids are taken in the form of drops suspended in visco elastic gel. The nucleation is detected acoustically by a sensitive piezo-electric transducer, coupled to a multi channel scaler and the nucleation is observed...

  17. The New Ways to Raise Capital: An Exploratory Study of Crowdfunding

    OpenAIRE

    Matteo Rossi

    2014-01-01

    Purpose – Paper aims is to describe, analyze and to increase the knowledge of the emerging crowdfunding phenomenon. This can be defined as the practice of funding a project or venture by raising a lot of small quantities of money from a huge number of people. Even though the number of academic studies has been increasing, the coverage of the population is relatively weak and not well understood by entrepreneurs and individual investors.Design/Methodology/Findings - The research can be classif...

  18. Grammar Consciousness-Raising Activities and Iranian EFL Learners' Attitudes toward English Language

    OpenAIRE

    Farrokhlagha Heidari; Nurullah Mansourzadeh

    2014-01-01

    The first purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of consciousness-raising (C-R) activities on learning grammatical structures by Iranian EFL learners. The second one was to investigate the effect of gender through C-R activities and tasks. Finally, this study wanted to investigate the Iranian students’ attitudes toward learning English prior to and after applying the C-R activities. An attitude questionnaire was use to investigate the participants' attitudes toward learning Engli...

  19. Some problems raised by siting of nuclear power station on the sea coast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siting of nuclear power station on the sea coast, besides usual, raises additional problems, different from those when the power station is inland. In this paper, the most important among these problems are pointed out, as well as some of their solutions. This applies, primarily, to several of high power nuclear station cooling layout. In our general approach to that problem, the role of siting in general safety, economy and bio-ecology are particularly considered. (author)

  20. Structural evaluation of WIPP disposal room raised to Clay Seam G.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Byoung Yoon (Sandia National Laboratories, Carlsbad, NM); Holland, John F. (Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM)

    2007-09-01

    An error was discovered in the ALGEBBRA script used to calculate the disturbed rock zone around the disposal room and the shear failure zone in the anhydrite layers in the original version. To correct the error, a memorandum of correction was submitted according to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Quality Assurance program. The recommended course of action was to correct the error, to repeat the post-process, and to rewrite Section 7.4, 7.5, 8, and Appendix B in the original report. The sections and appendix revised by the post-process using the corrected ALGEBRA scripts are provided in this revision. The original report summarizes a series of structural calculations that examine effects of raising the WIPP repository horizon from the original design level upward 2.43 meters. Calculations were then repeated for grid changes appropriate for the new horizon raised to Clay Seam G. Results are presented in three main areas: (1) Disposal room porosity, (2) Disturbed rock zone characteristics, and (3) Anhydrite marker bed failure. No change to the porosity surface for the compliance re-certification application is necessary to account for raising the repository horizon, because the new porosity surface is essentially identical. The disturbed rock zone evolution and devolution are charted in terms of a stress invariant criterion over the regulatory period. This model shows that the propagation of the DRZ into the surrounding rock salt does not penetrate through MB 139 in the case of both the original horizon and the raised room. Damaged salt would be expected to heal in nominally 150 years. The shear failure does not occur in either the upper or lower anhydrite layers at the moment of excavation, but appears above and below the middle of the pillar one day after the excavation. The damaged anhydrite is not expected to heal as the salt in the DRZ is expected to.

  1. Developing and disseminating a foodprint tool to raise awareness about healthy and environmentally conscious food choices

    OpenAIRE

    Tine Bosschaert; Corné van Dooren

    2013-01-01

    This article describes the development and dissemination of an ecological footprint tool that provides a concise and scientifically grounded summary of the environmental impact of personal food choices. Developed to be easy to use and available to consumers via online social networking platforms, the tool aims to raise awareness and to provide an impetus for behavior change. The foodprint tool communicates scientifically informed and customized practical advice on how individuals can reduce t...

  2. Communicating adaptation with emotions: the role of intense experiences in raising concern about extreme weather.

    OpenAIRE

    Eleftheria Vasileiadou; Wouter J. W. Botzen

    2014-01-01

    Adaptation to extreme weather is often considered as having a low urgency and being a low priority governance option, even though the intensity of extreme weather events is expected to increase as a result of climate change. An important issue is how to raise an adequate level of concern among individuals, policy makers, and broader decision makers in companies and organizations so that adaptation to extreme events becomes mainstream practice. We conducted 40 indepth interviews with individua...

  3. Manipulation of Rumen Fermentation with Organic Acids Supplementation in Ruminants Raised in the Tropics

    OpenAIRE

    Sittisak Khampa; Metha Wanapat

    2007-01-01

    Locals feed resources are prime importance for ruminants raised in the tropic particularly low-quality roughages and agricultural crop-residues. Manipulating rumen fermentation through treatment of roughage, concentrate and strategic supplementation with organic acids could improve rumen efficiency by maintaining higher pH, optimum ammonia-nitrogen (NH3-N), thus reducing methane (CH4) and increasing microbial protein synthesis and essential volatile fatty acid (VFAs), for enhancing rum...

  4. Me, Myself and My Brain Implant: Deep Brain Stimulation Raises Questions of Personal Authenticity and Alienation

    OpenAIRE

    Kraemer, Felicitas

    2011-01-01

    In this article, I explore select case studies of Parkinson patients treated with deep brain stimulation (DBS) in light of the notions of alienation and authenticity. While the literature on DBS has so far neglected the issues of authenticity and alienation, I argue that interpreting these cases in terms of these concepts raises new issues for not only the philosophical discussion of neuro-ethics of DBS, but also for the psychological and medical approach to patients under DBS. In particular,...

  5. The Machinery for Raising Capital by Companies through Debt Finances in Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Kunle Aina

    2011-01-01

    This study aimed at examining critically the legal machinery for creating debenture by companies, rights of the debentures holders and methods of enforcement of the debenture in Nigeria. The machinery for raising capital through debenture is not well articulated in the Companies and Allied Matters Act (CAMA) 1990. The position of the law on the rights and duties of the parties to a floating charge is inadequate and reforms are urgently required as current edition of the law allows for fraud o...

  6. Orbit Determination Accuracy Analysis of the Magnetospheric Multiscale Mission During Perigee Raise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pachura, Daniel A.; Vavrina, Matthew A.; Carpenter, J. R.; Wright, Cinnamon A.

    2014-01-01

    The Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) Flight Dynamics Facility (FDF) will provide orbit determination and prediction support for the Magnetospheric Multiscale (MMS) mission during the missions commissioning period. The spacecraft will launch into a highly elliptical Earth orbit in 2015. Starting approximately four days after launch, a series of five large perigee-raising maneuvers will be executed near apogee on a nearly every-other-orbit cadence. This perigee-raise operations concept requires a high-accuracy estimate of the orbital state within one orbit following the maneuver for performance evaluation and a high-accuracy orbit prediction to correctly plan and execute the next maneuver in the sequence. During early mission design, a linear covariance analysis method was used to study orbit determination and prediction accuracy for this perigee-raising campaign. This paper provides a higher fidelity Monte Carlo analysis using the operational COTS extended Kalman filter implementation that was performed to validate the linear covariance analysis estimates and to better characterize orbit determination performance for actively maneuvering spacecraft in a highly elliptical orbit. The study finds that the COTS extended Kalman filter tool converges on accurate definitive orbit solutions quickly, but prediction accuracy through orbits with very low altitude perigees is degraded by the unpredictability of atmospheric density variation.

  7. Detecting tissue deterioration after brain injury: regional blood flow level versus capacity to raise blood flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feuerstein, Delphine; Takagaki, Masatoshi; Gramer, Markus; Manning, Andrew; Endepols, Heike; Vollmar, Stefan; Yoshimine, Toshiki; Strong, Antony J; Graf, Rudolf; Backes, Heiko

    2014-07-01

    Regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) is spatially and temporally adjusted to local energy needs. This coupling involves dilation of vessels both at the site of metabolite exchange and upstream of the activated region. Deficits in upstream blood supply limit the 'capacity to raise rCBF' in response to functional activation and therefore compromise brain function. We here demonstrate in rats that the 'capacity to raise rCBF' can be determined from real-time measurements of rCBF using laser speckle imaging during an energy challenge induced by cortical spreading depolarizations (CSDs). Cortical spreading depolarizations (CSDs) occur with high incidence in stroke and various other brain injuries and cause large metabolic changes. Various conditions of cerebral perfusion were induced, either by modifying microvascular tone, or by altering upstream blood supply independently. The increase in rCBF per unit of time in response to CSD was linearly correlated to the upstream blood supply. In an experimental model of stroke, we found that this marker of the capacity to raise rCBF which, in pathologic tissue may be additionally limited by impaired vasoactive signaling, was a better indicator of the functional status of cerebral tissue than local rCBF levels. PMID:24690942

  8. Structural evaluation of WIPP disposal room raised to Clay Seam G.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Byoung Yoon; Holland, John F.

    2004-01-01

    This report summarizes a series of structural calculations that examine effects of raising the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant repository horizon from the original design level upward 2.43 meters. These calculations allow evaluation of various features incorporated in conceptual models used for performance assessment. Material presented in this report supports the regulatory compliance re-certification, and therefore begins by replicating the calculations used in the initial compliance certification application. Calculations are then repeated for grid changes appropriate for the new horizon raised to Clay Seam G. Results are presented in three main areas: 1. Disposal room porosity, 2. Disturbed rock zone characteristics, and 3. Anhydrite marker bed failure. No change to the porosity surface for the compliance re-certification application is necessary to account for raising the repository horizon, because the new porosity surface is essentially identical. The disturbed rock zone evolution and devolution are charted in terms of a stress invariant criterion over the regulatory period. This model shows that the damage zone does not extend upward to MB 138, but does reach MB 139 below the repository. Damaged salt would be expected to heal in nominally 100 years. The anhydrite marker beds sustain states of stress that promote failure and substantial marker bed deformation into the room assures fractured anhydrite will sustain in the proximity of the disposal rooms.

  9. Communicating adaptation with emotions: the role of intense experiences in raising concern about extreme weather.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleftheria Vasileiadou

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Adaptation to extreme weather is often considered as having a low urgency and being a low priority governance option, even though the intensity of extreme weather events is expected to increase as a result of climate change. An important issue is how to raise an adequate level of concern among individuals, policy makers, and broader decision makers in companies and organizations so that adaptation to extreme events becomes mainstream practice. We conducted 40 indepth interviews with individuals from different sectors in The Netherlands to identify the different types of experiences with extreme events, as well as the relationship between such experiences and the level of concern about extreme weather. Our results indicate that individuals who have experienced an intense, life-threatening event have a significantly higher level of concern than those without such an experience. Professional experience and secondhand experience through participating in information events do not significantly affect the level of concern about extreme events. This suggests limited intervention possibilities for communication of adaptation, as well as for raising support for adaptation measures. Framing adaptation measures in relation to personal circumstances and emotions during extreme events could help raise concern about extreme weather events, as well as societal support for adaptation measures.

  10. Measuring Metacognition and Reaction Time: Further Findings on the Performances of General Education, Low-Achieving, and Institutionally Raised Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Hilawani, Yasser A.; Abdullah, Ahmad A.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to use the picture format to examine in depth the metacognitive performances and reaction time in general education, low-achieving, and institutionally raised students. Results revealed that institutionally raised students, unlike low-achieving students, took significantly the longest reaction time to finish the test…

  11. Effect of ultraviolet rays upon the productivity and adaptive possibilities of sows raised under industrial conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two experiments, aimed at establishing the effect of treatment with UV-rays on productivity of sows, the growth rate of pigs up to weaning, their adaptive reactions, and the micro-climate on the premises were carried out with 60 sows, divided into two groups: group i (controls) raised on premises without treatment with UV-rays, and group ii (experimental) raised on premises under treatment with UV-rays. Both nursing sows and piglets until their weaning were raised under industrial conditions. Type PRK-2 mercury lamp of 120 V, 3.75 A, and 375 W was used as a source of UV-rays. Each animal was exposed to irradiation daily for a period of 2 min. The live weight of sows, prolificacy, live weight of pigs at weaning and number of culled pigs during the sucking period, were checked. The adaptive reactions of sows and pigs were examined by ACT-hormon testing. Before treatment and 3 h after treatment with this hormone leucocyte, eosinophile and erythrocyte count and the haemoglobin, Ca, blood sugar, total protein, albumin and globulin in the blood were checked. The temperature, moisture, velocity of movement and gas composition of air were measured prior to blood sampling. Under the conditions existing in industrial pig-breeding complexes ensuring complete feeding of animals UV-treatment did not produce essential effects on the productivity of sows and the growth rate of pigs as well as on the adaptive reactions of animals and the micro-climate on the premises

  12. Effects of different raising systems on colour and quality characteristics of turkish pekin duck meats

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    E., Lacin; M.I., Aksu; M., Macit; A., Yildiz; M., Karaoglu; N., Esenbuga; M.A., Yoruk.

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available The current trial was conducted to determine the influence of different raising systems on the meat quality properties of male Turkish Pekin ducks. Ninety male ducklings were randomly allocated to three experimental groups: an animal-fish integrated farming group (IG), a non-animal-fish integrated f [...] arming group (NIG) and a poultry house group (PHG). All ducklings were fed a starter diet from weeks 2 to 6 and a finisher diet from weeks 6 to 10. Feed and water were offered ad libitum. At the end of the trial all ducks were slaughtered and the carcasses were stored at 3 °C for 24 hours, after which L*, a* and b* values of the carcass skins were measured. After standard dissection of carcasses, pectoralis muscles were obtained on which pH, colour (L*, a*, b*, C and H), total aerobic mesophilic, total aerobic psychrotrophic, lactic acid bacteria, Micrococcus/Staphylococcus, yeast-mould and Enterobacteriaceae counts were determined. The different raising systems of the ducks had significant effects on the pH, total aerobic mesophilic, Enterobacteriaceae, and L* and b* values of the pectoralis muscle. The lowest pH, total aerobic mesophilic and Enterobacteriaceae counts were found in the PHG group. The lowest L* values for the pectoralis muscle were found in the IG group while the highest a* value was recorded in the IG group. Significant differences in skin colour were observed between the experimental groups. For all production groups, all microbial counts were found to be within acceptable ranges. However, pH, total aerobic mesophilic and Enterobacteriaceae results were found to be lower in the PHG group than in the other groups. Different raising systems were thus found to affect the meat and skin colour of ducks, which may influence the preference of consumers.

  13. Growth curve of locally adapted pantaneiro cows raised under natural conditions

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Eleonora Araújo, Barbosa; Andréa Alves do, Egito; Urbano Gomes Pinto de, Abreu; Raquel Soares, Juliano; Joseane Padilha da, Silva; Arthur da Silva, Mariante; Alexandre Floriani, Ramos.

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to use morphometric and ultrasound evaluations to estimate the growth curve of the Pantaneiro cattle breed, raised in its natural habitat, aiming at the re-insertion of this breed in production systems. One hundred and three females, aging from months to 11 years, and [...] raised on native pastures, were evaluated. The animals belonged to the Conservation Nucleus of Embrapa Pantanal, located in the Pantanal of Mato Grosso do Sul (Brazil). Weight, thoracic perimeter (TP), body length (BL), rump height (RH), height at withers (HW), hip height (HH), depth (DP), distance between the ilia (DI) (cm) and rib-eye area (REA) were measured. To relate the measurements with the age of the animals, the univariate regression model was used, assigning the variable response to gamma distribution. The Pearson correlation between variables was also estimated. The inflection point of the growth curve was 37 months for HH; between 38 and 39 months for TP and HW; between 40 and 41 months for DI, HH and DP; and 45 months for BL. The REA results could not fit in a statistical model. The majority of the variables presented a correlation above 60% among themselves, except for REA × Age, of 15.81%; REA × HW, of 34.44%; HH × Age, of 46.19; HH × DI, of 58.07%; REA × HH, of 24.57%; and REA × TP, of 39.9%. The cows showed maturity age at 40 months, which may have occurred because they were raised in natural farming conditions. In Pantaneiro cows reared in extensive systems only on natural pastures, the use of ultrasound is not effective to estimate the curve of muscular development, perhaps because this breed was not selected for weight gain.

  14. Parametrization of organic nitrogen mineralization models in soil treated with swine raising wastewater

    OpenAIRE

    Demétrius David da Silva; Júlio César Lima Neves; Antonio Teixeira De Matos; Mauro Aparecido Martinez; Flavia Mariano Barros

    2010-01-01

    Little is known about the mineralization dynamic of organic nitrogen contained in swine manure, so models need to be adjusted for its prediction. The objective of the present study was to parameterize and assess models of organic nitrogen mineralization in soil treated with swine raising wastewater (SRW) at different temperatures and water contents. Samples of 57.3 cm3 of dystrophic Red-Yellow Latosol were mixed with SRW at the application dose of 400 kg ha-1 nitrogen, placed in plastic cups ...

  15. Baseline hematology and clinical chemistry results from captive-raised trumpeter swans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, G.H.; Rininger, D.L.; Ets, M.K.; Sladen, William J. L.

    2002-01-01

    Results from hematology and clinical chemistry tests are presented for healthy captive-raised Trumpeter Swans (Cygnus buccinator) to help establish baseline data. Blood samples were obtained from 14 cygnets between the ages of three to four and seven to eight months that were the subjects of a study to teach migration routes to swans. Males and females differed significantly in asparatate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase and total protein. Age categories differed significantly in hematocrit, white blood cell counts, alkaline phosphatase, aspar-rate aminotransferase, glucose, cholesterol and uric acid. There were no significant differences among age categories in values of alanine aminotransferase, calcium, triglycerides and total protein.

  16. Study of problems raised by the production of electronic preamplifier by thin layer evaporation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This research thesis reports the study of the different methods of manufacturing electronic assemblies by deposition of various thin layers in order to reduce dimensions and weight of such assemblies. Thin layers have been prepared by vacuum evaporation. During this preparation, the author identified the problems raised by this miniaturisation technique. The most important ones have been solved and it was then possible to produce by this method charge preamplifiers aimed at the detection of nuclear particles. The author envisages the production of capacitors with such a technique based on thin layers

  17. Raising students and educators awareness of radioactive materials transport through creative classroom materials and exhibits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The public is concerned about how the shipping and handling of radioactive materials affects them and their environment. Through exhibit showings doing professional education conferences and smaller, focussed workshops, the United States Department of Energy (DOE) has found teachers and students to be an especially interested audience for hazardous and radioactive materials transportation information. DOE recognizes the importance of presenting educational opportunities to students about scientific and societal issues associated with planning for and safely transporting these types of materials. Raising students' and educators' awareness of hazardous and radioactive materials transport through creative classroom materials and exhibits may help them make informed decisions as adults about this often controversial and difficult issue

  18. Does Raising the Early Retirement Age Increase Employment of Older Workers?*

    OpenAIRE

    Staubli, Stefan; Zweimüller, Josef

    2013-01-01

    Two pension reforms in Austria increased the early retirement age (ERA) from 60 to 62 for men and from 55 to 58.25 for women. We find that raising the ERA increased employment by 9.75 percentage points among affected men and by 11 percentage points among affected women. The reforms had large spillover effects on the unemployment insurance program but negligible effects on disability insurance claims. Specifically, unemployment increased by 12.5 percentage points among men and by 11.8 percenta...

  19. Technique improvement of thoracoabdominal CT scan for patients with arm-raising disability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To explore a new scanning technique to reduce and avoid image artifacts of thoracoabdominal CT and improve image quality for patients who cannot raise their arms. Methods: Sixty-one patients with arm-raising disability between March 2004 and May 2009 were enrolled in the study. Thirty-one cases before June 2007 were scanned with their arms beside their body (control group), 30 cases after June 2007 were scanned with their arms shifting to different imaging planes of the spine (study group), and another 30 patients who can raising their arms were taken as routine group. The images artifacts were blindly evaluated by 5-points scale (severe, less severe, moderate, minimum and no artifact) by 2 experienced CT technologists and one radiologist and compared between the three groups (X2 test). CT values and its noise of the liver with or without artifact of the three groups were measured and analyzed by one-way ANOVA test. Results: In the control group, 11 cases had severe, 15 cases had less severe, 5 cases had moderate. In the study group, 6 cases had moderate, 15 cases had minimum, 9 cases had no artifact. In the routine group, 8 cases minimum and 22 cases had no artifact. Image quality was significantly improved in the study group compared to the conventional group where X2=95.32 and P<0.01. CT value and the noise of the liver without artifact were (54.5 ± 3.0) HU and 10.7 ± 2.4 in the control group, (52.0 ± 3.5) HU and 10.7 ± 0.5 in the study group, (53.7 ± 3.1) HU and 9.9 ± 0.5 in the routine group, respectively. CT value and noise of the liver with artifact were (41.7 ± 8.4) HU and 17.9 ± 2.6 in control group, (53.1 ± 6.9) HU and 11.0 ± 0.7 in the study group, (54.1 ± 2.4) HU and 9.9 ± 0.5 in the routine group, respectively. The CT value and its noise variation with artifact were significantly higher in the control group than the study group and the control group, where F=36.352, 235.848, respectively and P<0.01. Conclusion: The image quality can be improved and the artifact can be minimized for the patients with arm-raising disability by shifting their arm position to the different imaging planes of the spine. (authors)

  20. Building America Case Study: Raised Ceiling Interior Duct System, New Smyrna, Florida (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2014-09-01

    One of BA-PIRC's longtime Habitat for Humanity partners, S.E. Volusia CO (SEVHFH), was interested in building a home to the new Challenge Home standards. SEVHFH routinely builds ENERGY STAR V3.1 homes. The only modification to their design needed to comply with the Challenge Home criteria was the interior duct requirement. Unwilling to incur the added costs of a foam roof deck or wall heights above 8 feet to accommodate a fur-down chase SEVHFH opted to build a fur-up or raised ceiling chase.

  1. Status of tuberculosis in bovine animals raised by tuberculosis infected patients in Western Chitwan, Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dhakal IP

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Bovine tuberculosis (bTB is an important public health concern worldwide. This study was conducted to determine the status of bTB in animals raised by tuberculosis patients in Western Chitwan, Nepal.MATERIALS AND METHODS: This cross-sectional study was conducted from August, 2011 to January, 2012. A total of 100 bovines (cattle and buffalo raised in 60 farms of tuberculosis patients were tested with single intradermal tuberculin test considering various animal factors. Well designed questionnaire survey was taken with 70 tuberculosis patients of same 60 families focusing knowledge, awareness and various practices related to bovine tuberculosis.RESULTS: Overall 15% bovines were positive for tuberculosis (13.6% cattle and 15.4% buffaloes. Age of animal was significantly associated with tuberculosis (p<0.05 while sex and species were not. 24% tuberculosis patients had raw milk consuming habit while very few of them (9% were aware of zoonotic aspect of bovine tuberculosis.CONCLUSIONS: There is high chance of tuberculosis transmission form animals to humans or vice versa. Further detailed study is needed in large scale with stronger intersectoral collaboration of medical and veterinary health sector to determine the scale of problem and find out prevention and control strategies against zoonotic tuberculosis.

  2. Raising the Dead without a Red Sea-Dead Sea project? Hydro-economics and governance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. E. Rosenberg

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Seven decades of extractions have dramatically reduced Jordan River flows, lowered the Dead Sea level, opened sink holes, and caused other environmental problems. The fix Jordan, Israel, and the Palestinians propose would build an expensive multipurpose conveyance project from the Red Sea to the Dead Sea that would also generate hydropower and desalinate water. This paper compares the Red-Dead project to alternatives that may also raise the Dead Sea level. Hydro-economic model results for the Jordan-Israel-Palestinian inter-tied water systems show two restoration alternatives are more economically viable than the proposed Red-Dead project. Many decentralized new supply, wastewater reuse, conveyance, conservation, and leak reduction projects and programs in each country can together increase economic benefits and reliably deliver up to 900 MCM yr?1 to the Dead Sea. Similarly, a smaller Red-Dead project that only generates hydropower can deliver large flows to the Dead Sea when the sale price of generated electricity is sufficiently high. However, for all restoration options, net benefits fall and water scarcity rises as flows to the Dead Sea increase. This finding suggests (i each country has no individual incentive to return water to the Dead Sea, and (ii outside institutions that seek to raise the Dead must also offer countries direct incentives to deliver water to the Sea besides building the countries new infrastructure.

  3. Parents' leisure: the impact of raising a child with Down syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wayne, Deborah O'Mullan; Krishnagiri, Sheama

    2005-01-01

    A healthy and productive life depends upon the balance between work, leisure, and activities of daily living. Gaining or regaining that balance is a core concept within occupational therapy. Raising a child with special needs is one factor that challenges parents in achieving a balance. The purpose of this research was to describe factors that affect the leisure occupations of these parents. A qualitative approach was used in which in-depth interviews and the adapted Barth Time Construction were administered to four married couples that were raising children with Down syndrome who were between seven and nine years of age. Data was examined through content analysis. Results indicated that the parents of children with Down syndrome had limitations in time available for leisure, changes in types of leisure engaged in, and an increase in planning for leisure activities. Despite overall satisfaction with the manner in which they allocated their time, parents frequently noted the potential benefits of incorporating more leisure into their daily lives. Limitations of the study include type and size of sample. PMID:16398205

  4. Raising Climate Finance from International Transport Sectors. Identification and Analysis of Governance Structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faber, J. [CE Delft, Delft (Netherlands); Pahuja, N.; Garg, A. [The Energy and Resources Institute TERI, New Delhi (India)

    2012-03-15

    Market based instruments (MBIs) for maritime transport have the potential to reduce emissions while at the same time raising funds for climate policies in developing countries. GHG emissions from international aviation and maritime transport accounted for approximately 5% of global anthropogenic emissions in 2005 and are rising rapidly. There is a clear need to address these emissions in order not to undermine policies for mitigating land based emissions. Developing countries need financial support to carry out climate policies, both adaptation and mitigation. The UN Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) makes policies by developing countries conditional on climate finance. In the current economic and financial circumstances, there is a need for new sources of finance. The governance of such MBIs should ensure that they are neither an international tax nor require hypothecation of fiscal revenues, while they should provide new and additional finance. MBIs which are in fact an international tax would not be politically feasible, and likewise hypothecation would be opposed by many states. This report finds that an emissions trading scheme (ETS) can satisfy these criteria, provided that: (1) it transfers a share of allowances directly to developing countries in order to ensure there is no net incidence on them; developing countries could auction these allowances in order to raise revenue; (2) it transfers allowances to the Green Climate Fund to support climate policies; auctioning these allowances would provide revenues for the Fund; (3) it transfers allowances to IMO or another organisation in order to finance fuel-efficiency improvements in international transport.

  5. Objections raised by the Land government relating to nuclear licensing procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The president of the Bavarian Landtag rejected a motion brought in by a parliamentary party, demanding that the Landtag request the Bavarian government..'' to file objections, in matters of the current plan approval procedure for the Schacht Konrad waste repository''. The motion was rejected referring to paragraph 62, sub-section 4 of the GeschOLT, stating the scope of competence of the Bavarian Free State. The Bavarian Constitutional Court decided in this matter as follows: Anyone has the right to raise objections in a plan approval procedure according to paragraph 9 b, sub-section 1 Atomic Energy Act. There is no mandatory restriction of this right to cases involving a personal interest. Land governments thus are equally entitled to raise objections against the licensing of a radwaste with the Ministry of the Environment of Lower Saxony pository. The remotion brought in therefore aims at activities within the legally permitted scope of action in accordance with the Atomic Energy Act. (orig./HSCH)

  6. DETERMINATION OF ZERDAVA DOG (KAPI KOPEGI RAISED IN NORTHEAST OF TURKEY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orhan YILMAZ

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This is the first document on Turkish Zerdava dogs raised in northeast of Turkey. This study was carried out to define the morphologic traits of the Turkish Zerdava dogs raised in east of Turkey comparing with some other native dog breeds of Turkey. To this end, a total of 39 (19 male and 20 female dogs was analyzed using the Minitab 15 statistical software program using ANOVA and Student’s t-Test. Descriptive statistics and comparison results were for height at shoulders 51.2±0.35, height at rump 51.6±0.28, body length 56.3±0.35, heart girth circumference 50±1.43, chest width 25.6±0.22, cannon circumference 9.4±0.14, and head length 19.4±0.17 cm respectively. The overall results of the study demonstrated that Turkish Zerdava dogs had a very close resemblance to the Turkish Kangal (Karabash and Akbash Shepherd dogs related with body measurements. The Zerdava dogs reach mature body weight and size at around 18 months of age.

  7. Grandparents Raising Grandchildren in the United States: Changing Family Forms, Stagnant Social Policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Lindsey A; Silverstein, Merril; Putney, Norella M

    2008-01-01

    As a consequence of increased divorce rates, the proliferation of single-parent families, and patterns of economic stagnation, parents are increasingly relying on extended family to care for children. In the past few decades, a substantial increase in the number of grandparents raising grandchildren has been observed within the United States. Grandparents who raise their grandchildren are particularly vulnerable, as are the grandchildren in their care; however, U.S. policy currently presents many barriers, gaps, and unintended consequences for grandparent caregivers. In this paper, we use two theoretical paradigms 1) structural lag and 2) the political economy of aging perspective to argue that U.S. policy has not kept pace with the reality of the family and - as a result - those families who are most vulnerable often receive the least support. We propose that as family forms become more diverse a redefinition of the family to one that is less bound by residence and biology, to one based more on function, will be required. PMID:20585408

  8. IMMEDIATE EFFECT OF ACTIVE RELEASE TECHNIQUE VERSUS MULLIGAN BENT LEG RAISE IN SUBJECTS WITH HAMSTRING TIGHTNESS: A RANDOMIZED CLINICAL TRIAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijay Kage

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: To study and compare the effectiveness of active release technique and mulligan bent leg raise in subjects with hamstring tightness. Methods: 40 normal healthy subjects (20 in each group were recruited in the study under simple randomization method. Group A received single session of Active Release Technique and Group B received single session of Mulligan Bent Leg Raise technique for hamstring tightness. Popliteal angle and Sit and reach flexibility tests were measured pre intervention and post intervention. Data was analyzed using t-test. Results: The group treated with Active release technique showed significant improvement in Popliteal angle (P<0.001 and sit and reach flexibility test (P<0.001 as compared to Mulligan bent leg raise technique. Results showed the significance difference within the groups post intervention. Conclusion: A single session of Active release technique is better as compared to Mulligan bent leg raise technique to improve hamstring flexibility and range of motion.

  9. Cerebrospinal fluid hypoxanthine and xanthine concentrations as indicators of metabolic damage due to raised intracranial pressure in hydrocephalic children.

    OpenAIRE

    Levin, S D; Brown, J.K.; Harkness, R A

    1984-01-01

    Intracranial pressure and cerebrospinal fluid hypoxanthine and xanthine concentrations were measured in hydrocephalic children with suspected raised intracranial pressure. There was a highly significant correlation between intracranial pressure and cerebrospinal fluid hypoxanthine and xanthine levels.

  10. Cinta Senese and Large White x Cinta Senese raised on woodland pasture: in vita and slaughter performances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Sirtori

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The Cinta Senese (CS is a local Italian swine breed raised in free-range system and frequently employed a crossing with Large White (LW, but the density of rearing on woodland pastures is little know...

  11. Reduction of emissions from Brazilian cattle raising and the generation of energy: Intensification and confinement potentials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The identification of the main sources of anthropic greenhouse gas emissions (GHG) associated with the mitigation and removal of these emissions has become an important instrument in the attenuation of the climatic changes predicted by the IPCC. The largest emission source in Brazil is forest conversion. This land use change has always had a strong relationship with the expansion of agriculture, an activity of great importance in the country, which has the largest commercial cattle herd in the planet. Following the considerable reduction in emissions from deforestation, agriculture has been since 2010 the most important source (MCTI (Ministério da Ciência, Tecnologia e Inovação), 2013. Brasília: Ministério daCiência, Tecnologia e Inovação, Brasil). Seeking to discover the possibilities of altering the emissions profile in the agricultural sector, four scenarios were developed related to how this is dealt with in the beef cattle sector, calculating the potential removal of carbon from the atmosphere through natural regeneration of biomes. The results suggest that picketing and rotation scenario has the greatest potential, with a carbon reduction of 17.7 Gt CO2eq, while the shared raising with grain legumes scenario has the lowest calculated reduction potential of 7.1 Gt CO2eq was calculated. The animal confinement scenario had an intermediary reduction potential of 8.3 Gt CO2eq. The mosaic of methods scenario, in which it is attempted to simulate the parallel adoption of the measures proposed in all other scenarios, had a reduction potential of 13.1 Gt CO2eq. In the scenarios where animal confinement occurs, the treatment of waste with biodigestion allows the generation of biogas and biofertilizers, contributing to an increase in the potential carbon reduction. - Highlights: • We identify one main source of anthropic GHG in Brazil after forest conversion (deforestation), the beef cattle raising. • Four scenarios to mitigate emissions from cattle raising (agriculture sector) are modeled. • We calculate potential removals of carbon from the atmosphere through natural regeneration of biomes for each scenario. • The results suggest that picketing and rotation has the greatest potential, with a carbon reduction of 1.8 Mt CO2eq/yr. • Biodigestion of manure allows the generation of biogas and biofertilizers, increasing carbon reduction potentials

  12. Evaluation of the performance of two strains of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis Niloticus) in mixed raising systems

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Patrícia Ribeiro, Neves; Ricardo Pereira, Ribeiro; Lauro, Vargas; Maria Raquel Marçal, Natali; Káttia Regina, Maehana; Nilton Garcia, Marengoni.

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o desempenho produtivo de duas linhagens de tilápia do Nilo (Oreochromis niloticus) em sistemas de cultivo misto. Foram utilizados 3600 alevinos de tilápia, 1800 da linhagem Bouaké e 1800 da Chitralada. O experimento foi conduzido em três fases, a Fase I realiza [...] da em estufa em 18 caixas, nas quais foram testados dois tratamentos (Bouaké e Chitralada) e nove repetições; e a Fase II e III realizadas em 18 tanques de alvenaria, com os mesmos tratamentos. Na fase I, a linhagem Chitralada apresentou os maiores valores para peso final e ganho em peso. Na fase II, a Chitralada apresentou o maior valor para peso final em relação à Bouaké, já para o ganho em peso a Bouaké obteve o melhor resultado. Na fase III, a Chitralada apresentou os melhores resultados para peso final (104 dias de cultivo); peso final, comprimento final e ganho em comprimento (152 dias de cultivo) e aos 279 dias de cultivo, o ganho em peso e em comprimento foram maiores para a Bouaké. Estes resultados demonstraram que a linhagem de melhor desempenho foi a Chitralada. Abstract in english The aim of this study was to evaluate the productive performance of two strains of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) in mixed raising systems. A total of 3600 fish-larvae species was used, 1800 belonging to Bouaké lineage, and 1800 to Chitralada. The experiment was carried out in three phases; Ph [...] ase I in an incubator in 18 boxes, in which two treatments (Bouaké and Chitralada) were tested by using nine repetitions; Phases II and III were performed in 18 cement tanks with the same treatments. In phase I, regarding the final weight and gain of weight, Chitralada strain showed the highest final weight values. In phase II, Chitralada showed the highest final weight value when compared with Bouaké, and, considering the gain of weight, Bouaké obtained the best result. In phase III, Chitralada showed better final weight results (104 days of raising), final weight, final length and gain of length/cm (152 days of raising); but, after 279 days of the cultivation, Bouaké showed a higher weight and length gain. These findings showed that Chitralada strain presented the best performance.

  13. Cost monitoring to promote the value added for clam raising farmers in the Northern area of Vietnam

    OpenAIRE

    Bui Thi, Nga; Tran Thu, Hoai; Tran Huu, Cuong; Lebailly, Philippe

    2014-01-01

    Clam farming in coastal provinces of Vietnam has notably developed since the last decade. It generated high income, improve socio-economic development for many local communities. However, many clam raising farms are facing difficulties of farm management, disease control, markets and systems of quality control. This research aims to study about the real situation of cost monitoring in the clam raising farms in the Northern area of Vietnam and suggest some recommendation for apply a suitable m...

  14. Manipulator for inspection and possibly repair of heat exchanger tubes, particularly for steam raising units for nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The manipulator penetrates the shielding wall and the steam raising unit housing with a guide tube, and has a mouthpiece on its free end. Turbulence measuring probes, cleaning stoppers, opening stoppers etc., can be introduced into the steam raising unit at the mouthpiece. A flexible guide hose runs through the guide tube, which is connected to the movable hose for the measuring or repair equipment. (DG)

  15. Contribution of caffeine to the homocysteine-raising effect of coffee : a randomized controlled trial in humans

    OpenAIRE

    Verhoef, P.; Pasman, W.J.; Vliet, T.; Urgert, R; Katan, M.B.

    2002-01-01

    Background: A high plasma total homocysteine concentration is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease. Consumption of unfiltered or filtered coffee raises total homocysteine concentrations in healthy volunteers. The responsible compound, however, is unknown. Objective: The objective was to determine whether caffeine explains the homocysteine-raising effect of coffee. Design: Forty-eight subjects aged 19–65 y completed this randomized crossover study with 3 treatments, eac...

  16. Peripheral and gastrointestinal immune systems of healthy cattle raised outdoors at pasture or indoors on a concentrate-based ration

    OpenAIRE

    Reilly Petrina; Englishby Tanya; Campion Deirdre P; Black Alistair D; Earley Bernadette; Moloney Aidan P; Monahan Frank J; Lejeune Alexandre; O'Doherty John; Sweeney Torres

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Despite an increasing preference of consumers for beef produced from more extensive pasture-based production systems and potential human health benefits from the consumption of such beef, data regarding the health status of animals raised on pasture are limited. The objective of this study was to characterise specific aspects of the bovine peripheral and the gastrointestinal muscosal immune systems of cattle raised on an outdoor pasture system in comparison to animals rais...

  17. Should governments in Europe be more aggressive in pushing for gender equality to raise fertility? The second "NO"

    OpenAIRE

    Gerda Neyer

    2011-01-01

    This paper argues against the suggestion that governments should push for gender equality more aggressively in order to raise fertility. The paper presents a threefold "no" to this proposal. It takes issue with the goal of raising fertility, arguing that the claims that fertility must be increased are based on myths. It rejects a more aggressive pursuit of gender equality for demographic purposes, maintaining that this method preserves inequality. It warns against using gender equality for fe...

  18. Analysis of Cattle Raising and Institutional Perspectives Regarding Collective Action in the El Ocote Biosphere Reserve, Chiapas, Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    L. Rodriguez-Larramendi; J. Nahed-Toral; M.H. Hernandez-Lopez; F. Guevara-Hernandez; H. Gomez-Castro; R Pinto-Ruiz

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to analyze the perceptions of representatives of government agencies and educational institutions regarding problems related to cattle raising in the El Ocote Biosphere Reserve. Through a structural analysis, we identified and prioritized problems which due to their joint relevance, require immediate attention in order to elaborate inter-institutional plans of action which would contribute to the sustainability of cattle raising systems in natural protected are...

  19. The application of quality control circle in neurosurgery ICU nurses in raising compliance of the head of a bed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Na LI

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To explore the application of quality control circle in raising compliance of the head of a bed in neurosurgery ICU nurses. Methods: The quality control circle was made up of 4 ICU nurses, determine the subject in order to improve the neurosurgery ICU nurses in raising compliance of the head of a bed, according to the QCC activity steps to formulate plans, including grasp the current situation, goal setting, through analysis, circle members develop strategy and plan implementation and review, finally compared the situation before and after neurosurgery ICU nurses raised bed activities compliance. Results: After implementation of QCC, neurosurgery ICU nurses raised bed to 30 ~ 45 degrees. After activities, circle members in the team cooperation ability, cohesion, to accept new things ability, and innovative thinking ability and to raise the understanding of the relevant knowledge of the head of a bed has improved significantly. Conclusion: The application of quality management circle activity improves the neurosurgery ICU nurses effectively raise the compliance of the head of a bed, improve the comprehensive quality of the clinical nurses.

  20. The dismantling of the Tokai 1 Steam Raising Units using remotely controlled techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Tokai 1 gas cooled reactor 166 MW(e) reactor went into service in 1966 and was shut down in 1998. Since that date the Japan Atomic Power Company, the owner of the plant has been planning and implementing an ambitious programme which will lead to the first Level 3 decommissioning of a commercial power reactor in Japan. JPC's basic strategy is to manage and perform the decommissioning work with in-house resources, calling on the support of specialist companies as and when required. This paper describes the JPC programme and in particular the dismantling of the 4 steam raising units (SRU) which is to be performed using remotely controlled equipment. (authors)

  1. Hackathon as a way to raise awareness and foster innovation for stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Li Min; Johnson, Sharon

    2015-12-01

    The 'Time is Brain" concept has been a major focus in the World Stroke Awareness Campaign. Objective We describe our experience with a Hackathon (junction of hack+marathon), a 24 hour event of innovation- and technology-based project development, focused around detecting stroke. Method The Hackathon was held during a Brazilian Student's union (BRASA) congress involving students from engineering and other technological disciplines. Results Four teamscompleted the 24-hour challenge; two teams opted the stroke challenge. One team proposed improving detection using a mobile sensor Fit-Bit combined with a smart-phone to contact emergency dispatch. The other team developed a game, in which kids would play a role as a neurologist; to diagnosis stroke with objective to increase awareness. Conclusion Hackathons can focus attention on innovation and improvement opportunities to support the World Stroke Campaign, as well as other campaigns to raise awareness for other health or social problems. PMID:26677120

  2. Sub-replacement fertility in national populations: Can it be raised?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demeny, Paul

    2015-01-01

    This paper comments on the four main functions demographers perform: fact-finding, analysis, prediction, and policymaking. Successes in the first two of these are counterbalanced by weakness in predictive ability. The focus of the comments, however, is on policy. Demographers were influential in promoting efforts to lower very high fertility but are ineffectual in proposing policies that could reverse the tendency of fertility to sink well below replacement levels. The paper argues for a break from exclusive reliance on the standard measures of modern welfare states intended to raise fertility and urges exploration of radically new approaches. Two promising innovations are briefly outlined: one would give the right to vote to all citizens regardless of age, the voting right of minors being exercised by parental proxy, and another that would reform state-administered pension schemes by arranging a direct transfer of working children's mandatory contributions to social security funds to their retired parents. PMID:25912919

  3. Technology Solutions Case Study: Raised Ceiling Interior Duct System, New Smyrna, Florida

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2014-09-01

    Builder S.E. Volusia County Habitat for Humanity (SEVHFH) was interested in constructing a home to the new U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Zero Energy Ready Home standards. SEVHFH partners with DOE team Building America Partnership for Improved Residential Construction on Habitat for Humanity homes and routinely builds to ENERGY STAR V3.1. The only modification to the design needed to comply with the Zero Energy Ready Home criteria was the interior duct requirement. Unwilling to incur the added costs of a foam roof deck or wall heights that exceed 8 ft to accommodate a fur-down chase, SEVHFH opted to build a fur-up or raised ceiling chase. This case study describes the project.

  4. Transfer of jacking up anchor for steam raising unit in Tokai Power Station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tokai power station was closed down in March 1998 and is being decommissioned. Removal works of steam raising unit (four units of heat exchangers) by jacking down method of construction started from August 2010 with decommissioning data accumulated. 'Tear 2' of heat exchanger shell was removed by April 2012 and transfer work of jacking up anchor firstly attached at 'tear 7' of heat exchanger shell was performed with newly installed anchor by welding and annealing at top head shell of heat exchanger outside controlled areas so as to avoid possible interference with support hoist of remote-operated primary cutting equipment with further removal work of heat exchanger. Jack system on the roof floor of heat exchanger area of reactor building was horizontally moved toward the center of heat exchanger and its strands were connected to new anchor. (T. Tanaka)

  5. Interpreting the mineral reservation of the Stock-Raising Homestead Act: Watt v. Western Nuclear, Inc

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Supreme Court interpreted the Stock-Raising Homestead Act (SRHA) in Watt v. Western Nuclear, Inc. as reserving common gravel deposits to the US because they are minimal in character. This ignored traditional rules of statutory construction, an adopted an all-inclusive definition of the term minerals that is limited only by fluctuating market conditions. The Court subjugated the original congressional objective of settling the West to the current policy of reserving all assets absolutely. Rather than clarifying the definition of reserved minerals, this injected additional ambiguity into the land title area in which the Court has been unwilling to upset settled expectations. Such a departure from the common use and understanding of the term and from property rights cannot be justified by either policy considerations or notions of justice and fair play

  6. Raising money with tax incentives: an overview of how U.S. tax credits are marketed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article outlines a method for using certain U.S. income tax credits to raise investment capital. With proper structuring, these tax credits can essentially be ''sold'' to outside investors. A project which may not have sufficient income to take advantage of tax benefits, such as the 29 alternative fuel credit, may sell an interest in the project to commercial investors who can use tax credits. The investors provide cash for the project in return for the tax credits, as well as a portion of the income generated by the project. This article outlines how this type of arrangement can be structured and which tax credits are available for ''sale''. It also identifies possible sources of investment money, issues that an investor will likely consider before investing in such a project, and the potential pitfalls of such a project. (author)

  7. Grammar Consciousness-Raising Activities and Iranian EFL Learners' Attitudes toward English Language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farrokhlagha Heidari

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The first purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of consciousness-raising (C-R activities on learning grammatical structures by Iranian EFL learners. The second one was to investigate the effect of gender through C-R activities and tasks. Finally, this study wanted to investigate the Iranian students’ attitudes toward learning English prior to and after applying the C-R activities. An attitude questionnaire was use to investigate the participants' attitudes toward learning English before and after applying C-R activities. Data analysis indicated that using C-R activities in is significantly more effective than the traditional approaches. Regarding gender, male outperformed females. Therefore, it is recommended that other teachers consider C-R activities as useful options in teaching other aspects of language.  Based on the statistics and findings, Iranian students’ attitudes toward learning English language were not much different prior to and after applying C-R activities.

  8. How high the temperature of a liquid be raised without boiling?

    CERN Document Server

    Das, M; Roy, B; Roy, S C; Das, Mala

    2000-01-01

    How high the temperature of a liquid be raised beyond its boiling point without vaporizing (known as the limit of superheat) is an interesting subject of investigation. A new method of finding the limit of superheat of liquids is presented here. The superheated liquids are taken in the form of drops suspended in visco elastic gel. The nucleation is detected acoustically by a sensitive piezo-electric transducer, coupled to a multi channel scaler and the nucleation is observed as a funtion of time and with increase of temperature. The limit of superheat measured by the present method supersedes all other measurements and theoretical predictions in reaching closest to the critical temperature and warrants improved theoretical predictions.

  9. Raising awareness of amphibian Chytridiomycosis will not alienate ecotourists visiting Madagascar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wollenberg, Katharina C; Jenkins, Richard K B; Randrianavelona, Roma; Ralisata, Mahefa; Rampilamanana, Roseline; Ramanandraibe, Andrianirina; Ravoahangimalala, Olga Ramilijaona; Vences, Miguel

    2010-06-01

    Chytridiomycosis (Bd) is contributing to amphibian extinctions worldwide but has so far not been detected in Madagascar. The high likelihood for Bd to spread to the island and efface this amphibian diversity and endemism hotspot requires respective conservation policies to be developed. Bd could be introduced by the large number of tourists that visit protected areas; therefore, increasing awareness among tourists and encouraging them to participate in safety measures should be a priority conservation action. However, concerns have been raised that tourists would not be able to distinguish between an amphibian disease harmless to humans and emerging diseases that would imply a danger for human health, invoking a negative image of Madagascar as an ecotourism destination. We evaluated whether informing tourists about this infectious animal disease would cause health scare and diminish trip satisfaction. Based on 659 respondents we found that most ecotourists favored to be informed about Bd and were proactive about participating in prevention measures, refuting previous concerns. PMID:20517634

  10. Most frequent nematode parasites of artificially raised pheasants (Phasianus colchicus L and measures for their control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavlovi? Ivan

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Helminthoses have an important role in the pathology of artificially raised game pheasants. During the period 1997-2002. we examined a total of 1893 pheasant poults aged from 4 to 14 weeks and 1432 adult birds at several pheasanteries in Serbia. The following nematode species were found: Syngamus trachea, Ascaridia galli, A. columbae, Heterakis gallinarum, H. isolonche Capillaria gallinae (sin. C. caudinflata, C. columbae (sin. C. obsignata and C. phasianis. The intensity of infection in total was not high, except for infection with ascaridata and gapeworms, and depended of age of the examined birds. Consisting of anthelmintic drugs mixed with meal gave the most favourable results in therapy on rhe medicated food.

  11. The Machinery for Raising Capital by Companies through Debt Finances in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kunle Aina

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed at examining critically the legal machinery for creating debenture by companies, rights of the debentures holders and methods of enforcement of the debenture in Nigeria. The machinery for raising capital through debenture is not well articulated in the Companies and Allied Matters Act (CAMA 1990. The position of the law on the rights and duties of the parties to a floating charge is inadequate and reforms are urgently required as current edition of the law allows for fraud on unwary parties. This study’s submission was that the law be reviewed in such a way that many loopholes like the ninety day rule in Nigeria is changed, either reduced or changed to one of immediate notification of such transaction to the commission, to ensure some level of certainty in this area of the law.

  12. Raising energy efficiency and cutting greenhouse gas emissions : an analysis of publicly funded petroleum research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-11-01

    From the preface: This brochure is based on an analysis study that ascertained that since 2004 the Research Council's PETROMAKS and DEMO 2000 programmes have allocated funding to more than 80 projects carried out by the research community and private industry relating to climate challenges. Once these projects have been concluded, they will have received a total of over half a billion kroner in public funding. There is no doubt that many of the measures recommended by these projects will have positive impacts on the environment. Many of these research findings can contribute to making processes more energy efficient or to directly reducing emissions of greenhouse gases. The brochure presents a selection of these projects. A complete list of projects under the PETROMAKS and DEMO 2000 programmes which address raising energy efficiency may be found at the end of the brochure.(eb)

  13. Tactile perception of roughness: raised-dot spacing, density and disposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dépeault, Alexandra; Meftah, El-Mehdi; Chapman, C Elaine

    2009-08-01

    Recently, we showed that tactile speed estimates are modified by the spatial parameters of moving raised-dot surfaces, specifically dot spacing but not dot disposition (regular, irregular) or density. The purpose of this study was to determine the extent to which tactile roughness perception resembles tactile speed with respect to its dependence and/or independence of the spatial properties of raised-dot surfaces. Subjects scaled the roughness of surfaces displaced under the finger. Dot spacing (centre-to-centre) ranged from 1.5 to 8.5 mm in the direction of the scan (longitudinal). Mean dot density varied from 2.2 to 46.2 dots/cm2. Dot disposition was varied: repeating rows (periodic) or quasi-random (non-periodic). In the first experiment (n = 8), the periodic and non-periodic surfaces were matched for mean dot density. Roughness showed a monotonic increase with 1/dot density, but non-periodic surfaces were judged to be smoother than the periodic surfaces. Subjective equality was obtained when the data were re-expressed relative to longitudinal SP. In the second experiment (n = 7), the periodic and non-periodic surfaces were matched for longitudinal dot spacing. Perceptual equivalence was observed when the results were plotted relative to dot spacing, but not 1/dot density. Dot spacing in the orthogonal direction (transverse) was excluded as a contributing factor. Thus, as found for tactile speed scaling, roughness is critically dependent on longitudinal dot spacing, but independent of dot disposition and dot density (over much of the tested range). These results provide a set of predictions to identify cortical neurones that play critical roles in roughness appreciation. PMID:19579021

  14. System for automatically preventing the raising of ash from dedicated landfills

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milutinovi? Predrag

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a system for automatic prevention of raising of ashes from dedicated landfills based on a simple mathematical model which has modest entry requirements for meteorological data. Such an approach is efficient enough and enables fast information retrieval, i.e. zones with different concentrations of dust in the air, enabling quick start of counter measures to reduce emissions of ashes into the air. The system hardware consists of an automatic weather station, set of meters that determine moisture of ash, set of remotely managed sprinklers, computers, microprocessor and microcontroller based elements for the local acquisition and management of the executive elements and modules for wireless data transfer. An original software application for the system management has been developed. Within the application there is a module that allows entering of all data necessary to configure the system, as well as data about sensors and sprinklers. Based on the meteorological input data, measured moisture content of the ashes, and on the basis of determined functional dependencies, special software module operates sprinklers for soaking the surfaces from which the ashes is emitted into the air, in order to eliminate these emissions. The system, based on the developed mathematical model, predicts the propagation of ashes through the air, as well as dry and wet deposition, in real-time. The system automatically stores all the data relevant to the future analyses and reporting. The system is designed and implemented as modular and open. A custom developed graphical user interface serves as Man-Machine Interface (MMI. By using the TCP/IP connection it could be easily connected with the other information systems. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR-15005: Design and development of pilot system for preventing automatic raise of ashes from dedicated dumps

  15. Puberty and sexual maturity in Anglo-Nubian male goats raised in semi-intensive system

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Luiz Eduardo Barreto de, Souza; Jurandir Ferreira da, Cruz; Milton Rezende, Teixeira Neto; Rita de Cássia Santos, Nunes; Maria Helena Coelho, Cruz.

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to characterize the sexual development in Anglo-Nubian male goats raised in semi-intensive system. Eight animals were monitored every fifteen days, from the 12th to the 44th week for age at penis detachment, live weight, scrotal circumference, seminal parameters (volu [...] me, aspect, concentration, wave motion, progressive individual motility, vigor and spermatic abnormalities) and serum testosterone levels. Serum testosterone levels were determined in blood samples collected at the 20th, 28th and 38th weeks of age. Penis detachment occurred at 102.9 ± 15.4 days of age. Live weight and scrotal circumference at 20th and 44th weeks of age ranged from 25.9 ± 3.5 to 44.7 ± 4.7 kg and from 21.2 ± 1.6 cm to 26.0 ± 1.5 cm, respectively. The ejaculate volume ranged from 0.38 ± 0.05 to 0.96 ± 0.04 mL, concentration ranged from 1.33 ± 0.64 to 3.54 ± 0.14.10(9) mL-1 and the progressive individual motility varied from 48.0 ± 10.52% to 82.0 ± 3.74%, at the same age. The number of defective spermatozoa (major and minor) was 32.2 ± 5.8% vs. 8.80 ± 2.9% at the 20th and the 44th week of age, respectively. Serum testosterone level was 2.70 ± 1.40 ng.mL-1 at the 20th week, 8.50 ± 4.66 ng.mL-1 at the 28th week and 2.21 ± 2.28 ng.mL-1 at the 38th week of age. Age showed a correlation with live weight, scrotal circumference, and all the qualitative parameters of semen except for volume, with all other qualitative parameters of semen, and the correlation among sperm abnormalities and the other traits was negative. Serum testosterone levels and andrological parameters of Anglo-Nubian goats raised in semi-intensive system are closely related to age. In those animals, puberty is reached at the 20th week and sexual maturity is reached at the 38th week of age.

  16. Peripheral and gastrointestinal immune systems of healthy cattle raised outdoors at pasture or indoors on a concentrate-based ration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reilly Petrina

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite an increasing preference of consumers for beef produced from more extensive pasture-based production systems and potential human health benefits from the consumption of such beef, data regarding the health status of animals raised on pasture are limited. The objective of this study was to characterise specific aspects of the bovine peripheral and the gastrointestinal muscosal immune systems of cattle raised on an outdoor pasture system in comparison to animals raised on a conventional intensive indoor concentrate-based system. Results A number of in vitro functional tests of immune cells suggested subtle differences between the animals on the outdoor versus indoor production systems. There was a decrease in the number of neutrophils and monocytes engaged in phagocytosis in outdoor cattle (P P P P P P P Conclusion Despite distinctly contrasting production systems, only subtle differences were identified in the peripheral immune parameters measured between cattle raised at pasture in comparison to animals raised on a conventional intensive indoor concentrate-based production system.

  17. Effect of heifer-raising practices on E. coli antimicrobial resistance and Salmonella prevalence in heifer raisers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, R V; Siler, J D; Cummings, K J; Davis, M A; Warnick, L D

    2015-11-01

    Although cattle movement and commingling play an important role in the inter-herd transmission of pathogens, little is known about the effect of commingling of heifers at raising operations. The objective of this study was to compare the resistance of E. coli and prevalence of Salmonella from pooled faecal pats of heifers raised off-farm at multi-source raisers (MULTI) that raised heifers from at least two farms compared with on-farm raisers (HOME), with heifers from only that farm. MULTI faecal pat samples were collected from pens with animals that had arrived at the farm within the previous 2 months (AP) and from animals that would be departing the heifer raiser in 2-3 months (DP). Corresponding age sampling was conducted at HOME raisers. Odds of ampicillin resistance were 3·0 times greater in E. coli collected from MULTI compared to HOME raisers. E. coli from AP pens had significantly (P < 0·05) higher odds of resistance to ampicillin, neomycin, streptomycin, and tetracycline compared to DP pens. Salmonella recovery was not significantly different between heifer-raising systems (P = 0·3). Heifer-raising system did not have a major overall impact on selection of resistant E. coli, which was strongly affected by the age of the animals sampled. PMID:25904042

  18. Observing and simulating soil development using a chronosequence of cold raised marine terraces on Spitsbergen

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Meij, Marijn; de Kleijn, Christian; Temme, Arnaud; Zwolinski, Zbigniew; Rymer, Krzysztof

    2015-04-01

    The coasts of Spitsbergen are covered with raised marine beaches, developed under the isostatic rebound after the Last Glacial Maximum. This chronosequence of beaches provides a unique chance to study the speed of soil forming processes in cold and dry Arctic regions. Fieldwork was performed on gravelly marine beaches in the Ebba valley, central Spitsbergen, with ages ranging from 3.000 up to 14.000 years. The soils on 30 random selected locations were described and sampled. Results indicate several soil forming processes, which have a strong dependence on time, but also on landscape setting and vegetation presence. These processes include the accumulation of organic matter, aeolian deposition of sand and weathering and dissolution of the limestone gravel that dominates the parent material. This last process results in translocation of silt through the profile, creating silt caps on remaining limestone gravel, and when enough silt is accumulated, a Bl horizon. The carbonates from the limestone form precipitates under the gravel grains. Results support the notion that even under cold, permafrost conditions, soil formation and particularly weathering can still happen reasonably fast if some water is available. Using an early version of soilscape model LORICA, some of the pedogenic processes are simulated in order to get better insight in their dynamics and distribution in the study area. The model links geomorphic processes such as aeolian deposition, isostatic rebound and erosion to the vertical development of the soil profiles in the area.

  19. Avalanches in the raise and peel model in the presence of a wall

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We investigate a non-equilibrium one-dimensional model known as the raise and peel model describing a growing surface which grows locally and has non-local desorption. For specific values of adsorption (ua) and desorption (ud) rates, the model shows interesting features. At ua = ud, the model is described by a conformal field theory (with conformal charge c = 0) and its stationary probability can be mapped onto the ground state of the XXZ quantum chain. Moreover, for the regime ua ? ud, the model shows a phase in which the avalanche distribution is scale-invariant. In this work, we study the surface dynamics by looking at avalanche distributions using a finite-sized scaling formalism and explore the effect of adding a wall to the model. The model shows the same universality for the cases with and without a wall for an odd number of tiles removed, but we find a new exponent in the presence of a wall for an even number of tiles released in an avalanche. New insights into the effect of parity on avalanche distributions are discussed and we provide a new conjecture for the probability distribution of avalanches with a wall obtained by using an exact diagonalization of small lattices and Monte Carlo simulations. (paper)

  20. Root Raised Cosine (RRC) Filters and Pulse Shaping in Communication Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cubukcu, Erkin

    2012-01-01

    This presentation briefly discusses application of the Root Raised Cosine (RRC) pulse shaping in the space telecommunication. Use of the RRC filtering (i.e., pulse shaping) is adopted in commercial communications, such as cellular technology, and used extensively. However, its use in space communication is still relatively new. This will possibly change as the crowding of the frequency spectrum used in the space communication becomes a problem. The two conflicting requirements in telecommunication are the demand for high data rates per channel (or user) and need for more channels, i.e., more users. Theoretically as the channel bandwidth is increased to provide higher data rates the number of channels allocated in a fixed spectrum must be reduced. Tackling these two conflicting requirements at the same time led to the development of the RRC filters. More channels with wider bandwidth might be tightly packed in the frequency spectrum achieving the desired goals. A link model with the RRC filters has been developed and simulated. Using 90% power Bandwidth (BW) measurement definition showed that the RRC filtering might improve spectrum efficiency by more than 75%. Furthermore using the matching RRC filters both in the transmitter and receiver provides the improved Bit Error Rate (BER) performance. In this presentation the theory of three related concepts, namely pulse shaping, Inter Symbol Interference (ISI), and Bandwidth (BW) will be touched upon. Additionally the concept of the RRC filtering and some facts about the RRC filters will be presented

  1. Symbiosis with an endobacterium increases the fitness of a mycorrhizal fungus, raising its bioenergetic potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvioli, Alessandra; Ghignone, Stefano; Novero, Mara; Navazio, Lorella; Venice, Francesco; Bagnaresi, Paolo; Bonfante, Paola

    2016-01-01

    Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) occur in the rhizosphere and in plant tissues as obligate symbionts, having key roles in plant evolution and nutrition. AMF possess endobacteria, and genome sequencing of the endobacterium Candidatus Glomeribacter gigasporarum revealed a reduced genome and a dependence on the fungal host. To understand the effect of bacteria on fungal fitness, we used next-generation sequencing to analyse the transcriptional profile of Gigaspora margarita in the presence and in the absence of its endobacterium. Genomic data on AMF are limited; therefore, we first generated a gene catalogue for G. margarita. Transcriptome analysis revealed that the endobacterium has a stronger effect on the pre-symbiotic phase of the fungus. Coupling transcriptomics with cell biology and physiological approaches, we demonstrate that the bacterium increases the fungal sporulation success, raises the fungal bioenergetic capacity, increasing ATP production, and eliciting mechanisms to detoxify reactive oxygen species. By using TAT peptide to translocate the bioluminescent calcium reporter aequorin, we demonstrated that the line with endobacteria had a lower basal intracellular calcium concentration than the cured line. Lastly, the bacteria seem to enhance the fungal responsiveness to strigolactones, the plant molecules that AMF perceive as branching factors. Although the endobacterium exacts a nutritional cost on the AMF, endobacterial symbiosis improves the fungal ecological fitness by priming mitochondrial metabolic pathways and giving the AMF more tools to face environmental stresses. Thus, we hypothesise that, as described for the human microbiota, endobacteria may increase AMF innate immunity. PMID:26046255

  2. Rope NDT as means to raise safety of crane and elevator use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steel rope NDT by magnetic flaw detectors is usual for mine hoist inspection through the world. But it is no ordinary by crane and especially by elevator inspection. However, magnetic NDT statistic data of 60 crane and 227 elevator ropes in use shows that about 23% of crane and 9% of elevator ropes should be discarded in accordance with actual discarding criterion in Russia. Russian State Rules for crane safe exploitation require the magnetic NDT while periodically inspection. But not all the inspecting companies meet it in Russia, contenting themselves by visual inspection only. This is not objective and does not provide rope inner faults detection. That is a reason of rope break rather high percentage in general statistics of crane accidents and damages. Investigation of accidents with crane ropes in Moscow region in 2001 shows that they would de prevented by the magnetic NDT fulfilled timely. The elevator rope NDT problem is not so sharp but attention should de attracted to it to raise safety of elevators. (author)

  3. Sustainable capacity building among immigrant communities: the raising sexually healthy children program in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narushima, Miya; Wong, Josephine Pui-Hing; Li, Anda; Sutdhibhasilp, Noulmook

    2014-03-01

    The Raising Sexually Healthy Children (RSHC) program is a peer-to-peer leadership training program for immigrant parents in Toronto, Canada. It was established in 1998 with the goal of promoting family sex education and parent-child communication. This evaluative study examined the developmental processes and outcomes of the RSHC program to identify the strengths, challenges and insights that can be used to improve the program. It employed a multi-case study approach to compare the RSHC programs delivered in the Chinese, Portuguese and Tamil communities. Data collection methods included focus groups, individual interviews and document analysis. The cross-case analysis identified both common and unique capacity building processes and outcomes in the three communities. In this paper, we report factors that have enhanced and hindered sustainable capacity building at the individual, group/organizational and community levels, and the strategies used by these communities to address challenges common to immigrant families. We will discuss the ecological and synergetic, but time-consuming processes of capacity building, which contributed to the sustainability of RSHC as an empowering health promotion program for immigrant communities. We conclude the paper by noting the implications of using a capacity building approach to promote family health in ethno-racial-linguistic minority communities. PMID:23740257

  4. The Quality of Liquid Fermented Products for Alternative Use of Antibiotics for Animal Raising

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The chemical properties of liquid fermented products (LFP) as probiotics substance for alternative uses of antibiotic were studied. The LFP of 235 were sampling from markets and farmers during 2005-2006. The total count of bacteria, fungi, lactic acid bacteria (LAB), Actinomyces and coliform bacteria were conducted. Chemical analysis of LFP showed medium nitrogen (0.01- 0.55%), maximum sugar contents (0.02 - 19.40%), high lactic acid contents (0.34 - 13.01%) and low pH (2.9-5.0). LFPs were free from fecal coliform and Escherichia coil (Ec); but in LAB (1.0 - 1.25x107 cfu/ml) and high Actinomyces (1.0 - 7.5 x 106 cfu/ml). LFPs inhibited Staphylococcus aureus (Sa), Samonella typhimurium (STM), Escherichia coil (Ec) and Ec 0157 at maximum yield by using Minimal Inhibition Concentration (MIC). But Pseudomonas aeruginosa (Pa) could medium inhibited. Therefore LFP samples are suitable as probiotics for alternative use of antibiotic for animal raising.

  5. Raising Students' Awareness of Cross-Cultural Contrastive Rhetoric Via an E-Learning Course

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinghui Wang

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the potential impact of e-learning on raising overseas students' cultural awareness and explored the possibility of creating an interactive learning environment for them to improve their English academic writing. The study was based on a comparison of Chinese and English rhetoric in academic writing, including a comparison of Chinese students' writings in Chinese with native English speakers' writings in English and Chinese students' writings in English with the help of an e-course and Chinese students' writings in English without the help of an e-course. Five features of contrastive rhetoric were used as criteria for the comparison. The experimental results show that the group using the e-course was successful in learning about defined aspects of English rhetoric in academic writing, reaching a level of performance that equalled that of native English speakers. Data analysis also revealed that e-learning resources helped students to compare rhetorical styles across cultures and that the interactive learning environment was effective in improving overseas students' English academic writing.

  6. Does Raising the Early Retirement Age Increase Employment of Older Workers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staubli, Stefan; Zweimüller, Josef

    2013-12-01

    Two pension reforms in Austria increased the early retirement age (ERA) from 60 to 62 for men and from 55 to 58.25 for women. We find that raising the ERA increased employment by 9.75 percentage points among affected men and by 11 percentage points among affected women. The reforms had large spillover effects on the unemployment insurance program but negligible effects on disability insurance claims. Specifically, unemployment increased by 12.5 percentage points among men and by 11.8 percentage points among women. The employment response was largest among high-wage and healthy workers, while low-wage and less healthy workers either continued to retire early via disability benefits or bridged the gap to the ERA via unemployment benefits. Taking spillover effects and additional tax revenues into account, we find that for a typical birth-year cohort a one year increase in the ERA resulted in a reduction of net government expenditures of 107 million euros for men and of 122 million euros for women. PMID:24319299

  7. Studies on the reproductive performance of indigenous beef cattle breeds raised on-farm in Ghana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Studies were undertaken to investigate the reproductive performance of a mixture of N'dama and West African Shorthorn (N'dama/WASH) and Sanga cattle raised under traditional management conditions on four privately owned small-holder farms. The first study involved an analysis of reproductive records and the measurement of plasma progesterone concentration to delineate the onset of various reproductive phenomena, including age at puberty and first calving, post-partum resumption of ovarian activity and other abnormal events like abortions. The second study investigated the influence of dry-season feed supplementation on reproductive performance. In study 1 the ages at first plasma progesterone rise (puberty), first mating and first calving for N'dama/WASH cattle on three farms averaged 981, 1016 and 1296 days respectively. The calving interval, calving-to-progesterone rise and calving-to-mating averaged 412, 129 and 114 days respectively. Significant differences existed among farms with Farms 1 and 2 out-performing Farm 3. The respective mean ages at first progesterone elevation, first mating and first calving for Sanga cattle (Farm 4) were 964, 990 and 1271 days while calving-to-progesterone rise, calving-to-mating and calving intervals averaged 107, 150 and 431 days. In study 2, dry-season feed supplementation generally reduced ages at puberty and first calving as well as the interval of post-partum acyclicity. (author). 18 refs, 3 figs, 9 tabs

  8. Ethical Issues Raised by Epigenetic Testing for Alcohol, Tobacco, and Cannabis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erwin, Cheryl

    2015-10-01

    Epigenetic testing is one of the most significant new technologies to provide insight into the behavioral and environmental factors that influence the development and reconfiguration of the human genetic code. This technology allows us to identify structural changes in the genome that occur due to exposure to a wide variety of substances including alcohol, tobacco, and cannabis. The information gained can be used to promote health but it also raises a variety of ethical, legal, and social issues. As society progresses in understanding the epigenetic mechanisms of substance use and addiction, there is an opportunity to use these use this knowledge to enable medical, behavioral, and environmental interventions to alleviate the burden of addiction. This article describes the ethical issues associated with use of epigenetic testing for alcohol, tobacco, and cannabis and the implications of this technology. A further review of the scientific basis for the relevance of epigenetics is found in the accompanying article by Philibert and Erwin in this issue. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:26358643

  9. Luminescence and radiocarbon dating of raised beach sediments, Bunger Hills, East Antarctica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luminescence and radiocarbon dating of raised marine sediments from the Bunger Hills, East Antarctica, demonstrates that luminescence methods can be applied to such poorly bleached sediments as long as the luminescence behaviour of the sediments is understood. This is essential as the complete zeroing of the luminescence signal due to light exposure is required to allow an accurate age for the sediment accumulation. Unfortunately, independent checks on the luminescence ages are rare. In the present study, some independent age control is provided by AMS radiocarbon ages from shell obtained from and adjacent to the luminescence dated horizons, although the radiocarbon ages may suffer to some degree from variability in the marine reservoir effect. Application of the single aliquot luminescence technique to feldspar grains from the marine sediments demonstrated that the luminescence behaviour of the sediments was complex. For each sample, 18 replicate paleodose estimates were used to demonstrate whether the sediments were well bleached before deposition. Optically, well-bleached samples give younger luminescence ages, whilst poorly bleached samples often give excessively old ages compared to the associated radiocarbon-dated material. (author)

  10. Developing and disseminating a foodprint tool to raise awareness about healthy and environmentally conscious food choices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tine Bosschaert

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This article describes the development and dissemination of an ecological footprint tool that provides a concise and scientifically grounded summary of the environmental impact of personal food choices. Developed to be easy to use and available to consumers via online social networking platforms, the tool aims to raise awareness and to provide an impetus for behavior change. The foodprint tool communicates scientifically informed and customized practical advice on how individuals can reduce their ecological footprint (EF (or “foodprint”. The first part of the article describes the process of developing this tool, the choice of indicator, the goals, and the results. Among other aspects, the tool enables users to understand that the largest contributors to their foodprint are sources of animal protein: dairy, meat, and fish. The second part of the article describes the strategy guiding the tool’s design and implementation, which is based on a combination of contextual communication, feedback from peers, and intrinsic motivation. In this footprint tool, a focus on food patterns, interactive feedback, and social media plays a key role. The tool consists of a survey with fifteen questions about personal food choice that allow users to receive individualized feedback, including five suggestions for reducing personal foodprints. Users can also share their results through customary social media. Due to an effective outreach campaign, a total of 90,000 Dutch consumers used this tool over a period of four months, with 1% indicating that they intended to change behavior.

  11. STUDY ABOUT CORPORAL INDICATORS IN JUVENILE OF RUSSIAN STURGEON (ACIPENSER GÜELDENSTAEDTI RAISED IN RECIRCULATING SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z.T. SZELEI

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Studies were conducted on a population of Russian sturgeon (Acipenser gu?eldenstaedti age between 132-175 days, raised in recirculation system. Based on body weight, the population was divided into two categories: 50-100 g and 100-150 g. On the 42 individuals were performed determinations of weight, length, width, height and circumference. It was also determined the number of shields which comprise the five lines of shields, which are endowed with Russian sturgeons. On the basis of weighing and measurements taken have resulted following body indices: the index of profile (height, the index of thickness (width spinal, the fattening index (Fulton index, quality index and the index of fleshiness. At the lot of Russian sturgeons with average body weight of 127.55 ± 3.75 g, body length is 76.27% of total body length, head length is 20.11% of the total length of the body, caudal peduncle length measured 16.39% of total body length and length of snout reaches 45.56% of head length. Index of profile (height has highlighted that juvenile Russian sturgeon has an elongated body and a straight back.

  12. SCHOOL-BASED SAVINGS PROGRAMMES AS A METHOD OF RAISING FINANCIAL AWARENESS IN CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Lenkiewicz

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Saving money and budgeting concerns every one of us. One of the most famous ways of depositing money is the use of an account or a traditional piggy bank. Not only the last option is close to the youngest. It has long been known School-based Savings Programmes (SSP. We try to instill in the youngest ability and habit of depositing mon-ey. Bank goes out to meet the needs and continually improve the SSP. The first part of the article focuses on the notion of SSP. It was raised matter of passbook evolution into an online account, and thus describes the functions and capabilities of such an account. The article describes the operation and maintenance of accounts, SSP and its rules. At the end of the article, condensed results of a survey conducted at the school in Stare Juchy were placed. The result was to assess the awareness of the youngest in terms of saving and School-based Savings Programmes.

  13. Dams and displacement: Raising the standards and broadening the research agenda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brooke McDonald-Wilmsen

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The World Commission on Dams provided an analytical overview of the cumulative effects of years of dam development. A lack of commitment or capacity to cope with displacement or to consider the civil rights of, or risks to, displaced people led to the impoverishment and suffering of tens of millions and growing opposition to dams by affected communities worldwide. However, after the WCD, little has changed for the better in terms of resettlement policies. In fact, the standards of key agencies, like the Asian Development Bank, have been lowered and diluted compared to prior policies. Dam-induced development and displacement are stifled by a 'managerialist' approach to planning, in which solutions are sought internally and subordinated to the economics that underpins the existence of the project. The aim of successful resettlement is to prevent impoverishment and to enable displaced people to share in the project’s benefits. Within the field of dam-induced resettlement, this is a lofty goal rarely achieved. However, in other fields of resettlement, such as refugee studies and adaptation to environmental change, such a goal is regarded as a minimum standard. In this paper we seek to broaden the research agenda on dam-induced resettlement and to raise the standards of development projects that entail resettlement. We do this by importing some of the considerations and concerns from practice and research from the fields of refugee studies and adaptation to environmental change.

  14. Increase of diesel car raises health risk in spite of recent development in engine technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leem, Jong Han; Jang, Young-Kee

    2014-01-01

    Diesel exhaust particles (DEP) contain elemental carbon, organic compounds including Polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), metals, and other trace compounds. Diesel exhaust is complex mixture of thousands of chemicals. Over forty air contaminants are recognized as toxicants, such as carcinogens. Most diesel exhaust particles have aerodynamic diameters falling within a range of 0.1 to 0.25 ?m. DEP was classified as a definite human carcinogen (group 1) by the International Agency for Research on Cancer at 2012 based on recently sufficient epidemiological evidence for lung cancer. Significant decreases in DEP and other diesel exhaust constituents will not be evident immediately, and outworn diesel car having longer mileage still threatens health of people in spite of recent remarkable development in diesel engine technology. Policy change in South Korea, such as introduction of diesel taxi, may raise health risk of air pollution in metropolitan area with these limitations of diesel engine. To protect people against DEP in South Korea, progressive strategies are needed, including disallowance of diesel taxi, more strict regulation of diesel engine emission, obligatory diesel particulate filter attachment in outworn diesel car, and close monitoring about health effects of DEP. PMID:25318659

  15. In Romania, exposure to Toxoplasma gondii occurs twice as often in swine raised for familial consumption as in hunted wild boar, but occurs rarely if ever among fattening pigs raised in confinement

    Science.gov (United States)

    A wide range of swine husbandry practices prevail in Romania: pork for human consumption is derived from hunting wild boar, from household rearing of small numbers of backyard pigs, and from indoor, industrial production of swine raised in confinement indoors. Romania thus represents an instructive ...

  16. Serum estrogenicity and biological responses in African catfish raised in wastewater ponds in Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asem-Hiablie, S; Church, C D; Elliott, H A; Shappell, N W; Schoenfuss, H L; Drechsel, P; Williams, C F; Knopf, A L; Dabie, M Y

    2013-10-01

    Reuse of wastewater for aquaculture improves the efficient use of water and promotes sustainability but the potential effects of endocrine disrupting compounds including estrogens in wastewater are an emerging challenge that needs to be addressed. We examined the biological effects of wastewater-borne estrogens on African catfish (Clarias gariepinus) raised in a wastewater stabilization pond (WSP) of a functioning municipal wastewater treatment plant, a wastewater polishing pond (WWP) of a dysfunctional treatment plant, and a reference pond (RP) unimpacted by wastewater, located in Ghana. Measurements of estrogen concentrations in pond water by liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry showed that mean 17 ?-estradiol concentrations were higher in the wastewater ponds (WWP, 6.6 ng/L±2.7 ng/L; WSP, 4.9 ng/L±1.0) than the reference (RP, 3.4±1.1 ng/L). Estrone concentrations were found to be highest in the WSP (7.8 ng/L±1.7) and lowest in the WWP (2.2 ng/L±2.4) with the RP intermediate (4.7±5.0). Fish serum estrogenicity assayed by E-SCREEN was significantly higher in female vs. male catfish in the RP and WSP but not in the WWP (p?0.05). Histological examination of liver and gonad tissue showed no apparent signs of intersex or pathology in any ponds. The similarities in various measures of body indices between fish of this study and African catfish from freshwater systems suggest that aquaculture may be a suitable reuse option for treated municipal wastewater. PMID:23849063

  17. RUMINAL CONDITION BETWEEN MADURA CATTLE AND ONGOLE CROSSBRED CATTLE RAISED UNDER INTENSIVE FEEDING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Umar

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Each four young bulls of Madura cattle and Ongole Crossbred (OC cattle were used to study the efficiency of ruminal fermentation by comparing the proportion of Volatile Fatty Acid (VFA of these two breeds which were raised under intensive feeding. All the cattle were in about 1.5 years-old with an average body weight of 147.75 ± 14.57 kg and 167 ± 22.57 kg, for Madura and OC cattle, respectively. They were fed Napier grass (Pennisetum purpureum hay, and concentrate feeding consists of pollard, soybean meal and rice bran for 10 weeks. Parameters measured were concentration of VFA at 0, 3 and 6 h post-feeding and pH. The concentration of VFA in both Madura and OC cattle was peaked at 3 h post-feeding, being 136.1 mmol and 158.9 mmol, respectively, and then were decreased at 6 h post-feeding at a level of 58.1 and 98.2 mmol, respectively. The proportion of acetic acid in Madura and OC cattle were 53.33% and 52.0% of total VFA, respectively, while the proportion of propionic acid and butyric acid were 28.80% and 17.87% for Madura cattle, and 30.71% and 17.28% for OC cattle, respectively. In addition, the Acetic/Propionic ratios were 1.85 and 1.69 for Madura and OC cattle, respectively. Rumen pH conditions of both cattle breeds tended to be basic, i.e. Madura cattle was ranged at 8.0-8.4, while the PO cattle was ranged at 7.6-8.4. In conclusion, both cattle breeds (Madura and OC cattle have a similar efficiency to utilize the feeds in the rumen.

  18. Courses for "Soil Practitioner" and other measures for raising soil awareness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartl, Wilfried

    2014-05-01

    Today, unfortunately, little use is made of the findings of rhizosphere research in practice. Therefore the author, together with the organic farmers` associations Distelverein and Bio Austria, developed the education programme "Soil Practitioner" for organic farmers. The 9-days` course focuses on the topics nutrient dynamics in soil, plant-root interactions, soil management, humus management and practical evaluation of soil functions. A second series of courses developed by Bio Forschung Austria aims at improving organic matter management on farm level. In order to enable the farmers to estimate if the humus content of their fields is increasing or decreasing, they are familiarized with the humus balancing method. In a second step, humus balances of farmers' fields are calculated and the results are discussed together. Another activity to raise soil awareness is the "Mobile Soil Laboratory", which is presented at various events. The soil functions are demonstrated to the public using special exhibits, which illustrate for example infiltration rate in soils with and without earthworms, or water holding capacity of soils with and without earthworms or erosion intensity on soil blocks from adjacent plots which had been cultivated with different crop rotations. The habitat function of soil is illustrated with portable rhizotrons, which show the ability of plants to root surprisingly deep and to penetrate compacted soil layers. Another exhibit shows a habitat preference test between differently fertilized soils with earthworms as indicator organisms. In the "Mobile Soil Laboratory", visitors are also invited to watch live soil animals through the binocular microscope. They are supplied with information on the soil animals` habitat and behaviour and on how agriculture benefits from biologically active soil. And last but not least, the "Root Demonstration Arena" at our institute features a 3-m-deep excavation lined with large viewing windows into the soil profile, where visitors can observe the root growth of different plants.

  19. Dryout power of a CANFLEX bundle string with raised bearing pads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dryout power data have been obtained with CANFLEX bundle strings equipped with raised bearing pads (1.7 mm and 1.8 mm height as compared to 1.4 mm in the current Mk-IV design) at Stern Laboratories. The experiment covered a wide range of steam-water flow conditions in three flow tubes simulating uncrept, and 3.3% and 5.1% crept profiles. The dryout power follows consistent parametric trends: it increases with increasing mass-flow rate, and decreases with increasing pressure, inlet-fluid temperature and channel creep. Local and boiling-length-average (BLA) critical-heat-flux (CHF) values were evaluated from the dryout-power measurements. The dryout power and BLA CHF values of the high bearing-pad bundles are higher than those of the low bearing-pad bundles at the same channel inlet flow conditions. On average, the dryout powers for bundles with 1.7 mm and 1.8 mm bearing pads are about 8% and 10%, respectively, higher than those for the bundle with 1.4 mm bearing pads. Compared to the 37-element bundle, an enhancement in dryout power is shown with CANFLEX bundles for all bearing-pad heights, at flow conditions of interest for reactor licensing. The average dryout power enhancement varies from 4% for the CANFLEX bundle with 1.4 mm bearing pads in the uncrept channel to 27% for the CANFLEX bundle with 1.8 mm bearing pads in the 5.1% crept channel. (author)

  20. Dryout power of a CANFLEX bundle string with raised bearing pads

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leung, L.K.H.; Dimmick, G.R.; Bullock, D.E.; Inch, W.W.R. [Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd., Chalk River, Ontario (Canada); Jun, J.S.; Suk, H.C. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Yusong-ku, Taejon City (Korea, Republic of)

    2001-07-01

    Dryout power data have been obtained with CANFLEX bundle strings equipped with raised bearing pads (1.7 mm and 1.8 mm height as compared to 1.4 mm in the current Mk-IV design) at Stern Laboratories. The experiment covered a wide range of steam-water flow conditions in three flow tubes simulating uncrept, and 3.3% and 5.1% crept profiles. The dryout power follows consistent parametric trends: it increases with increasing mass-flow rate, and decreases with increasing pressure, inlet-fluid temperature and channel creep. Local and boiling-length-average (BLA) critical-heat-flux (CHF) values were evaluated from the dryout-power measurements. The dryout power and BLA CHF values of the high bearing-pad bundles are higher than those of the low bearing-pad bundles at the same channel inlet flow conditions. On average, the dryout powers for bundles with 1.7 mm and 1.8 mm bearing pads are about 8% and 10%, respectively, higher than those for the bundle with 1.4 mm bearing pads. Compared to the 37-element bundle, an enhancement in dryout power is shown with CANFLEX bundles for all bearing-pad heights, at flow conditions of interest for reactor licensing. The average dryout power enhancement varies from 4% for the CANFLEX bundle with 1.4 mm bearing pads in the uncrept channel to 27% for the CANFLEX bundle with 1.8 mm bearing pads in the 5.1% crept channel. (author)

  1. A REAPPRAISAL OF MAPUCHE TEXTILE PRODUCTION AND SHEEP RAISING DURING THE NINETEENTH CENTURY

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    MANUEL, LLORCA-JAÑA.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo trata sobre la crianza de ovejas y la producción de lana de los mapuche durante gran parte del siglo XIX, y sobre la percepción que los compradores tenían de los productos lanares. Basado en reportes consulares británicos y diarios de viajeros, escritos después de la Independencia de C [...] hile, el artículo entrega nueva y consistente información que sostiene que la producción textil mapuche era de alta calidad y muy importante para toda la economía; que el comercio mapuche de lanas era comparable al europeo antes del año 1850; y que la industria lanar mapuche era, por cierto, más desarrollada que la existente en Chile, principal mercado de las exportaciones mapuche. También muestra que esta superioridad sobre la industria lanar chilena incluía la producción de materias primas para la producción textil, principalmente, lana sin procesar. Abstract in english This paper is about Mapuche sheep raising and woollens production during the first three quarters of the nineteenth century, as well as about the perception customers had of Mapuche wool manufactures. Based on the British consular reports and travellers' diaries written after Chile gained independen [...] ce, this article provides new and stronger evidence to support the case that Mapuche textile production was of high-quality and very important for their entire economy; that the Mapuche woollens trade was comparable to European industries before the 1850s; and that the Mapuche wool industry was certainly more developed than the one existing in Chile, the main market for Mapuche exports. This article also shows that this superiority over the Chilean woollens industry included the production of the main raw material used to produce woollens, namely raw wool.

  2. Platelet-collagen interaction: inhibition by a monoclonal antibody raised against collagen receptor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors have previously reported that polyclonal antibody raised against the purified platelet collagen receptor cross reacted with glycoprotein IIb-IIIa complex of platelets. In order to study the receptor function further, the authors prepared a monoclonal antibody to the collagen receptor (65K). Platelet collagen receptor was purified as described previously by the authors. Mice were immunized by injection of purified 65K protein emulsified in complete Freund's adjuvant, and hybridomas were obtained from the fusion of spleen cells of immunized mice with myeloma cells (SP 2/0). The assay for antibody was performed with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The hybridoma cells producing specific anti-65K protein were subcloned and the subcloned cells were injected into peritoneal cavity of Pristane-Primed mice. Immunoglobulin G(IgG) was isolated from ascitic fluids by an Affigel Blue chromatography. The Fab' fragments were isolated from papain digested IgG followed by an Affigel Blue chromatography. Immunoblot experiments using the monoclonal IgG of solubilized platelet membrane proteins following NaDodSO4-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis showed that the monoclonal IgG reacted with the antigen specifically. It did not react with glycoprotein IIb-IIIa. The isolated IgG and Fab' fragments inhibited competitively the binding of radiolabelled ?1(I) to washed platelets and soluble collagen- as well as fibrillar collagen-induced but not ADP-induced platelet aggregation. This indicates that collagen-induced platelet aggregation is mediated through interaction of collagen with 65K platelet receptor

  3. Evaluation of the specificity of antibodies raised against cannabinoid receptor type 2 in the mouse retina

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cécyre, Bruno; Thomas, Sébastien

    2014-01-01

    Cannabinoid receptors (CB1R and CB2R) are among the most abundant G protein-coupled receptors in the central nervous system. The endocannabinoid system is an attractive therapeutic target for immune system modulation and peripheral pain management. While CB1R is distributed in the nervous system, CB2R has traditionally been associated to the immune system. This dogma is currently a subject of debate since the discovery of CB2R expression in neurons using antibody-based methods. The localization of CB2R in the central nervous system (CNS) could have a significant impact on drug development because it would mean that in addition to its effects on the peripheral pain pathway, CB2R could also mediate some central effects of cannabinoids. In an attempt to clarify the debate over CB2R expression in the CNS, we tested several commercially or academically produced CB2R antibodies using Western blot and immunohistochemistry on retinal tissue obtained from wild-type mice and mice lacking CB2R (cnr2 (-/-) ). One of the antibodies tested exhibited a valuable specificity as it marked a single band near the predicted molecular weight in Western blot and produced no staining in cnr2 (-/-) mice retina sections. The other antibodies tested detected multiple bands in Western blot and labeled unidentified proteins when used with their immunizing peptide or on cnr2 (-/-) retinal sections. We conclude that many commonly used antibodies raised against CB2R are not specific for use in immunohistochemistry, at least in the context of the mouse retina. Moreover, some of them tested presented significant lot-to-lot variability. Hence, caution should be used when interpreting prior and future studies using CB2R antibodies.

  4. Cerebrovascular reactivity among native-raised high altitude residents: an fMRI study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Jiaxing

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The impact of long term residence on high altitude (HA on human brain has raised concern among researchers in recent years. This study investigated the cerebrovascular reactivity among native-born high altitude (HA residents as compared to native sea level (SL residents. The two groups were matched on the ancestral line, ages, gender ratios, and education levels. A visual cue guided maximum inspiration task with brief breath holding was performed by all the subjects while Blood-Oxygenation-Level-Dependent (BOLD functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI data were acquired from them. Results Compared to SL controls, the HA group showed generally decreased cerebrovascular reactivity and longer delay in hemodynamic response. Clusters showing significant differences in the former aspect were located at the bilateral primary motor cortex, the right somatosensory association cortex, the right thalamus and the right caudate, the bilateral precuneus, the right cingulate gyrus and the right posterior cingulate cortex, as well as the left fusiform gyrus and the right lingual cortex; clusters showing significant differences in the latter aspect were located at the precuneus, the insula, the superior frontal and temporal gyrus, the somatosensory cortex (the postcentral gyrus and the cerebellar tonsil. Inspiratory reserve volume (IRV, which is an important aspect of pulmonary function, demonstrated significant correlation with the amount of BOLD signal change in multiple brain regions, particularly at the bilateral insula among the HA group. Conclusions Native-born HA residents generally showed reduced cerebrovascular reactivity as demonstrated in the hemodynamic response during a visual cue guided maximum inspiration task conducted with BOLD-fMRI. This effect was particularly manifested among brain regions that are typically involved in cerebral modulation of respiration.

  5. A REPOSITORY DESIGNED TO RAISE THE STUDENTS’ KNOWLEDGE AND AWARENESS ON NANOSCIENCE AND NANOTECHNOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GABRIEL GORGHIU

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available As defined in the information technology area, a repository represents a digital collection in which data is preserved and maintained in an organized and structured manner. This comes helpful for many projects that envisage sharing specific databases, files or resources for being accessed or distributed. More, several free and open-source software solutions for designing open-access repositories are available at present, having features very similar to the systems built for document management. Trying to implement such digital collection, as extra-readings and references related to Nanoscience and Nanotechnology area, in the frame of the LLP KA3-ICT project no. 511787-LLP-1-2010-1-TR-KA3-KA3MP: “Nano-Tech Science Education”, it was set up a repository/database for being used by students, Science prospective teachers and teachers, as a part of a Virtual Lab, which represents the main project product - an experimental virtual aid created for Science education. The Lab mainly consists of experimental room, podcasting room and repository, and serves as a platform for Science lessons, as a database of teaching materials, and as a hub for science-learning-related graphic aids and recorded and illustrated appealing experiments on Nanoscience and Nanotechnology. Its repository includes articles, books, chapters, posters, videos, experiments, methodological documents which introduce in fact, actual findings and researches developed in different countries. Basically, the main role of the repository is to update the virtual lab users’ knowledge and to raise their awareness on Nanoscience and Nanotechnology. The paper presents the features of the designed repository, its main services, and specific developments. As this is an instrument under continuous updating, the paper offers also a status of its actual structure and content.

  6. Raising voices: How sixth graders construct authority and knowledge in argumentative essays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monahan, Mary Elizabeth

    This qualitative classroom-based study documents one teacher-researcher's response to the "voice" debate in composition studies and to the opposing views expressed by Elbow and Bartholomae. The author uses Bakhtin's principle of dialogism, Hymes's theory of communicative competence, as well as Ivanic's discussion of discoursally constructed identities to reconceptualize voice and to redesign writing instruction in her sixth grade classroom. This study shows how students, by redefining and then acting on that voice pedagogy in terms that made sense to them, shaped the author's understanding of what counts as "voiced" writing in non-narrative discourse. Based on a grounded-theory analysis of the twenty-six sixth graders' argumentative essays in science, the author explains voice, not as a property of writers or of texts, but as a process of "knowing together"---a collaborative, but not entirely congenial, exercise of establishing one's authority by talking with, against, and through other voices on the issue. As the results of this study show, the students' "I-Ness" or authorial presence within their texts, was born in a nexus of relationships with "rivals," "allies" and "readers." Given their teacher's injunctions to project confidence and authority in argumentative writing, the students assumed fairly adversarial stances toward these conversational partners throughout their essays. Exaggerating the terms for voiced writing built into the curriculum, the sixth graders produced essays that read more like caricatures than examples of argumentation. Their displays of rhetorical bravado and intellectual aggressiveness, however offsetting to the reader, still enabled these sixth graders to composed voiced essays. This study raises doubts about the value of urging students to sound like their "true selves" or to adopt the formal registers of academe. Students, it seems clear, stand to gain by experimenting with a range of textual identities. The author suggests that voice, as a dialogic process, involves a struggle for meaning---in concert, but also very much in conflict with---other speakers and their intentions.

  7. Kinetic epitope mapping of monoclonal antibodies raised against the Yersinia pestis virulence factor LcrV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Read, Thomas; Olkhov, Rouslan V; Williamson, E Diane; Shaw, Andrew M

    2014-10-01

    Five monoclonal antibodies, mAb7.3, mAb29.3, mAb46.3, mAb12.3 and mAb36.3, raised to the LcrV virulence factor from Yersinia pestis were characterised for their Fab affinity against the purified protein and their Fc affinity to Protein A/G as a proxy for the Fc?R receptor. Kinetic measurements were performed label-free in a localised particle plasmon array reader. The Fc-ProteinA/G complex first-order half-life was determined for each antibody and fell in the range of 0.8-3.8h. The Fab first-order half-lives had ranged from 3.4 to 9.2h although two antibodies, mAb12.3 and mAb36.3, showed low affinity interactions. Competitive binding studies of mixtures of the Fab-active antibodies were performed to measure the relative binding efficiency of one antibody in the presence of the other. A geometric relative positioning of the epitopes of mAb7.3, mAb29.3 and mAb46.3 was determined based on the footprint locus of the antibody and the percentage of competitive binding. The two known protective antibodies mAb7.3 and mAb29.3 showed greater interference, indicating epitopes close to one another compared to the non-protective mAb46.3 antibody. The Fab-Fc complex half-life screen and epitope mapping are potentially useful tools in the screening of therapeutic antibodies or vaccine candidates. PMID:25461137

  8. Basic grinding research and raising unit capacity. Final report; Hionnan perustutkimus ja yksikkoekapasitettin nosto; Loppuraportti

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karojaervi, R. [Valmet Tampella Oy, Tampere (Finland)

    1993-10-01

    The project looked at ways of improving the energy economy of pressure grinding and the quality of the PGW produced. The biggest improvements, are super-pressure grinding (PGW-S) and the use of low temperatures in pressure grinding. The PGW-S groundwood mill built at Voikkaa in 1990 has produced the expected improvement in pulp strength and paper printing characteristics. Yet specific electrical energy consumption is just as low as in open grinding. Taking all mechanical pulps into account, pressure grinding gave the highest energy efficiency, i.e. pulp strength per unit energy consumption. Calculated in terms of tensile strength, the energy efficiency of PGW-S suitable for demanding printing papers is almost 50 % superior to that of TMP. Lowering the temperature used in pressure grinding produces almost the same pulp strength as in pressure grinding at the normal temperature. However, the pulp had a much smaller coarse fibre fraction, which improves the paper`s surface structure and reduces the tendency towards surface roughening when the paper is coated or printed. The pulp produced by new low-temperature pressure grinding process also has excellent brightness. Pilot-scale trials showed that halving the peripheral speed of the grindstone cuts specific energy consumption by about 15 % and improves the strength of the pulp by some 10 %. The next step is to move up u production scale, when the energy efficiency of pressure grinding can be improved by a further 20-30 %. Ways were also devised to raise the unit capacity of pressure grinders by around 20 %

  9. Community Group Involvement in a Fund Raising Project for a University Library: Examples from "A Trial for the Books".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finley, Mary M.

    This paper describes a unique library fund raiser at California State University (Northridge). "A Trial for the Books" was a dog agility trial held on April 26-27, 1996 as a benefit for the university's Oviatt Library. The event was hosted by West Valley DogSports, a community group. The event raised approximately $2,500 for the library's…

  10. Compromised metamorphosis and thyroid hormone changes in wood frogs (Lithobates sylvaticus) raised on reclaimed wetlands on the Athabasca oil sands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hersikorn, Blair D., E-mail: blair.hersikorn@usask.c [Toxicology Centre, University of Saskatchewan, 44 Campus Drive, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, S7N 5B3 (Canada); Smits, Judit E.G., E-mail: judit.smits@ucalgary.c [Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Calgary, 3280 Hospital Drive NW, Calgary, Alberta, T2N 4Z6 (Canada)

    2011-02-15

    The wet landscape approach to oil sands tailings reclamation in the Athabasca Oil Sands region involves creating wetlands from fluid tailings in mined-out pits. We measured time to metamorphosis, thyroid hormone status, and detoxification enzyme (EROD) induction in Wood frog (Lithobates sylvaticus) tadpoles raised on reclaimed oil sands wetlands of different ages [young ({<=}7 yr) vs. old (>7 yr)] and compared data with tadpoles raised on reference (control) wetlands. Metamorphosis was delayed or never occurred in tadpoles raised in young tailings; those exposed to older tailings developed similarly to those in reference wetlands. Thyroid hormone disruption likely played an important role in the metamorphosis delay as the T3:T4 ratio was lowest in tadpoles raised in young, tailings-affected wetlands. Our findings suggest tailings wetlands become less toxic with age, and that these amphibians will be able to complete their life cycle in tailing wetlands that have sufficiently detoxified with age. - This work provides guidance for reclamation of oil sands tailings and shows the usefulness of frogs and caging studies in environmental toxicology.

  11. ACT against Violence Parents Raising Safe Kids Program: Effects on Maltreatment-Related Parenting Behaviors and Beliefs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knox, Michele S.; Burkhart, Kimberly; Hunter, Kimberly E.

    2011-01-01

    The ACT Against Violence Parents Raising Safe Kids program (ACT-PRSK) is an interactive violence prevention program developed by the American Psychological Association for parents of young children. The program teaches and supports parents in the areas of child development, roots and consequences of violence, anger management for adults and…

  12. INHIBITION OF IN VITRO FERTILIZATION IN THE HAMSTER BY ANTIBODIES RAISED AGAINST THE RAT SPERM PROTEIN SP22

    Science.gov (United States)

    INHIBITION OF IN VITRO FERTILIZATION IN THE HAMSTER BY ANTIBODIES RAISED AGAINST THE RAT SPERM PROTEIN SP22. SC Jeffay*, SD Perreault, KL Bobseine*, JE Welch*, GR Klinefelter, US EPA, Research Triangle Park, NC. SP22, a rat sperm membrane protein that is highly-correlated w...

  13. Policy Rationalities and Policy Technologies: A Programme for Analysing the Raised School-Leaving Age in Western Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodgson, David

    2011-01-01

    In this paper I outline an approach towards policy analysis that takes governmentality as its point of theoretical orientation and begin to apply this approach to my research into the recently raised compulsory school-leaving age in Western Australia. I aim to demonstrate the methodological potentials of this approach by giving examples of the…

  14. 25 CFR 900.25 - What if only a portion of a proposal raises one of the five declination criteria?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What if only a portion of a proposal raises one of the five declination criteria? 900.25 Section 900.25 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE... SELF-DETERMINATION AND EDUCATION ASSISTANCE ACT Declination Procedures § 900.25 What if only a...

  15. Engaging Undergraduates in the New York City S-SAFE Internship Program: An Impetus to Raise Geoscience Awareness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blake, Reginald A.; Liou-Mark, Janet; Blackburn, Noel; Chan, Christopher; Yuen-Lau, Laura

    2015-01-01

    To engender and raise awareness to the geosciences, a geoscience research project and a corresponding geoscience internship program were designed around plume dispersion dynamics within and above the New York City subway system. Federal, regional, and local agencies partnered with undergraduate students from minority-serving institutions to…

  16. Cinta Senese and Large White x Cinta Senese raised on pasture in wood: sample join composition and meat quality

    OpenAIRE

    Franci, O.; L. Pianaccioli; Badii, M.; G. Campodoni; C. Pugliese

    2011-01-01

    During recent years animal welfare has received considerable attention in Europe. To satisfy the demand for better ethics and health regarding pigs, it has become popular to raise pigs outdoors. In Mediterranean area free-ranged system is carried out with indigenous breed. In Italy Cinta Senese is one of the main autochthonous breed...

  17. Cinta Senese and Large White x Cinta Senese raised on pasture in wood: sample join composition and meat quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Franci

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available During recent years animal welfare has received considerable attention in Europe. To satisfy the demand for better ethics and health regarding pigs, it has become popular to raise pigs outdoors. In Mediterranean area free-ranged system is carried out with indigenous breed. In Italy Cinta Senese is one of the main autochthonous breed...

  18. Empowering Grandparents Raising Grandchildren: A Training Manual for Group Leaders. Springer Series on Life Styles and Issues in Aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Carole B.

    Noting that grandparents in the parenting role are often overwhelmed by the problems of their children, grandchildren, and the social milieu in which they live, this manual presents a 14-session workshop series designed to empower grandparents who are raising their grandchildren alone. Designed to complement "To Grandmother's House We Go and…

  19. Compromised metamorphosis and thyroid hormone changes in wood frogs (Lithobates sylvaticus) raised on reclaimed wetlands on the Athabasca oil sands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The wet landscape approach to oil sands tailings reclamation in the Athabasca Oil Sands region involves creating wetlands from fluid tailings in mined-out pits. We measured time to metamorphosis, thyroid hormone status, and detoxification enzyme (EROD) induction in Wood frog (Lithobates sylvaticus) tadpoles raised on reclaimed oil sands wetlands of different ages [young (?7 yr) vs. old (>7 yr)] and compared data with tadpoles raised on reference (control) wetlands. Metamorphosis was delayed or never occurred in tadpoles raised in young tailings; those exposed to older tailings developed similarly to those in reference wetlands. Thyroid hormone disruption likely played an important role in the metamorphosis delay as the T3:T4 ratio was lowest in tadpoles raised in young, tailings-affected wetlands. Our findings suggest tailings wetlands become less toxic with age, and that these amphibians will be able to complete their life cycle in tailing wetlands that have sufficiently detoxified with age. - This work provides guidance for reclamation of oil sands tailings and shows the usefulness of frogs and caging studies in environmental toxicology.

  20. Systemic granuloma observed in Atlantic salmon Salmo salar raised to market size in a freshwater recirculation aquaculture system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Systemic granuloma was observed in sampled adult Atlantic salmon Salmo salar raised to harvest size in a freshwater recirculation aquaculture system. The prevalence of this condition was estimated at 10-20% of the population, with affected individuals grossly demonstrating pathology in varying degre...

  1. COMPARISON OF MORPHOLOGICAL AND REPRODUCTIVE PROPERTIES OF LIPPIZANER MARES IN STUD FARM RAISING AND ON FAMILY FARMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomo Rastija

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper aimed at determination of defferences in morphological and reproductive properties of Lippizaner breed blood mares raised in stud farm ?akovo and on family farms. Results of morphological properties investigation indicate better development of investigated body measures of a stud farm mares, except chest width that was more pronounced in family farm mares. Significant differences were determined with withers height (cattle tape, back height and cannon bone circumference whereas differences of withers height (stick, small of the back height, chest depth and chest width were highly significant. As for reproductive properties stud farm raising mares were older at first fertilization and first foaling compared to the family farm mares. Statistically very significant differences in pregnancy duration were determined only at 5-12 pregnancy of stud farm raising mares. First, second, fourth and 5-12 service period lasted longer in stud farm raising mares whereas longer duration of the second and third service period was determined with family farm mares.

  2. The Children Should Lead Us: Diane Ehrensaft's "Gender Born, Gender Made--Raising Healthy Gender-Nonconforming Children"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beemyn, Genny

    2013-01-01

    This article reviews Diane Ehrensaft's "Gender Born, Gender Made: Raising Healthy Gender-Nonconforming Children", a thoughtful and practical guide that can help parents, other family members, and therapists better understand and support children and youth whom the author refers to as "gender creative." Ehrensaft's work is at the forefront of a…

  3. Data-Driven Learning and Awareness-Raising: An Effective Tandem to Improve Grammar in Written Composition?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Luisa Pérez Cañado

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available The present paper, framed within the ECTS scheme currently being piloted at the University of Jaén, reports on a study carried out in the second semester of the academic year 2004-5 with English Philology freshmen at this University. One of its aims, described in an initial section of the paper, was to determine whether the use of Computer Assisted Language Learning (CALL, and Data-Driven Learning (DDL, could help raise awareness of and thus remediate the grammar weaknesses of such pupils under four categories (articles, verb tenses, verbal complementation, and prepositions. The procedure, outlined subsequently, involved using DDL to raise awareness of the main grammar mistakes in these headings, which had been previously identified in first year students’ production through the use of an UCLEE-error-tagged written learner corpus. Two one-hour seminars were employed weekly, each one with a group of 40 students, to raise awareness of these mistakes with the help of web-based resources. Four were the steps undertaken: initial attempts on the part of the students to identify the mistakes in the seven headings; a session provided by the authors on CALL as a means to raise awareness of, identify, and solve written mistakes; use of these electronic resources to contrast their initial error identification; and explicit correction of the mistakes in each category. The results and implications, discussed in a final section, highlight that DDL and awareness-raising – albeit in some categories more than in others – indeed constitute an effective tandem when it comes to improving grammatical aspects in written composition at University level.

  4. Techno-economic optimization of level and raise spacing in Bushveld Complex platinum reef conventional breast mining

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    C., Musingwini.

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The Bushveld Complex is economically significant and strategically important to South Africa, thus it is imperative that optimal extraction of platinum group metal (PGM) resources on the Bushveld Complex is achieved. Optimal extraction broadly requires that the maximum amount of ore is extracted by [...] excavating and hauling the minimum amount of waste in the shortest possible time, at the least cost, and in the safest and most environmentally acceptable manner. In open-pit mine planning this entails among other things, minimizing the waste stripping ratio, whereas in underground mine planning it includes minimizing the metres of waste development. In conventional mining, the main development that is in waste or partly in waste and defines the mining grid pattern, includes levels and raises. It was prudent to consider optimizing level and raise spacing in conventional mining because the method is a prevalent mining method on the Bushveld Complex accounting for nearly 70% of platinum production. The techno-economic optimization of level and raise spacing is characteristically a multi-criteria decision analysis (MCDA) optimization process and should therefore be analysed using MCDA techniques. The analytic hierarchy process (AHP) was the most appropriate MCDA technique for this research study. By using an orebody code named OB1 based on real geological data that was typical of Bushveld Complex platinum reef deposits, the derived optimal range of vertical level spacing was 30 m-50 m, and the optimal range of raise spacing was 180 m-220 m. The research methodology used in this study and the results obtained were received positively by the South African platinum mining industry because for the first time in several decades, a holistic methodology and practically acceptable solution had been developed for the controversial debate of optimizing level and raise spacing for conventional mining.

  5. Seven steps to raise world security. Op-Ed, published in the Finanical Times

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In recent years, three phenomena have radically altered the security landscape. They are the emergence of a nuclear black market, the determined efforts by more countries to acquire technology to produce the fissile material usable in nuclear weapons and the clear desire of terrorists to acquire weapons of mass destruction. The IAEA has been trying to solve these new problems with existing tools. But for every step forward, we have exposed vulnerabilities in the system. The system itself - the regime that implements non-proliferation treaty needs reinforcement. Some of the necessary remedies can be taken in New York at the Meeting to be held in May, but only if governments are ready to act. With seven straightforward steps, and without amending the treaty, this conference could reach a milestone in strengthening world security. The first step: put a five-year hold on additional facilities for uranium enrichment and plutonium separation. Second, speed up existing efforts, led by the US global threat reduction initiative and others, to modify the research reactors worldwide operating with highly enriched uranium - particularly those with metal fuel that could be readily employed as bomb material. Third, raise the bar for inspection standards by establishing the 'additional protocol' as the norm for verifying compliance with the NPT. Fourth, call on the United Nations Security Council to act swiftly and decisively in the case of any country that withdraws from the NPT, in terms of the threat the withdrawal poses to international peace and security. Fifth, urge states to act on the Security Council's recent resolution 1540, to pursue and prosecute any illicit trading in nuclear material and technology. Sixth, call on the five nuclear weapon states party to the NPT to accelerate implementation of their 'unequivocal commitment' to nuclear disarmament, building on efforts such as the 2002 Moscow treaty between Russia and the US. Last, acknowledge the volatility of longstanding tensions that give rise to proliferation, in regions such as the Middle East and the Korean peninsula, and take action to resolve existing security problems and, where needed, provide security assurances. None of these steps will work in isolation. Each requires a concession from someone. But with leadership from all sides, this package of proposals will create gains for everyone. This opportunity will come again - in 2010. But given current trends, the international community cannot afford to wait another five years

  6. Microsatellite based genetic diversity and relationships among ten Creole and commercial cattle breeds raised in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Almeida Leonardo D

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Brazil holds the largest commercial cattle populations worldwide. Local cattle breeds can be classified according to their origin, as exotic or Creole. Exotic breeds imported in the last 100 years, both zebuine and taurine, currently make up the bulk of the intensively managed populations. Locally adapted Creole breeds, originated from cattle introduced by the European conquerors derive from natural selection and events of breed admixture. While historical knowledge exists on the Brazilian Creole breeds very little is known on their genetic composition. The objective of this study was to assess the levels of genetic diversity, phylogenetic relationships and patterns of taurine/zebuine admixture among ten cattle breeds raised in Brazil. Results Significant reduction of heterozygosity exists due both to within-population inbreeding and to breed differentiation in both subspecies (taurine and zebuine. For taurine breeds the number of markers that contribute to breed differentiation is larger than for zebuine. A consistently similar number of alleles was seen in both subspecies for all microsatellites. Four Creole breeds were the most genetically diverse followed by the zebuine breeds, the two specialized taurine breeds and the Creole Caracu. Pairwise genetic differentiation were all significant indicating that all breeds can be considered as genetically independent entities. A STRUCTURE based diagram indicated introgression of indicine genes in the local Creole breeds and suggested that occasional Creole introgression can be detected in some Zebuine animals. Conclusion This study reports on a comprehensive study of the genetic structure and diversity of cattle breeds in Brazil. A significant amount of genetic variation is maintained in the local cattle populations. The genetic data show that Brazilian Creole breeds constitute an important and diverse reservoir of genetic diversity for bovine breeding and conservation. The genetic data was able to shed light on a number of issues related to the local breeds origin and structure. The Brazilian Creole breeds are all important and viable targets for conservation for they display peculiar traits both phenotypic and of cultural and historical nature that deserve conservation efforts.

  7. Raising awareness for research on earth walls, and earth scientific aspects

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Ancker, Hanneke; Jungerius, Pieter Dirk; Baas, Henk; Groenewoudt, Bert; Peen, Charlotte

    2013-04-01

    A conference to raise awareness In the Netherlands, little research on earth walls has been done. To improve attention for earth walls, a number of organisations, including Geoheritage NL, organized a conference at the RCE, the Cultural Heritage Agency of the Netherlands. The conference* presented a state-of-the-art of research done. The book with the presentations, and extra case studies added, was published in December 2012. The book concludes with a research action list, including earth science research, and can be downloaded freely from the internet. It has English summaries. The earth science aspects Historical earth walls do not only add cultural value to a landscape, but also geodiversity value. Apart from geomorphological aspects, the walls contain information about past land- and climate conditions: - They cover up a former topography, a past landscape. A relevant source of scientific information where lands are levelled, as is the case in many parts of The Netherlands; - The soil formation under the earth wall is a reference soil. The soil formation in the top of the wall gives insight in the rate of soil formation in relationship with the age and parent material of the wall; - The soil profiles of different age have ecological significance. Older walls with a more pronounced soil formation often hold forest flora that has disappeared from the surrounding environment, such as historical bush or tree species, autogenetic DNA material or a specific soil fauna; - The materials in the earth walls tell about the process of wall-building. Paleosols and sedimentary structures in the earth walls, in the gullies and colluvial fans along the walls contain information about past land management and climate. - The eroded appearance of the earth walls is part of their history, and contain information about past management and land conditions, has ecological relevance, for example for insects, and is often visually more interesting. Insight in the rates of erosion are important for earth wall maintenance. A reconnaissance study of earth science aspects of earth walls in Ede The poster further presents a reconnaissance study in the municipality Ede describing differences in morphology, geology and soil profile development. E.g. totally black plaggen A-like horizons occur over 1 m thick, as well as differences in brown B-horizons from 0 cm, 2-3 cm to 15-20 cm. Inferred from cultural data, 2-3 cm B-horizons have an age of about two - three hundred years. Reference Henk Baas, Bert Groenwoudt, Pim Jungerius, Hans Renes (eds.), 2012. Tot hier toe en niet verder - historische wallen in het Nederlandse landschap., RCE - Cultural Heritage Agency of the Netherlands, Amersfoort (includes English summaries)

  8. Grammatical consciousness-raising: a problem-solving, process-focused approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wendy R. Kilfoil

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available How can we address the teaching of English as a second language in South African secondary schools given what we know about the nature of language acquisition, learners' lack of exposure to mother tongue English speakers and their widely divergent language experience at primary school/eve!? This paper argues that grammatical consciousness-raising should be the basis of the secondary school syllabus. Current syllabuses do not adequately consider language acquisition processes. Although their aims are defined as 'communicative: syllabuses continue to focus on what language should be taught, with the result that they remain essentially lists of structures and functions. Syllabuses should be completely redesigned to develop a coherent process-focused, problemsolving approach to second language teaching. At the moment there is a distinct reluctance to make any definitive pronouncements about the place of language instruction in the classroom. This has a detrimental effect on both teachers and learners. The only way to cope with the developing language needs of the learner in the secondary school is through a more conscious study of how language is used in natural discourse. A more deliberate language control on the part of the learner will enhance the efficacy of extensive listening, speaking, reading and writing activities designed to supply input which is a necessary but not sufficient criterion for acquisition at this leveL Hoe kan ons die onderrig van Engels as 'n tweede taal in Suid-Afrikaanse sekondere skole aanspreek, gegee ons kennis van die aard van taalverwerwing, die leerders se gebrek aan blootstelling aan Engels-moederlaalsprekers en hul uiteenlopende taalondervinding op laerskoolvlak? Hierdie arlikel voer aan dat grammatikale bewustheidsopskerping die basis van die sekondere skoolleerplan behoorl te wees. Huidige leerplanne neem nie taalverwerwingsprosesse voldoende in ag nie. Alhoewel hulle doelstellings as kommunikatief beskryf word, fokus leerplanne steeds op wafter taalinhoude onderrig moet word. Gevolglik bly leerplanne hoofsaaklik lyste van strukture en funksies. Leerplanne behoorl heeltemal herontwerp te word om 'n samehangende proses-gefokusde, probleemoplossingsbenadering tot tweede taalonderrig te ontwikkel. Tans is daar 'n duidelike onwilligheid om enige definitiewe uitspraak te !ewer oor die plek van taalonderrig in die klaskamer. Dit het 'n nadelige uitwerking op onderwysers en ook die leerders. Die enigste manier waarop die ontwikkelende taalbehoeftes van die sekondere skoolleerling geakkommodeer kan word, is deur 'n meer bewuste studie te maak van hoe taal in 'n natuurlike diskoers gebruik word. 'n Meer doelbewuste taalbeheer aan die kant van die leerder sal die doeltreffendheid van ekstensiewe luister-, praat-, lees- en skryfaktiwiteite bevorder. Hierdie aktiwiteite verskaf die nodige taalinsette, maar is op sigself onvoldoende om taalverwerwing op hierdie vlak te verseker.

  9. The Soil Atlas of Africa: raising awareness and educate to the importance of soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewitte, Olivier; Jones, Arwyn; Bosco, Claudio; Spaargaren, Otto; Montanarella, Luca

    2010-05-01

    The richness of African soil resources need to be protected for future generations. A number of threats are affecting the functioning of African soils, not only for the purpose of agricultural production, but also for other important environmental services that soil delivers to all of us. This is of particular importance once we know that many health-related problems in Africa are indirectly related to the services of soils. To raise the awareness of the general public, policy makers and other scientists to the importance of soil in Africa, the Joint Research Centre of the European Commission is to produce the first ever Soil Atlas of Africa. This is in collaboration with the African Union Commission, the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO), the Africa Soil Science Society, ISRIC - World Soil Information and scientists from both Europe and Africa. The Atlas compiles existing information on different soil types as easily understandable maps (both at regional and continental scale) covering the African continent. The Soil Atlas of Africa intends to produce derived maps at continental scale with descriptive text (e.g. vulnerability to desertification, soil nutrient status, carbon stocks and sequestration potential, irrigable areas and water resources) as well as specific maps to illustrate threats such as soil erosion for instance. For each regional overview, large scale examples of soil maps and derived products are presented too. The Atlas will be published as a hardcover book containing 174 A3 pages, which will allow soils maps to be displayed at the A2 scale. Both French and English versions of the Atlas will be edited. The Atlas will be sold at a low cost and will be for free for educational purpose (Schools and Universities). A digital version on CD and eventually freely downloadable on internet will also be available. Together with the publication of the Atlas, associated datasets on soil characteristics for Africa will be made available. These datasets will be useful for making broad distinction among soil types and provide general trends at the global and regional scales. The datasets will be made accessible for free downloading from the portals of the SOIL Action (http://eusoils.jrc.ec.europa.eu/) and the ACP Observatory for Sustainable Development (http://acpobservatory.jrc.ec.europa.eu). The Atlas links the theme of soil with rural development and, at the same time, supports the goals of the EU Thematic Strategy for Soil Protection in conserving a threatened natural resource that is vital to human existence. Not only climate change, but also desertification and loss of biodiversity are strongly affecting soils globally, making the "Soil Atlas of Africa" relevant to a much larger community of stakeholders involved in the implementation of the three "Rio-Conventions" and allowing to explore possible synergies among international multilateral agreements towards global soil protection.

  10. Does raising morning rectal temperature to evening levels offset the diurnal variation in muscle force production?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Ben J; Pullinger, Samuel A; Kerry, Jonathan W; Robinson, William R; Reilly, Tom P; Robertson, Colin M; Waterhouse, James M

    2013-05-01

    Muscle force production and power output in active males, regardless of the site of measurement (hand, leg, or back), are higher in the evening than in the morning. This diurnal variation is attributed to motivational, peripheral and central factors, and higher core and, possibly, muscle temperatures in the evening. This study investigated whether increasing morning rectal temperatures to evening resting values, by active or passive warm-ups, leads to muscle force production and power output becoming equal to evening values in motivated subjects. Ten healthy active males (mean ± SD: age, 21.2 ± 1.9 yrs; body mass, 75.4 ± 8 kg; height, 1.76 ± .06 m) completed the study, which was approved by the University Ethics Committee. The subjects were familiarized with the techniques and protocol and then completed four sessions (separated by at least 48 h): control morning (07:30 h) and evening (17:30 h) sessions (with an active 5-min warm-up) and then two further sessions at 07:30 h but proceeded by an extended active or passive warm-up to raise rectal temperature to evening values. These last two sessions were counterbalanced in order of administration. During each trial, three measures of handgrip strength, isokinetic leg strength measurements (of knee flexion and extension at 1.05 and 4.19 rad.s(-1) through a 90° range of motion), and four measures of maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) on an isometric ergometer (utilizing the twitch-interpolation technique) were performed. Rectal and intra-aural temperatures, ratings of perceived exertion (RPE) and thermal comfort (TC) were measured. Measurements were made after the subjects had reclined for 30 min and after the warm-ups and prior to the measurement of handgrip and isokinetic and isometric ergometry. Muscle temperature was taken after the warm-up and immediately before the isokinetic and MVC measurements. Warm-ups were either active (cycle ergometer at 150 W) or passive (resting in a room at 35 °C, relative humidity 45%). Data were analyzed using analysis of variance models with repeated measures. Rectal and intra-aural temperatures were higher at rest in the evening (.56 °C and .74 °C; p extension for peak torque at 4.19 rad.s(-1) all showed higher values in the evening. All other measures of strength or power showed a trend to be higher in the evening ( .10 > p > .05). There was no significant effect of active or passive warm-ups on any strength or power variable, and subjects reported maximal values for effort for each strength measure. In summary, effects of time of day were seen in some measures of muscle performance but, in this population of motivated subjects, there was no evidence that increasing morning rectal temperature to evening values by active or passive warm-up increased muscle strength to evening values. PMID:23281719

  11. Post-release ranging behaviour of hand-raised black rhinoceros, Diceros bicornis, L. in Matusadona National Park, Zimbabwe with recommendations for management of introduction to the wild

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Matipano

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Hand-raised rhinos would preferentially settle at sites close to areas where human activity was significant. Hand-raised rhinos that attached themselves to sites of human activity tended to move less widely and to have smaller seasonal ranges than those that moved away from human settlements. These rhinos had no fear of humans and some animals would move along established roads into hostile areas outside the park. These factors made hand-raised rhinos more vulnerable to poaching than their wild counterparts. Management of hand-raised rhinos with regards to ranging behaviour is discussed in the text.

  12. Healthier? More Efficient? Fairer? An Overview of the Main Ethical Issues Raised by the Use of Ubicomp in the Workplace

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Céline Ehrwein NIHAN

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The development of Ambient Intelligence (AmI will radically transform our everyday life and social representations. These transformations will notably impact the working environment. The objective of this paper is to offer a first survey of the main ethical issues raised by the development of intelligent working environments (IWEs. It especially focuses on the capacity of such environments to collect and handle personal medical data. The first two sections of this paper aim to clarify the methodology (2 as well as the object (3 of the research. We then point out some of the main ethical issues raised by IWEs and their capacity to collect and handle medical data. The final section attempts to offer some elements of reflection regarding the ethical principles that should guide the development of IWEs in the future.

  13. Comparison of lipid and fatty acid profiles of commercially raised pigs with laboratory pigs and wild-ranging warthogs

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    L-B., Fine; B.C., Davidson.

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available The perception that commercial livestock meat products have adverse nutritional effects, especially from the point of view of lipids and cardiovascular disease, is linked to assumptions concerning their inherent lipid profile. However, when commercially reared domestic pig meat samples were compared [...] with those from laboratory pigs or wild-ranging warthogs, the warthog and laboratory pig samples shared similar lipid profiles, whereas the commercially reared pig samples were different. Pork is not inherently high in saturated fatty acids, unless this has been induced by the current intensive agricultural practices employed in raising the animal. We conclude that problems of high saturated fatty acid content in commercially raised pork could be ameliorated by appropriate changes to current intensive animal production methods.

  14. Raise up 99mTc-HMPAO brain SPECT for detecting the change in cerebral perfusion pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    99mTc-hexamethylpropyleneamine oxime (99mTc-HMPAO) crossed the blood brain barrier instantly in proportional to cerebral blood flow. Raise up stress and supine resting 99mTc-HMPAO with brain SPECT was devised for detecting abnormal response in the changes of cerebral perfusion pressure. Asymmetric ratio in the middle cerebral artery area in patients with internal carotid artery occlusion (n=5) was changed significantly from 0.82±0.06 to 0.90±0.06 and that of normal (n=5) was not changed from 0.94±0.03 to 0.95±0.01. Raise up 99mTc-HMPAO brain SPECT enhanced the detectability in abnormality of regional cerebral blood flow and visualized the dys-autoregulated area during blood pressure falls. (author)

  15. The costs of raising children and the effectiveness of policies to support parenthood in European countries: a Literature Review

    OpenAIRE

    Letablier, Marie-Thérèse; Luci, Angela; Math, Antoine; Thévenon, Olivier

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to produce an overview of available knowledge about the following issues: ? the costs (to parents) of parenthood and of raising children in European Countries; ? the effectiveness, in the short and long term, of various policy measures in avoiding or compensating for those costs; 8 ? the impact of different policy instruments aimed at supporting families according to various policy objectives, e.g. achieving family projects, reconciling family and working life, r...

  16. The raising steps method. Applications to the $\\displaystyle L^{r}$ Hodge theory in a compact riemannian manifold

    OpenAIRE

    Amar, Eric

    2015-01-01

    Let $X$ be a smooth manifold and $\\displaystyle \\Omega $ a domain in $\\displaystyle X.$ The Raising Steps Method allows to get from local results on solutions $u$ of equation $ Du=\\omega $ global ones in $ \\Omega .$ It was introduced in~\\cite{AmarSt13} to get good estimates onsolutions of $\\bar \\partial $ equation in domains in a Stein manifold.It is extended here to linear partial differential operator of any finite order. As a simple application we shall get a $\\displaysty...

  17. Feasibility of repetitive lung function measurements by raised volume rapid thoracoabdominal compression during methacholine challenge in young infants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Loland, Lotte; Bisgaard, Hans

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The aim of the study was to evaluate the feasibility of lung function measurements by the raised volume rapid thoracoabdominal compression (RVRTC) technique during bronchial methacholine challenge in young infants. METHOD: Four hundred two healthy infants were tested at 1 month of age with RVRTC during repeated methacholine challenges with quadrupling doses from 0.037 to 16.674 mumol. RESULTS: Measurement of baseline lung function was successful in 99% and the provocative dose (PD) w...

  18. Population genetic structure, linkage disequilibrium and effective population size of conserved and extensively raised village chicken populations of Southern Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Khanyile, Khulekani S.; Dzomba, Edgar F.; Muchadeyi, Farai C.

    2015-01-01

    Extensively raised village chickens are considered a valuable source of biodiversity, with genetic variability developed over thousands of years that ought to be characterized and utilized. Surveys that can reveal a population's genetic structure and provide an insight into its demographic history will give valuable information that can be used to manage and conserve important indigenous animal genetic resources. This study reports population diversity and structure, linkage disequilibrium an...

  19. Development and validation of rabbit polyclonal antibodies raised against uncoupling proteins of gilthead sea bream, Sparus aurata

    OpenAIRE

    Bermejo-Nogales, Azucena; Borrel-Roda, Miriam; Pérez-Sánchez, Jaume

    2011-01-01

    Uncoupling proteins (UCP) are mitochondrial transporters that uncouple oxidative phosphorylation by the net discharge of proton gradient. This protein family is widely distributed in animal phyla with a core group of three UCP genes that are expressed in a tissue-specific manner. Recently, UCP1 and UCP3 have been molecularly characterized in gilthead sea bream and their transcriptional regulation has been addressed in different physiological conditions. This raises the hypothesis of a role of...

  20. The Release of a Captive-Raised Female African Elephant (Loxodonta africana) in the Okavango Delta, Botswana

    OpenAIRE

    Stephen Harris; Kate Evans; Randall J. Moore

    2013-01-01

    Wild female elephants live in close-knit matrilineal groups and housing captive elephants in artificial social groupings can cause significant welfare issues for individuals not accepted by other group members. We document the release of a captive-raised female elephant used in the safari industry because of welfare and management problems. She was fitted with a satellite collar, and spatial and behavioural data were collected over a 17-month period to quantify her interactions with the wild ...

  1. Raised atmospheric CO2 levels and increased N deposition cause shifts in plant species composition and production in Sphagnum bogs

    OpenAIRE

    Berendse, F; Breemen, N. van; Rydin, H.; Buttler, A.; Heijmans, M.; Hoosbeek, M. R.; Lee, J. A.; Mitchell, E.; Saarinen, T.; H. Vasander; Wallen, B.

    2001-01-01

    Part of the missing sink in the global CO2 budget has been attributed to the positive effects of CO2 fertilization and N deposition on carbon sequestration in Northern Hemisphere terrestrial ecosystems. The genus Sphagnum is one of the most important groups of plant species sequestrating carbon in temperate and northern bog ecosystems, because of the low decomposability of the dead material it produces. The effects of raised CO2 and increased atmospheric N deposition on growth of Sphagnum and...

  2. Preferential feeding on high quality diets decreases methyl mercury of farm-raised common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Schultz, Sebastian; Vallant, Birgit; Kainz, Martin J.

    2012-01-01

    This study on aquaculture ponds investigated how diet sources affect methyl mercury (MeHg) bioaccumulation of the worldwide key diet fish, common carp (Cyprinus carpio). We tested how MeHg concentrations of one and two year-old pond-raised carp changed with different food quality: a) zooplankton (natural pond diet), b) cereals enriched with vegetable oil (VO ponds), and c) compound feeds enriched with marine fish oils (FO ponds). It was hypothesized that carp preferentially feed on supplement...

  3. Determining the impact of community awareness-raising activities on the prevention of malaria transmission in Palawan, the Philippines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto-Takahashi, Emilie Louise Akiko; Tongol-Rivera, Pilarita; Villacorte, Elena A; Angluben, Ray U; Yasuoka, Junko; Kano, Shigeyuki; Jimba, Masamine

    2014-06-01

    Palawan has the highest malaria endemicity in the Philippines, and malaria remains a major health burden in the region. In 1999, 344 microscopists were trained in Palawan. This allowed for early diagnosis and prompt treatment throughout the island. To take a significant step toward the elimination of malaria on the island, microscopists implemented community awareness-raising activities aimed at preventing transmission of malaria. The objective of the present study was to determine the impact of these activities on the self-implemented preventive measures against malaria by the ex-patients of the microscopists. Structured interviews were carried out from January to February in 2012, in 20 remote malaria-endemic villages throughout Palawan. In total, 141 ex-patients who had previously been diagnosed malaria-positive by the microscopists, volunteered to participate in the present study. Structural equation modeling was conducted to determine factors associated with self-implemented preventive measures against malaria, which included: (1) place of residence; (2) socio-demographic characteristics; (3) knowledge on malaria; (4) participation in community awareness-raising activities for malaria prevention; and (5) satisfaction with microscopists. Structural equation modeling identified six significant factors independently associated with self-implemented preventive measures against malaria; ethnicity, knowledge on malaria transmission, knowledge on vector species, knowledge on vector's most active time, participation in awareness-raising activities for malaria prevention by microscopists, and satisfaction with microscopists. Tagalog ethnicity (the predominant ethnic group) was positively related to better self-implemented preventive measures. In conclusion, aside from providing early diagnosis and treatment, microscopists played a significant role in self-implemented preventive measures against malaria. The strengthening of awareness-raising activities by microscopists was suggested to be an effective strategy for reducing malaria re-infection in Palawan. These activities should be strengthened to improve preventive measures implemented by ex-patients traveling to mountain areas and to enhance the knowledge on malaria transmission particularly among indigenous residents. PMID:24508869

  4. Should governments in Europe be more aggressive in pushing for gender equality to raise fertility? The first "YES"

    OpenAIRE

    Laurent Toulemon

    2011-01-01

    Together with three colleagues, I have been asked by the MPIDR to debate the following question: "Should governments in Europe be more aggressive in pushing for gender equality to raise fertility? Setting aside the "lighthearted" side of this "Rostocker Debate," (12 minutes for each speech, one minute for each comment), I saw this as a good opportunity to think about the stakes behind the question. In order to address this complex issue, it is necessary to think about the many "preliminary qu...

  5. A COMPARISON BETWEEN MULLIGAN TRACTION STRAIGHT LEG RAISE TECHNIQUE VS MUSCLE ENERGY TECHNIQUE ON HAMSTRING TIGHTNESS IN ASYMPTOMATIC MALE

    OpenAIRE

    Jesudas Mazumdar; Jitendra Kumar Shriwas

    2014-01-01

    Background and Purpose: The Hamstring muscles of the back thigh are found to be the most prevalent for the tightness in the body. The purpose of this study is to compare effectiveness of Mulligan Traction Straight Leg Raise and Muscle Energy Technique methods in increasing range of motion and flexibility of knee joint. Methods: The 60 subjects (n = 60) with hamstring tightness randomly divided into two groups. Each group consist of 30 male subjects. However group A had 28 as two d...

  6. The robustness of the "Raise-The-Stakes" strategy - Coping with exploitation in noisy Prisoner's Dilemma Games

    OpenAIRE

    Van den Bergh, Bram; Dewitte, Siegfried

    2005-01-01

    Recent models of altruism point out the success of a strategy called 'Raise-The- Stakes' (RTS) in situations allowing variability in cooperation. In theory, RTS is difficult to exploit because it begins with a small investment in an iterated Prisoner's Dilemma Game. When its cooperation is reciprocated, RTS increases its generosity, thereby taking advantage of cooperative opportunities. Previous research has shown that human subjects indeed adopt RTS but start out moderately cooperative rathe...

  7. Intravenous immunoglobulin treatment in lower motor neuron disease associated with highly raised anti-GM1 antibodies

    OpenAIRE

    van den Berg, L. H.; Franssen, H.; van Doorn, P A; WOKKE, J

    1997-01-01

    The effect of intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIg) treatment was studied in five patients with lower motor neuron disease associated with highly raised anti-GM1 antibodies but without evidence of conduction block on neurophysiological examination. The patients received IVIg treatment (0.4 g/kg for five consecutive days) in an open study. Only one patient responded to IVIg treatment, which was confirmed in a double blind, placebo controlled study (two placebo treatments and two IVIg t...

  8. Phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate, ionomycin or ouabain, and raised extracellular magnesium induce proliferation of chicken heart mesenchymal cells.

    OpenAIRE

    Balk, S. D.; Morisi, A; Gunther, H S

    1984-01-01

    Cultured chicken heart mesenchymal cells are proliferatively quiescent at low densities in medium containing plasma at 10%. Mitogenic hormones like epidermal growth factor and insulin-like growth factors cause these cells to proliferate very actively, as does infection with avian sarcoma viruses, erythroblastosis virus, or myelocytomatosis virus. We have found that the combination of phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA), ionomycin or ouabain, and raised extracellular magnesium, likewise, cau...

  9. How the Entrepreneurial Top Management Team Setup Influences Firm Performance and the Ability to Raise Capital: A Literature Review

    OpenAIRE

    Konstantin Maschke; Dodo zu Knyphausen-Aufseß

    2012-01-01

    This paper reviews research findings on entrepreneurial top management teams within the last 20 years. It concentrates on team-based management factors and their influence on a new venture?s growth and ability to raise capital. This paper integrates recent findings and provides an overview of the current state of research. Moreover, it contributes to the overall topic by proposing five clusters of major team-specific influences, derives determinants of success and failure, and reveals recomme...

  10. Levels and Types of Questions Raised by EFL Teachers in Southern Al-Mazar Directorate of Education

    OpenAIRE

    I’timad Jamil Abdulraheem Al-Ja’freh; Majid Mohammed Al-Khataybeh

    2012-01-01

    This study aimed at investigating the levels and types of questions raised by EFL teachers in Southern Al-Mazar directorate of Education. The study comprised (12) female/ male teachers. The results of the study showed that; male/female teachers asked (1603) questions; (1290) questions were within the low level and (313) questions were high level. Female/male teachers asked (1603) questions where (393) questions were open and (1210) were ended questions . The results also, showed that...

  11. The disclosure practices of a South African-born adolescent raised in an American lesbian-parent family

    OpenAIRE

    Lubbe, Carien; Kruger, Liana

    2012-01-01

    This qualitative case study explores the disclosure practices of a South African-born adolescent who is raised in a lesbian-parent family in the United States of America, in an attempt to understand how adolescents negotiate their unique family structure throughout their daily lives. The data in this study were analysed using thematic content analysis. The concept of moral cultures is adopted from the work of Hart and Carlo (2005) and identified in the following dominant ...

  12. Analysis of Cattle Raising and Institutional Perspectives Regarding Collective Action in the El Ocote Biosphere Reserve, Chiapas, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Rodriguez-Larramendi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to analyze the perceptions of representatives of government agencies and educational institutions regarding problems related to cattle raising in the El Ocote Biosphere Reserve. Through a structural analysis, we identified and prioritized problems which due to their joint relevance, require immediate attention in order to elaborate inter-institutional plans of action which would contribute to the sustainability of cattle raising systems in natural protected areas. Problems in the zone of power (fairly uninfluenced by other problems but which highly influence other problems were the following: lack of inter-institutional coordination with a motricity index of 10.7% and a dependence index of 3.31%, lack of public policies which promote environmentally friendly cattle raising with a motricity index of 9.09% and a dependence index of 7.74% and lack of organization among producers with a motricity index of 8.26% and a dependence index of 4.13%. A prioritization of the problems illustrates the importance of the institutions working together to seek solutions to those problems of greater motrocity in order to transcend currently prevalent force fields. Through collective action, the institutions should collectively propose actions and strategies to decision makers, legislators and other political actors in favor of sustainable cattle raising. Furthermore, there is a need for institutions to foment organization among producers and institutions in order to enhance the impact of projects. Meanwhile, institutions should transcend unilateral interests which often hinder efforts of representatives of institutions which work within the El Ocote Biosphere Reserve.

  13. Raising livestock in resource-poor communities of the North West Province of South Africa - a participatory rural appraisal study

    OpenAIRE

    J.K. Getchell; Vatta, A.F.; P.W. Motswatswe; Krecek, R C; R. Moerane; Pell, A N; Tucker, T. W.; S. Leshomo

    2012-01-01

    A participatory research model was used in six village communities in the Central Region of the North West Province of South Africa in order to achieve the following broad objectives : to obtain information on the challenges owners face in raising livestock in these areas and to evaluate the livestock owners' level of knowledge of internal parasites in their animals. Information obtained at participatory workshops clearly indicated a need for improvements in water supply, schools, job creatio...

  14. Sea-level standstill and dominant hermatypic coral from the holocene raised reef terraces at the Kikai Island, Ryukyu Islands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coral reef terraces are one of the best recorders of biological response to environmental change events (e.g., sea-level changes). Kikai Island provides a rare opportunity to show biological and ecological frameworks (e.g., competition, coexistence, and succession) during a recent geological period. The island is fringed by raised Holocene raised reef terraces, which formed as a result of periodic tectonic uplifts. This study aims to characterize the spatial and temporal changes of corals at this island during the Holocene. The analysis is based on topographical and biological data obtained for the three sites (Shidooke, Kadon, and Nakugama reefs). Three raised reef terraces (Terrace II, III, and IV) grew from 7300 to 4500 years ago (during 2800 years), from 4500 to 2900 years ago (during 1600 years), and from 2900 to 1800 years ago (during 1100 years), respectively. Terrace II and III were uplifted 1-2 m around 4500 years ago and around 2900 years ago. Terrace IV was uplifted 1-2 m around 1800 years ago. The modern reef has been composed of corals for 1800 years. Sixteen coral genera and 53 species were recorded from the reef terraces. Terrace III and IV were dominated by four coral species (A. digitifera, A. robusta, G. retiformis, and F. stelligera), but Terrace II was predominantly composed of A. digitifera and A. robusta. These biological and ecological variations between the terraces represent a growth strategy responding to differences of reef growth time and/or insolation. (author)

  15. Numerical Solution of Three-Dimensional Flow over Angled Backward-Facing Step with Raised Upper Wall

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyfettin Bayraktar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, results obtained from three-dimensional incompressible flow over backward-facing step in a rectangular duct using Realizable k-? turbulence model are reported. Effects of step inclination angle have been investigated for ?=30?, 45?, 90? while upper wall of duct kept parallel to the bottom wall and then rose to ?=6?. Reynolds number based on freestream velocity and step height is examined by varying its magnitude in the range of 15,000-64,000. Simulated results are presented for revealing the general flow features and reattachment lengths after a successful validation of the present work with the experimental data of Driver and Seegmiller (1985. It is found that turbulence kinetic energy increases suddenly after the step for both straight and raised upper walls and reaches its maximum at x/h=5 that consistent with the published literature. The size of reattachment lengths increases with the step inclination angle, i.e., maximum reattachment length occurs at 90? for both straight and raised upper walls. It is seen that raising the upper wall leads to longer reattachment lengths.

  16. Behavior comparisons for whooping cranes raised by costumed caregivers and trained for an ultrallght?led migration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, G.H.

    2008-01-01

    The successful reintroduction program being run by the Whooping Crane Eastern Partnership using whooping cranes (Grus americana) trained to fly behind ultralight aircraft depends on a supply of these trained crane colts each year. The crane colts are hatched from eggs contributed by the various partners and trained to follow costume clad humans and ultralight aircraft at USGS Patuxent Wildlife Research Center, Laurel, Maryland, USA. After several seasons of raising small numbers of crane colts (7-14), we wanted to increase the number of birds being trained, but were restrained by limits in our facilities. By altering the established husbandry and training program to allow the use of a recently modified facility, we have increased the number of colts raised for this release program. However, we did not know whether the new facility and husbandry regime would significantly alter the behavior of the colts. Therefore, we have begun a two year study to determine if there are differences in the behavior of cranes raised by the two methods, and if any of the differences discovered relate directly to whooping crane survival and migration skills in the release program.

  17. Should governments in Europe be more aggressive in pushing for gender equality to raise fertility? The first "YES"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurent Toulemon

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Together with three colleagues, I have been asked by the MPIDR to debate the following question: "Should governments in Europe be more aggressive in pushing for gender equality to raise fertility? Setting aside the "lighthearted" side of this "Rostocker Debate," (12 minutes for each speech, one minute for each comment, I saw this as a good opportunity to think about the stakes behind the question. In order to address this complex issue, it is necessary to think about the many "preliminary questions" that we have to ponder before responding: Why should fertility be raised? Are political measures legitimate? Are they efficient? On what basis are we qualified to give "expert" opinions on such a topic? When the question comes to the fore, we as scholars are sometimes asked to provide an answer. It would, of course, be more comfortable not to answer, but our interlocutors (politicians, journalists, teachers, and also funding agencies often want a definite response one way or the other. Even though our position may be a matter of politics as well as a matter of science, we must give an answer. The empirical evidence shows that European countries where gender inequality is lower are also the countries where fertility is the highest. This is the evidence-based response that we can give to that question. European countries need to find a new equilibrium after the end of the baby boom period, when gender equality was very low. In all countries, the empowerment of women is underway, thanks to the economic independence given by work-related income. Increasing gender equality is an efficient way to reduce the opportunity costs of having and raising children, and thus to increase fertility. Finally, "pushing for gender equality" may have many positive effects other than raising fertility, and has few negative side effects. Gender equality is thus a convenient political aim per se; an institutional goal which leaves many political questions open. So, yes, we agree that governments in Europe should be more aggressive in pushing for gender equality to raise fertility!

  18. Study of the lateral raise in foot wear for the management of medial compartment degenerative joint disease of knee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A wide spread disease, which may lead the patient to severe outcomes e.g. pain, loss of joint motion, inflexibility and even disability, is Knee osteoarthritis (OA). It is most common among adults of older age and should not be ignored at all. Literature does not show any clear pathogenesis for occurrence of Knee OA, but most of the indications point toward biomechanical stresses which may influence the articular cartilage and sub chondral bone. Objective: The Aim of this study is to become aware of the effects of physical therapy with and without laterally raised footwear in the management of medial knee osteoarthritis. Methodology: We have used experimental comparative study in 35 patients which were randomly selected from Department of Physiotherapy, Fatima Memorial Hospital, Shadman, Lahore. The study consisted of 2 groups, Group I (Experimental Group): In experimental group, patients were treated with laterally raised foot wear and physical therapy both. Group II (Control Group): Whereas in control group patients were treated by physical therapy alone. Kellgren and Lawrence (KL) scale was used to assess radiograph of the knee joints after an anteroposterior weight-bearing standing. The assessment of disease in patients was done by using the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities (WOMAC) Index, Muscle flexibility, Muscle strengthening and Tolerance scales. Results: In group-I the mean age of patients observed was 59.52+-13.66 years and 65+-12.87 years in Group-II. In Group-I, 9 (52.9%) patients were males and 8 (47.1%) patients were females while in Group-II, 9 patients (50%) were male and 9 (50%) were female. In Group-I 2 (11.8%) patients used flat and open shoes, 6 (35.3%) used flat and close shoe, 3 (17.6%) patients used dress shoes and 2 (11.8%) used flat shoes. In Group-I, the frequency of patients wearing laterally raised foot wear in terms of duration was; 5 (29.4%) patients for 20 days, 4 (23.5%) for 24 days, 4 (23.5%) for 25 days, whilst 2 patients used it for 26 and 30 days respectively. Among 10 (58.8%) patients the use of lateral raised foot wear was intermittent wile in 7 (41.2%) patients the use of lateral raised foot wear was continuous. Overall Group-I presented better results compared to Group-II in this study. Conclusion: We have concluded in our study that the physical therapy with laterally raised footwear is a successful treatment in the management of medial knee OA. In laterally raised footwear the physical therapy is an effective method in terms of relief of pain in patient, improvement in function by stiffness reduction and. this treatment method is recommended for the management of medial knee OA. (author)

  19. How accurate is ultrasound of the optic nerve sheath diameter performed by inexperienced operators to exclude raised intracranial pressure?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. J. du Toit

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: It has been well documented that ultrasound measurement of the optic nerve sheath diameter performed by an experienced operator shows good correlation with raised intracranial pressure, irrespective of the cause. Objective: To establish the accuracy of this technique performed by inexperienced operators.Method: A prospective analytical cross-sectional study was conducted. All patients ?18 years of age who presented at our medical casualty and emergency departments with suspected meningitis were enrolled in the study. All patients were evaluated with the use of optic nerve sheath diameter ultrasound with or without computed tomography brain scan prior to lumbar puncture. Lumbar puncture opening pressure measurements were compared with the ultrasound measurements.Results: A total of 73 patients were enrolled in the study, of whom 14 had raised intracranial pressure. The study had a sensitivity of 50% (95% confidence interval (CI 26.8%–73.2% and specificity of 89.8% (95% CI 79.5%–95.3% with a positive predictive value of 54.8% (95% CI 29.1%–76.8% and negative predictive value of 88.3% (95% CI 77.8%–94.2%. The likelihood ratio of a positive test was 4.92 (95% CI 1.95–11.89 and that of a negative test 0.56 (95% CI 0.29–0.83. Cohen’s kappa value was 0.41 which indicates a moderate agreement. The receiver operating characteristic (ROC curve had an area under the curve (AUC of 0.73 (95% CI 0.51–0.95. Conclusion: Ultrasound measurement of the optic nerve sheath diameter can be used to exclude raised intracranial pressure, even in the hands of inexperienced operators.

  20. Performance and organ morphology of broilers fed microbial or antimicrobial additives and raised in batteries or floor pens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedroso AA

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to determine the effect of microbial or antimicrobial additives on the performance and organ morphology of broilers raised in batteries or in floor pens. The effect of microbial additives on the presence of oocysts in the litter was also studied. Experiments 1 and 2 consisted of four treatments (non-supplemented control diet or diet supplemented with avilamycin, bacitracin methylene disalicylate or enramycin and six repetitions in a randomized block design. In Experiment 1, 288 day-old chicks were housed in heated batteries in a environmentally controlled room, 12 chicks per cage; in Experiment 2, 1,200 day-old chicks were housed in a curtain-sided experimental house, with concrete floor and rice hulls as litter material, 50 chicks per pen. Experiments 3 and 4 were carried out similarly to Experiments 1 and 2, respectively, but the treatments consisted of microbial additives (non-supplemented control diet or Bacillus subtilis added to the feed plus Lactobacillus reuteri and Lactobacillus johnsonii added to the water, undefined microflora added to the water or live yeast added to the feed. The antibiotics did not affect the performance of birds raised in batteries, but improved feed conversion, weight gain and live weight when chickens were kept on the floor pens. Microbial additives did not affect bird performance in any environment; however, treatments affected liver weight. Microbial agents increased intestinal weight in floor-raised broilers. No relationship was seen between the use of microbial additives and the presence of oocysts in the litter.

  1. How the Entrepreneurial Top Management Team Setup Influences Firm Performance and the Ability to Raise Capital: A Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantin Maschke

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews research findings on entrepreneurial top management teams within the last 20 years. It concentrates on team-based management factors and their influence on a new venture’s growth and ability to raise capital. This paper integrates recent findings and provides an overview of the current state of research. Moreover, it contributes to the overall topic by proposing five clusters of major team-specific influences, derives determinants of success and failure, and reveals recommendations for further research.

  2. Effect of BCS at Mating on Some Reproductive Performance of Saanen Goat under Raised Semi Intensive Conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Tufan Altin; Turgay Taskin; H. Erbay Bardakcioglu; Gunes Erdogan; Murat Yilmaz

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effects of the Body Condition Score (BCS) of 53 Saanen does on their reproductive performance 15 days before mating season and at the beginning of the mating season under raised semi intensive conditions. In this study, the does were synchronized in two different periods, one of which was 15 days before the other. Before the introduction of buck to the goats, the goats were weighed after measuring their BCS. Detailed records were kept for herd in yea...

  3. Undersampling RF-to-digital CT ?? modulator with tunable notch frequency and simplified raised-cosine FIR feedback DAC

    OpenAIRE

    Asghar, S.; Río Fernández, Rocío del; Rosa Utrera, José Manuel de la

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a continuous-time fourth-order band-pass ?? Modulator for digitizing radio-frequency signals in software-defined-radio mobile systems. The modulator architecture is made up of two resonators and a 16-level quantizer in the feedforward path and a raised-cosine finite-impulsive-response feedback DAC. The latter is implemented with a reduced number of filter coefficients as compared to previous approaches, which allows to increase the notch frequency programmability from 0.03...

  4. Protozoan parasites in captive chinchillas (Chinchilla lanigera) raised in the State of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    ANA CLÁUDIA, FAGUNDES GURGEL; AMANDA, DOS SANTOS SARTORI; FLÁVIO ANTÔNIO, PACHECO DE ARAÚJO.

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to identify Giardia sp., Eimeria spp. and Cryptosporidium spp. in fecal samples of chinchillas, respectively raised on farms located in the cities of Gravataí and Porto Alegre (State of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil), Giardia sp. was detected in 8% of 250 samples. The va [...] riables age (p = 0.47) and gender (p = 0.07), submitted to Fisher's exact test, were not related to the results obtained through the method of Faust et al. (1939) apud Hoffmann (1987). Oocysts of Eimeria spp. and Cryptosporidium spp. were not identified in any of the samples

  5. Protozoan parasites in captive chinchillas (Chinchilla lanigera) raised in the State of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    ANA CLÁUDIA FAGUNDES GURGEL; AMANDA DOS SANTOS SARTORI; FLÁVIO ANTÔNIO PACHECO DE ARAÚJO

    2005-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to identify Giardia sp., Eimeria spp. and Cryptosporidium spp. in fecal samples of chinchillas, respectively raised on farms located in the cities of Gravataí and Porto Alegre (State of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil), Giardia sp. was detected in 8% of 250 samples. The variables age (p = 0.47) and gender (p = 0.07), submitted to Fisher's exact test, were not related to the results obtained through the method of Faust et al. (1939) apud Hoffmann (1987). Oocysts of E...

  6. Ovarian morphometry of zebu cows raised in the Oriental Amazonia Morfometria ovariana de vacas zebuínas criadas na Amazônia Oriental

    OpenAIRE

    Silvana Maria Medeiros de Sousa Silva; Cláudia Marinovic de Oliveira; Ricardo Resende Miranda Nunes; Tânia Vasconcelos Cavalcante; Elaine Magalhães Ramos; Francisca Elda Ferreira Dias; Viviane Mayumi Maruo; Mônica Arrivabene

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this research was to study the characteristics of non pregnant (G1) and pregnant (G2) zebu cow ovaries, raised in the Oriental Amazonia. Three hundred and eleven pairs of ovaries were collected in a slaughterhouse in Araguaína-TO. Then, the length, width, thickness and volume from the right and left ovaries and the diameter of the largest follicle in each ovary were measured and the characteristics of the corpora lutea (CL) were examined. It was observed significant difference for ...

  7. Design of a novel large volume cubic high pressure apparatus for raising the yield and quality of synthetic diamond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Qi-Gang; Ban, Qing-Chu; Zhu, Pin-Wen

    2015-07-01

    How to raise the yield of synthetic diamond is an important problem for the cubic high pressure apparatus (CHPA). In this paper, we present a novel CHPA to solve this problem, based on the design of the new structures of anvils and the sample cell assembly (two WC anvils with a square anvil tip and four WC anvils with a rectangular anvil tip are used to compress the tetragonal geometry cell). The achievement of consistent pressure and the distributions of the cell temperature have been analyzed by the finite element method and verified by the experimental data. Our results imply that the size of sample volume, compressed by the novel CHPA, is 125.02% larger than that of conventional CHPA (six WC anvils with a square anvil tip forming a cubic cell), which can dramatically raise the yield of synthetic diamond. Furthermore, the novel CHPA can be used for correspondence between the cell temperature and the cell pressure, which can dramatically increase the quality of synthetic diamond. This work has a direct effect on varying the pressing process of the conventional CHPA.

  8. Predicting venous insufficiency in flaps raised on the deep inferior epigastric system using computed tomography (CT) angiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagels, M; Pillay, R; Saylor, A; Vrtik, L; Senewiratne, S

    2015-12-01

    Computed Tomography Angiogram (CTA) has become a routine part of pre-operative assessment of vascular anatomy and design in perforator flaps. We conducted a retrospective cohort study of flap raised on the deep inferior epigastric system (DIES) at our institution in order to identify CTA signs that might predict venous congestion in these flaps. 98 consecutive patients who had 124 DIES flaps raised from 2008 to 2012 were studied. Of these 124 flaps, four (3.2%) developed venous congestion. Our results showed that a Superficial Inferior Epigastric Vein (SIEV) that is larger than the DIEV at origin is highly predictive of congestion (5.2 vs 3.5 mm, p = 0.007). The findings of an axial non-arborising superficial system (96.7% vs 0, p < 0.001), without connection to deep system perforators (38.1 vs 88.8%, p < 0.001) and a type I pedicle were also predictive (75 vs 64.2%, p = 0.22). These results show the importance of CTAs as a pre-operative study for the identification of risk factors for venous compromise, and their use should prompt a robust discussion of the risk of flap failure with patients, and contingency planning to augment venous drainage with the superficial system if required. PMID:26375461

  9. Reproductive status and synchronization of oestrus for predetermined insemination of Philippine carabaos (swamp buffalo) raised by smallholder farmers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There is an urgent need to improve size, and meat and milk productivity of the Philippine carabao, a swamp type of water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis), through crossbreeding with the riverine type. Studies were conducted to assess the reproductive status of carabaos raised by smallholder farmers, determine conception rates of buffaloes to artificial insemination (AI) through oestrus synchronization, and examine the patterns of plasma progesterone in cyclic and acyclic carabao heifers. Approximately 20% of carabaos raised by smallholder farmers were diagnosed pregnant by rectal palpation. This low pregnancy rate may be due to a combination of factors such as the failure to submit for examination carabaos exhibiting external signs of pregnancy, the deliberate postponement of breeding for working females, the inability of bulls to gain access to carabaos in oestrus which are tethered at night, or the high incidence of anoestrus or suboestrus. The reproductive problems in non-pregnant animals were cystic (19.5%), infantile (25.7%), and dormant ovaries (51.3%), and pathology of the uterus and cervix (3.5%). Both feeding and management practices in different locations influenced the nutritional status of female carabaos examined. Animals in good body condition were either cycling or pregnant. A 30-40% conception rate was achieved by synchronization of oestrus and insemination with frozen semen at 72 and 96 h later. Based on progesterone radioimmunoassay and rectal palpation of the ovaries, anoestrus in carabao heifers was due either to a failure of cycling animals to exhibit oestrus or those with inactive ovaries. (author)

  10. Occurrence of heavy metals and antibiotic resistance in bacteria from internal organs of american bullfrog (Rana catesbeiana) raised in Malaysia

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    SW, Lee; M, Najiah; W, Wendy; M, Nadirah; SH, Faizah.

    Full Text Available A total of 40 bacteria have been successfully isolated from internal organs of the American bullfrog (Rana catesbeiana) raised in Malaysia, namely, eight isolates of Aeromonas spp., 21 of Edwardsiella spp., six of Flavobacterium spp. and five of Vibrio spp. In terms of antibiotic susceptibility test [...] ing, each isolate was tested against 21 antibiotics, resulting in 482 (57.3%) cases of sensitivity and 61 (7.3%) cases of partial sensitivity. Meanwhile, 297 (35.4%) bacterial isolates were registered as resistant. The multiple antibiotic resistance (MAR) index of each bacterial species indicated that bacteria from raised bullfrogs have been exposed to tested antibiotics with results ranging from 0.27 to 0.39. Additionally, high percentages of heavy metal resistance among these isolates were observed, with values ranging from 85.0 to 100.0%. The current results provided us information on bacterial levels of locally farmed bullfrogs exposed to copper, cadmium, chromium as well as 21 types of antibiotics.

  11. A BASIC THOUGHT ON THE APPROPRIATE LEVEL AND THE APPROPRIATE WAY OF DISCRETIONAL RAISING FUND FOR PUBLIC WORKS THAT ACCOUNTS FOR MACRO ECONOMIC INFLUENCES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujii, Satoshi; Nakano, Tsuyoshi

    In this paper, we tried to discuss about the appropriate level of national fund for public works and the appropriate way of raising fund for them that accounts for their macro economic influences. It was then discussed that we have to adopt "austere fiscal policy" during inflation period in order to mitigate the inflation and have to raise fund through tax rather than public bond, and we have to adopt "positive fiscal policy" during deflation period in order to mitigate deflation, and have to raise fund through inland public bond rather than tax increase.

  12. SiteChar. Characterisation of European CO2 storage. Deliverable D8.2. Trust building and raising public awareness

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brunsting, S.; Pol, M.; Mastop, E.A. [ECN Policy Studies, Energy research Centre of the Netherlands ECN, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Kaiser, M.; Zimmer, R. [Unabhaengiges Institut fuer Umweltfragen UfU, Berlin (Germany); Shackley, S.; Mabon, L.; Howell, R. [Scottish Carbon Capture and Storage SCCS, Edinburg, Scotland (United Kingdom)

    2012-08-15

    At local level, public support has proven crucial to the implementation of CO2 capture and storage (CCS) demonstration projects. Whereas no method exists to guarantee public acceptability of any project, a constructive stakeholder and community engagement process does increase the likelihood thereof. This deliverable is a follow-up to deliverable D8.1 'Social site characterisation'. Social site characterisation can be used as an instrument to explore, plan and evaluate a process of active and constructive local stakeholder and citizen engagement in a prospective CCS project as a parallel activity to technical site characterisation. It serves as an analytical tool to describe the local social circumstances in the area and to design and evaluate stakeholder and community engagement efforts with the aims of building trust and raising public awareness. Using results from the social site characterisation of the area, the present deliverable focuses on the second purpose. It presents results from public engagement activities designed to raise public awareness and inform public opinion of a prospective CCS site in Poland (onshore) and the UK (offshore): focus conferences. Furthermore, by initiating an enhanced cooperation in planning of new storage sites between project developers, authorities and the local public, focus conferences aim to serve as a 'hinge' between social site characterisation as a research effort and application to real-life project settings. The focus conferences are part of a range of public engagement activities including the setup of public information websites on generic and site-specific CCS, information meetings. A second survey eventually shall evaluate the results of the public engagement activities. The aim of the focus conferences was to raise public awareness and assist public opinion forming processes of a prospective CCS site in Poland (onshore) and the UK (offshore). At the same time, it aimed to present and test a format in which project developers, authorities, and the local public could enhance their cooperation in project planning. To this end, a group of 11-16 participants recruited from the local public gathered on two weekends to be informed about CCS technology, to discuss their perceptions of the rewards and risks of CCS technology, and to state their conditions for a socially acceptable implementation of CCS projects. Experts from research, politics, industry and NGOs were invited to participate in both weekends, during which they gave presentations and answered questions from the participants. This process resulted in a positioning paper written by the participants representing a statement on CCS technology from their perspective.

  13. Site Productivity of Clone and Seed Raised Plantations of Eucalyptus urophylla and Eucalyptus grandis in Southeast Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Reyna Pérez-Sandoval; Armando Gómez-Guerrero; Aurelio Fierros-González; William R. Horwath

    2012-01-01

    The relationship between soil variables and forest productivity of Eucalyptus urophylla (Eu) and E. grandis (Eg) was studied in commercial forest plantations (CFP) in Huimanguillo, Tabasco, Mexico. The group of Eu included seed and clone raised plantations and the Eg group included only seed raised plantations. Tree measurements and soil sampling were carried out at 56 500-m2 plots. Two soil depths (0 - 20 and 20 - 40 cm) were sampled and analyzed for phy...

  14. Bridging the gap between farmers and consumers : Value creation and mediation in “pasture-raised beef” food networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bedoin, Florence; Kristensen, Troels

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this article is to explore how different quality dimensions (safety, aesthetics, ethics and rooted ness) are created in food networks; how these qualities are transferred until the consumers; and how this process is supported by the organisation of the food network. Our postulate is that combining the quality and organisation dimensions and exploring the link between them will provide an interesting perspective for improving the sharing of values in food networks. This framework is applied to five case studies of “pasture-raised beef” food networks in France, representing a diversity of organisations such as public label scheme, cooperate owned brand and direct sell from farmer to consumer. The results highlight the importance of the role of certification and personal commitment for the creation, and also for the mediation of added-value.

  15. Radioactive contamination of a pig raised at a farm within 20 km of the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A mixed breed pig that was raised at a farm within 20 km of the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant on the day of the accident was moved to a clean area 17 days after the accident, slaughtered and sampled 41 days after arriving at the clean area. The ?-ray spectrum of belly, ham, loin, and heart were measured using a Ge semiconductor detector. Even though the animal had been kept in a clean area for 41 days, contamination with radioisotopic caesium was detected in pork. The pig had been kept inside a piggery and had been fed non-contaminated imported feed in both Fukushima and clean area of its all life. Broadcasts reported that feeding rice straw poses a risk of radioactive contamination of beef in Japan, but rice straw might not be the sole source of contamination. For the safety of future generations, it is necessary to monitor not only beef but also other animal products for food safety. (author)

  16. Cell motility in models of wounded human skin is improved by Gap27 despite raised glucose, insulin and IGFBP-5

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wright, Catherine S.; Berends, Rebecca F. [Department of Life Sciences, School of Health and Life Sciences, Glasgow Caledonian University, 70 Cowcaddens Road, Glasgow G4 0BA (United Kingdom); Flint, David J. [Strathclyde Institute of Pharmacy and Biomedical Sciences, University of Strathclyde, 161 Cathedral Street, Glasgow G4 0RE (United Kingdom); Martin, Patricia E.M., E-mail: Patricia.Martin@gcu.ac.uk [Department of Life Sciences, School of Health and Life Sciences, Glasgow Caledonian University, 70 Cowcaddens Road, Glasgow G4 0BA (United Kingdom)

    2013-02-15

    Reducing Cx43 expression stimulates skin wound healing. This is mimicked in models when Cx43 function is blocked by the connexin mimetic peptide Gap27. IGF-I also stimulates wound healing with IGFBP-5 attenuating its actions. Further, the IGF-I to IGFBP-5 ratio is altered in diabetic skin, where wound closure is impaired. We investigated whether Gap27 remains effective in augmenting scrape-wound closure in human skin wound models simulating diabetes-induced changes, using culture conditions with raised glucose, insulin and IGFBP-5. Gap27 increased scrape-wound closure in normal glucose and insulin (NGI) and to a lesser extent in high glucose and insulin (HGI). IGF-I enhanced scrape-wound closure in keratinocytes whereas IGFBP-5 inhibited this response. Gap27 overcame the inhibitory effects of IGFBP-5 on IGF-I activity. Connexin-mediated communication (CMC) was reduced in HGI, despite raised Cx43, and Gap27 significantly decreased CMC in NGI and HGI. IGF-I and IGFBP-5 did not affect CMC. IGF-I increased keratinocyte proliferation in NGI, and Gap27 increased proliferation in NGI to a greater extent than in HGI. We conclude that IGF-I and Gap27 stimulate scrape-wound closure by independent mechanisms with Gap27 inhibiting Cx43 function. Gap27 can enhance wound closure in diabetic conditions, irrespective of the IGF-I:IGFBP-5 balance. - Highlights: ? Human organotypic and keratinocyte ‘diabetic’ skin models were used to demonstrate the ability of Gap27 to improve scrape-wound closure. ? Gap27 enhanced scrape-wound closure by reducing Cx43-mediated communication, whereas IGFBP-5 retarded cell migration. ? IGF-I and IGFBP-5 did not affect connexin-mediated pathways. ? Gap27 can override altered glucose, insulin, IGF-I, and IGFBP-5 in ‘diabetic’ skin models and thus has therapeutic potential.

  17. Cell motility in models of wounded human skin is improved by Gap27 despite raised glucose, insulin and IGFBP-5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reducing Cx43 expression stimulates skin wound healing. This is mimicked in models when Cx43 function is blocked by the connexin mimetic peptide Gap27. IGF-I also stimulates wound healing with IGFBP-5 attenuating its actions. Further, the IGF-I to IGFBP-5 ratio is altered in diabetic skin, where wound closure is impaired. We investigated whether Gap27 remains effective in augmenting scrape-wound closure in human skin wound models simulating diabetes-induced changes, using culture conditions with raised glucose, insulin and IGFBP-5. Gap27 increased scrape-wound closure in normal glucose and insulin (NGI) and to a lesser extent in high glucose and insulin (HGI). IGF-I enhanced scrape-wound closure in keratinocytes whereas IGFBP-5 inhibited this response. Gap27 overcame the inhibitory effects of IGFBP-5 on IGF-I activity. Connexin-mediated communication (CMC) was reduced in HGI, despite raised Cx43, and Gap27 significantly decreased CMC in NGI and HGI. IGF-I and IGFBP-5 did not affect CMC. IGF-I increased keratinocyte proliferation in NGI, and Gap27 increased proliferation in NGI to a greater extent than in HGI. We conclude that IGF-I and Gap27 stimulate scrape-wound closure by independent mechanisms with Gap27 inhibiting Cx43 function. Gap27 can enhance wound closure in diabetic conditions, irrespective of the IGF-I:IGFBP-5 balance. - Highlights: ? Human organotypic and keratinocyte ‘diabetic’ skin models were used to demonstrate the ability of Gap27 to improve scrape-wound closure. ? Gap27 enhanced scrape-wound closure by reducing Cx43-mediated communication, whereas IGFBP-5 retarded cell migration. ? IGF-I and IGFBP-5 did not affect connexin-mediated pathways. ? Gap27 can override altered glucose, insulin, IGF-I, and IGFBP-5 in ‘diabetic’ skin models and thus has therapeutic potential

  18. A conceptual lignocellulosic 'feed+fuel' biorefinery and its application to the linked biofuel and cattle raising industries in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It has been argued by some that the substitution of biofuels for gasoline could increase greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, rather than reduce them. The increase is attributed to the indirect land use change effects of planting new grain and corn crops around the world to replace those progressively being devoted to ethanol production. In this paper, indirect effects are minimised by allowing land to be used for both food and fuel, rather than for one or the other. We present a sugarcane 'feed+fuel' biorefinery, which produces bioethanol and yeast biomass, a source of single-cell protein (SCP), that can be used as a high-protein animal feed supplement. The yeast SCP can partially substitute for grass in the feed of cattle grazing on pasture and thereby potentially release land for increased sugarcane production, with minimal land use change effects. Applying the concept conservatively to the Brazilian ethanol and livestock industry our model demonstrates that it would be technically feasible to raise ethanol production threefold from the current level of 27 GL to over 92 GL. The extra ethanol would meet biofuel market mandates in the US without bringing any extra land into agricultural or pastoral use. The analysis demonstrates a viable way to increase biofuel and food production by linking two value chains as called for by industrial ecology studies. - Highlights: ? A proposed sugarcane 'feed+fuel' biorefinery producing bioethanol and yeast. ? Yeast used as a high-protein animal feed supplement. ? In cattle grazing, yeast substitutes for grass to release land for biomass production. ? In Brazil our model demonstrates ethanol production raised threefold.

  19. Raising the Bar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epstein, Nadine

    1997-01-01

    Describes professional training programs available to electric co-op employees through the National Rural Electric Cooperative, including key account executive certification, loss control internship program, certified rural electric communicator, rural electric apprenticeship program, certified purchasing manager, and professional in human…

  20. Raising the energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alternative energy sources are discussed and the contribution they could make to world needs is estimated. It is concluded that future demand in the UK could be met by a combination of renewable energy sources plus coal, as an alternative to nuclear power. (U.K.)

  1. Raising "lab rats"

    OpenAIRE

    Guillén, Pablo; Veszteg, Róbert F.

    2010-01-01

    Experimental subjects usually self-select to the laboratory and this may introduce a bias to the derived conclusions. We analyze data stored by a subject-pool management software at an experimental laboratory and speculate about the e ect of individual decisions on returning. In particular, we test whether experience and earnings in previous sessions together with demographic variables explain the decision to return to the laboratory. We nd that males and (in monetary terms) well-performing s...

  2. Fund Raising for Haiti

    CERN Multimedia

    Association du personnel

    2010-01-01

    Dear Colleagues, Following the devastating earthquake that hit Haiti on 12 January 2010, the CERN Management and the Staff Association are organizing a collection to help the victims. The money collected will be transferred to associations or bodies guaranteeing proper use of the funds, such as the Association Haïti Ecoles based in Cessy, which our Long Term Collections supported for several years. From today you can pay your donations into a special UBS account, indicating “Séisme Haïti” as the reason for payment . SWIFT : UBSWCHZH12B IBAN : CH85 0027 9279 HU10 6832 1 Account Holder : Association du personnel du CERN We are counting on the generosity of the CERN community to support the Haitian people at this very difficult time. Thank you on their behalf. Rolf Heuer Director-General Gianni Deroma President of the Staff Association

  3. Raising a Creative Kid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besemer, Sue; Besemer, Jenny

    1986-01-01

    A mother and her 15-year-old daughter respond to observations of Donald W. Mackinnon regarding creative families ("In Search of Human Effectiveness: Identifying and Developing Creativity," 1978). Aspects addressed include parent expectations, psychological distance between parent and child, and parent' avoidance of pressuring the child to perform.…

  4. Raising a Fit Preschooler

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... programs through games like "Duck, Duck, Goose" and "London Bridge." Consider enrolling your child in a preschool ... ball, doing a somersault, and maybe riding a bicycle or tricycle. To teach preschoolers to play baseball, ...

  5. Raising Confident Kids

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... as kids steadily gain confidence and independence, their relationship with you can be even richer. You can be bonded, not just by dependence, but by love and shared pride in all they've achieved. ...

  6. Identical Twins Raised Apart

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farnsworth, David L.

    2015-01-01

    This article describes a bivariate data set that is interesting to students. Indeed, this particular data set, which involves twins and IQ, has sparked more student interest than any other set that I have presented. Specific uses of the data set are presented.

  7. A comparison of woody browse selection by hand-raised, boma-adapted and wild black rhinoceros, Diceros bicornis, L. in Matusadona National Park, Zimbabwe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Matipano

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Differences in woody browse selection between hand-raised (and subsequently released, boma-adapted and wild black rhinoceros, Diceros bicornis, L. were studied in Matusadona National Park between December 1999 and July 2000. Boma-adapted rhinoceros were animals that were subjected to hand-raising and were kept in bomas (enclosures over night. The feeding behaviour was different between the three rhinoceros groups. All rhinoceros groups utilised and selected for a few browse species in common, at different preference levels in the same habitat types according to season. Wild rhinoceroses browsed most in Colophospermum-Terminalia-Combretum woodland in the wet season and in thicket in the dry season. Hand-raised rhinoceroses browsed most in Colophospermum-Terminalia-Combretum woodland and boma-adated rhinos in thickets in both the wet and the early dry seasons. Hand-raised and bomaadapted rhinos changed their habitats less for browse selection than wild rhinos. This can be ascribed to a relative restriction of home range in the hand-raised group and a herding effect for the boma-adapted animals. These situations might have accounted for differences in seasonal browse selection by the rhinoceros groups.

  8. Formal, Model-oriented Software Development Methods - From VDM to ProCoS & from RAISE to LaCoS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    BjØrner, Dines; Haxthausen, Anne Elisabeth

    1991-01-01

    The first author has been invited to reminisce over almost 20 years of his research into and application of formal methods in software development. The paper deals with model-oriented methods. The title of this paper mentions two methods: VDM (Vienna Development Method) and RAISE (Rigorous Approach to Industrial Software Engineering), the latter derived from the former, and two projects: ProCoS (Provably Correct Systems) and LaCoS (Large-scale Correct Systems). LaCoS is a follow-up on RAISE. ProCoS adheres to the same principles as VDM as VDM and RAISE, but with a twist! The paper will outline the technical/scientific essence of the VDM and RAISE methods, and explain the ProCos and LaCoS project structures. The paper will first outline five central roles of software developers: problem domain specialists, programmers, software engineers, resident computation scientists and managers. We will briefly illustrate examples of specifications in VDM and RAISE. The aim of the paper is to record that formal methods insoftware development are now well-developed and broadly accepted in Europe.

  9. Influenza viruses in adult dogs raised in rural and urban areas in the state of São Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dalva Assunção Portari Mancini

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In 1970, searching for the interspecies transmission of influenza viruses led to the first study on influenza viruses in domestic animals. Birds and mammals, including human beings, are their natural hosts; however, other animals may also play a role in the virus epidemiology. The objective was to investigate the incidence of influenza viruses in adult dogs raised in rural (9, 19.56% and urban (37, 80.43% areas in the state of São Paulo, Brazil. Dog serum samples were examined for antibodies to influenza viruses by the hemagglutination inhibition (HI test using the corresponding antigens from the circulating viruses in Brazil. Dogs from rural areas presented antibodies to influenza A H3N2, and influenza A H7N7 and H3N8. In rural areas, dog sera displayed mean titers as 94.37, 227.88, 168.14, 189.62 HIU/25 µL for subtypes H1N1, H3N2, H7N7, H3N8, respectively. About 84% and 92% of dogs from urban areas exhibited antibodies to human influenza A H1N1 and H3N2, respectively, with statistical difference at p 0.05. In conclusion, these dogs were positive for both human and equine influenza viruses. The present study suggests the first evidence that influenza viruses circulate among dogs in Brazil.

  10. Health implications of radionuclide levels in cattle raised near U mining and milling facilities in Ambrosia Lake, New Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study was conducted to determine radionuclide tissue levels in cattle raised near U mining and milling facilities. Ambrosia Lake, New Mexico, has been the site of extensive U mining for 30 y and contains several underground U mines, a processing mill, and two large U tailings piles. Ten cows were purchased from two grazing areas in Ambrosia Lake and ten control animals were purchased from Crownpoint, New Mexico. Muscle, liver, kidney, and bone tissue taken from these animals, and environmental samples, including water, grasses and soil collected from the animals' grazing areas, were analyzed for 238U, 234U, 230Th, 226Ra, 210Pb, and 210Po. Mean radionuclide levels in cattle tissue and environmental samples from Ambrosia Lake were higher in almost every comparison than those found in respective controls. Liver and kidney tissues were particularly elevated in 226Ra and 210Po. Radiation dose commitments from eating cattle tissue with these radionuclide concentrations were calculated. We concluded that the health risk to the public from eating exposed cattle is minimal, unless large amounts of this tissue, especially liver and kidney, are ingested

  11. Thermal and stability considerations for a supercritical water-cooled fast reactor during power-raising phase of plant startup

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes thermal analyses and linear stability analyses of the Supercritical Water-cooled Fast Reactor with 'two-path' flow scheme during the power-raising phase of plant startup. For thermal consideration, the same criterion of the maximum cladding surface temperature (MCST) as applied to the normal operating condition is used. For thermal-hydraulic stability consideration, the decay ratio of 0.5 is applied, which is taken from BWRs. Firstly, we calculated the flow rate distribution among the parallel flow paths from the reactor vessel inlet nozzles to the mixing plenum below the core using a system analysis code. The parallel flow paths consist of the seed fuel assemblies cooled by downward flow, the blanket fuel assemblies cooled by downward flow and the downcomer. Then, the MCSTs are estimated for various reactor powers and feedwater flow rates with system analyses. The decay ratios are estimated with linear stability analyses. The available range of the reactor power and feedwater flow rate to satisfy the thermal and stability criteria is obtained. (author)

  12. Investigating the Effect of Consciousness-raising Techniques on Learning the English Tense System by EFL Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir H. Abdalla

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This study explores the effect Consciousness-raising techniques (henceforth, C-R techniques can have on the learning of the English tense system. The sample of the study (n=100 was randomly drawn from beginning EFL students at Taif University, KSA. The experimental design was used to carry out the study. The sample was divided into an experimental group (n=50 and a control group (n=50. Data for the study was collected via a test the researcher designed and administered to the two groups of the study. In addition to that, a special treatment of learning tasks   and activities was given to the study's experimental group only. The data collection instrument (i.e. the test comprised six questions relating to the form and uses of the present and past simple tenses. Data was then analysed by SPSS. The results of the study were statistically significant in favour of the experimental group (t-test value 1.072, the two-tailed level of significance .006 and p < 05.

  13. The Release of a Captive-Raised Female African Elephant (Loxodonta africana in the Okavango Delta, Botswana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Harris

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Wild female elephants live in close-knit matrilineal groups and housing captive elephants in artificial social groupings can cause significant welfare issues for individuals not accepted by other group members. We document the release of a captive-raised female elephant used in the safari industry because of welfare and management problems. She was fitted with a satellite collar, and spatial and behavioural data were collected over a 17-month period to quantify her interactions with the wild population. She was then monitored infrequently for a further five-and-a-half years. We observed few signs of aggression towards her from the wild elephants with which she socialized. She used an area of comparable size to wild female elephants, and this continued to increase as she explored new areas. Although she did not fully integrate into a wild herd, she had three calves of her own, and formed a social unit with another female and her calf that were later released from the same captive herd. We recommend that release to the wild be considered as a management option for other captive female elephants.

  14. The Release of a Captive-Raised Female African Elephant (Loxodonta africana) in the Okavango Delta, Botswana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Kate; Moore, Randall J; Harris, Stephen

    2013-01-01

    Wild female elephants live in close-knit matrilineal groups and housing captive elephants in artificial social groupings can cause significant welfare issues for individuals not accepted by other group members. We document the release of a captive-raised female elephant used in the safari industry because of welfare and management problems. She was fitted with a satellite collar, and spatial and behavioural data were collected over a 17-month period to quantify her interactions with the wild population. She was then monitored infrequently for a further five-and-a-half years. We observed few signs of aggression towards her from the wild elephants with which she socialized. She used an area of comparable size to wild female elephants, and this continued to increase as she explored new areas. Although she did not fully integrate into a wild herd, she had three calves of her own, and formed a social unit with another female and her calf that were later released from the same captive herd. We recommend that release to the wild be considered as a management option for other captive female elephants. PMID:26487408

  15. Ozone Bioindicator Gardens: an Educational Tool to Raise Awareness about Environmental Pollution and its Effects on Living Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapina, K.; Lombardozzi, D.

    2014-12-01

    High concentrations of ground-level ozone cause health problems in humans and a number of negative effects on plants, from reduced yield for major agricultural crops to reduced amounts of carbon stored in trees. The Denver Metro/Colorado Front Range is exceeding the National Ambient Air Quality Standard for ozone on a regular basis in summer and the efforts to reduce the ozone levels are hampered by the presence of diverse pollution sources and complex meteorology in the region. To raise public awareness of air quality in the Colorado Front Range and to educate all age groups about ground-level ozone, two ozone bioindicator gardens were planted in Boulder in Spring 2014. The gardens contain ozone-sensitive plants that develop a characteristic ozone injury when exposed to high levels of ozone. The ozone gardens are providing the general public with a real-life demonstration of the negative effects of ozone pollution through observable plant damage. Additionally, the gardens are useful in teaching students how to collect and analyze real-world scientific data.

  16. Issues of Meaning and Interpretation Raised by Diagetic versus Non-diagetic Use of Music in Television and Film

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grund, Cynthia M.

    2008-01-01

    Issues of Meaning and Interpretation Rasied by Diagetic versus Non-diagetic Use of Music in Television and Film. When music occurs in the soundtrack of a film or television show, it can either be attributed to a source within the narrative, so that the characters can hear it, or it can be "background" music, available to the viewer, but not to the characters. In this presentation, we will explore the complex of issues related to meaning and interpretaiton raised by diagetic v non-diagetic use of music in television and film. Matters to be addressed include: How is it of significance to the interpretation of a scene whether or not music is used diagetically or non-diagetically? How important is the role of the presence or absence of a musical soundtrack to a correct understanding of a scene? Is it of consequence whether or not the music is written specifically for a scene or is antecedently available to the public as recorded music? Will the increasing fragmentation - bordering on balkanization - of shared public musical experience now on the rise due to increasingly differentiated listening venues and internet sites result in a growing impoverishment of audience ability to appreciate - and even to understand! - cinema and television narratives within an adequate intermedial context? Finally, to what extent do we structure the narrative of our own lived experience by means of a "soundtrack" wherein elements of diagetic and nondiagetic use of music are present?

  17. Live weight and some morphological characteristics of Turkish Tazi (Sighthound raised in Province of Konya in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Yilmaz

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to determine the distributions of body coat colour and the body measurements of the Turkish Tazi (Sighthound raised in province of Konya by comparing with some other Sighthound breeds from different regions of Turkey and UK. To this end, a total of 41 (18 male and 23 female Tazi dogs was analyzed with the Minitab 16 statistical software program using ANOVA and Student’s t-Test. Descriptive statistics for live weight 18.4±0.31, withers height 62.0±0.44, height at rump 62.1±0.50, body length 60.7±0.55, heart girth circumference 63.9±0.64, chest depth 23.1±0.21, abdomen depth 13.9±0.21, chest width 17.4±0.25, haunch width 16.4±0.18, thigh width22.3±0.26, tail length 45.7±0.37, limb length 38.9±0.31, cannon circumference10.2±0.11, head length 24.0±0.36 and ear length 12.8±0.19 cm respectively. In this study the distributions of body coat colour of the sampled Tazi, as percentages, for black was 48.8%, dun 17.1%, brown 19.5%, white 7.3% and piebald 7.3% respectively.

  18. Does population screening for Chlamydia trachomatis raise anxiety among those tested? Findings from a population based chlamydia screening study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Low Nicola

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The advent of urine testing for Chlamydia trachomatis has raised the possibility of large-scale screening for this sexually transmitted infection, which is now the most common in the United Kingdom. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of an invitation to be screened for chlamydia and of receiving a negative result on levels of anxiety, depression and self-esteem. Methods 19,773 men and women aged 16 to 39 years, selected at random from 27 general practices in two large city areas (Bristol and Birmingham were invited by post to send home-collected urine samples or vulvo-vaginal swabs for chlamydia testing. Questionnaires enquiring about anxiety, depression and self-esteem were sent to random samples of those offered screening: one month before the dispatch of invitations; when participants returned samples; and after receiving a negative result. Results Home screening was associated with an overall reduction in anxiety scores. An invitation to participate did not increase anxiety levels. Anxiety scores in men were lower after receiving the invitation than at baseline. Amongst women anxiety was reduced after receipt of negative test results. Neither depression nor self-esteem scores were affected by screening. Conclusion Postal screening for chlamydia does not appear to have a negative impact on overall psychological well-being and can lead to a decrease in anxiety levels among respondents. There is, however, a clear difference between men and women in when this reduction occurs.

  19. Urea-molasses multi-nutrient block (UMMB) supplementation of dairy cows raised by smallholder farmers in Sariaya, Quezon, Philippines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An 'on-farm' study was conducted to determine the effects of urea-molasses-multi-nutrient block (UMMB) supplementation in Holstein-Friesian-Sahiwal dairy cows raised by smallholder farmers in the southern part of Luzon, Philippines. There were a total of 105 cows in the project. The basal diet of these animals was cut-and-carry forages (20-30 kg/head/d), obtained from cultivated and natural grasses, given with mixtures of trees and shrub leaves (1-2 kg/head/d). During the day, the cows were allowed to graze. In the summer months (March-April), rice straw and other agricultural by-products, e.g. corn stover, were provided. To assist with long-term sustainability of the project, a UMMB Production Centre was established through a micro-financing scheme. The calving interval of the UMMB supplemented cow group was 418 days, while that of the unsupplemented group was 504 days (P <0.05). The monthly milk yield of 343 kg of the treated animals was higher (P <0.05) than that of the untreated group (273 kg). The body weight of the supplemented group was 430 kg, and of the unsupplemented group was 400 kg. The supplemented cows had a better body condition score of 3.2, compared to 2.8 on a scale of 1 (very thin) to 5 (overfat), for the unsupplemented cows. (author)

  20. Effect of Moxidectin Treatment at Peripartum on Gastrointestinal Parasite Infections in Ewes Raised under Tropical Andes High Altitude Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas-Duarte, J. J.; Lozano-Márquez, H.; Grajales-Lombana, H. A.; Manrique-Perdomo, C.; Martínez-Bello, D. A.; Saegerman, C.; Raes, M.; Kirschvink, N.

    2015-01-01

    This study tested the impact of moxidectin at peripartum on nematode fecal egg count (FEC) and clinical parameters on ewes in the high altitude tropical Andes of Colombia. FEC and clinical evaluations were performed on 9 occasions in 43 naturally infected ewes before and during gestation and after lambing. Moxidectin (Mox, 200?µg?kg?1) was applied at late pregnancy (T1, n = 15) or 48 hours after parturition (T2, n = 14). 14 untreated ewes served as controls (C). Suckling lambs (n = 58) remained untreated and underwent four clinical and parasitological evaluations until 8 weeks after birth. Mox efficacy equaled 99.3% (T1) and 96.9% (T2). Highest mean FEC value reflecting periparturient nematode egg rise (PPER) was recorded in C ewes at 4–6 weeks after lambing. Significant FEC reductions were found in T1 (94.8%) and T2 (96.7%) ewes (p < 0.05). All lambs showed a significant and ewes-group independent increase in FEC before weaning (p < 0.05). Clinical parameters (anemia and diarrhea) showed time- and treatment-related differences (p < 0.05). Monitoring of FEC and clinical parameters linked to gastrointestinal parasite infections allowed demonstrating that postpartum or preweaning are two critical periods to nematode infection for sheep raised under tropical Andes high altitude conditions. Use of Mox as anthelmintic treatment prevented PPER. PMID:26078913

  1. A COMPARISON BETWEEN MULLIGAN TRACTION STRAIGHT LEG RAISE TECHNIQUE VS MUSCLE ENERGY TECHNIQUE ON HAMSTRING TIGHTNESS IN ASYMPTOMATIC MALE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesudas Mazumdar

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Background and Purpose: The Hamstring muscles of the back thigh are found to be the most prevalent for the tightness in the body. The purpose of this study is to compare effectiveness of Mulligan Traction Straight Leg Raise and Muscle Energy Technique methods in increasing range of motion and flexibility of knee joint. Methods: The 60 subjects (n = 60 with hamstring tightness randomly divided into two groups. Each group consist of 30 male subjects. However group A had 28 as two dropout and group B had 26 as four dropout . Group A was treated with Mulligan TSLR and Group B had MET. The total treatment session was 3 times a week on alternate days for three consecutive weeks. The outcome measures were measured by active knee extension ROM by universal Goniometer. Results: Independent t-test and paired t- test were used to analyse the data. The inter group comparison ROM score showed high significant difference after 3 weeks between the groups. The results of the study showed that MET may increase Knee ROM significantly more then Mulligan TSLR when applied for 3 weeks. Conclusion: This study led to interference that Mulligan TSLR and MET are effective in reducing the hamstring tightness. When both groups are compared MET was found to be more effective than TSLR .

  2. Raise Boring of the ventilation shaft in Olkiluoto, 17. - 23.5.2006. Preliminary analysis of seismic signal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In Olkiluoto, Posiva Oy has operated a local seismic network since February 2002. The purpose of the microearthquake measurements at Olkiluoto is to improve understanding of the structure, behaviour and long term stability of the bedrock. The studies include both tectonic and excavation-induced microearthquakes. An additional task of monitoring is related to safeguarding of the ONKALO. The possibility to excavate an illegal access to the ONKALO, have been concerned when the safeguards are discussed. Therefore all recorded explosions in the Olkiluoto area and in the ONKALO are located. If a concentration of explosions is observed, the origin of that is found out. Also a concept of hidden illegal explosions, detonated at the same time as the real excavation blasts, has been examined. According to the experience gained in Olkiluoto, it can be concluded that, as long the seismic network is in operation and the results are analysed by a skilled person, it is practically impossible to do illegal excavation by blasts. In this report a possibility of seismic monitoring of illegal excavation done by tunnel boring machine has been investigated. Characteristics of the seismic signal generated by the raise boring machine are analysed. According to this study, it can be concluded that the generated seismic signal can be detected and the source of the signal can be located. However, this task calls for different kind of monitoring system than that, which is currently used for monitoring microearthquakes and explosions. (orig.)

  3. Non-Pollen Palynomorphs from Mid-Holocene Peat of the Raised Bog Borsteler Moor (Lower Saxony, Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shumilovskikh Lyudmila S.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In order to reconstruct regional vegetation changes and local conditions during the fen-bog transition in the Borsteler Moor (northwestern Germany, a sediment core covering the period be tween 7.1 and 4.5 cal kyrs BP was palynologically investigated. The pollen diagram demonstrates the dominance of oak forests and a gradual replacement of trees by raised bog vegetation with the wetter conditions in the Late Atlantic. At ~ 6 cal kyrs BP, the non-pollen palynomorphs (NPP demonstrate the succession from mesotrophic conditions, clearly indicated by a number of fun gal spore types, to oligotrophic conditions, indicated by Sphagnum spores, Bryophytomyces sphagni, and testate amoebae Amphitrema, Assulina and Arcella, etc. Four relatively dry phases during the transition from fen to bog are clearly indicated by the dominance of Calluna and associated fungi as well as by the in crease of microcharcoal. Several new NPP types are described and known NPP types are identified. All NPP are discussed in the context of their palaeoecological indicator values.

  4. Mesoscale Raised Rim Depressions (MRRDs) on Earth: A Review of the Characteristics, Processes, and Spatial Distributions of Analogs for Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burr, Devon M.; Bruno, Barbara C.; Lanagan, Peter D.; Glaze, Lori; Jaeger, Windy L.; Soare, Richard J.; Tseung, Jean-Michel Wan Bun; Skinner, James A. Jr.; Baloga, Stephen M.

    2008-01-01

    Fields of mesoscale raised rim depressions (MRRDs) of various origins are found on Earth and Mars. Examples include rootless cones, mud volcanoes, collapsed pingos, rimmed kettle holes, and basaltic ring structures. Correct identification of MRRDs on Mars is valuable because different MRRD types have different geologic and/or climatic implications and are often associated with volcanism and/or water, which may provide locales for biotic or prebiotic activity. In order to facilitate correct identification of fields of MRRDs on Mars and their implications, this work provides a review of common terrestrial MRRD types that occur in fields. In this review, MRRDs by formation mechanism, including hydrovolcanic (phreatomagmatic cones, basaltic ring structures), sedimentological (mud volcanoes), and ice-related (pingos, volatile ice-block forms) mechanisms. For each broad mechanism, we present a comparative synopsis of (i) morphology and observations, (ii) physical formation processes, and (iii) published hypothesized locations on Mars. Because the morphology for MRRDs may be ambiguous, an additional tool is provided for distinguishing fields of MRRDs by origin on Mars, namely, spatial distribution analyses for MRRDs within fields on Earth. We find that MRRDs have both distinguishing and similar characteristics, and observation that applies both to their mesoscale morphology and to their spatial distribution statistics. Thus, this review provides tools for distinguishing between various MRRDs, while highlighting the utility of the multiple working hypotheses approach.

  5. HAZAGORA: will you survive the next disaster? - a serious game to raise awareness about geohazards and disaster risk reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mossoux, S.; Delcamp, A.; Poppe, S.; Michellier, C.; Canters, F.; Kervyn, M.

    2015-09-01

    Natural disasters are too often presented as resulting from extreme natural phenomena affecting helpless populations, with people being insufficiently aware of the factors leading to disasters and of the existing strategies to mitigate their impacts. We developed a board game aimed at raising awareness about geohazards and disaster risk reduction strategies. The target groups are (1) secondary school students and citizens, and (2) scientists and stakeholders involved in risk management activities. For the first group, the aim is to induce a better understanding of geohazards and disasters they are confronted with in the media or in their daily life; for the second, the objective is to generate discussion about risk management strategies. The game was tested with students in Belgium and with citizens, earth scientists and risk managers in several African countries. Based on the game strategies analysis, the players' reactions during the game and their answers to a short questionnaire, we analyzed the main learning outcomes conveyed by this game. The Hazagora game appears to positively enhance the players' insight in processes involved in disasters. As such, the game is an effective playful learning tool to introduce participants to the concept of geohazard and disaster and to generate discussion.

  6. The Concept of “Sala de Fabrica”: On-Site Museums to Raise Awareness of Cultural Heritage After a Restoration Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Almagro Vidal

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available A conservation process usually generates new knowledge and an enormous amount of documentation during the inception and implementation of the project: the information collected from archives and other institutions; the information provided by the preliminary studies carried out prior to the intervention; the data provided in the field during the works and at the end of the process; and the final set of documentation delivered to the institution responsible for the maintenance and management of the monument. The challenge for conservation professionals and cultural heritage managers throughout this process once the works are over is to achieve and transmit this information to the public and specialists in order to raise awareness for better conservation of our built heritage. During the last few years, one of the actions that the Caja Madrid Foundation has activated with its restoration projects has been the opening of permanent on site museums or “Salas de Fábrica”, a place on site to understand the restoration works, to exhibit the remains that have being retrieved during the project and to permit the public to better understand the historical and artistic values of architectural and archaeological heritage as well as the importance of preserving our cultural legacy for the future.

  7. Raising livestock in resource-poor communities of the North West Province of South Africa - a participatory rural appraisal study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.K. Getchell

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available A participatory research model was used in six village communities in the Central Region of the North West Province of South Africa in order to achieve the following broad objectives : to obtain information on the challenges owners face in raising livestock in these areas and to evaluate the livestock owners' level of knowledge of internal parasites in their animals. Information obtained at participatory workshops clearly indicated a need for improvements in water supply, schools, job creation, and health services. Lack of pasture for grazing livestock was also cited as being important. Other most frequently mentioned livestock problems included 'gall sickness' (a vaguely defined condition not necessarily referring to anaplasmosis, parasites (both external and internal, chicken diseases and ingestion of plastic bags discarded in the environment. When livestock owners were questioned during individual interviews, most were able to identify the presence of parasites in either the live or dead animal. However, it seems likely that this is limited to the identification of tapeworms. It was found that most livestock owners use a combination of treatments, ranging from traditional to folklore to commercial. There were some difficulties in using the participatory methods since it was the first time that the facilitators and the communities had been exposed to them. Many communities had difficulty in dealing with the concept of finding solutions within the community, which is such an integral part of participatory methods.

  8. Raising consciousness regarding the dignity and vocation of women in the Catholic Church in Zimbabwe: A historical developmental process

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Francisca, Chimhanda.

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Shona culture, Church tradition, and the Roman Catholic Church in particular, are very patriarchal. Thus culture and Church have the capacity at once to include and exclude, liberate and oppress, empower and disengage. The corollary is that just as these structures demonstrate a history of patriarch [...] y, so, in an agenda for an inclusive paradigm, they can be transformed. Since men in the Roman Catholic Church enjoy a monopoly on power, they are generally reluctant to liberate women from patriarchal marginalisation. In this article, the raising of consciousness regarding the dignity and vocation of women in the Roman Catholic Church in Zimbabwe is explored. The discussion is based on an important tenet of liberation theology that states that women themselves, as proactive agents of their own history, have the capacity for intentional or conscious becoming. Thus, women, in their historical situatedness, must respond to the imperative of their creation and baptismal status of imago Dei/Chrristi and the baptismal vocation to participate in all areas of church life.

  9. Attitudes and perceptions of three groups of family farmers in Brazil on problems they perceive in raising broilers and alternative feeding strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Almeida, Gustavo Fonseca; Horsted, Klaus; Figueiredo, E. A.; Thamsborg, Stig Milan; Molento, M. B.; Filho, L. C. Demattê; Hermansen, J. E.

    2015-01-01

    With the purpose to identify alternatives to the use of oil seed crops and cereals in broiler feeding, we interviewed 21 family farmers raising broilers in alternative systems located in three relevant sites for the poultry industry in Brazil. Two groups in the south (Parana and Rio Grande do Sul) were organized in cooperatives raising slow-growing broilers in free-range systems. The third group was linked to a broiler company in the state of Sao Paulo producing antibiotic-free (AF) broilers in ...

  10. Design and evaluation of modified screen net house for off-season vegetable raising in composite climate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Currently the use of conventional screen net houses for off-season vegetable raising in north India composite climate is not so effective and has many constructional and operational limitations like poor structural design, higher constructional cost, no greenhouse effect in winter and higher plant temperatures in summer. Similarly, the use of polyethylene sheet covered greenhouses also has problems like much higher constructional and operational costs and higher inside air temperatures in summers. In this study, modified designs of 500 m2 (one kanal) and 250 m2 (half kanal) screen net house have been presented particularly suitable for composite climate (where both winters as well as summers are harsh) as a replacement for conventional net house and polyethylene sheet covered greenhouse design. To make these designs low cost and more effective, low tunnels (covered with low density polyethylene sheet) have been designed and used in winter over the plant rows to generate localized greenhouse effect for faster plant growth. By doing so, average daily air temperature under the tunnels was raised about 9-10 deg. C above the open field air temperature. In this way, huge cost of covering the net house or greenhouse during winter with costly polyethylene sheet could be saved. Similarly, in extreme summer when the ambient air temperature exceeded 40 deg. C (during the fruiting stage of the crop) a 50% shade net was used inside the modified net house at 2.5 m height (instead of using active cooling system) resulting in 4-6 deg. C drop in the plant temperature. Experimental evaluation of the modified net house was conducted during winter and summer months of year 2007-08 (December to June) by growing brinjal crop and compared with conventional net house, polyethylene sheet greenhouse and in open field condition. It was observed that due to the combined effect of low tunnels (in winter) and shade net (in summer), the micro-climatic parameters like air temperature, plant temperature, solar radiation and light intensity remained within desirable range during different stages of crop growth resulting in 37.6% and 11.5% increase in the yield of brinjal crop as compared to conventional net house and PE covered greenhouse yield, respectively, at 31 deg. N latitude. Economic analysis of the modified net house was also conducted and compared with the conventional net house and PE covered greenhouse of the same area. It was observed that 500 m2 area modified net house (coupled with low tunnels and shade net) produces highest yield and has the highest net present worth (Rs 3,35,324) and the lowest payback period (5.2 years) as compared to the conventional net house (Rs 2,04,712 and 6.5 years) and PE covered greenhouse (Rs 1,52,614 and 10.5 years). On the other hand for 250 m2 modified net house, the net present worth and payback period was Rs 1,20,417 and 9.7 years as compared to Rs 65,497 and 11.5 years and Rs 10,616 and 17 years for conventional net house and PE covered greenhouse.

  11. Effect of production phase on growth, enzyme activities and feed selection of broilers raised on vegetable protein diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossain, M A; Islam, A F; Iji, P A

    2014-11-01

    This study consisted of two experiments, conducted to assess the impact of phase at which vegetable protein (VP) diets are introduced to broiler chicks, and preference of birds for diets based on soybean or canola meal (CM). Two hundred and ten day-old Cobb 500 chicks were randomly distributed into five dietary groups in the main experiment. One group was fed on animal protein (AP) diet all through to 21 days of age; two other groups were started on AP diet for 7 days and then switched to diets containing soybean meal (AP-SBM) or AP-CM, while two other diets (SBM-AP and CM-AP) were started on one of the VP diets for 7 days and then switched to AP diet. A sub-experiment on thirty birds raised on a commercial diet to 7 days was used in a feed selection test to quantify the preference of birds for the diets containing mainly CM or SBM. Chicks were reared under similar care and management conditions and the diets were iso-caloric and iso-nitrogenous. Results of the main experiment showed that chicks on CM-AP diet ate more (pbone growth, visceral organ development, and activities of digestive enzymes were similar between the groups from hatch to 21 days of age. Results of the second sub-experiment showed that chicks preferred the CM-based diets to the SBM-based diets at 8 to 14 d (p<0.001) and 15 to 21 d (p<0.01) when given a choice. Overall, the birds were not affected by the nature of the starter diet although they tended to prefer the canola to soybean diets. PMID:25358319

  12. Farm size, seining practices, and salt use: risk factors for Aeromonas hydrophila outbreaks in farm-raised catfish, Alabama, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bebak, Julie; Wagner, Bruce; Burnes, Brian; Hanson, Terry

    2015-01-01

    In freshwater aquaculture systems, Aeromonas hydrophila is usually considered to be an opportunistic pathogen most often associated with secondary bacterial infections. Since 2009, the U.S. catfish industry, especially in West Alabama, has been affected by mortality from a strain of A. hydrophila that has been acting as a primary pathogen. Tens of millions of pounds of catfish production have been lost as a consequence of this disease. This study used data from two whole-population farmer surveys to examine farm-level risk factors for two A. hydrophila outbreaks in foodsize Alabama catfish, one in 2009 (surveyed in 2010), and one in 2011 (surveyed in 2012). The response to the 2010 survey was 85% and the response to the 2012 survey was 82%. Univariate analyses were used to examine biologically plausible variables (farm size, pond stocking density, seine exposure, use of salt (NaCl) in ponds), and used categorical disease outcome and dependent variables. Farm size was included in bivariate analyses with the other variables, because it was a potential confounding variable. For both study years, the odds of an A. hydrophila outbreak were significantly greater for farms larger than the mean size (2009: mean=132 acres (53.4 hectares), odds ratio (OR)=8.2; 95% confidence interval (CI)=3.3-20.6, p135 ppm had a significantly lower odds of experiencing A. hydrophila outbreaks (OR=0.2, CI=0.05-0.6, p-value=0.004). To achieve economies of scale, catfish farmers raise fish on large farms at higher stocking densities, but this practice may result in increased susceptibility to disease outbreaks. Producers should prioritize implementing biosecurity measures such as improved seining practices and other management practices to protect fish grown at high population densities. Further work will determine what the detailed seining protocols should include, and whether the use of salt, and at what concentrations, reduces the risk of A. hydrophila outbreaks. PMID:25466218

  13. Characterization of fungi from ruminal fluid of beef cattle with different ages and raised in tropical lignified pastures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrão, Flávia Oliveira; Duarte, Eduardo Robson; Freitas, Cláudio Eduardo Silva; Vieira, Edvaldo Alves; Geraseev, Luciana Castro; da Silva-Hughes, Alice Ferreira; Rosa, Carlos Augusto; Rodrigues, Norberto Mario

    2014-11-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the aerobic rumen mycobiota from three age groups of Nelore beef cattle reared extensively on lignified pasture. The experiment was randomized and sampled 50 steers, 50 cows, and 50 calves grazed on Brachiaria spp. pasture during the dry season. Rumen fluid in all animals was aromatic, slightly viscous, and greenish-brown in color. Microscopic examination revealed monocentric and polycentric anaerobic fungi in similar proportions (P > 0.05) in the rumen fluid of cows and steers. However, these microorganisms were not identified in any of the samples from calves. In culture exams, aerobic filamentous population was significantly higher for rumen fluid of cows compared to the other two groups. Microculture and rDNA sequence analyses showed Aspergillus spp. as the most frequent aerobic fungus among the isolates from the three bovine groups evaluated. Biochemical profiles were determined by the growth level of yeast isolates with 44 nutrient sources. Ten different yeast profiles were obtained, and yeast isolates from cow ruminal fluid showed ability to catabolize greater diversity of carbon and nitrogen sources. The differences in the fungal populations observed in this study could be explained by microbial and physiological interactions existing in the ruminal ecosystem of each age bovine group. The present study showed the fungal population of the rumen related with differences among age of cattle raised in lignified pastures. Metabolic capabilities of mycelial fungi or yeast identified in this study may be employed in new probiotics or microbial additives for different bovine categories. PMID:24962597

  14. A round table talk in Fukushima city about raising the child. Mothers having faced the radiation anxiety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The series is to report how general people, who are not at all radiological experts, have faced and understood the problems and tasks of radiation given by the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant Accident (Mar. 11, 2011). The section 3 is reported by a health nurse of Fukushima City, who joined the table talk in the title for discussing radiological problems in order to reduce the anxiety of mothers as a city project of mental health for raising children with cooperation of the prefectural clinical psychologist association and UNICEF. The City was 60 km distant from the Plant and the ambient dose rate of a region was 24.24 mc-Sv on Mar. 15 (cf. 0.32, on Oct. 17, 2013). Although the city was not involved in an evacuation indicated area, mothers having infants were particularly anxious, angry, and sad because of their feeling of isolation, which was the motivation of organizing the table talk. The purpose of the talk was defined to give the site of recovering the mental ease by expressing the negative emotion, of solving the isolation by close connection in the group and of obtaining the children's ease through mother's ease. Clinical psychologist, nursery nurse, child welfare volunteer, district welfare officer and others joined the talk as stuff. The author in a region of the city had meetings of 7 talks and 2 health lectures with total 73 mothers during one year from 1 year after the quake disaster. The talk subjects were concerned with the external exposure at the early period and thereafter the internal one due to food: the interest moved to the knowledge of radiation, which was the extreme purpose of the project. Psychologists said they felt mothers' positivism at the end of the project. In 11 city regions, total 404 mothers joined in 49 talk meetings in total: 86 and 96% of them answered their ease by and meaningfulness of, respectively, joining the talk. (T.T.)

  15. Feasibility of repetitive lung function measurements by raised volume rapid thoracoabdominal compression during methacholine challenge in young infants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Loland, L.; Bisgaard, H.

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The aim of the study was to evaluate the feasibility of lung function measurements by the raised volume rapid thoracoabdominal compression (RVRTC) technique during bronchial methacholine challenge in young infants. METHOD: Four hundred two healthy infants were tested at 1 month of age with RVRTC during repeated methacholine challenges with quadrupling doses from 0.037 to 16.674 mumol. RESULTS: Measurement of baseline lung function was successful in 99% and the provocative dose (PD) was achieved in 79% of infants by forced expiratory volume in 0.5 s (FEV(0.5)). Additionally, the PD was successfully measured in 87% by transcutaneous oxygen pressure. No serious adverse events were observed during testing or after discharge from the clinic. The methacholine dose range was appropriate as PD could be determined in the majority of infants. FEV(0.5) values in 21% of infants dropped > 40% during the test. Short-lasting, self-limiting episodes of hypoxemia of < 80% occurred in 1% of infants and bradycardia < 90 beats/min in 19% of infants. The most common observations by parents were changes in the patterns of sleeping (95%), eating (57%), and behavior (58%) of the infant after hospital discharge. The mean acceptability rating among parents was 8 on a scale from 1 to 10, with 13% rating < or = 5. It took one operator 3 h to complete the test, with the actual lung function testing accounting for half the time. CONCLUSION: This very comprehensive experience with standardized measurements of lung function by RVRTC during methacholine challenge in young infants in a single center leads us to conclude that the test is feasible and safe to perform in asymptomatic young infants Udgivelsesdato: 2008/1

  16. Noradrenaline transporter blockers raise extracellular dopamine in medial prefrontal but not parietal and occipital cortex: differences with mianserin and clozapine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valentini, V; Frau, R; Di Chiara, G

    2004-02-01

    This study compared the interaction between noradrenaline (NA) and dopamine (DA) mechanisms in the prefrontal (PFCX) and in the parietal (ParCX) and occipital (OccCX) cortex. The effect of reboxetine and desipramine, two NA transporter blockers, of mianserin, an antagonist of alpha2 and 5-HT2 receptors, and of clozapine, an atypical antipsychotic, on dialysate DA in the medial PFCX, ParCX and OccCX was studied. We also assessed the influence of a prior 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) lesion of the dorsal noradrenergic bundle (DNAB) on the effect of reboxetine and clozapine on dialysate DA in the PFCX and ParCX. Systemic administration of reboxetine and desipramine dose-dependently increased dialysate DA in the PFCX but not in the ParCX and OccCX. In contrast, mianserin and clozapine raised dialysate DA in the ParCX and OccCX to an even larger extent than in the PFCX. 6-OHDA lesions of DNAB abolished the increase of dialysate DA elicited by reboxetine in the PFCX and by clozapine both in the PFCX and in the ParCX. It is concluded that, although PFCX and ParCX/OccCX share the presence of a strong control of DA transmission by NA through alpha2 receptors, they differ in the extent to which DA is cleared from the extracellular compartment by uptake through the NA transporter. This process, although extensive in the PFCX, appears insignificant in the ParCX and OccCX, probably as a result of the higher ratio of NA to DA resulting in exclusion of DA from NA transporter. PMID:14756813

  17. Raising mutants and transgenic Oryza sativa L. for salinity stress tolerance using gamma radiation and RNAi tools

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plant breeding efforts are being undertaken at warfoot at various National and International Laboratories to yield salinity tolerant genotypes. Random mutations, an approach that causes changes in nucleotide sequences, resulting in expression of genes conferring tolerance against stress has been utilized for generating gene pool for salinity tolerance. In our laboratory, mutations were induced in salt-sensitive rice variety - IR64 using mutagenic gamma radiations. Seeds for M3 populations were obtained and screened for salt stress sensitive/tolerant lines. Out of 1200 lines 23 putative salinity-tolerant have been identified and further multiplied in order to obtain M4 lines for screening at microplot levels. Details pertaining to these lines and their characterization will be presented. Employing contemporary tools of genetic engineering - development of novel stress- tolerant plants had so far been attempted by transfer of genes encoding protective protein or enzymes involved in stress responses and adaptation. Since the first step in the stress response is the perception of stress stimulus, we have aimed to clone and characterize an osmosensor or stress receptor gene from rice (Oryza sativa L cv IR64). This putative osmosensor (OsHkl) is actually a member of two component system inducible by various abiotic stresses like high and low temperature, salinity, drought as well as exogenous application of stress hormone ABA. We have raised transgenic indica rice plants which are altered in expression (either overexpression or underexpression) for this gene to understand the role of this putative osmosensor in salinity stress response. This understanding will be given another leap forward by the analysis of similar transgenic lines which have been created for the SOS2 gene - believed to play an important role as a component of the the initial signal transduction machinery of plants. The observations and detailed analysis pertaining to these mutants and transgenic plants will be presented. (author)

  18. The effects of moderately raised classroom temperatures and classroom ventilation rate on the performance of schoolwork by children (RP-1257)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wargocki, Pawel; Wyon, David Peter

    2007-01-01

    Two independent field intervention experiments were carried out in school classrooms in late summer (in 2004 and 2005). The air temperature was manipulated by either operating or idling split cooling units installed for the purpose. In one of these experiments, the outdoor air supply rate was also manipulated. The conditions were established for one week at a time in a blind crossover design with repeated measures on two classes of 10- to 12-year-old children. Six to eight exercises exemplifying different aspects of schoolwork (numerical and language-based) were performed as part of normal lessons. Pupils indicated their environmental perceptions and the intensity of any symptoms on visual analogue scales. Their thermal sensation changed from slightly too warm to neutral, and the performance of two numerical and two language-based tests was significantly improved when the temperature was reduced from 25 degrees C to 20 degrees C (77 degrees F to 68 degrees F). When the outdoor air supply rate was increased from 5.2 to 9.6 L/s (11.0 to 20.3 cfm) per person, their performance of four numerical exercises improved significantly, confirming the results of previously reported experiments in the same series. The above improvements were mainly in terms of the speed at which tasks were performed, with negligible effects on error rate. Most school classrooms worldwide experience raised air temperatures during increased thermal loads, e.g., in warm weather; these results show that providing some means of avoiding elevated temperatures would improve educational attainment.

  19. Selenium and iodine status of two camel breeds (Camelus dromedaries raise under semi intensive system in Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mutassim M. Abdelrahman

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Selenium (Se and iodine (I are very important trace mineral for animals and human health. Selenium is an essential constituent of the antioxidant enzyme GSH-Px, while I as a thyroid hormone play a crucial role in regulating body metabolism. The aim of this study was to provide preliminary data on the Se and I status of two camel breeds (Majaheem and Maghateer: Camelus dromedaries raised under the semi intensive system in Saudi Arabia (SA. Ten Majaheem male camels and ten maghateer, age 1.5±0.5 yrs old, were slaughtered and blood and tissues (Liver, kidney and meat were collected. Blood serum samples were analyzed for Se, thyroxine (T4, triiodothyronine (T3, glucose, cholesterol, true protein and albumin. Tissues samples were wet digested and analyzed for Se level using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer. Results showed a significant breed effect on serum and tissues Se with higher concentration of Majaheem compared with Maghateer breed. The same trend was found for glucose and total protein. Furthermore, serum Se was significantly correlated with liver Se (r2= 0.698; P<0.01, meat Se (r2= 0.453; P<0.05, T3 (r2= 0.527; P<0.05 and T4 (r2= 0.476; P<0.05. Thyroxine was significantly correlated to T3 (r2= 0.693; P<0.01. In conclusion, a highly significant breed effect was reported for Se metabolism. The highest Se concentration occurs in kidney followed by liver and meat.

  20. Evaluation of reproduction and raising offspring in a nursery-reared SPF baboon (Papio hamadryas anubis) colony.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budda, Madeline L; Ely, John J; Doan, Sandra; Chavez-Suarez, Maria; White, Gary L; Wolf, Roman F

    2013-08-01

    Baboons (Papio hamadryas anubis) of a conventional breeding colony were nursery-reared to create a specific pathogen-free (SPF) baboon-breeding program. Because the founding generations were nursery-reared until 2 years of age, it was suspected that the SPF baboons would exhibit increased reproductive challenges as adults. Mothering behavior was of interest, because SPF females were not exposed to parental role models during the nursery-rearing process. We compared reproductive data from the SPF baboon breeding program during its first 10 years with data from age-matched baboons during the same period from an established, genetically-similar conventional breeding colony. We also evaluated records documenting mother-infant behaviors within the SPF colony. The average age of menarche in SPF females was 3.3 years. The overall live birth rate of both SPF and conventional females was approximately 90%, with no difference in pregnancy outcome between the two colonies. The average age at first conception for SPF females was earlier (4.2 years) than that of the conventional females (4.7 years). In both colonies, primiparous females were more likely to abort than multiparous females. Similarly, primiparous females were more likely to lose their infants to death or human intervention. A mothering score system was developed in the SPF colony to facilitate intervention of poor mother-infant relationships. Records revealed 70% of SPF mothers were able to raise one or more of their infants successfully to at least 180 days of age, which did not differ from conventional mothers. SPF females returned to post-partum amenorrhea 27 days sooner on average than the conventional females, independent of dam age. The nursery-rearing process used for recruitment into the SPF colony therefore did not have an adverse effect on reproduction or rearing offspring. PMID:23440922

  1. Genetic evidence that raised sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) levels reduce the risk of type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perry, John R B; Weedon, Michael N

    2010-01-01

    Epidemiological studies consistently show that circulating sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) levels are lower in type 2 diabetes patients than non-diabetic individuals, but the causal nature of this association is controversial. Genetic studies can help dissect causal directions of epidemiological associations because genotypes are much less likely to be confounded, biased or influenced by disease processes. Using this Mendelian randomization principle, we selected a common single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) near the SHBG gene, rs1799941, that is strongly associated with SHBG levels. We used data from this SNP, or closely correlated SNPs, in 27 657 type 2 diabetes patients and 58 481 controls from 15 studies. We then used data from additional studies to estimate the difference in SHBG levels between type 2 diabetes patients and controls. The SHBG SNP rs1799941 was associated with type 2 diabetes [odds ratio (OR) 0.94, 95% CI: 0.91, 0.97; P = 2 x 10(-5)], with the SHBG raising allele associated with reduced risk of type 2 diabetes. This effect was very similar to that expected (OR 0.92, 95% CI: 0.88, 0.96), given the SHBG-SNP versus SHBG levels association (SHBG levels are 0.2 standard deviations higher per copy of the A allele) and the SHBG levels versus type 2 diabetes association (SHBG levels are 0.23 standard deviations lower in type 2 diabetic patients compared to controls). Results were very similar in men and women. There was no evidence that this variant is associated with diabetes-related intermediate traits, including several measures of insulin secretion and resistance. Our results, together with those from another recent genetic study, strengthen evidence that SHBG and sex hormones are involved in the aetiology of type 2 diabetes.

  2. Those Who Can Coach Can Teach: Collaborating With Athletic Coaches to Raise the Level of Students' Close Reading, Argumentation Skills, and Academic Agency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehrenworth, Mary; Minor, Cornelius; Federman, Mark; Jennings, James; Messer, Katherine; McCloud, Christopher

    2015-01-01

    Building on the work of John Hattie, Richard Kent, and Tom Newkirk, a think tank collaborative in New York City's high schools works to raise the level of students' close reading, argumentation, and agency across the curriculum by teaching students to analyze athletic competitions, to compose sports arguments, and to transfer and apply these…

  3. "It's Going to Stop in This Generation": Women with a History of Child Abuse Resolving to Raise Their Children without Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Sioux

    2011-01-01

    In this article, Sioux Hall promotes using a strengths-based approach to examine the interruption of the intergenerational cycle of child abuse and explores the strategies that women who were abused by a parent as children used to raise their children without abuse. She documents the mothers' uses of strategies such as vowing to protect and…

  4. Raising and lowering operators and their factorization for generalized orthogonal polynomials of hypergeometric type on homogeneous and non-homogeneous lattices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We complete the construction of raising and lowering operators, given in a previous work, for the orthogonal polynomials of hypergeometric type on a non-homogeneous lattice. We extend these operators to the generalized orthogonal polynomials, namely, those difference orthogonal polynomials that satisfy a similar difference equation of hypergeometric type

  5. Raising and lowering operators and their factorization for generalized orthogonal polynomials of hypergeometric type on homogeneous and non-homogeneous lattice

    OpenAIRE

    Lorente, M.

    2004-01-01

    We complete the construction of raising and lowering operators, given in a previous work, for the orthogonal polynomials of hypergeometric type on non-homogeneous lattice, and extend these operators to the generalized orthogonal polynomials, namely, those difference of orthogonal polynomials that satisfy a similar difference equation of hypergeometric type.

  6. LEVELS OF POLYCHLORINATED DIBENZO-P-DIOXINS AND DIBENZOFURANS IN CATTLE RAISED AT AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH FACILITIES ACROSS THE USA AND THE INFLUENCE OF PENTACHLOROPHENOL-TREATED WOOD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adipose tissue samples from 158 cattle raised locally at experiment stations across the US were analysed for polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/F). While 80% of the samples had PCDD/F concentrations which fell within the range of a previous US survey of beef animals [not dete...

  7. Midazolam / ketamine induction and isoflurane maintenance of anaesthesia in a 2-month-old, hand-raised African buffalo (Syncerus caffer : clinical communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.F. Stegmann

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available The use of a midazolam / ketamine combination for induction of anaesthesia in a 2-month-old, hand-raised buffalo calf (Syncerus caffer described to allow endotracheal intubation for the maintenance of anaesthesia with isoflurane and oxygen. Intraoperative complications were hypotension and hypothermia. For postoperative analgesia meloxicam and butorphanol was administered intramuscularly.

  8. I Like Being Safe and Loved: Words and Pictures on Life with Grandma and Grandpa from Children Being Raised by Their Grandparents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodworth, Renee S., Comp.; Fron, Mary, Comp.

    Nearly 1.5 million children are living with and being raised by their grandparents. The AARP Grandparent Information Center met with five groups of children in the spring of 1996 to gather their thoughts and quotations on what it feels like to live with their grandparents. Fifteen drawings were also selected for inclusion. The children's…

  9. Raising cultural awareness of local traditions through festival tourism / A sensibilização cultural das tradições locais através do turismo de festivais

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Mariya, Stankova; Ivanka, Vassenska.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Em todo o mundo, festivais e eventos especiais locais são usados como elementos-chave no âmbito das estratégias de desenvolvimento regional. Festas e eventos especiais locais são amplamente reconhecidos como dando um importante contributo para o desenvolvimento económico das suas áreas locais, uma v [...] ez que proporcionam oportunidades para a promoção do turismo, resultados comerciais e aumento dos investimentos no interior das regiões de acolhimento (Getz, 2007; Van de Wagen, 2005), contribuindo ainda para o prolongar da estação turística (Huang, Li & Cai, 2010; Boo e Busser, 2006; Kotler, Haider e Rein, 1993; Mehmetoglu e Ellingsen, 2005). No entanto, a questão da sua contribuição para a conservação do património cultural e das tradições através de uma interpretação em turismo também requer atenção. No artigo, a abordagem de perfis culturais é implementada como uma ferramenta para aumentar a consciência das tradições locais apresentadas nos festivais. Neste sentido, com base numa pesquisa focalizada em organizadores de festivais, empresários locais que participam em festivais e turistas que os visitam, foi estimado o grau de autenticidade das tradições locais no sul da Bulgária. Com o objetivo principal - a identificação e criação de oportunidades para o desenvolvimento económico, social e cultural sustentável dessas regiões, preservando o património existente para as futuras gerações. Abstract in english Worldwide, festivals and local special events are used as key elements within regional development strategies. Festivals and local special events are widely acknowledged to make an important contribution to the economic development of their local areas, as they provide opportunities for tourism prom [...] otion, commercial outcomes and increased inward investment in host regions (Getz, 2007; Van de Wagen, 2005) and contribute to the extension of the tourism season (Huang, Li & Cai, 2010; Boo and Busser, 2006; Kotler, Haider & Rein, 1993; Mehmetoglu and Ellingsen, 2005). However, the question of their contribution to the conservation of cultural heritage and traditions through an interpretation in tourism also requires attention. In the paper, the approach of cultural profiles is implemented as a tool to raise the awareness for local tradition, being presented on local festival. In this regard, based on a survey among organizers of festivals, local entrepreneurs participating in festivals and tourists visiting them, the degree of authenticity of local traditions in South Bulgaria was estimated. With the main purpose - identification and establishment of opportunities for sustainable economic, social and cultural development of those regions, preserving and handing the existing heritage to future generations.

  10. Levels and Types of Questions Raised by EFL Teachers in Southern Al-Mazar Directorate of Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I’timad Jamil Abdulraheem Al-Ja’freh

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available

    This study aimed at investigating the levels and types of questions raised by EFL teachers in Southern Al-Mazar directorate of Education. The study comprised (12 female/ male teachers. The results of the study showed that; male/female teachers asked (1603 questions; (1290 questions were within the low level and (313 questions were high level. Female/male teachers asked (1603 questions where (393 questions were open and (1210 were ended questions . The results also, showed that female teachers asked (729 questions whereas male teachers asked (874. Also, the results of the study showed that females/ males teachers with high experience asked questions more than those teachers with less experience. In light of the results of the study, the researcher had suggested some recommendations to the concern.

    Key words: Levels of questions; Types of questions; EFL teachers questions

    Résumé Cette étude visait à étudier les niveaux et types de questions posées par les enseignants EFL dans le sud de Mazar Al-Direction de l’éducation. L’étude comprenait (12 enseignants de sexe féminin/ masculin. Les résultats de l’étude a montré que, mâle/ femelle des enseignants a demandé (1603 des questions; (1290 des questions se situaient dans le bas niveau et (313 questions étaient de haut niveau. Les enseignants des femmes/ hommes a demandé (1603 questions où (393 des questions étaient ouvertes et (1210 ont été clos questions. Les résultats ont également, a montré que les enseignantes demandé (729 des questions alors que les enseignants masculins a demandé (874. En outre, les résultats de l’étude a montré que les femelles ou les mâles des enseignants ayant une expérience de haute posé des questions plus que ces enseignants ayant moins d’expérience. À la lumière des résultats de l’étude, le chercheur a suggéré quelques recommandations à la préoccupation.

    Mots clés: Niveaux de questions; Types de questions; EFL questions d’enseignant

  11. READY: a web-based geographical information system for enhanced flood resilience through raising awareness in citizens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albano, R.; Sole, A.; Adamowski, J.

    2015-07-01

    As evidenced by the EU Floods Directive (2007/60/EC), flood management strategies in Europe have undergone a shift in focus in recent years. The goal of flood prevention using structural measures has been replaced by an emphasis on the management of flood risks using non-structural measures. One implication of this is that public authorities alone not only take responsibility for flood management. A broader range of stakeholders, who may personally experience the negative effects of flooding, also take on responsibility for protecting themselves. Therefore, it is vital that information concerning flood risks is conveyed to those who may be affected in order to facilitate the self-protection of citizens. Experience shows that problems persist even where efforts have been made to communicate flood risks. There is a need for the development of new tools that are able to rapidly disseminate flood-risk information to the general public. To be useful these tools must be able to present information relevant to the location of the user. Moreover, the content and design of the tool need to be adjusted to laypeople's needs. Dissemination and communication influence both people's access to and understanding of natural risk information. Such a tool could be a useful aid to effective management of flood risks. To address this gap, a web-based geographical information system (WebGIS) has been developed through the collaborative efforts of a group of scientists, hazard and risk analysts and managers, GIS analysts, system developers and communication designers. This tool, called "READY: Risk, Extreme Events, Adaptation, Defend Yourself", aims to enhance the general public knowledge of flood risk, making citizens more capable of responding appropriately during a flood event. The READY WebGIS has allowed for the visualization and easy querying of a complex hazard and risk database thanks to a high degree of interactivity and easily read maps. In this way, READY has enabled fast exploration of alternative flood scenarios or past calamitous events. Combined also with a system of graphic symbols designed ad hoc for communication of self-protection behaviours, it is believed READY could lead to an increase in citizen participation, informed discussion and consensus building. The platform has been developed for a site-specific application: the Basilicata region, Italy, has been selected as pilot application area. The goal of the prototype is to raise citizen awareness of flood risks and to build social capacity and enhanced resilience to flood events.

  12. Brochure on Programme of Action for Cancer Therapy (PACT): Building partnerships to stop the global cancer epidemic. Grant raising prospectus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Programme of Action for Cancer Therapy (PACT) was created within the IAEA in 2004. PACT builds upon IAEA's extensive experience in cancer therapy and was designed to strengthen the links between technology transfer for radiotherapy and national capacity building in cancer prevention and control. While the IAEA continues to focus on technology transfer in radiotherapy and nuclear medicine, PACT is aimed at integrating radiotherapy into the broader cancer prevention and control framework. This includes cancer prevention, early detection, treatment and palliative care as well as broader challenges such as capacity building in infrastructure development and surveillance (including cancer registries). Only through collaboration with a broad range of stakeholders in cancer prevention and control will low and middle income countries be able to build effective programmes that reduce avoidable cancers and cancer in its later stages, and therefore improve survival and quality of life for cancer patients. PACT is therefore building partnerships with leading cancer organizations worldwide. Each organization is making a significant contribution in their respective areas of expertise within the broader cancer control framework. Outreach to more international organizations continues. Together with these other agencies, PACT seeks to comprehensively support cancer control needs in low and middle income countries over the next 10 to 20 years and beyond. PACT is seeking to accelerate widespread and sustained access to all essential cancer care services, and make cancer therapy more effective. Such an approach is widely acknowledged to be the only viable way to attract major donors (including development banks, international health philanthropies and other charities) either directly or through the IAEA. Partnering with other organizations also raises, or in many cases, establishes the IAEA's profile within the international public health arena. To lay the groundwork for attracting major donor funds, PACT has adopted a three stage approach to address cancer in developing Member States. The fi rst stage constitutes a comprehensive needs assessment (imPACT review - integrated missions of PACT) for each of the Member States selected (currently six, one in each of the World Health Organisation's designated regions). The second stage is the phased implementation of measures to address cancer within all its components and all its forms in each Member State: Model Demonstration Sites (MDS). These will form the basis for incrementally increasing donations from development banks, foundations and other sources. Through this approach to date, PACT has secured over $2 million of in-kind donations and cash support to implement the fi rst phase of establishing basic operations and country needs assessments. PACT has also secured a donation of up to three radiotherapy machines from a leading manufacturer. Stage 3 is the implementation of Regional Cancer Training Networks

  13. KAZAN: Will you survive the next geodisaster? An educational game for raising awareness about geohazards and risk reduction strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mossoux, Sophie; Delcamp, Audray; Poppe, Sam; Kervyn, Matthieu

    2015-04-01

    Natural disasters remain too often presented in the media as the results from extreme natural phenomena affecting helpless people. School students and stakeholders, especially in developing countries, have a limited awareness of the different components of disasters and of the complementary strategies existing to mitigate their impacts. Using the specific example of the Ngazidja Island (Comoros), we developed and tested a new board game aiming at raising awareness about geohazards (i.e. earthquake, tsunami, lava flow, volcanic ash fall). This game highlights the various and spatially-variable geohazard impacts on the exposed population, the key role played by livelihood strategies and the access to natural resources in controlling long term impacts, and the capacity of a community to act in reducing its vulnerability to natural hazards. The target public of this game are 1. secondary school students, 2. scientists and stakeholders involved to some degree in risk management activities, and 3. people exposed to these hazards. For the first group, the aim is to allow them to better interpret the disaster to which they are confronted in the media, whereas for the second group, the objective is to generate discussion about the efficiency and complementarity of contrasted risk management strategies. The objective for the last group is to help them to understand the hazard to which they are confronted in order to be better prepared. In this contribution, we will present the game board and the implemented rules. This game was tested with several groups of secondary school students in Belgium and with geologists and risk managers in Tanzania and in the Comores. On the basis of the analysis of the game strategies developed by the players, their reactions during the game and their answers to a short questionnaire, we analyse the main learning outcomes that are conveyed by this game. We compare these outcomes with key elements of the risk management, focusing on geohazards in developing countries. Kazan game appears as an effective and activating learning tool to transfer important concepts and generate debate about natural disasters, focusing on the spatial competition for natural resources and the control of household's livelihood on their vulnerability to hazards.

  14. Raised marine terraces in the Northern Calabrian Arc (Southern Italy: a ~ 600 kyr-long geological record of regional uplift

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Cucci

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available The Sibari Plain in the Northeastern Calabrian Arc displays a well-developed suite of marine terraces. This paper deals with i the identification and correlation of the terraces; ii their age assignment and a tentative reconstruction of the uplift history of the area; iii the relationships between terraces and major faults in the study area and between uplift in the Plain and pattern of Quaternary uplift throughout the Calabrian Arc. Identifying wavecut platforms and inner-edge fragments over a linear extent of ~ 100 km was achieved by photo interpretation, 1:25 000 scale map analyses and field survey. Morphological evidence led to the correlation of the identified fragments into five complete strandlines (numbered #1 to #5 lowest to highest, at elevations ranging from 60 m to ~ 650 m. Analysis of two parameters of the emerged platform-cliff systems, namely the platform-cliff ratio and the dissection percentage, further testifies that the two lowest terraces are strongly correlative. A 130 kyr AAR age of in situ fossil samples of Glycymeris collected at 114 m elevation within the deposit of Terrace #2 indicates a key correlation of T#2 with MIS 5.5 (the peak of the last interglacial, 124 kyr, i.e. an uplift rate of ~ 0.98 mm/yr for this strandline. The other four terraces have been tentatively associated with MIS 5.3, 7, 9 and 15. Geological observations independent of geochronological evidence provide consistent lower age boundaries for the terraces and supply further constraints to this interpretation. Investigating the relations between setting of the terraces and location of major tectonic structures in the region is suggestive of no recent activity of two previously recognized faults, the «Sangineto Line» and the «Corigliano-Rossano Line». Instead, some limited anomalies that affect the terraces are tentatively associated with the activity of the Castrovillari Fault. Therefore, sustained uplift has been the long-term dominant process of tectonic deformation in the study area over the past 124 kyr, possibly 600 kyr. Rates and history of uplift in the Sibari Plain are largely comparable with those observed in the whole Calabrian Arc, confirming that the uplift driving mechanism is deep-seated and closely connected to the Tyrrhenian subduction as already pointed out by several authors. Despite a dearth of Holocene raised paleoshorelines, it is suggested that similarly to what was observed only few tens of kilometres north and south of the Sibari Plain, the Late Pleistocene rise is still active today and that without Holocene uplift the Plain should have been far less developed and attractive for human settlement.

  15. READY: a web-based geographical information system for enhanced flood resilience through raising awareness in citizens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Albano

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available As evidenced by the EU Floods Directive (2007/60/EC, flood management strategies in Europe have undergone a shift in focus in recent years. The goal of flood prevention using structural measures has been replaced by an emphasis on the management of flood risks using non-structural measures. One implication of this is that it is no longer public authorities alone who take responsibility for flood management. A broader range of stakeholders, who may experience the negative effects of flooding, also take on responsibility to protect themselves. Therefore, it is vital that information concerning flood risks are conveyed to those who may be affected in order to facilitate the self-protection of citizens. Experience shows that even where efforts have been made to communicate flood risks, problems persist. There is a need for the development of new tools, which are able to rapidly disseminate flood risk information to the general public. To be useful, these tools must be able to present information relevant to the location of the user. Moreover, the content and design of the tool need to be adjusted to laypeople's needs. Dissemination and communication influences both people's access to and understanding of natural risk information. Such a tool could be a useful aid to effective management of flood risks. To address this gap, a Web-based Geographical Information System, (WebGIS, has been developed through the collaborative efforts of a group of scientists, hazard and risk analysts and managers, GIS analysts, system developers and communication designers. This tool, called "READY: Risk, Extreme Events, Adaptation, Defend Yourself", aims to enhance the general public knowledge of flood risk, making them more capable of responding appropriately during a flood event. The READY WebGIS has allowed for the visualization and easy querying of a complex hazard and risk database thanks to a high degree of interactivity and its easily readable maps. In this way, READY has enabled fast exploration of alternative flood scenarios or past calamitous events. Combined also with a system of graphic symbols designed ad hoc for communication of self-protection behaviors, it is believed READY could lead to an increase in citizen participation, informed discussion and consensus building. The platform has been developed for a site-specific application, i.e. the Basilicata Region, Italy, has been selected as pilot application area. The goal of the prototype is to raise citizen awareness of flood risks, and to build social capacity and enhanced resilience to flood events.

  16. Post-release ranging behaviour of hand-raised black rhinoceros, Diceros bicornis, L. in Matusadona National Park, Zimbabwe with recommendations for management of introduction to the wild

    OpenAIRE

    G. Matipano

    2004-01-01

    Hand-raised rhinos would preferentially settle at sites close to areas where human activity was significant. Hand-raised rhinos that attached themselves to sites of human activity tended to move less widely and to have smaller seasonal ranges than those that moved away from human settlements. These rhinos had no fear of humans and some animals would move along established roads into hostile areas outside the park. These factors made hand-raised rhinos more vulnerable to poaching than their wi...

  17. Dealing with raised seismic loads in WWER: Mathematical analysis and optimisation of pointwise damping in substructures and piping systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the present time, nuclear power utilities are often confronted with the demand to increase the safety level of a nuclear power plant against the seismic event. In many cases the level of the earthquake excitation is redefined - mostly raised to a higher value. This may lead to expensive plant reconstruction. However, in many practical cases it is possible to use reserves in substructures and piping systems coming from the fact, that the earthquake analyses made in the past were generally rather conservative. Performing a more precise analysis using modem software on high performance hardware available today, the amount of effort for reconstruction of the plant and its components can significantly be reduced. A relative inexpensive way to reduce the structural response due to the earthquake excitation is given by using viscous dampers, e.g. WWER plant Bohunice. Because viscous dampers do not constrain the structure (e.g. thermal stresses are not increased), their installing into the structural system will not negatively influence the original design. For example, there is no need for new static or fatigue analysis. By their mechanical nature, dampers affect the structure pointwise. Such pointwise damping is, in general, not of the usual Rayleigh type (i.e. proportional damping), and is therefore called non-proportional. Its most significant feature is a dissipation of the mechanical energy of the structural system. The mathematical counterpart of this physical fact is described by the loss of positive-definiteness and symmetry of the structural matrices in the state space. This leads to the complex-valued eigenvalues and modal shapes, causing specific algorithmic problems and significant increase of the calculation effort. Another problem is given by the fact, that there is a shift of natural frequencies and a change of the corresponding free vibration modes due to damping. Therefore, relating of damped to undamped free-vibration modes of a structure is a difficult problem, which complicates the physical interpretation of the complex-valued free-vibration modes and, of course, makes the optimisation of the structure with respect to damping more difficult. In the present paper, the method for analysis of damped eigenvalue problem is presented solving the above difficulties. It is based on Jacobi method for J-symmetric matrices. For each specific value and position of pointwise damping in the structure, it calculates the damped natural frequencies and modal damping as well as the corresponding free-vibration modal shapes on mathematically exact way. Moreover, it enables the optimisation of the pointwise damping in the structure using the modal flow analysis. The method starts with the undamped free-vibration behaviour, which can either be calculated or measured in the existing structure. For each damping in the range of interest, the damped free-vibration parameters are calculated and drawn in the modal flow diagram. The constructing engineer can design the dampers in the structure in such a way that the natural frequencies, in the range of which the vibration amplification is expected (calculated or observed by tests), are neutralised by overdamping of the corresponding free-vibration modes

  18. Efecto de la arborización en la crianza de los búfalos de río / Arborisation effect on the raising of river buffaloes

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Leonel, Simón; Maykel, Galloso.

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available La crianza de los búfalos ha tenido un desarrollo satisfactorio a partir de su introducción en el país, desde hace relativamente poco tiempo, de ahí la necesidad de mejorar sus condiciones de manejo y explotación. Por este motivo se investigó el efecto de la arborización en la crianza de los búfalos [...] de río, para lo cual se seleccionaron dos unidades con 30 búfalas lecheras cada una y sus crías para comparar el efecto de la arborización utilizando la tecnología de silvopastoreo racional con Leucaena leucocephala comparado con un monocultivo de gramíneas sin arborización. Para la comparación se realizó un diagnostico inicial para conocer las características propias de cada unidad, determinándose la composición química de los suelos y florística de las áreas y mensualmente se determinó la disponibilidad de materia seca de los pastos para regular la carga animal en el pastizal. Se procedió de esta manera durante 4 años en la determinación de los indicadores productivos de leche por búfala, lactancia y área, el comportamiento reproductivo y los ingresos económicos. Los resultados obtenidos en el sistema arborizado fueron superiores en 0,72 kg leche/anim/d 279,8 kg/lactancia 1,49 kg/ha/d y 42 días más de lactancia, reflejándose positivamente en los ingresos por la venta de la leche por búfala, hectárea y lactancia en moneda nacional y peso cubano convertible. Todos los indicadores analizados favorecieron al sistema de producción arborizado con leucaena con la tecnología de silvopastoreo racional. Abstract in english The raising of buffaloes has been having a satisfactory development from its introduction in the country, since a relatively a short period of time, and there is the need to improve the conditions of handling and operation. For this reason, it was investigated the effect of the arborisation in the r [...] aising of river buffaloes, for which in two units were selected with 30 milk buffaloes each one and their young to compare the effect of the arborization using the technology of rational tree grazing with Leucaena leucocephala compared to a monoculture of grasses without arborization. To compare, an initial diagnostic was done to know the characteristics of each unit and determining both the soil chemical and floristic composition of the areas and monthly determined the availability of dry matter of the grass to regulate the animal rate in the pasture. We proceed this way for the next 4 years in the determination of the productive milk indicators by buffalo, lactancy and area, the reproductive behaviour, and the economic income. The results obtained in the arborizated system were superior in 0.72 kg milk/anim/d, 279.8 kg/ lactancy, 1.49 kg/ha/d and 42 days of lactancy, being reflected more positively in the income by the milk sale by buffalo, hectare, and lactancy in the national currency and convertible Cuban money. All the analyzed indicators favoured the tree production system with Leucaena, with the technology of rational tree grazing.

  19. Fungos aeróbios no intestino grosso de borregos e de ovelhas criados em pastagens tropicais / Aerobic fungi in the large intestine of lambs and ewes raised on tropical pastures

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    C.E.S., Freitas; F.O., Abrão; K.L., Silva; P.N.M., Almeida; E.R., Duarte.

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available [...] Abstract in english Fungi populations were evaluated in large intestine from sheep raised in the North of Minas Gerais, Brazil. The samples were from 39 Santa Inês crossbred ewes and 30 lambs raised on Tanzania grass (Panicum maximum cv. Tanzania), both supplemented with mineral mixtures. The clinical specimens were di [...] rectly collected from rectal ampoule with sterile swabs. The development of fungal mycelium was observed in all lamb samples and positive cultures were observed in 34 ewe specimens (87.2%). After microculture of 40 colonies from lambs, 34 isolates of the genus Aspergillus, three of Paecilomyces spp., one Acremonium sp., and one Trichoderma sp. were identified. Out of the 39 isolates from ewes, 15 Paecilomyces spp., 11 Aspergillus spp., 11 Malbranchea spp., and one Onychocola sp. were identified. The results showed the predominance of the genus Aspergillus in the lambs, while the genus Paecilomyces, Malbranchea, and Aspergillus were predominant, in ewes.

  20. Caracterização da curva de crescimento de fêmeas Crioulas Lageanas criadas em condições naturais / Growth curve characterization of Crioula Lagena cows raised under natural conditions

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    E.A., Barbosa; A.A., Egito; V.M.V., Martins; E., Martins; J.P., Silva; A.F., Ramos.

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available [...] Abstract in english Morphometry and ultrasound of carcasses were used to estimate the growth curve of Criola Lageana cows, raised under natural conditions. A total of 111 cows, raised under extensively production system in Central Plateau of Santa Catarina, were evaluated. Morphometrics and ultrasound measurements were [...] related with the age of the animals using the targeted univariate regression model, assigning the variable response to gamma distribution. The inflection points of the growth curve were 24 and 25 months for withers height and hip height, between 27 and 29 for weight, body length, rump length, thorax perimeter, depth and distance between ilea. For ribeye area (REA), inflection point was 18 months. The Crioula Lageana cows presented greater growth velocity around 27 months, showing good productive performance under the natural conditions of the Central Plateau of Santa Catarina.

  1. Application of antisera raised against sulfate-reducing bacteria for indirect immunofluorescent detection of immunoreactive bacteria in sediment from the German Baltic Sea.

    OpenAIRE

    Lillebaek, R

    1995-01-01

    Polyclonal rabbit antisera raised against sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) could detect several distinct populations of bacteria in sediment from the German Baltic Sea. The depth distribution of immunoreactive bacteria was determined by an indirect immunofluorescence filter method. Anti-Desulfovibrio desulfuricans DSM 1926 serum showed maximum bacterial numbers at a depth of 18 cm, with a concentration of 60 x 10(6) cells cm-3. With anti-Desulfovibrio baculatus DSM 2555 serum, counts were high...

  2. Relation between raised concentrations of fucose, sialic acid, and acute phase proteins in serum from patients with cancer: choosing suitable serum glycoprotein markers.

    OpenAIRE

    Turner, G.A.; Skillen, A W; Buamah, P; Guthrie, D.; Welsh, J; J. Harrison(School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Manchester, Manchester, United Kingdom); Kowalski, A

    1985-01-01

    Serum concentrations of fucose, sialic acid, and eight acute phase proteins were measured in single specimens from patients with cancer in order to determine whether the raised concentrations of protein bound sugars commonly found in cancer correlate with increased concentrations of the acute phase proteins. Strong positive correlations were found only with alpha 1-acid glycoprotein, alpha 1-antitrypsin, and haptoglobins. Changes in protein bound sugars and acute phase proteins were also exam...

  3. Raised atmospheric CO2 levels and increased N deposition cause shifts in plant species composition and production in Sphagnum bogs

    OpenAIRE

    Berendse, Frank; van Breemen, Nico; Rydin, Håkan; Buttler, Alexandre; Heijmans, Monique; Hoosbeek, Marcel R.; John A. Lee; Mitchell, Edward A D; Saarinen, Timo; Vasander, Harri; Wallén, Bo

    2010-01-01

    Part of the missing sink in the global CO2 budget has been attributed to the positive effects of CO2 fertilization and N deposition on carbon sequestration in Northern Hemisphere terrestrial ecosystems. The genus Sphagnum is one of the most important groups of plant species sequestrating carbon in temperate and northern bog ecosystems, because of the low decomposability of the dead material it produces. The effects of raised CO2 and increased atmospheric N deposition on growth of Sphagnum and...

  4. Direct mail als fund raising-Instrument in der Politik: Wirkungs- und Transferanalyse nordamerikanischer Erfahrungen für die Anwendung durch deutsche Parteien

    OpenAIRE

    Rieken, Marion

    2003-01-01

    'Direct mail the poisened pen of politics' lautet der Titel von Larry Sabatos bekannter Publikation zu diesem Instrument zur Kleinspendenwerbung. Der Transfer der nordamerikanischen Erfahrungen und die erfolgreiche Adaption von direct mail als fund raising-Instrument durch die deutschen Parteien ist das Thema der Dissertation. Ausgangspunkt ist die letzte Entscheidung des Bundesverfassungsgerichts zur Parteienfinanzierung in 1992. Die Entscheidung führte zu einer Abhängigkeit der öffentlichen...

  5. Pseudo-nitzschia seriata f. obtusa (Bacillariophyceae) raised in rank based onmorphological, phylogenetic and distributional data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasle, Grethe Rytter; Lundholm, N.

    2005-01-01

    Pseudo-nitzschia seriata f. obtusa (Hasle) Hasle is raised in rank to P. obtusa (Hasle) Hasle & Lundholm, based on morphological, phylogenetic and distributional features. The most prominent distinctive morphological feature is the shape of the valve ends, which in girdle view are truncate in P. obtusa and pointed in P. seriata. Other differences are the transapical width, the number of striated bands and the fine structure of bands and valve striae. Phylogenetically, P. obtusa is found in a cla...

  6. “Norm-Oriented Interpretation Learning” and Resource Use: The Concept of “Open-Didactic Exploration” as a Contribution to Raising Awareness of a Responsible Resource Use

    OpenAIRE

    Anna Bliesner; Christa Liedtke; Maria Jolanta Welfens; Carolin Baedeker; Marco Hasselkuß; Holger Rohn

    2014-01-01

    It is widely accepted that environmental awareness is essential, yet does not inevitably lead to responsible use of resources. Additional factors on the individual level include the meaning constructed by the term “resources” and the individual and social norms that influence the relevant behavior. Current didactic concepts do not take into account such aspects. Therefore, this article uses a didactic-psychological approach for designing an educational concept for raising awareness for a resp...

  7. Overlaps of q-raised Néel states with XXZ Bethe states and their relation to the Lieb–Liniger Bose gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present a ‘Gaudin-like’ determinant expression for overlaps of q-raised Néel states with Bethe states of the spin-1/2 XXZ chain in the non-zero-magnetization sector. The former is constructed by applying global Uq(sl2) spin raising operators to the Néel state, the ground state of the antiferromagnetic Ising chain. The formulas presented are derived from recently-obtained results for the overlap of the Néel state with XXZ Bethe states (Brockmann et al, 2014 J. Phys. A: Math. Theor. 47 145003, Pozsgay, 2013 arXiv:1309.4593, Kozlowski and Pozsgay, 2012 J. Stat. Mech. P05021, Tsuchiya, 1998 J. Math. Phys. 39 5946). The determinants as well as their prefactors can be evaluated in the scaling limit of the XXZ spin chain to the Lieb–Liniger Bose gas. Within this limit a q-raised Néel state that contains finitely many down spins corresponds to the ground state of finitely many free bosons. This allows for a rigorous proof of the overlap formula of De Nardis et al (2014 Phys. Rev. A 89 033601) for Lieb–Liniger Bethe states and a Bose–Einstein condensate (BEC) state with an arbitrary even number of particles. (paper)

  8. Attitudes and perceptions of three groups of family farmers in Brazil on problems they perceive in raising broilers and alternative feeding strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Almeida, Gustavo Fonseca; Horsted, Klaus

    2015-01-01

    With the purpose to identify alternatives to the use of oil seed crops and cereals in broiler feeding, we interviewed 21 family farmers raising broilers in alternative systems located in three relevant sites for the poultry industry in Brazil. Two groups in the south (Parana and Rio Grande do Sul) were organized in cooperatives raising slow-growing broilers in free-range systems. The third group was linked to a broiler company in the state of Sao Paulo producing antibiotic-free (AF) broilers in intensive systems. Individual assessments were performed through surveys with semi-structured questions. Nutrient supply was heavily dependent on maize and soy. Free-range broilers were normally raised with access to outdoor areas in permanent paddocks with very little vegetation available. In the three sites, the finishing period of broilers was the production stage with higher feed supplementation. In addition, farmers producing AF broilers highlighted subclinical coccidiosis as of high economic importance. Production of slow-growing broilers in free-range systems would benefit from local resources for the finishing period. Novel feeding strategies for broilers are suggested based on the farmers’ report, agroecological site characteristics, and production systems.

  9. Nrf2, a master regulator of detoxification and also antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and other cytoprotective mechanisms, is raised by health promoting factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pall, Martin L; Levine, Stephen

    2015-02-25

    The transcription factor Nrf2, nuclear factor erythroid-2-related factor 2, activates the transcription of over 500 genes in the human genome, most of which have cytoprotective functions. Nrf2 produces cytoprotection by detoxification mechanisms leading to increased detoxification and excretion of both organic xenobiotics and toxic metals; its action via over two dozen genes increases highly coordinated antioxidant activities; it produces major anti-inflammatory changes; it stimulates mitochondrial biogenesis and otherwise improves mitochondrial function; and it stimulates autophagy, removing toxic protein aggregates and dysfunctional organelles. Health-promoting nutrients and other factors act, at least in part by raising Nrf2 including: many phenolic antioxidants; gamma- and delta-tocopherols and tocotrienols; long chain omega-3 fatty acids DHA and EPA; many carotenoids of which lycopene may be the most active; isothiocyanates from cruciferous vegetables; sulfur compounds from allium vegetables; terpenoids. Other health promoting, Nrf2 raising factors include low level oxidative stress (hormesis), exercise and caloric restriction. Raising Nrf2 has been found to prevent and/or treat a large number of chronic inflammatory diseases in animal models and/or humans including various cardiovascular diseases, kidney diseases, lung diseases, diseases of toxic liver damage, cancer (prevention), diabetes/metabolic syndrome/obesity, sepsis, autoimmune diseases, inflammatory bowel disease, HIV/AIDS and epilepsy. Lesser evidence suggests that raising Nrf2 may lower 16 other diseases. Many of these diseases are probable NO/ONOO(-) cycle diseases and Nrf2 lowers effects of NO/ONOO(-) cycle elements. The most healthful diets known, traditional Mediterranean and Okinawan, are rich in Nrf2 raising nutrients as apparently was the Paleolithic diet that our ancestors ate. Modern diets are deficient in such nutrients. Nrf2 is argued to be both lifespan and healthspan extending. Possible downsides to too much Nrf2 are also discussed. Nrf2 is not a magic bullet but is likely to be of great importance in health promotion, particularly in those regularly exposed to toxic chemicals. PMID:25672622

  10. Um programa para o planejamento da recria de fêmeas oriundas de rebanhos leiteiros A computer program for planning dairy heifer raising

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moisés de Andrade Resende Filho

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Alimentação e manejo inadequados das novilhas em recria constituem alguns dos entraves ao incremento da produtividade do rebanho leiteiro no Brasil. Nessa fase, o pecuarista deve decidir entre recriar os animais de reposição, adquiri-los ou terceirizar sua criação. Além disso, em se decidindo por recriar suas próprias novilhas, seria importante encontrar a melhor alternativa em termos econômicos. Visando auxiliar o pecuarista a resolver tal questão, apresenta-se um modelo matemático que permite estimar os custos decorrentes da recria de fêmeas de rebanhos leiteiros até atingir o peso recomendado à cobertura. Tal modelo foi inserido em um programa de computador de maneira a permitir a construção de diferentes cenários, considerando-se peso, raça e ganho de peso diário do lote de novilhas. Assim, após contrastar os cenários gerados com as opções de compra das novilhas ou terceirização da recria, o pecuarista aumenta as chances de tomar uma decisão mais lucrativa. Exemplos de utilização do modelo inserido em um programa de computador são apresentados e avaliados.Inadequate feeding and management when raising heifers are two factors that constrain dairy cattle productivity in Brazil. In order to build their heads, Brazilian dairy farmers must choose between three options: to raise their own heifers to breeding age, to purchase mature heifers from outside sources, or to employ a custom heifer raiser. If the dairy farmer chooses to raise his own heifers, he needs to determine the most economically rational production strategy. To aid the farmer in this determination, a mathematical model was developed to create a budget for raising a group of heifers to their recommended breeding weight. This model was embedded in a computer program making it possible to build different growth scenarios, which can be adjusted by breed, desired daily weight gain, and average weight for a given group of heifers. After contrasting the results of these generated scenarios against the purchase cost of breeding-age heifers or the cost to employ a professional to raise the heifers, it is more likely that the dairy farmer will make the most profitable decision when it comes to increasing his herd’s size. Some examples this computer program’s use are presented and evaluated in this paper.

  11. Um programa para o planejamento da recria de fêmeas oriundas de rebanhos leiteiros / A computer program for planning dairy heifer raising

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Moisés de Andrade, Resende Filho.

    Full Text Available Alimentação e manejo inadequados das novilhas em recria constituem alguns dos entraves ao incremento da produtividade do rebanho leiteiro no Brasil. Nessa fase, o pecuarista deve decidir entre recriar os animais de reposição, adquiri-los ou terceirizar sua criação. Além disso, em se decidindo por re [...] criar suas próprias novilhas, seria importante encontrar a melhor alternativa em termos econômicos. Visando auxiliar o pecuarista a resolver tal questão, apresenta-se um modelo matemático que permite estimar os custos decorrentes da recria de fêmeas de rebanhos leiteiros até atingir o peso recomendado à cobertura. Tal modelo foi inserido em um programa de computador de maneira a permitir a construção de diferentes cenários, considerando-se peso, raça e ganho de peso diário do lote de novilhas. Assim, após contrastar os cenários gerados com as opções de compra das novilhas ou terceirização da recria, o pecuarista aumenta as chances de tomar uma decisão mais lucrativa. Exemplos de utilização do modelo inserido em um programa de computador são apresentados e avaliados. Abstract in english Inadequate feeding and management when raising heifers are two factors that constrain dairy cattle productivity in Brazil. In order to build their heads, Brazilian dairy farmers must choose between three options: to raise their own heifers to breeding age, to purchase mature heifers from outside sou [...] rces, or to employ a custom heifer raiser. If the dairy farmer chooses to raise his own heifers, he needs to determine the most economically rational production strategy. To aid the farmer in this determination, a mathematical model was developed to create a budget for raising a group of heifers to their recommended breeding weight. This model was embedded in a computer program making it possible to build different growth scenarios, which can be adjusted by breed, desired daily weight gain, and average weight for a given group of heifers. After contrasting the results of these generated scenarios against the purchase cost of breeding-age heifers or the cost to employ a professional to raise the heifers, it is more likely that the dairy farmer will make the most profitable decision when it comes to increasing his herd’s size. Some examples this computer program’s use are presented and evaluated in this paper.

  12. ATLANTIC-DIP: raised maternal body mass index (BMI) adversely affects maternal and foetal outcomes in glucose tolerant women classified using International Association of Diabetes and Pregnancy Study Groups (IADPSG) criteria

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Dennedy, MC

    2011-09-15

    Background and aims: Raised maternal body mass index (BMI), in association with hyperglycaemia is associated with adverse pregnancy outcome. Whether BMI has an independent effect on adverse pregnancy outcome is not clear. We aimed to investigate the effects of raised maternal BMI on pregnancy outcome in glucose tolerant women, classified using the IADPSG criteria.\\r\

  13. Anti-serum amyloid component P antibodies in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus correlate with disease activity

    OpenAIRE

    Zandman-Goddard, G; Blank, M.; LANGEVITZ, P.; Slutsky, L; Pras, M.; Levy, Y; Shovman, O.; Witte, T.; Doria, A.; Rovensky, J; Shoenfeld, Y

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To determine the presence of raised titres of anti-serum amyloid P component (SAP) antibodies in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and to evaluate their correlation with clinical disease by the SLEDAI and clinical manifestations.

  14. Economic feasibility study to Raise the operational capacity of the Electron Beam Accelerator at the National Centre for Radiation Research and Technology, atomic Energy Authority, Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The study aims to investigate the economic feasibility to raise the operational capacity of the accelerator at the National Center for Radiation Research and Technology, Atomic Energy Authority, Egypt, through proposal of additional processing of power cables as it have 4 thousand operating hours per year of total 6 thousand hours per year. The study involved three sections; the first section included the technical aspects and marketing, the second section was concerned with financial analysis, and the third section included the national return of the project. In the first part, the electronic and technical requirements of the accelerator were studied to raise the capacity of the accelerator and to identify the time trend of demand for services in marketing. The second section included the financial feasibility of the project which was carried out through two parts; the first part deal with the analysis of costs of the project including identifying of investment, spending, labor costs, operating expenses, the annual installment of the annual depreciation expense with the total annual costs and operating costs per hour and ton. The second part was carried out to evaluated business profitability of the project, preparation of the annual cash flow, calculation of the internal rate of return, payback period of capital, and the analysis of sensitivity of the project in terms of its ability to achieve profitable business in the event of increasing costs and decreasing revenue. The third section was carried out to raise the operational capacity of the accelerator at the Egyptian Atomic Energy Authority to generate added value for national income, and to study the social rate of return for the project and examine the project's ability to provide new employment opportunities. The study showed the possibility and the importance of the project implemented at the level of private investment and national security.

  15. Does population screening for Chlamydia trachomatis raise anxiety among those tested? Findings from a population based chlamydia screening study

    OpenAIRE

    Low Nicola; Graham Anna; Sanford Emma; Mills Nicola; Campbell Rona; Peters Tim J

    2006-01-01

    Abstract Background The advent of urine testing for Chlamydia trachomatis has raised the possibility of large-scale screening for this sexually transmitted infection, which is now the most common in the United Kingdom. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of an invitation to be screened for chlamydia and of receiving a negative result on levels of anxiety, depression and self-esteem. Methods 19,773 men and women aged 16 to 39 years, selected at random from 27 general practi...

  16. To name or not to name? An overview of the social and ethical issues raised by removing anonymity from sperm donors

    OpenAIRE

    Burr, Jennifer A.

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to focus on the ethical issues raised by the removal of anonymity from sperm donors. The increasing currency of a 'right to genetic truth' is clearly visible in the drive to revise the legislation on donor anonymity in Western and European countries. The ethical debate is polarized between the 'right to privacy' of the donor or parent and the 'right to know' of the prospective child. However, it is evident that religious, social and cultural attitudes have an overarch...

  17. Financial modeling for business owners and entrepreneurs developing Excel models to raise capital, increase cash flow, improve operations, plan projects, and make decisions

    CERN Document Server

    Sawyer, Tom Y

    2014-01-01

    Financial Modeling for Business Owners and Entrepreneurs: Developing Excel Models to Raise Capital, Increase Cash Flow, Improve Operations, Plan Projects, and Make Decisions may be one of the most important books any entrepreneur or manager in a small or medium-sized enterprise will read. It combines logical business principles and strategies with a step-by-step methodology for planning and modeling a company and solving specific business problems. You'll learn to create operational and financial models in Excel that describe the workings of your company in quantitative terms and that make it

  18. Comparison of Growth Performance of Antibiotic-free Yorkshire Crossbreds Sired by Berkshire, Large Black, and Tamworth Breeds Raised in Hoop Structures

    OpenAIRE

    Whitley, N.; Morrow, W. E. M.; See, M. T.; Oh, S. -H.

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to compare body weight, ADG, and feed:gain ratio of antibiotic-free pigs from Yorkshire dams and sired by Yorkshire (YY), Berkshire (BY), Large Black (LBY) or Tamworth (TY) boars. All the crossbred pigs in each of three trials were raised as one group from weaning to finishing in the same deep-bedded hoop, providing a comfortable environment for the animals which allowed rooting and other natural behaviors. Birth, weaning and litter weights were measured and re...

  19. Flibanserin, a potential antidepressant drug, lowers 5-HT and raises dopamine and noradrenaline in the rat prefrontal cortex dialysate: role of 5-HT1A receptors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Invernizzi, Roberto William; Sacchetti, Giuseppina; Parini, Stefania; Acconcia, Sabrina; Samanin, Rosario

    2003-01-01

    Using in vivo intracerebral microdialysis in conscious, freely moving rats, we examined the effect of flibanserin, a potential antidepressant drug with high affinity for human 5-HT1A receptors and four–50-fold lower affinity for 5-HT2A and D4 receptors, on basal extracellular concentrations of serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT), dopamine (DA) and noradrenaline (NA) in selected regions of the rat brain. Flibanserin at 3 and 10 mg kg?1 significantly reduced extracellular 5-HT in the prefrontal cortex (by 30 and 45%) and dorsal raphe (35 and 44%), but had no effect on extracellular 5-HT in the ventral hippocampus. The 3 and 10 mg kg?1 doses raised extracellular NA to a similar extent in the prefrontal cortex (47 and 50%). In all, 10 mg kg?1 raised extracellular DA in the prefrontal cortex (63%) whereas 3 mg kg?1 had no significant effect. Pretreatment with the selective 5-HT1A receptor antagonist WAY100,635 (0.3 mg kg?1) 30 min before 10 mg kg?1 flibanserin completely antagonized the latter's effects on extracellular 5-HT, DA and NA in the prefrontal cortex. WAY100,635 by itself had no effect on cortical extracellular monoamines. The results show that the stimulation of 5-HT1A receptors plays a major role in the effect of flibanserin on brain extracellular 5-HT, DA and NA. PMID:12890707

  20. Flibanserin, a potential antidepressant drug, lowers 5-HT and raises dopamine and noradrenaline in the rat prefrontal cortex dialysate: role of 5-HT(1A) receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Invernizzi, Roberto William; Sacchetti, Giuseppina; Parini, Stefania; Acconcia, Sabrina; Samanin, Rosario

    2003-08-01

    (1) Using in vivo intracerebral microdialysis in conscious, freely moving rats, we examined the effect of flibanserin, a potential antidepressant drug with high affinity for human 5-HT(1A) receptors and four-50-fold lower affinity for 5-HT(2A) and D(4) receptors, on basal extracellular concentrations of serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT), dopamine (DA) and noradrenaline (NA) in selected regions of the rat brain. (2) Flibanserin at 3 and 10 mg kg(-1) significantly reduced extracellular 5-HT in the prefrontal cortex (by 30 and 45%) and dorsal raphe (35 and 44%), but had no effect on extracellular 5-HT in the ventral hippocampus. The 3 and 10 mg kg(-1) doses raised extracellular NA to a similar extent in the prefrontal cortex (47 and 50%). In all, 10 mg kg(-1) raised extracellular DA in the prefrontal cortex (63%) whereas 3 mg kg(-1) had no significant effect. (3) Pretreatment with the selective 5-HT(1A) receptor antagonist WAY100,635 (0.3 mg kg(-1)) 30 min before 10 mg kg(-1) flibanserin completely antagonized the latter's effects on extracellular 5-HT, DA and NA in the prefrontal cortex. WAY100,635 by itself had no effect on cortical extracellular monoamines. (4) The results show that the stimulation of 5-HT(1A) receptors plays a major role in the effect of flibanserin on brain extracellular 5-HT, DA and NA. PMID:12890707

  1. Incorporation of Student-Centered, Practical Applications of Geographic Information Systems to Raise Awareness and Generate Solutions for Local Environmental Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilsley, N. A.; Love, C. A.; Minster, J. B. H.

    2014-12-01

    Geographic Information Systems (GIS) offer a plethora of applications for numerous fields, from geological sciences to urban planning. Therefore, developing a practical GIS curriculum for students from a diverse selection of majors can be challenging, especially since time constraints presented by the course term limit the number of projects that can cater to each student's academic focus. However, open ended assignments that allow students the freedom to personalize their projects present an opportunity to teach the universal functionality of GIS, as well as stimulate curiosity of students from all backgrounds by allowing them to tailor a project to their personal interests. During an introductory GIS course at the University of California, San Diego, projects prompted students to utilize ArcGIS in ways of their choice that raised awareness of local environmental issues, as well as encouraged students to incorporate environmentally sustainable practices into their lives. In view of the frequently stated interest of students to enter careers where they can use their newly learned GIS skills, the educational platform of choice is ESRI's ArcGIS, but the choice of platform remains flexible. As GIS resources become more accessible with the development of programs such as OpenGIS and OpenStreetMap, the potential for GIS to effectively communicate environmental issues to the public is growing fast. Incorporating these environmental issues into a curriculum not only allows students to personalize their education, but also raises awareness of such problems and provides students with the ability to communicate those issues using GIS.

  2. Effect of culture season and stocking density on the growth and production of giant freshwater prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii de Ma raised in northern Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo P. Baysa

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the effects of culture season and different stocking density on productivity of freshwater prawn that was raised in northern Thailand. The experiment was conducted at the Faculty of Fisheries Technology and Aquatic Resources, Maejo University, Chiang Mai, Thailand. This study was divided into two experiments; each treatment was replicated three times. The first experiment investigated the effect of climatic condition on the culture and production of freshwater prawn post larvae (PL 10; mean weight of 0.02 g stocked in 400m2 ponds. Results of the first experiment revealed freshwater prawn raised during the dry season to summer obtained higher growth rate (0.19 g and 0.15 g/day and survival rate (34.27% and 24.49% than that of summer to rainy season (p<0.05. The second experiment investigated the effect of 2 different socking densities (25 and 50 individuals/m2 on the production survival of freshwater prawn. Results showed that the rate of growth, survival rate, and production, were much higher at a stocking density of 25 individuals/m2 (p<0.05 in contrast to 50 individuals/m2. Growth performances of freshwater prawns were triggered by stocking density and season.

  3. An international team of scientists said Friday they have observed through experiments a phenomenon that strongly confronts the existing standard on particle physics, raising the prospect of a discovery of a new set of elementary particles

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    An international team of scientists said Friday they have observed through experiments a phenomenon that strongly confronts the existing standard on particle physics, raising the prospect of a discovery of a new set of elementary particles

  4. Will we wake up to biodiversity?: The International Year of Biodiversity has failed to raise awareness or halt decline as economic crises and political interests have sidelined the environment

    OpenAIRE

    Wolinsky, Howard

    2011-01-01

    Looking back on the International Year of Biodiversity, some conservationists hope that it has raised awareness, if nothing else. Even so, many scientists remain pessimistic about our efforts to halt biodiversity decline.

  5. Late quaternary uplift and subsidence of the west coast of Tanna, south Vanuatu, southwest Pacific: U-Th ages of raised coral reefs in the Median Sedimentary Basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Twelve Late Quaternary TIMS U-Th ages are reported here from 10 coral samples collected in situ from five transgressive coral/algal raised reefs (height: max. 113m, min. 8m) and two raised lagoonal deposits (height: max. 18 m, min. 8 m) along and near the west coast of Tanna, which lies in the Median Sedimentary Basin of South Vanuatu, southwest Pacific. These reefs and raised lagoonal deposits represent several age groups: (i) 215ka (marine oxygen-isotope stage 7) penultimate interglacial (highest elevation and oldest); (ii) one lagoonal deposit of ca 127 ka (marine oxygen-isotope stage 5e); (iii) three last interglacial reefs with ages 102, 89 and 81 ka (representing marine oxygen-isotope stages 5c, 5b and 5a, respectively, of the latter part of the last interglacial); (iv) a lagoonal deposit with a 92 ka age (5b); and (v) a Holocene reef (age >5.7-5.0 ka) (lowest elevation and youngest). A ca 4.9 ka regressive reef (at elevation of 1.5 m above sea-level) is consistent with an island-wide 6.5m uplift (probably largely coseismic), and a probable further island-wide uplift-occurred in the late Holocene. The U-series ages taken together with the heights of transgressive reefs show that uplift since 215 ka was, on average, at -0.52 mm/y, although since 5 ka the uplift rate was, on average, ?1.6 mm/y (the assumption being that a 1.5 m above sea-level reef has a coseismic origin) Elevation of transgressive reefs 5a, 5b and 5c and their ages indicates an island-wide subsidence during the period ?124-89 ka (i.e. Late Quaternary uplift/subsidence was jerky). Late Quaternary uplift/subsidence on the northwest coast of Tanna is considered to be due to irregular thickness of crust being subducted beneath Tanna. Copyright (2003) Geological Society of Australia

  6. EFFICIENT MICROPROPAGATION AND EVALUATION OF GENETIC FIDELITY OF IN VITRO RAISED PLANTS OF COMMIPHORA WIGHTII ARN. (BHANDARI – A MEDICINALLY IMPORTANT RED-LISTED SPECIES OF ARID REGIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PARMAR ASHOK KUMAR

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available A refined and an efficient protocol for in vitro clonal propagation of Commiphora wightii, a red-listed desert plant of medicinal importance, has been developed from nodal segment of mature plant. Nodal segments from new branches having 6-7 nodes were excised after discarding the initial 5-6 cm terminal portion and were surface sterilized with 2.5% NaOCl (sodium hypochlorite, (v/v. MS medium [MURASHIGE & SKOOG, 1962] with different concentrations of BAP (6-benzylaminopurine was used alone and in combinations with IAA (indole-3-acetic acid, NAA (?-naphthalene acetic acid, Kn (kinetin and other additives for shoot induction. Best bud break response (84.5% was obtained on MS medium supplemented with 8.88 µM BAP, 0.57 µM IAA and additives (50 mg l-1 ascorbic acid, 25 mg l-1 citric acid and 25 mg l-1 adenine sulphate within 2 weeks of inoculation. The micro-shoots were subcultured and maintained for further elongation on the same medium for 4 weeks. Best shoot multiplication was obtained on same medium as used for shoot initiation. Best rooting was obtained when the shoots were initially given a 24 h pulse treatment in liquid MS medium supplemented with 4.92 µM IBA (indole-3-butyric acid and 5.71 µM IAA under dark condition, followed by transfer to semi-solid half-strength hormone-free MS medium supplemented with 2% (w/v sucrose and 0.5% (w/v activated charcoal. High (86.7% percent rooting was achieved after 4-5 weeks with 3-4 multiple adventitious roots of 5-6 cm length. These in vitro raised well rooted plantlets were acclimatized in a two step manner. During in vitro hardening step, the survival was 61.5% and during ex vitro hardening step it was 100%. Hardened plants (10-12 cm in height were transferred to polythene-bags filled with mixture of soil and FYM in the ratio of 2:1 (v/v and were kept in 75% agro-net shade for one month, where they gained height up to 60 cm. Five month old hardened plants were planted in open field condition for evaluation of these tissue cultured raised plants. There is cent percent survival of these field grown plants over period of two years with no visible morphological abnormalities. Genetic fidelity test was carried out for these in vitro raised plants by using RAPD primers (OPA and OPN. Uniform banding pattern was observed in all plants without any polymorphism.

  7. Lost in Translation? Challenges and Opportunities for Raising Health and Safety Awareness among a Multinational Workforce in the United Arab Emirates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loney, Tom; Cooling, Robert Fletcher; Aw, Tar-Ching

    2012-12-01

    The United Arab Emirates (UAE) has experienced tremendous economic and industrial growth in the petroleum, airline, maritime and construction sectors, especially since the discovery of oil reserves. Mass recruitment of low skilled or unskilled laborers from less-developed countries has been utilized to satisfy the manpower demands of these fast paced industrial developments. Such workforce recruitment has created an unusual populace demographic, with the total UAE population estimated at 8.3 million, composed of 950,000 Emiratis, with the remainder being multinational expatriate workers, with varying educational qualifications, work experience, religious beliefs, cultural practices, and native languages. These unique characteristics pose a challenge for health and safety professionals tasked with ensuring the UAE workforce adheres to specific occupational health and safety procedures. The paper discusses two case studies that employ a novel multimedia approach to raising health and safety awareness among a multinational workforce. PMID:23251846

  8. Fungos anaeróbios do rúmen de bovinos e caprinos de corte criados em pastagens tropicais / Ruminal anaerobic fungi of beef cattle and beef goats raised on tropical pastures

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    F.O., Abrão; S.M.P., Barreto; L.C., Geraseev; E.R., Duarte.

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available [...] Abstract in english The presence of anaerobic fungi structures was evaluated in ruminal juice of beef goats and beef cattle raised in the North of Minas Gerais, Brazil. The strains were collected from 18 Anglo-Nubian crossbred male goats and 23 Nellore crossbred steers during the dry period of the year. Physical-chemic [...] al characteristics of the juice were evaluated and direct examination with KOH digestion was performed for anaerobic fungi detection. Structures of these fungi were detected in samples of 14 (77.8%) goats and 17 (73.9%) steers. The monocentric fungi frequency (56.5%) was significantly higher in cattle than polycentric fungi frequency (26.1%). This study is the first report of anaerobic ruminal fungi in these ruminants in Brazil and showed high prevalence of theses microorganisms in the ruminal ecosystem of both animals.

  9. Fungos anaeróbios do rúmen de bovinos e caprinos de corte criados em pastagens tropicais Ruminal anaerobic fungi of beef cattle and beef goats raised on tropical pastures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.O. Abrão

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The presence of anaerobic fungi structures was evaluated in ruminal juice of beef goats and beef cattle raised in the North of Minas Gerais, Brazil. The strains were collected from 18 Anglo-Nubian crossbred male goats and 23 Nellore crossbred steers during the dry period of the year. Physical-chemical characteristics of the juice were evaluated and direct examination with KOH digestion was performed for anaerobic fungi detection. Structures of these fungi were detected in samples of 14 (77.8% goats and 17 (73.9% steers. The monocentric fungi frequency (56.5% was significantly higher in cattle than polycentric fungi frequency (26.1%. This study is the first report of anaerobic ruminal fungi in these ruminants in Brazil and showed high prevalence of theses microorganisms in the ruminal ecosystem of both animals.

  10. Occurrence of infection with Toxoplasma gondii and factors associated with transmission in broiler chickens and laying hens in different raising systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia R. Millar

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Toxoplasmosis is a zoonotic disease caused by the protozoan Toxoplasma gondii. The aim of the present study was to determine the occurrence and identify the risk factors associated with transmission of T. gondii to chickens raised in different systems (free-ranged and confined to produce eggs or meat. The 810 animals were allocated in two experimental groups according to the production system purpose: 460 broiler chickens (Group 1 and 350 layer chickens (Group 2. In order to analyze the possible factors involved in T. gondii infection in the chickens, an epidemiological questionnaire was developed for all properties.The serological detection of anti-Toxoplasma gondii antibodies was performed by Indirect Immunofluorescence (IFAT and by Enzime Linked Imunossorbent Assay (ELISA. Since the agreement index (kappa between these two serological techniques was considered high, 21.2% of the 810 animals were considered reactive. In Group 1, 12.2% (56/460 were positive, while in the Group 2 the positivity rate was 33.1% (116/350. The production system may be influencing the seropositivity of the animals in both groups. However, only in Group 2 it was possible to notice a statistically significant relationship between the breeding system and the frequency of positive sera. This result indicates that, at least for laying hens, the production system is directly involved in T. gondii infection. The contact with cats in Group 1 did not influence the distribution of seroreactive animals, but in Group 2 a significant relationship was observed. The occurrence of anti-T. gondii antibodies was high in both groups (broiler and posture chickens. Free-ranged chickens raised for egg production proved to be the most exposed group to the T. gondii infection. This can be related to the fact that these animals stay for longer periods in the farms, in direct contact with possibly contaminated soil by the presence of domestic cats.

  11. ‘One of the Challenges that Can Plausibly Be Raised Against Them’? : On the Role of Truth in Debates about the Legitimacy of International Criminal Tribunals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holtermann, Jakob v. H.

    2016-01-01

    International criminal tribunals (ICTs) are epistemic engines in the sense that they find (or claim to find) factual truths about such past events that qualify as genocide, crimes against humanity and war crimes. The value of this kind of knowledge would seem to be beyond dispute. Yet, in general the truth-finding aspect of ICTs plays only a very limited role in the often heated debates about their legitimacy. Furthermore, those who actually do address the issue seem widely divided as to whether critiques of the epistemic function of ICTs in fact constitute, in Andreas Føllesdal’s words, one of ‘the challenges that can plausibly be raised against them’ – and if so, in what ways. In this paper, I address the first of these questions asking whether truth-finding should at all be considered a desideratum for ICTs. To this end, I discuss the widespread claim that it should not because the legal truth found in ICT judgements is in fact sui generis; i.e. something categorically different from ordinary truth because exclusively tied to and determined by the legal process as defined in accord-ance with ideals of due process/fair trial. I argue that this position is ill-founded. Properly under-stood, truth in law is intimately connected to ordinary truth. Truth-finding capacity therefore does belong in legitimacy debates as a challenge that can plausibly be raised against them. This, in turn makes it relevant, in future research, to map, analyse and interrelate the various critiques that have been launched against the actual truth conduciveness of ICTs.

  12. Can radiographers be trained to deliver an intervention to raise breast cancer awareness, and thereby promote early presentation of breast cancer, in older women?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aims: To assess the feasibility of training radiographers to deliver a one-to-one intervention to raise breast cancer awareness among older women. The ultimate aim is to increase the likelihood of early presentation of breast cancer by older women and improve survival from the disease. Method: Four radiographers were trained to deliver a 10-min scripted one-to-one intervention. Key elements of training included rehearsal of the intervention using role-play with actors and colleagues and practice interviews with women attending NHS breast screening clinics. All practice interventions were videotaped to facilitate positive, constructive feedback on performance. Competence to deliver the intervention was assessed on delivery of the key messages and the style of delivery. Radiographers' experiences of training and intervention delivery were collated from reflective diaries. Results: Three radiographers were assessed as competent after training and all four increased in confidence to deliver the intervention. Reported benefits to radiographers included increased awareness of communication skills and enhanced interaction with women attending breast screening. Radiographers reported challenges relating to mastering the prescriptive nature of the intervention and to delivering complex health messages within time constraints. Discussion: It was feasible but challenging for radiographers to be trained to deliver a one-to-one intervention designed to raise breast cancer awareness and thereby to promote early presentation of breast cancer. If the intervention is found to be cost-effective it may be implemented across the NHS Breast Screening Programme with diagnostic radiographers playing a key role in promoting early presentation of breast cancer.

  13. Raising resilience by tackling texts

    OpenAIRE

    Du Toit, Cecilia M.

    2010-01-01

    Globally, children living on the street is a tragic reality of city life in developing countries. Due to the death of primary caregivers in the wake of the AIDS pandemic and escalating poverty in South Africa, even more children may be forced onto the streets, resulting in an inexorable increase in social problems such as crime, violence, drug abuse, prostitution, teenage pregnancy, STDs and child exploitation. Many children, however, manage to escape, against all odds, the dir...

  14. Consciousness-Raising and Prepositions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendricks, Monica

    2010-01-01

    For a variety of reasons, learning English prepositions is notoriously difficult and a slow, gradual process for English as a Second Language (ESL) students. To begin, English prepositions typically are short, single-syllable or two-syllable words that are seldom stressed when speaking and therefore often not articulated clearly or heard…

  15. Negative Plasma Densities Raise Questions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nearly all the matter encountered on Earth is either a solid, liquid, or gas. Yet plasma-the fourth state of matter-comprises more than 99 percent of the visible universe. Understanding the physical characteristics of plasmas is important to many areas of scientific research, such as the development of fusion as a clean, renewable energy source. Lawrence Livermore scientists study the physics of plasmas in their pursuit to create fusion energy, because plasmas are an integral part of that process. When deuterium and tritium are heated to the extreme temperatures needed to achieve and sustain a fusion reaction (about 100 million degrees), the electrons in these light atoms become separated from the nuclei. This process of separation is called ionization, and the resulting collection of negatively charged free electrons and positively charged nuclei is known as a plasma. Although plasmas and gases have many similar properties, plasmas differ from gases in that they are good conductors of electricity and can generate magnetic fields. For the past decade, x-ray laser interferometry has been used in the laboratory for measuring a plasma's index of refraction to determine plasma density. (The index of refraction for a given material is defined as the wavelength of light in a vacuum divided by the wavelength of light traveling through the material.) Until now, plasma physicists expected to find an index of refraction less than one. Researchers from Livermore and Colorado State University recently conducted experiments on aluminum plasmas at the Laboratory's COMET laser facility and observed results in which the index of refraction was greater than one. This surprising result implied a negative electron density. Livermore physicist Joseph Nilsen and his colleagues from Livermore and the University of Notre Dame have performed sophisticated calculations to explain this phenomenon. Previously, researchers believed that only free electrons contributed to the index of refraction. Nilsen and his colleagues posit that bound electrons attached to the ions in plasmas can greatly affect the index of refraction and make it greater than one. Furthermore, if the effect of bound electrons is ignored when analyzing experimental results from x-ray interferometry, the electron density of plasmas may be indeterminate or significantly under- or overestimated

  16. Raising HDL cholesterol in women

    OpenAIRE

    Eapen, Danny J.; Kalra, Girish L; Luay Rifai; et. al.

    2009-01-01

    Danny J Eapen1, Girish L Kalra1, Luay Rifai1, Christina A Eapen2, Nadya Merchant1, Bobby V Khan11Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA, USA; 2University of South Florida School of Medicine, Tampa, FL, USAAbstract: High-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) concentration is essential in the determination of coronary heart disease (CHD) risk in women. This is especially true in the postmenopausal state, where lipid profiles and CHD risk mimic that of age-matched men. Thus,...

  17. Homeless healthcare: raising the standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medcalf, Pippa; Russell, Georgina K

    2014-08-01

    Over the past 3 years the number of homeless people in the UK has increased by 34%. Most will die young, largely due to treatable conditions. Secondary care can, and must, do more for the silent killer that homelessness is. PMID:25099832

  18. Question raised in the Bundestag

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Questions: 1) What does the West German Government think of the present licensing procedure for nuclear power stations. 2) To what extent has the West German Goverment investigated whether all the legal and technical regulations to be observed are mutually consistent. 3) How are the rules of scientifc and technological development applied and harmonised. 4) From what criteria are the West German Minister's guidelines derived. 5) During the long construction periods, how does one guarantee that the safety standard of the plant complies with the latest state of science and technology. 6) How does one discover the effect of constructional modifications and back fitting of the total safety related design. (HP)

  19. Driving improvements and raising efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bright, Charles

    2009-10-01

    With the new ISO 9001:2008 quality management system (QMS) superseding ISO 9001:2000, Charles Bright, BSc, MBA, principal quality consultant and medical devices lead auditor at specialist medical devices and healthcare sector consultancy Plasmed, discusses implementation of the latest standard, touching on the experience of a large English NHS acute hospital which achieved certification this March--one of only a handful of UK hospitals to have achieved the distinction to date. PMID:19911559

  20. Rethinking Bioenergy from an Agricultural Perspective: Ethical Issues Raised by Perennial Energy Crop and Crop Residue Production in the UK and Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shortall, Orla

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this project is to explore the social and ethical dimensions of the agricultural production of perennial energy crop and crop residues for energy. Biomass – any living or recently living matter – is being promoted in industrialised countries as part of the transition from fossil fuels to an economy based on renewable energy. Various challenges face the use of bioenergy however. One particularly controversial and high profile example has been the use of food crop biofuels in transport which are seen to conflict with food production and to cause significant environmental damage. Suggested ways around these controversies is the production of perennial energy crops such as grasses and trees and crop residues such as straw, which are seen to require fewer inputs and less prime land. Some have analysed the controversies raised by biofuels in terms of controversies around industrial agriculture more broadly: biofuels are perceived to be large scale, monocultural, environmentally damaging and pushed by agri-business and energy interests. This project asks what type of agriculture system perennial energy crops and crop residues are seen as developing within, if at all. This was considered worth exploring because the type of system will have a large bearing on how they are received in future. To this end a theoretical framework of different paradigms of agriculture ranging from industrial agriculture at one end to alternative agriculture at the other was developed and applied to the data. Interviews with key stakeholders and analysis of key documents in the UK and Denmark were carried out to address the question of how perennial energy crops and crop residues are seen as overcoming previous controversies raised by food crop biofuels, in terms of their place in agricultural systems. The thesis argues that stakeholder’s visions of perennial energy crops and crop residues can be understood in terms of four models of agriculture: two industrial and two alternative. These are called “industrialism lite” that involves producing perennial energy crops on marginal land; life sciences integrated agriculture including the biorefinery strategy; multifunctional perennial energy crop production on environmentally marginal land; and ecologically integrated multipurpose biomass production through agroforestry production. There is also an argument which cuts across the paradigms and maintains that regardless of the type of agricultural system used very little or no biomass should be produced for the energy sector because of the scale of resources it requires and the scale of society’s energy use. These positions can be summarised as three different ways to overcome challenges raised by food crop biofuels: further industrialise agriculture; de-industrialise agriculture; and de-industrialise agriculture and reduce society’s energy use, though biomass could still only be used to a very limited extent, if at all, in energy

  1. Densidade de estocagem e parâmetros eritrocitários de pacus criados em tanques-rede Stocking density and erythrocytic parameters of pacu raised in cages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio Bittencourt

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo neste trabalho foi avaliar o manejo, as características eritrocitárias e o nível de glicose sanguínea de pacus (Piaractus mesopotamicus estocados em diferentes densidades em tanques-rede. Foram utilizados 2.700 peixes com peso inicial de 142,11 ± 10,54 g, distribuídos em nove tanques-rede de 5 m³ de volume útil durante 240 dias. O delineamento utilizado foi o inteiramente casualizado, com três densidades (200, 300 e 400 peixes por tanque, cada uma com três repetições. Somente o peso final e o ganho de peso diminuíram com o aumento da densidade de estocagem. A biomassa final aumenta de acordo com o número de animais estocados por unidade produtiva. As densidades de criação não influenciaram o rendimento de carcaça, mas afetaram o comprimento total, que foi maior nos peixes criados em baixa densidade, que não diferiram daqueles cultivados em densidade intermediária. Os peixes criados em menor densidade apresentaram maior deposição lipídica, mas não diferiram significativamente daqueles estocados em densidade intermediária. As variáveis eritrocitárias, como eritrócitos totais, hemoglobina, hematócrito, volume corpuscular médio e concentrações de hemoglobina corpuscular média e de hemoglobina corpuscular média, não apresentaram diferenças estatísticas entre as densidades utilizadas e permaneceram na faixa normal para a espécie. Os níveis de glicose no sangue não diferiram significativamente entre as densidades trabalhadas. A densidade de estocagem não influencia os parâmetros eritrocitários, o nível de glicose nem o rendimento de carcaça de pacus. A densidade de 200 peixes/tanque resulta em maior peso final e ganho de peso, porém reduz a produtividade por área e aumenta a deposição lipídica dos peixes.The aim of this study was to evaluate management, erythrocyte features and blood glucose level of pacu (Piaractus mesopotamicus, stocked at different densities in cages. It was used 2,700 fish with initial average weight of142.11 ± 10.54 g distributed in nine cages of 5 m³ of useful volume during 240 days. A complete random design was used, with three densities (200, 300 and 400 fish per cage, each one with three replicates. Only final weight and weight gain decreased with the increase of stocking density. Final biomass increase according to the number of animals stocked per productive unit. Densities of farming did not influence carcass yield, but they affected total length, which was higher in fish raised in low density, which did not differ from those raised in intermediate density. Fish raised in lower density showed the greatest lipid deposition, but they did not significantly differ from those stocked in intermediate density. Erythrocyte variables like total erythrocytes, hemoglobin, hematocrit, average corpuscular volume, average corpuscular hemoglobin concentrations and average corpuscular hemoglobin did not present statistical differences among the used densities and they remain in the normal range for the species. Levels of glucose in the blood did not differ significantly among the analyzed densities. Stocking densities do not influence erythrocyte parameters, glucose level neither carcass yields of pacu fish. Density 200 fish/cage results in higher final weight and weight gain; however, it reduces productivity per area and increases lipid deposition of the fish.

  2. Densidade de estocagem e parâmetros eritrocitários de pacus criados em tanques-rede / Stocking density and erythrocytic parameters of pacu raised in cages

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Fábio, Bittencourt; Aldi, Feiden; Arcangelo Augusto, Signor; Wilson Rogério, Boscolo; Evandro Kleber, Lorenz; Márcia Luzia Ferrarezi, Maluf.

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo neste trabalho foi avaliar o manejo, as características eritrocitárias e o nível de glicose sanguínea de pacus (Piaractus mesopotamicus) estocados em diferentes densidades em tanques-rede. Foram utilizados 2.700 peixes com peso inicial de 142,11 ± 10,54 g, distribuídos em nove tanques-red [...] e de 5 m³ de volume útil durante 240 dias. O delineamento utilizado foi o inteiramente casualizado, com três densidades (200, 300 e 400 peixes por tanque), cada uma com três repetições. Somente o peso final e o ganho de peso diminuíram com o aumento da densidade de estocagem. A biomassa final aumenta de acordo com o número de animais estocados por unidade produtiva. As densidades de criação não influenciaram o rendimento de carcaça, mas afetaram o comprimento total, que foi maior nos peixes criados em baixa densidade, que não diferiram daqueles cultivados em densidade intermediária. Os peixes criados em menor densidade apresentaram maior deposição lipídica, mas não diferiram significativamente daqueles estocados em densidade intermediária. As variáveis eritrocitárias, como eritrócitos totais, hemoglobina, hematócrito, volume corpuscular médio e concentrações de hemoglobina corpuscular média e de hemoglobina corpuscular média, não apresentaram diferenças estatísticas entre as densidades utilizadas e permaneceram na faixa normal para a espécie. Os níveis de glicose no sangue não diferiram significativamente entre as densidades trabalhadas. A densidade de estocagem não influencia os parâmetros eritrocitários, o nível de glicose nem o rendimento de carcaça de pacus. A densidade de 200 peixes/tanque resulta em maior peso final e ganho de peso, porém reduz a produtividade por área e aumenta a deposição lipídica dos peixes. Abstract in english The aim of this study was to evaluate management, erythrocyte features and blood glucose level of pacu (Piaractus mesopotamicus), stocked at different densities in cages. It was used 2,700 fish with initial average weight of142.11 ± 10.54 g distributed in nine cages of 5 m³ of useful volume during 2 [...] 40 days. A complete random design was used, with three densities (200, 300 and 400 fish per cage), each one with three replicates. Only final weight and weight gain decreased with the increase of stocking density. Final biomass increase according to the number of animals stocked per productive unit. Densities of farming did not influence carcass yield, but they affected total length, which was higher in fish raised in low density, which did not differ from those raised in intermediate density. Fish raised in lower density showed the greatest lipid deposition, but they did not significantly differ from those stocked in intermediate density. Erythrocyte variables like total erythrocytes, hemoglobin, hematocrit, average corpuscular volume, average corpuscular hemoglobin concentrations and average corpuscular hemoglobin did not present statistical differences among the used densities and they remain in the normal range for the species. Levels of glucose in the blood did not differ significantly among the analyzed densities. Stocking densities do not influence erythrocyte parameters, glucose level neither carcass yields of pacu fish. Density 200 fish/cage results in higher final weight and weight gain; however, it reduces productivity per area and increases lipid deposition of the fish.

  3. Recria de rã-touro (Rana catesbeiana) em tanques-rede alojados em viveiros de tilápia / Raising bullfrogs (Rana catesbeiana) in cages placed in tilapia ponds

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    R.M.R., Sousa; C.A., Agostinho; F.A., Oliveira; D., Argentim; L.C., Oliveira; F.S., Wechsler; S.M.M., Agostinho.

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available No Brasil, os sistemas de criação de rãs (confinamento, anfigranja, inundado) utilizam um volume de água insuficiente para a manutenção da estabilidade térmica, e a baixa renovação prejudica a qualidade da água. Neste trabalho foi proposto a criação de rãs em tanques-rede distribuídos em viveiros co [...] m grande estabilidade térmica. O experimento consistiu em avaliar o desempenho produtivo de rãs-touro alojadas em tanques-rede de 1 m³, nas densidades de: 28, 56 e 84 animais por tanque-rede, alimentadas com ração fornecida por dispensador automático. Nos viveiros de 72 m² utilizaram-se duas densidades de tilápias (200 e 300 peixes por viveiro). O período experimental foi de 105 dias para as tilápias (maio a agosto) e de 60 dias para as rãs (julho e agosto). Não foram observadas diferenças significativas no desem-penho das rãs para as diferentes densidades. A utilização de 200 tilápias por viveiro melhorou o ganho de peso dos peixes e a concentração de oxigênio dissolvido da água, comparado com a densidade de 300 peixes por viveiro. Este novo sistema de criação proporcionou um ambiente adequado para as rãs com ganho de peso e ausência de mortalidade durante o inverno. Abstract in english Brazilian systems for raising bullfrogs (concrete enclosure, concrete enclosure with feed dispenser and shelter, flooded enclosure) do not use enough water to keep temperature stable, and the low rate of water renewal hinders water quality. In this article we propose raising frogs in cages placed in [...] fish ponds having high thermal stability. The experiment consisted in evaluating the productive performance of bullfrogs housed in 1 m³ cages at the densities of 28, 56 or 84 animals/ cage, fed a ration delivered by an automatic dispenser. Each pond was 72 m² large. Two fish densities were used (200 or 300 tilapias/pond). The experimental period lasted 105 days for tilapias (May-August) and 60 days for frogs (July-August). No significant differences among densities were observed for frog performance. Using 200 tilapias/ pond improved fish weight gain and dissolved oxygen concentration, as compared to 300 tilapias/ pond. This new rearing system provided an adequate environment for frogs, as there was weight gain and zero mortality during winter.

  4. Perfil lipídico e composição química de tilápias nilóticas em diferentes condições de cultivo Lipid profile and chemical composition of Nile tilapia under different raising conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antônio Carlos Silveira Gonçalves

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se com este trabalho avaliar o perfil lipídico e a composição química dos filés de tilápia nilótica (Oreochromis niloticus mantida em três condições de cultivo, por um período de 120 dias. Foram utilizados 2075 machos sexados de tilápia, distribuídos em dois tanques de terra e um tanque de alvenaria. Os tratamentos aplicados foram: dieta base em tanque de alvenaria; dieta base em tanque de terra e alimentação natural por meio de fertilização química e orgânica em tanque de terra. O delineamento experimental foi inteiramente casualizado, com três tratamentos e dez repetições. Os parâmetros avaliados foram: identificação do plâncton, perfil de ácidos graxos e teores de umidade, proteína bruta, extrato etéreo e cinzas dos filés. Os dados obtidos foram submetidos à análise de variância e as médias dos tratamentos foram comparadas pelo teste de Tukey (5% de significância. Foram encontrados cinco gêneros distintos de zooplâncton e quatro gêneros de fitoplâncton predominantes. Os resultados demonstraram não haver diferença estatística para o teor de umidade e cinzas dos filés. Porém, os animais mantidos no sistema fertilizado apresentaram filés com maior teor de proteína bruta e menor teor lipídico, além de uma melhor relação ômega-3/ômega-6, com maiores quantidades de DHA (ácido graxo docosahexaenóico.This study aimed to evaluate the lipid profile and the chemical composition of the fillets of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus maintained under three raising conditions, for a period of 120 days. A total of 2075 sexed males of tilapia were utilized, allotted into two ponds and one alvenaria pond. The applied treatments were: feeding with a basal diet in the alvenaria pond; feeding with the basal diet in the earthen pond and natural feeding through chemical and organic fertilization. The experimental design was in a completely randomized design, with three treatments and ten replicates. The evaluated parameters were: identification of plankton, profile of fatty acids and contents of moisture, crude protein, etereo extract and ashes of the fillets. The data were subjected to analysis of variance and the means of the treatments were evaluated by Tukey´s test (5% of significance. A total of five predominant distinct genera of zooplankton and four genera of phytoplankton were found. The results shown any statistical differences for the moisture and ashes contents of the fillets over all treatments tested. Therefore only the animals raised under the fertilization system shown increased crude protein content and decreased lipid content. The fatty acid profile of the fillets shown better omega-3/omega-6 ratio, with higher amounts of docosahexaenoic fatty acid in fertilization system.

  5. Raised levels of metal ions in the blood in patients who have undergone uncemented metal-on-polyethylene Trident-Accolade total hip replacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig, P; Bancroft, G; Burton, A; Collier, S; Shaylor, P; Sinha, A

    2014-01-01

    The issues surrounding raised levels of metal ions in the blood following large head metal-on-metal total hip replacement (THR), such as cobalt and chromium, have been well documented. Despite the national popularity of uncemented metal-on-polyethylene (MoP) THR using a large-diameter femoral head, few papers have reported the levels of metal ions in the blood following this combination. Following an isolated failure of a 44 mm Trident-Accolade uncemented THR associated with severe wear between the femoral head and the trunnion in the presence of markedly elevated levels of cobalt ions in the blood, we investigated the relationship between modular femoral head diameter and the levels of cobalt and chromium ions in the blood following this THR. A total of 69 patients received an uncemented Trident-Accolade MoP THR in 2009. Of these, 43 patients (23 men and 20 women, mean age 67.0 years) were recruited and had levels of cobalt and chromium ions in the blood measured between May and June 2012. The patients were then divided into three groups according to the diameter of the femoral head used: 12 patients in the 28 mm group (controls), 18 patients in the 36 mm group and 13 patients in the 40 mm group. A total of four patients had identical bilateral prostheses in situ at phlebotomy: one each in the 28 mm and 36 mm groups and two in the 40 mm group. There was a significant increase in the mean levels of cobalt ions in the blood in those with a 36 mm diameter femoral head compared with those with a 28 mm diameter head (p = 0.013). The levels of cobalt ions in the blood were raised in those with a 40 mm diameter head but there was no statistically significant difference between this group and the control group (p = 0.152). The levels of chromium ions in the blood were normal in all patients. The clinical significance of this finding is unclear, but we have stopped using femoral heads with a diameter of ? 36 mm, and await further larger studies to clarify whether, for instance, this issue particularly affects this combination of components. PMID:24395309

  6. Mobilidade de solutos em colunas de solo com água residuária doméstica e de suinocultura / Displacement of solutes in soil columns with domestic and swine raising wastewater

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Joelma S. dos, Santos; Vera L. A. de, Lima; João C. F., Borges Júnior; Leda V. B. D., Silva; Carlos A. V. de, Azevedo.

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de avaliar o fator de retardamento, coeficiente de dispersão-difusão e curva de efluente dos íons cálcio, magnésio, sódio e potássio das águas residuárias de origem doméstica tratada e de suinocultura, realizou-se um experimento em laboratório com colunas de solos Argissolo Vermelho A [...] marelo e Neossolo Regolítico. Com o auxílio de frascos de Mariotte cerca de dois volumes de poros de água destilada foram passados nas colunas; em seguida, interligou-se outro frasco contendo as águas residuárias, doméstica e da suinocultura, o que lixiviou 3,75 volume de poros divididos em 25 alíquotas, totalizando 600 amostras. Os resultados permitiram concluir que os fatores de retardamento foram mais altos para o sódio no solo Argissolo Vermelho Amarelo e para o íon magnésio no Neossolo Regolítico, lixiviados com água residuária doméstica tratada. Em referência à água residuária da suinocultura, os maiores valores foram calculados para o íon magnésio, nos dois solos; quanto aos coeficientes de dispersão-difusão, os maiores valores foram registrados no Neossolo Regolítico, independentemente do tipo de água utilizada. Abstract in english With the objective of evaluating the parameters of transport retardation factor, dispersion-diffusion coefficient and effluent curves of the íons calcium, magnesium, sodium and potassium, present in domestic and swine raising wastewater, an experiment was conducted in laboratory with columns of Red [...] Yellow Argisol and Regolithic Fluvisol. With the aid of flasks of Mariotte around two pore volumes of distilled water were passed in the columns; soon after, another flask was interconnected containing the wastewaters which leached 3.75 volume of pores divided in 25 aliqnot, totaling 600 samples. The obtained results lead to the conclussion that the retardation factors were higher for the sodium in the Red Yellow Argisol and for the magnesium in Regolithic Fluvisol leached with treated domestic wastewater. In reference to the swine raising wastewater, the largest values were calculated for the ion magnesium, in the two soils; as for the dispersion-diffusion coefficients, the highest values were observed for Regolithic Fluvisol, independent of the type of water.

  7. Pesquisa de oocistos de Isospora spp. em passeriformes criados em cativeiro / Screening for Isospora spp. oocysts in passeriformes raised in captivity

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Deuvânia Carvalho da, Silva; Camila Guariz, Homem; Alex Akira, Nakamura; Valéria Cristina da, Silva; Marcelo Vasconcelos, Meireles.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available O presente estudo teve como objetivo pesquisar, em longo prazo, a presença de oocistos de Isospora spp. em várias espécies de passeriformes, naturalmente infectadas, criadas em cativeiro. Foram colhidas 289 amostras em dois criatórios de passeriformes, onde houve comprovação prévia de infecção por I [...] sospora, nos quais havia alojamento de várias espécies de passeriformes adultos. As amostras foram colhidas de forma individual, com periodicidade mensal, por 13 meses, purificadas em solução de Sheather e examinadas por microscopia. Das 289 amostras, 159 (55,02%) apresentaram positividade para oocistos de Isospora e 130 (44,98%) foram negativas. Na maioria das aves analisadas foi observada eliminação de oocistos, em pequena quantidade, intermitente e por período prolongado. Apesar de todas as aves apresentarem oocistos de Isospora nas fezes pelo menos uma vez, em um período de 13 meses, as aves não apresentaram isosporose clínica. Os resultados observados neste experimento fornecem dados para o controle da isosporose em passeriformes criados em cativeiro. As decisões sobre a realização de tratamento profilático ou curativo, assim como sobre medidas higiênico-sanitárias a serem adotadas devem levar em consideração não somente a presença de parasito em fezes, mas também a intensidade de eliminação de oocistos, ssim como a avaliação do manejo higiênico sanitário e nutricional e a presença de sinais clínicos e/ou de mortalidade. Abstract in english This study aimed to research the long-term shedding of Isospora spp. oocysts in several species of passerines naturally infected and kept in captivity. Two hundred and eighty-nine fecal samples were collected from two flocks with previous diagnosis of isosporosis, in which several adult passerine sp [...] ecies were raised. Samples were collected individually, monthly, for 13 months, purified in Sheather's sugar solution and examined using microscopy. Of the 289 samples, 159 (55.02%) were positive for Isospora spp. oocysts and 130 (44.98%) were negative. Most of the birds analyzed shed oocysts in small quantity (score 1), intermittently and for a long period. Despite the occurrence of Isospora infection, the birds that were analysed showed no clinical isosporosis. The results of this research provide data for the control of isosporosis in passerines raised in captivity. The decisions about performing prophylactic or curative treatment, as well as decisions related to hygiene and sanitary measures must take into account not only the presence of the parasite in feces, but also the intensity of oocysts shedding, as well as evaluation of sanitary and nutritional management and the presence of clinical signs and/or mortality.

  8. A comparison of woody browse selection by hand-raised, boma-adapted and wild black rhinoceros, Diceros bicornis, L. in Matusadona National Park, Zimbabwe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Matipano

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Differences in woody browse selection between hand-raised (and subsequently released, boma-adapted and wild black rhinoceros, Diceros bicornis, L. were studied in Matusadona National Park between December 1999 and July 2000. Boma-adapted rhinoceros were animals that were subjected to hand-raising and were kept in bomas (enclosures over night. The feeding behaviour was different between the three rhinoceros groups. All rhinoceros groups utilised and selected for a few browse species in common, at different preference levels in the same habitat types according to season. Wild rhinoceroses browsed most in Colophospermum-Terminalia-Combretum woodland in the wet season and in thicket in the dry season. Hand-raised rhinoceroses browsed most in Colophospermum-Terminalia-Combretum woodland and boma-adated rhinos in thickets in both the wet and the early dry seasons. Hand-raised and bomaadapted rhinos changed their habitats less for browse selection than wild rhinos. This can be ascribed to a relative restriction of home range in the hand-raised group and a herding effect for the boma-adapted animals. These situations might have accounted for differences in seasonal browse selection by the rhinoceros groups.

  9. Charge ahead : London's fee for driving in the city centre raises money, reduces traffic and is a model for Canadian cities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sainsbury, B.

    2006-07-01

    This article presented details of London's city congestion charge, with reference to its suitability for North American cities. All private cars entering London between the hours of 7:00 and 18:30 are subject to a charge equivalent to CND$11. The program has surpassed initial expectations, and has raised the equivalent of CDN$215 million in 30 months of operation. Overall traffic congestion has been reduced by over 20 per cent. Benefits of the program include faster journey times; lower greenhouse gas emissions; and more reliable commuting habits for workers. The success of the program was attributed to an already excellent public transport system, a public weary of traffic jams, and the charisma and persuasiveness of London's current mayor. Since February 2003, London has registered a reputed 12 per cent fall in atmospheric pollution. Evidence has suggested that some commuters are switching over to hybrids and other cleaner cars in order to make use of the discounts and schemes offered to more fuel-efficient vehicles. However, car dependency is more ingrained in North America, and public transportation is poor. Significant political leadership and grassroots support will be needed if federal and provincial planners in Canada attempt to follow London's footsteps. Pollution alone should be sufficient reason to prompt administrators to follow a similar course of action. 1 fig.

  10. Heel raises versus prefabricated orthoses in the treatment of posterior heel pain associated with calcaneal apophysitis (Sever's Disease: a randomised control trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Williams Cylie M

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Posterior Heel pain can present in children of 8 to 14 years, associated with or clinically diagnosed as Sever's disease, or calcaneal apophysitis. Presently, there are no comparative randomised studies evaluating treatment options for posterior heel pain in children with the clinical diagnosis of calcaneal apophysitis or Sever's disease. This study seeks to compare the clinical efficacy of some currently employed treatment options for the relief of disability and pain associated with posterior heel pain in children. Method Design: Factorial 2 × 2 randomised controlled trial with monthly follow-up for 3 months. Participants: Children with clinically diagnosed posterior heel pain possibly associated with calcaneal apophysitis/Sever's disease (n = 124. Interventions: Treatment factor 1 will be two types of shoe orthoses: a heel raise or prefabricated orthoses. Both of these interventions are widely available, mutually exclusive treatment approaches that are relatively low in cost. Treatment factor 2 will be a footwear prescription/replacement intervention involving a shoe with a firm heel counter, dual density EVA midsole and rear foot control. The alternate condition in this factor is no footwear prescription/replacement, with the participant wearing their current footwear. Outcomes: Oxford Foot and Ankle Questionnaire and the Faces pain scale. Discussion This will be a randomised trial to compare the efficacy of various treatment options for posterior heel pain in children that may be associated with calcaneal apophysitis also known as Sever's disease. Trial Registration Trial Number: ACTRN12609000696291 Ethics Approval Southern Health: HREC Ref: 09271B

  11. A Development of the astronomical teaching materials which raise a student's time and and space concept by using of movement of the Moon, the Earth and the Sun

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taketa, I.; Matsumoto, I.

    2013-12-01

    In recent years, such as a return of the asteroid probe in 2010 "Hayabusa", a gold ring solar eclipse in 2012, and solar Face passage of Venus in 2012, there were many astronomical phenomena which pull a not only child but also citizen's interest, and they were greatly reported by the media in Japan. Thus, it is thought that the interest and concern about the universe of a child and a citizen are increasing. However, the earth science contents of a subject, such as the universe in school education are fields that it make comparatively poor at a teacher. So, this research aimed at the Development of the new space education teaching material which is easy to treat the teacher who has consciousness weak to the astronomical field at schools, and raise a child's time and space concepts. We did this research using the following Methods. 1) We carried out the questionnaire to the primary teacher of the Matsue city, and performed the opinion poll to a teacher's astronomical field. 2) We considered the subject on the education of the astronomical teaching materials used now. 3) As mentioned above 1) and 2), We developed the teaching materials which the waxing and waning of the moon based on the acquired content.

  12. "Vamos criar seu filho": os médicos puericultores e a pedagogia materna no século XX / "Let's raise your child": puericulture doctors and maternal pedagogy in the twentieth century

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Ana Paula Vosne, Martins.

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Analisa a produção da literatura médica de aconselhamento para as mães com o objetivo de ensiná-las a criar seus filhos. Tratando de assuntos como alimentação, vestuário, higiene e comportamento, os médicos puericultores acreditavam que somente o amor não era suficiente para uma boa formação e educa [...] ção dos filhos. Como portadores da verdade científica e da técnica, os médicos procuraram ensinar as mães a seguirem os princípios da puericultura, contribuindo sobremaneira para a constituição da mãe-enfermeira, ideal preconizado pelos autores de três manuais publicados entre 1938 e 1963. Abstract in english The article addresses the production of medical literature that offered advice on how mothers should raise their children. Doctors specializing in puericulture - educating mothers about topics like food, dress, hygiene, and behavior - believed that love alone was not enough to provide children with [...] good training and education. As representatives of scientific truth and technique, these doctors tried to teach mothers to act according to the principles of puericulture, contributing primarily to the construction of the mother-nurse, an ideal endorsed by the authors of the three manuals published between 1938 and 1963 that are analyzed in this article.

  13. Optimization of metacercarial production for three digenean species by the use of petri dishes for raising lettuce-fed Galba truncatula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rondelaud, D; Fousi, M; Vignoles, P; Moncef, M; Dreyfuss, G

    2007-03-01

    Experimental infections of Galba truncatula with Fasciola hepatica, Fascioloides magna, or Paramphistomum daubneyi were carried out at 20 degrees C to determine if the use of 14-cm petri dishes for breeding lettuce-fed snails enhanced the characteristics of snail infections. Compared to infected snails raised in boxes up to day 30 post-exposure and later in individual 35-mm dishes, the survival of G. truncatula kept in 14-cm dishes and the shell height of cercariae-shedding snails during the first 45 days were higher, whatever the digenean species is. The consequence of such enhanced characteristics was a greater production of metacercariae in the case of F. hepatica (1.7 to 5.6 times higher) and P. daubneyi (2.3 times). In contrast, metacercariae of F. magna were few in number, whatever the method of snail breeding is, and this might be explained by a still incomplete adaptation between the parasite of Czech origin and the French population of G. truncatula. The use of these 14-cm dishes reduced the time necessary for snail maintenance and metacercaria collection, thus allowing a decrease in the cost price of these larvae for commercial production. PMID:17061111

  14. Relative economic benefits of tactical anthelmintic treatment and urea-molasses block supplementation of Boer goats raised under extensive grazing conditions at Onderstepoort, Pretoria, South Africa

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    A.F., Vatta; R.C., Krecek; R.A., Pearson; M.F., Smith; M.O., Stenson; E.F., Van Wijk; L.J.S., Harrison.

    Full Text Available The potential economic benefits of combining tactical anthelmintic treatment for gastrointestinal nematodes and nutritional supplementation with urea-molasses blocks were examined in Boer goats raised under extensive grazing conditions in the summer rainfall area of South Africa. Eight groups of nin [...] e goats were monitored over a 12-month period from 1 October 2002 to 9 October 2003. Ad libitum nutritional supplementation with urea-molasses blocks was provided when the goats were housed at night, during the summer (wet season-December 2002 to February 2003), and/or the winter (dry season-June 2003 to August 2003). All the goats were treated symptomatically for Haemonchus contortus infection when deemed necessary by clinical examination of the conjunctiva for anaemia using the FAMACHA© system. Half the groups were tactically treated for gastrointestinal nematodes in mid-summer (28 January 2003). Under the symptomatic treatment, climatic and extensive grazing conditions encountered during the trial, feed supplementation in the winter dry season had the greatest economic benefit and is therefore recommended. Tactical anthelmintic treatment afforded no additional advantage, but the nematode challenge was low.

  15. Raising Hyperimmune Serum Against Avian Paramyxo Virus (APMV-1 and Pigeon Paramyxovirus (PPMV-l in Rabbits and Their Cross Reactivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Samiullah

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Polyclonal antibodies against avian paramyxovirus-1 (APMV-1 and pigeon paramyxovirus-1 (PPMV-1 were raised in rabbits to examine their diagnostic efficacy against APMV-1 and PPMV-1 infections in birds. Rabbits were divided into two groups A (immunized with APMV-1 and group B (immunized with PPMV-1. An antibody titer of 1:1024 group A against APMV-1 antigen and group B against PPMV-1 antigen were found 1:1024. While final titer of group A was found 1:256 against PPMV-1 and for group B, 1:512 against APMV-1. This study suggests that it is possible to diagnose Newcastle disease and its type by the use of these polyclonal antibodies from the field out breaks. However, the subjected serum must be examined with both antiseras. This will only suggest the type of infection. By the use of these polyclonal antibodies screening at large scale can be done and samples can be selected for further diagnosis using advanced techniques. This will in turn save time and expensive foreign exchange.

  16. Raising livestock in resource-poor communities of the North West Province of South Africa--a participatory rural appraisal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Getchell, J K; Vatta, A F; Motswatswe, P W; Krecek, R C; Moerane, R; Pell, A N; Tucker, T W; Leshomo, S

    2002-12-01

    A participatory research model was used in six village communities in the Central Region of the North West Province of South Africa in order to achieve the following broad objectives: to obtain information on the challenges owners face in raising livestock in these areas and to evaluate the livestock owners' level of knowledge of internal parasites in their animals. Information obtained at participatory workshops clearly indicated a need for improvements in water supply, schools, job creation, and health services. Lack of pasture for grazing livestock was also cited as being important. Other most frequently mentioned livestock problems included 'gall sickness' (a vaguely defined condition not necessarily referring to anaplasmosis), parasites (both external and internal), chicken diseases and ingestion of plastic bags discarded in the environment. When livestock owners were questioned during individual interviews, most were able to identify the presence of parasites in either the live or dead animal. However, it seems likely that this is limited to the identification of tapeworms. It was found that most livestock owners use a combination of treatments, ranging from traditional to folklore to commercial. There were some difficulties in using the participatory methods since it was the first time that the facilitators and the communities had been exposed to them. Many communities had difficulty in dealing with the concept of finding solutions within the community, which is such an integral part of participatory methods. PMID:12665130

  17. Cooperation between public administration and scientific research in raising awareness on the role of urban planning in responding to climate change in Portugal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcoforado, M. J.; Campos, V.; Oliveira, S.; Andrade, H.; Festas, M. J.

    2009-09-01

    Following the IPCC predictions of climate change, even considering one of the "best” scenarios (B1), temperature will rise circa 2°C by 2100. In southern Europe, predictions also indicate a greater precipitation variability, that is the increase in drought frequency, together with an increment of flood risk, with detrimental impacts on water availability and quality, summer tourism and crop productivity, among others. Urban areas create their own local climate, resulting in higher temperatures (UHI), modified wind patterns and lower air quality, among several other consequences. Therefore, as a result of both global and urban induced changes, the climate of cities has suffered several modifications over time, particularly in sprawling urban areas. In November 2007, the ministers responsible for spatial planning and territorial cohesion of the European Union, gathered at the Azores Informal Ministerial on Territorial Cohesion during the Portuguese Presidency, considered climate change to be one of the most important territorial challenges Europe is facing and stated that "our cities and regions need to become more resilient in the context of climate change”. They also agreed that spatial and urban planning is a suitable tool to define cost-effective adaptation measures. Furthermore, the Ministers committed themselves to put mitigation and adaptation issues of climate change into the mainstream of spatial and urban development policy at national, regional and local level. These decisions have lead to different actions in the Member States. In Portugal, the new Policy for the Cities POLIS XXI has selected the relationship between climate change and urban development as one of the key issues to be addressed by projects initiated by local authorities and submitted for co-financing through the OP "Territorial Enhancement” of the NSRF. This paper presents one of the actions taken by the Portuguese Directorate General for Spatial Planning and Urban Development (DGOTDU), the national authority responsible for the technical implementation of the Policy for the Cities, in order to raise awareness on this issue and stimulate local authorities to carry out projects aimed at enabling urban communities to increase their resilience to climate change. A booklet on climate change in urban areas, prepared in collaboration with the University of Lisbon, will soon be edited by DGOTDU. This booklet, addressed to local decision makers, both politicians and technicians, starts by giving an overall view of the state of the art science-based knowledge on climate change, both on global and regional scale. It moves on to explain the challenges raised by climate change in Portugal, focusing on urban areas and urban development issues. The content makes use of the results of previous research, such as the results obtained from the SIAM project and other studies on urban climate, carried out by the University of Lisbon. These results were complemented with a focused approach on specific urban development issues, through collaboration with DGOTDU. The booklet ends by presenting selected examples of "good practices”, aimed at either tackling the negative impacts or enhancing the potential positive consequences of climate change. An extensive reference bibliography for further consultation is also included.

  18. Síndrome de Down: Experiencia maternal de crianza: Entre alergías y tristezas / Maternal experience of raising children with Down’s Syndrome: Between joys and sorrows

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Miriam, Bastidas Acevedo; Gustavo, Ariza Marriaga; Liliana, Zuliani Arango.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Las madres reconocen que la crianza de niños con Síndrome de Down tiene múltiples significados culturales, sociales y emocionales que se viven durante las etapas del ciclo vital de sus hijos y que cada una de ellas lleva a alegrías y tristezas. Objetivo: Conocer la experiencia maternal de crianza de [...] niños con Síndrome de Down en la ciudad de Medellín-Colombia. Método: investigación etnográfica con postura ética, participación de 20 madres, previo consentimiento, mediante entrevistas semiestructuradas y observaciones de campo. Análisis concomitante con la recolección de datos. Resultados: La experiencia de crianza comineza, en la mayoría de las madres participantes, con una gran tristeza en el encuentro con su hijo con Síndrome de Down, dadas las preconcepciones sociales. Luego aparece la alegría y una crianza amorosa como una posibilidad de interrelación entre madres e hijos. Discusión: la tristeza inicial se transforma en alegría al ver las potencialidades y los logros de sus hijos, así como por la relación amorosa que se construye en la crianza. Las tristezas se deben más a la exclusión que las madres experimentan en los diferentes entornos de crianza, mientras que las alegrías están relacionadas con el niño mismo y sus logros. Conclusión: Las madres de este estudio consideran que la crianza de sus hijos esta surcada por alegrías y tristezas y que un acompañamiento adecuado en los diferentes entornos hace que esta experiencia sea positiva, tanto para sus hijos con Síndrome de Down como para las familias. Abstract in english Mothers recognize that raising children with Down's syndrome has multiple cultural, social, and emotional meanings that are experienced during the different stages of their children’s life cycles, each of which leads to joys and sorrows. Objective: to know the maternal experience of raising children [...] with Down’s syndrome in the city of Medellín-Colombia. Methodos: Ethnographic research with ethical posture, participation of 20 mothers, by means of semi-structured interviews and field observations. Analysis of data was performed concomitantly with collection. Results: Given social preconceptions The parenting experience starts in most mothers of this research with a great sadness in the initial meeting with their child with Down’s syndrome,. Later in this relationship appears the joy and loving nurture as a possibility of interaction between mothers and children. Discussion: The initial sadness turns into joy as the mothers see the potentialities and achievements of their children, as well as with the loving relationship that is built during parenting. Much sadness is due to the exclusion that mothers experience in different environments while joy is related with the child and his o her achievements. Conclusion: The mothers in this study believe that parenting of children with Down;s syndrome is grooved by joys and sadness; appropriate support in different environments renders this a positive experience for children with Down’s syndrome and their families.

  19. Criança com hipertrofia gemelar e elevação das transaminases: relato de caso / Calf hypertrophy and raised transaminases in a child: a case report of muscular dystrophy

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Joana, Extreia; Paula, Afonso; Margarida, Rafael; Susana, Rocha.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Introdução: As transaminases não são enzimas específicas do hepatócito e são várias as condições que se associam ao seu aumento. A Distrofia Muscular de Duchenne (DMD) é uma doença de transmissão autossómica recessiva ligada ao cromossoma X que se caracteriza por fraqueza muscular progressiva. Descr [...] ição do caso: Apresentamos o caso de um menino de 6 anos referenciado à consulta de pediatria para investigação de elevação persistente do valor das transaminases. Sem história familiar de doença hepática ou neuromuscular. Dos antecedentes pessoais a salientar, marcha autónoma aos 15 meses, tendência para marcha em pontas, dificuldade em subir escadas e correr e cansaço fácil em relação aos pares. À observação destacava-se hipertrofia gemelar e abdominal, ligeira hiperlordose lombar, diminuição da força muscular proximal dos membros inferiores e manobra de Gowers positiva. Perante a história clínica, exame objetivo e exames complementares já realizados, foi colocada a hipótese de distrofia muscular e doseada também a enzima creatina quinase (CK) cujo valor estava muito aumentado. A biópsia muscular evidenciou a ausência de distrofina e a sequenciação do gene desta proteina identificou a mutação c.3103C>T (p.Gln1035X) confirmando o diagnóstico de DMD. Comentário: Nem sempre o aumento das transaminases é sinónimo de doença hepática. Perante a elevação mantida destas enzimas, a exclusão de hepatopatia é obrigatória. No entanto, este achado laboratorial também pode surgir na doença muscular. Destacamos o doseamento da CK como avaliação mandatória, evitando a investigação exaustiva centrada na patologia hepática. Os autores pretendem alertar para o diagnóstico diferencial de doença neuromuscular através de um caso em que a anamnese, a clínica e o perfil analítico são sugestivos. Abstract in english Introduction: Transaminases are non-specific markers of hepatocyte function. There are several conditions associated with elevated transa-minases such as Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD), an X-linked recessive disorder characterized by progressive muscle weakness. Case Report: We report the case of [...] a 6 year-old boy referred to the pediatric department for evaluation of raised transaminases. He had no family history of liver or neuromuscular disease. From his past history we noted independent gait at 15 months, toe-walking, difficulty climbing stairs and running, and fatigue in comparison to his peers. On clinical examination there was calf and abdominal hypertrophy, slight lumbar lordosis, proximal lower limb weakness and a positive Gowers’ sign. Given the clinical history, physical examination and la-boratory findings, the diagnosis of muscular dystrophy was suspected. Serum creatine kinase was found to be elevated. A muscle biopsy was performed and revealed absence of dystrophin. DMD gene sequencing identified the mutation c.3103C > T (p.Gln1035X) which confirmed the diagnosis of DMD. Comment: The finding of raised transaminases is not always diagnostic of liver disease. With prolonged elevation of those enzymes, liver disease must be excluded but this laboratory finding may also appear in muscle disease. CK levels should also be measured to avoid exhaustive testing for liver disease. The authors advise clinicians to consider neuromuscular diseases in the differential diagnosis of cases presenting a with suggestive clinical and laboratory findings.

  20. IMMEDIATE RE-HYDRATION POST-EXERCISE IS NOT COINCIDENT WITH RAISED MEAN ARTERIAL PRESSURE OVER A 30-MINUTE OBSERVATION PERIOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bartholomew Kay

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available This investigation assessed the effects of immediate or delayed re-hydration post-exercise, on mean arterial blood pressure (MAP and on blood plasma volume (PV expansion post-exercise. It was hypothesised that fluid ingestion would raise MAP and attenuate PV expansion. On two occasions separated by seven days, eight males (age 20.4 ± 1.7 years, mass 79 ± 5 kg [means ± SD]; VO2max 48 ± 11 mL·kg-1·minute-1, [mean ± SE] cycled in the heat (35oC, 50% relative humidity at a power output associated with 50% VO2max, until 1.0kg body mass was lost. 1L water was given either immediately thereafter, or two hours post-exercise by random assignment. On both occasions, MAP was calculated every five minutes for a period of 30-minutes post-exercise, and change in PV was calculated 24-hours post-exercise. Repeated measures ANOVA for MAP results suggested a low probability of a treatment effect (p = 0.655, a high probability of a time effect (p = 0.006, and a moderately high probability of a time x treatment interaction (p = 0.076; MAP tended to be lower when fluid had been consumed. PV expansions 24-hours post-exercise were not significant changes with respect to zero, and were not significantly different by treatment condition. In conclusion: (a The exercise was not sufficient to elicit significant PV expansions; thus, we were unable to determine the effects of the timing of post-exercise re-hydration on PV expansion. (b The hypothesis regarding MAP in response to drinking was not supported, rather there was a 92% probability that the inverse affect occurs