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[Myelomatous G-kappa immunoglobulin with antistreptolysin O activity  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A new case of myeloma with antistreptolysin O activity is described. The myeloma protein is Kappa IgG. By precipitation of this myeloma IgG with anti-Kappa antiserum, the antistreptolysin O activity is completely inhibited. For the antibody activities of the myeloma protein described in the litterature, the antistreptolysin O activity is the most frequently found. With this 19th case the authors discuss the fundamental problems of the antibody activities of myeloma protein.

Tobelem G; Krulik M; Mougeot-Martin M; Audebert AA; Debray J

1976-11-01

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Antistreptolysin O titer in health and disease: levels and significance  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Over diagnosis of acute rheumatic fever (ARF) based on a raised antistreptolysin O titer (ASOT) is not uncommon in endemic areas. In this study, 660 children (aged 9.2 ±1.7 years) were recruited consecutively and classified as: G1 (control group, n=200 healthy children), G2 (n=20 with ARF 1st attack), G3 (n=40 with recurrent ARF), G4 (n=100 with rheumatic heart disease (RHD) on long acting penicillin (LAP)), G5 (n=100 with acute follicular tonsillitis), and G6 (n=200 healthy children with history of repeated follicular tonsillitis more than three times a year). Serum ASOT was measured by latex agglutination. Upper limit of normal (ULN) ASOT (80th percentile) was 400 IU in G1, 200 IU in G4, and 1600 IU in G6. Significantly high levels were seen in ARF 1st attack when compared to groups 1 and 5 (P<0.001 and P<0.05, respectively). ASOT was significantly high in children over ten years of age, during winter and in those with acute rheumatic carditis. ASOT showed significant direct correlation with the number of attacks of tonsillitis (P<0.05). Egyptian children have high ULN ASOT reaching 400 IU. This has to be taken into consideration when interpreting its values in suspected ARF. A rise in ASOT is less prominent in recurrent ARF compared to 1st attack, and acute and recurrent tonsillitis. Basal levels of ASOT increase with age but the pattern of increase during infection is not age dependent

Alyaa Amal Kotby; Nevin Mamdouh Habeeb; Sahar Ezz El Arab

2012-01-01

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Antistreptolysin O titer in health and disease: levels and significance.  

Science.gov (United States)

Over diagnosis of acute rheumatic fever (ARF) based on a raised antistreptolysin O titer (ASOT) is not uncommon in endemic areas. In this study, 660 children (aged 9.2 ±1.7 years) were recruited consecutively and classified as: G1 (control group, n=200 healthy children), G2 (n=20 with ARF 1(st) attack), G3 (n=40 with recurrent ARF), G4 (n=100 with rheumatic heart disease (RHD) on long acting penicillin (LAP)), G5 (n=100 with acute follicular tonsillitis), and G6 (n=200 healthy children with history of repeated follicular tonsillitis more than three times a year). Serum ASOT was measured by latex agglutination. Upper limit of normal (ULN) ASOT (80(th) percentile) was 400 IU in G1, 200 IU in G4, and 1600 IU in G6. Significantly high levels were seen in ARF 1st attack when compared to groups 1 and 5 (P<0.001 and P<0.05, respectively). ASOT was significantly high in children over ten years of age, during winter and in those with acute rheumatic carditis. ASOT showed significant direct correlation with the number of attacks of tonsillitis (P<0.05). Egyptian children have high ULN ASOT reaching 400 IU. This has to be taken into consideration when interpreting its values in suspected ARF. A rise in ASOT is less prominent in recurrent ARF compared to 1st attack, and acute and recurrent tonsillitis. Basal levels of ASOT increase with age but the pattern of increase during infection is not age dependent. PMID:22690314

Kotby, Alyaa Amal; Habeeb, Nevin Mamdouh; Ezz El Elarab, Sahar

2012-02-09

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Antistreptolysin O titer in health and disease: levels and significance.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Over diagnosis of acute rheumatic fever (ARF) based on a raised antistreptolysin O titer (ASOT) is not uncommon in endemic areas. In this study, 660 children (aged 9.2 ±1.7 years) were recruited consecutively and classified as: G1 (control group, n=200 healthy children), G2 (n=20 with ARF 1(st) attack), G3 (n=40 with recurrent ARF), G4 (n=100 with rheumatic heart disease (RHD) on long acting penicillin (LAP)), G5 (n=100 with acute follicular tonsillitis), and G6 (n=200 healthy children with history of repeated follicular tonsillitis more than three times a year). Serum ASOT was measured by latex agglutination. Upper limit of normal (ULN) ASOT (80(th) percentile) was 400 IU in G1, 200 IU in G4, and 1600 IU in G6. Significantly high levels were seen in ARF 1st attack when compared to groups 1 and 5 (P<0.001 and P<0.05, respectively). ASOT was significantly high in children over ten years of age, during winter and in those with acute rheumatic carditis. ASOT showed significant direct correlation with the number of attacks of tonsillitis (P<0.05). Egyptian children have high ULN ASOT reaching 400 IU. This has to be taken into consideration when interpreting its values in suspected ARF. A rise in ASOT is less prominent in recurrent ARF compared to 1st attack, and acute and recurrent tonsillitis. Basal levels of ASOT increase with age but the pattern of increase during infection is not age dependent.

Kotby AA; Habeeb NM; Ezz El Elarab S

2012-01-01

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Is raised helicobacter pylori antibody titre enough to decide retreatment  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Background: Helicobacter pylori infection causes a rise in its antibodies which take almost a year to come to baseline following successful eradication treatment. Checking these values in between a year may give falsely high values and many patients may thus be over treated. Aims: To serially determine Helicobacter pylori antibody titres in patients after giving them triple therapy for H. pylori eradication and see how these values drop over time. Study type, Settings and duration: Longitudinal study conducted in Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Pakistan Medical Research Council, Research Centre, Jinnah Post Graduate Medical Centre, Karachi, from May 2006 to April 2010. Subjects and Methods: Over the period of four years, 186 patients who were found positive for campylobacter like organism test during endoscopy were further tested for anti H. pylori IgG titre before being treated for H. pylori. Patients were given triple therapy comprising of Omeprazole (20 mg twice daily), Amoxicillin (1 gm twice daily) and Clarythromycin (500 mg twice daily) for a week and were followed at 1, 3, 6 and 12 months to check symptomatic relief and they were tested again for H.Pylori antibody titres. Data was collected on pre-designed proforma which included patient's demography, symptoms and diagnosis. Results: Out of 186 patients who had a positive campylobacter like organism test, 173 patients consented to participate in the study. Serology for H.Pylori was positive in 119(68%) cases. A decline in mean antibody titres was observed as 11%, 21.5%, 54.7% and 59.2% at 1, 3, 6 and 12 months respectively. Conclusions: Sensitivity of serology for diagnosing H. pylori infection is good but using these as a tool for monitoring response to treatment is doubtful. A slow drop in H.pylori antibodies was seen over 12 months and therefore, physicians are cautioned not to retreat the already treated cases till about one year post treatment. Policy message: H. pylori antibodies should be checked on regular basis to diagnose new cases but it should not be used in previously treated patients to retreat. (author)

2011-01-01

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Antibasal Ganglia Antibodies and Antistreptolysin O in Noncomorbid ADHD.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Objective: An association between streptococcal infections, ABGA positivity, and no comorbidity ADHD (nc-ADHD) has been little investigated. The aim of this study was to evaluate the streptococcal infection frequency, defined entitled serum antistreptolysin O (ASO), and frequency of serum ABGA positivity in a sample of patients with nc-ADHD. Method: In all 40 participants were investigated the ASO titer and ABGA. Results: The results showed that ABGA positivity was statistically significantly higher in patients affected by ADHD than in patients of a control group, and pathological values of ASO were statistically more frequent in the ADHD group than the control group. Conclusion: These data suggest that streptococcal infections and autoimmune reactions against the basal ganglia are more frequent in ADHD patients than patients in a control group.

Toto M; Margari F; Simone M; Craig F; Petruzzelli MG; Tafuri S; Margari L

2012-09-01

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Antistreptolysin O Levels in Patients with Behcet’s Disease  

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Full Text Available Objective: Behcet’s disease is a multisystem inflammatory disorder, and its etiology has not been defined clearly yet. In this study, we aimed to investigate the antistreptolysin O (ASO) levels of patients with Behcet’s disease. Materials and Methods: Thirty patients with Behcet’s disease and 30 healthy controls were enrolled in this study. We measured erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), serum C-reactive protein (CRP), and ASO levels in both groups.Results: There was no statistically significant difference between the two groups with respect to demographic data (p>0.05). The ASO levels of the patients and the controls were 288.4±145.7 and 170.6±142.4 ng/ml, respectively. In the patients with Behcet’s disease, ASO (p<0.01) and ESR (p<0.05) values were significantly higher than in the healthy controls. There was no other significant difference in serum CRP levels between the patients and the controls. We could not find any correlation among ASO, CRP, and ESR values. Conclusion: Our results suggest that serum ASO levels may increase in patients with Behcet’s disease. Further studies are needed in order to define the relationship between ASO levels and inflammation status in Behcet’s disease.

Hulya Uzkeser; Saliha Karatay; Kadir Yildirim; Ali Karakuzu; Muhammed Hamidullah Uyanik

2011-01-01

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Use of serum antistreptolysin O titers in the microbial diagnosis of orthopedic infections.  

Science.gov (United States)

The utility of serologic tests in the microbial diagnosis of orthopedic infections is unknown. Antistreptolysin O titer determination is inexpensive and accurate in the diagnosis of beta-hemolytic group A, C, and G streptococci. In patients with negative culture results and positive titers, antibiotics might be reduced to the narrowest spectrum, penicillin. PMID:19128997

Uçkay, Ilker; Ferry, Tristan; Stern, Richard; Ambrosioni, Juan; Gamulin, Axel; Andrey, Diego; Djordjevic, Marina; Bernard, Louis; Hoffmeyer, Pierre; Lew, Daniel

2009-01-06

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Evaluation of prophylactic penicillin administration in children with joint complaints andhigh serum anti-streptolysin O titers  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Objective: Eligibility criteria for the diagnosis of acuterheumatic fever and the reasons for the administration ofprophylactic penicillin were investigated in patients admittedwith complaints of joint and high anti-streptolysin O(ASO) titers.Materials and methods: From the hospital reports, 240patients those ASO titers were higher than 300 Todd unitand aged between 6-16 years were included to the study.The presence of swelling /redness /limitation of movementand number of affected joints, duration of complaints,presence of fever, prophylactic penicillin administration,response to therapy and repetition were asked. Eligibilityfor Jones criteria for the diagnosis of acute rheumaticfever was investigated.Results: Arthritis was present in 39 (16.25%) patientsand 31 (79.5%) of these patients were given penicillinprophylaxis. The number of patients with joint pain was201 (83.75%) and 109 (54.2%) of them were given prophylacticpenicillin administration.Conclusion: In this study, we found high penicillin administrationrate without real indication. Acute rheumaticfever diagnosis in children should be carefully based onJones criteria suggested by WHO and AHA and should beavoided from unnecessary prophylaxis.Key words: joint pain, acute rheumatic fever, penicillin rophylaxis.

Ay?enur Paç K?saarslan; Hümeyra Aslaner; Yasemin Altuner Torun; Funda Ba?tu?; Cem Turano?lu; Çi?dem Karakükcü

2013-01-01

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Musique et référentialité sur les titres des disques Blue Note  

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Full Text Available Les titres qui figurent sur la pochette des disques de la marque Blue Note peuvent dénoter le contenu musical de l’album (Boogie-Woogie Classics), le connoter (Blue Hour) ou fonctionner strictement comme index (Speak No Evil). Quelle que soit leur valeur précise, ces titres permettent de revisiter un problème maintes fois soulevé par les musicologues et les sémioticiens: celui de savoir si la musique « réfère », et à quoi. Dans le cas des disques Blue Note, la question se pose d’une manière particulièrement aiguë à propos de certains enregistrements des années 1960, dont les titres (It’s Time, Right Now, Let Freedom Ring, etc.) peuvent référer aux structures du jazz ou à la situation des noirs dans la société américaine, qu’il s’agit tous deux de transformer dans le sens d’une liberté accrue.The titles on the jackets of the records of the label Blue Note can denote the musical content of the album (Boogie-Woogie Classics), connote it (Blue Hour), or function strictly as indexes (Speak No Evil). Whatever their exact value might be, those titles make it possible to revisit a problem frequently raised in semiotics and musicology: the problem of knowing whether music « refers », and to what exactly. The question is especially acute in the case of some of the records released by Blue Note in the1960s, whose titles (It’s Time, Right Now, Let Freedom Ring) may refer to musical structures or to the situation of African-Americans in American sociey, which have both to be changed in the sense of more freedom.

Philippe Carrard

2011-01-01

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DETERMINATION OF BASELINE WIDAL TITRE AMONG HEALTHY POPULATION  

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Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To determine the baseline Widal titre in apparently healthy adult population of Hubli-Dharwad (North Karnataka region), which is an endemic area for enteric fever. METHODS: Two hundred healthy volunteers involving women attending ANC clinics, students, doctors and health care personnel were screened for Salmonella agglutinins using Widal test.  Widal titres were estimated by tube agglutination method & slide semi quantitative method. RESULTS: A total of 154(77%) individuals revealed antibody titre to common O antigen. One hundred and seventy two (86%) had anti H titre & 68(34%) had anti AH titre of S.enterica. subsp. enterica. ser.Typhi & Paratyphi A respectively. Geometric mean of the observed readings were 38.58 for O, 60.37 for H & 40.02 for AH antibody. Result of slide semiquantitative & tube agglutination test were in agreement with each other.  No significant difference was observed in the baseline titre among general population and health care providers. CONCLUSION: Based on these findings antibody titre of 1:40 for O, 1:80 for H & 1:40 for AH antigen considered as baseline titre in this region. Updated data on the basal antibody titres in various regions is essential to decide the cut off level for interpretation of the Widal test and proper diagnosis of Enteric fever.

Madhusudhan N S; Manjunath AH

2013-01-01

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Prediction of antibody persistency from antibody titres to natalizumab  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Background:In a subgroup of patients with multiple sclerosis natalizumab therapy causes generation of anti-natalizumab antibodies that may be transient or persistent. It is recommended to discontinue natalizumab therapy in persistently antibody-positive patients.Objective:To use titres of anti-natalizumab antibodies to predict persistency of antibodies.Patients and methods:In 525 consecutive natalizumab treated patients tested for anti-natalizumab antibodies 43 (8.2%) were antibody-positive. Thirty of the antibody-positive patients, who were tested both at three and at six months after treatment start, had antibody titres in blood measured using an extended ELISA method.Results:Samples from persistently positive patients (N=18) had higher titre values than samples from transiently positive patients (N=12). A cut-off value for high titre values was generated, above which patients may discontinue natalizumab therapy after three months. The method had a sensitivity of 0.83, a specificity of 1.00 and a diagnosticaccuracy of 0.90.Conclusion:An extended ELISA method for measuring anti-natalizumab antibody titres in multiple sclerosis patients on natalizumab therapy may be used for evaluation of antibody persistence. A test at three months may identify patients with high titres, who should discontinue natalizumab therapy, and patients with transient low-titre antibodies, who may continue natalizumab therapy despite development of antibodies.

Jensen, Poul Erik H; Koch-Henriksen, Nils

2012-01-01

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EFFECT OF SELENIUM SUPPLEMENTATION ON ANTIBODY TITRES AGAINST INFECTIOUS BURSAL DISEASE VACCINE IN BROILER CHICKS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A total of 200 chicks were raised upto 43 days of age under controlled experimental conditions. The birds were randomly divided into four groups A, B, C and D of 50 birds each at the age of day one. Birds of groups A and B were not supplemented with selenium, while those of groups C and D were given selenium @ 0.06 mg/Kg of feed from day one to day 43. The birds of groups B and D were vaccinated against infectious bursal disease (IBD) at the age of day 10 and boosted at the age of day 25. The effect of selenium on humoral immune response was evaluated by recording weekly serum antibody titres against IBD through indirect haemagglutination (IHA) test. The cumulative mean titres (CMT) recorded in groups A, B, C and D were 15, 53, 16 and 61, respectively (P<0.05). These results indicate that selenium supplementation may help to increase post vaccination humoral immune response against IBD in broiler chicks.

M. Arshad, M. Siddique, M. Ashraf and H. A. Khan

2005-01-01

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DÉFIGEMENT SATIRIQUE ET AMBIGUÏTÉ DANS LES TITRES DU CANARD ENCHAÎNÉ  

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Full Text Available Notre article vise à observer un corpus de titres de presse satirique récents qui contiennent des procédés de défigement de mots-composés ou de locutions familières. Il s’agit d’abord de définir et de situer le défigement et le dialogisme dans le cadre de l’intertextualité et d’analyser ensuite le procédé néologique du défigement de manière détaillée.

Silvia DOBRIN

2009-01-01

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Pour une syntaxe des titres des Faits Divers. Réflexion sur un corpus de titres de presse algérienne d’expression française  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available L’étude de l’intitulation que nous esquissons ici vise à explorer un modèle général des titres de presse, en s’appuyant sur la description d’un corpus de titres extrait d’un journal national. Partant de l’idée que la forme des titres des faits divers est régie par un ensemble restreint de règles de formation, nous essayons de déterminer l’ontologie de cette grammaire, pour pouvoir cerner, dans un second temps, quelques aspects de la fonction de la phrase-titre en lien avec la structuration du discours journalistique.

Amor Tahar

2012-01-01

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LE TITRE DE JOURNAL – ASPECTS DE LA MANIPULATION LINGUISTIQUE  

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Full Text Available Cet article se propose de souligner les discordances qui existent entre un titre de journal et le texte journalistique, ayant comme prémisse la mise en évidence de la grande tendance de manipulation linguistique du public-cible. Les techniques et les technologies de communication ont connu un développement intensif, cependant, parfois, vers les consommateurs d’information sont transmis des messages en partie ou totalement faux. Je vais montrer que, bien que le titre de discours journalistique doit contenir les informations essentielles d’un article, il bénéficie de nombreux feux d’artifice lexical qui seront analysés en termes de structures syntaxiques, morphologiques et sémantiques et accompagnés d'exemples recueillis de la presse roumaine. En faisant recours à l’homonymie, mots-clés, formules idiomatiques, à la technique de la parodie et de la métaphore, on respecte le principe AIDA (Attention. Intérêt. Désir. Action.), mais, au-delà de ce fait, il s’agit, aussi, de la dissimulation intentionnelle de la réalité par les distorsions de communication.

Raluca FARISEU

2010-01-01

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HIV-1 envelope-elicited neutralizing antibody titres correlate with protection and virus load in chimpanzees.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In an attempt to compare the protective effect of vaccination with two forms of envelope antigens, and to define immunological correlates of protection against HIV infection, chimpanzees were vaccinated with either recombinant gp160 or gp120. Homologous HIV challenge was performed 3 weeks after the fourth immunization. The animal with the highest level of serum neutralizing antibodies (gp160 immunogen) was protected against HIV infection. All other chimpanzees became infected, but displayed various levels of infected PBMCs. The postchallenge data gave rise to the following conclusions: (1) protection correlated with the level of the serological immune response, but not with the nature of immunogen (gp120 versus gp160); (2) the virus-neutralizing titre at day of challenge correlated with protection from infection; (3) the relative magnitude of the lymphoproliferative T-cell response at day of challenge did not correlate with any protective effect; (4) the peak numbers of virus-infected PBMCs in vaccinated animals were lower than those observed in control animals, and this effect was correlated with the intensity of the antibody response at day of challenge. This raises the possibility that a beneficial effect of HIV vaccination may be achieved in a situation where sterile immunity is not consistently obtained.

Bruck C; Thiriart C; Fabry L; Francotte M; Pala P; Van Opstal O; Culp J; Rosenberg M; De Wilde M; Heidt P; Heeney J

1994-09-01

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Baseline Titre of Widal amongst Healthy Blood Donors in Raichur, Karnataka  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background: Lack of proper knowledge ofbaseline titre of Widal test can lead to over di-agnosis of typhoid fever leading to mismanage-ment of patients. Rapid semiquantitative slideWidal test has replaced conventional tube Widaltest in many laboratories, but there is paucityof scientific data regarding how far the resultsof this rapid test correlate with that of conven-tional tube Widal test. Aims and Objectives:To evaluate baseline titre of widal using quanti-tative tube Widal test, to suggest the cut-offvalue for positive Widal test in this region, andto correlate the results obtained in quantitativetube Widal test with that of rapidsemiquantitative slide Widal test. Material andMethods: Sera of 107 apparently healthy blooddonors (AHDs) were subjected to quantitativetube and semiquantitative slide Widal test toknow the titre. Results: Highest titre obtainedby tube Widal test for TO was 1:160, for TH -1:320, for AH- 1:20, and for BH- 1:80. TubeWidal titres of 1:160 were seen in 4(3.7%) and 10 (9.3%)respectively. TH titre of 1:320 was seen in1(0.93%) and no such high titre was reportedin relation to TO. Highest titre obtained bysemiquantitative slide Widal for TO was 1:320,for TH- 1:320, for AH-1:40 and for BH- 1:160.Conclusion: We recommend TO and TH titreof > 1:320 as diagnostic of typhoid fever andfor AH and BH, titres of >1:40 and >1:160should be considered diagnostic respectivelyin our region. Because of high expected falsepositivity rate of slide Widal test even at thehigher cut-off titre of 1:320, single slide Widaltest appears to have little value in the diagnosisof typhoid fever in this region.

Abdul Kaleem Bahadur; B. V. Peerapur

2013-01-01

19

Toy seedling raising box  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A toy seedling raising box comprises a lower support box and an upper transparent cover, one end of the lower support box is rotatably connected with one end of the upper transparent cover, a water container is arranged on the lower portion of the lower support box, a permeable partition layer is arranged on the upper portion of the water container, a plurality of seedling raising trays are arranged on the permeable partition layer, a plurality of seedling raising vessels are arranged in the seedling raising trays, water leaks are arranged on the lower portion of each seedling raising vessel, solid matrix is contained in each seedling raising vessel, and plant seeds are planted in the solid matrix. The toy seedling raising box achieves miniature, integration and systematic electronic management of plant culture, the toy plant can be used for training children for responsibility and feeling about and pursuit of beauty, and the problem of precision plant cultivation is further solved.

XIAOYONG ZHANG

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Interferon-beta: the neutralizing antibody (NAb) titre predicts reversion to NAb negativity.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: It has been reported that in some patients with MS who develop neutralizing antibodies (NAbs) against interferon beta (IFNbeta), antibody levels can initially increase and then decrease thereafter even when treatment is continued. OBJECTIVE: To determine whether NAb titre correlates with time to reversion to NAb negativity in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS). METHODS: Twenty-eight patients with MS who were NAb-positive during treatment with one of the currently available IFNbetas were included in this retrospective study. NAb titres were determined by the myxovirus resistance protein A induction assay. Patients were considered NAb-positive if they had at least two consecutive samples with titres of > or = 20 neutralizing units (NU). Reversion to NAb-negative status was defined as two consecutive negative samples (NAb titre of < 20 NU) after NAb positivity. RESULTS: When measured two years after treatment initiation, a NAb titre of < 75 NU had a 91.7% sensitivity and a 87.5% specificity for reversion to NAb negativity in the following two years (after a total of four years of treatment). In addition, somewhat surprisingly, patients whose serum converted to NAb-negative generally developed peak NAb titres earlier than patients who remained NAb-positive (mean time of first detection was 21 versus 38 months, respectively). CONCLUSION: The NAb titre might support treatment decisions in patients with MS whose test results are positive for NAbs.

Gneiss C; Reindl M; Lutterotti A; Ehling R; Egg R; Khalil M; Berger T; Deisenhammer F

2004-10-01

 
 
 
 
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[Comparative evaluation of several methods of determining anti-streptolysin O].  

Science.gov (United States)

The Authors have carried out some experiences on four tests for the detection of anti O streptolysin, determining in 210 samples of sera: 1. the antistreptolysin titer according to Rantz and Randall; 2. the antistreptolysin titer according to the latex reaction; 3. five different antistreptococcal antibodies (ASO, ASK, ASHA, ADN-aseB, NAD-ase) with a rapid multi-purpose test for a simultaneous detection; 4. the antistreptolysin titer according to Aso Quantum method. The results obtained on the 210 samples of sera were compared. The relationship between the four methods were examined. PMID:7244098

Grimaldi, A; Telesforo, P; Giuliani, N; Salino, L; Cela, P; Cappucci, M

1980-09-01

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Production of high titre antisera in rabbits against clostridium perfringens beta and epsilon toxoids  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

To investigate the validity of production of high titre antisera against Clostridium perfringens and epsilon toxoids in rabbit, the immune response of these toxoid inoculated rabbits were measured. The highest neutralizing antibody titres from the beta and epsilon toxoids were equally log/sub 10/ 1.50 plus minus 0.042 on 21st day post-inoculation of toxoid. The precipitating antibodies were detected by agar gel immunodiffusion test on the above mentioned period. Statistically significant (P

2001-01-01

23

Clinical manifestations in patients on chronic dialysis with high titres of ANCA.  

Science.gov (United States)

Eight untreated patients with an apparent renal-limited disease continued to maintain high titres of ANCA long after the onset of the disease and the start of dialysis. In spite of the high ANCA titres, three of them remained for a long time free of symptoms related to the disease. Three pts developed, at various times from the beginning of the disease, fatal pulmonary hemorrhages. PMID:8296658

Gregorini, G; Tira, P; Manili, L; Broccoli, R; De Marinis, S; Gazzotti, R M; Maiorca, R

1993-01-01

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Clinical manifestations in patients on chronic dialysis with high titres of ANCA.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Eight untreated patients with an apparent renal-limited disease continued to maintain high titres of ANCA long after the onset of the disease and the start of dialysis. In spite of the high ANCA titres, three of them remained for a long time free of symptoms related to the disease. Three pts developed, at various times from the beginning of the disease, fatal pulmonary hemorrhages.

Gregorini G; Tira P; Manili L; Broccoli R; De Marinis S; Gazzotti RM; Maiorca R

1993-01-01

25

Characteristics of in-vitro phenotypes of glutamic acid decarboxylase 65 autoantibodies in high-titre individuals.  

Science.gov (United States)

Previous studies have indicated phenotypical differences in glutamic acid decarboxylase 65 autoantibodies (GADA) found in type 1 diabetes (T1D) patients, individuals at risk of developing T1D and stiff-person syndrome (SPS) patients. In a Phase II trial using aluminium-formulated GAD(65) (GAD-alum) as an immunomodulator in T1D, several patients responded with high GADA titres after treatment, raising concerns as to whether GAD-alum could induce GADA with SPS-associated phenotypes. This study aimed to analyse GADA levels, immunoglobulin (Ig)G1-4 subclass frequencies, b78- and b96·11-defined epitope distribution and GAD(65) enzyme activity in sera from four cohorts with very high GADA titres: T1D patients (n?=?7), GAD-alum-treated T1D patients (n?=?9), T1D high-risk individuals (n?=?6) and SPS patients (n?=?12). SPS patients showed significantly higher GADA levels and inhibited the in-vitro GAD(65) enzyme activity more strongly compared to the other groups. A higher binding frequency to the b78-defined epitope was found in the SPS group compared to T1D and GAD-alum individuals, whereas no differences were detected for the b96·11-defined epitope. GADA IgG1-4 subclass levels did not differ between the groups, but SPS patients had higher IgG2 and lower IgG4 distribution more frequently. In conclusion, the in-vitro GADA phenotypes from SPS patients differed from the T1D- and high-risk groups, and GAD-alum treatment did not induce SPS-associated phenotypes. However, occasional overlap between the groups exists, and caution is indicated when drawing conclusions to health or disease status. PMID:23379430

Chéramy, M; Hampe, C S; Ludvigsson, J; Casas, R

2013-03-01

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Characteristics of in-vitro phenotypes of glutamic acid decarboxylase 65 autoantibodies in high-titre individuals.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Previous studies have indicated phenotypical differences in glutamic acid decarboxylase 65 autoantibodies (GADA) found in type 1 diabetes (T1D) patients, individuals at risk of developing T1D and stiff-person syndrome (SPS) patients. In a Phase II trial using aluminium-formulated GAD(65) (GAD-alum) as an immunomodulator in T1D, several patients responded with high GADA titres after treatment, raising concerns as to whether GAD-alum could induce GADA with SPS-associated phenotypes. This study aimed to analyse GADA levels, immunoglobulin (Ig)G1-4 subclass frequencies, b78- and b96·11-defined epitope distribution and GAD(65) enzyme activity in sera from four cohorts with very high GADA titres: T1D patients (n?=?7), GAD-alum-treated T1D patients (n?=?9), T1D high-risk individuals (n?=?6) and SPS patients (n?=?12). SPS patients showed significantly higher GADA levels and inhibited the in-vitro GAD(65) enzyme activity more strongly compared to the other groups. A higher binding frequency to the b78-defined epitope was found in the SPS group compared to T1D and GAD-alum individuals, whereas no differences were detected for the b96·11-defined epitope. GADA IgG1-4 subclass levels did not differ between the groups, but SPS patients had higher IgG2 and lower IgG4 distribution more frequently. In conclusion, the in-vitro GADA phenotypes from SPS patients differed from the T1D- and high-risk groups, and GAD-alum treatment did not induce SPS-associated phenotypes. However, occasional overlap between the groups exists, and caution is indicated when drawing conclusions to health or disease status.

Chéramy M; Hampe CS; Ludvigsson J; Casas R

2013-03-01

27

METHOD OF RAISING PLANTATIONS  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

FIELD: agriculture. ^ SUBSTANCE: proposed method of raising plantations involves planting alternating rows of drought-resistant and hygrophilous species of wood. On raised and levelled ground features, rows are made entirely from draught resistant species. The outer most rows of the plantation are made from draught resistant species. On depressions, rows are made from hygrophilous species. ^ EFFECT: reduced number of seedlings used, increased gain of biomass and increased biodiversity of the plantation due to differential growing of hygrophilous and draught resistant species of wood. ^ 3 cl, 1 dwg

KONONOV VIKTOR MIKHAJLOVICH; KONONOVA NINA DMITRIEVNA; ZUENKOVA GALINA GRIGOR EVNA

28

Baseline antibody titres against Salmonella typhi in apparently asymptomatic HIV positive individuals in a tertiary care hospital.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Enteric fever is common in tropical regions and is caused by Salmonella enterica serotype typhi (S typhi ). For diagnosis of enteric fever, the Widal test is the most widely used test after blood culture. In HIV infected individuals false positive and false negative Widal reactions are common. The result is variable titres and baseline titres that are unusual in this patient population. AIMS: This study was done to determine the baseline antibody titres for S typhi among HIV infected individuals. METHOD: Average baseline antibody titres against O and H antigens of S typhi were measured by standard Widal test in 200 HIV positive asymptomatic individuals, as well as 200 age and sex-matched controls. The results were compiled and statistically analysed. RESULTS: A total of 84 (42%) of the cases had an H antibody titre of >1:20 and 105 (52.5%) had a titre of >1:20 against O antigen. This implies that positive titre of H and O antigen is significantly associated with HIV positive cases with P<0.001. Correlation of CD4 count with antibody titres shows that there is no significant association between CD4 counts and antibody titres against either H (P=0.634) or O antigen (P=0.765). CONCLUSION: This study shows that HIV infected individuals had increased titres of antibodies against S typhi from the baseline. This indicates a need for evaluation of current cut-off values of diagnostic titres for this group. We also suggest that it is best to perform baseline titres against S t yphi for each patient at the time of diagnosis of HIV status, and to use this for future reference.

Banu A; Hassan MM; Anand M; Srinivasa S

2013-01-01

29

High titre Hog Cholera virus production on Cytodex 3 microcarrier cultures.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In an attempt to produce Hog Cholera virus (HCV) preparations of high titre, optimal growth and trypsinization conditions of PK-15 microcarrier cell cultures were defined. Infecting a PK-15 Cytodex 3 microcarrier culture with HCV increased the yield of virus more than 10 times compared with conventional monolayer culture in Roux flasks.

Caij A; De Smet A; Dubois N; Koenen F

1989-01-01

30

Single-layer centrifugation reduces equine arteritis virus titre in the semen of shedding stallions.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Several countries have adopted strategies for preventing and/or controlling equine viral arteritis based on vaccination and restricting the breeding activities of carrier stallions. However, in some cases, carrier stallions are only identified after they have transmitted virus to a mare. Therefore, a mechanism for separating virus from spermatozoa in the semen of carrier stallions would facilitate control measures for preventing disease transmission. In this study, the use of several modifications of single-layer centrifugation (SLC, SLC with an inner tube and double SLC) through Androcoll-E, a species-specific colloid were evaluated for their ability to separate spermatozoa from virus in ejaculates from carrier stallions. The three types of SLC significantly reduced the virus titre in fresh semen at 0 h and in stored semen at 24 h (p < 0.001) but did not completely eliminate the virus. Sperm motility parameters such as total motility and progressive motility were significantly increased after colloid centrifugation, whereas curvilinear velocity and amplitude of lateral head deviation were decreased, and the remainder (straight line velocity, average path velocity, straightness, linearity, wobble and beat cross-frequency) were not significantly affected by the processing. Although virus titres were reduced in the SLC samples, significant levels of infectivity still remained, especially in stallions shedding large amounts of virus. It remains to be determined whether SLC-processed sperm samples from stallions shedding low virus titres retain sufficient equine arteritis virus to cause infection in mares through artificial insemination.

Morrell JM; Timoney P; Klein C; Shuck K; Campos J; Troedsson M

2013-08-01

31

Single-layer centrifugation reduces equine arteritis virus titre in the semen of shedding stallions.  

Science.gov (United States)

Several countries have adopted strategies for preventing and/or controlling equine viral arteritis based on vaccination and restricting the breeding activities of carrier stallions. However, in some cases, carrier stallions are only identified after they have transmitted virus to a mare. Therefore, a mechanism for separating virus from spermatozoa in the semen of carrier stallions would facilitate control measures for preventing disease transmission. In this study, the use of several modifications of single-layer centrifugation (SLC, SLC with an inner tube and double SLC) through Androcoll-E, a species-specific colloid were evaluated for their ability to separate spermatozoa from virus in ejaculates from carrier stallions. The three types of SLC significantly reduced the virus titre in fresh semen at 0 h and in stored semen at 24 h (p < 0.001) but did not completely eliminate the virus. Sperm motility parameters such as total motility and progressive motility were significantly increased after colloid centrifugation, whereas curvilinear velocity and amplitude of lateral head deviation were decreased, and the remainder (straight line velocity, average path velocity, straightness, linearity, wobble and beat cross-frequency) were not significantly affected by the processing. Although virus titres were reduced in the SLC samples, significant levels of infectivity still remained, especially in stallions shedding large amounts of virus. It remains to be determined whether SLC-processed sperm samples from stallions shedding low virus titres retain sufficient equine arteritis virus to cause infection in mares through artificial insemination. PMID:23190015

Morrell, J M; Timoney, P; Klein, C; Shuck, K; Campos, J; Troedsson, M

2012-11-29

32

Widal agglutination titre: a rapid serological diagnosis of typhoid fever in developing countries  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] To study the reliability of a single Widal test and to find out the diagnostic significance of 'O' and 'H' agglutinin titre in the diagnosis of typhoid fever. Community-based case-control study conducted from Jan 2001 to June 2007. The blood samples were collected from the medical and out door department of Sir Ganga Ram Hospitals, Lahore. The diagnostic value of an acute phase single Widal agglutination test for suspected typhoid fever was evaluated in 733 consecutive patients with fever lasting 6 or more days. In 733 patients with fever 84 (11.45%) were positive for Widal test. A noteworthy rise 1/320 of H and/or O agglutinin titre was observed in 86 (11.3%) of patients with typhoid fever. In the absence of vaccination an elevated level of H and/or O agglutinin titre of 1: 320 is of diagnostic value for typhoid fever especially in our setting where a single sample of serum is relied on for the diagnosis of typhoid fever. (author)

2009-01-01

33

Influence of interferon-beta therapy switching on neutralizing antibody titres: results from the Austrian Switch Study.  

Science.gov (United States)

Neutralizing antibodies against interferon-beta are associated with a reduction of the efficacy of this drug. Continuing treatment leads to a decline or even loss of neutralizing antibodies over years. No strategies are currently available to shorten the period of neutralizing antibody positivity. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of switching between high and low immunogenic interferon-beta products on neutralising antibody titres. Twenty-four patients treated with the subcutaneously administered interferon-beta 1b or 1a and high titres of neutralizing antibodies were included. At baseline interferon-beta therapy was interrupted for 3 months and two pulses of high dose methylprednisolone were applied. Patients were then randomized to receive either the previous interferon-beta preparation or the low immunogenic intramuscular interferon-beta 1a. The primary end-point was the change of neutralizing antibody titres 12 months after randomization. Twelve patients were switched to interferon-beta 1a intramuscularly and 12 patients remained on previous treatment. Median neutralizing antibody titres were 846 NU at baseline and 196 NU at the end of the study. The median change of neutralizing antibody titres did not differ significantly between therapy switchers and non-switchers. Baseline and final neutralizing antibody titres correlated significantly. In conclusion, neither switching nor continuous therapy with any subcutaneous interferon-beta preparation significantly changed neutralizing antibody titres. PMID:19965519

Gneiss, Claudia; Koudouovoh-Tripp, Pia-Maria; Ropele, Stefan; Gotwald, Thaddäus; Ehling, Rainer; Lutterotti, Andreas; Aichner, Franz; Ladurner, Gunther; Eggers, Christian; Schautzer, Franz; Künz, Bettina; Millonig, Alban; Aspeck, Engelbert; Reindl, Markus; Berger, Thomas; Fazekas, Franz; Deisenhammer, Florian

2009-11-13

34

Influence of interferon-beta therapy switching on neutralizing antibody titres: results from the Austrian Switch Study.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Neutralizing antibodies against interferon-beta are associated with a reduction of the efficacy of this drug. Continuing treatment leads to a decline or even loss of neutralizing antibodies over years. No strategies are currently available to shorten the period of neutralizing antibody positivity. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of switching between high and low immunogenic interferon-beta products on neutralising antibody titres. Twenty-four patients treated with the subcutaneously administered interferon-beta 1b or 1a and high titres of neutralizing antibodies were included. At baseline interferon-beta therapy was interrupted for 3 months and two pulses of high dose methylprednisolone were applied. Patients were then randomized to receive either the previous interferon-beta preparation or the low immunogenic intramuscular interferon-beta 1a. The primary end-point was the change of neutralizing antibody titres 12 months after randomization. Twelve patients were switched to interferon-beta 1a intramuscularly and 12 patients remained on previous treatment. Median neutralizing antibody titres were 846 NU at baseline and 196 NU at the end of the study. The median change of neutralizing antibody titres did not differ significantly between therapy switchers and non-switchers. Baseline and final neutralizing antibody titres correlated significantly. In conclusion, neither switching nor continuous therapy with any subcutaneous interferon-beta preparation significantly changed neutralizing antibody titres.

Gneiss C; Koudouovoh-Tripp PM; Ropele S; Gotwald T; Ehling R; Lutterotti A; Aichner F; Ladurner G; Eggers C; Schautzer F; Künz B; Millonig A; Aspeck E; Reindl M; Berger T; Fazekas F; Deisenhammer F

2009-12-01

35

Fluctuations in the titre of antibody to a soluble antigen of myxoma virus in field populations of rabbits, Oryctolagus cuniculus (L.), in Australia  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Results are presented on tests carried out over the past 5 years to measure the antibody titre of various rabbit populations to a soluble antigen of myxoma virus. In an unexpectedly high percentage of immune rabbits the antibody fell below measurable titres, and later rose to measurable titres witho...

Williams, R. T.; Dunsmore, J. D.; Sobey, W. R.

36

[Studies of the antistreptolysin titer in patients with acute pneumonic processes  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Antistreptolysin O level in blood serum is determined in double tests in 164 patients, 116 out of them with acute pneumonic processes. Antistreptolysin titre was established to be over 300 ASE in about 1/5 of the patients with acute focal pneumonias. In 10,4 per cent of the cases with acute pneumonic processes, an ascending dynamics of antistreptolysin O titre is observed in the course of the treatment and in 2,6 per cent the titre elevation is three and fourfold. In the interpretation of the data of the antistreptolysin titres in patients with acute focal pneumonia the possibility of oculte streptoccocal infection with another localization must not be neglected as well as pathological processes in liver parenchyma, leading to non-specific titre elevation.

Petrovski S; Petrov S; Zheliazkova T

1975-01-01

37

Solid-phase radioimmunoassay for measurement of circulating antibody titres to wheat gliadin and its subfractions in patients with adult coeliac disease  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A solid-phase radioimmunoassay for the measurement of circulating antibody titres to wheat gliadin is described. Using this assay, the authors have measured antibody titres to unfractionated gliadin in normal healthy controls, in coeliac patients on a gluten-free or a normal diet, and in patients with ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease. High titres of antibodies to unfractionated gliadin were observed only in the patients with untreated coeliac disease. Antibody titres to ..cap alpha.., ..beta.., ..gamma.. and ..omega.. gliadin subfractions were measured in patients with untreated coeliac disease and compared with titres in normal controls. Patients with untreated coeliac disease had higher antibody titres to the gliadin subfractions. No specific pattern of circulating antibody titres to gliadin subfractions was observed in the untreated coeliac patients which would provide a diagnostic profile. These results suggest shared antigenicity between the gliadin subfractions.

Ciclitira, P.J.; Ellis, H.J. (Guy' s Hospital, London (UK)); Evans, D.J. (Hammersmith Hospital, London (UK))

1983-08-26

38

A solid-phase radioimmunoassay for measurement of circulating antibody titres to wheat gliadin and its subfractions in patients with adult coeliac disease  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A solid-phase radioimmunoassay for the measurement of circulating antibody titres to wheat gliadin is described. Using this assay, the authors have measured antibody titres to unfractionated gliadin in normal healthy controls, in coeliac patients on a gluten-free or a normal diet, and in patients with ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease. High titres of antibodies to unfractionated gliadin were observed only in the patients with untreated coeliac disease. Antibody titres to ?, #betta#, #betta# and #betta# gliadin subfractions were measured in patients with untreated coeliac disease and compared with titres in normal controls. Patients with untreated coeliac disease had higher antibody titres to the gliadin subfractions. No specific pattern of circulating antibody titres to gliadin subfractions was observed in the untreated coeliac patients which would provide a diagnostic profile. These results suggest shared antigenicity between the gliadin subfractions. (Auth.)

1983-08-26

39

Exceptionally high titres in atypical presentation of occult epididymo-orchitis due to brucellosis.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A male patient of 32 years was referred for surgical drainage and orchidectomy of the right testis following a cycling injury. A Venereal Disease Research Laboratory (VDRL) test was requested by the surgery department to rule out secondary syphilis. Although serum samples gave a negative result in the VDRL test, qualitative screening was performed for Brucella antibodies, as per hospital policy, since brucellosis is endemic in this region. Following a positive reaction, a quantitative standard tube agglutination test was carried out yielding titres that were exceptionally high (STAT?=?40?960 IU ml(-1); 2-ME?=?1?:?5120). This finding correlated with the patient's history which included a number of predisposing factors for contracting brucellosis including exposure to cattle, consumption of raw milk and assisting in the parturition of cattle. Consequently, surgery was postponed and treatment was changed from injections of ceftriaxone to the WHO regimen for the treatment of brucellosis: 1 g streptomycin once daily, administered intra-muscularly, plus 100 mg doxycycline twice daily, taken orally. Following 3 days of this treatment, the testicular swelling reduced considerably and orchidectomy was not required. Indeed, after a week, swelling was completely resolved and the patient was discharged. To our knowledge, this is the first case of such high titres in a patient as a result of epididymo-orchitis without the typical clinical presentation of fever and joint pain that is normally associated with brucellosis.

Purwar S; Metgud SC; Gokale SK

2012-03-01

40

Total and serotype-specific pneumococcal antibody titres in children with normal and abnormal humoral immunity.  

Science.gov (United States)

A heptavalent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV-7) protects children against invasive pneumococcal disease. The aim of this study was to evaluate immunoglobulin subclass and serotype-specific pneumococcal antibody responses to vaccination in children with a history of recurrent or severe bacterial infections. Pneumococcal IgG, IgG1, IgG2 titres were assayed by ELISA, and nine serotype concentrations measured using a nonaplex bead assay in 145 children investigated for recurrent or severe infections. Children mounted an exclusively IgG1 response after vaccination with two doses of PCV-7 and a dose of 23 valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (PPV-23), with pneumococcal IgG2 antibody titres remaining low to negligible. Measurement of serotype-specific responses demonstrated that although PCV-7 specific serotype responses increased significantly post-vaccination, specific IgG against two of the serotypes not covered by PCV-7 but only by PPV-23 remained low. We conclude that in contrast to antibody response to natural infection with Pneumococcus or pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccines which are often of a IgG2 subclass, responses in children after PCV-7 are of IgG1 subclass. Serotype-specific IgG were useful in determining the protection against specific pneumococcal strains, and showed that the PPV-23 did not broaden protection against non-PCV-7 serotypes. PMID:16730399

Uddin, Sharif; Borrow, Ray; Haeney, Mansel R; Moran, Andrew; Warrington, Rosalind; Balmer, Paul; Arkwright, Peter D

2006-04-18

 
 
 
 
41

Total and serotype-specific pneumococcal antibody titres in children with normal and abnormal humoral immunity.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A heptavalent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV-7) protects children against invasive pneumococcal disease. The aim of this study was to evaluate immunoglobulin subclass and serotype-specific pneumococcal antibody responses to vaccination in children with a history of recurrent or severe bacterial infections. Pneumococcal IgG, IgG1, IgG2 titres were assayed by ELISA, and nine serotype concentrations measured using a nonaplex bead assay in 145 children investigated for recurrent or severe infections. Children mounted an exclusively IgG1 response after vaccination with two doses of PCV-7 and a dose of 23 valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (PPV-23), with pneumococcal IgG2 antibody titres remaining low to negligible. Measurement of serotype-specific responses demonstrated that although PCV-7 specific serotype responses increased significantly post-vaccination, specific IgG against two of the serotypes not covered by PCV-7 but only by PPV-23 remained low. We conclude that in contrast to antibody response to natural infection with Pneumococcus or pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccines which are often of a IgG2 subclass, responses in children after PCV-7 are of IgG1 subclass. Serotype-specific IgG were useful in determining the protection against specific pneumococcal strains, and showed that the PPV-23 did not broaden protection against non-PCV-7 serotypes.

Uddin S; Borrow R; Haeney MR; Moran A; Warrington R; Balmer P; Arkwright PD

2006-07-01

42

Activity of thalidomide in AIDS-related Kaposi's sarcoma and correlation with HHV8 titre.  

Science.gov (United States)

A phase II study of thalidomide was conducted to evaluate its efficacy and toxicity in the treatment of cutaneous AIDS-related Kaposi's sarcoma (AIDS-KS). To evaluate whether clinical response is correlated with titre of human herpesvirus 8 (HHV8) DNA in peripheral blood, levels were determined by serial end-point dilution at enrolment and 4-6 weeks later. Seventeen male HIV-seropositive patients with histopathologically diagnosed KS were treated with thalidomide 100mg orally once nightly for 8 weeks. Response evaluation was performed using AIDS Clinical Trials Group (ACTG) criteria and analysis was by intention to treat. Six of 17 patients achieved a partial response (35%: 95% confidence interval 10-61%). Eight patients withdrew (6 owing to toxicity, one to early progression and one to non-compliance). HHV8 DNA load decreased by at least 3log10 to undetectable levels in 3 of the 5 virologically assessable partial responders. This preliminary study demonstrates that thalidomide has activity in the treatment of AIDS-KS and that clinical response is associated with a reduction of HHV8 DNA titre in peripheral blood. PMID:9874123

Fife, K; Howard, M R; Gracie, F; Phillips, R H; Bower, M

1998-12-01

43

Activity of thalidomide in AIDS-related Kaposi's sarcoma and correlation with HHV8 titre.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A phase II study of thalidomide was conducted to evaluate its efficacy and toxicity in the treatment of cutaneous AIDS-related Kaposi's sarcoma (AIDS-KS). To evaluate whether clinical response is correlated with titre of human herpesvirus 8 (HHV8) DNA in peripheral blood, levels were determined by serial end-point dilution at enrolment and 4-6 weeks later. Seventeen male HIV-seropositive patients with histopathologically diagnosed KS were treated with thalidomide 100mg orally once nightly for 8 weeks. Response evaluation was performed using AIDS Clinical Trials Group (ACTG) criteria and analysis was by intention to treat. Six of 17 patients achieved a partial response (35%: 95% confidence interval 10-61%). Eight patients withdrew (6 owing to toxicity, one to early progression and one to non-compliance). HHV8 DNA load decreased by at least 3log10 to undetectable levels in 3 of the 5 virologically assessable partial responders. This preliminary study demonstrates that thalidomide has activity in the treatment of AIDS-KS and that clinical response is associated with a reduction of HHV8 DNA titre in peripheral blood.

Fife K; Howard MR; Gracie F; Phillips RH; Bower M

1998-12-01

44

Immunization of rabbits to produce high serum titres of neutralizing antibodies and immunity to the paralyzing toxin of Ixodes holocyclus.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Rabbits have been immunized against the effects of the paralyzing toxin of the Australian paralysis tick Ixodes holocyclus by injecting them with preparations extracted from tick salivary glands. Immunized rabbits were able to withstand doses of toxin known to kill unimmunized rabbits. Neutralizing antibodies were detectable in serum after 2-4 doses of the crude extract or of the relatively pure antigenic fraction. When injections were continued at intervals of from 2-7 weeks, hyperimmunity was retained for at least 68 weeks. Hyperimmune serum, reaching a very high titre of neutralizing antibodies, was obtained after 3-6 injections. Titres tended to decline when boosting ceased, but after a "rest period' high titres were restored by further boosting with normally lethal doses of toxin. No symptoms of tick paralysis developed despite low titres prior to boosting. Thus, once hyperimmunity had been established, high titres of circulating antibodies were not immediately essential for immunity to tick paralysis. An IgG fraction was obtained from rabbit serum using a Protein A-Sepharose method; 33.4 micrograms of IgG protein fully neutralized, and 19.5 micrograms IgG half neutralized, 1 micrograms of crude toxin protein. This procedure with rabbits may permit the production of a purified tick-paralysis antitoxin more suitable for human use than the existing antitoxin based on canine hyperimmune serum.

Stone BF; Neish AL; Wright IG

1982-08-01

45

The baseline widal titre among the healthy individuals of the hilly areas in the garhwal region of uttarakhand, India.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Introduction: Typhoid fever is endemic in all parts of India and the Widal test is widely used for its diagnosis. In the endemic areas, the healthy people may contain antibodies which are capable of reacting upto a variable titre in the Widal test, due to a past exposure, TAB vaccination and cross reacting antigens. Therefore it varies widely from place to place and is referred to as the baseline titre of that area. The aim of this study was to determine the average baseline titre of the apparently healthy population in the Garhwal region of Uttarakhand, India. Material and Methods: Blood samples were collected from healthy volunteers over the period from February 2011 to January 2012 and they were analyzed for the presence of the Salmonella antibodies by carrying out the Widal tube agglutination test. Results: Among the 2164 serum specimens which were tested, 922 (42.6%) sera were found to be positive for the Widal test and 1242 were negative. The most frequently recorded titre of the reactive sera was 1:40 for the anti-O antibodies and it was 1:80 for the anti-H antibodies and this was the baseline titre for this region. Conclusion: Based on the above results of our study, it has been recommended that the cut-off titre of 1:80 for the anti-O antibodies and of 1:160 for the anti-H antibodies may be considered as diagnostic for enteric fever in the Garhwal region of Uttarakhand, India.

Pal S; Prakash R; Juyal D; Sharma N; Rana A; Negi S

2013-03-01

46

RAISING FARM AND RAISING METHOD OF DYBOWSKI'S BROWN FROG  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A raising farm and a raising method of dybowskis brown frog are provided, which enable to grow frogs by making the frog eat the cricket. A raising farm comprises: a frog hatcher(110) in which a water pool(111) filled with the water is formed a frog shelter(120) supplying the feed at the early stage and rearing the frog a frog rearing field(10) including the mesh network installed at the top from the side wall a frog dwelling unit(200) in which the shade net covers the sheaf of straw a top shade net(270) which is installed in order to block sunlight from the side wall in the top and a vinyl house which maintains the temperature of the cricket field(20) at the upper part of the shade net(280).

WON JONG GYUN

47

Raising HDL cholesterol in women  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Danny J Eapen1, Girish L Kalra1, Luay Rifai1, Christina A Eapen2, Nadya Merchant1, Bobby V Khan11Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA, USA; 2University of South Florida School of Medicine, Tampa, FL, USAAbstract: High-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) concentration is essential in the determination of coronary heart disease (CHD) risk in women. This is especially true in the postmenopausal state, where lipid profiles and CHD risk mimic that of age-matched men. Thus, interventions designed to reduce CHD risk by raising HDL-C levels may have particular significance during the transition to menopause. This review discusses HDL-C-raising therapies and the role of HDL in the primary prevention of CHD in women. Lifestyle-based interventions such as dietary change, aerobic exercise regimens, and smoking cessation are initial steps that are effective in raising HDL-C, and available data suggest women respond similarly to men with these interventions. When combined with pharmacotherapy, the effects of these lifestyle alterations are further amplified. Though studies demonstrating gender-specific differences in therapy are limited, niacin continues to be the most effective agent in raising HDL-C levels, especially when used in combination with fibrate or statin therapy. Emerging treatments such as HDL mimetic therapy show much promise in further raising HDL-C levels and improving cardiovascular outcomes.Keywords: high-density lipoprotein, HDL, women, cholesterol, heart disease

Danny J Eapen; Girish L Kalra; Luay Rifai; et al

2009-01-01

48

Endotoxaemia and acute pancreatitis: correlation between the severity of the disease and the anti-enterobacterial common antigen antibody titre.  

Science.gov (United States)

Enterobacterial common antigen is a highly immunogenic component of the Gram negative bacterial cell wall that is common to all enteric bacteria. In the present study, the humoral antibody response against enteric bacteria was investigated by measuring antibodies to enterobacterial common antigen in paired serum samples in 38 patients with acute pancreatitis and in 31 healthy subjects. In mild pancreatitis (11 patients), no changes in anti-enterobacterial common antigen titres were observed as compared with healthy controls. Nine of the 10 patients had a significant increase (greater than or equal to 8 times) in anti-enterobacterial common antigen titres during the disease. Similarly, in patients with fulminant (haemorrhagic) pancreatitis who survived, a significant increase in anti-enterobacterial common antigen titres occurred during the course of the disease (in nine of the 11 patients). Paradoxically, only one of the six patients with fulminant pancreatitis with fatal outcome showed a significant increase in his anti-enterobacterial common antigen titre. The results suggest that Gram negative bacterial components escape into the systemic circulation in acute pancreatitis. This may have pathophysiologic significance in this disease. PMID:6479681

Kivilaakso, E; Valtonen, V V; Malkamäki, M; Palmu, A; Schröder, T; Nikki, P; Mäkelä, P H; Lempinen, M

1984-10-01

49

Raising the Bar in Reading  

Science.gov (United States)

This article aims to present strategies and discussion about how teachers can adapt the curriculum in order to provide authentic needs-based programmes. Identifying students' strengths and needs gave us clear directions as to what we needed to teach. In this article, the research team discuss how they successfully raised the reading achievement of…

Naidoo, Taryn; Naicker, Roshilla

2006-01-01

50

RAISED BOSS FOR STAPLE GUIDE  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A surgical stapling device including a handle assembly, a body portion, and a head portion is disclosed. The handle assembly includes a firing trigger. The body portion extends distally from the handle assembly. The head portion includes an anvil assembly and a shell assembly. The anvil assembly is movable in relation to the shell assembly between spaced and approximated positions. The shell assembly includes a pusher and an inner guide portion. The pusher includes at least one slot therein and is movable in relation to the anvil assembly between retracted and extended positions. The inner guide portion is disposed adjacent at least a portion of the pusher and includes a raised boss extending therefrom. The raised boss is configured to shroud the slot in the pusher when the pusher is in the retracted position.

MILLIMAN KEITH L

51

Natural prevalence of antibody titres to GTF of S. mutans in saliva in high and low caries active children  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The present study was conducted to find out the role of natural immunity against dental caries. Whole stimulated saliva of various caries from active children was collected. Antigen glucosyltransferase (GTF) was prepared from Streptococcus mutans serotype C and the antibody titre was estimated using ELISA. Salivary IgG, s-IgA and total immunoglobulins (IgG + s-IgA+ IgM) concentration were assayed. The result showed an increased level of salivary IgG concentration with the increased number of dental caries, which was not statistically significant. But there were significant decrease of s-IgA titre as well as total immunoglobulin concentration in saliva with the increased number of dental caries. This study showed that because of lack of local immunity the children are more prone to dental caries.

Kirtaniya B; Chawla H; Tiwari A; Ganguly N; Sachdev V

2009-01-01

52

Influence of periodontal disease, Porphyromonas gingivalis and cigarette smoking on systemic anti-citrullinated peptide antibody titres.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Anti-citrullinated protein antibody (ACPA) responses may precede clinical onset of rheumatoid arthritis. Porphyromonas gingivalis peptidylarginine deiminase can citrullinate proteins possibly inducing autoimmunity in susceptible individuals. AIM: To determine whether periodontitis, carriage of P. gingivalis, smoking and periodontal therapy influence ACPA titres. METHODS: Serum and plaque samples were collected from 39 periodontitis patients before and after non-surgical periodontal treatment, and from 36 healthy subjects. Carriage of P. gingivalis was determined by PCR of plaque DNA. ACPA was determined by anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide (CCP) enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Anti-P. gingivalis titres were determined by ELISA. RESULTS: Untreated periodontitis patients had higher anti-CCP antibody titres than healthy controls [three patients (8%) greater than manufacturer suggested assay diagnostic threshold (5 Assay Units/AU) versus none (0%); mean ± SEM: 1.37 ± 0.23 versus 0.40 ± 0.10 AU, p < 0.0001]. Periodontitis patients who smoked demonstrated lower anti-P. gingivalis (15956 ± 4385 versus 2512 ± 1290 Units/ml, p < 0.05), but similar anti-CCP than non-smoking periodontitis patients (smokers: 1.31 ± 0.35; non-smokers: 1.41 ± 0.32 AU). Healthy smokers demonstrated elevated anti-CCP titres (0.75 ± 0.19 AU), at levels between healthy non-smokers (0.15 ± 0.05 AU) and non-smoker periodontitis patients. Six months after periodontal treatment, there were significant reductions in anti-CCP (non-smokers p < 0.05) and anti-P. gingivalis (all participants p < 0.01). CONCLUSION: In subjects with periodontitis, P. gingivalis infection may be responsible for inducing autoimmune responses that characterize rheumatoid arthritis.

Lappin DF; Apatzidou D; Quirke AM; Oliver-Bell J; Butcher JP; Kinane DF; Riggio MP; Venables P; McInnes IB; Culshaw S

2013-10-01

53

Associations of BF2 alleles with antibody titres and production traits in commercial pure line broiler chickens.  

Science.gov (United States)

Three commercial broiler pure lines were evaluated for associations of sire BF2 (major histocompatibility complex class I) alleles with progeny phenotypic traits. Significant BF2 associations with a subset of traits were observed in two lines. The BF2*21 allele was positively associated with antibody titre to infectious bursal disease virus in both lines. Other associations were line-specific. PMID:17326801

Ewald, S J; Ye, X; Avendano, S; McLeod, S; Lamont, S J; Dekkers, J C M

2007-02-27

54

On Level-Raising Congruences  

CERN Document Server

A work of Sorensen is rewritten here to include nontrivial types at the infinite places. This extends results of K. Ribet and R. Taylor on level-raising for algebraic modular forms on D^{\\times}, where D is a definite quaternion algebra over a totally real field F. This is done for any automorphic representations \\pi of an arbitrary reductive group G over F which is compact at infinity. It is not assumed that \\pi_\\infty is trivial. If \\lambda is a finite place of \\bar{\\Q}, and w is a place where \\pi_w is unramified and \\pi_w is congruent to the trivial representation mod \\lambda, then under some mild additional assumptions (relaxing requirements on the relation between w and \\ell which appear in previous works) the existence of a \\tilde{\\pi} congruent to \\pi mod \\lambda such that \\tilde{\\pi}_w has more parahoric fixed vectors than \\pi_w, is proven. In the case where G_w has semisimple rank one, results of Clozel, Bellaiche and Graftieaux according to which \\tilde{\\pi}_w is Steinberg, are sharpened. To provide...

Flicker, Yuval Z

2008-01-01

55

Parenting Skills: Tips for Raising Teens  

Science.gov (United States)

... may be reprinted for personal, noncommercial use only. Parenting skills: Tips for raising teens By Mayo Clinic ... not share your e-mail address Sign up Parenting skills: Tips for raising teens Helping an adolescent ...

56

Method for raising pig with saw dust  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The method of utilizing saw dust in raising pig is to blend saw dust and concentrated feed for raising pig. The present invention utilizes waste to save straw feed and power consumption and to low pig raising cost. Saw dust is sieved to eliminate wood pieces, mixed with distiller's yeast and water to ferment in cement tank until becoming soft, yellow and scented. The present invention has the features of saving in raising pig, and being simple and feasible.

YU ZHONGHUI

57

Relationship between haemagglutination-inhibiting antibody titres and clinical protection against influenza: development and application of a bayesian random-effects model  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Antibodies directed against haemagglutinin, measured by the haemagglutination inhibition (HI) assay are essential to protective immunity against influenza infection. An HI titre of 1:40 is generally accepted to correspond to a 50% reduction in the risk of contracting influenza in a susceptible population, but limited attempts have been made to further quantify the association between HI titre and protective efficacy. Methods We present a model, using a meta-analytical approach, that estimates the level of clinical protection against influenza at any HI titre level. Source data were derived from a systematic literature review that identified 15 studies, representing a total of 5899 adult subjects and 1304 influenza cases with interval-censored information on HI titre. The parameters of the relationship between HI titre and clinical protection were estimated using Bayesian inference with a consideration of random effects and censorship in the available information. Results A significant and positive relationship between HI titre and clinical protection against influenza was observed in all tested models. This relationship was found to be similar irrespective of the type of viral strain (A or B) and the vaccination status of the individuals. Conclusion Although limitations in the data used should not be overlooked, the relationship derived in this analysis provides a means to predict the efficacy of inactivated influenza vaccines when only immunogenicity data are available. This relationship can also be useful for comparing the efficacy of different influenza vaccines based on their immunological profile.

Coudeville Laurent; Bailleux Fabrice; Riche Benjamin; Megas Françoise; Andre Philippe; Ecochard René

2010-01-01

58

Relationship between haemagglutination-inhibiting antibody titres and clinical protection against influenza: development and application of a bayesian random-effects model.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Antibodies directed against haemagglutinin, measured by the haemagglutination inhibition (HI) assay are essential to protective immunity against influenza infection. An HI titre of 1:40 is generally accepted to correspond to a 50% reduction in the risk of contracting influenza in a susceptible population, but limited attempts have been made to further quantify the association between HI titre and protective efficacy. METHODS: We present a model, using a meta-analytical approach, that estimates the level of clinical protection against influenza at any HI titre level. Source data were derived from a systematic literature review that identified 15 studies, representing a total of 5899 adult subjects and 1304 influenza cases with interval-censored information on HI titre. The parameters of the relationship between HI titre and clinical protection were estimated using Bayesian inference with a consideration of random effects and censorship in the available information. RESULTS: A significant and positive relationship between HI titre and clinical protection against influenza was observed in all tested models. This relationship was found to be similar irrespective of the type of viral strain (A or B) and the vaccination status of the individuals. CONCLUSION: Although limitations in the data used should not be overlooked, the relationship derived in this analysis provides a means to predict the efficacy of inactivated influenza vaccines when only immunogenicity data are available. This relationship can also be useful for comparing the efficacy of different influenza vaccines based on their immunological profile.

Coudeville L; Bailleux F; Riche B; Megas F; Andre P; Ecochard R

2010-01-01

59

Age, generation, life cycle et life course dans les titres d’articles sociologiques américains : 1940-2000  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Le matériau présenté dans cet article est formé d'un corpus de 259 titres d'articles de revues où apparaissent les mots clefs age(s), generation(s), lift cycle et lift course. Par l'analyse lexicale de ce corpus, on entend moins cerner l'intentionnalité des auteurs qu'objectiver la façon dont sont affichés dans les titres certaines orientations, thématiques et objets d'études. Cette étude sur la communication des savoirs scientifiques permet d'approcher autrement la façon dont le raisonnement sociologique a intégré des perspectives d'analyse portant sur les temporalités humaines et sociales. Pour dégager leur historicité, ont été systématiquement dépouillées quatre revues sociologiques généralistes américaines (American Journal of Sociology, Social Forces, American Sociological Review and Social Problems), sur une période de soixante années (1940-2000).This paper rewiews the occurrence of the ftllowing key words: age(s), generation(s), life cycle and life course, in the titles of 259 articles published in scientific journals. Rather than indentifying the authors' intentions, the lexical analysis of the corpus objectifies the way certain orientations, topics and objects were highlighted. This study of the communication of scientific knowledge offers an alternative perception of how sociological reasoning has integrated the analysis of human and social temporalities. In order to demonstrate their historicity, four American general sociological journals (the American Journal of Sociology, Social Forces, the American Sociological Review and Social Problems) appearing between 1940 and 2000 have heen systematically analyzed.

Vincenzo Cichelli; Catherine Cichelli-Pugeault; Maurizio Merico

2009-01-01

60

Effect of Corn or Sorghum in Combination with Soybean Meal or Mungbean as Feed Ingredients on the Serum Antibody Titres to NDV Vaccine in Broiler Chickens  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A research was carried out to study the effect of feed types in the diet based on corn or sorghum in combination with soybean meal or broken green beans on titre antibody to NDV vaccine of broilers. Three hundreds day old chicks broilers with initial body weight of 46.35 ± 4.66 grams were randomly assigned into four treatment groups i.e. T1 (diet based on corn and soybean meal), T2 (diet based on corn and green-bean), T3 (diet based on sorghum and soybean meal), T4 (diet based on sorghum and green-bean). Isoenergy and isoprotein diet and water were given ad libitum. NDV vaccines were given via eyedrop on day 4 and intramuscularly on day 21. Serum antibody titres were measured on day 38, 42 and 48 by Haemaglutination Inhibition Test and expressed as Geometric Mean Titre (log2). Antibody titre to NDV vaccine was already detectable on day 38 and the value was highest in T4, reaching 5.2 and lowest in T3 i.e. 3.6 (P < 0.05). On day 42 the titre of all groups were increased reaching a value of greater than 5.0 (protective) except in T3 which remains lower than 5.0 (not protected). On day 48 the highest titre was reached in T2 (6.4), while T3 remained low below 5 (4.2). These results showed that the types of feed ingredients in the diet can influence antibody titre against NDV vaccination.

Retno Murwani

2008-01-01

 
 
 
 
61

Titres of biogenic amines and ecdysteroids: effect of octopamine on the production of ecdysteroids in the silkworm Bombyx mori.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

At day two, a sharp peak of octopamine (OA) was observed in last instar female Bombyx mori larvae. This peak also appeared in male larvae a day later than in females at day three. An OA peak was also observed before the 3rd ecdysis. However, no OA peaks were observed in 4th instar larvae. At day eight and nine of the 5th instar, another OA peak was observed for male and female, respectively. A peak of tyramine (TA) was found at day one followed by a peak of OA at day two in 3rd instar larvae. At day two, a day before OA peak, a peak of TA was observed for male insects and before the 2nd peak of OA, TA titre was also high in 5th instar larvae. Immediately after 3rd ecdysis, a high titre of DL-beta-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)alanine (DOPA) was observed, followed by a peak of dopamine (DA) at day five. A peak of DOPA was found at day one followed by a peak of DA at day two in 3rd instar larvae. Similarly, a small peak of DOPA was observed at day two, followed by an increase of DA at days eight and nine after the 4th ecdysis. Ecdysteroid peaks were observed just before the 3rd and 4th ecdysis and an ecdysteroid titre increased after the start of spinning. The effects of OA and JH on production of ecdysteroids by prothoracic glands (PGs) were examined in order to identify neuromediators responsible for triggering pupation in B. mori larvae. Exogeneous OA (10-100 mM) reduced and 10 &mgr;M OA stimulated the production of ecdysteroids in the presence and absence of brain extracts by PGs in the final instar (day five) of B. mori in vitro. Meanwhile, exogeneous JHI (10 &mgr;g/ml) stimulated and at 5 &mgr;g/ml it reduced production of ecdysteroids in the presence of brain extracts. Gramine, an OA antagonist, delayed pupation when applied in the diet. Thus, OA may produce some biological effects on the programming of larval-pupal development.

Hirashima A; Hirokado S; Ohta H; Suetsugu E; Sakaguchi M; Kuwano E; Taniguchi E; Eto M

1999-09-01

62

Titres of biogenic amines and ecdysteroids: effect of octopamine on the production of ecdysteroids in the silkworm Bombyx mori.  

Science.gov (United States)

At day two, a sharp peak of octopamine (OA) was observed in last instar female Bombyx mori larvae. This peak also appeared in male larvae a day later than in females at day three. An OA peak was also observed before the 3rd ecdysis. However, no OA peaks were observed in 4th instar larvae. At day eight and nine of the 5th instar, another OA peak was observed for male and female, respectively. A peak of tyramine (TA) was found at day one followed by a peak of OA at day two in 3rd instar larvae. At day two, a day before OA peak, a peak of TA was observed for male insects and before the 2nd peak of OA, TA titre was also high in 5th instar larvae. Immediately after 3rd ecdysis, a high titre of DL-beta-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)alanine (DOPA) was observed, followed by a peak of dopamine (DA) at day five. A peak of DOPA was found at day one followed by a peak of DA at day two in 3rd instar larvae. Similarly, a small peak of DOPA was observed at day two, followed by an increase of DA at days eight and nine after the 4th ecdysis. Ecdysteroid peaks were observed just before the 3rd and 4th ecdysis and an ecdysteroid titre increased after the start of spinning. The effects of OA and JH on production of ecdysteroids by prothoracic glands (PGs) were examined in order to identify neuromediators responsible for triggering pupation in B. mori larvae. Exogeneous OA (10-100 mM) reduced and 10 &mgr;M OA stimulated the production of ecdysteroids in the presence and absence of brain extracts by PGs in the final instar (day five) of B. mori in vitro. Meanwhile, exogeneous JHI (10 &mgr;g/ml) stimulated and at 5 &mgr;g/ml it reduced production of ecdysteroids in the presence of brain extracts. Gramine, an OA antagonist, delayed pupation when applied in the diet. Thus, OA may produce some biological effects on the programming of larval-pupal development. PMID:12770297

Hirashima, A; Hirokado, S; Ohta, H; Suetsugu, E; Sakaguchi, M; Kuwano, E; Taniguchi, E; Eto, M

1999-09-01

63

L'Elevage du Lapin (Raising Rabbits).  

Science.gov (United States)

The ABC's of rabbit raising are provided in this manual. Sections are devoted to choice of breed and breeders, lodging and equipment, hutches and burrows, feeding and watering, forage, cereals, supplements to the food, special feeds for gestating and lact...

1978-01-01

64

Steam raising unit for pressurised water reactors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The steam raising units for PWR's tend to deposit corrosion products on the tube plates. In order to reduce this, and in order to be able to manufacture the tube plates with less expense (by reaching the diameter) it is proposed to let a water chamber be situated adjacent to the two tube plattes, which lies inside the steam jacket limiting the steam raising unit. Further configurations are described in detail. (UWI)

1977-01-01

65

A comparison of vaccine efficacity and mortality during routine use of high-titre Edmonston-Zagreb and Schwarz standard measles vaccines in rural Senegal  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Vaccine efficacy and mortality in successive cohorts of children who routinely received either Edmonston-Zagreb high-titre (EZ-HT) or Schwarz standard (SW-STD) measles vaccines have been examined in a rural area of Senegal. The 2 vaccines were equally protective against measles infection (vaccinatio...

Aaby, Peter; Samb, Badara; Simondon, François; Knudsen, K.; Coll Seck, A.M.; Bennett, J.; Markowitz, L.; Wittle, H.

66

Relationship between haemagglutination-inhibiting antibody titres and clinical protection against influenza: development and application of a bayesian random-effects model  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract Background Antibodies directed against haemagglutinin, measured by the haemagglutination inhibition (HI) assay are essential to protective immunity against influenza infection. An HI titre of 1:40 is generally accepted to correspond to a 50% reduction in the risk of contrac...

Coudeville Laurent; Bailleux Fabrice; Riche Benjamin; Megas Françoise; Andre Philippe; Ecochard René

67

Multifunction organic raising seedling mother disk  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The invention discloses a multifunction organic raising seedling mother disk the raw material formulation of which is as follow according to the weight percentage: 70-80% of grass carbon, 2-5% of flue of a kang soil, straw oil, crop straw oil or plant ash, 10-15% of livestock manure, 3-5% of bone meal, straw power or furfural dregs after being blended, the raw materials are extruded and formed by a seedling disk forming machine into the raising seedling mother disk, the disk surface of which is uniformly distributed with hole grooves. As the fertilizer is adopted as the raw materials of a raising seedling disk, the multifunction organic raising seedling mother disk overcomes the shortcoming of a plastic disk needing to be recovered, and meanwhile, provides the soil and fertilizer for the raising seedling, which is not only beneficial to the growth and tillering of the seedling, but also has positive significance for improving soil, increasing food quality and developing organic agriculture.

FENGZHONG GUAN; DESEN LIU

68

Risk of egg parasitoid attraction depends on anti-aphrodisiac titre in the large cabbage white butterfly Pieris brassicae.  

Science.gov (United States)

Males of a variety of insects transfer an anti-aphrodisiac pheromone to females during mating that renders them less attractive to conspecific males. In cabbage white butterflies, the transfer of an anti-aphrodisiac can result in the unwanted attraction of tiny egg parasitoid wasps of the genus Trichogramma that hitch-hike with mated female butterflies to a host plant where they parasitize the freshly laid butterfly eggs. Here, we show that the anti-aphrodisiac benzyl cyanide (BC) of the large cabbage white Pieris brassicae is depleted by frequent display of the mate-refusal posture that signals a female's unreceptivity to mating. This depletion of BC is ecologically important because it results in a reduced risk of attracting the hitch-hiking egg parasitoid Trichogramma brassicae to mated female butterflies over time since mating. Our results indicate for the first time that a reduction in anti-aphrodisiac titre in mated females due to frequent adoption of the mate-refusal posture is beneficial to both mated females and males particularly when parasitoid pressure is high. PMID:21452001

Huigens, Martinus E; de Swart, Erik; Mumm, Roland

2011-03-31

69

Risk of egg parasitoid attraction depends on anti-aphrodisiac titre in the large cabbage white butterfly Pieris brassicae.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Males of a variety of insects transfer an anti-aphrodisiac pheromone to females during mating that renders them less attractive to conspecific males. In cabbage white butterflies, the transfer of an anti-aphrodisiac can result in the unwanted attraction of tiny egg parasitoid wasps of the genus Trichogramma that hitch-hike with mated female butterflies to a host plant where they parasitize the freshly laid butterfly eggs. Here, we show that the anti-aphrodisiac benzyl cyanide (BC) of the large cabbage white Pieris brassicae is depleted by frequent display of the mate-refusal posture that signals a female's unreceptivity to mating. This depletion of BC is ecologically important because it results in a reduced risk of attracting the hitch-hiking egg parasitoid Trichogramma brassicae to mated female butterflies over time since mating. Our results indicate for the first time that a reduction in anti-aphrodisiac titre in mated females due to frequent adoption of the mate-refusal posture is beneficial to both mated females and males particularly when parasitoid pressure is high.

Huigens ME; de Swart E; Mumm R

2011-04-01

70

Prion subcellular fractionation reveals infectivity spectrum, with a high titre-low PrPres level disparity  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Prion disease transmission and pathogenesis are linked to misfolded, typically protease resistant (PrPres) conformers of the normal cellular prion protein (PrPC), with the former posited to be the principal constituent of the infectious 'prion'. Unexplained discrepancies observed between detectable PrPres and infectivity levels exemplify the complexity in deciphering the exact biophysical nature of prions and those host cell factors, if any, which contribute to transmission efficiency. In order to improve our understanding of these important issues, this study utilized a bioassay validated cell culture model of prion infection to investigate discordance between PrPres levels and infectivity titres at a subcellular resolution. Findings Subcellular fractions enriched in lipid rafts or endoplasmic reticulum/mitochondrial marker proteins were equally highly efficient at prion transmission, despite lipid raft fractions containing up to eight times the levels of detectable PrPres. Brain homogenate infectivity was not differentially enhanced by subcellular fraction-specific co-factors, and proteinase K pre-treatment of selected fractions modestly, but equally reduced infectivity. Only lipid raft associated infectivity was enhanced by sonication. Conclusions This study authenticates a subcellular disparity in PrPres and infectivity levels, and eliminates simultaneous divergence of prion strains as the explanation for this phenomenon. On balance, the results align best with the concept that transmission efficiency is influenced more by intrinsic characteristics of the infectious prion, rather than cellular microenvironment conditions or absolute PrPres levels.

Lewis Victoria; Haigh Cathryn L; Masters Colin L; Hill Andrew F; Lawson Victoria A; Collins Steven J

2012-01-01

71

Australia: raising finance in the Australian coalfields  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Initially examines the economic characteristics of, and current and future trends in, the Australian export coal industry. Goes on to examine the implications of the issues raised on raising capital. The Australian export industry has been rejuvenated by a combination of cost rationalisation and price increases. Strong export demand is expected over the near to medium term. The author expects a continued move towards larger producers due to take-overs and corporate consolidations and a move from surface to underground mining. Those financing the industry need to consider factors such as cash margins, physical advantages of a project and the risk during a project`s lifetime. 5 figs.

Plummer, A. [RFC Corporate Finance Ltd. (Australia)

1995-12-31

72

Raising venture capital in the biopharma industry.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Raising venture capital (VC) is both an art and a science. Future entrepreneurs should carefully consider the various issues of VC financing that have a strong impact on the success of their business. In addition to attracting the best venture capital firms, these issues include such subtle but important points as the timing of financing (especially of the first round), external support sources, desirable qualities of a VC firm, amount to be raised, establishing a productive interface between the founders and the venture capitalists, and most importantly the effects of well-executed VC funding on hiring senior executives and scientific leaders.

Leytes LJ

2002-11-01

73

Les femmes et les enfants, prisonniers politiques ou déportés à titre préventif pendant la guerre civile grecque  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Les conditions et stratégies de survie des milliers de femmes condamnées ou déportées de la guerre civile grecque permettent d'établir une typologie.Pendant la guerre civile grecque (1946-1949) des milliers de personnes sont emprisonnées, déportées dans des camps de concentration ou exilées dans des îles, une population hétéroclite d’hommes et de femmes, persécutés pour leurs idées, leurs origines ou même des liens de parenté avec les communistes. Dans la présente étude, nous nous intéresserons à un groupe lui-même peu homogène, les femmes et les enfants, prisonniers politiques ou déportés à titre préventif pendant le conflit. Après un bref rappel de la pratique de la déportation et une esquisse de typologie de la réclusion, nous étudierons les conditions de détention et les stratégies de survie des femmes, souvent emprisonnées avec leurs enfants, leur statut au sein des prisonniers politiques ainsi que le sens de l'engagement politique dans leur système de valeurs.During the Greek Civil War (1946-1949) thousands of persons were imprisoned, deported to concentration camps or exiled on the islands, a heteroclite population of men and women, persecuted for their ideas, their origins or even their association with the Communists. In the present study, we are interested in a not particularly homogeneous group of women and children, political prisoners or deportees who had been detained for preventive reasons during the conflict. Following a brief summary of the practice of deportation and a typological sketch of the imprisonment, we shall study the detention conditions and the survival strategies of the women, often imprisoned with their children, their status vis-à-vis the political prisoners as well as the meaning of political commitment in their value system.

Christina Alexopoulos

2011-01-01

74

Influence of horn flies (Haematobia irritans) on teat skin condition, intramammary infection, and serum anti-S. aureus antibody titres in holstein heifers.  

Science.gov (United States)

Staphylococcus aureus remains a major mastitis-causing pathogen in growing dairy heifers, resulting in damage to developing milk secretory tissue. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the role of horn flies as vectors in the spread of S. aureus among dairy heifers immunized with a S. aureus bacterin. We analyzed the prevalence of mastitis among quarters, evaluated teat skin condition (as a result of biting flies) prior to and after insecticide administration, and measured serum anti-S. aureus antibody titres monthly after vaccination. Response to S. aureus immunization was poor; however, titres increased 2- to 3-fold during the period when fly populations increased drastically and teat skin condition worsened, especially front quarter teat condition. Presence of flies and the resulting teat lesions were associated with a high level of S. aureus mastitis. Use of an insecticidal pour-on reduced fly populations and healed teat lesions, but existing cases of mastitis required antibiotic therapy. PMID:23664017

Ryman, V E; Nickerson, S C; Hurley, D J; Berghaus, R D; Kautz, F M

2013-05-09

75

Natural history of islet cell antibodies during the clinical period of type 1 diabetes. High titres at diagnosis are associated with longer persistence.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The natural history of islet cell antibodies (ICA), using standardized Juvenile Diabetes Foundation (JDF) units, was studied for two years in 64 type 1 (insulin dependent) diabetic patients, aged 7-45 years prospectively from clinical onset. While ICA were present among 44/64 (68.8%) of the newly diagnosed patients, only 9.3% remained positive at 24 months. The only factor which showed significant predictive value for ICA survival was high initial JDF ICA titres: Maximal persistence of ICA was observed in patients with 80 JDF units at diagnosis (100% at 12 and 24 month). This persistence was lower in patients with 40 JDF units at diagnosis (77% at 12 month, 40% at 24 month) and the lowest for patients with 5 JDF at diagnosis (14% at 12 month, 0% at 15 month). 14/20 (70%) of patients negative for the ICA test at diagnosis became positive during follow-up, but always with a low titre (5-10 JDF units) and for a short period (3-6 months). It is concluded that initial titre is the most important variable in predicting the maintenance of ICA during the first two years of clinical type 1 diabetes.

Goday A; Fernandez J; Gonzalez-Clemente JM; Ferrer J; Usach E; Gomis R; Vilardell E

1991-08-01

76

Acute diesel exhaust particle exposure increases viral titre and inflammation associated with existing influenza infection, but does not exacerbate deficits in lung function.  

Science.gov (United States)

Please cite this paper as: Larcombe et al. (2012) Acute diesel exhaust particle exposure increases viral titre and inflammation associated with existing influenza infection, but does not exacerbate deficits in lung function. Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses DOI:10.1111/irv.12012. Background? Exposure to diesel exhaust particles (DEP) is thought to exacerbate many pre-existing respiratory diseases, including asthma, bronchitis and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, however, there is a paucity of data on whether DEP exacerbates illness due to respiratory viral infection. Objectives? To assess the physiological consequences of an acute DEP exposure during the peak of influenza-induced illness. Methods? We exposed adult female BALB/c mice to 100??g DEP (or control) 3·75?days after infection with 10(4·5) plaque forming units of influenza A/Mem71 (or control). Six hours, 24?hours and 7?days after DEP exposure we measured thoracic gas volume and lung function at functional residual capacity. Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid was taken for analyses of cellular inflammation and cytokines, and whole lungs were taken for measurement of viral titre. Results? Influenza infection resulted in significantly increased inflammation, cytokine influx and impairment to lung function. DEP exposure alone resulted in less inflammation and cytokine influx, and no impairment to lung function. Mice infected with influenza and exposed to DEP had higher viral titres and neutrophilia compared with infected mice, yet they did not have more impaired lung mechanics than mice infected with influenza alone. Conclusions? A single dose of DEP is not sufficient to physiologically exacerbate pre-existing respiratory disease caused by influenza infection in mice. PMID:22994877

Larcombe, Alexander N; Foong, Rachel E; Boylen, Catherine E; Zosky, Graeme R

2012-09-21

77

HLA-DR3-DQ2 mice do not develop ataxia in the presence of high titre anti-gliadin antibodies.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Recently, it has been suggested that anti-gliadin antibodies (?GAb) may produce "gluten ataxia", even in the absence of celiac disease enteropathy. ?GAb are reportedly present in 12-50 % of patients with sporadic ataxia, but also in 12 % of the general population, such that the importance of ?GAb as a cause of sporadic ataxia is not conclusively settled. We aimed to determine whether mice transgenic for HLA-DR3-DQ2 and immunised with gliadin to achieve high titres of ?GAb would develop ataxia and/or cerebellar damage. From 6 weeks of age, HLA-DR3-DQ2 transgenic mice were immunised fortnightly with gliadin (n?=?10) or a saline control (n?=?6) in adjuvant. Serum titres were measured by ?GAb enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. At 24 weeks of age, mice were tested for locomotor function using the accelerating rotarod, ledged beam, ink-paw gait, and several neurological severity score subtests. Brains were then collected and processed for immunohistochemistry. Sections were analysed for lymphocytic infiltration, changes in morphology and Purkinje cell (PC) dendritic volume and the number of PCs counted via unbiased stereology. Gliadin-immunised mice developed high ?GAb titres while controls did not. There was no statistically significant difference between the gliadin and sham-immunised HLA-DR3-DQ2 mice on any of the tests of motor coordination, in lymphocytic infiltration, PC number or in dendritic volume. High levels of ?GAb are not sufficient to produce ataxia or cerebellar damage in HLA-DR3-DQ2 transgenic mice.

Tarlac V; Kelly L; Nag N; Allen-Graham J; Anderson RP; Storey E

2013-06-01

78

HLA-DR3-DQ2 mice do not develop ataxia in the presence of high titre anti-gliadin antibodies.  

Science.gov (United States)

Recently, it has been suggested that anti-gliadin antibodies (?GAb) may produce "gluten ataxia", even in the absence of celiac disease enteropathy. ?GAb are reportedly present in 12-50 % of patients with sporadic ataxia, but also in 12 % of the general population, such that the importance of ?GAb as a cause of sporadic ataxia is not conclusively settled. We aimed to determine whether mice transgenic for HLA-DR3-DQ2 and immunised with gliadin to achieve high titres of ?GAb would develop ataxia and/or cerebellar damage. From 6 weeks of age, HLA-DR3-DQ2 transgenic mice were immunised fortnightly with gliadin (n?=?10) or a saline control (n?=?6) in adjuvant. Serum titres were measured by ?GAb enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. At 24 weeks of age, mice were tested for locomotor function using the accelerating rotarod, ledged beam, ink-paw gait, and several neurological severity score subtests. Brains were then collected and processed for immunohistochemistry. Sections were analysed for lymphocytic infiltration, changes in morphology and Purkinje cell (PC) dendritic volume and the number of PCs counted via unbiased stereology. Gliadin-immunised mice developed high ?GAb titres while controls did not. There was no statistically significant difference between the gliadin and sham-immunised HLA-DR3-DQ2 mice on any of the tests of motor coordination, in lymphocytic infiltration, PC number or in dendritic volume. High levels of ?GAb are not sufficient to produce ataxia or cerebellar damage in HLA-DR3-DQ2 transgenic mice. PMID:23086706

Tarlac, Volga; Kelly, Louise; Nag, Nupur; Allen-Graham, Judy; Anderson, Robert P; Storey, Elsdon

2013-06-01

79

Raising the viscosity of heating fuel oil  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

With the heating fuel oil market in transition and the changing demand for automobile fuel and heating fuel oil, crude oil processing methods must be changed, i.e. the conversion and cracked gas fractions must be adapted to the varying demand. As a result, also oil viscosities and densities will change. There is a shift in heating fuel oil viscosity and densities will change. There is a shift in heating fuel oil viscosity from 3.5 cSt to about 4.8 cSt, at 20/sup 0/C, and this trend is expected to continue. It is impossible to predict whether the limiting value of 6cSt/20/sup 0/C (DIN 51603) will be exceeded in future. Extensive studies would then be required in order to determine the market chances of such a high-viscosity oil. In consequence, short-term viscosity raising above this limiting value is not to be expected.

Salzmann, F.

1981-11-01

80

Persistent limb pain and raised serum alkaline phosphatase the earliest markers of subclinical hypovitaminosis D in Kashmir.  

Science.gov (United States)

The present study was an attempt to assess the cause of persistent pain in lower limbs among children from Kashmir. The study was conducted on one hundred children attending Paediatric out-patient department of Sher-i-Kashmir Institute of Medical Sciences, Srinagar. All the children were in the age group of 5 to 14 years. They showed markedly raised levels of serum alkaline phosphatase, whereas serum phosphorus, serum calcium levels and antistreptolycin O-titres were normal in 93% cases. None of them had any rheumatic or rheumatoid pathology. Among 15 suspected clinical rickets only three were established radiologically. Dietary and socio-economic history revealed deficient vitamin D intake and less exposure to sun. It was hypothesized that sub-clinical vitamin D deficiency could be a major cause of persistent pain in lower limbs and raised serum alkaline phosphatase could be the earliest marker of vitamin D deficiency. It was confirmed by injecting single dose of vitamin D (3 lac I. U.) which relieved bone pain and lowered the levels of serum alkaline phosphatase to normal within 14 weeks of initiation of therapy. PMID:2620972

Masood, H; Narang, A P; Bhat, I A; Shah, G N

 
 
 
 
81

Persistent limb pain and raised serum alkaline phosphatase the earliest markers of subclinical hypovitaminosis D in Kashmir.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The present study was an attempt to assess the cause of persistent pain in lower limbs among children from Kashmir. The study was conducted on one hundred children attending Paediatric out-patient department of Sher-i-Kashmir Institute of Medical Sciences, Srinagar. All the children were in the age group of 5 to 14 years. They showed markedly raised levels of serum alkaline phosphatase, whereas serum phosphorus, serum calcium levels and antistreptolycin O-titres were normal in 93% cases. None of them had any rheumatic or rheumatoid pathology. Among 15 suspected clinical rickets only three were established radiologically. Dietary and socio-economic history revealed deficient vitamin D intake and less exposure to sun. It was hypothesized that sub-clinical vitamin D deficiency could be a major cause of persistent pain in lower limbs and raised serum alkaline phosphatase could be the earliest marker of vitamin D deficiency. It was confirmed by injecting single dose of vitamin D (3 lac I. U.) which relieved bone pain and lowered the levels of serum alkaline phosphatase to normal within 14 weeks of initiation of therapy.

Masood H; Narang AP; Bhat IA; Shah GN

1989-10-01

82

Raising the standards: marine pollution prevention  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Australian National Audit Office (ANAO) conducted an audit in 1994 on Australia`s oil spill response strategy. A series of recommendations were made, the most important of which concerned the need for effective programs to maintain equipment readiness. In this paper the comments of the review committee are summarized. It highlighted three areas: the need to introduce a more stringent form of risk analysis into the planning process; the need for an active deterrent that conveyed a message that Australia had the mechanisms to catch offenders who spill oil in Australian waters; and the need to address the issue of crew competence. The task of raising the standards requires ongoing vigilance. Vigilance to ensure improvement in crew standards, the quality of ship management, and that flag states carry out their obligations and responsibilities. There is a need for determination to sweep substandard ships from the seas, and to ensure seafarers are fairly treated. Most importantly, Australia requires a commitment to avoiding complacency in any form. (author).

Morris, P. [Australian Parliament, Canberra, ACT (Australia)

1996-12-31

83

Raising device for attachment to hospital beds  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A raising device for attachment to hospital beds consists of an oval tube mounted in a support and which can be rotated and locked in any desired position of rotation, on whose upper free end a handgrip is arranged by which the patient can pull himself up. He can swing himself to the edge of the bed by rotation of the oval tube, and as soon as the oval tube is pre-loaded in an axial direction a clutch engages which is built in to a support arranged on the bed-head. The clutch consists of a clutch member connected as an axial extension of the oval tube which has an axial shoulder formed as a cone which engages in a corresponding conical recess of a radially expandable brake shoe whose outer circumference can be pressed in a free-locking fashion against the inner side of a bearing cup which is a bearing for the clutch. Such a clutch enables the rotational position of the oval tube to be locked in any desired angular position.

SPAETH WALTER

84

Lotus lantern cuttage seedling raising method  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The invention belongs to the field of floriculture methods, and relates to a method for raising seedlings of medinilla magnifica by cutting. The method comprises the following steps: semi-lignified tender stems are cut from a parent plant as cutting shoots, after cottage, the temperature is kept at 27 DEG C by day and 23-24 DEG C at night, the relative air moisture is kept at 70-85% and the illumination intensity is kept at 8000-20000lux by day the cutting shoots are fixedly planted in flowerpots, the roots of the fixedly planted plantlets are watered with mixed solution prepared from 1500 times of calcium nitrate and 1500 times of phoxim after being potted, a whole plant is sprayed with 1500-fold aqueous diluent of Iprodione 2-4 days after fixed planting, the plant is sprayed once every 20 days, and after being sprayed for three times, the plant is sprayed once every 30 days, 90-100 days later, the plant enters the young seedling period. The method cultivates about 8000 medinilla magnifica seedlings, and the cutting survival rate is high up to 72%.

TIESHUN YANG; LIANG ZHAO; BAOSHENG WANG; JIANPING WU; LIJUAN WANG; HUIQIN XIA

85

29 CFR 780.123 - Raising of bees.  

Science.gov (United States)

...2009-07-01 2009-07-01 false Raising of bees. 780.123 Section 780.123 Labor...of Agriculture Raising of Livestock, Bees, Fur-Bearing Animals, Or Poultry § 780.123 Raising of bees. The term âraising of * * *...

2009-07-01

86

Raised serum levels of interleukins 6 and 8 and antiphospholipid antibodies in an adult patient with Henoch-Schonlein purpura.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: The long-term prognosis of Henoch-Schönlein purpura (HSP) is determined by the severity of renal involvement, known as HSP nephritis, which varies considerably from patient to patient. There is now increasing evidence that dysregulated cytokine production plays a crucial role in human autoimmune and inflammatory processes. AIM: To explore the possible contributions of serum antistreptolysin O, C-reactive protein, IgA, interleukin (IL)-6, IL-8, tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-?, anticardiolipin antibody (aCL) and antiphosphatidylserine-prothrombin complex antibody (anti-PSPT) in the pathogenesis of HSP, and to evaluate correlations between those biological parameters and the clinical features. METHODS: Records were reviewed of 58 patients with HSP who presented initially with palpable purpura between 2003 and 2009. Serum IL-6 levels were determined by chemiluminescent enzyme immunoassay, IL-8 levels by ELISA and TNF-? levels by quantitative sandwich enzyme immunoassay. Serum aCL and anti-PSPT levels were measured according to our previously published procedures. RESULTS: There was a significant correlation between the serum IL-6 and IgA anti-PSPT levels, and also between the serum IL-8 and IgA anti-PSPT levels. Serum IL-8 and IgA aCL levels were both significantly higher in patients with renal involvement than in those without. Serum IL-6 and IgM anti-PSPT levels were also significantly higher in patients with gastrointestinal symptoms than in those without. CONCLUSIONS: We suggest that serum IL-6 and IL-8 associated with antiphospholipid antibodies play a pivotal role in the induction of HSP. Based on our results, IL-8 and IgA aCL levels could be useful as markers to monitor the development of HSP nephritis, and IL-6 and IgM anti-PSPT levels could be used as markers to monitor the development of gastrointestinal involvement.

Kimura S; Takeuchi S; Soma Y; Kawakami T

2013-10-01

87

Féminisation des noms de métier, grade, titre et fonction à l’ère de la mondialisation : néologismes terminologiques et implications sociolinguistiques  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Le champ d’investigation exploré porte sur les réseaux sémantiques et morphosyntaxiques tissés au sein de la terminologie qui renvoie aux noms de métiers, grade, titre et fonction au féminin dans deux systèmes linguistiques mis en contraste : le français et l’espagnol. Une brève évocation historique sur le rôle de la femme dans la société permet tout d’abord de dresser un bilan de la situation actuelle (politique linguistique, positionnement des institutions académiques et culturelles…). Dans une seconde étape, cette question est envisagée sous deux points de vue différents mais complémentaires : d’une part, la féminisation de la terminologie et/ou la création de néologismes ; d’autre part, les marques linguistiques explicites du féminin dans la rédaction de textes prenant comme référence les textes réglementaires français (rédigés à l’image des textes canadiens) plus avancés dans la mise en place des procédés de féminisation que les textes espagnols équivalents.

Mercedes Eurrutia Cavero

2012-01-01

88

Effects of a Velogenic Newcastle Disease Virus on Packed Cell Volume, Total Protein and Hemagglutination Inhibition Antibody Titres of Vaccinated Shikabrown Cocks  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Fifty 20 week old Shikabrown cocks consisting of 22 red Shikabrown and 28 white Shikabrown cocks were purchased from the National Animal Production Research Institute, Shika and used for this study. Twenty-five of the cocks made up of 12 red and 13 white cocks selected on basis of weight were infected with 2 ml of 106.0 EID5.0 of a Velogenic Kudu 113 strain of Newcastle disease virus intranasally and orally. The remaining twenty-five cocks made up of 14 red and 11 white served as control. Blood samples were taken from the wing veins of both infected and control cocks and centrifuged in a Hermle Z364 centrifuge at 251.6 g for packed cell volume, total protein and Newcastle disease antibody titres. There was no significant difference in the packed cell volume of the control and infected red Shikabrown cocks. Similarly there was no significant difference in the packed cell volume of the control and infected white Shikabrown cocks, although the infected cocks had slightly lower values. Total protein did not show any significant difference between the control and infected red cocks and between the control and infected white cocks. The antibody titres of the control red and white cocks were significantly (p2 provided protection to the Shikabrown cocks against the velogenic Newcastle disease virus since none of the challenged cocks died. This study suggests that in an endemic environment like Zaria, poultry farmers keeping Shikabrown chickens should vaccinate them against Newcastle disease. Challenging the red and white Shikabrown cocks with the velogenic Newcastle disease virus increased their protection against the Newcastle disease.

J.S. Rwuaan; P.I. Rekwot; P.A. Abdu; L.O. Eduvie; J.A. Obidi

2009-01-01

89

Concentrations of organohalogen compounds and titres of antibodies to Epstein-Barr virus antigens and the risk for non-Hodgkin lymphoma.  

Science.gov (United States)

Exposure to some pesticides and persistent organic pollutants (POPs) has been indicated to be a risk factor for non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL). Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) has been associated with some subgroups of NHL. In a previous study we found an interaction between high concentrations of some POPs and titres of antibodies to EBV early antigen (EA IgG) in relation to NHL. In the present study we measured lipid adjusted plasma concentrations of 35 congeners of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB), p,p'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethyelene (p,p'-DDE), hexachlorobenzene (HCB), seven subgroups of chlordanes (cis-heptachlorepoxide, cis-chlordane, trans-chlordane, oxychlordane, MC6, trans-nonachlordane, cis-nonachlordane) and one polybrominated diphenylether (PBDE) congener (no. 47) in 99 cases with NHL and 99 population based controls. Odds ratios (OR) for NHL were estimated. Sum of PCBs > median in the controls gave odds ratio (OR) 2.0, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.99-3.9. High sum of chlordanes yielded OR 2.3, 95% CI 1.2-4.5. An interaction with EBV EA IgG was found. High sum of PCB gave OR 5.2, 95% CI 1.9-14 in the group with EA IgG > 40. Similarly HCB yielded OR 5.3, 95% CI 1.9-15, pp'-DDE gave OR 3.3, 95% CI 1.4-7.7 and sum of chlordanes yielded OR 6.8, 95% CI 2.3-20, whereas no association was found with PBDE. In summary, this study confirmed an association between certain POPs and NHL with an interaction with titre of IgG antibody to EBV EA. PMID:19424638

Hardell, Karin; Carlberg, Michael; Hardell, Lennart; Björnfoth, Helén; Ericson Jogsten, Ingrid; Eriksson, Mikael; Van Bavel, Bert; Lindström, Gunilla

2009-06-01

90

SUPPORT FOR RAISING OR REGENERATING PLANT BODY AND METHOD OF RAISING OF REGENERATING PLANT BODY  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A plant body is raised or regenerated while inhibiting the growth of bacteria and fungi by using a support which contains a culture medium and a high-molecular substance and in which the culture medium is absorbed in an amount of 10-100 % of the equilibrium medium absorption in a network structure composed of the high-molecular substance. The rates of growth and metabolism of bacteria and fungi are so higher than those of plant bodies that the necessity of bacterial and fungi for supplying nutrients, such as water and sugar, from the medium is remarkably severer than that of plant tissues therefor. In other words, the medium absorbed in the network structure is difficulty available for bacteria and fungi having a high metabolic activity unlike usual liquid media, while it is available for plant tissues having a low metabolic activity to an extent substantially equivalent to that of usual liquid media. As the result, the growth of bacteria and fungi is effectively inhibited without subtantially affecting the raising or regeneration of a plant body.

TANZAWA Hiroshi

91

A fish-raising farming method using offshore wind farm  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A fish-raising farming method using offshore wind farm is provided to capture fish close to natural fish by letting fish eat plenty of various salts and plankton without being stressed. The fish-raising farming method using offshore wind farm includes the steps of: installing two or more offshore wind farms(100) forming a fish raising farm by connecting parts of the offshore wind farms that are submerged under water with a net(200) discharging fries to the inside of the fish raising farm growing the fries at the inside of the fish raising farm and capturing the fish at the inside of the fish raising farm by pulling out the lower part of the net to the surface of water. The lower end circumference of the net(200) is connected by one lower end string(300).

92

Affine Hecke algebras and raising operators for Macdonald polynomials  

CERN Document Server

We introduce certain raising and lowering operators for Macdonald polynomials (of type A_{n-1}) by means of Dunkl operators. The raising operators we discuss are a natural q-analogue of raising operators for Jack polynomials introduced by L.Lapointe and L.Vinet. As an application we prove the integrality of double Kostka coefficients. Double analog of the multinomial coefficients are introduced.

Kirillov, A N; Kirillov, Anatol N; Noumi, Masatoshi

1996-01-01

93

Glaucomatous cupping and raised IOP: sine qua non for glaucoma?  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

PURPOSE: To present selected cases that highlight the confusions in daily glaucoma practice. METHODS: Four cases with raised or normal intraocular pressure (IOP) and definite glaucomatous cupping were investigated. RESULTS: While raised IOP was found in non-glaucomatous etiologies, IOP was normal in established glaucoma in a young patient. CONCLUSION: Raised IOP and glaucomatous cupping may not be pathognomonic of glaucoma and alternative etiology should be ruled out for appropriate management.

Rao A; Kesarwani S; Jena S; Mandal S

2013-07-01

94

Synergistic acceleration of arterial stiffening in the presence of raised blood pressure and raised plasma glucose.  

Science.gov (United States)

Arterial stiffness is recognized as a marker of arterial damage and an indicator of cardiovascular risk. This observational study was conducted to examine the synergistic effect of raised blood pressure (RBP; > or =130/85 mm Hg) and raised plasma glucose (RPG; > or =110 mg/dL) even at levels below those conventionally used to define hypertension and diabetes on the rate of increase of the pulse wave velocity (PWV) over a 3-year period in 2080 Japanese men (age 42+/-9 years). First, the subjects were classified into 4 groups based on the presence at the first examination of RBP, RPG, both abnormalities, or neither abnormality. The estimated annual rate of increase of the PWV was higher in subjects with both the abnormalities than in those with either abnormality alone or neither of the 2 abnormalities. Second, the subjects were also classified based on the evolutional status of these abnormalities during the study period; persistence of both of the abnormalities synergistically accelerated the rate of increase of the PWV (68.3+/-7.1 cm/s per year), as compared with the persistence of either abnormality alone (persistence of RBP alone: 18.2+/-1.6 cm/s per year; persistence of RPG alone: 21.2+/-7.4 cm/s per year) or persistence of neither abnormality (11.1+/-0.8 cm/s per year; P<0.01). Thus, blood pressure and fasting plasma glucose levels even below those defining hypertension and diabetes may synergistically lead to progression of arteriosclerotic arterial damage. This synergistic progression may contribute to the additive increases in the risk of cardiovascular events, at least in part. PMID:16380535

Tomiyama, Hirofumi; Hashimoto, Hideki; Hirayama, Yoji; Yambe, Minoru; Yamada, Jiko; Koji, Yutaka; Shiina, Kazuki; Yamamoto, Yoshio; Yamashina, Akira

2005-12-27

95

Constructing an Engineering Model for Raising an Egyptian Obelisk  

Science.gov (United States)

One of the greatest mysteries of ancient times is how the Egyptians managed to raise huge obelisks using very simple technology. This remarkable task has puzzled engineers for thousand of years. After failing to raise an obelisk with simple machines, such as levers and pulleys, a team of modern engineers solved the mystery using a sandpit and the…

Beck, Charles R.

2009-01-01

96

Differences in female-male mortality after high-titre measles vaccine and association with subsequent vaccination with diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis and inactivated poliovirus : reanalysis of West African studies  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Females given high-titre measles vaccine (HTMV) have high mortality; diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis (DTP) vaccination might be associated with increased female mortality. We aimed to assess whether DTP or inactivated poliovirus (IPV) administered after HTMV was associated with increased female-male mortality ratio.

Aaby, Peter; Jensen, Henrik

2003-01-01

97

Production of antibody fragment (Fab) throughout Escherichia coli fed-batch fermentation process: Changes in titre, location and form of product  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in english Background: Recombinant proteins, including antibodies and antibody fragments, often contain disulfide bond bridges that are necessary for their folding, stability and function. Production of disulfide-bond-containing proteins in the periplasm of Escherichia coli has been very useful, due to unique characteristics of the periplasm, for obtaining fully active and correctly folded products and for alleviating downstream processing. Results: In this study, fed-batch cultivat (more) ion of Escherichia coli (E. coli) for production of Fab D1.3, which is an anti-hen egg white lysozyme (HEWL) antibody fragment was carried out at 37ºC, and the bacterial cells were induced by adding 0.1 mM IPTG to the culture medium. Fermentor was sampled over the course of fermentation; the bacterial cells were centrifugally separated from the culture broth and subjected to osmotic shock (with excluding HEWL) and sonication procedures. The resulting fractions were analysed for Fab using a combination of ELISA, SDS-PAGE and Western blotting and changes in product titre, location, and form was assessed throughout growth. It was shown that osmotic shock released the Fab from the periplasm very efficiently and its efficacy was 20-45% more than sonication. This study demonstrates that, at high cell density cultivation in fermentor, target product can appear inside and outside the cells, depending on the time of induction. The maximum amount of Fab (47 mg/l) in the periplasm was reached at 14 hrs cultivation (4 hrs post induction), being suitable time for cell harvest, selective periplasmic extraction and downstream capture. The Fab increasingly leaked into the culture medium, and reached its maximum culture medium titre of ~78 mg/l after 6 hrs post induction. After 16 hrs cultivation (6 hrs post induction) the amount of Fab remained constant in different locations within and outside the cells. Western blot analysis of cell fractions showed that certain amount of the Fab was also produced in the cells as insoluble form. Conclusions: In this work we showed that the production of Fab in the periplasm during high cell density cultivation of E. coli in fermentor can be challenging as the product may appear in various locations within and outside the cells. To exploit the advantages of the periplasmic expression systems for purification in downstream processing, bacterial cells should be harvested when they maintain the majority of the target protein in their periplasmic space (i.e. 4 hrs post induction).

Jalalirad, Reza

2013-05-01

98

Anti-C1q antibodies in nephritis: correlation between titres and renal disease activity and positive predictive value in systemic lupus erythematosus  

Science.gov (United States)

Objective: To investigate antibodies to complement 1q (anti-C1q) and investigate the correlation between anti-C1q titres and renal disease in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Methods: 151 SLE patients were studied. In patients with biopsy proven lupus nephritis (n = 77), activity of renal disease was categorised according to the BILAG renal score. Sera were tested for anti-C1q by enzyme immunoassay. Serum samples were randomly selected from 83 SLE patients who had no history of renal disease, and the positive and negative predictive value of the antibodies was studied. Results: Patients with active lupus nephritis (BILAG A or B) had a higher prevalence of anti-C1q than those with no renal disease (74% v 32%; relative risk (RR) = 2.3 (95% confidence interval, 1.6 to 3.3)) (p<0.0001). There was no significant difference in anti-C1q prevalence between SLE without nephritis and SLE with non-active nephritis (BILAG C or D) (32% v 53%, p = 0.06) or between active and non-active nephritis (74% v 53%, p = 0.06). Patients with nephritis had higher anti-C1q levels than those without nephritis (36.0 U/ml (range 4.9 to 401.0) v 7.3 U/ml (4.9 to 401.0)) (p<0.001). Anti-C1q were found in 33 of 83 patients (39%) without history of renal disease. Nine of the 33 patients with anti-C1q developed lupus nephritis. The median renal disease-free interval was nine months. One patient with positive anti-C1q was diagnosed as having hypocomplementaemic urticarial vasculitis syndrome during follow up. Conclusions: Anti-C1q in SLE are associated with renal involvement. Monitoring anti-C1q and their titres in SLE patients could be important for predicting renal flares.

Marto, N; Bertolaccini, M; Calabuig, E; Hughes, G; Khamashta, M

2005-01-01

99

Black Americans At Raised Risk of Insufficient Sleep, Study Finds  

Science.gov (United States)

... sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Black Americans at Raised Risk of Insufficient Sleep, Study ... Preidt Monday, September 9, 2013 Related MedlinePlus Pages African American Health Health Disparities Sleep Disorders MONDAY, Sept. 9 ( ...

100

Pregnancy Choices: Raising the Baby, Adoption, and Abortion  

Science.gov (United States)

... I expect after having an abortion? • Glossary Pregnancy Choices: Raising the Baby, Adoption, and Abortion Is there ... type of abortion you have depends on your choice, your health, and how long you have been ...

 
 
 
 
101

Nuclear Plants Don't Raise Child Leukemia Risk  

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... sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Nuclear plants don't raise child leukaemia risk: study (* ... fears to the contrary, children who live near nuclear power plants have no greater risk of developing ...

102

HPV May Also Raise Risk of Throat Cancer  

Science.gov (United States)

... sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. HPV May Also Raise Risk of Throat Cancer Review ... Preidt Wednesday, July 24, 2013 Related MedlinePlus Pages HPV Throat Cancer WEDNESDAY, July 24 (HealthDay News) -- People ...

103

Bone Marrow Fat May Raise Osteoporosis Risk, Study Says  

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... sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Bone Marrow Fat May Raise Osteoporosis Risk, Study Says Obesity does not prevent the bone-thinning disease, researchers state (*this news item will ...

104

Labor Induction May Not Raise Cesarean Risk for All  

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... features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Labor induction may not raise cesarean risk for all (*this ... a fresh look at past research suggests that induction of labor may not be contributing to the ...

105

Gene May Raise Diabetics' Chances of Heart Disease  

Science.gov (United States)

... sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Gene May Raise Diabetics' Chances of Heart Disease People ... 27, 2013 Related MedlinePlus Pages Diabetes Type 2 Genes and Gene Therapy Heart Diseases TUESDAY, Aug. 27 ( ...

106

Young Teens At Raised Risk of Kidney Transplant Failure  

Science.gov (United States)

... JavaScript. Young Teens at Raised Risk of Kidney Transplant Failure: Study Kids aged 14 to 16, especially ... 29 (HealthDay News) -- Teens who receive a kidney transplant may be at increased risk of transplant failure, ...

107

Blood Pressure Medications: Can They Raise My Triglycerides?  

Science.gov (United States)

High blood pressure (hypertension) Basics In-Depth Multimedia Expert Answers Resources What's New Reprints A single copy of this article may be reprinted for personal, noncommercial use only. Blood pressure medications: Can they raise my triglycerides? By Mayo ...

108

Vowel Raising in Nkpor Dialect: A Pattern of Sound Change  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper explores a pattern of phonological change known as vowel raising in the Nkpor dialect of the Igbo language. Using a corpus of conversational Nkpor speech collected from the respondents through tape-recording, we presented data from an authority analysis of the vowels and auditory data of vowel raising. The data support three main claims. First, the voiced palatal nasal /?/ is elided. It claims that in a word consisting of two root verbs, the initial verb root contains any consonant and any vowel, and the second verb root contains the voiced palatal nasal /?/ and a mid front vowel /e/, then, the voiced palatal nasal is elided. Second, after the elision, the mid vowel /e/ of the second verb is raised to a high front vowel /i/ or /?/, agreeing with the vowel harmony rule. Third, Nkpor dialect goes beyond the raising of only vowels of the second verb. It further raises vowels of the first verb which are not high. The much more rapid loss of the voiced palatal nasal /?/ and the consequent raising of the vowels are plausibly attributed to rapid speech, especially in construction and some sociolinguistic factors.

Mbah, Evelyn Ezinwanne; Okeke, Chukwuma Onyebuchi

2013-01-01

109

Production of high titre antibody response against Russell's viper venom in mice immunized with ethanolic extract of fruits of Piper longum L. (Piperaceae) and piperine.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Piper longum L. fruits have been traditionally used against snakebites in north-eastern and southern region of India. The aim of the study was to assess the production of antibody response against Russell's viper venom in mice after prophylactic immunization with ethanolic extract of fruits of Piper longum L. and piperine. The mice sera were tested for the presence of antibodies against Russell's viper venom by in vitro lethality neutralization assay and in vivo lethality neutralization assay. Polyvalent anti-snake venom serum (antivenom) manufactured by Haffkine Bio-Pharmaceutical Corporation Ltd. was used as standard. Further confirmation of presence of antibodies against the venom in sera of mice immunized with PLE and piperine was done using indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and double immunodiffusion test. Treatment with PLE-treated mice serum and piperine-treated mice serum was found to inhibit the lethal action of venom both in the in vitro lethality neutralization assay and in vivo lethality neutralization assay. ELISA testing indicated that there were significantly high (p<0.01) levels of cross reactions between the PLE and piperine treated mice serum and the venom antigens. In double immunodiffusion test, a white band was observed between the two wells of antigen and antibodies for both the PLE-treated and piperine-treated mice serum. Thus it can be concluded that immunization with ethanolic extract of fruits of Piper longum and piperine produced a high titre antibody response against Russell's viper venom in mice. The antibodies against PLE and piperine could be useful in antivenom therapy of Russell's viper bites. PLE and piperine may also have a potential interest in view of the development of antivenom formulations used as antidote against snake bites.

Shenoy PA; Nipate SS; Sonpetkar JM; Salvi NC; Waghmare AB; Chaudhari PD

2013-09-01

110

Serum titres of anti-glutamic acid decarboxylase-65 and anti-IA-2 autoantibodies are associated with different immunoregulatory milieu in newly diagnosed type 1 diabetes patients.  

Science.gov (United States)

Several studies correlated genetic background and pancreatic islet-cell autoantibody status (type and number) in type 1A diabetes mellitus (T1AD), but there are no data evaluating the relationship among these markers with serum cytokines, regulatory T cells and ? cell function. This characterization has a potential importance with regard to T1AD patients' stratification and follow-up in therapeutic prevention. In this study we showed that peripheral sera cytokines [interleukin (IL)-12, IL-6, II-1?, tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-?, IL-10] and chemokines (CXCL10, CXCL8, CXCL9, CCL2) measured were significantly higher in newly diagnosed T1AD patients when compared to healthy controls (P?GADA) were associated negatively with CXCL10 (r?=?-0·45; P?=?0·011) and CCL2 (r?=?-0·65; P?=?0·000), while IA-2A showed a negative correlation with IL-10 (r?=?-0·38; P?=?0·027). Human leucocyte antigen (HLA) DR3, DR4 or DR3/DR4 and PTPN22 polymorphism did not show any association with pancreatic islet cell antibodies or cytokines studied. In summary, our results revealed that T1AD have a proinflammatory cytokine profile compared to healthy controls and that IA-2A sera titres seem to be associated with a more inflammatory peripheral cytokine/chemokine profile than GADA. A confirmation of these data in the pre-T1AD phase could help to explain the mechanistic of the well-known role of IA-2A as a more specific marker of beta-cell damage than GADA during the natural history of T1AD. PMID:22385239

Gabbay, M Andrade Lima; Sato, M N; Duarte, A J S; Dib, S A

2012-04-01

111

Comparison of techniques used to develop a slot raise  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The use of Slot Raises has been common for many years. This presentation will compare various methods of developing these Slot Raises and introduce two new ones. The author begins with a short discussion on the mining method, and its variations, where Slot Raises are used. This mining method is called Vertical Crater Retreat or VCR which is a blasting method based on spherical charge technology. The main premise is that a column of explosives, no longer than six times its diameter, behaves as a spherical charge on detonation. If the center of a spherical charge is located in a blasthole (drilled perpendicular to an open face), at a critical distance from the open face, its detonation will cause its face to crater around the blasthole. By drilling an appropriate patter of blastholes, the crater blasts in each will overlap. This allows an open face (stope back) to be advanced vertically as a complete mining block.

1996-01-01

112

Raising Wages as a Strategy to Reduce Corruption  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper examines whether raising the salaries of government tax auditors reduces their incentive to accept bribes. It evaluates an optimal tax structure and economic welfare under conditions of perfect and imperfect information in relation to conditions for bribery. The major policy implication of this paper is that it is not necessarily desirable to increase salaries as an anticorruption measure. Even if government can reduce corruption by improving civil servants’ pay, obtaining funds to do so by raising the income tax will worsen economic welfare, based on the optimal tax structure.

Hideki Sato

2011-01-01

113

How to Raise Children to Be Good People?  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available More and more expressions of violence and malaise take place in schools and youth camps which gives a reason to discuss topical issues related to child rearing. In this article, the purpose is to view love as the core means of raising children. The article is based on the authors' various studies of love and from the specific point of view of how to raise children to appreciate and practice goodness. The theme is discussed from parents' and teachers' point of view. There is not just one answer for how love for a child might represent the road of goodness.

Kaarina Määttä; Satu Uusiautti

2012-01-01

114

Radiosensitivity of tissue culture raised white marigold seeds  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

White marigold of the (Tagetes erecta L. compositae) is an important ornamental crop suited for pot and bed plants. It suffers from the problem of low seed viability and poor seed germination. The technique of in vitro regeneration has already been standardized for production of large scale quality planting materials of white marigold. For inducing greater genetic variability, seeds collected from in vitro raised plants were included in a gamma ray induced mutation breeding programme. The main objective of the present experiment was to study the radiosensitivity of tissue culture raised seeds

2002-01-01

115

Raising the effect of economic levers on production efficiency  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

An integrated plan for improving the economic operation in the Ekibastuzugol' association includes: measures to improve planning, standardization and wage systems; and development of profit making relations at all association management levels. The most pressing problems solved by the association in the area of improving planning are: raising the stability and feasibility of production unit, section, service and brigade plans; raising the interest of the members of production units, sections and brigades in finding and efficiently using production reserves and accepting and achieving intensive planning tasks; and improving the evaluation of production unit work.

Omarova, L.S.

1981-01-01

116

Thermo-hydraulics of the THTR steam raising unit  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

After the planning and construction period lasting thirteen years, followed by a two year setting to work phase, the thorium high temperature reactor (THTR 300 MWe) was handed over to the operating staff. Sulzer were entrusted with the supply of the six steam-raising units for this plant. One can understand that the engineers concerned with the long planning and design stage will be interested to know whether their forecasts partly in new territory on the behaviour of these steam-raising units were fulfilled. These calculations have been verified by measurements during setting to work.

Henry, C.

1988-01-01

117

Serum titres of anti-glutamic acid decarboxylase-65 and anti-IA-2 autoantibodies are associated with different immunoregulatory milieu in newly diagnosed type 1 diabetes patients.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Several studies correlated genetic background and pancreatic islet-cell autoantibody status (type and number) in type 1A diabetes mellitus (T1AD), but there are no data evaluating the relationship among these markers with serum cytokines, regulatory T cells and ? cell function. This characterization has a potential importance with regard to T1AD patients' stratification and follow-up in therapeutic prevention. In this study we showed that peripheral sera cytokines [interleukin (IL)-12, IL-6, II-1?, tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-?, IL-10] and chemokines (CXCL10, CXCL8, CXCL9, CCL2) measured were significantly higher in newly diagnosed T1AD patients when compared to healthy controls (P?titres seem to be associated with a more inflammatory peripheral cytokine/chemokine profile than GADA. A confirmation of these data in the pre-T1AD phase could help to explain the mechanistic of the well-known role of IA-2A as a more specific marker of beta-cell damage than GADA during the natural history of T1AD.

Gabbay MA; Sato MN; Duarte AJ; Dib SA

2012-04-01

118

High-density lipoprotein cholesterol raising: does it matter?  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of morbidity and premature mortality in Europe and the United States, and is increasingly common in developing countries. High-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) is an independent risk factor for CVD and is superior to low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) as a predictor of cardiovascular events. The residual risk conferred by low HDL-C in patients with a satisfactory LDL-C was recently highlighted by the European Atherosclerosis Society. Despite the lack of randomized controlled trials, it has been suggested that raising the level of HDL-C should be considered as a therapeutic strategy in high-risk patients because of the strong epidemiological evidence, compelling biological plausibility, and both experimental and clinical research supporting its cardioprotective effects. RECENT FINDINGS: Three recent large randomized clinical trials investigating the effect of HDL-C raising with niacin and dalcetrapib in statin-treated patients failed to demonstrate an improvement in cardiovascular outcomes. SUMMARY: There is evidence to support the view that HDL functionality and the mechanism by which a therapeutic agent raises HDL-C are more important than plasma HDL-C levels. Future therapeutic agents will be required to improve this functionality rather than simply raising the cholesterol cargo.

Schofield JD; France M; Ammori B; Liu Y; Soran H

2013-07-01

119

Roll Damping by Free Surface Tanks with Partially Raised Bottom.  

Science.gov (United States)

The influence of free surface tanks with partially raised bottom on ship roll damping was discussed. The purpose of the introduction of a cambered shoal in the rectangular free surface tank was explained. The effect of a roll damping tank on the rolling m...

J. J. Vandenbosch A. P. Dezwaan

1974-01-01

120

T lymphocyte subpopulations diverge in commercially raised chickens  

Science.gov (United States)

Abstract To evaluate immunocompetence in commercially raised chickens, we immunophenotyped Dekalb Delta and H&N White Leghorn (WLH) hybrids, 20 chickens in each of 3 age groups (9 wk [juvenile], 25 wk [young adult], and 79 or 80 wk [adult]), for circulating CD3+, CD4+, CD8+, TCR1+, TCR2+, and TCR3+ lymphocytes. The proportion of CD3+ T cells, including CD4+ and CD8+ subsets, was increased in the hybrids as compared with published values for laboratory-raised outbred WLH chickens. The proportion of the TCR2+ (V?1) T cell subpopulation was also increased. An age-related decrease in the proportion of TCR1+ (??) T cells was noted in both hybrids. Further, a remarkably low CD4:CD8 ratio was evident in all age groups of both hybrids, indicating decreased immunocompetence. Overall, these experiments provide age-related proportions of various peripheral-blood T lymphocyte subpopulations in commercially raised Dekalb Delta and H&N chickens that diverge from the proportions in laboratory-raised outbred WLH chickens and suggest reduced immunocompetence. Such a decline in immunocompetence, including humoral immune capacity, could be attributed to genetic selection for production traits, environmental factors associated with commercial operations, and intense immunization.

Bridle, Byram W.; Julian, Richard; Shewen, Patricia E.; Vaillancourt, Jean-Pierre

2006-01-01

 
 
 
 
121

Leptospirosis control on an intensive raising pig farm  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Leptospirosis is an infective disease which represents serious health and economic problems in pig raising. The disease is caused by bacteria from genus Leptospira interrogans, which has over 250 serotypes and is isolated from most animal species and also from humans in almost every country in the w...

Teši? M.; Žugi? Gordana; Kljaji? Ranko; Tajdi? Nada; Stojiljkovi? U.; Blagojevi? M.; Rogožarski D.

122

Raising Rebels : Participation and Recruitment in Civil War  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Why do some individuals choose to participate in rebellion, and what recruitment tactics can rebel groups use to affect this decision? These questions are central to the study of civil war because rebel groups must raise troops in order to challenge the government and to survive as an organizatio...

Eck, Kristine

123

Preferential heating of raised surface tumors with microwaves (MW)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] It is to be expected that the MW field within and adjacent to a raised surface tumor will be affected by the nonplanar geometry and abrupt changes in electrical properties at the tumor interface. This may result in MW focusing into the tumor, but the mathematical solution of this problem is complex since the near field is involved. To explore the possibility that MW enhanced heating occurs clinically in raised tumors, the temperature profiles from MW treatments of 9 raised tumors (height 0.5 to 3.9 cm above surface) in 5 patients were analyzed. Evidence to support an enhanced heating effect was found with the average measured tumor temperature and percent of tumor temperature over 43.50C increased by 0.80C and 20%, respectively, compared with values found for flat surface tumors. In order to further characterize this phenomenon, measurements were made with several applicators on four phantoms simulating raised tumors of various heights (0-2.2 cm). Enhanced SAR patterns were observed with indications of a focusing effect for an air coupled waveguide applicator. The findings of this investigation will aid in the subsequent design of surface applicators

1987-01-01

124

Consciousness-Raising and Practice in ELT Coursebooks  

Science.gov (United States)

Most general ELT coursebooks currently include grammar tasks, suggesting a common view in ELT that learners benefit from form-focused tasks to improve their L2 accuracy. To investigate the nature of such tasks, we developed a framework of consciousness-raising and practice task types, applied it to nine contemporary ELT coursebooks, and thus…

Nitta, Ryo; Gardner, Sheena

2005-01-01

125

Clause union and verb raising phenomena in German  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In this paper we discuss a class of constructions in German syntax which have been known as coherent infinitive, clause union or verb raising constructions. These data run against the predictions of strictly configurational theories by apparently having a syntactic structure where the subcategorizat...

Netter, Klaus

126

The cholesterol-raising factor from coffee beans.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Coffee beans and some types of coffee brew-not the regular types of coffee prepared with a paper filter or with soluble coffee granules-contain the diterpenes cafestol and kahweol. Cafestol and kahweol raise the serum concentration of cholesterol and triglycerides in humans, and they also appear mil...

Urgert, R; Katan, M B

127

The cholesterol-raising factor from coffee beans.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Coffee beans and some types of coffee brew - not the regular types of coffee prepared with a paper filter or with soluble coffee granules - contain the diterpenes cafestol and kahweol. Cafestol and kahweol raise the serum concentration of cholesterol and triglycerides in humans, and they also appear...

Urgert, R.; Katan, M.B.

128

Bolivian gas raises disputes; Gas boliviano acende disputas  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This work briefly presents historical aspects concerning the natural gas agreement between Brazil and Bolivia. Also presented are the disputes between the government companies and private enterprises which raised form this agreement, especially on what concerns the natural gas pipe line and distribution system control 3 figs.

Anon.

1993-11-01

129

SOCIOECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT PROBLEMS OF BEEF RAISING IN PERM REGION  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Purpose. The article analyses results of public opinion poll of beef purchasing power. Methodology. For research carrying out it was used sociological, settlement-constructive and programming-target methods. Results. Identifies problems, direction of beef raising and volumes of beef production for the short term. Practical implications. Results of research are used for development of regional development programs of agriculture.

Davletov Ildar Ildusovich; Svechnikova Tatyana Mikhaylovna

2012-01-01

130

COMPOSITION AND METHOD FOR RAISING BLOOD GLUCOSE LEVEL  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Composition and method of administering the composition to oral mucosa, to raise the blood glucose (sugar) level of an individual. The composition comprises: a. an effective amount of glucose, b. an effective amount of at least one absorption enhancer chosen from lecithin, hyaluronic acid, glycolic acid, lactic acid, chamomile extract, cucumber extract, oleic acid, linoleic acid, linolenic acid, monoolein, monooleates, monolaurates, borage oil, evening primrose oil, menthol, trihydroxy oxo cholanyl glycine, glycerin, polyglycerin, lysine, polylysine, triolein, polyoxyethylene ethers, polidocanol alkyl ethers, chenodeoxycholate, deoxycholate, alkali metal salicylate, pharmaceutically acceptable edetate, and pharmaceutically acceptable salts and analogues thereof, and c. an effective amount of a pharmaceutically acceptable carrier, wherein the composition is free of any active pharmaceutical agents. Also disclosed are non-aerosol dispensers containing and for use in administering the composition, and the use of the composition to raise blood glucose levels, to treat hypoglycemia or low blood sugar, or in the manufacture of a product to treat hypoglycemia or low blood sugar.

GLUSKIN ANNA E; QAZI MUHAMMAD WASEEM T

131

COMPOSITION AND METHOD FOR RAISING BLOOD GLUCOSE LEVEL.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Composition and method of administering the composition to oral mucosa, to raise the blood glucose (sugar) level of an individual. The composition comprises: a. an effective amount of glucose, b. an effective amount of at least one absorption enhancer chosen from lecithin, hyaluronic acid, glycolic acid, lactic acid, chamomile extract, cucumber extract, oleic acid, linoleic acid, linolenic acid, monoolein, monooleates, monolaurates, borage oil, evening primrose oil, menthol, trihydroxy oxo cholanyl glycine, glycerin, polyglycerin, lysine, polylysine, triolein, polyoxyethylene ethers, polidocanol alkyl ethers, chenodeoxycholate, deoxycholate, alkali metal salicylate, pharmaceutically acceptable edetate, and pharmaceutically acceptable salts and analogues thereof, and c. an effective amount of a pharmaceutically acceptable carrier, wherein the composition is free of any active pharmaceutical agents. Also disclosed are non-aerosol dispensers containing and for use in administering the composition, and the use of the composition to raise blood glucose levels, to treat hypoglycemia or low blood sugar, or in the manufacture of a product to treat hypoglycemia or low blood sugar.

GLUSKIN ANNA E; QAZI MUHAMMAD WASEEM T

132

AGAINST “PURE” EPP CHECKING: EVIDENCE FROM FURTHER-RAISING  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this paper I attempt to throw some light on the issue of whether we need to appeal to an EPP feature (EPP-F) in order to account for why Tense heads demand that a specifier be created. I briefly review Boškovi?’s (2002) proposal that there is no “pure” EPP checking, and that instances of DP movement to Spec-Tense can be motivated independently of an EPP-F in Tense. I argue that there are some problems with his conclusion because of confounding factors surrounding the data that he considers. I then provide data from Spanish further-raising constructions (see Fernández-Salgueiro, 2011), which constitute a much clearer test bed for Boškovi?’s hypothesis. It turns out that the further-raising data provides stronger and less controversial empirical support for Boškovi?’s claim that the EPP-F should be eliminated from the grammar.

Gerardo Fernández-Salgueiro

2011-01-01

133

Trajectories of Conflict over Raising Adolescent Children and Marital Satisfaction  

Science.gov (United States)

The present study examined trajectories of marital satisfaction among couples with adolescent children and evaluated how changes in parents’ conflict over raising adolescent children were associated with changes in marital satisfaction over four years. Using a prospective, longitudinal research design and controlling for family socioeconomic status, dyadic growth curve analysis from a sample of 431 couples with adolescent children indicated that marital satisfaction decreased over time for parents with adolescent children, and that the trajectories for mothers and fathers were substantially linked. More importantly, the study demonstrated that increases or decreases in parents’ marital conflict over raising adolescent children were associated with corresponding decreases or increases in marital satisfaction for both mothers and fathers.

Cui, Ming; Donnellan, M. Brent

2009-01-01

134

Raising and Lowering Operators for Askey-Wilson Polynomials  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this paper we describe two pairs of raising/lowering operators for Askey-Wilson polynomials, which result from constructions involving very different techniques. The first technique is quite elementary, and depends only on the ''classical'' properties of these polynomials, viz. the q-difference equation and the three term recurrence. The second technique is less elementary, and involves the one-variable version of the double affine Hecke algebra.

Siddhartha Sahi

2007-01-01

135

Use of digital health records raises ethics concerns.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

There has been a proliferation in the use of digital health records. Although electronic records have many benefits, concerns have been raised about associated risks and barriers. This article focuses on risks associated with development, utilization, and maintenance of provider-owned electronic medical records and institution-owned electronic health records. Strategies to reduce risks and overcome barriers are also offered. Attention to these issues can minimize risks and improve healthcare services delivered to consumers.

Kopala B; Mitchell ME

2011-07-01

136

New gene variants raise risk of neuroblastoma, influence tumor progression  

Science.gov (United States)

Researchers at the Children's Hospital of Philadelphia have discovered two gene variants that raise the risk of the pediatric cancer neuroblastoma. Using automated technology to perform genome-wide association studies on DNA from thousands of subjects, the study broadens understanding of how gene changes may make a child susceptible to this early childhood cancer, as well as causing a tumor to progress. The Children's Hospital of Philadelphia is affiliated with the Abramson Cancer Center at the University of Pennsylvania.

137

First detection of microsporidia in raised pigeons in Poland.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Microsporidia are single-celled intracellular parasites which occur in a number of animals, both vertebrates and invertebrates. Several species of microsporidia can cause disease in humans in both immunocompromised and immunocompetent individuals. However, the sources of human infection and the routes of transmission of microsporidia have not yet been fully determined, although more and more researchers are of the opinion that microsporidia in humans is zoonotic. The aim of the presented study was to identify the most common microsporidial species in the droppings of raised and wild pigeons in Poland. A total of 139 collective samples of droppings (33 samples of droppings from feral pigeons and 106 samples from raised pigeons) were examined using conventional staining and molecular techniques. Using chromotrope staining and multiplex FISH techniques, the microsporidial spores were found in 12 (8.6%) of the 139 samples of droppings. The spores of Encephalitozoon hellem were detected in five samples of pigeon droppings (3.6%), spores of E. intestinalis in four samples of droppings (2.9%), while spores of E. cuniculi and E. bieneusi were only detected in two samples (1.4%). Furthermore, a mixed infection of E. bieneusi and E. cuniculi was found in a single sample of droppings (0.7%). The presence of microsporidial spores in droppings collected from raised pigeons indicates a risk of infection to humans, mainly pigeon fanciers.

S?odkowicz-Kowalska A; Graczyk TK; Nowosad A; Majewska AC

2013-01-01

138

Seven Mile Reservoir raising environmental impact assessment and compensation proposals  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The 1984 Skagit River Valley Treaty Implementation Act provided for raising of the Seven Mile Reservoir normal operating level from 522.7 m to 527.3 m. The dam, located on the Pend d'Oreille River, was completed in 1980 and with this raising and the future installation of a fourth unit, can operate at its full potential. Work included spillway gate completion and reservoir preparation. The reservoir raising caused impacts, including loss of whitetail deer winter range, slightly improved access for coarse fish into the Salmo River, and a reduced number of sites with recreational development potential. A number of compensation, enhancement, and monitoring measures to offset the losses caused by the project were identified and British Columbia Hydro proposes funding to implement the measures. An integral part of identifying and developing the programs was an interactive process involving local interest groups, government agencies, and the utility. Continued cooperation is anticipated in the implementation phase of the programs. 54 refs., 4 figs., 5 tabs

1991-01-01

139

Issues Raised in Relation to Radioactive Waste Management  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Nirex has undertaken various consultations with different stakeholders to identify their issues and concerns about radioactive waste management in general and specific aspects of Nirex's work. This paper will outline what dialogue techniques Nirex has undertaken and the issues and concerns that people have raised during the events. It will outline some of the work that Nirex is undertaking to address stakeholders' issues and concerns. Nirex has used a variety of dialogue techniques co-ordinated under the Nirex Involvement Programme to engage with stakeholders about the work we undertake. We are now trying to address the issues, concerns, scenarios and questions raised in our work programme. Key lessons that we have learned in undertaking the dialogues include: The importance of appropriate facilitation and organisation of meetings; The need for a clear purpose for meetings; Being flexible to the needs of the attendees and the issues they raise; Providing feedback to those who participate and following up issues. Through engaging with the public Nirex has learned that: Radioactive waste is not an everyday concern for people; The public can, will and want to engage with the issue of radioactive waste management. This includes engaging with the ethical debate. To facilitate this Nirex and others need to: Provide information in a neutral form outlining the pros and cons and including various people's opinions; Use proactive techniques to allow access and space for people to discuss the issues; Demonstrate how people's opinions have been taken into account. People understand the issues very differently to the way institutions understand them. There is a need for institutions to learn to understand public concerns and the ways in which the public understand issues, as well as for the public to understand the institutional positions better. We are using these insights to develop our future work in this area

2003-01-01

140

NOVEL IMPROVERS FOR FLOUR AND YEAST RAISED BAKED GOODS  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A group of novel natural improvers for yeast raised baked goods, including products derived from the residues of ethanolic and other fermentations of micro-organisms (e.g., lactic). The active components extracted from these residues are the natural electron passing compounds of the respiratory chain and intermediary metabolism as it is linked to energy metabolism. The compounds include nicotinamide adenosine dinucleotide, and its phosphate, flavin adenosine nucleotide flavin mononucleotide, the ubiquinones, cytochromes etc., and the components of these substances e.g. nicotinamide, riboflavin, etc., and their derivatives. Significant advantages to the quality of the final yeast raised baked goods are conferred by these natural oxido-reductants and coenzymes, particularly in those not containing traditional or ''chemical'' oxidising-reducing agents or emulsifiers. ''Chemical'' oxidising-reducing agents refer to chemicals such as potassium bromate, sodium metabisulfite, azodicarbonamide etc., which are non-biological. ''Biological'' or ''natural'' oxidising-reducing agents refer to substances which occur naturally in food and other biological products irrespective of whether they may be chemically synthesised e.g., ascorbic acid, L-cysteine hydrochloride. ''Natural'' oxidising-reducing agents further imply that the substances may be extracted from naturally occurring biological substances including waste products. The addition of such natural improvers in yeast raised baked goods makes it possible to eliminate the need to use chemical additives in these products and also to partially or fully replace commonly used emulsifiers, e.g., sodium stearoyl lactylate and enzymes, e.g., proteases, phospholipases etc., from the mix when chemical oxidising-reducing agents are used.

TOMLINSON John David; ROBERTSON Jennifer Anne; THOMSON William Kenneth

 
 
 
 
141

Raising awareness to support people with dementia in hospital.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

One quarter of patients in UK hospitals has dementia and the number is growing. This article explores initiatives at Guy's and St Thomas' NHS Foundation Trust in London to raise staff awareness of dementia and highlight what good care of all older patients should involve. The aim is that all 12,500 staff will watch Barbara's Story, a film devised by a nurse at the trust about a woman with dementia and her experiences during a hospital visit, and attend related training sessions. Older people's wards at the trust have also been refurbished to create a dementia-friendly environment.

Duffin C

2013-06-01

142

Apparatus for removing plastic film from raised plant beds  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

An apparatus used in agriculture and more specifically to an apparatus for removing the plastic film cover from raised plant beds in which the edges thereof are tucked under soil placed in overlying relation to the downwardly inclined side edges of the plastic film thereby enabling separation of the plastic film from the plant bed after the plants have matured and the crop harvested from the plants so that the plastic film can be removed and appropriate cultivation and reshaping of the plant beds may be more effectively accomplished with the apparatus of the present invention materially reducing the time and labor required in removing the plastic film for disposal or recycling.

CHRYSLER RALPH W

143

Technological characteristics of rabbit meat with raised n-3 PUFA  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The dietary use of linseed in animal feeding has been proposed by many authors as a vegetable way (in alternative to fish oil or fish meal) to raise meat PUFA and mainly ?- linolenic acid (C18:3 n-3) (Bernardini et al., 1999; Mattews et al., 2000; Riley et al., 2000; Rey et al., 2001). However, increasing amounts of PUFA could impair the technological characteristics of the meat for further processing (Enser, 1999). Main problems are concerned with lipid stability and meat colour changes over time which are related with both the out coming of rancid flavour and detrimental effects on the appearance of packaged further processed meat products...

M. Bianchi; M. Betti; M. Petracci; C. Cavani

2011-01-01

144

Method and device for raising worms, method of raising worms in nutrition limited by inhibiting means, method of producing worm castings, and holder for raising worms  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The worms are fed in accordance with a continuously growing nutritional chain (28, 29) in a manner such that a migration of a work population following said chain is produced. At least once an accretion (5) of the worm population is separated therefrom, leaving a migrating stock population (6) in the nutritional chain (28, 29), whereas the accretion (5) migrates in the direction of an accretion nutritional chain which starts from the stock nutritional chain, and can be harvested therefrom. Means, e.g., inhibiting means (20), anti-creep means, supplying means, and heat-exchanging means, are described for raising the worm under conditions which are optimal for the farmer and depend, for instance, on economical and on season conditions. The method and/or device can be advantageously used for producing work casting, since the worms can be maintained under conditions, whereby the nutrition conversion velocity of the nutrition offered to the worms is maximal over a long period of time.

Frijters Petrus Johannes Gerardus

145

[Hematopoietic cells raising with plerixafor in non-Hodgkin lymphoma].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: bone marrow autologous transplantation (BMAT) has proven benefits in patients treated for non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL). Plerixafor is an inhibitor of CXCR4 receptor. The aim was to report the raise of hematopoietic cells with plerixafor in patients with NHL. CLINICAL CASES: patient 1 with follicular NHL, GI, intermediate FLIPI, CD20+, CD45+, BCL-2+, who reached complete response after three chemotherapy regimes. Mobilization failed after use of filgrastim (G-CSF) alone and G-CSF + cyclophosphamide. A new attempt was made with G-CSF + plerixafor (G-CSF, 10 ?g/kg for 7 days + plerixafor, 240 ?g/kg in days 4 to 7). Patient 2 with follicular NHL and CD20+ reached complete remission with MINE after therapeutic failure with other regimes, but develops severe marrow toxicity. Mobilization was supported with G-CSF 10 ?g/kg/d + plerixafor in days 4 and 5. In case one, proper cell counts where obtained after three aphaeresis. In the second case, two harvests add of 2.7 × 106/kg were obtained. CONCLUSIONS: plerixafor raised the hematopoietic stem cells in peripheral blood and improves mobilization of proper cell population.

Pérez-Lozano U; Tripp-Villanueva F; Ramírez-Alvarado A; Vela-Ojeda J; Limón-Flores A; Kramis-Cerezo JL

2012-07-01

146

Exploring pig raising in Bangladesh: implications for public health interventions.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Pigs are intermediate hosts and potential reservoirs of a number of pathogens that can infect humans. The objectives of this manuscript are to understand pig raising patterns in Bangladesh, interactions between pigs and humans, social stigma and discrimination that pig raisers experience and to explore the implications of these findings for public health interventions. The study team conducted an exploratory qualitative study by interviewing backyard pig raisers and nomadic herders (n=34), observing daily interactions between pigs and humans (n=18) and drawing seasonal diagrams (n=6) with herders to understand the reasons for movement of nomadic herds. Pig raisers had regular close interaction with pigs. They often touched, caressed and fed their pigs which exposed them to pigs' saliva and feces. Herders took their pigs close to human settlements for scavenging. Other domestic animals and poultry shared food and sleeping and scavenging places with pigs. Since pigs are taboo in Islam, a majority of Muslims rejected pig raising and stigmatized pig raisers. This study identified several potential ways for pigs to transmit infectious agents to humans in Bangladesh. Poverty and stigmatization of pig raisers make it difficult to implement health interventions to reduce the risk of such transmissions. Interventions that offer social support to reduce stigma and highlight economic benefits of disease control might interest of pig raisers in accepting interventions targeting pig borne zoonoses.

Nahar N; Uddin M; Sarkar RA; Gurley ES; Uddin Khan MS; Hossain MJ; Sultana R; Luby SP

2013-01-01

147

An Effective Method for Information Security Awareness Raising Initiatives  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Increasingly, all kinds of organizations and institutions are adopting the E-business model to conduct theiractivities and provide E-Services for their customers. In the process, whether they know it or not, thoseorganizations are also opening themselves up to the risk of information security breaches. Thereforeprotecting an organization’s ICT infrastructure, IT systems, and Data is a vital issue that is oftenunderestimated. Research has shown that one of the most significant threats to information security comesnot from external attack but rather from the system's users, because they are familiar with theinfrastructure and have access to its resources, but may be unaware of the risks. Moreover, using onlytechnological solutions to protect an organization’s assets is not enough; there is a need to consider thehuman factor by raising users’ security awareness. Our contribution to this problem is to propose anInformation Security Awareness Program that aims at raising and maintaining the level of users’ securityawareness. This paper puts forward a general model for an information security awareness program anddescribes how it could be incorporated into an organization’s website through the process of developmentlife cycle.

AliMaqousi; TatianaBalikhina; Michael Mackay

2013-01-01

148

Solar energy temperature raising and heat insulation biogas generating pit  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The utility model discloses a solar energy temperature raising and heat insulation biogas generating pit which comprises a soft biogas generator, a solar thermal collector, a circulating pump, a water inlet pipe, a water outlet pipe and a heat exchange pipe the biogas generator is installed in a pit body with an opening at the upper end, the bottom and the inner surface of the wall of the pool body are both provided with foam thermal insulation materials or straws of rice and wheat, a dual-layer plastic film tunnel is arranged above the pool body, and the tunnel seals the opening of the pool body. By heating fermentation liquid material in the soft biogas generator by using a solar energy thermal collecting system and a hot water circulating system, the fermentation temperature is raised simultaneously, the dual-layer plastic film tunnel is constructed above the pool where the soft biogas generator is positioned to sufficiently absorb heat of solar energy, thus forming greenhouse effect, playing the role of thermal insulation, and effectively reducing heat loss.

LIHONG GAO; XIULI WEI; PING LI; HANWEI LONG; XIAOHUI ZHOU; JIANGUO SUN; JIN XU; JINBO CUI; PING LI; MING CAI; JUNHUAN SUN; NING TANG

149

Study of the kinetics of antibodies titres against viral pathogens and detection of rotavirus and parainfluenza 3 infections in captive crias of guanacos (Lama guanicoe).  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A longitudinal study was conducted to investigate the presence of antibodies (Ab) to Rotavirus (RV), Parainfluenza-3 virus (PI-3), Bovine Herpesvirus-1 (BoHV-1), Bovine Viral Diarrhoea virus (BVDV-1) and Bluetongue virus (BTV) in eleven guanaco's crias (chulengos) relocated from Rio Negro to Buenos Aires Province (Argentina) and reared in captivity for a year in an experimental field. Serum samples were collected periodically to detect the evidence of viral infections. Faecal samples were collected to investigate RV shedding. We detected the evidence of Ab to RV from the beginning of the experience, suggesting the presence of maternal Ab against the virus. RV infection was detected in seven of the eleven chulengos, by seroconversion (4), virus shedding in stools (1) or both (2). In all cases, the RV strain was typed as [P1]G8, the same G/P type combination detected in captive chulengos with acute diarrhoea sampled in Rio Negro, in 2001. In contrast, we could not detect antibodies against PI-3, BoHV-1, BVDV or BT in any of initial samples. No Abs against BoHV-1, BVDV or BTV were detected in the chulengos throughout the study. However, all the chulengos became asymptomatically seropositive to PI-3 by the 7 month after arrival. This study suggest that wild-born guanacos raised in captivity can be relatively susceptible to common livestock viral infections, such as RV and PI-3, which are easily spread among chulengos.

Marcoppido G; Olivera V; Bok K; Parreño V

2011-02-01

150

Study of the kinetics of antibodies titres against viral pathogens and detection of rotavirus and parainfluenza 3 infections in captive crias of guanacos (Lama guanicoe).  

Science.gov (United States)

A longitudinal study was conducted to investigate the presence of antibodies (Ab) to Rotavirus (RV), Parainfluenza-3 virus (PI-3), Bovine Herpesvirus-1 (BoHV-1), Bovine Viral Diarrhoea virus (BVDV-1) and Bluetongue virus (BTV) in eleven guanaco's crias (chulengos) relocated from Rio Negro to Buenos Aires Province (Argentina) and reared in captivity for a year in an experimental field. Serum samples were collected periodically to detect the evidence of viral infections. Faecal samples were collected to investigate RV shedding. We detected the evidence of Ab to RV from the beginning of the experience, suggesting the presence of maternal Ab against the virus. RV infection was detected in seven of the eleven chulengos, by seroconversion (4), virus shedding in stools (1) or both (2). In all cases, the RV strain was typed as [P1]G8, the same G/P type combination detected in captive chulengos with acute diarrhoea sampled in Rio Negro, in 2001. In contrast, we could not detect antibodies against PI-3, BoHV-1, BVDV or BT in any of initial samples. No Abs against BoHV-1, BVDV or BTV were detected in the chulengos throughout the study. However, all the chulengos became asymptomatically seropositive to PI-3 by the 7 month after arrival. This study suggest that wild-born guanacos raised in captivity can be relatively susceptible to common livestock viral infections, such as RV and PI-3, which are easily spread among chulengos. PMID:21062425

Marcoppido, G; Olivera, V; Bok, K; Parreño, V

2010-11-10

151

Lexical consciousness-raising in the vicinity of target vocabulary  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study compared the effectiveness of three techniques for teaching English vocabulary to Persian native speakers: a traditional procedure, the classical cloze procedure, and an innovative procedure, which is dubbed here as vicinity technique, based on incidental learning, noticing and consciousness-raising. To do the comparison, 51 students, registered at a private language institute, were randomly assigned to three groups and were taught 40 vocabulary items in five sessions in the three procedures. To evaluate the vocabulary gain in the three conditions, immediate and delayed post-tests were administered and the obtained data were analyzed using ANOVA. The results revealed that the vicinity technique was more effective than the traditional procedure; both in immediate and delayed evaluations. It was also revealed that, although there was no significant difference between the vicinity technique and the classical cloze technique in short-term, the vicinity technique was more effective than the classical cloze one for long-term retention.

Hadi, Farjami; Iman, Alizadeh

2013-01-01

152

Pharmacogenomics of high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol-raising therapies.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

High levels of HDL cholesterol (HDL-C) have traditionally been linked to lower incidence of cardiovascular disease, prompting the search for effective and safe HDL-C raising pharmaceutical agents. Although drugs such as niacin and fibrates represent established therapeutic approaches, HDL-C response to such therapies is variable and heritable, suggesting a role for pharmacogenomic determinants. Multiple genetic polymorphisms, located primarily in genes encoding lipoproteins, cholesteryl ester transfer protein, transporters and CYP450 proteins have been shown to associate with HDL-C drug response in vitro and in epidemiologic studies. However, few of the pharmacogenomic findings have been independently validated, precluding the development of clinical tools that can be used to predict HDL-C response and leaving the goal of personalized medicine to future efforts.

Aslibekyan S; Straka RJ; Irvin MR; Claas SA; Arnett DK

2013-03-01

153

[Louis Braille (1809-1852)--inventor of raised dots system].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Louis Braille was born on January 4th 1809 in Coupvray, France. An injury to his eye at the age of three, resulted in total loss of vision. In 1819 he entered the Institute for Blind Youth in Paris. There he would live, study, and later teach. When he was fifteen, he developed system of reading and writing by means of raised dots, which is known today as Braille. The basis of the Braille system is known as a Braille cell. The cell is comprised of six dots numbered in a specific order. Each dot or combination of dots represents a letter of the alphabet. This Braille system has established itself internationally and formed the basic Braille for all languages.

Maciejewicz P; Kopacz D

2005-01-01

154

Ways of raising labor productivity in borehole drilling  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Labor reserves in drilling boreholes with manual perforators have been practically exhausted. Using high-power perforators on manipulators does not sharply raise labor productivity due to the substantial amount of time spent on secondary operations, while absence of or partial automation does not allow one person to use several machines. Carriages with a high degree of automation of all processes must be created. Requirements are worked out which an automated carriage must meet. The scheme and description are given for an automated device for borehole drilling. Using it enables a 3-4 fold rise in labor productivity for drilling, a change in the nature of the driller's work and elimination of the effect of his experience on work quality.

Kazakov, A.N.; Kazakov, N.I.; Voronenko, V.K.

1981-01-01

155

THE CHALLENGES OF RAISING REVENUES AND RESTRUCTURING SUBSIDIES IN MALAYSIA  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Malaysia has run deficit budgets in all but five years since 1970 but past deficits have been managed thanks to substantial oil revenues and high domestic savings. However, the slow growth or decline of several traditional sources of revenue and the rising subsidy bill since 2007 have given pause for reflection on the traditional approach to fiscal management. In this paper, it is argued that fiscal management must not only centre around reducing non-productive expenditures and wasteful leakages but must also confront the problem of reducing and restructuring subsidies, particularly to petrol and petroleum-related products. The global dip in petroleum process has fortuitously provided the respite needed for such an exercise and should not lull policy makersinto complacency. When the economy recovers from the currentdownswing, a solid revenue raising instrument such as the value-addedtax must be introduced in order to wean the economy away from thecurrent over reliance on petroleum-based taxes.

Suresh Narayanan

2007-01-01

156

KL filtering used to raise seismic S/N ratio  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Multichannel coherent enhancement is usually used to raise S/N ratio in seismic data processing, however it is unfavourable to the seismic signals whose coherency is still not good after static and residual NMO corrections. This factor that coherency is not good can be avoided when the first main component in KL transform (Karhuner-Loeve transform) is used to extract coherent signals from seismic trace gathers. After KL transform, each two main components are orthogonal and uncorrelated each other. The coherent signal energy concentrates on the first main component, while the noise energy distributes on all main components so that signal energy and noise energy can be summed up respectively to estimate S/N ratio. The estimation of first main component in KL transform is called KL filtering. The seismic data after KL filtering show a obvious improvement of S/N ratio. KL filtering brings better result than coherent enhancement does.

Caifang, F.; Guoan, L.

1986-10-15

157

Raised intracranial pressure (ICP): management in emergency department.  

Science.gov (United States)

Raised intracranial pressure is a life threatening condition; unless recognized and treated early, it may progress into herniation syndrome and death. Symptoms and signs are neither sufficiently sensitive nor specific, hence a high index of suspicion and vigilance are needed for early recognition. Immediate goal of management is to prevent / reverse herniation and to maintain good cerebral perfusion pressure. The therapeutic measures include stabilization of airway, breathing and circulation, along with neutral neck position, head end elevation by 30°, adequate sedation and analgesia, minimal stimulation, and hyperosmolar therapy (mannitol or 3% saline). Short-term hyperventilation (to achieve PCO(2)???30 mm Hg) using bag ventilation can be resorted to if signs of impending herniation are present. PMID:22218806

Ramesh Kumar R; Singhi, Sunit C; Singhi, Pratibha

2012-01-06

158

Raised intracranial pressure (ICP): management in emergency department.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Raised intracranial pressure is a life threatening condition; unless recognized and treated early, it may progress into herniation syndrome and death. Symptoms and signs are neither sufficiently sensitive nor specific, hence a high index of suspicion and vigilance are needed for early recognition. Immediate goal of management is to prevent / reverse herniation and to maintain good cerebral perfusion pressure. The therapeutic measures include stabilization of airway, breathing and circulation, along with neutral neck position, head end elevation by 30°, adequate sedation and analgesia, minimal stimulation, and hyperosmolar therapy (mannitol or 3% saline). Short-term hyperventilation (to achieve PCO(2)???30 mm Hg) using bag ventilation can be resorted to if signs of impending herniation are present.

Ramesh Kumar R; Singhi SC; Singhi P

2012-04-01

159

Resourcefulness Training for Grandmothers Raising Grandchildren: Establishing Fidelity.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Over one million American grandmothers raise grandchildren, and many experience stress that adversely affects their mental health. Teaching resourcefulness skills can minimize this stress. However, before testing effectiveness of resourcefulness training (RT), its fidelity must be established. This pilot intervention trial examined the fidelity of two methods of RT: expressive writing (journaling) and verbal disclosure (voice recording) using a quasi-experimental design with random assignment of 80 grandmothers to RT-expressive writing, RT-verbal disclosure, or expressive writing or verbal disclosure alone. Quantitative data (Resourcefulness Scale) and qualitative data (journals, recordings) were collected. Grandmothers with RT showed greater resourcefulness over time than those without RT, with similar effects for RT-expressive writing and RT-verbal disclosure. Evidence for the use of RT skills was found in journals and recordings. The findings provide support for RT intervention fidelity and support moving forward to test RT effectiveness in reducing grandmothers' stress and promoting their mental health.

Zauszniewski JA; Musil CM; Burant CJ; Standing TS; Au TY

2013-08-01

160

Raising chickens in city backyards: the public health role.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

There is increasing interest in raising chickens in urban settings across North America. Current regulations on backyard chickens vary by jurisdiction due to concerns about perceived health threats. Proposed negative impacts on public health and community well-being include infectious diseases acquired through rearing practices or consumption of eggs, inappropriate waste management, interaction with pests and predators and nuisance factors such as noise and odour. Proposed benefits are derived largely from the human-animal bond and from feelings of autonomy over food selection. The importance or validity of claims of positive and negative effects cannot be supported by literature specific to the urban agriculture context. Public health practitioners might approach this issue in a manner analogous to concerns over keeping domestic pets.

Pollock SL; Stephen C; Skuridina N; Kosatsky T

2012-06-01

 
 
 
 
161

Raising chickens in city backyards: the public health role.  

Science.gov (United States)

There is increasing interest in raising chickens in urban settings across North America. Current regulations on backyard chickens vary by jurisdiction due to concerns about perceived health threats. Proposed negative impacts on public health and community well-being include infectious diseases acquired through rearing practices or consumption of eggs, inappropriate waste management, interaction with pests and predators and nuisance factors such as noise and odour. Proposed benefits are derived largely from the human-animal bond and from feelings of autonomy over food selection. The importance or validity of claims of positive and negative effects cannot be supported by literature specific to the urban agriculture context. Public health practitioners might approach this issue in a manner analogous to concerns over keeping domestic pets. PMID:22083301

Pollock, S L; Stephen, C; Skuridina, N; Kosatsky, T

2012-06-01

162

[Provisions for potentially raising the age limit for oocyte donation  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The introduction ofoocyte donation has provided a new perspective on reproduction for women with premature ovarian failure. In contrast to other forms ofassisted reproductive technology, the success ofoocyte donation is not affected by the age of the future mother. This has prompted a discussion on raising the age limit to allow older women to become pregnant. The health risk for the future mother is increased in older women compared with younger women but does not appear to be a sufficient reason to disqualify older women from undergoing the procedure. Lack of information regarding the effect of very late parenthood on the medical, psychological and social well-being of the future child poses the greatest concern. Should the age limit be extended for oocyte donation, treatment should be restricted to a research setting with a protocol for single-embryo transfer and extensive follow-up regarding the well-being of the future child.

van Kasteren YM; Braat DD

2006-11-01

163

[Provisions for potentially raising the age limit for oocyte donation].  

Science.gov (United States)

The introduction ofoocyte donation has provided a new perspective on reproduction for women with premature ovarian failure. In contrast to other forms ofassisted reproductive technology, the success ofoocyte donation is not affected by the age of the future mother. This has prompted a discussion on raising the age limit to allow older women to become pregnant. The health risk for the future mother is increased in older women compared with younger women but does not appear to be a sufficient reason to disqualify older women from undergoing the procedure. Lack of information regarding the effect of very late parenthood on the medical, psychological and social well-being of the future child poses the greatest concern. Should the age limit be extended for oocyte donation, treatment should be restricted to a research setting with a protocol for single-embryo transfer and extensive follow-up regarding the well-being of the future child. PMID:17203695

van Kasteren, Y M; Braat, D D M

2006-11-25

164

Raising i.c. engine catalytic converter temperature  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The engine when cold has delayed completion of combustion and advance of the exhaust event. Combustion of the exhaust gases is completed within the exhaust system in order to raise the temperature of the catalytic convertor. An ECV receives engine speed, load and temperature inputs and controls ignition timing, and/or the injection timing of part or all the fuel, and/or exhaust recirculation, and/or the number of inlet valves per cylinder and/or the number of spark plugs per cylinder which are operative and the timing of exhaust valve closure or the complete exhaust event in a four-stroke engine or the exhaust port geometry in a two-stroke engine. An afterburner may be provided upstream of the convertor. (UK)

Bowman, T.J.

1994-10-19

165

STIMULATION AND RAISING PRACTICES IN TERENA CHILDREN OF BRAZIL  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The infantile development is analyzed from investigating the existent relation with the mother stress that she experiences during the raising and the stimulation that the child receives at home, with infants from one to five years of age in the Terena de Córrego do meio village in the municipality of Sidrôlandia in the State of “Mato Grosso do Sul” in Brazil. 23 mothers with children under the age of six were interviewed. The categories used in a study of participative observation were the Index of parental stress, stimulation at home, networks of social support, Integral Development, interaction father - mother - son and paternal support. The results make see that the security perceived on the surroundings allows that the children have contact with water, earth, wind and fire as playful categories and it results as mother stress associated to health and education, but not to lack and competitions, depression or problems with the pair.

José Ángel Vera Noriega, Sonia Grubits y Claudia Karina Rodríguez Carvajal

2007-01-01

166

Research Raising the Bilingual Teaching Level of Chinese in College  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available China’s admission to the World Trade Organization (WTO), compounded by the rapid global economic growth – over the last decade – had created exuberant need for skilled manpower in China. This is evident by the demand for skilled talent in inter-disciplinary fields related to foreign language training. Mastering foreign language is considered a scarce resource in China as these specialist skilled persons will provide an important trans-culture bridging link with the Western World. The need for such niche skilled manpower had created challenges to Chinese universities to develop accelerated bilingual training programs to cater for such a demand. China’s Education Authorities recognize this requirement and had set priorities to administer the local universities to provide such bilingual courses. This article has discussed the professional course bilingual education necessity, analyzes concrete questions which Chinese universities bilingual education exists, and proposed the measures and the suggestions which raises the standard of bilingual education level.

Jing Sun

2009-01-01

167

The non-pathogenic Australian rabbit calicivirus RCV-A1 provides temporal and partial cross protection to lethal Rabbit Haemorrhagic Disease Virus infection which is not dependent on antibody titres.  

Science.gov (United States)

The endemic non-pathogenic Australian rabbit calicivirus RCV-A1 is known to provide some cross protection to lethal infection with the closely related Rabbit Haemorrhagic Disease Virus (RHDV). Despite its obvious negative impacts on viral biocontrol of introduced European rabbits in Australia, little is known about the extent and mechanisms of this cross protection. In this study 46 rabbits from a colony naturally infected with RCV-A1 were exposed to RHDV. Survival rates and survival times did not correlate with titres of serum antibodies specific to RCV-A1 or cross reacting to RHDV, but were instead influenced by the time between infection with the two viruses, demonstrating for the first time that the cross protection to lethal RHDV infection is transient. These findings are an important step towards a better understanding of the complex interactions of co-occurring pathogenic and non-pathogenic lagoviruses. PMID:23834204

Strive, Tanja; Elsworth, Peter; Liu, June; Wright, John D; Kovaliski, John; Capucci, Lorenzo

2013-07-08

168

The non-pathogenic Australian rabbit calicivirus RCV-A1 provides temporal and partial cross protection to lethal Rabbit Haemorrhagic Disease Virus infection which is not dependent on antibody titres.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The endemic non-pathogenic Australian rabbit calicivirus RCV-A1 is known to provide some cross protection to lethal infection with the closely related Rabbit Haemorrhagic Disease Virus (RHDV). Despite its obvious negative impacts on viral biocontrol of introduced European rabbits in Australia, little is known about the extent and mechanisms of this cross protection. In this study 46 rabbits from a colony naturally infected with RCV-A1 were exposed to RHDV. Survival rates and survival times did not correlate with titres of serum antibodies specific to RCV-A1 or cross reacting to RHDV, but were instead influenced by the time between infection with the two viruses, demonstrating for the first time that the cross protection to lethal RHDV infection is transient. These findings are an important step towards a better understanding of the complex interactions of co-occurring pathogenic and non-pathogenic lagoviruses.

Strive T; Elsworth P; Liu J; Wright JD; Kovaliski J; Capucci L

2013-01-01

169

Raised Vaginal Fluid Fibronectin Level Indicates Premature Rupture of Membrane  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background: Premature rupture of membrane (PROM) is one of the common complications of pregnancy that has major impact on fetal and neonatal outcome. It is the commonest clinical event where a normal pregnancy becomes suddenly a high-risk one for mother and fetus or neonate.Objective: The study was undertaken to investigate whether raised fibronectin level in vaginal fluid may indicate premature rupture of membrane.Materials and Methods: This cross sectional study was conducted in the department of Obstetrics and Gynecology in Sir Salimullah Medical College & Mitford Hospital, Dhaka during the period of January 2006 to December 2007. A total of 114 pregnant women with gestational age 28th week up to 40th week were included. Sixty were PROM (Group I) and 54 were non-PROM (Group II) subjects. Fibronectin in vaginal fluid was measured by an immunochemical reaction by nephelometer. Statistical analysis was done by SPSS version 10.0.Results: The PROM patients had significantly higher concentration of fibronectin (225.77 ± 115.18 ng/mL) compared to that in non-PROM subjects (8.04 ± 16.17 ng/mL) (p < 0.001).Conclusion: It can be concluded that in cases of unequivocal rupture or intactness of the membranes, the result of the fibronectin test corresponds well with the clinical situation. So fibronectin is a sensitive test for detection of amniotic fluid in the vagina.

http://dx.doi.org/10.3329/jemc.v2i2.12841; Samsad Jahan; Samira Humaira Habib; Nasrin Sultana; Mst Nigar Sultana; Debashish Paul; Amrita Bhowmik; Khodeja Begum

2012-01-01

170

Leptospirosis control on an intensive raising pig farm  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Leptospirosis is an infective disease which represents serious health and economic problems in pig raising. The disease is caused by bacteria from genus Leptospira interrogans, which has over 250 serotypes and is isolated from most animal species and also from humans in almost every country in the world. In farm conditions the disease is seldom manifested as a clinically apparent illness. More often is manifested as reduced conception rate increased abortion rate and increased birth of dead and non-vital piglets. The leptospirosis control and eradication program was made for a state owned farm with a capacity of about 1500 sows and over 30000 fattened animals per year. The farm had an on going endemic leptospirosis infection and subsequent progressive economic losses. We detected 29,80% seropositive sows and gilts in which serotypes pomona and icterhaemorrhagiae were isolated. Serologic examination of blood was performed again after program implementation, and no positive animals were found, while production and economic results were improved. The control of leptospirosis and the eradication program for a five-year period were based on detailed quantification of economics losses. Using cost-benefit analysis the necessary inputs and planned outputs were defined, and program evolution was made on the basis of net present value and benefit/cost ratio.

Teši? M.; Žugi? Gordana; Kljaji? Ranko; Tajdi? Nada; Stojiljkovi? U.; Blagojevi? M.; Rogožarski D.

2005-01-01

171

Parental Stress in Raising a Child with Disabilities in India  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available  Purpose: To determine the parenting stress and its determinants among parents of children with disabling conditions in India.Methods: The Parenting Stress Index – short form and a few open ended questions were administered to a convenience sample of sixty-six patient families in July, 2009 in the cities of New Delhi and Faridabad regions of Northern India through six non- governmental organizations (NGOs) that serve children with disabling conditions. Results: Female sex of the child was associated with higher stress related to failure of the child to meet parent’s expectations and to satisfy the parents in their parenting role. Parents engaged in more lucrative and prestigious occupations had more stress than parents engaged in less prestigious and lucrative occupations irrespective of their income. Many parents reported receiving little support from their extended families in taking care of their child. Religion was found to be a common coping resource used by the parents.Conclusion and Implications: Higher parenting stress in parents of girls raises the possibility of abuse and neglect. Little support from informal family resources underscores the need for developing formal resources for supporting the parents. The specific resources of parenting stress among parents of different socioeconomic status should be explored in future studies so that appropriate interventions can be planned.doi 10.5463/DCID.v23i2.119

Vidya Bhushan Gupta; Priyanka Mehrotra; Naveen Mehrotra

2012-01-01

172

Raising environmental awareness through applied biochemistry laboratory experiments.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Our environment is under constant pressure and threat from various sources of pollution. Science students, in particular chemistry students, must not only be made aware of these issues, but also be taught that chemistry (and science) can provide solutions to such real-life issues. To this end, a newly developed biochemistry laboratory experiment is described that guides students to learn about the applicability of peroxidase enzymes to degrade organic dyes (as model pollutants) in simulated waste water. In addition to showing how enzymes can potentially be used for waste water remediation, various factors than can affect enzyme-based reactions such as pH, temperature, concentration of substrates/enzymes, and denaturants can also be tested. This "applied biotechnology" experiment was successfully implemented in an undergraduate biochemistry laboratory course to enhance students' learning of environmental issues as well important biochemistry concepts. Student survey confirmed that this laboratory experiment was successful in achieving the objectives of raising environmental awareness in students and illustrating the usefulness of chemistry in solving real-life problems. This experiment can be easily adopted in an introductory biochemistry laboratory course and taught as an inquiry-guided exercise. © 2013 by The International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 41(5):341-347, 2013.

Salman Ashraf S

2013-09-01

173

Raising antibodies against circulating foetal cells from maternal peripheral blood  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

OBJECTIVE: Cells of foetal origin circulating in the maternal peripheral bloodstream present a unique source for non-invasive prenatal diagnostics. The aims of this study were to raise antibodies against identified circulating foetal cells from the maternal blood, test the properties of these antibodies and to determine the foetal cell type recognised by the antibodies. METHOD: Cells from a male foetus were identified in a maternal blood sample by FISH analysis of the X- and Y- chromosomes. The identified cells were subjected to phage display selection using a novel single cell selection strategy. Selected antibodies were tested by immunocytochemistry on foetal and adult tissue arrays, an endothelial cell line, and peripheral blood mononuclear cells. RESULTS: Three identified foetal cells subjected to antibody selection, yielded a total of 12 antibodies. Three antibodies gave distinct staining patterns on tissue arrays, and endothelial cells. One antibody, SF1.3, shows specific staining of a subpopulation of peripheral blood mononuclear cells, including a fraction of CD34 positive cells. CONCLUSION: These findings indicate that the identified foetal cells could have been progenitor cells of haematopoietic origin. The antibody SF1.3 could be a potential tool toward non-invasive prenatal diagnostics.

SØrensen, Morten Dræby; Melchjorsen, Connie Jenning

2013-01-01

174

NEW POSSIBILITIES OF RAISING RABBIT YOUNG BY ALTERNATIVE NURSING METHODS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In the first experiment 360 Pannon White kits from 45 litters were divided into 3 groups. The kits in group SS were suckled once a day during the first 35 days of life (traditional method of nursing). Group DD was raised by 2 does and the kits were suckled both in the morning and in the evening until 35 days of age. The kits of the 3rd group (D0) were suckled twice a day for 23 days, after which they were weaned. Rabbits which were suckled twice a day consumed 89 % more milk until 23 days of age than those of the SS kits. In the second experiment authors used different management systems, to investigate the possibilities of “double-suckling”. Both nulliparous as multiparous does were treated to induce pseudopregnancy (by means of GnRH). They were used as second doe and suckled the kits in the afternoon. Pseudopregnant does produced milk (nulliparous does less than does which had previously produced litters), but in conditions of controlled suckling they were not willing to suckle the young. In a third experiment, does (n=44) were inseminated 11 days after kindling. Weaning was performed at the age of 21 days and does could systematically serve as second mother for the litters born at the same day. The “additional” does that nursed the young in the afternoon produced 65 % of the milk quantity produced by the natural mother between days 0 and 21.

Tünde Gyarmati; Zsolt Szendr?; Luc Maertens; Edit Biró-Németh; István Radnai; Gábor Milisits; Zsolt Matics

2000-01-01

175

Potential of the Public Relations Department as a Deterrent to Fund-Raising Encroachment.  

Science.gov (United States)

A national survey of 175 public relations managers documented fund-raising encroachment (subordination of public relations functions to fund-raising) at 23% of their charitable organizations, with variation in vulnerability among different types (e.g., the public relations function is managed by fund raising at 50% of the private colleges and…

Kelly, Kathleen S.

176

Modelling coal penetration in the industrial steam raising markets: an engineering approach  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The economics of steam raising are modelled in engineering terms by calculating the capital and running costs of steam raising systems fired on particular fuels at particular sites. The basic model is described. The model can be used to examine the economics of switching to coal. The industrial steam raising markets and coal demand are projected to 2000 AD. (34 refs.)

Skea, J.F.

1981-01-01

177

Raise Management Standards of Property Tax on Transnational Corporations  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available As China joined WTO, more and more foreign multinational companies will enter China. They run enterprises within the territory of China. This will inevitably play an active role in promoting the economic construction of China. But we should pay attention to some foreign multinational companies in China that often reduce the incomes of Chinese branch companies by utilizing transfer prices. Thus they achieve the goal of evading payment of duty. These make the tax revenue of Chinese Government fall sharply. So it is very important to raise management level of property tax to the multinational companies. This text explains the loss caused by the foreign businessmen using improper means to transfer prices. They import raw materials at a high price and export the products at a low price. Also the corresponding measures are made out in this paper. Key words: Multinational companies, Import at a high price and export at a low price, Current capital, Transfer prices Résumé: Avec l’adhésion de la Chine à l’OMC, de plus en plus nombreux sont les entreprises transnationales qui s’investiraient en Chine. Cela poussera inévitablement la construction économique de la Chine. Néanmoins, nons devons noter que, actuellement, des entreprises étrangères en Chine diminuent les profits des filiales chinoise en transférant les prix et atteint ainsi leur but d’éviter la taxe. De cet effet, les recettes fiscales de la Chine diminuent considérablement. Donc, il est très important d’améliorer le viveau de gestion fiscale à l’égard des entreprises transnationales. Cet article expose d’abord le déficit provoqué par les actions malhonnêtes de commerçants étrangers qui transfèrent les prix avec des moyens illégitimes pour acheter les ressources productives à haut prix et vendre les produits à bas prix, et propose ensuite des contre-mesures. Mots-Clés: entreprise transnationale, acheter cher et vendre moins cher, fonds liquides

Ying-hui CUI; Juan WEI; Hui CHEN

2006-01-01

178

Raised serum lactate: A marker of necrotizing fasciitis?  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Distinguishing necrotizing fasciitis from non-necrotizing soft-tissue infections remains a difficult clinical judgement call, with a paucity of diagnostic aids to the clinician. The aim of this study was to assess raised serum lactate as a point-of-care test to aid in differentiating necrotizing from non-necrotizing soft tissue infections. METHODS: The authors performed a post-hoc analysis of a prospectively compiled database. All patients referred to a single surgeon (A.P.A.) as suspected cases of necrotizing fasciitis at one hospital between September 2000 and September 2010 were included. Serum lactate at presentation was recorded, along with demographic and outcome data. Using histological evidence of tissue necrosis as the 'gold standard', patients were divided into those with or without necrotizing fasciitis, and their serum lactate at presentation compared. RESULTS: Fifty three patients met the inclusion criteria. Twenty eight had histologically proven necrosis, 25 did not. Serum lactate (mean ± SD) was 4.1 ± 1.62 mmol/l in the necrotizing fasciitis group and 1.8 ± 0.46 mmol/l in the non-necrotizing fasciitis group (p ? 0.0001). A serum lactate level above 2.0 mmol/l had a sensitivity of 1.00 and a specificity of 0.76 for necrotizing fasciitis in this series. CONCLUSIONS: In this series of patients with suspected necrotizing soft tissue infection, serum lactate levels above 2.0 mmol/l at presentation were strongly associated with the presence of tissue necrosis. Although no test can be relied upon in isolation, our results suggest that serum lactate is a promising adjunct to the diagnosis of necrotizing infection, which could help to expedite appropriate management.

Murphy G; Markeson D; Choa R; Armstrong A

2013-08-01

179

137Cs in a raised bog in central Sweden  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The vertical distribution of 137Cs activity in peat soil profiles and 137Cs activity concentration in plants of various species was studied in samples collected at two sites on a raised bog in central Sweden. One site (open bog) was in an area with no trees and only a few sparsely growing plant species, while the other (low pine) was less than 100 m from the open bog site and had slowly growing Scots pine, a field layer dominated by some ericaceous plants and ground well-covered by plants. The plant samples were collected in 2004-2007 and were compared with samples collected in 1989 from the same open bog and low pine sites. Ground deposition of 137Cs in 2005 was similar at both sites, 23 000 Bq m-2. In the open bog peat profile it seems to be an upward transport of caesium since a clear peak of 137Cs activity was found in the uppermost 1-4 cm of Sphagnum layers, whereas at the low pine site 137Cs was mainly found in deeper (10-12 cm) layers. The migration rate was 0.57 cm yr-1 at the open bog site and the migration centre of 137Cs was at a depth of 10.7, while the rate at the low pine site was 0.78 cm yr-1 and the migration centre was at 14.9 cm. Heather (Calluna vulgaris) was the plant species with the highest 137Cs activity concentrations at both sites, 43.5 k Bq-1 DM in 1989 decreasing to 20.4 in 2004-2007 on open bog and 22.3 k Bq kg-1 DM in 1989 decreasing to 11.2 k Bq-1 DM by the period 2004-2007 on the low pine site. 137Cs transfer factors in plants varied between 0.88 and 1.35 on the open bog and between 0.48 and 0.69 m2 kg-1 DM at the low pine site.

2009-01-01

180

The "Geoparks" as a way to raise geoconservation in Kazakhstan  

Science.gov (United States)

Kazakhstan is one of the nine largest countries of the world and not only has significant mineral resources but rich geological heritage. However, to date geology is considered only as a way to search for minerals due to the established traditions. Faced with a geologist, we usually ask: "What are you looking for?". But the man with the hammer must answer the more important question - about the future of the Planet and Humanity. But it is necessary to save and to study the stone chronicle page for this. Only history of the Earth, recorded in the annals of rock sheets, gives a scientific answer on the fate of Planet and Mankind, and allows realistically assess the risk of disasters, floods, global warming, etc. During 20 years we are trying to give a push to protection and use of geological heritage of Kazakhstan. In our country this new direction gets accustomed with large labor. The spread of the world experience on geoconservation, the databases created of the geological heritage of Kazakhstan, numerous performances in the scientific press and the media has not lead to real steps to preserve and use geodiversity in our country. Today we are trying to raise the idea of geoconservation in Kazakhstan based on Geoparks. A project "Geological study of the geoparks development in Kazakhstan" is developed. 12 representative areas were selected on a background of the database that includes 500 sites of geological heritage, embracing a large variety of geological processes in all regions of Kazakhstan. On October 31st, 2012 in Astana the "Kazakh Geographical Society" held an international conference including "Geoparks" section. At the conference reports of all the regions of Kazakhstan representatives were presented, as well as European countries with extensive experience in geoconservation and geoparks creation (Portugal, Bulgaria, Turkey). The conference was supported by UNESCO. Album "Millions of years before the Silk Road", which represents the future Kazakhstan Geoparks, was published. Geoparks of Kazakhstan extremely visually represent global geological processes. Ustuyrt plateau is a part of a tectonic system Caspian-Aral-Ustyurt. The study of the plateau as part of a tectonic megasystem Caspian-Aral Ustyurt allows us to understand the nature of largest intercontinental hollow of the world (the "country-crater" by Alexander von Humboldt). As a result, the Caspian Sea is considered today as a "window into the mantle". Paleovolcanic area Shuyldak is relict of Devonian Ural Ocean World standard of volcanic structures of ancient mid-ocean type. It is an illustrative base of plate tectonics. At the Kokshetau National Park the world's largest diamond deposit is explored. 2.5 billion carats is more than in all the deposits in Yakutia. This technical microdiamonds that are not mined. The field is interesting not only for geologists, but for mass tourism too. National Park Burabaj linked to the ancient granite-metamorphic dome. For nearly a billion years (from Proterozoic to Mesozoic) metamorphic complexes and granite melts had been formed which compose the foundation of modern scenic lake and forest landscape.

Fishman, Ilya; Kazakova, Julia; Abdov, Nurlan

2013-04-01

 
 
 
 
181

Raising public awareness of nuclear science in action  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Full text: Department of Training and Consulting was created at the Soltan Institute for Nuclear Studies about 7 years ago. Its main goal consists in dissemination of knowledge of nuclear physics and its applications with special emphasis on the use of radiation in everyday life, its biological effects and the risks connected with the use of nuclear radiation. The second important goal is to counteract social radiophobia. Last but not least, is presentation of the scientific and technological achievements of the Institute. The main target groups are secondary-school teachers and their pupils who in spite of various obstacles in organisation of travels to Otwierk, are coming in mass. During last 4 years we accepted more than 20,000 visitors from all over Poland. In addition to lectures themselves and lectures with experimental demonstrations two permanent exhibitions are displayed permanently. One is called 'Nuclear Wastes: Problems, Solutions', the other one is displaying 1:10 model of nuclear power plant (VVER-440-type), both extremely useful in discussing the problems of nuclear wastes, and organisation and use of the nuclear power plants. Very specific place in the Department is quite unique Laboratory of Atomic and Nuclear Physics, dedicated to secondary schools' students although it is also used by university students and in teachers' trainings. Number of basic experiments from nuclear physics can be carried out by students, so the very basis of atomic and nuclear physics can be learnt on experimental basis. The experimental park can also be used in any professional courses on e.g. radiation protection. The need of having this type of units at the otherwise research institute is clearly seen by the systematically growing number of visitors, and their demands for educational material. One can also see some direct results: the groups who visited our centre were winning in all-Poland conquest for a project from radioactivity (organised on 100th Anniversary of Nobel Prize for Maria Skodowska-Curie), the schools - after visiting us - try to organise their own minisymposia on the radioactivity, the visitors seem to receive proper message about the real risk connected with nuclear radiation. The latter is judged by the fact that very seldom we encounter typical symptoms of radio phobia after the visit to our Department. We are strongly convinced that our work will result in an increased interest of students in physics, and may regain the popularity of nuclear physics among the students. This is necessary if the nuclear energy is going to be developed and used safely in the country. We also believe that similar educational centres, if wherever absent, should be organised in other nuclear centres in Europe and all of them should form a network in which new didactical methods would be worked out and the experience could be easily evaluated and exchanged between the network's partners. The paper presents motivation, present status, methodology and results of our more than 5-years experience in raising public awareness of nuclear problems in various social groups. (author)

2004-01-01

182

Raising mode for growing and cutting grass on farmland ridges to feed cattle  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The technology of the invention relates to a raising mode for growing and cutting grass on farmland ridges to feed cattle, belonging to the technical field of traditional agriculture and mainly applied to rural areas in which farmland ridge cattle raising is the main mode of farm cattle raising. By stopping the cattle graze on farmland ridges, eliminating weeds and shrubs other than forage grass from the farmland ridges and growing the fine-quality forage grass, the aim of changing the raising mode of farmland ridge cattle graze into the raising mode of cutting the grass to feed the cattle can be achieved. The technology is characterized by eliminating the work for grazing the cattle, reducing the loss of crops due to the stealthy crop eating of the cattle on the farmland ridges, expanding the forage grass growing quantity and growing area, increasing the number of the raised cattle and improving the conditions of the farmland and the dry farms.

BAOPING LIU

183

METHOD OF INCREASING INTENSITY OF GROWTH OF BULL CALVES RAISED FOR MEET PRODUCTION  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

FIELD: agriculture. ^ SUBSTANCE: invention refers to agriculture, particularly to methods of increasing intensity of growth of bull-calves raised for production of meat and can be implemented at big industrial complexes for raising and feeding out bull-calves for meat, big and small farms producing beef, at small commodity farms with various processes of breeding stock and at husbandries. Bull-calves raised for meat are fed with addition of conjugated linoleic acid cys-9, trans-11-isomer in contents of basic ration, which changes metabolic processes in bull-calves organisms. ^ EFFECT: raised intensity growth.

MATVEEV VALERIJ ALEKSEEVICH; GALOCHKINA VALENTINA PETROVNA; AGAFONOV VLADIMIR IVANOVICH; KHARITONOV EVGENIJ LEONIDOVICH; SUKHIKH VLADIMIR FEDOROVICH; VOLOBUEV VIKTOR PETROVICH

184

Comparison of passive leg raising and hyperemia on macrovascular and microvascular responses.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Passive leg raising is a simple diagnostic maneuver that has been proposed as a measure of arterial vasodilator reserve and possibly endothelial function. While passive leg raising has previously been shown to lower blood pressure, increase flow velocity and cause brachial artery dilation, its effects on microvascular flow has not been well studied. Also, passive leg raising has been directly compared previously to upper arm but never to lower arm occlusion of blood flow induced hyperemia responses. We compared changes in macrovascular indices measured by brachial artery ultrasound and microvascular perfusion measured by Laser Doppler Flowmetry induced by passive leg raising to those provoked by upper arm and lower arm induced hyperemia in healthy subjects. Upper arm induced hyperemia increased mean flow velocity by 398%, induced brachial artery dilatation by 16.3%, and increased microvascular perfusion by 246% (p<.05 for all). Lower arm induced hyperemia increased flow velocity by 227%, induced brachial artery dilatation by 10.8%, and increased microvascular perfusion by 281%. Passive leg raising increased flow velocity by 29% and brachial artery dilatation by 5.6% (p<.05 for all), but did not change microvascular perfusion (-5%, p=ns). In conclusion, passive leg raising increases flow velocity orders of magnitude less than does upper arm or lower arm induced hyperemia. Passive leg raising-induced brachial artery dilatation is less robust than either of these hyperemic techniques. Finally, although upper arm and lower arm hyperemia elicits macrovascular and microvascular responses, passive leg raising elicits only macrovascular responses.

Bapat M; Musikantow D; Khmara K; Chokshi P; Khanna N; Galligan S; Kamran H; Salciccioli L; Barone FC; Lazar JM

2013-03-01

185

The influence factor of amount of population in-Hazel Grouse under the condition of raise  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Hazel Grouse(Bonasa bonasia)is very important economic brid. Under the condition of raise, the facter of influence increase in amount of population incloudes nutrition, disease, domestication of wild species brid, manage level of raise, the quality of egg and so on.

Xiang Guiqun; Gao Wei; Feng Helin; Tian Yun; Xiao Jiyou

1997-01-01

186

Factors Associated with the Empowerment of Japanese Families Raising a Child with Developmental Disorders  

Science.gov (United States)

|We identified factors associated with the empowerment of Japanese families using the Family Empowerment Scale (FES) to contribute to the improvement of empowerment in Japanese families raising a child with developmental disorders (DDs). The study was conducted in 350 caregivers who raised children aged 4-18 years with DDs in urban and suburban…

Wakimizu, Rie; Fujioka, Hiroshi; Yoneyama, Akira; Iejima, Atsushi; Miyamoto, Shinya

2011-01-01

187

High-land protection ground seedling-raising technique of sichuan fritillary bulb  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The invention discloses seedling raising technology for Sichuan fritillary bulb in the plateau protective ground. The technology mainly comprises the following links: seedling raising location selection, facility construction (including the construction of a big plastic tent or a middle plastic tent, a seedling raising bed, a seedling raising carriage, a seedling raising disc, and the like) and seedling raising substrate preparation, seed selection, seeding, management, nursery leaving, and the like. A native habitat or a genuine production place is selected to raise the seedling on the spot, the technology can effectively improve the seedling emergence rate of Sichuan fritillary bulb, the seedling emergence regularity, the survival rate, the autumn bulb rate, the seedling return rate (the seedling emergence rate in the next year), and the like, and greatly improve the propagation coefficient of Sichuan fritillary bulb. The raised germchits grow uniformly and robustly. The technology realizes the standardized operation and can be used to provide a large amount of high quality Sichuan fritillary bulb germchits.

MENG YE; YINGYING HU; YONG DAI; KAIHUA HAN; HUA ZHANG

188

Review and recommendations on management of refractory raised intracranial pressure in aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Intracranial hypertension is commonly encountered in poor-grade aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage patients. Refractory raised intracranial pressure is associated with poor prognosis. The management of raised intracranial pressure is commonly referenced to experiences in traumatic brain injury. However, pathophysiologically, aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage is different from traumatic brain injury. Currently, there is a paucity of consensus on the management of refractory raised intracranial pressure in spontaneous subarachnoid hemorrhage. We discuss in this paper the role of hyperosmolar agents, hypothermia, barbiturates, and decompressive craniectomy in managing raised intracranial pressure refractory to first-line treatment, in which preliminary data supported the use of hypertonic saline and secondary decompressive craniectomy. Future clinical trials should be carried out to delineate better their roles in management of raised intracranial pressure in aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage patients.

Mak CH; Lu YY; Wong GK

2013-01-01

189

Review and recommendations on management of refractory raised intracranial pressure in aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage  

Science.gov (United States)

Intracranial hypertension is commonly encountered in poor-grade aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage patients. Refractory raised intracranial pressure is associated with poor prognosis. The management of raised intracranial pressure is commonly referenced to experiences in traumatic brain injury. However, pathophysiologically, aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage is different from traumatic brain injury. Currently, there is a paucity of consensus on the management of refractory raised intracranial pressure in spontaneous subarachnoid hemorrhage. We discuss in this paper the role of hyperosmolar agents, hypothermia, barbiturates, and decompressive craniectomy in managing raised intracranial pressure refractory to first-line treatment, in which preliminary data supported the use of hypertonic saline and secondary decompressive craniectomy. Future clinical trials should be carried out to delineate better their roles in management of raised intracranial pressure in aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage patients.

Mak, Calvin Hoi Kwan; Lu, Yeow Yuen; Wong, George Kwok Chu

2013-01-01

190

Association of raised intraocular pressure and its correlation to the energy used with raised versus normal intraocular pressure following Nd: YAG laser posterior capsulotomy in pseudophakes.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: To determine the frequency of raised intraocular pressure (IOP) after Nd: YAG laser posterior capsulotomy and its association with the energy used with raised versus normal intraocular pressure in pseudophakes. STUDY DESIGN: Comparative, cross-sectional study. PLACE AND DURATION OF STUDY: Ophthalmology Department, PNS Shifa Hospital, Karachi, from August 2008 to February 2009. METHODOLOGY: Pseudophakes having poor vision due to posterior capsular opacification (PCO) in an otherwise normal looking eye and intraocular pressure between 10-20 mmHg were included in the study. Patients with diabetic retinopathy, corneal diseases, inflammatory eye diseases, posterior segment surgery, glaucoma, trabeculectomy, maculopathy and any systemic disease were excluded from the study. Particulars of the eligible patients and pre-laser intraocular pressure were entered in specially designed proforma. Nd: YAG laser posterior capsulotomy was done. Laser energy used was noted and then their post-laser intraocular pressure was checked after 4 hours. Unpaired t-test was used for comparison of means of IOP and energy levels. Chi-square test was applied to compare the proportions of patients with raised and the normal IOP with YAG laser energy used during posterior capsulotomy. RESULTS: Raised intraocular pressure (IOP>or=5 mmHg from the baseline) after Nd: YAG laser posterior capsulotomy was noted in both the 'low energy' and the 'high energy' groups but it was more common in the 'high energy' group (p<0.001, r=0.512). CONCLUSION: Higher YAG laser energy has significantly higher chances of raising IOP. Hence, it was recommended that each patient undergoing Nd: YAG laser capsulotomy should receive minimum possible laser energy and must be followed up for raised intraocular pressure.

Waseem M; Khan HA

2010-08-01

191

Joseph eleve des poissons au Gabon. Guide pour l'elevage des poissons (Joseph Raises Fish in Gabon. Guide for Raising Fish).  

Science.gov (United States)

A guide, in French, to raising fish for food and profit is designed to instruct and encourage Gabonese natives to establish family fisheries. It describes and illustrates in story form the process used to plan the fishery, clear the land, seek help from an agricultural agent, create a dam, make compost, plan and build the pond, feed the fish,…

Needham, Scott

192

Raising Generation Tech Preparing Your Children for a Media-Fueled World  

CERN Multimedia

Today's children are being raised as 'digital natives' in a world dominated by popular culture and technology. TV shows, computers, video games, social networking sites, advertisements, and cell phones too often have an unnecessarily strong-and negative? influence on children.  But pulling the plug just isn't an option in a world where being connected is essential for success. In Raising Generation Tech,  noted parenting and new-media expert Dr. Jim Taylor explores how popular culture and technology shape children's lives. The essential message from Raising Generation Tech is that excessive

Taylor, Jim

2012-01-01

193

Do the filarial lymphoedema patients''3 months recall' on acute dermato-lymphangio-adenitis (ADLA) correlate with streptococcal serology?  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

AIM: The aim of this study was to know the correlation of patients' 3 months recall on acute dermato-lymphangio-adenitis (ADLA) with anti-streptolysin O (ASO) serology and its application as a tool to know the burden of ADLA in the community. METHODS: Fifty-nine lymphoedema (LE) patients and 27 age matched controls were clinically assessed for LE and the occurrence of ADLA during the previous 3 months was obtained by recall. After obtaining the informed consent, 2 mL of venous blood sample was collected and ASO was quantified in Olympus AU400 auto-analyzer. RESULTS: When the results were computed as two groups, controls and LE patients with no reported ADLA and LE patients with reported ADLA (by 3 months recall), the ASO positivity and ASO titre was significantly higher in the later group (P < 0.05). When the results were computed as three groups, controls with no reported ADLA, LE patients with no reported ADLA and LE patients with reported ADLA, the ASO titre was significantly higher in LE patients reported ADLA (P < 0.05). CONCLUSION: As ASO was measured in post-infection phase, we relied on the ASO titre for making conclusion. Patients' 3 months recall on ADLA correlates with the ASO titre and therefore, it could be considered as a tool to measure the burden of ADLA in the community. Multicentre community-based studies are needed to ascertain the findings.

De Britto LJ; Das LK

2012-08-01

194

Strong Verbal Skills in Childhood May Raise Drinking Risk, Study Suggests  

Science.gov (United States)

... features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Strong Verbal Skills in Childhood May Raise Drinking Risk, Study ... news release. "Specifically, we found that better childhood verbal development -- as indicated by an earlier age of ...

195

Nonmedical Use of Prescription Pain Relievers May Raise the Risk of Turning to Heroin Use  

Science.gov (United States)

... Telephone: 240-276-2130 Nonmedical use of prescription pain relievers may raise the risk of turning to heroin ... aged 12 to 49 who had used prescription pain relievers nonmedically were 19 times more likely to have ...

196

Recurrent Attacks of Raised Intracranial Pressure in Case of Tuberculous Arachnoiditis  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A ase of recurre'nt raised interacranial pressure is described. At operation posterio-rcfossa arachnoiditis was found. Histological examination suggested a Tuberculous etiology. Four months after the operation she died from an apparently acute tuberculoua meningiti

N. O. Ameli; Ch. M. ( Birm ); F. R. C. S. ( E ). F. I. C. S.

197

Sources of Saturated Fat, Stearic Acid, & Cholesterol Raising Fat among the US Population, 2005–06  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of this research was to identify the contributions of specific foods to intake of saturated fat, stearic acid, and "cholesterol raising fat" (defined as saturated fat minus stearic acid) in the US population age 2 years and older.

198

A prospective study of the causes of notably raised aspartate aminotransferase of liver origin.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: To ascertain the causes of raised aspartate aminotransferase (AST) presumed to be of hepatic origin in two hospitals and the local community served by a centralised biochemistry laboratory. METHODS: From June 1996 to February 1997 all patients with AST greater than 400 U/l were identified by the biochemistry laboratory; the patients' clinical records were studied to determine the diagnosis, the clinical outcome, and whether the raised AST and its significance had been noted. RESULTS: A total of 137 patients with a hepatic cause for the raised AST were found. The cause of the raised AST was hepatic ischaemia/hypoxia in 68, pancreatobiliary disease in 33, primary hepatocellular disease in 23, hepatic malignancy in five, and hepatic haematoma in one. In seven patients the diagnosis was unclear. The overall mortality was high (22%) with the highest mortality in the hepatic ischaemia group (37%). The recording and interpretation of the causes of raised AST was poor with only 48% having the correct diagnosis. In 38% the raised AST was apparently not noticed by the attending clinicians. CONCLUSIONS: The commonest cause of a hepatitis like biochemical picture was hepatic hypoxia (50%) followed by pancreatobiliary disease (24%). Drug induced hepatic necrosis (8.8%) was uncommon and viral hepatitis was rare (3.6%). AST concentrations returned towards normal most rapidly in patients with hepatic hypoxia and calculous biliary obstruction. Hepatitis, viral or otherwise, is an uncommon cause of a typical hepatitic biochemical result in this community.

Whitehead MW; Hawkes ND; Hainsworth I; Kingham JG

1999-07-01

199

Device for gripping and raising tamping tools or for holding raised tamping tools in a tamping machine which is especially used for the packing of coking coal  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In a device for gripping and lifting tamping tools or for holding raised tamping tools in a tamping machine, the individual tamping tools rods are clamped in abutments by slideable clamping members. In the device for lifting tamping tools, a controllable working cylinder, connected to each abutment raises and lowers the abutment. An additional non-controllable cylinder is connected to the clamping member which has cylinder chambers which are connected to a non-pressurized tank of working fluid. This cylinder opposes the movement of the abutment because of the volume displaced from the cylinder chambers. At the initiation of the lifting stroke, the clamping member is pulled tightly into the abutment and thus the tamping tool rod is clamped and lifted along therewith. At the beginning of the lowering motion of the abutment, the clamping member is disengaged by the action of the cylinder, thus releasing the tamping tool. In the device, for holding the raised tamping tools, the abutment is affixed to the frame of the tamping machine, while the clamping member is controlled by a pressurized cylinder for engagement with or disengagement from the abutment.

Leibrock, K.; Killich, H.-J.

1985-08-06

200

Potential limitations for potato yields in raised soil field systems near Lake Titicaca  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available During the last two decades, various non-governmental organizations have strongly encouraged Bolivian farmers in the Altiplano region near Lake Titicaca to resume the ancestral agricultural practice of constructing raised fields. In addition to improved drainage and possibilities this practice affords for sub-irrigation, advocated benefits of this system traditionally include frost mitigation and high crop yields. Until recently, reliable data to assess the extent of these benefits were unfortunately lacking. In this context, field experiments on raised fields were designed and carried out at two locations in the Bolivian Altiplano to obtain reliable potato yield and temperature data. Observed yields ranged from 2.73 to 10.80 t ha-1 at the first site, where salinity caused significant yield variability (R² = 0.79). At the second site, yields per raised platform varied between 8.25 and 33.45 t ha-1. However, comparable yields were obtained in flat control plots in spite of a mid-season frost, and the minimum temperatures differed only by 1ºC in the conventional plots relative to the raised fields. These results suggest that, under the experimental conditions, the potential benefits of raised fields in terms of frost mitigation or increased yields might only be observable in exceptionally bad years, when extreme frosts wipe out entire potato crops on conventional fields. Nevertheless, it is argued that in spite of these marginally supportive observations, raised-field agriculture may still be a viable option for farmers to consider if the water-filled channels between the raised fields are managed for fish and fertilizer production.

Lozada Diego Sánchez de; Baveye Philippe; Lucey Robert F.; Mamani Ricardo; Fernandez Walter

2006-01-01

 
 
 
 
201

Raised haematocrit concentration and the risk of death and vascular complications after major surgery.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Preoperative anaemia is associated with adverse postoperative outcomes. Data on raised preoperative haematocrit concentration are limited. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of raised haematocrit on 30-day postoperative mortality and vascular events in patients undergoing major surgery. METHODS: This was a cohort study using the American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program (ACS NSQIP) database. Thirty-day mortality and vascular events, demographics and perioperative risk factors were obtained for adults undergoing major surgery. The adjusted effect of raised (over 0·50) compared with normal (0·41-0·50, American Medical Association reference range) preoperative haematocrit concentration on postoperative outcomes was assessed. Separate sex-specific analyses were also conducted, using haematocrit concentration thresholds commonly used in the diagnosis and management of apparent or absolute erythrocytosis. RESULTS: Some 3961 (2·0 per cent) of 197?469 patients had a raised haematocrit concentration before surgery. After adjustment, the 30-day postoperative mortality rate was higher in patients with raised haematocrit than in those without (odds ratio (OR) 2·23, 95 per cent confidence interval 1·77 to 2·80). Thirty-day rates of deep vein thrombosis (OR 1·95, 1·44 to 2·64) and pulmonary embolism (OR 1·79, 1·17 to 2·73), but not myocardial infarction or stroke, were also higher in patients with a raised haematocrit concentration. The effect on mortality was noted beyond the haematocrit thresholds of 0·48 in women and 0·52 in men; the effect estimates were considerably higher for values exceeding 0·54. Values between 0·41 and 0·45 were not associated with increased mortality risk. Similar observations were noted for venous thrombosis, although with apparent sex differences. CONCLUSION: A raised haematocrit concentration was associated with an increased risk of 30-day mortality and venous thrombosis following major surgery.

Musallam KM; Porter JB; Sfeir PM; Tamim HM; Richards T; Lotta LA; Peyvandi F; Jamali FR

2013-07-01

202

Some results on the isotope studies of water exchange in boreal raised bogs  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Raised bogs are rather common and one of the most exciting mire types of the boreal zone. They receive water and nutrients from precipitation and pore water stored in their domes (up to 10 m in height) is spaced above levels of regional ground water or streams draining them. Peatland hydrologists have long assumed that fluid flow occurs mainly in a peat layer near to the surface and water transport is negligible in deeper layers. The 'acrotelm/catotelm' paradigm on active and inert horizons for the peat above and below the lowest water level is still widely spread in peatland hydrology. However, recent studies have shown that deep water movement is much more dynamic in raised bogs than was previously thought. Based on geochemical studies and numerical simulations even temporal reverse of the vertical direction of water fluid flow through the peat as connected to climate fluctuations was assumed. Relying on isotope studies we consider only the mounded strata of the raised bogs to have relatively active water exchange. The study included two raised bogs, representing different local hydrological conditions (underlain by outwash sands and moraine clay) at the Zapadnaya Dvina Peatland Field Station of the Forest Research Institute located 400 km west of Moscow. Peatlands, among which raised bogs dominate, constitute >30% of the area, and maximum peat thickness exceeds 7 m

2002-01-01

203

THE SOCIAL CONTEXT OF KENTISH RAISING: ISSUES IN OLD ENGLISH SOCIOLINGUISTICS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This article considers issues in Old English sociolinguistics, in relation to specific changes affecting the low front vowels in ninth-century Kentish, as manifest in spelling variation in charters of the time. This change is referred to as Kentish Raising (Hogg 1988). It is suggested that variationist sociolinguistics is not an appropriate framework within which to explain Kentish Raising, since the nature of the data is such that a variationist approach is untenable. A reconstruction of the social, political and cultural situation in ninth-century Kent is provided, which examines Mercian influence in the period, and suggests that a Mercian-driven change from above (Second Fronting) cannot be the source of Kentish Raising. Finally, it is proposed that recent work in genetic anthropology, which seeks to discover more about the nature and extent of the continental migrations, may be useful in understanding the social context in which the varieties of Old English existed and developed.

Graeme Trousdale

2005-01-01

204

Temporal alteration of chewing jaw movements after a reversible bite-raising in guinea pigs.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Previous studies analysed the temporal changes of occlusal vertical dimension (OVD) with natural molar tooth contacts in bite-raised guinea pigs and found that the OVD is strictly maintained in the growing guinea pigs. Since the OVD is considered to be the influencing factor for performing mastication, we hypothesised that a control of the OVD is integrated with maintenance of an appropriate chewing behavior. In young adult guinea pigs with or without bite-raised treatment, the OVD was measured by micro-CT and stable chewing movements were recorded during 11 days after the removal of the bite-raising appliance. In control animals, the OVD increased developmentally up to 10.5+/-6.0% for 11 days. In the bite-raised animals, the increased OVD was increased by 19.1+/-6.7% with the bite-raising appliance, and the OVD rapidly decreased to the same level as that of controls within 4 days after the removal of the appliance. During chewing on the first day after the removal of the appliance, the most closed position of the jaw was lower in bite-raised animals than in controls while the most opened position did not differ between the two groups, i.e., the jaw gape was decreased. These changes disappeared when OVD returned to the same level as that of controls. Any other variables for movements (e.g., rhythm) did not differ between the both groups throughout the experimental period. These results suggest that there is a robust association between an innate OVD and a centrally-programmed pattern of chewing movements for functional integrity.

Kanayama H; Masuda Y; Adachi T; Arai Y; Kato T; Morimoto T

2010-01-01

205

Temporal alteration of chewing jaw movements after a reversible bite-raising in guinea pigs.  

Science.gov (United States)

Previous studies analysed the temporal changes of occlusal vertical dimension (OVD) with natural molar tooth contacts in bite-raised guinea pigs and found that the OVD is strictly maintained in the growing guinea pigs. Since the OVD is considered to be the influencing factor for performing mastication, we hypothesised that a control of the OVD is integrated with maintenance of an appropriate chewing behavior. In young adult guinea pigs with or without bite-raised treatment, the OVD was measured by micro-CT and stable chewing movements were recorded during 11 days after the removal of the bite-raising appliance. In control animals, the OVD increased developmentally up to 10.5+/-6.0% for 11 days. In the bite-raised animals, the increased OVD was increased by 19.1+/-6.7% with the bite-raising appliance, and the OVD rapidly decreased to the same level as that of controls within 4 days after the removal of the appliance. During chewing on the first day after the removal of the appliance, the most closed position of the jaw was lower in bite-raised animals than in controls while the most opened position did not differ between the two groups, i.e., the jaw gape was decreased. These changes disappeared when OVD returned to the same level as that of controls. Any other variables for movements (e.g., rhythm) did not differ between the both groups throughout the experimental period. These results suggest that there is a robust association between an innate OVD and a centrally-programmed pattern of chewing movements for functional integrity. PMID:19969285

Kanayama, Hayato; Masuda, Yuji; Adachi, Tadafumi; Arai, Yoshinori; Kato, Takafumi; Morimoto, Toshifumi

2009-12-07

206

A study on a systematic method for evaluating values of raised concerns  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The objective of this study is to develop a methodology that can externalise potential concerns and evaluate the values of the concerns raised in corporations. By implementing this methodology into corporate governance, it is expected to improve the work environment and enhance the capability for the corporate governance through supporting the internal autonomic purification. This study comprises of: case studies of past wrongdoings in corporations such as JCO and Tokyo Electric Power Company (TEPCO); identifying the viewpoints for evaluating values of raised concerns; developing a model to evaluate the values. (author)

Sawada, T. [Research Laboratory for Nuclear Reactors, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 2-12-1 O-okayama, Meguroku, Tokyo 152-8550 (Japan)]. E-mail: tetsuo@nr.titech.ac.jp; Morimoto, T.; Iida, N.; Nishimura, T.; Soda, Y.; Itoh, K. [Japan NUS Co. Ltd., 9-15 Kaigan 3-Chome, Minato-ku, Tokyo 108-0022 (Japan); Tanaka, H. [Rikkyo University, 3-34-1 Nishi-Ikebukuro, Toshima-ku, Tokyo 171-8501 (Japan)

2006-07-01

207

The observation of chick raising of the crested Ibis (Nipponia nippon) by natural means in captivity  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Crested Ibis is one of the most endangered species in the world. An ex-situ conservation program has been carried out in Beijing Zoo since 1986 and till now 20 birds has been bred artificially. In 2001 we let the parent birds hatch eggs and raise chicks by themselves. This paper reported the Crested Ibis^ first success of chick raising by natural means in captivity. According to our intensive and systematically observation, the feeding frequency, time of adults sitting on nest and behavior changes were analyzed.

Li Fulai; Liu Bin; Wang Shuling; Zhang Jing

2002-01-01

208

A study on a systematic method for evaluating values of raised concerns  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The objective of this study is to develop a methodology that can externalise potential concerns and evaluate the values of the concerns raised in corporations. By implementing this methodology into corporate governance, it is expected to improve the work environment and enhance the capability for the corporate governance through supporting the internal autonomic purification. This study comprises of: case studies of past wrongdoings in corporations such as JCO and Tokyo Electric Power Company (TEPCO); identifying the viewpoints for evaluating values of raised concerns; developing a model to evaluate the values. (author)

2006-01-01

209

Resolving issues raised by the public in a licensing hearing context  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper describes how TU Electric was able to resolve concerns raised by members of the public during hearings on the issuance of an operating license for the Comanche Peak nuclear power station. Included are descriptions of TU Electric's actions to resolve the concerns raised during the hearing process, and efforts to build trust between TU Electric and the public participants. Finally this paper provides discussions of the settlement agreement which led to termination of the hearings, and recommends lessons learned as a result of TU Electric's experience.

1989-01-01

210

Ecology and hydrology of pristine and cutover lowland raised bogs: relationships and implications for restoration  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper will examine relationships in vegetation communities and hydrological conditions on areas of lowland raised bog in north west England, comparing damaged and relatively intact sites on two adjacent bogs in Cumbria. Walton Moss is a relatively pristine site whilst and Bolton Fell Moss has a small nature reserve area with remnant vegetation which is surrounded by commercial peat cutting. The intended outcome is to provide a mechanism to inform management decisions, with a view to assisting in the long-term protection and rehabilitation of lowland raised bogs.

Labadz, Jillian; Hart, Roger; Robbins, Jane; Butcher, David; Topliss, David

2013-04-01

211

Titulação de aloanticorpos anti-a e anti-b em gatos domésticos sem raça definida em Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil Anti-a and anti-b alloantibodies titres in non-pedigree domestic cats in Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A probabilidade de ocorrência de reação transfusional em um felino depende da prevalência local dos tipos sanguíneos felinos e dos títulos de aloanticorpos. A determinação dos títulos de aloanticorpos auxilia na estimativa do risco e da severidade de reação transfusional, após transfusão não compatível, em uma população de gatos. O objetivo deste trabalho foi determinar a titulação de aloanticorpos e o risco de possível reação transfusional, em felinos domésticos sem raça definida, da cidade de Porto Alegre. Foram selecionados aleatoriamente 100 gatos clinicamente saudáveis, sem raça definida e sem parentesco entre si e sem histórico de transfusão prévia. Amostras de sangue foram coletadas da veia jugular e a titulação de aloanticorpos foi determinada no soro de gatos com tipo sanguíneo previamente definido. O risco estimado foi calculado de acordo com estudos prévios. No presente trabalho, 82,5 e 100% dos gatos do tipo A e B, respectivamente, apresentaram titulação variada de aloanticorpos. Com base nos títulos encontrados, verificou-se que uma transfusão de sangue, do tipo A ou AB, em gatos do tipo B apresenta risco de 33,3% de reação aguda severa e de 66,7% de reação aguda leve, nos receptores felinos. A transfusão de sangue do tipo AB ou B em gatos do tipo A apresenta risco de reação aguda severa em 1,0%; reação aguda leve em 37,1% e destruição prematura dos eritrócitos em 44,3% dos receptores felinos.The probability of occurrence of a transfusion reaction in a cat depends on the local prevalence of feline blood types and alloantibody titres. Determination of alloantibody titres assists in estimating the risk and the severity of transfusion reactions following an unmatched transfusion in a cat population. The objective of this study was to determine alloantibody titres and the risk of a possible transfusion reaction in non-pedigree domestic cats in Porto Alegre , Brazil. One hundred clinically healthy non-pedigree and non-related cats with no history of previous transfusion were randomly selected. Blood samples were collected from the jugular vein and the alloantibody titres were determined by tube serial dilution of the serum from cats with known blood types, the estimated risk was calculated according previous studies. In the present study, 82.5% and 100% of types A and B cats, respectively, showed varied alloantibodies titres. Based on the titres found in the present study, the risk of an acute severe reaction is 33.3% and an acute mild reaction is 66.7% in a type B cat transfused with blood type A or AB. In type A cats transfused with blood type AB or B, the risk of an acute severe reaction is 1.0%, an acute mild reaction is 37.1% and premature red cell destruction is 44.3%.

Luciana de Almeida Lacerda; Simone Tostes de Oliveira; Gisele Guiomara Stein; Tatiana Amaral Guerra; Félix Gonzáles

2011-01-01

212

Titulação de aloanticorpos anti-a e anti-b em gatos domésticos sem raça definida em Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil/ Anti-a and anti-b alloantibodies titres in non-pedigree domestic cats in Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese A probabilidade de ocorrência de reação transfusional em um felino depende da prevalência local dos tipos sanguíneos felinos e dos títulos de aloanticorpos. A determinação dos títulos de aloanticorpos auxilia na estimativa do risco e da severidade de reação transfusional, após transfusão não compatível, em uma população de gatos. O objetivo deste trabalho foi determinar a titulação de aloanticorpos e o risco de possível reação transfusional, em felin (more) os domésticos sem raça definida, da cidade de Porto Alegre. Foram selecionados aleatoriamente 100 gatos clinicamente saudáveis, sem raça definida e sem parentesco entre si e sem histórico de transfusão prévia. Amostras de sangue foram coletadas da veia jugular e a titulação de aloanticorpos foi determinada no soro de gatos com tipo sanguíneo previamente definido. O risco estimado foi calculado de acordo com estudos prévios. No presente trabalho, 82,5 e 100% dos gatos do tipo A e B, respectivamente, apresentaram titulação variada de aloanticorpos. Com base nos títulos encontrados, verificou-se que uma transfusão de sangue, do tipo A ou AB, em gatos do tipo B apresenta risco de 33,3% de reação aguda severa e de 66,7% de reação aguda leve, nos receptores felinos. A transfusão de sangue do tipo AB ou B em gatos do tipo A apresenta risco de reação aguda severa em 1,0%; reação aguda leve em 37,1% e destruição prematura dos eritrócitos em 44,3% dos receptores felinos. Abstract in english The probability of occurrence of a transfusion reaction in a cat depends on the local prevalence of feline blood types and alloantibody titres. Determination of alloantibody titres assists in estimating the risk and the severity of transfusion reactions following an unmatched transfusion in a cat population. The objective of this study was to determine alloantibody titres and the risk of a possible transfusion reaction in non-pedigree domestic cats in Porto Alegre , Brazi (more) l. One hundred clinically healthy non-pedigree and non-related cats with no history of previous transfusion were randomly selected. Blood samples were collected from the jugular vein and the alloantibody titres were determined by tube serial dilution of the serum from cats with known blood types, the estimated risk was calculated according previous studies. In the present study, 82.5% and 100% of types A and B cats, respectively, showed varied alloantibodies titres. Based on the titres found in the present study, the risk of an acute severe reaction is 33.3% and an acute mild reaction is 66.7% in a type B cat transfused with blood type A or AB. In type A cats transfused with blood type AB or B, the risk of an acute severe reaction is 1.0%, an acute mild reaction is 37.1% and premature red cell destruction is 44.3%.

Lacerda, Luciana de Almeida; Oliveira, Simone Tostes de; Stein, Gisele Guiomara; Guerra, Tatiana Amaral; Gonzáles, Félix

2011-02-01

213

Evolução de títulos sorológicos, nas provas de soroaglutinação em placa, antígeno acidificado tamponado e fixação de complemento, em bezerras Nelore vacinadas aos 18 meses de idade com Brucella abortus amostra B 19 Evolution of serological antibody titres by the plate agglutination, rose Bengal and complement fixation tests in Nelore heifers (Bos indicus) vaccinated at 18 months of age with Brucella abortus strain 19  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Com o objetivo de estudar a persistência da resposta sorológica, através das provas de soroaglutinação em placa, rosa Bengala e fixação de complemento, 108 bezerras, com idade ao redor de 18 meses, foram vacinadas com uma dose padrão da vacina preparada com Brucella abortus amostra B 19. Foram obtidas amostras de soro sangüíneo antes da vacinação e após 45 dias, 6, 12 e 18 meses. Antes da vacinação, todas as bezerras apresentaram resultados negativos nos três testes. Após 45 dias, todas apresentaram título a partir de 1/100 na prova de soroaglutinação em placa e todas apresentaram resultado positivo no teste rosa Bengala, ao passo que dois animais apresentaram título 1/2 e os demais apresentaram título a partir de 1/4 na reação de fixação de complemento. Após um ano de vacinação, a grande maioria das bezerras já não apresentava título sorológico significativo. Considerando o risco a que estão sujeitos animais que vivem em áreas endêmicas e em propriedades onde a doença ocorre, e considerando a acentuada redução de título sorológico observada na grande maioria dos animais, pode-se concluir que, no caso bezerras de raças zebuínas em áreas endêmicas e que não tenham sido vacinadas na idade regulamentar, é mais vantajoso vaciná-las com a amostra B 19 aos 18 meses de idade do que deixá-las expostas a um elevado risco de infecção por Brucella.One hundred and eight Nelore heifers (Bos indicus) about 18 months of age were vaccinated with a standard dosage (60-120 x 10(9) viable organisms) of Brucella abortus strain 19 vaccine, aiming at to study the persistence of serological antibody titres by the plate agglutination, rose Bengal and complement fixation tests. Serum samples were collected just before vaccination and after 45 days, 6, 12 and 18 months. Before the vaccination, all the heifers showed negative results by the three tests. After 45 days, all the heifers had titres higher than or equal to 1/100 by the plate agglutination test and all of them showed positive results by the rose Bengal plate test, while 2 animals had titre 1/2 and 106 animals had titres higher than or equal to 1/4 by the complement fixation test. One year after the vaccination, most of the heifers did not show significant serological antibody titres. Considering the risk to which animals in endemic areas and infected herds are subjected, and considering the clear reduction of the serological antibody titres shown by most of the vaccinated heifers, one may assume that, in case of Nelore heifers in endemic areas and that were not vaccinated between 3 and 8 months of age, it would be more reasonable to vaccinate them at 18 months of age than to expose them to a high risk of Brucella infection.

Luis A. Mathias; Lucila F. Chaves; Anne A. Chen; Raul J. S. Girio; Walter Valério Neto

2001-01-01

214

Comparison of Performance Metrics for QPSK and OQPSK Transmission Using Root Raised Cosine & Raised Cosine Pulse-shaping Filters for Applications in Mobile Communication  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Quadrature Phase Shift Keying (QPSK) and Offset Quadrature Phase Shift Keying (OQPSK) are two well accepted modulation techniques used in Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA) system. The Pulse-Shaping Filters play an important role in digital transmission. The type of Pulse-Shaping Filter used, and its behavior would influence the performance of the communication system. This in turn, would have an effect on the performance of the Mobile Communication system, in which the digital communication technique has been employed. In this paper we have presented comparative study of some performance parameters or performance metrics of a digital communication system like, Error Vector Magnitude (EVM), Magnitude Error, Phase Error and Bandwidth Efficiency for a QPSK transmission system. Root Raised Cosine (RRC) and Raised Cosine (RC) Pulse-shaping filters have been used for comparison. The measurement results serve as a guideline to the system designer to select the proper pulse-shaping filter with the appropriate value of filter roll-off factor (a) in a QPSK modulated mobile communication system for optimal values of its different performance metrics.

Sudipta Chattopadhyay; Salil Kumar Sanyal

2009-01-01

215

Teacher to Teacher: What Texts Effectively Raise Issues Related to 9/11 for Secondary Students?  

Science.gov (United States)

|This article deals with texts that effectively raise issues related to 9/11 for secondary students, as discussed by several teachers. Kevin J. Collins from St. Thomas Aquinas High School says, "Elephant," Gus Van Sant's exploration of a Columbine-like tragedy, underscores the current generation's attempt to define the meaning of events in…

English Journal, 2006

2006-01-01

216

The influence of whole body vibration on the plantarflexors during heel raise exercise.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Whole body vibration (WBV) during exercise offers potential to augment the effects of basic exercises. However, to date there is limited information on the basic physiological and biomechanical effects of WBV on skeletal muscles. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of WBV (40Hz, 1.9mm synchronous vertical displacement) on the myoelectrical activity of selected plantarflexors during heel raise exercise. 3D motion capture of the ankle, synchronised with sEMG of the lateral gastrocnemius and soleus, was obtained during repetitive heel raises carried out at 0.5Hz on 10 healthy male subjects (age 27±5 years, height 1.78±0.04m, weight 75.75±11.9kg). During both vibration and non vibration the soleus activation peaked earlier than that of the lateral gastrocnemius. The results indicate that WBV has no effect on the timing of exercise completion or the amplitude of the lateral gastrocnemius activity, however significant increases in amplitudes of the soleus muscle activity (77.5-90.4% MVC P<0.05). WBV had no significant effect on median frequencies of either muscle. The results indicate that the greatest effect of WBV during heel raise activity is in the soleus muscles during the early phases of heel raise.

Robbins D; Goss-Sampson M

2013-06-01

217

Evaluation of Preparatory Measures for Coping with Anxiety Raised by Media Coverage of Terrorism  

Science.gov (United States)

This study examines effects of television broadcasts of terrorism on viewers' anxiety and raises suggestions for 2 intervention strategies to moderate elevated anxiety. Participants were 120 young Israeli adults randomly allocated to a terrorism or a nonterrorism television broadcast and assigned to 1 of 3 intervention conditions prior to…

Slone, Michelle; Shoshani, Anat

2006-01-01

218

Which countries should be entitled to raise their CO{sub 2} emissions?  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Which countries should be entitled to raise their CO{sub 2} emissions? Taking a welfarist perspective, we show that a global social welfare function yields policy recommendations which, although grounded in efficiency, would likely be challenged on ethical grounds by most observers. We then analyze under which conditions efficiency and ethical considerations can be reconciled.

Wodon, Q.T.; Heil, M.T.

1997-12-31

219

Losing Control in the Nonprofit Sector: An Examination of Fund-Raising Encroachment.  

Science.gov (United States)

To build theory, a study (the third stage in a program of research) examined encroachment by fund raising on public relations in the nonprofit sector. Two sets of in-depth interviews were conducted with 19 public relations managers in nonprofit organizations in Maryland and Louisiana. The organizations represented in the purposive sample fell into…

Kelly, Kathleen S.

220

An Efficient In vitro Hardening Technique of Tissue Culture Raised Plants  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Micropropagation has been extensively used for the rapid multiplication of many plants species. However, its wider use is restricted often by the high percentage of plant loss or damaged when transferred to ex vitro condition. To acclimatize the micropropagated plants, different workers have employed different approach toward successful establishment of in vitro raised plants under ex vitro condition. In the present study, a successful attempt has been made to acclimatize the tissue culture raised plants which is cost effective compare to other existing hardening technique. Tissue culture raised orchid seedlings were acclimatized and hardened in vitro by using 1/10th liquid MS basal medium subsequently replaced by tap water with chips of charcoal, bricks and decayed wood as an alternate substratum. The newly formed roots under this condition firmly attached to the charcoal chips with the passage of time, similar to velamenous root attach to the trunk of a tree. Charcoal and moss substratum was more suitable than bricks for epiphytic species and decayed woods for terrestrial. The researchers report the novel and efficient one step hardening technique for tissue culture raised orchid seedlings which will reduce the production cost.

C.R. Deb; T. Imchen

2010-01-01

 
 
 
 
221

Gottron?s papules with raised CPK level without other manifestations of dermatomyositis  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Dermatomyositis without myositis has been reported rarely and has been given several names such as dermatomyositis sine myositis and amyopathic dermatomyositis. We report a 19-year-old male patient with Gottron?s papules and raised CPK level. The patient has been followed for 10 months and ha...

Singh Ravi; Singh Sanjay; Pandey S

222

A response to issues raised in a recent paper concerning the Oxford knee score.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In a recently published paper, authors were critical of the Oxford Knee Score (OKS) patient based measure. We discuss a number of the interesting issues that this paper raised and point out some obvious misunderstandings. The OKS, whilst not perfect, has been shown in independent comparative studies...

Dawson, J; Fitzpatrick, R; Murray, D; Carr, A

223

Gottron?s papules with raised CPK level without other manifestations of dermatomyositis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Dermatomyositis without myositis has been reported rarely and has been given several names such as dermatomyositis sine myositis and amyopathic dermatomyositis. We report a 19-year-old male patient with Gottron?s papules and raised CPK level. The patient has been followed for 10 months and has not developed other features of myositis.

Singh Ravi; Singh Sanjay; Pandey S

1996-01-01

224

[Raising awareness among freelance nurses of infection prevention in home health care].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

An alternative to conventional hospitalisation, home health care involves technical procedures which can carry a high risk of infection. In the home, infection prevention is a central element of safety of care. A home health care structure in the Lille region is working to raise awareness among freelance nursing partners and encourage them to follow a quality improvement approach.

Joly F; Touati S

2013-02-01

225

Development of equipment for drilling inclined workings. [Raise drivage by pilot borehole and upward reaming  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Rate of mine drivage of inclined workings in the Kuzbass is high and amounts to 25 m raise per 1,000 t of coal won. With increasing height of working levels in the Kuzbass, length of inclined workings will increase 3 or 4 times. Such an increase in drivage depends on developing new, high-duty drilling systems characterized by high drilling accuracy. Methods for raise drilling using a system of pilot borehole drilling from the overlying to the underlying level and raise drilling using a reamer are comparatively evaluated. Analyzes schemes for reaming pilot boreholes using a system of cutters and a stabilizing system which prevents borehole distortion. Design of stabilizing systems is shown in 4 schemes. Selected pieces of drilling equipment developed by the KuzPI Institute are evaluated: the RDR reamer, a drilling system based on the BGA-2 drill. The RUP drill for raise drilling developed by the Anzhersk Machine Building Plant is described. Performance of drilling systems and their operation are evaluated. (In Russian)

Safokhin, M.S.

1984-01-01

226

Radiomutant lines of soybeans with raised protein content in the grain  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Mutant lines differing in their habit of the initial cultivars were produced by gamma irradiation of air dry soybean seeds of cvs Merit, Portich, Beeson and Zora. Among them mutant lines were selected with raised protein content in the grain, improved earliness and higher yield. Some of the lines obtained were suitable for direct testing or for strating material in hybridization

1986-01-01

227

A Coordinated Approach to Raising the Socio-Economic Status of Latinos in California.  

Science.gov (United States)

|This report presents a collection of papers that focuses on a coordinated approach to raising the socioeconomic status of Hispanic Americans living in California. After presenting "The Need for a Coordinated Approach," the papers are: "Preschool Access" (Theresa Garcia, Sandra Gutierrez, and Giovanna Stark); "K-12 Performance" (Patricia de Cos,…

Lopez, Elias, Ed.; Puddefoot, Ginny, Ed.; Gandara, Patricia, Ed.

228

Materialistic Aspects of Raising Resource of Pressurized Water Reactors for Low-Power Nuclear Plants  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The opportunity of using ships reactors for low-power nuclear plants is considered. Some aspects of working constructional materials on cases of water-water reactors of ships nuclear units are considered. Advantages of raising resource of ships reactors are shown

2005-01-01

229

Studies on the Genetic Constitution of Black and White Dairy Cattles Raised in Tahirova State Farm  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In this study 1504 individual milk yield records were analysed to evaluate the breeding potential of dairy cattles raised in Tahirova State Farm. Milk yields records of 468 Black and White cattle were obtained from the period of 1978-1995. Heritability of reproductive (first breeding age-FBE; first ...

Yahya Tuncay Tuna

230

Consciousness Raising and Noticing through Focus on Form: Grammar Task Performance versus Formal Instruction.  

Science.gov (United States)

Research is presented that investigates the amount of learner noticing produced by two types of grammar consciousness-raising treatments: teacher-fronted grammar lessons and interactive, grammar problem-solving tasks. Results indicate that task performance is as effective as formal instruction in promoting noticing. (Contains 33 references.)…

Fotos, Sandra S.

1993-01-01

231

Integrating Grammar Instruction and Communicative Language Use through Grammar Consciousness-Raising Tasks.  

Science.gov (United States)

A study of three grammar consciousness-raising tasks dealing with word order among Japanese university students showed that the tasks successfully promoted both proficiency gains and second-language negotiated interaction in participants. Negotiation quantity was determined by the combination of task features present rather than the nature of the…

Fotos, Sandra S.

1994-01-01

232

Vitamin-rich high-iodine fowl egg and relevant fowl raising method  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The present invention relates to one kind of vitamin-rich high-iodine fowl egg and relevant fowl raising method, and belongs to the field of feed technology. The vitamin-rich high-iodine fowl egg contains I 15-30 mg/kg, Ca 850-1265 mg/kg, Fe 15-20 mg/kg, Zn 16-19 mg/kg, Se 0.3-0.4 mg/kg, Vitamin A 10500-12000 IU and cholesterol less than 3100 mg/kg. The relevant fowl raising process includes compounding the said components with corn powder, soybean residue, wheat bran, stone powder, kelp and egg hem feed essence to constitute the feed and raising the hem with the feed for 20 days to make hem lay vitamin-rich high-iodine egg. Eating the vitamin-rich high-iodine fowl egg can eliminate harms caused by iodine deficiency, regulate human bodyí s function and raise human bodyí s immunity.

LI WEI

233

Developing a Translator from C Programs to Data Flow Graphs Using RAISE  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Describes how a translator from a subset of C to data flow graphs has been formally developed using the RAISE (Rigorous Approach to Industrial Software Engineering) method and tools. In contrast to many development examples described in the literature, this development is not a case study, but a rea...

Haxthausen, Anne Elisabeth

234

DIY Materials: A Consciousness-Raising Exercise Prepared in Response to a Textbook "GAP."  

Science.gov (United States)

|Presents one teacher's evaluation of his own English-as-a-Second/Foreign-Language teaching materials produced in response to a textbook "gap" in Japan. Focuses on a consciousness-raising exercise created to elucidate clearly the difference between two grammatical forms. (Author/VWL)|

Maddalena, Sean R.

2003-01-01

235

Recurrent Attacks of Raised Intracranial Pressure in Case of Tuberculous Arachnoiditis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A ase of recurre'nt raised interacranial pressure is described. At operation posterio-rcfossa arachnoiditis was found. Histological examination suggested a Tuberculous etiology. Four months after the operation she died from an apparently acute tuberculoua meningiti

N. O. Ameli; Ch. M. ( Birm ); F. R. C. S. ( E ). F. I. C. S.

1960-01-01

236

Raising production of pretonic mid vowels in Ouro Branco-MG  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper describes the results of a research about the raising production of the pretonic mid vowels, this was carried out at the city of Ouro Branco, Minas Gerais State, Brazil. For this study, we selected eight stratified informants distributed by gender (male and female) and age (young and adults). Based on the Theory of Variation and Change, we analyzed the following linguistic factors: vowel of the stressed syllable, vowel between the vowel of the variable and the stressed one, manner of articulation of the preceding segment, place of articulation of the preceding segment, manner of articulation of the next segment and place of articulation of the next segment. We establish that in the city of Ouro Branco occurs vowel harmony triggered by the following high vowel, both for the raising of /e/, and for the raising of /o/. We conclude that for the raising of /o/, occurs also the process of vowel reduction. We also observed that there are lexical restrictions.

Melina Rezende Dias

2011-01-01

237

Raising Awareness of Assistive Technology in Older Adults through a Community-Based, Cooperative Extension Program  

Science.gov (United States)

|The Fashion an Easier Lifestyle with Assistive Technology (FELAT) curriculum was developed as a needs-based, community educational program provided through a state Cooperative Extension Service. The overall goal for participants was to raise awareness of assistive technology. Program evaluation included a postassessment and subsequent interview…

Sellers, Debra M.; Markham, Melinda Stafford

2012-01-01

238

Sulphur isotopic investigation of a polluted raised bog and the uptake of pollutant sulphur by Sphagnum  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The sulphur content and sulphur isotopic composition of Sphagnum as well as anionic compositions and sulphur isotope ratios of rainwater inputs and bog waters have been measured at Thorne Moors, a raised bog in eastern England. Rainwater sulphate isotopic composition shows the sulphur input at this site to be dominated by anthropogenic pollution from fossil fuel burning.

Thompson, A.; Bottell, S. [University of Leeds, Leeds (United Kingdom). Dept. of Earth Sciences

1998-11-01

239

137Cs deposition in peat profiles on a raised bog in central Sweden  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Distribution of 137Cs depositions within peat profiles in open bog and nearby (low pine) sites in raised bog are shown and discussed. A possible involvement of Sphagnum moss in radionuclide binding and retention in such nutrient poor ecosystem is suggested. (au)

2009-01-01

240

Biomechanics of the heel-raise test performed on an incline in two knee flexion positions.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Although single-legged heel-raise cycles are often performed on an incline in different knee flexion positions to discriminate the relative contribution of the triceps surae muscles, detailed kinematic and kinetic analyses of this procedure are not available. Our study characterizes and compares the biomechanics and clinical outcomes of single-legged heel-raise cycles performed to volitional exhaustion on an incline with the knee straight (0°) and bent (45°), considering the effect of sex and age. METHODS: Fifty-six male and female volunteers, with equal numbers of younger (20 to 40years of age) and older (40 to 60years of age) individuals, completed a maximal number of heel-raise cycles on an incline at both nominal knee angles. Kinematic and kinetic data were acquired during testing using a 3D motion capturing system and multi-axial force plate. The impact of fatigue on performance was quantified using changes in maximal voluntary isometric contraction force and biomechanical performance of cycles. FINDINGS: Overall, participants completed three more cycles and maintained better biomechanical performance with 45° than 0° of knee flexion. More precisely, the decreases in maximal heel-raise heights, plantar-flexion angles at maximal height and ranges of ankle motion per cycle were all smaller with the knee bent. However, several outcomes indicated similar plantar-flexion fatigue at both knee angles. Males demonstrated a more rapid decline in peak ground reaction forces during testing; but otherwise, neither sex nor age significantly impacted outcomes. INTERPRETATION: It is concluded that the differences discerned here in the biomechanics of single-legged heel-raise cycles performed at 0° and 45° of knee flexion to volitional exhaustion on an incline may be too small to identify in clinical settings or reflect substantial alterations in the relative contribution of the triceps surae muscles.

Hébert-Losier K; Holmberg HC

2013-07-01

 
 
 
 
241

Fertility Traits of Holstein Cows Raised at Sar?msakl? State Farm  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The present research was carried out to determine some fertility traits in Holstein cows raised at Sarimsakli State Farm. Reproductive performance records within the period from 1983 to 2003 of 764 Holstein cows raised at the farm were constituted the research material. Effect of years on First Breeding Age (FBA), First Calving Age (FCA) and Calving Interval(CI) were significant(P0,05). Effects of Lactation Length (LL) and FCA on CI was not significant(P>0.05). Effect of FBA on FCA was significant(P<0,01). Overall means for FBA, FCA and CI were found as; 18,98 ± 2,73 month, 28,15 ± 2,50 month and 407,07 ± 78,59 day, respectively.

Y.T. Tuna; E. K. Gurcan; T. Savas

2007-01-01

242

Expanding raise face headings by means of AM-50 heading machines  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Development is discussed of a working face in a seam with dip angles to 15 degrees. The working face is situated along the seam strike. Conventional chambers for assembling powered supports and other face equipment are driven by drilling and blasting. Use of the AM-50 heading machines for this purpose was successfully tested in the Makoszowy mine. The 3.5 m wide and 5-15 m long chamber was enlarged by the AM-50 to the raise. Its width was increased to 6.0 m. Schemes for heading machine movement, cooperation of the AM-50 with materials handling equipment and installation of supports as well as strata control methods are discussed. Effects of heading machine use for raise drivage on drivage efficiency and cost are evaluated.

Owczarek, T.; Postolski, E.; Dziura, I.; Malik, S.

1986-09-01

243

Active methodologies as strategies in nursing teaching: Raising awareness towards healthy habits  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Objective: To identify how the use of active methodology may influence healthy habits in nursing students. Method: A qualitative Assistential Convergent Research, undertaken with 43 students of the Nursing Graduation Course, at a Federal University in Southern Brazil. Data were collected with a semi-structured tool, from May to July 2008. Data were organized into categories and analysed according to scientific publications in the area. Results: Three study categories raised from the study: Characterization of Nursing Students from the study, Contributions of teaching-learning active methodologies in raising awareness towards healthy habits, and Healthy habits: feeding and physical exercising. They recognize healthy habits and practice it in their routine, it was detected that 16% are overweight, do not exercise regularly, consider their food, leisure, sleeping patterns and self-image to be adequate. Conclusion: The use of active methodologies may unfold new possibilities towards healthy habits practices.

Luciara Fabiane Sebold; Silvana Silveira Kempfer

2012-01-01

244

Northern British Columbian Aboriginal mothers: raising adolescents with fetal alcohol spectrum disorder.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This interpretive ethnographic study describes the experiences of northern British Columbian Aboriginal mothers raising adolescents with fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD) and provides an understanding of how the mothers interpreted and responded to their adolescents' FASD. The all-encompassing theoretical perspectives of postcolonialism provided the conceptual guide for this study. This ontological stance facilitates discourse on the social and historical context of this research focused on northern British Columbian Aboriginal mothers. Using semistructured interviews and participant observation, eight participants were interviewed three times over a period of several months. Data were analyzed using an interpretive analysis to generate an overarching cultural theme, Mothering from the Margins. The theme conveyed how study participants understood FASD and how they were raising their adolescents within the social and historical context unique to postcolonial societies.

Johnston S; Boyle JS

2013-01-01

245

Raising argument strength using negative evidence: a constraint on models of induction.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Both intuitively, and according to similarity-based theories of induction, relevant evidence raises argument strength when it is positive and lowers it when it is negative. In three experiments, we tested the hypothesis that argument strength can actually increase when negative evidence is introduced. Two kinds of argument were compared through forced choice or sequential evaluation: single positive arguments (e.g., "Shostakovich's music causes alpha waves in the brain; therefore, Bach's music causes alpha waves in the brain") and double mixed arguments (e.g., "Shostakovich's music causes alpha waves in the brain, X's music DOES NOT; therefore, Bach's music causes alpha waves in the brain"). Negative evidence in the second premise lowered credence when it applied to an item X from the same subcategory (e.g., Haydn) and raised it when it applied to a different subcategory (e.g., AC/DC). The results constitute a new constraint on models of induction.

Heussen D; Voorspoels W; Verheyen S; Storms G; Hampton JA

2011-11-01

246

Raising The Educational Standards Through Enhancing Children’s Thinking: Impl?cations For Teacher Education  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this study, the main aim is to raise a fundamental question of whether there is any possible way of raising the educational standards in order to meet the demands of society. In this respect, firstly, the changing function of education and the significance of teaching children how to think and learn will be emphasised, and the importance of science education in children’s learning processes and the gradual improvement of science education will be examined. Secondly, in the light of learning theories, the changing notion of the learning process will be indicated, and the cognitive acceleration intervention programme of the CASE (Cognitive Acceleration through Science Education) project will be examined briefly. The necessity of instruction and intervention will be emphasised. Then, the programme and the findings of CASE will be debated. Finally, some suggestions for teacher education will be made.

Yasemin GÖDEK

2005-01-01

247

Raising Children in an Evangelical Family Environment: Biblical Principles Applied to the Family  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available As Creator, God designed the family and determined the standards and rules for living and functioning in the family. As a basic unit of society, the family is to reflect God’s glory. God’s plan for marriage and the family has not changed, only the human approach to this institution has changed. Therefore, it is vital to re-emphasize how important it is that the family functions according to biblical standards. This article deals with raising children in an evangelical environment which assumes God’s presence, the reading and keeping of God’s Word, love between the parents, prayer, and worship of God. Clear goals for raising children are presented. This work offers valuable and lived examples of biblical discipline. It discusses the topic of discipline from childhood to the teen ages, trust, responsibility, communication and relationship with God. Finally, the article points out the importance of times of family worship.

Ljubinka Jambrek

2009-01-01

248

Monitoring and performance analysis of AGR boilers during commissioning and power raising  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The installed boiler plant, for two 1300 MW AGR stations, is comprehensively instrumented for boiler control, performance assessment and component monitoring to ensure the integrity and safe operation of the plant during normal and faulty operating conditions. Plant instrumentation and computer systems installed at site for vibration analysis during the engineering runs and data acquisition during the power raising stage have been described. The results, from early rig investigations and the vibration testing during the unfueled engineering runs, indicate that the behaviour of the plant within the practical range of operating conditions is free from vibration problems. Also the analysis of the steady state thermal and hydrodynamic behaviour of the boiler plant during the power raising phase confirms the methods and computer models used for the boiler design. (author)

1984-01-01

249

Ethical and legal issues raised by cord blood banking - the challenges of the new bioeconomy.  

Science.gov (United States)

Cord blood banking raises ethical and legal issues which highlight the need for careful regulatory approaches to the emerging bioeconomy. Consent processes for both private and public banking should be inclusive and representative of the different familial interests in the cord blood. Property law is a potentially useful way of understanding the mechanisms for donation to both public and private banks. Increasing tensions between public and private models of banking may require the adoption of hybrid forms of banking. PMID:23984790

Stewart, Cameron L; Aparicio, Lorena C; Kerridge, Ian H

2013-08-19

250

It is raised in the alkali soil; Arukari dojo de ikusei  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Research group of Mori professor of Univ. of Tokyo graduate school agricultural science life science graduate course succeeded in the development of rice plant raised in alkali soil of the bad soil for the plant. The result of drastically improving introduction and alkali resistance of the rice plant the gene concerning the alkali resistance of the barley. It is expected as a result of opening the way in the yield increase of the crop in the bad soil. (translated by NEDO)

NONE

1999-10-01

251

Ethical and legal issues raised by cord blood banking - the challenges of the new bioeconomy.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Cord blood banking raises ethical and legal issues which highlight the need for careful regulatory approaches to the emerging bioeconomy. Consent processes for both private and public banking should be inclusive and representative of the different familial interests in the cord blood. Property law is a potentially useful way of understanding the mechanisms for donation to both public and private banks. Increasing tensions between public and private models of banking may require the adoption of hybrid forms of banking.

Stewart CL; Aparicio LC; Kerridge IH

2013-08-01

252

Enhanced Rate of Multiplication of Tissue Cultured Raised Banana (MUSA) Plants in the Field  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Multiplication rate of banana plants c.v. Basrai in the field was studied. The results showed that plants raised through culture produced 7.45 suckers plant-1 after 14 months of planting. On the other hand, number of suckers produced by banana plants propagated conventionally were 4015 in the same period of time. The results indicated that tissue culture plants produced 44% more suckers. This enhanced rate of multiplication may overcome the limited sucker production in the field.

Aish Muhammad; Iqbal Hussain; Muhammad Faheem Akbar; Hamid Rashid

2003-01-01

253

Aspectual Inflection, Verb Raising and Object Fronting in American Sign Language.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This paper examines the object fronting construction of American Sign Language (Liddell, 1980; Matsuoka 1997), and its relation to verb raising and aspectual inflection. In this construction, word order, canonically S-V-O, is modified to O-S-V. Matsuoka (1997) argues persuasively for a relationship between object fronting and overt verb raising, driven by the presence of an affixal verbal inflection (per Lasnik, 1995b). Thus, her analysis reduces ASL object fronting to an instance of 'object shift' as occurs in the Scandinavian language family (Bobaljik & Jonas 1996). However, evidence is provided here, from the distributions of adverbs and modals, and from the interaction of object fronting with question formation and raising contexts, which indicates that ASL object fronting targets a position high in the clause.A new model of ASL object fronting is developed against the backdrop of Matsuoka (1997) and the Lasnik (1995b) theory of verbal morphology. This new framework has much in common with Matsuoka's account, while attaining greater empirical coverage. In this framework, as in Matsuoka, overt verb raising is triggered by the presence of an aspectual head (Asp). However, I argue that AspP is part of an articulated COMP layer (Rizzi, 1997). Object fronting targets spec-AspP, an A'-position. This model is shown to provide a better account of the distribution of adverbs and modals in object-fronted clauses, as well as explanations of the behavior of object fronted clauses in questions and in embedded contexts.Lasnik's (1995b) model of verbal morphology is extended such that verbs in (some varieties of) ASL allow both derivational and lexical options for aspectual inflection. This mechanism provides for an explanation of the infelicity of object fronted clauses in embedded contexts. The analysis crucially relies on the categorial status of object-fronted clauses and the mechanism of c-selection.

Braze D

2004-01-01

254

Hyper-reactive malarial splenomegaly in the absence of raised IgM antibodies.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Hyper-reactive malarial splenomegaly (HMS) is diagnosed by the presence of massive splenomegaly, raised IgM and antimalarial antibodies and a response to antimalarial therapy. Although malaria is endemic to Pakistan, HMS is uncommon. We report on HMS in a patient with massive splenomegaly, positive Plasmodium falciparum polymerase chain reaction but normal immunoglobulin M antibody levels. The investigations were not consistent with any other diagnosis. HMS is also briefly reviewed.

Haider M; Nizami S; Qureshi A; Raza A; Mahar FK; Beg MA

2013-01-01

255

[Topical treatment with mitomycin C in considerably raised conjunctival intraepithelial neoplasia].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

CASE REPORT: We present a case of recurrent conjunctival intraepithelial neoplasia, treated previously on two occasions with excisional biopsy. Although the lesion was considerably raised, topical treatment with mitomycin-C 0.04% was applied, achieving the complete regression of the tumor. DISCUSSION: Topical mitomycin-C acts at the ocular surface. However, successive treatment cycles can achieve complete regression, even in considerably thick tumors.

Rodríguez-Pérez C; Del Campo Z; Wolley-Dod C; Gris O

2002-12-01

256

Your Genes, Your Choices: Exploring the Issues Raised by Genetic Research  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Your Genes, Your Choices provides accurate information about the ethical, legal, and social implications of the Human Genome Project and genetic research in an easy-to-read style and format. Each chapter in the book begins with a brief vignette, which introduces an issue within a human story, and raises a question for the reader to think about as the basic science and information are presented in the rest of the chapter.

Baker, C.

1999-05-31

257

Inflammation alters HDL composition and function: implications for HDL-raising therapies.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

There is clear epidemiological evidence that plasma levels of high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol are inverse and independent predictors of cardiovascular disease risk, fueling interest in novel therapies capable of raising HDL-cholesterol. However, the relevance of HDL-cholesterol as a surrogate marker for HDL-related risk has been questioned. Latest failures of HDL-cholesterol raising drugs and a recent study that showed no causal association between risk for myocardial infarction and genetically raised plasma HDL-cholesterol indicate that steady-state HDL-cholesterol concentrations may provide limited information regarding the potential antiatherogenic functions of HDL. There is accumulating evidence that HDL composition determines its functional properties, rather than the levels of circulating HDL-cholesterol. Therefore, assessing HDL composition and function might provide more relevant information than steady-state HDL-cholesterol levels. Recent mass spectrometric analyses revealed that protein composition of HDL is complex, expanding our understanding of the functions and structures of lipoproteins. Significant alterations were identified in the composition and function of circulating HDL of patients with high cardiovascular risk, as well as in HDL isolated from atherosclerotic tissue. These novel insights may help to develop therapies that target the functionality of HDL and further enable the identification of patients at increased cardiovascular risk.

Marsche G; Saemann MD; Heinemann A; Holzer M

2013-03-01

258

Chemical profiling with modeling differentiates wild and farm-raised salmon.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Classifications of fish production methods, wild or farm-raised salmon, by elemental profiles or C and N stable isotope ratios combined with various modeling approaches were determined. Elemental analysis (As, Ba, Be, Ca, Co, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Na, Ni, P, Pb, Sr, Ti, and Zn) of wild and farm-raised salmon samples was performed using an inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy. Isotopic and compositional analyses of carbon and nitrogen were performed using mass spectrometry as an alternative fingerprinting technique. Each salmon (king salmon, Oncorhynchus tshawytscha ; coho salmon, Oncorhynchus kisutch ; Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar ) was analyzed from two food production practices, wild and farm raised. Principal component analysis (PCA) and canonical discriminant analysis (CDA) were used for data exploration and visualization. Five classification modeling approaches were investigated: linear discriminate function, quadratic discriminant function, neural network, probabilistic neural network, and neural network bagging. Methods for evaluating model reliability included four strategies: resubstitution, cross-validation, and two very different test set scenarios. Generally speaking, the models performed well, with the percentage of samples classified correctly depending on the particular choice of model and evaluation method used.

Anderson KA; Hobbie KA; Smith BW

2010-11-01

259

Chemical profiling with modeling differentiates wild and farm-raised salmon.  

Science.gov (United States)

Classifications of fish production methods, wild or farm-raised salmon, by elemental profiles or C and N stable isotope ratios combined with various modeling approaches were determined. Elemental analysis (As, Ba, Be, Ca, Co, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Na, Ni, P, Pb, Sr, Ti, and Zn) of wild and farm-raised salmon samples was performed using an inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy. Isotopic and compositional analyses of carbon and nitrogen were performed using mass spectrometry as an alternative fingerprinting technique. Each salmon (king salmon, Oncorhynchus tshawytscha ; coho salmon, Oncorhynchus kisutch ; Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar ) was analyzed from two food production practices, wild and farm raised. Principal component analysis (PCA) and canonical discriminant analysis (CDA) were used for data exploration and visualization. Five classification modeling approaches were investigated: linear discriminate function, quadratic discriminant function, neural network, probabilistic neural network, and neural network bagging. Methods for evaluating model reliability included four strategies: resubstitution, cross-validation, and two very different test set scenarios. Generally speaking, the models performed well, with the percentage of samples classified correctly depending on the particular choice of model and evaluation method used. PMID:20973481

Anderson, Kim A; Hobbie, Kevin A; Smith, Brian W

2010-10-25

260

Developing a Translator from C Programs to Data Flow Graphs Using RAISE  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Describes how a translator from a subset of C to data flow graphs has been formally developed using the RAISE (Rigorous Approach to Industrial Software Engineering) method and tools. In contrast to many development examples described in the literature, this development is not a case study, but a real one, and it covers all development phases, including the code-generation phase. The translator is now one of the components of the LYCOS (LYngby CO-Synthesis) system, which is a software/hardware co-synthesis system under development at the Technical University of Denmark. The translator, together with the other components of LYCOS, provides a means for moving parts of C programs to dedicated hardware, thereby obtaining better performance. The translator was refined in steps, starting with an abstract specification and ending with a concrete specification from which C++ code was then automatically generated by the RAISE tools. In addition to illustrating the general methodology of RAISE, the paper also contributes with a specific method for refining set comprehensions

Haxthausen, Anne Elisabeth

1996-01-01

 
 
 
 
261

Voltage raising and dropping type direct conversion circuit; Shokoatsugata chokusetsu henkan kairo  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The AC-AC conversion circuit is generally a system to convert AC power into DC power, and then converts the DC power into AC power. However, an electrolytic capacitor to store DC power is a large obstacle for reducing the size and weight and extending the life of the equipment. Fuji Electric is promoting development of a direct conversion circuit to covert AC power into AC power having different frequencies and amplitudes without using an electrolytic capacitor. The figure shows the configuration of a voltage raising and dropping type direct conversion circuit (three-phase to three-phase). Making this type of circuitry makes direct AC-AC conversion and voltage raising and dropping operation possible, and reducing the size and weight and extending the life of the equipment may be expected. Therefore, high-frequency switching technology (15.6 kHz) was used to verify the operation of a functional prototype ( 10 kVA). As a result, voltage raising and dropping operation from input voltage of 100V AC to and from zero and 200V AC of the output voltage was realized with input current distortion of 5.9% and output voltage distortion of 3.7%. (translated by NEDO)

NONE

2000-01-10

262

The effects of monocular refractive blur on gait parameters when negotiating a raised surface.  

Science.gov (United States)

Falls in the elderly are a major cause of mortality and morbidity. Elderly people with visual impairment have been found to be at increased risk of falling, with poor visual acuity in one eye causing greater risk than poor binocular visual acuity. The present study investigated whether monocular refractive blur, at a level typically used for monovision correction, would significantly reduce stereoacuity and consequently affect gait parameters when negotiating a raised surface. Fourteen healthy subjects (25.8 +/- 5.6 years) walked up to and on to a raised surface, under four visual conditions; binocular, +2DS blur over their non-dominant eye, +2DS blur over their dominant eye and with their dominant eye occluded. Analysis focussed on foot positioning and toe clearance parameters. Monocular blur had no effect on binocular acuity, but caused a small decline in binocular contrast sensitivity and a large decline in stereoacuity (p monovision correction significantly reduced stereoacuity and consequently the ability to accurately perceive the height and position of a raised surface placed within the travel path. These findings may help explain why elderly individuals with poor visual acuity in one eye have been found to have an increased risk of falling. PMID:18339044

Vale, Anna; Scally, Andy; Buckley, John G; Elliott, David B

2008-03-01

263

Chromosome comparison between populations of the collared peccary, Tayassu tajacu, raised in captivity  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The collared peccary (Tayassu tajacu) is widely distributed over the American continent, being found from the south of the USA to the north of Argentina. In Brazil, it is spread all over the country, being one of the potential species to be raised in captivity. Therefore, the cytogenetic techniques could be a potential tool for reproductive monitoring of animals raised in captivity, mainly when destined for commercial purposes. This study had the objective of determining the chromosome number of two populations raised in captivity and characterizing them by GTG banding. For this purpose, an analysis was made of mitotic metaphases obtained from lymphocyte cultures made from blood samples of 11 animals, six of which from the Northeast and five from the North of Brazil. The results of this analysis showed the same karyotype pattern for the species (2n=30 chromosomes and NF=48), besides corresponding to the South American pattern of the species, i.e., without a translocation between autosomes 1 and 8, chromosome X acrocentric, and no differences were found between the two populations studied. However, chromosomal polymorphisms were observed compared to data from the literature on populations from North and South America.

Patrícia Carvalho de Souza; André Salim Khayat; Igor Chamon Seligmann; Rommel Mario Rodríguez Burbano

2008-01-01

264

Chromosome comparison between populations of the collared peccary, Tayassu tajacu, raised in captivity  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in english The collared peccary (Tayassu tajacu) is widely distributed over the American continent, being found from the south of the USA to the north of Argentina. In Brazil, it is spread all over the country, being one of the potential species to be raised in captivity. Therefore, the cytogenetic techniques could be a potential tool for reproductive monitoring of animals raised in captivity, mainly when destined for commercial purposes. This study had the objective of determining (more) the chromosome number of two populations raised in captivity and characterizing them by GTG banding. For this purpose, an analysis was made of mitotic metaphases obtained from lymphocyte cultures made from blood samples of 11 animals, six of which from the Northeast and five from the North of Brazil. The results of this analysis showed the same karyotype pattern for the species (2n=30 chromosomes and NF=48), besides corresponding to the South American pattern of the species, i.e., without a translocation between autosomes 1 and 8, chromosome X acrocentric, and no differences were found between the two populations studied. However, chromosomal polymorphisms were observed compared to data from the literature on populations from North and South America.

Carvalho de Souza, Patrícia; Salim Khayat, André; Chamon Seligmann, Igor; Rodríguez Burbano, Rommel Mario

2008-08-01

265

Chromosome comparison between populations of the collared peccary, Tayassu tajacu, raised in captivity.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The collared peccary (Tayassu tajacu) is widely distributed over the American continent, being found from the south of the USA to the north of Argentina. In Brazil, it is spread all over the country, being one of the potential species to be raised in captivity. Therefore, the cytogenetic techniques could be a potential tool for reproductive monitoring of animals raised in captivity, mainly when destined for commercial purposes. This study had the objective of determining the chromosome number of two populations raised in captivity and characterizing them by GTG banding. For this purpose, an analysis was made of mitotic metaphases obtained from lymphocyte cultures made from blood samples of 11 animals, six of which from the Northeast and five from the North of Brazil. The results of this analysis showed the same karyotype pattern for the species (2n=30 chromosomes and NF=48), besides corresponding to the South American pattern of the species, i.e., without a translocation between autosomes 1 and 8, chromosome X acrocentric, and no differences were found between the two populations studied. However, chromosomal polymorphisms were observed compared to data from the literature on populations from North and South America.

Carvalho de Souza P; Khayat AS; Seligmann IC; Rodríguez Burbano RM

2008-08-01

266

Chromosome comparison between populations of the collared peccary, Tayassu tajacu, raised in captivity.  

Science.gov (United States)

The collared peccary (Tayassu tajacu) is widely distributed over the American continent, being found from the south of the USA to the north of Argentina. In Brazil, it is spread all over the country, being one of the potential species to be raised in captivity. Therefore, the cytogenetic techniques could be a potential tool for reproductive monitoring of animals raised in captivity, mainly when destined for commercial purposes. This study had the objective of determining the chromosome number of two populations raised in captivity and characterizing them by GTG banding. For this purpose, an analysis was made of mitotic metaphases obtained from lymphocyte cultures made from blood samples of 11 animals, six of which from the Northeast and five from the North of Brazil. The results of this analysis showed the same karyotype pattern for the species (2n=30 chromosomes and NF=48), besides corresponding to the South American pattern of the species, i.e., without a translocation between autosomes 1 and 8, chromosome X acrocentric, and no differences were found between the two populations studied. However, chromosomal polymorphisms were observed compared to data from the literature on populations from North and South America. PMID:18825915

Carvalho de Souza, Patrícia; Khayat, André Salim; Seligmann, Igor Chamon; Rodríguez Burbano, Rommel Mario

2008-08-01

267

Emissions from soil fumigation in two raised bed production systems tarped with low permeability films.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Raised beds are used to produce some high-value annual fruit and vegetable crops such as strawberry in California (CA) and tomato in Florida (FL), USA. Pre-plant soil fumigation is an important tool to control soil-borne pests in the raised beds. However, fumigant emissions have detrimental environmental consequences. Field trials were conducted to evaluate emissions of 1,3-dichloropropene (1,3-D) and chloropicrin (CP) in two different production systems with raised beds covered by different tarps. In the CA trial, InLine (60.8% 1,3-D and 33.3% CP) was drip-applied at 340kgha(-1) to 5cm deep in the beds (30cm high and 107cm wide) tarped with polyethylene (PE) or virtually impermeable film (VIF). In the FL trial, carbonated Telone C35 (63.4% 1,3-D and 34.7% CP) was shank-applied at 151kgha(-1) to 20cm deep in the beds (22cm high and 76cm wide) tarped with totally impermeable film (TIF). Emissions from tarped beds relative to furrows were contrary between the two trials. For the CA trial, the emission was 47% of applied 1,3-D and 27% of applied CP from PE tarped beds and 31% of applied 1,3-D and 15% of applied CP from VIF tarped beds, while that from uncovered furrows was<0.4% for both chemicals in both fields. In the FL trial, only 0.1% 1,3-D was emitted from the TIF tarped beds, but 27% was measured from the uncovered furrows. Factors contributing to the differences in emissions were chiefly raised-bed configuration, tarp permeability, fumigant application method, soil properties, soil water content, and fumigant carbonation. The results indicate that strategies for emission reduction must consider the differences in agronomic production systems. Modifying raised bed configuration and fumigant application technique in coarse textured soils with TIF tarping can maximize fumigation efficiency and emission reduction.

Qin R; Gao S; Thomas JE; Dickson DW; Ajwa H; Wang D

2013-07-01

268

Measuring Metacognition and Reaction Time: Further Findings on the Performances of General Education, Low-Achieving, and Institutionally Raised Students  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of this study was to use the picture format to examine in depth the metacognitive performances and reaction time in general education, low-achieving, and institutionally raised students. Results revealed that institutionally raised students, unlike low-achieving students, took significantly the longest reaction time to finish the test…

Al-Hilawani, Yasser A.; Abdullah, Ahmad A.

2010-01-01

269

Proof support for RAISE - by a Reuse Approach Based on Institutions  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Formal methods are mathematically based methods for developing software. Such methods usually involve that software and requirements are specified in a formal specification language, after which it is verified that the software meets the requirements. RAISE is a formal method with the associated specification language RSL and a proof system. Computer-based proof tools are available for RAISE, but a higher degree of automation is desired. Isabelle/HOL is a proof assistant for higher-order logic (HOL). It is an instantiation of the generic proof assistant Isabelle which offers a suitable degree of automation and flexibility. In order to use the Isabelle/HOL proof assistant for the RAISE method, translation from RSL to HOL is considered. The translation is based on institutions which formalize the informal notion of "a logical system". Institutions and morphisms between institutions are presented together with specifications over institutions and model-theoretic semantics of specifications. The concept of "light institution comorphisms" is introduced as a modification of well-known institution comorphisms, and it is proved that a light institution comorphism enables sound reuse of proof assistants when it has certain properties. Moreover, the concept of looser semantics of specifications is introduced as a model-theoretic description of the semantics of RSL specifications, and an equivalence result is proved. An institution for an applicative, deterministic subset of RSL, referred to as "mRSL", is defined. Then, a well-known institution for HOL is presented, and Isabelle/HOL is briefly described. An institution comorphism from the mRSL institution to the HOL institution is defined, providing a translation from mRSL to Isabelle/HOL, and it is proved that the light institution comorphism has the properties that enable sound reuse of the Isabelle/HOL proof assistant. The use of the translation is described in connection with three examples: logical circuits, a generalized railway crossing, and an encoding of Duration Calculus in RSL. In Danish: Formelle metoder er matematisk baserede metoder til udvikling af programmel. Sådanne metoder involverer som regel, at programmel og krav beskrives i et formelt specifikationssprog, hvorefter det verificeres, at programmellet opfylder de ønskede krav. RAISE er en formel metode med det tilhørende specifikationssprog RSL og et bevissystem. Der findes datamatbaserede bevisværktøjer til RAISE, men en højere grad af automation er ønskværdig. Isabelle/HOL er en bevisfører for højereordens logik (HOL). Bevisføreren er en instantiering af den generiske bevisfører Isabelle, der tilbyder en passende grad af automation og fleksibilitet. Med henblik på at benytte bevisføreren Isabelle/HOL i forbindelse med RAISE metoden, betragtes oversættelse fra RSL til HOL. Oversættelsen baseres på institutioner, der formaliserer det uformelle begreb "logisk system ". Institutioner og morfier mellem institutioner gennemgås sammen med specifikationer over institutioner og modelteoretisk semantikaf specifikationer. Begrebet "let institutionscomorfi" introduceres som en modifikation af velkendte institutionscomorfier, og det bevises, at en let institutionscomorfi muliggør sund genbrug af bevisførere, når den har visse egenskaber. Derudover introduceres begrebet løsere semantik af specifikationer som en modelteoretisk beskrivelse af semantikken af RSL- specifikationer, og et ækvivalensresultat bevises. Der defineres en institution for en applikativ, deterministisk delmængde af RSL, der benævnes "mRSL". Herefter præsenteres en velkendt institution for HOL, og Isabelle/HOL gennemgås kort. Der defineres en let institutionscomorfi fra mRSL- institutionen til HOL-institutionen, hvorved der fås en oversættelse fra mRSL til Isabelle/HOL, og det bevises, at den definerede lette institutionscomorfi har de egenskaber, der muliggør sund genbrug af bevisføreren Isabelle/HOL. Brugen af den definerede oversættelse beskrives i forbindelse med tre eksempler: logiske kredsløb, en jernbaneoverskæring

Lindegaard, Morten Peter

2004-01-01

270

Copy number variants in locally raised Chinese chicken genomes determined using array comparative genomic hybridization.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Copy number variants contribute to genetic variation in birds. Analyses of copy number variants in chicken breeds had focused primarily on those from commercial varieties with nothing known about the occurrence and diversity of copy number variants in locally raised Chinese chicken breeds. To address this deficiency, we characterized copy number variants in 11 chicken breeds and compared the variation among these breeds. RESULTS: We presented a detailed analysis of the copy number variants in locally raised Chinese chicken breeds identified using a customized comparative genomic hybridization array. We identified 833 copy number variants contained within 308 copy number variant regions. The median and mean sizes of the copy number variant regions were 14.6 kb and 35.1 kb, respectively. Of the copy number variant regions, 138 (45%) involved gain of DNA, 159 (52%) involved loss of DNA, and 11 (3%) involved both gain and loss of DNA. Principal component analysis and agglomerative hierarchical clustering revealed the close relatedness of the four locally raised chicken breeds, Shek-Ki, Langshan, Qingyuan partridge, and Wenchang. Biological process enrichment analysis of the copy number variant regions confirmed the greater variation among the four aforementioned varieties than among the seven other breeds studied. CONCLUSION: Our description of the distribution of the copy number variants and comparison of the differences among the copy number variant regions of the 11 chicken breeds supplemented the information available concerning the copy number variants of other Chinese chicken breeds. In addition to its relevance for functional analysis, our results provided the first insight into how chicken breeds can be clustered on the basis of their genomic copy number variation.

Tian M; Wang Y; Gu X; Feng C; Fang S; Hu X; Li N

2013-04-01

271

Morphological conditioning of a hatchery-raised invertebrate, Callinectes sapidus, to improve field survivorship after release.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

For recruitment-limited, severely depleted fishery stocks, stock enhancement may become an important technique in the return of population sizes to sustainable levels. Aquaculture-reared individuals, however, may face some disadvantages upon release into the wild due to differences between natural conditions and the hatchery. The goal of this study was to test whether field survivorship of hatchery-raised blue crabs, Callinectes sapidus, could be improved by simple conditioning steps, taking advantage of phenotypic plasticity in certain traits. This species is currently the focus of a preliminary stock enhancement program in the Chesapeake Bay. Results indicate that unconditioned hatchery crabs had lower survivorship than wild crabs in the field and differed in carapace color and lateral spine length. Both traits were plastic. Carapace color was changeable within 1-2 days, without a molt, upon the exposure of crabs to new substrates. However, colors within the range produced in this study did not significantly affect survivorship in a field or a laboratory experiment. Change in spine length required exposure to predators for 1-4 weeks. Exposure to fish predators resulted in increased spine length, though exposure to adult blue crabs had no significant effect. Crabs with lengthened spines had significantly higher survivorship in both laboratory and field experiments, suggesting that this feature may be one on which to focus large-scale conditioning efforts. Results of this study suggest a level of phenotypic plasticity that may contribute to the blue crab's ability to take advantage of multiple estuarine habitat types. On a more applied level, results of this study suggest that at least some deficiencies in hatchery-raised organisms can be alleviated and would likely lead to improved success and efficiency of stock enhancement efforts. Similar studies on other hatchery-raised invertebrates and finfishes may also lead to improvements in their enhancement programs.

Davis JLD; Eckert-Mills MG; Young-Williams AC; Hines AH; Zohar Y

2005-01-01

272

Effect of ultraviolet rays upon the productivity and adaptive possibilities of sows raised under industrial conditions  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Two experiments, aimed at establishing the effect of treatment with UV-rays on productivity of sows, the growth rate of pigs up to weaning, their adaptive reactions, and the micro-climate on the premises were carried out with 60 sows, divided into two groups: group i (controls) raised on premises without treatment with UV-rays, and group ii (experimental) raised on premises under treatment with UV-rays. Both nursing sows and piglets until their weaning were raised under industrial conditions. Type PRK-2 mercury lamp of 120 V, 3.75 A, and 375 W was used as a source of UV-rays. Each animal was exposed to irradiation daily for a period of 2 min. The live weight of sows, prolificacy, live weight of pigs at weaning and number of culled pigs during the sucking period, were checked. The adaptive reactions of sows and pigs were examined by ACTH-hormone testing. Before treatment and 3 h after treatment with this hormone leucocyte, eosinophile and erythrocyte count and the hemoglobin, Ca, blood sugar, total protein, albumin and globulin in the blood were checked. The temperature, moisture, velocity of movement and gas composition of air were measured prior to blood sampling. Under the conditions existing in industrial pig-breeding complexes ensuring complete feeding of animals UV-treatment did not produce essential effects on the productivity of sows and the growth rate of pigs as well as on the adaptive reactions of animals and the micro-climate on the premises.

Stefanova, S.; Benkov, M.; Panev, P.; Zlatev, D. (Pig-Breeding Research Institute, Shumen (Bulgaria))

1983-01-01

273

Bio-Economic Evaluation of the Performance of Rabbits Raised under Two Different Housing Systems  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study was conducted to evaluate the bio-economic performance of rabbits raised under two different housing systems: conventional hutch with cage system as control (A) and the non-conventional floor housing system (B). Thirty six adult rabbits of medium size breed category of both sexes aged 5-6 months comprising Chinchilla (20), New Zealand White (10), Dutch (6) were used in the study which lasted 24 weeks. Fifteen does and 3 bucks were each randomly but equally assigned to both housing systems. Data on individual and group treatments were analysed with a one-way analysis of variance and students' ttest, employed in testing differences between the means. A benefit-cost analysis was used to evaluate the relative cost effectiveness of each housing option. Results obtained showed that rabbits raised on floor performed better (6 kittens) < 0.05 biologically than those reared in hutched (3 kittens). For example, significant final weights (1.9 kg) and weight gains (0.4 kg) were observed in rabbits reared on floor as against those in hutch 1.6 kg and 0.09 kg). From an economic viewpoint, rabbits raised on floor contributed higher positive income (N 58.2) per unit of meat produced than rabbits reared in hutch or cage. Rate of return on investment in the former was estimated at about 50%. The floor housing system which is the cheaper, more productive and cost-effective is therefore recommended for farmers who are lacking the fundamental factors of production namely land and particularly capital as observed in the study location or environment.

Mobolaji-Bukola, PU.; Allison-Oguru, EA.; Berepubo, NA.; Oruwari, BM.

2002-01-01

274

Pulmonary artery acceleration time in identifying pulmonary hypertension patients with raised pulmonary vascular resistance.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: In patients with pulmonary hypertension (PH), ascertaining raised vascular resistance as a cause is a clinical objective, for which various Doppler-based measurements have been proposed, but with modest accuracy. We hypothesize that pulmonary acceleration time (PAcT) and the ratio of PAcT/peak pulmonary artery systolic pressure (PASP) reflect better the extent of the vascular resistance, compared with other available methods, and can differentiate accurately between pre- and post-capillary PH. METHODS AND RESULTS: We investigated 56 patients (mean age 61 ± 13 years, 23 males) in a simultaneous echocardiography and right heart catheterization (RHC) study. Based on the RHC, pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR), and pulmonary capillary wedge pressure (PCWP), patients were divided into four groups: Group 1 = normal PVR [<3 WU (Wood units)] and PCWP (<12 mmHg), Group 2 = raised PVR but normal PCWP, Group 3 = raised PVR and PCWP; and Group 4 = normal PVR but raised PCWP. We used spectral Doppler to measure PAcT (corrected for heart rate) and to estimate PASP (peak tricuspid regurgitation pressure drop + estimated right atrial pressure of 7 mmHg). We also tested other available methods for assessing PVR. There were small age differences between patient groups but no age difference between Groups 2 and 4. PAcT and PAcT/PASP were both significantly (P = 0.008) reduced in Groups 2 and 3 compared with Groups 1 and 4. PAcT ?90 had an 84% sensitivity and an 85% specificity in identifying patients with PVR ?3 WU with a positive and a negative predictive value of 88% and 81%, respectively. The non-linear relationship between PVR and PAcT gave a quadratic r = 0.61, P < 0.001. ROC curve analysis showed PAcT having the best accuracy (83%) in detecting a PVR ?3 WU. CONCLUSION: PAcT <90 ms can serve as a strong non-invasive predictor of PVR >3 WU, which could differentiate patients with pre- and post-capillary PH.

Tossavainen E; Söderberg S; Grönlund C; Gonzalez M; Henein MY; Lindqvist P

2013-09-01

275

Nuclear development strategic and policy issues raised by the transition from thermal to fast nuclear systems  

CERN Document Server

The renewed interest in nuclear energy triggered by concerns about global climate change and security of supply could lead to substantial growth in nuclear electricity generation and expanded interest in fast neutron reactors with closed fuel cycles. Moving from the current fleet of thermal neutron reactors to fast neutron systems will require many decades and extensive RD&D efforts. This book identifies and analyses key strategic and policy issues raised by such a transition, and provides guidance to decision makers on the best approaches for implementing transition scenarios.

2009-01-01

276

A High Proportion of Hybridomas Raised to a Plant Extract Secrete Antibody to Arabinose or Galactose  

Science.gov (United States)

A high proportion of hybridomas, obtained from mice immunized with style extracts prepared from mature flowers of an ornamental tobacco, Nicotiana alata, secrete antibody to arabinogalactan protein (AGP). The specificity of the antibodies secreted by three cloned cell lines is primarily directed to ?-d-galactopyranose and ?-l-arabinofuranose; antibodies from two cell lines preferentially bind ?-d-galactopyranose residues and antibodies from the other cell line preferentially bind ?-l-arabinofuranose. As AGPs are components of most plant tissues and exudates, it is likely that attempts to raise monoclonal antibodies to other plant extracts will result in hybridomas producing antibodies to AGPs.

Anderson, M. A.; Sandrin, M. S.; Clarke, A. E.

1984-01-01

277

DO FISCAL DEFICITS RAISE INTEREST RATES IN NIGERIA? A VECTOR AUTOREGRESSION APPROACH  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The paper examines the effects of fiscal deficits and government debt on interest rates in Nigeria, by applying the Vector Auto-regression approach. The results confirm a positive interest rates effect of fiscal deficits and debt. It is recommended that government revenue base should be increased, while unnecessary spending should be discouraged. Moreover, where deficit financing is inevitable, it should be put into productive activities in order to create more employment opportunities, raise national output, and increase the living standard of the people. This should check interest rates from rising.

Ben OBI; Abu NURUDEEN

2009-01-01

278

["Let's raise your child": puericulture doctors and maternal pedagogy in the twentieth century].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The article addresses the production of medical literature that offered advice on how mothers should raise their children. Doctors specializing in puericulture--educating mothers about topics like food, dress, hygiene, and behavior--believed that love alone was not enough to provide children with good training and education. As representatives of scientific truth and technique, these doctors tried to teach mothers to act according to the principles of puericulture, contributing primarily to the construction of the mother-nurse, an ideal endorsed by the authors of the three manuals published between 1938 and 1963 that are analyzed in this article.

Martins AP

2008-01-01

279

Studies on the Genetic Constitution of Black and White Dairy Cattles Raised in Tahirova State Farm  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this study 1504 individual milk yield records were analysed to evaluate the breeding potential of dairy cattles raised in Tahirova State Farm. Milk yields records of 468 Black and White cattle were obtained from the period of 1978-1995. Heritability of reproductive (first breeding age-FBE; first calving age-FCA; calving interval-Cl; service period-SP and days in dry-DID) and milk yield (lactation length-LL., 305 day milk yield-305d-MY) traits were estimated from the data. Phenotypic correlation`s between reproductive traits and between milk yield traits were also calculated.

Yahya Tuncay Tuna

2004-01-01

280

Snakes and snails and mermaid tails: raising a gender-variant son.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This article is a first-person account of a father's journey to lovingly accept his young gender-variant son, who began to show traits and preferences more common to girls almost from birth. The dad's efforts to discover constructive parenting strategies for raising his boy are also detailed. Experiences described begin with guilt and awareness of his own difficulty in coming to terms with his son's behavior, progress toward seeking and finding support and guidance, and eventually learning to embrace his son as he is, perhaps with questions about his own liberality and apprehensions about his boy's future.

Kelso T

2011-10-01

 
 
 
 
281

A Generalization of Level-Raising Congruences for Algebraic Modular Forms  

CERN Document Server

In this paper we prove a general theorem about congruences between automorphic forms on a reductive group G which is compact at infinity modulo the center. If the rank is one, this essentially reduces to Ribet's level-raising theorem. We then specialize to the higher rank case where G is an inner form of GSp(4). Here we get congruences with automorphic forms having a generic local component. In particular, a Saito-Kurokawa form is congruent to a form which is not of Saito-Kurokawa type. We get similar results for U(3) at split primes.

Sorensen, C M

2005-01-01

282

Baseline hematology and clinical chemistry results from captive-raised trumpeter swans  

Science.gov (United States)

Results from hematology and clinical chemistry tests are presented for healthy captive-raised Trumpeter Swans (Cygnus buccinator) to help establish baseline data. Blood samples were obtained from 14 cygnets between the ages of three to four and seven to eight months that were the subjects of a study to teach migration routes to swans. Males and females differed significantly in asparatate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase and total protein. Age categories differed significantly in hematocrit, white blood cell counts, alkaline phosphatase, aspar-rate aminotransferase, glucose, cholesterol and uric acid. There were no significant differences among age categories in values of alanine aminotransferase, calcium, triglycerides and total protein.

Olsen, G.H.; Rininger, D.L.; Ets, M.K.; Sladen, W.J.L.

2002-01-01

283

Raising students and educators awareness of radioactive materials transport through creative classroom materials and exhibits  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The public is concerned about how the shipping and handling of radioactive materials affects them and their environment. Through exhibit showings doing professional education conferences and smaller, focussed workshops, the United States Department of Energy (DOE) has found teachers and students to be an especially interested audience for hazardous and radioactive materials transportation information. DOE recognizes the importance of presenting educational opportunities to students about scientific and societal issues associated with planning for and safely transporting these types of materials. Raising students' and educators' awareness of hazardous and radioactive materials transport through creative classroom materials and exhibits may help them make informed decisions as adults about this often controversial and difficult issue.

1994-01-01

284

The Effects of Explicit Feedback and Form--Meaning Processing on the Development of Pragmatic Proficiency in Consciousness-Raising Tasks  

Science.gov (United States)

The present study evaluates the relative effectiveness of two types of input-based instruction, consciousness-raising instruction (the consciousness-raising task only) and consciousness-raising instruction with feedback (the consciousness-raising task + reactive explicit feedback) for teaching English polite requestive forms, involving 45 Japanese…

Takimoto, Masahiro

2006-01-01

285

Status of tuberculosis in bovine animals raised by tuberculosis infected patients in Western Chitwan, Nepal  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Bovine tuberculosis (bTB) is an important public health concern worldwide. This study was conducted to determine the status of bTB in animals raised by tuberculosis patients in Western Chitwan, Nepal.MATERIALS AND METHODS: This cross-sectional study was conducted from August, 2011 to January, 2012. A total of 100 bovines (cattle and buffalo) raised in 60 farms of tuberculosis patients were tested with single intradermal tuberculin test considering various animal factors. Well designed questionnaire survey was taken with 70 tuberculosis patients of same 60 families focusing knowledge, awareness and various practices related to bovine tuberculosis.RESULTS: Overall 15% bovines were positive for tuberculosis (13.6% cattle and 15.4% buffaloes). Age of animal was significantly associated with tuberculosis (p<0.05) while sex and species were not. 24% tuberculosis patients had raw milk consuming habit while very few of them (9%) were aware of zoonotic aspect of bovine tuberculosis.CONCLUSIONS: There is high chance of tuberculosis transmission form animals to humans or vice versa. Further detailed study is needed in large scale with stronger intersectoral collaboration of medical and veterinary health sector to determine the scale of problem and find out prevention and control strategies against zoonotic tuberculosis.

Pandey G; Dhakal S; Sadaula A; KC G; Subedi S; Pandey KR; Dhakal IP

2012-01-01

286

Characterization of Strains of Plesiomonas shigelloides and Motile Aeromonas Isolated from Raised Fish in Iran  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Plesiomonas shigelloides and Aeromonas Species are gram negative organisms which are the members of the expanding group of known water and food borne pathogens and have been increasingly recognized as enteric pathogens. In present study we attempted to map the occurrence and pathogenesis of these bacterias in fish raised pools. We took seventy eight samples from eight fish raised pools and studied their hemolytic, enterotoxin production, motility and antibiotic resistance properties of these bacterias. Frequency of bacterias in these pools were: 5.19% Plesiomonas shigelloides, 51.94% vibrio, 9.09% pseudomonas, 23.07% Aeromonas hydrophila, 15.38% A. Soberia, 38.46% A. kavieh, 23.07% A. trota. In entrotoxin production 50% of P. shigelloides and 62.38% of Aeromonases were positive and in hemolytic activity 50% of P. shigelloides and 19.23% of Aeromonases were positive. Most strains were resistant to penicilline; ampiciline and carbenicillinand were sensitive to tetracycline, Toberamycine and cotrimoxasol. In conclusion, our results indicate that P. shigelloides and Aeromonases are able to product a variety of potential virulence markers which may be involved in the pathogenesis of their associated infections and should be given due attention as they might play an important role in the etiology of human gastroenteriticity.

Morteza Sattari; Rasoul Shokri; Hossein Samadi Kafil

2008-01-01

287

Increasing efficiency of the 'Strela' machine with pneumatic motor. [Raise drilling  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Dongiprouglemash investigated factors which influence productivity of the 'Strela' equipment for raise drilling in the Central Donbass. Effects of compressed air pressure used by the pneumatic motors of the 'Strela' machine (nominal pressure 0.35 to 0.4 MPa, actual pressure 0.14 to 0.3 MPa) on productivity and drilling efficiency were analyzed. Increasing air pressure to 0.6 MPa would increase 'Strela' productivity 1.8 to 2.0 times. Effects of mechanical properties of sedimentary rocks and coal on drilling were evaluated. Correlations of coal rank with coal mechanical properties were analyzed. The optimum drilling conditions for selected types of sedimentary rocks and coal are discussed. Recommendations are made for revolution rates and haulage rates. Types of pneumatic motors for the 'Strela' machine are reviewed. Types of cutting tools used by the 'Strela' system are described. Effects of automatic control systems on drilling efficiency, cutting tool wear and energy consumption are discussed. Recommendations are made for increasing efficiency of raise drilling by the 'Strela' drilling equipment.

Zavertnev, V.I.; Lipkovich, V.A.

1986-04-01

288

Frank-ter Haar syndrome associated with sagittal craniosynostosis and raised intracranial pressure  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Frank-ter Haar syndrome is a rare disorder associated with skeletal, cardiac, ocular and craniofacial features including hypertelorism and brachycephaly. The most common underlying genetic defect in Frank-ter Haar syndrome appears to be a mutation in the SH3PXD2B gene on chromosome 5q35.1. Craniosynostosis, or premature fusion of the calvarial sutures, has not previously been described in Frank-ter Haar syndrome. Case presentation We present a family of three affected siblings born to consanguineous parents with clinical features in keeping with a diagnosis of Frank-ter Haar syndrome. All three siblings have a novel mutation caused by the deletion of exon 13 of the SH3PXD2B gene. Two of the three siblings also have non-scaphocephalic sagittal synostosis associated with raised intracranial pressure. Conclusion The clinical features of craniosynostosis and raised intracranial pressure in this family with a confirmed diagnosis of Frank-ter Haar syndrome expand the clinical spectrum of the disease. The abnormal cranial proportions in a mouse model of the disease suggests that the association is not coincidental. The possibility of craniosynostosis should be considered in individuals with a suspected diagnosis of Frank-ter Haar syndrome.

Bendon Charlotte L; Fenwick Aimée L; Hurst Jane A; Nürnberg Gudrun; Nürnberg Peter; Wall Steven A; Wilkie Andrew OM; Johnson David

2012-01-01

289

Characteristics of milk production traits of Balkan goats raised under “low-input” production systems  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In order to analyse dairy production traits (milk yield in full lactation, milk fat content, daily milk yield and length of lactation) of Balkan goats raised under “low-input” production systems, data on 440 lactation records from 118 does raised on 9 farms in south-east part of Serbia were used. General linear model, used for analysing variability of lactation length, was consisting of following fixed effects: farm, year of birth, year of production and number of lactation. Model for milk yield in full lactation, milk fat content and daily milk yield was consisting of farms, year of birth, year of production and number of lactation as fixed effects and length of lactation as covariate. The highest milk yield (392 kg) and the highest milk fat content (3.89 %) were achieved in III lactation. Effects of farm, year of production and number of lactation were very significant sources of variation (P<0.001) for milk yield, daily milk yield and milk fat content, while the year of birth as factor of phenotypic variation in these traits expressed no such consistency. Highly significant sources of variation (P<0.001) for the length of lactation were farm and year of production, while the length of lactation had a significant influence (P<0.001) only for total milk yield variability.

Vladan Bogdanovi?

2010-01-01

290

Options for meeting the ecological Reserve for a raised Clanwilliam Dam  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in english A recent evaluation of the potential raising of Clanwilliam Dam included an assessment of whether the operation of the dam would meet the flow quality and quantity requirements for the protection of the downstream river and its estuary, taking Olifants/Doring River basin-level considerations into account. The implications of meeting the ecological Reserve of the Olifants River downstream of Clanwilliam Dam to Bulshoek Weir, downstream of Bulshoek Weir to the confluence wi (more) th the Doring River, and at the estuary, were assessed in terms of the impact on system yield. Some adjustments were made to the ecological Reserve to maximise the yield from a raised Clanwilliam Dam, in return for protection of the vitally important Doring River. Irrigation releases from Clanwilliam Dam were also restructured so that they met the ecological Reserve requirement for small floods of short duration to promote spawning in Clanwilliam yellowfish (Labeobarbus capensis). The assessments presented demonstrate that small adjustments in the requirements that form the ecological Reserve can greatly enhance the possibility, and reduce the costs, of successful implementation.

Brown, CA; van der Berg, E; Sparks, A; Magoba, RN

2010-07-01

291

Increasing Public Participation through Awareness Raising Activities: A Case Study in Trao Reef Marine Reserve, Vietnam  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In the last few decades, community-based management has evolved to become an effective approach in managing natural resources and solving environmental problems around the world. In this approach, stakeholder participation is considered as a very important factor contributing to the success or failure of the management effort. To promote and enhance stakeholder participation, awareness raising activities could be conducted in various innovative forms. This is clearly illustrated in the case of Trao Reef, a locally-managed marine reserve in central Vietnam. The paper reviews the management approach applied to Trao Reef, focusing on analysis of stakeholder participation. The high level of environmental awareness of the local community contributed to the successful outcome of the project. Many communication activities and awareness raising campaigns were organized within the community to get them involved in all steps of the management process. The project enhanced the marine resources and ecosystem health, and helped to build a more sustainable livelihood and living lifestyle for the local community. Trao Reef has become a role model for effective environmental management that harmonizes the socio-economic benefits of the local community and nature conservation.

Hang Thi Minh Tran; Loke Ming Chou; Hue Thu Nguyen

2012-01-01

292

[Superior vena cava syndrome: cause of secondary raise of intracranial pressure after traumatic brain injury].  

Science.gov (United States)

A 41-year-old male is admitted for cranial trauma, having fallen from his own height. His state of extreme agitation imposes sedation, intubation and mechanical ventilation. A CT-scan reveals acute right hemispheric subdural haematoma, with discrete midline shift, and diffuse cerebral oedema. ICP-monitoring reveals severely increased intracranial pressure, which is responsive to routine medical neuroprotective treatment. Ten days after admission, sedation and neuroprotective treatment is gradually withdrawn. At the end of the second week, a secondary ascent in ICP is observed. The presence of a right subclavian central venous line, in combination with the strong inflammatory response and septic state of the patient, has caused bilateral thrombosis of subclavian and internal jugular veins. This superior vena cava syndrome (SVCS) impedes cerebral venous drainage, thus raising ICP. Within a few days of anticoagulant therapy, SVCS resolved. Impeded cerebral venous drainage is often forgotten or ignored as a cause of secondary elevated ICP. In face of persisting or recurring raised ICP and cerebral oedema, or apparition of communicant hydrocephalus, cerebral venous drainage should be investigated. PMID:18835126

Piteaud, I; Abdennour, L; Icke, C; Stany, I; Lescot, T; Puybasset, L

2008-10-02

293

Does uncontrolled cardiac death for organ donation raise ethical questions? An opinion survey.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Organ donation after uncontrolled cardiac death raises complex ethical issues. We conducted a survey in a large hospital staff population, including caregivers and administrators, to determine their ethical viewpoints regarding organ donation after uncontrolled cardiac death. METHODS: Multicenter observational survey using a questionnaire, including information on the practical modalities of the procedure. Respondents were asked to answer 15 detailed ethical questions corresponding to different ethical issues raised in the literature. Ethical concerns was defined when respondents expressed ethical concerns in their answers to at least three of nine specifically selected ethical questions. RESULTS: One thousand one hundred ninety-six questionnaires were received, and 1057 could be analysed. According to our definition, 573 respondents out of 1057 (54%) had ethical concerns with regard to donation after cardiac death and 484 (46 %) had no ethical concerns. Physicians (55%) and particularly junior intensivists (65%) tended to have more ethical issues than nurses (52%) and hospital managers (37%). Junior intensivists had more ethical issues than senior intensivists (59%), emergency room physicians (46%) and transplant specialists (43%). CONCLUSION: Only 46% of hospital-based caregivers and managers appear to accept easily the legitimacy of organ donation after cardiac death. A significant number of respondents especially intensivists, expressed concerns over the dilemma between the interests of the individual and those of society. These results underline the need to better inform both healthcare professionals and the general population to help to the development of such procedure.

Goudet V; Albouy-Llaty M; Migeot V; Pain B; Dayhot-Fizelier C; Pinsard M; Gil R; Beloucif S; Robert R

2013-09-01

294

Escherichia coli contamination of fish raised in integrated pig-fish aquaculture systems in Vietnam.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Integrated livestock-fish aquaculture utilizes animal excreta and urine as pond fertilizers to enhance growth of plankton and other microorganisms eaten by the fish. In Vietnam, pigs are commonly integrated with fish and horticulture in household-based VAC systems (vuon = garden; ao = pond; chuong = pigsty), but the level of fecal contamination in the fish produced is unknown. This study was carried out to assess the level Escherichia coli contamination of fish meat and gut contents of grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus), silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix), and rohu (Labeo rohita) cultured in randomly selected five VAC ponds (with pig manure) and five non-VAC ponds (without pig manure) at sites in periurban Hanoi, Vietnam. Fish muscle tissue samples contained E. coli at <10 or 320 or 820 CFU/g, regardless of the culture system from which they originated. In contrast, the intestinal contents of fish raised in manure-fed ponds contained E. coli at 4.75, 5.25, and 5.07 log CFU/g for silver carp, grass carp, and rohu, respectively, about 100 times higher than the contamination of fish from the control ponds. The results indicate that muscle tissue of fish raised in VAC systems has a low level of fecal contamination despite high levels of E. coli in their gut. Thus, a critical point to control food safety of such fish is the prevention of fecal cross-contamination during degutting and cleaning of the fish at markets and in the home.

Dang ST; Dalsgaard A

2012-07-01

295

Free radical scavenging potential of in vitro raised and greenhouse acclimatized plants of Artemisia amygdalina.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

AIM: Artemisia amygdalina Decne. (Asteraceae) is a critically endangered and endemic herb of Kashmir Himalayan sub-alpine region and Pakistan. Scientific research throughout the world has evidence to support the tremendous medicinal utility of the genus Artemisia. The natural resources of medicinal plants are being reduced day by day. This study provides the alternative way for medicinal resource utilization and conservation of A. amygdalina. METHODS: In vitro-raised plants and greenhouse acclimatized plants were obtained by culturing wild explants on Murashige and Skoog's medium. Plant extracts were obtained and subjected to different antioxidant assays: DPPH assay, riboflavin photo-oxidation assay, deoxy ribose assay, ferric thiocyanate assay, thiobarbituric acid assay, post mitochondrial supernatant assay and DNA damage on agarose gel. RESULTS: In vitro grown plants, as well as those acclimatized in the greenhouse reveals antioxidant activity against hydroxyl, superoxide, and lipid peroxyl radicals. CONCLUSION: This preliminary study revealed the free radical scavenging potential of tissue culture-raised plant extracts of A. amydalina.

Rasool R; Ganai BA; Akbar S; Kamili AN

2013-07-01

296

Raising the Dead without a Red Sea-Dead Sea project? Hydro-economics and governance  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Seven decades of extractions have dramatically reduced Jordan River flows, lowered the Dead Sea level, opened sink holes, and caused other environmental problems. The fix Jordan, Israel, and the Palestinians propose would build an expensive multipurpose conveyance project from the Red Sea to the Dead Sea that would also generate hydropower and desalinate water. This paper compares the Red-Dead project to alternatives that may also raise the Dead Sea level. Hydro-economic model results for the Jordan-Israel-Palestinian inter-tied water systems show two restoration alternatives are more economically viable than the proposed Red-Dead project. Many decentralized new supply, wastewater reuse, conveyance, conservation, and leak reduction projects and programs in each country can together increase economic benefits and reliably deliver up to 900 MCM yr?1 to the Dead Sea. Similarly, a smaller Red-Dead project that only generates hydropower can deliver large flows to the Dead Sea when the sale price of generated electricity is sufficiently high. However, for all restoration options, net benefits fall and water scarcity rises as flows to the Dead Sea increase. This finding suggests (i) each country has no individual incentive to return water to the Dead Sea, and (ii) outside institutions that seek to raise the Dead must also offer countries direct incentives to deliver water to the Sea besides building the countries new infrastructure.

D. E. Rosenberg

2011-01-01

297

Raising the dead without a Red Sea-Dead Sea canal? Hydro-economics and governance  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Seven decades of extractions have dramatically reduced Jordan River flows, lowered the Dead Sea level, opened sink holes, and caused other environmental problems. The fix Jordan, Israel, and the Palestinians propose would build an expensive multipurpose canal from the Red Sea to the Dead Sea that would also generate hydropower and desalinated water. This paper compares the Red-Dead project to alternatives that may also raise the Dead Sea level. Hydro-economic model results for the Jordan-Israel-Palestinian inter-tied water systems show two restoration alternatives are more economically viable than the proposed Red-Dead project. Many decentralized new supply, wastewater reuse, conveyance, conservation, and leak reduction projects and programs in each country can together increase economic benefits and reliably deliver up to 900 MCM/year to the Dead Sea. Similarly, a smaller Red-Dead project that only generates hydropower can deliver large flows to the Dead Sea when the sale price of generated electricity is sufficiently high. However, for all restoration options, net benefits fall and water scarcity rises as flows to the Dead Sea increase. This finding suggests (i) each country has no individual incentive to return water to the Dead Sea, and (ii) outside institutions that seek to raise the Dead must also offer countries direct incentives to deliver water to the Sea besides building the countries new infrastructure.

D. E. Rosenberg

2010-01-01

298

DEVICE FOR LOWERING OR RAISING PEOPLE AND/OR LOADS OVER GREAT HEIGHTS  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The invention relates to a device for lowering or raising people and/or loads over great heights, in which a rope pulley is rotatably fitted on a base plate via a brake disc. A brake pad is allocated to the brake disc on one side on the base plate and on the other on a pressure plate secured against rotation. Pressure can be applied to the pressure plate by a tension bolt passing through the brake disc bearing and the tension bolt is coupled to the suspension of the device via a power deflection device via which the weight of the person and/or load to be lowered or raised can be converted into a tensile force on the bolt. A concentrically arranged toothed wheel is connected to the brake disc which engages with a gear system also fitted in the base plate via which an additional centrifugal braking device can be actuated. Here, the suspension (16) of the device takes the form of a pull-rod (15), preferably guided to be movable on the base plate (1), the end (19) of which, which is in the device, can pivot on an arm of a bell-crank lever (17), the other arm of which is pivotably connected to the tension bolt (9) and which is fitted to pivot on the base plate (1) in the region of its angle (20).

BLODER Hans

299

Biscuit containing wheat flour, fat, whole milk, salt and a raising agent  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A biscuit containing wheat flour, fat, whole milk, salt and a raising agent has a dough mass sweetened exclusively with honey. The wheat flour is produced from cereal cultivated under controlled biological (organic) conditions. Further ingredients provided are vanilla, especially Bourbon vanilla, and salt, especially sea salt. The raising agent comprises ammonium carbonate. Spices are provided as further ingredients. Butter serves as fat. The wheat flour comprises wholemeal wheat flour. A whole milk powder is provided as whole milk. Further ingredients provided are amaranth flour, especially as amaranth popcorn, nuts in any desired form, muesli, raisins and fruits. The process provides that a dough mass is produced from the basic mixture to which a portion of honey is added for sweetening. A portion of amaranth flour at 3.5% of the weight of dough mass is added to the basic mixture. A portion of 8% amaranth popcorn is added to the dough mass produced with amaranth flour. The dough mass enriched in this manner is stirred for at least 5 minutes. To a dough comprising the basic mixture and amaranth flour are added 2.7% of its weight of sesame flour and whole milk as whole milk powder at 1% of the dough weight. The nuts are chopped to a maximum fragment length of 5 mm and added, at an amount of 13% of the dough mass comprising the basic mixture, simultaneously with the amaranth flour and stirred for at least ten minutes.

300

Raising Climate Finance from International Transport Sectors. Identification and Analysis of Governance Structures  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Market based instruments (MBIs) for maritime transport have the potential to reduce emissions while at the same time raising funds for climate policies in developing countries. GHG emissions from international aviation and maritime transport accounted for approximately 5% of global anthropogenic emissions in 2005 and are rising rapidly. There is a clear need to address these emissions in order not to undermine policies for mitigating land based emissions. Developing countries need financial support to carry out climate policies, both adaptation and mitigation. The UN Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) makes policies by developing countries conditional on climate finance. In the current economic and financial circumstances, there is a need for new sources of finance. The governance of such MBIs should ensure that they are neither an international tax nor require hypothecation of fiscal revenues, while they should provide new and additional finance. MBIs which are in fact an international tax would not be politically feasible, and likewise hypothecation would be opposed by many states. This report finds that an emissions trading scheme (ETS) can satisfy these criteria, provided that: (1) it transfers a share of allowances directly to developing countries in order to ensure there is no net incidence on them; developing countries could auction these allowances in order to raise revenue; (2) it transfers allowances to the Green Climate Fund to support climate policies; auctioning these allowances would provide revenues for the Fund; (3) it transfers allowances to IMO or another organisation in order to finance fuel-efficiency improvements in international transport.

Faber, J. [CE Delft, Delft (Netherlands); Pahuja, N.; Garg, A. [The Energy and Resources Institute TERI, New Delhi (India)

2012-03-15

 
 
 
 
301

Some phenotypic traits of mules raised in Sirnak province of Turkey  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The purpose of this research study is to determine mules raised in province of Sirnakmorphologically. This study was conducted to define body dimensions by analyzing sex and age by comparing with province of Ordu, region of East Anatolian, mean of Turkish, and UK mules. Data were analyzed for ANOVA and Student’s T-Test using the Minitab 16 statistical programme. In this study a total of 38 mules, 18 males and 20 females, were used in three age groups (3-5, 6-8 and 9-18 years). Descriptive statistics of morphologic traits were for withers height 132.7±0.67, height at rump 133.7±0.73, body length 135.1±0.84, heart girth circumference 147.7±0.76, chest depth 60.6±0.34, cannon circumference 16.9±0.16, and head length 56.8±0.26 cm. In this study the distributions of coat colour were for bay colour 47.7%, black 7.9%, mouse gray 5.3%, white 31.6% and chestnut 10.5%. It was observed that growthis nearly complete at 3 years of age and then there was a small difference in body size. The present data showed that mules raised in province of Sirnak were slightly larger in body sizes than UK, East Anatolian, Turkish and Ordu mules.

O. Yilmaz; M. Ertugrul; S. Boztepe

2012-01-01

302

Thermal stress analysis of pipe flange connections with raised-face gasket subjected to heat conduction  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] This paper deals with thermal stress analysis of a pipe flange connection with a raised-face gasket subjected to heat conduction. In the analysis, pipe flange, hubs of the flanges and a raised-face gasket are replaced by finite hollow cylinders. When the inner surface is subjected to heat conduction due to contained fluid and the outer surface are kept at a constant temperature, temperature distribution of the connection is analyzed. Using the temperature distribution, thermoelastic displacement potential is determined. Thermal stresses and displacements are analyzed by using the thermoelastic displacement potential and axisymmetrical theory of elasticity. Experiments are performed. The analytical results are in fairly good agreement with the experimental results concerning the variation of axial bolt force and the axial strain at the hubs of pipe flange. In the numerical calculations, the effects of the ratios of Young's modulus and the gasket thickness between the flanges and the gaskets on the contact stress distribution are examined. As the results, it is seen that the thermal stress at the inner surface increases with a decrease of the ratio of Young's modulus and that it increases with a decrease of the gasket thickness

1996-01-01

303

Potential consequences of raising the Social Security eligibility age on low-income older workers.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

To examine the potential consequences of raising the Social Security retirement age on future cohorts of low-income elders, this study, based on data from the Health and Retirement Study, 1992-1994, identifies factors that may hinder or facilitate continuous employment among older workers born between 1931 and 1941. Specifically, following the analysis of labor-force participation rates and self-reported reasons for non-work, multivariate logistic regression models tested the relationship between individual strengths and constraints, social-structural opportunities and constraints, and economic need variables and the likelihood of work. The findings show that for both men and women, having disabilities was the most significant predictor of non-work. Racial differences, especially in men's labor-force participation rates, appeared to be due in large part to significant racial differences in disability rates. A higher proportion of blacks and Hispanics than whites also reported that they were unemployed. Based on the findings, raising the Social Security eligibility age is likely to result in increased numbers of Disability Insurance (DI) claimants, and the fiscal impact of such an increase needs to be examined. The need to assist unemployed older persons is also discussed.

Choi NG

2000-01-01

304

Influence of raised plastic floors compared with pine shaving litter on environment and Pekin duck condition.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Commercial poultry production management practices have been under increased public scrutiny driven by concerns for food safety and animal welfare. Within the United States, wood shavings and raised plastic floors are common flooring systems used in duck production. It is intuitive that each flooring type would present different management challenges influencing physical characteristics of growing ducks. This study evaluated the relationship between flooring type and duck condition during the winter. Random samples of 20 ducks from 5 predetermined areas (n = 100) were examined in commercial duck houses (n = 9, litter; n = 11, raised plastic slats). Ducks were assessed at 7, 21, and 32 d of age for eye, nostril, and feather cleanliness, feather and foot pad quality, and gait. The data were analyzed to determine the proportion of ducks with a given score. In both housing types, the proportion of 0 scores for foot pad quality improved during the production cycle (P < 0.0001). Feather hygiene declined with age in ducks reared on litter flooring, whereas ducks reared on slatted flooring had cleaner feathers at d 32 (P < 0.011). With the exception of foot pad scores, the majority of ducks had no detectable problems for any single trait. The only main effect due to flooring pertained to feather quality with the proportion of ducks having a 0 or 1 score greater in litter flooring systems than slats (P < 0.05). Overall, the condition of ducks reared, regardless of flooring system, was considered to be good.

Karcher DM; Makagon MM; Fraley GS; Fraley SM; Lilburn MS

2013-03-01

305

Evaluation of the performance of two strains of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis Niloticus) in mixed raising systems  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the productive performance of two strains of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) in mixed raising systems. A total of 3600 fish-larvae species was used, 1800 belonging to Bouaké lineage, and 1800 to Chitralada. The experiment was carried out in three phases; Phase I in an incubator in 18 boxes, in which two treatments (Bouaké and Chitralada) were tested by using nine repetitions; Phases II and III were performed in 18 cement tanks with the same treatments. In phase I, regarding the final weight and gain of weight, Chitralada strain showed the highest final weight values. In phase II, Chitralada showed the highest final weight value when compared with Bouaké, and, considering the gain of weight, Bouaké obtained the best result. In phase III, Chitralada showed better final weight results (104 days of raising), final weight, final length and gain of length/cm (152 days of raising); but, after 279 days of the cultivation, Bouaké showed a higher weight and length gain. These findings showed that Chitralada strain presented the best performance.O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o desempenho produtivo de duas linhagens de tilápia do Nilo (Oreochromis niloticus) em sistemas de cultivo misto. Foram utilizados 3600 alevinos de tilápia, 1800 da linhagem Bouaké e 1800 da Chitralada. O experimento foi conduzido em três fases, a Fase I realizada em estufa em 18 caixas, nas quais foram testados dois tratamentos (Bouaké e Chitralada) e nove repetições; e a Fase II e III realizadas em 18 tanques de alvenaria, com os mesmos tratamentos. Na fase I, a linhagem Chitralada apresentou os maiores valores para peso final e ganho em peso. Na fase II, a Chitralada apresentou o maior valor para peso final em relação à Bouaké, já para o ganho em peso a Bouaké obteve o melhor resultado. Na fase III, a Chitralada apresentou os melhores resultados para peso final (104 dias de cultivo); peso final, comprimento final e ganho em comprimento (152 dias de cultivo) e aos 279 dias de cultivo, o ganho em peso e em comprimento foram maiores para a Bouaké. Estes resultados demonstraram que a linhagem de melhor desempenho foi a Chitralada.

Patrícia Ribeiro Neves; Ricardo Pereira Ribeiro; Lauro Vargas; Maria Raquel Marçal Natali; Káttia Regina Maehana; Nilton Garcia Marengoni

2008-01-01

306

Strained-Si nMOSFET with a raised source/drain structure  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this paper, electrical characteristics for strained-Si n-channel metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect-transistors (nMOSFETs) combining raised source/drain (RSD) structure and cobalt silicide have been studied using the devices with various gate pattern areas (W × L). A strained-Si device with RSD structure provides an additional driving current enhancement (up to 12%) for large-area devices (W × L = 10 × 10 µm2) compared to a strained-Si device without RSD. Further improvement of 24% for device areas down to W × L = 0.15 × 0.15 µm2 indicates that obvious pattern effects exist in strained-Si without RSD case, which is mainly due to the formation of silicide agglomeration at the source/drain (S/D) region and is responsible for the increased S/D resistance

2009-01-01

307

A case of renal oxalosis in a 3-month-old cat raised under controlled conditions.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The kidneys of a 3-month-old female cat were examined. The cat which had been raised under controlled conditions with no history of any poisoning showed progressive weight loss with increases in blood BUN and creatinine concentrations. At necropsy, both kidneys were firm in consistency with formation of focal scars. Histopathologically, widespread deposition of crystals was observed in the renal tubules (in both dilated lumina and degenerative epithelia) accompanying mild interstitial fibrosis with lymphocyte infiltration. The crystals were colorless or basophilic on the hematoxilin and eosin-stained section and could be visualized with polarized light as doubly fractile crystals. The crystals were identified as calcium oxalate crystals by histochemical examinations using von Kossa stain and alizarin red S stain under different conditions and by ultrastructural examination. Judging from the above-mentioned findings, the present renal lesion detected in an infant cat was diagnosed as renal oxalosis which was suspected to be hereditary in nature.

Suzuki T; Uetsuka K; Doi K; Nunoya T

2012-03-01

308

Raising Awareness about Water Issues: The Role of Water Symbolism and Proverbs  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Sustainable water management is one of the global grand challenges of our time. Tackling this challenge through corrective actions would require the participation of the general public, a public with sound awareness of the challenge and commitment. One such awareness raising intervention could be through the use of water symbolism and proverbs, targeted to particular society. Water has the different symbolism and levels of importance to people, depending of their personal characteristics and socio-demographic factors (e.g. gender, age, occupation, residence). Similarly, water proverbs can also demonstrate attitudes towards water among communities, ethnic groups and whole nations. Such meanings and symbolism could help determine attitude and be a powerful tool towards education. In this context, we describe and propose a psychological Health Belief Model (HBM) as a way to explain behaviour and stimulate sustainable water management practice.

Joško Sindik; Yoseph Negusse Araya

2013-01-01

309

Raising the Higgs mass with Yukawa couplings for isotriplets in vectorlike extensions of minimal supersymmetry  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Extra vectorlike matter with both electroweak-singlet masses and large Yukawa couplings can significantly raise the lightest Higgs boson mass in supersymmetry through radiative corrections. I consider models of this type that involve a large Yukawa coupling between weak isotriplet and isodoublet chiral supermultiplets. The particle content can be completed to provide perturbative gauge coupling unification, in several different ways. The impact on precision electroweak observables is shown to be acceptably small, even if the new particles are as light as the current experimental bounds of order 100 GeV. I study the corrections to the lightest Higgs boson mass, and discuss the general features of the collider signatures for the new fermions in these models.

2010-09-01

310

Hepatitis B: raising awareness in the South Asian community in Preston.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The Viral Hepatitis Nursing Team from Lancashire Care Foundation Trust implemented a project raising awareness on Hepatitis B (HBV), offering detailed risk assessments and diagnostic testing to the south Asian community in Preston using local mosques. Post questionnaires were given to the participants to evaluate the effectiveness of the intervention. Results: In total 156 participants, all offered HBV testing and HBV vaccinations. 2 HBV surface antigen positive (HBsAg) positives, 10 past infection (HBsAg negative, antiHBC positive), 11 contacts followed up for testing and vaccinations. In conclusion, the initiative endeavours to increase the awareness of HBV amongst the population profile in order to improve the health of the South Asian community in the wider population as a direct result.

Landon C; Maru A

2013-01-01

311

The mortality consequences of raising the speed limit to 65 mph on rural interstates.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

As of April 1987, states were permitted to raise the speed limit on rural interstates to 65 mph without incurring federal sanctions; 38 states elected to do so in 1987. Fatality data for the months when the new limit was in effect in 1987 were compared with fatalities in the same months of 1982-86 on rural interstates and other rural roads. Fatalities on rural interstates in the states with increased speed limits in 1987 were conservatively estimated to be 15 percent higher than they would have been if the states had retained the 55 mph limit (95% CI = 6, 24). Among states that retained the 55 mph limit, fatalities on rural interstates were 6 percent lower than expected (95% CI = -23, 13).

Baum HM; Lund AK; Wells JK

1989-10-01

312

Most frequent nematode parasites of artificially raised pheasants (Phasianus colchicus L) and measures for their control  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Helminthoses have an important role in the pathology of artificially raised game pheasants. During the period 1997-2002. we examined a total of 1893 pheasant poults aged from 4 to 14 weeks and 1432 adult birds at several pheasanteries in Serbia. The following nematode species were found: Syngamus trachea, Ascaridia galli, A. columbae, Heterakis gallinarum, H. isolonche Capillaria gallinae (sin. C. caudinflata), C. columbae (sin. C. obsignata) and C. phasianis. The intensity of infection in total was not high, except for infection with ascaridata and gapeworms, and depended of age of the examined birds. Consisting of anthelmintic drugs mixed with meal gave the most favourable results in therapy on rhe medicated food.

Pavlovi? Ivan; Jaki?-Dimi? Dobrila; Kuliši? Zoran; Florestean Iulia

2003-01-01

313

Raising the Prestige of Public Engagement within the Planetary Science Community in Europe  

Science.gov (United States)

We describe the outreach programme of the Europlanet Research Infrastructure (RI), a four-year project funded by the European Union under Framework 7 and designed to maximise planetary science output in Europe. Outreach is a key activity within Europlanet RI and we have put in place a programme to build channels of communication between the planetary science community, the public and the media. One of the major challenges that we have identified is the low value that some parts of the research community place on outreach activities. We describe how we hope to change attitudes and raise the prestige of public engagement in planetary science by establishing an annual prize and a funding scheme. Both schemes are now in their second year, with the third round due to be announced at the EPSC-DPS Joint Meeting in October 2011.

Heward, A.; Fouchet, T.

2011-07-01

314

Raised Intraocular Pressure as a Potential Risk Factor for Visual Loss in Leber Hereditary Optic Neuropathy  

Science.gov (United States)

Leber Hereditary Optic Neuropathy (LHON) is an important cause of inherited mitochondrial blindness among young adults. The majority of patients carry one of three mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) point mutations: m.3460G>A, m.11778G>A and m.14484T>C, all of which affect critical complex I subunits of the mitochondrial respiratory chain. LHON is characterised by marked incomplete penetrance, clearly implying that the mtDNA mutation is insufficient on its own to trigger retinal ganglion cell dysfunction and visual loss. In this case series of three affected patients harbouring the m.11778G>A mutation, we provide evidence suggesting that raised intraocular pressure could be a risk factor triggering visual loss in at-risk LHON carriers.

Thouin, Anais; Griffiths, Philip G.; Hudson, Gavin; Chinnery, Patrick F.; Yu-Wai-Man, Patrick

2013-01-01

315

Removal of Cu and Zn from swine raising wastewater using organic filters.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Rice husks, coffee bean skins, sugar cane bagasse, maize cobs, saw dust and fine charcoal dust were evaluated as filters for the removal of heavy metals (Cu and Zn) from the waste water of swine raising installations. The specific mass, pH and the sum of bases and removable acids were determined to characterize each of the filter materials. Each filtering material was placed in a 100 mm diameter, 600 mm long, PVC column to a height of 500 mm under 12,500 N m(-2) of compression. Chemical and physical analyses were determined on effluent samples collected for each 1.5 l up to a total of 15 l. The organic materials reduced the concentration of sediment solids (> 90%), total solids (up to 33%) and Cu (up to 43.6%) of the inffluent but had little or no effect on Zn concentration.

de Matos AT; Brandão VS; Neves JC; Martinez MA

2003-02-01

316

Raising energy efficiency and cutting greenhouse gas emissions : an analysis of publicly funded petroleum research  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

From the preface: This brochure is based on an analysis study that ascertained that since 2004 the Research Council's PETROMAKS and DEMO 2000 programmes have allocated funding to more than 80 projects carried out by the research community and private industry relating to climate challenges. Once these projects have been concluded, they will have received a total of over half a billion kroner in public funding. There is no doubt that many of the measures recommended by these projects will have positive impacts on the environment. Many of these research findings can contribute to making processes more energy efficient or to directly reducing emissions of greenhouse gases. The brochure presents a selection of these projects. A complete list of projects under the PETROMAKS and DEMO 2000 programmes which address raising energy efficiency may be found at the end of the brochure.(eb)

NONE

2012-11-01

317

Development of decontamination technologies for Tokai Power Station's Steam Raising Units (SRU)  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Steam Raising Units (SRU) are identified as the largest metallic radioactive waste appearing from the ongoing decommissioning campaign of Tokai Power Station. Considering its low activity, it is believed that a practical way to minimize the disposal cost should be decontamination together with other contaminated metallic components. To find a reasonable and effective decontamination method for SRU, research and development efforts were made by Japan Atomic Power Company (JAPC) and Nuclear Power Engineering Corporation (NUPEC). Kawasaki Heavy Industries Ltd. (KHI), the manufacturer of SRU, took an important role in these R and D activities, applying its rich store of knowledge from experiences of maintenance, engineering abilities, and so on. Here we present the detail of these R and D activities and our own efforts. (author)

Misumi, Masahiro; Nishizaki, Tadashi; Matsumoto, Takeshi; Yamazaki, Seiichiro [Kawasaki Heavy Industries, Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Oguri, Daiichiro [Nuclear Power Engineering Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

2003-03-01

318

Raising awareness of amphibian Chytridiomycosis will not alienate ecotourists visiting Madagascar.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Chytridiomycosis (Bd) is contributing to amphibian extinctions worldwide but has so far not been detected in Madagascar. The high likelihood for Bd to spread to the island and efface this amphibian diversity and endemism hotspot requires respective conservation policies to be developed. Bd could be introduced by the large number of tourists that visit protected areas; therefore, increasing awareness among tourists and encouraging them to participate in safety measures should be a priority conservation action. However, concerns have been raised that tourists would not be able to distinguish between an amphibian disease harmless to humans and emerging diseases that would imply a danger for human health, invoking a negative image of Madagascar as an ecotourism destination. We evaluated whether informing tourists about this infectious animal disease would cause health scare and diminish trip satisfaction. Based on 659 respondents we found that most ecotourists favored to be informed about Bd and were proactive about participating in prevention measures, refuting previous concerns.

Wollenberg KC; Jenkins RK; Randrianavelona R; Ralisata M; Rampilamanana R; Ramanandraibe A; Ravoahangimalala OR; Vences M

2010-06-01

319

PAPR Reduction Technique for LTE SC-FDMA Systems Using Root-Raised Cosine Filter  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Recently, mobile radio communications have developed rapidly due to the endless demand for broadband multimedia access and wireless connection anywhere, and any time. With the emergence of diverse fourth generation (4G) enabling technologies, signal processing has become ever increasingly important for small power, small chip resources, and efficient physical implementations of potential multimedia wireless communication systems. In this paper, we analytically derive the time and frequency domain single carrier-frequency division multiplexing (SC-FDMA) signals. Simulation results show that the SC-FDMA sub-carrier mapping scheme has a significantly lower peak-to average power ratio (PAPR) compared to orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDMA). In addition, the interleave FDMA (IFDMA) sub-carrier mapping scheme with root raised cosine filter reduced PAPR significantly than localized FDMA (LFDMA) and distributed (DFDMA) subcarrier mapping scheme. As a results, improves the mean power output from a battery driven terminal equipment and power amplifier efficiency.

Md. Masud Rana; Jinsang Kim; Won-Kyung Cho

2010-01-01

320

Raised intraocular pressure as a potential risk factor for visual loss in leber hereditary optic neuropathy.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Leber Hereditary Optic Neuropathy (LHON) is an important cause of inherited mitochondrial blindness among young adults. The majority of patients carry one of three mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) point mutations: m.3460G>A, m.11778G>A and m.14484T>C, all of which affect critical complex I subunits of the mitochondrial respiratory chain. LHON is characterised by marked incomplete penetrance, clearly implying that the mtDNA mutation is insufficient on its own to trigger retinal ganglion cell dysfunction and visual loss. In this case series of three affected patients harbouring the m.11778G>A mutation, we provide evidence suggesting that raised intraocular pressure could be a risk factor triggering visual loss in at-risk LHON carriers.

Thouin A; Griffiths PG; Hudson G; Chinnery PF; Yu-Wai-Man P

2013-01-01

 
 
 
 
321

Bog discharge from different viewpoints: comparison of Ingram's theory with observations from an Estonian raised bog  

Science.gov (United States)

Raised bogs are typically dome shaped and have a groundwater level located close to the soil surface. Besides their typical dome shape, these peatlands are often characterized by a pronounced surface topography consisting of pools, wet depressions (hollows), stretches of Sphagnum species (lawns), drier mounds (hummocks) and higher drier areas with terrestrial vegetation (ridges). These peat bodies drain laterally by gravity to adjacent areas with lower groundwater levels. The integrity of these bogs is only ascertained when water is stored in the peat body in periods of precipitation deficit and efficiently removed in wet periods. This is realized by the fact that the bog's top layer, often called acrotelm, has a variable hydraulic conductivity. In response to precipitation its hydraulic conductivity increases, whereas, under evaporative demand the water table lowers and therefore also the hydraulic conductivity decreases. Ingram proposed a model based on the Dupuit-Forchheimer approximation for Darcy's law that assumes vertical flow is negligible, and the slope of the water table is equal to the hydraulic gradient. U- Hm2- K = L2 (1) where U is net recharge (P-ET), K is horizontal hydraulic conductivity, Hm is hydraulic head above a flat bottom at the centre of the bog, L is half the width of the bog along the cross section. This model incorporates the assumption that all net rainfall reaching the water table will be discharged to the stream. Ingram's model does not consider local heterogeneities in surface topography, like pool-ridge patterns. We hypothesize that under drier conditions it is likely that pool-ridge patterning will inhibit water from flowing along the surface gradient. Under wet conditions, however, pools can become connected and water can move through the upper highly permeable layer of ridges. In this study, we investigated the influence of ridge-pool patterning on the horizontal water flow through a raised bog and compared it with Ingram's approach. Our study site was Mannikjarve, a raised bog located centrally in Estonia and part of the larger Endla Nature Reserve. The size of the bog is approximately 2 km2. Mannikjarve is characterized by a surface pattern of different microtopes consisting of ridge-pool, hollow-ridge, hummock-hollow, Sphagnum lawn, and margin forest. We created a flow-net based on the raised bogs surface elevation. This flow-net defines the direction of lateral flow in the acrotelm. Based on the flow-net we divided the bog into sub-catchments representing the area contributing to discharge at the outlets of the bog. The measured discharge was used in a double mass analysis to calculate discharge ratio's. We assume that changes in discharge ratio's can be relate to changes in contributing area as a result of variable water flow paths. Furthermore, we compared the measured discharges with calculated discharge according to Ingram's model. Based on several reasonable estimates for input parameters, the observed discharges cannot be reproduced with the Ingram model. Furthermore, discharge ratio's between different sub-catchments within the peatland appear to be not constant over time, thus suggesting a shift in water divides that depends on atmospheric events.

Oosterwoud, Marieke; van der Ploeg, Martine; van der Zee, Sjoerd

2013-04-01

322

Seroepidemiological survey on Japanese encephalitis virus in swine raising on the southern border of Thailand  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available From February to March 1999, a seroepidemiological survey on Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) was carried out. One thousand and thirteen serum samples of swine were collected from 37 farms in 4 provinces at the southern border of Thailand; Songkhla, Yala, Narathiwat and Satun. Japanese encephalitis virus antibody was measured using microtiter hemagglutination inhibition (HI) test. The results indicated that 95.12 - 99.42% of the breeder pigs had JE-HI antibodies at > 1:40 compared with 89.08% of the gilts. The percentages of seropositive animals were 49.75%, 50.65% and 100% in fattening pigs, weaning and suckling piglets, respectively. The study demonstrated a high exposure rate of JEV infection among swine population raised on the southern border of Thailand.

Antarasena, C.; Prommuang, P.; Prommuang, P.; Promkuntod, N.

2002-01-01

323

Blowers, shut-down rods, steam-raising units (of the AVR)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

It is worth noting the stable behaviour of the reactor in collaboration with the three main components of the steam-raising units, shut-down rods and blowers. Live steam temperature control with injection and post-control of the main feed water quantity is not used. The steam temperature is practically never kept constant by changing the quantity of feedwater, but is kept constant by slight movements of the shut-down rods several times a day according to reactivity changes in the core. The reactor output control by automatic adjustment of the blower speed is also not necessary. Adjustment of the blower speed is not necessary at constant demanded load. (orig.).

1989-01-01

324

Growth and Survival of Clarias gariepinus Fry Raised on Plankton from Cow Dung and Poultry Manure  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The effect of zooplankton raised from cow dung and poultry dropping on the growth and survival or Clarias gariepinus fry was investigated weighing 0.01 g ± and length ± 7.00 mm. Among the treatments, poultry manure source of zooplankton used for feeding fry six times daily had the highest specific growth rate 7.45, mean percentage body weight gain 45% and survival rate 53.33%. In terms of mean length gain, treatment fed nine times daily had the highest 2.88 mm. The specific growth rate and mean length gained were significant (p0.05). The survival rate for the period were found to be the same for treatments where fry were fed nine times daily with different food sources, also applicable to treatment fed thrice daily with poultry manure as the source.

J.B. Ogunremi; S.O. Obasa

2009-01-01

325

Mama `poma´, dad `apple´: Raising a Child with Catalan in Australia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The decision to speak Catalan to my daughter came naturally to me. Howelse would I tell a story, sing a lullaby or make her laugh but in thelanguage I was told stories, sung lullabies to and made to laugh since I wasa new-born! However, whereas the choice to speak one’s mother tongue toyour children is not questioned anymore in Spain, making this same choicewhen you live elsewhere seems to raise a lot of eyebrows. In this article Iwill reflect, from my own experience, on speaking a language of Spainother than Spanish in Australia. Catalan is one of 300 communitylanguages in Australia, and it’s spoken by a small and ageing population.

Victòria Gras

2007-01-01

326

Raising money with tax incentives: an overview of how U.S. tax credits are marketed  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This article outlines a method for using certain U.S. income tax credits to raise investment capital. With proper structuring, these tax credits can essentially be ''sold'' to outside investors. A project which may not have sufficient income to take advantage of tax benefits, such as the 29 alternative fuel credit, may sell an interest in the project to commercial investors who can use tax credits. The investors provide cash for the project in return for the tax credits, as well as a portion of the income generated by the project. This article outlines how this type of arrangement can be structured and which tax credits are available for ''sale''. It also identifies possible sources of investment money, issues that an investor will likely consider before investing in such a project, and the potential pitfalls of such a project. (author)

1997-01-01

327

Importance of the horse and financial impact of equine trypanosomiasis on cattle raising in Venezuela.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In Venezuela, horses are indispensable for extensive cattle raising, and extensive cattle raising prevails in all regions. This determines the numerical relationship between horses and cattle (r?=?0.93) to be relatively constant nationwide. At regional level, the average extension of cattle ranches varies greatly. However, in relation to the area covered by pastures, the numbers of horses (r?=?0.95) and cattle (r?=?0.93) are relatively uniform nationwide. Water buffalo occupy small fractions of the territory; therefore, their numbers are related to the area of pastures less strongly (r?=?0.56). There is no information on the numerical relationship between the numbers of horses and water buffalo. In the Llanos region of the country, equine trypanosomiasis is responsible for a high mortality in horses, causing considerable financial losses to cattle ranches. So far, such losses have not been assessed. For this region, in 2008, it can be calculated that: (1) with no treatment, losses owing to horse mortality caused by this hemoparasitosis would have amounted to US$7,486,000; (2) the diagnosis and treatment of affected horses would have required an investment of US$805,000; and (3) in terms of horses saved, this investment would have resulted in benefit of US$6,232,000. Therefore, for every monetary unit invested, there would be a benefit 7.75 times greater, this ratio being applicable to any year and all regions of the country. It follows that the profitability of investing in the diagnosis and treatment of equine trypanosomiasis is guaranteed.

Moreno SA; Concepción JL; Nava M; Molinari J

2013-05-01

328

Mutagenic Potential and Nutritive Quality of Turnip Plants Raised over Chromium Amended Soils  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Use of waste water for irrigation has lead to an increase in the chromium content of agricultural soils in many areas and the plants grown over these soils are known to accumulate this heavy metal in their parts, thus paving way for its entry into the food chain. The present study aims at assessment of mutagenicity of turnip plants raised over soils amended with chromium as well as to study the effect of this heavy metal in soil on various biochemical constituents of this important food crop. Turnip plants were raised from seeds in pots filled with soils amended with chromium. Potassium dichromate was used as the source of chromium and final concentrations taken in pots were 1, 10, 50 and 100 ?gCr g-1 dry weight of the soil. The plants were uprooted on reaching edible stage and evaluated for their food quality. The chromium uptake by plants were found to increase with the chromium added to the soil and this was observed to have an adverse effect on the vitamin A, C and fibre content, the content of total soluble proteins and the carbohydrates was however, observed to be higher in roots of plants from chromium amended soils as compared to the control plants. The mutagenic potential of the water extracts of roots of turnip plants was tested using Ames assay on TA98 and TA100 strains of Salmonella typhimurium (Loeffler, 1892) with some modifications. The number of revertant colonies formed in spots containing test extracts bore a direct relationship with the chromium in the soil as well as that accumulated by the plants. The present study thus showed that the turnip plants harvested from chromium rich soils showed a decrease in the contents of vitamins and fibre and there is also possibility of such crops being mutagenic to the consumer.

A. Gill; M.I.S. Saggoo

2010-01-01

329

Alterations in Neural Processing and Psychopathology in Children Raised in Institutions  

Science.gov (United States)

Context Children raised in institutional settings often experience severe deprivation in social, emotional, and cognitive stimulation. Although this deprivation is likely to disrupt brain development in ways that increase risk for psychopathology, neurodevelopmental mechanisms linking adverse early environments to psychopathology remain poorly understood. Objective To examine whether abnormalities in the neural processing of facial and emotional stimuli are related to the high rates of psychopathology observed among institutionally reared children. Design, Setting, and Participants Data were drawn from the Bucharest Early Intervention Project, a cohort of children raised in institutions in Romania and an age-matched sample of community control subjects. At entry to the study (mean age=22 months), event-related potentials (ERPs) were used to measure neural processing in two tasks: familiar and unfamiliar faces (n=114), and facial displays of emotion (n=74). Main Outcome Measure Psychiatric symptoms were assessed using the Preschool Age Psychiatric Assessment (PAPA) at 54 months. Results As previously reported, institutionally-reared children had elevated symptoms of attention deficit/hyperactivity (ADHD), anxiety, depression, and disruptive behavior compared to control children and peak amplitudes of the P100 and P700 in response to facial stimuli were blunted among institutionalized children compared to community children in both tasks. Current analyses reveal that children with reduced P100 and P700 amplitudes in response to facial stimuli exhibited higher levels of ADHD and anxiety symptoms. Peak amplitude of the P700 in response to facial stimuli significantly mediated the association between institutional rearing and ADHD symptoms at 54 months. Conclusion Exposure to institutional rearing disrupts the P700, conferring risk for the onset of psychopathology. The high levels of ADHD symptoms among children exposed to early-life deprivation may be attributable, in part, to abnormal patterns of neurodevelopment generated by these adverse rearing environments.

Slopen, Natalie; McLaughlin, Katie A.; Fox, Nathan A.; Zeanah, Charles H.; Nelson, Charles A.

2012-01-01

330

Antibodies raised against hemolymph of Anopheles culicifacies reduce the fecundity and malaria parasite development  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background & objectives: Several studies have been made to study the effect of antisera raisedagainst different tissues (hemolymh, ovary, midgut and salivary glands) on the fecundity andmalaria parasite development in the different species of mosquitoes but there are no reports on theantisera raised against the hemolymph of Anopheles culicifacies, the principal malaria vector inIndia accounting for 65% of malaria cases. Hence, an attempt was made to study the same andevaluate its impact on malaria parasite development.Methods: Polyclonal and multifactorial antibodies were produced in rabbits against heterogenousmixture of hemolymph proteins. Antibodies against hemolymph proteins were screened for theirpotential to influence reproductive performance of mosquitoes. Antibody titer in rabbit serum wasdetermined by ELISA and putative candidate antigens were identified in the hemolymph of An.culicifacies by western blotting. Cross reactivity amongst various tissues vis-a-vis hemolymphprotein was also identified. In addition, a significant reduction in oocyst development was alsoobserved in An. culicifacies mosquitoes that ingested antihemolymph antibodies along withPlasmodium vivax.Results: The maximum reduction in fecundity (57%) was observed during fourth week, after thelast booster and number of oocyts per infected mosquito reduced by 73.35% in the group ofmosquitoes that ingested antihemolymph antibodies along with the infected blood meal respectively.However, the ingestion of antibodies against hemolymph proteins did not have significant influenceon hatchability. Antisera raised against hemolymph proteins of An. culicifacies recognized 11polypeptides by western blotting.Interpretation & conclusion: During the present study, 11 putative candidate antigens were identifiedin the hemolymph of An. culicifacies, against which antibodies produced significantly reduced thefecundity by 57%. In addition, a significant reduction in oocyst development was also observed inAn. culicifacies that ingested antihemolymph antibodies along with P.vivax.

Amrita Kumari; S.K. Gakhar; Vikas Hooda

2009-01-01

331

Petrology and organic geochemistry of peat samples from a raised bog in Kalimantan (Borneo)  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Two peat cores, from the margin and centre of a tropical raised bog from Sebangau River near Palangkaraya in Kalimantan, Indonesia, were investigated to illustrate the changes during peatification using coal petrographic and organic geochemical techniques. These methods included a maceral analysis on polished peat blocks under reflected white and blue light excitation using the brown coal maceral nomenclature. Soxhlet extraction was carried out and an estimate of the humic composition was undertaken on the residues. GC and GC-MS analysis of the alkane and aromatic fractions were also made to identify biomarkers present in the peat. Results of this study show that peats from the margin of the raised bog were more decomposed than peats from the centre. Tissue content, extract yield and alkaline insoluble/acid soluble humic acid fraction support these results. Not only were there differences between the two locations of the peat cores, but also differences arose with respect to depth in both cores: the basal peats were more decomposoed than the peats from the upper layers. This was a result of their differing environments of deposition. The biomarker composition of the alkane fraction included long chain n-alkanes from n-C[sub 23] to n-C[sub 35], with an odd over even predominance, and interestingly n-alkanes from n-C[sub 36] to n-C[sub 40] with an even over odd predominance peaking at n-C[sub 38]. Pentacyclic triterpenoids were mainly represented by 17[alpha], 21[beta] (H)-homohopane and hop-17 (21)-ene. Biomarkers in the aromatic fraction included polyaromatic triterpenoids derived from [alpha]- and [beta]- amyrin. 45 refs., 8 figs., 6 tabs.

Dehmer, J. (Lehrstuhl fuer Erdoel und Kohle, Aachen (Germany))

1993-04-01

332

Dilated cardiomyopathy in young adult Africans: a sequel to infections?  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Over a period of 6 years, only twelve cases of dilated cardiomyopathy were clinically diagnosed in Nigerians between the ages of 11-30 years at the University College Hospital, Ibadan, Nigeria. Eleven presented with heart failure, while the twelfth patient presented with a cerebrovascular accident. Two other patients also had a cerebrovascular accident. A history of febrile illness was obtained in seven, but in only three was fever unresponsive to antimalarials, documented on admission. Antistreptolysin-O titre was normal and erythrocyte sedimentation rates elevated in each of the patients. Leucocytosis was present in six, three had a four-fold rise or fall in antibody titres against Coxsackie-B viruses and one, a four-fold rise or fall against Toxoplasma gondii. Histological evidences of myopericarditis were found in three of the six patients who died. It is concluded that dilated cardiomyopathy is rare in young adult Nigerians, and that constitutional upset is common, as in children, but prognosis is poorer. Infections by Coxsackie-B viruses, T. gondii and possibly other viruses appear to be of major aetiological factors

Falase AO; Sekoni GA; Adenle AD

1982-03-01

333

Dilated cardiomyopathy in young adult Africans: a sequel to infections?  

Science.gov (United States)

Over a period of 6 years, only twelve cases of dilated cardiomyopathy were clinically diagnosed in Nigerians between the ages of 11-30 years at the University College Hospital, Ibadan, Nigeria. Eleven presented with heart failure, while the twelfth patient presented with a cerebrovascular accident. Two other patients also had a cerebrovascular accident. A history of febrile illness was obtained in seven, but in only three was fever unresponsive to antimalarials, documented on admission. Antistreptolysin-O titre was normal and erythrocyte sedimentation rates elevated in each of the patients. Leucocytosis was present in six, three had a four-fold rise or fall in antibody titres against Coxsackie-B viruses and one, a four-fold rise or fall against Toxoplasma gondii. Histological evidences of myopericarditis were found in three of the six patients who died. It is concluded that dilated cardiomyopathy is rare in young adult Nigerians, and that constitutional upset is common, as in children, but prognosis is poorer. Infections by Coxsackie-B viruses, T. gondii and possibly other viruses appear to be of major aetiological factors PMID:6291352

Falase, A O; Sekoni, G A; Adenle, A D

1982-03-01

334

Puberty and sexual maturity in Anglo-Nubian male goats raised in semi-intensive system  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in english The objective of this study was to characterize the sexual development in Anglo-Nubian male goats raised in semi-intensive system. Eight animals were monitored every fifteen days, from the 12th to the 44th week for age at penis detachment, live weight, scrotal circumference, seminal parameters (volume, aspect, concentration, wave motion, progressive individual motility, vigor and spermatic abnormalities) and serum testosterone levels. Serum testosterone levels were determ (more) ined in blood samples collected at the 20th, 28th and 38th weeks of age. Penis detachment occurred at 102.9 ± 15.4 days of age. Live weight and scrotal circumference at 20th and 44th weeks of age ranged from 25.9 ± 3.5 to 44.7 ± 4.7 kg and from 21.2 ± 1.6 cm to 26.0 ± 1.5 cm, respectively. The ejaculate volume ranged from 0.38 ± 0.05 to 0.96 ± 0.04 mL, concentration ranged from 1.33 ± 0.64 to 3.54 ± 0.14.10(9) mL-1 and the progressive individual motility varied from 48.0 ± 10.52% to 82.0 ± 3.74%, at the same age. The number of defective spermatozoa (major and minor) was 32.2 ± 5.8% vs. 8.80 ± 2.9% at the 20th and the 44th week of age, respectively. Serum testosterone level was 2.70 ± 1.40 ng.mL-1 at the 20th week, 8.50 ± 4.66 ng.mL-1 at the 28th week and 2.21 ± 2.28 ng.mL-1 at the 38th week of age. Age showed a correlation with live weight, scrotal circumference, and all the qualitative parameters of semen except for volume, with all other qualitative parameters of semen, and the correlation among sperm abnormalities and the other traits was negative. Serum testosterone levels and andrological parameters of Anglo-Nubian goats raised in semi-intensive system are closely related to age. In those animals, puberty is reached at the 20th week and sexual maturity is reached at the 38th week of age.

Souza, Luiz Eduardo Barreto de; Cruz, Jurandir Ferreira da; Teixeira Neto, Milton Rezende; Nunes, Rita de Cássia Santos; Cruz, Maria Helena Coelho

2011-07-01

335

Legal aspects of the risks raised by nanotechnologies in the field of medicine.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The major breakthroughs achieved in nanotechnologies open new avenues in the field of healthcare--aid to diagnosis, upgrading medical treatment efficacy, development of regenerative medicine--but they are also associated with risks, hence the increasing need of legislation. So far very little research work has been conducted on this technology whose applications are still limited and whose potential hazards are not yet clearly apprehended. The more and more frequent uses of nanoparticles in medical imaging and in current research projects dealing with tissue engineering or RFID raises the following question: is the current legislative framework relevant in light of the specificities of nano-objects? The challenge is twofold: the legal approach must encompass the nanometric element itself as a "legal object" but it must include the use of nanotechnologies and their final aims. There is still some degree of uncertainty concerning the innocuity of nanoparticles so that the use of nanoelements in aid to medical diagnosis and in clinical trials must take into account and anticipate the potential harmful effects on patients and on biomedical research teams. But due to the fact that a clear understanding of nanoparticles as specific objects with new features is still missing, the existing regulations on chemical substances, medicinal products, medical devices or cosmetics do not seem to be appropriate. So considering nanoparticles as "singular" legal objects is a prerequisite requiring an approach based on the precautionary principle. Misusing nanotechnologies in the medical field is also a cause for great concern. Threats on individual freedom and on private life as well as on human identity are real and they raise recurring questions. The possible deviations in the use of these techniques, the temptations to "trespass the limits" are also common to info technologies and to biotechnologies but the threats triggered by the nanotechnologies are enhanced by the possibilities offered by the nanometric size and the expected convergence of these different technologies. One should refer to leading guiding principles in order to solve the future conflicts between the different sets of values, especially in the medical field by always remembering the Hippocratic oath "primum non nocere, deinde curare"

Poirot-Mazères I

2011-03-01

336

ENERGY EFFICIENT SYSTEM FOR RAISING/LOWERING PLANT CULTIVATION BOXES, ENERGY EFFICIENT METHOD FOR RAISING/LOWERING PLANT CULTIVATION BOXES, ENERGY EFFICIENT DEVICE FOR DOMESTIC PLANT CULTIVATION AND ENERGY EFFICIENT FACILITY FOR PLANT CULTIVATION  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A technique for cultivating plants which involves cultivation boxes provided vertically over multiple levels is intended to reduce power consumption, and enable safe planting, harvesting and the like. An energy efficient system for raising/lowering plant cultivation boxes comprises cultivation boxes (2) provided vertically over multiple levels, a cultivation box raising/lowering coupling device (1), and a cultivation light source (20) which can control the turning on of lights according to the raising/lowering of the cultivation boxes in a vertical direction. The vertical interval between cultivation boxes can be increased or decreased using the cultivation box raising/lowering coupling device, and the cultivation boxes can be removed one stage at a time. Further disclosed is an energy efficient facility for plant cultivation which uses the energy efficient system for raising/lowering plant cultivation boxes and which is equipped with a photovoltaic power generation system, a wind power generation system, a hydroelectric power generation system, and a waste heat power generation system.

MARUMOTO SEIICHI; SAKURAI HIDEO

337

Ligands Raise the Constraint That Limits Constitutive Activation in G Protein-coupled Opioid Receptors.  

Science.gov (United States)

Using a cell-free bioluminescence resonance energy transfer strategy we compared the levels of spontaneous and ligand-induced receptor-G protein coupling in ? (DOP) and ? (MOP) opioid receptors. In this assay GDP can suppress spontaneous coupling, thus allowing its quantification. The level of constitutive activity was 4-5 times greater at the DOP than at the MOP receptor. A series of opioid analogues with a common peptidomimetic scaffold displayed remarkable inversions of efficacy in the two receptors. Agonists that enhanced coupling above the low intrinsic level of the MOP receptor were inverse agonists in reducing the greater level of constitutive coupling of the DOP receptor. Yet the intrinsic activities of such ligands are identical when scaled over the GDP base line of both receptors. This pattern is in conflict with the predictions of the ternary complex model and the "two state" extensions. According to this theory, the order of spontaneous and ligand-induced coupling cannot be reversed if a shift of the equilibrium between active and inactive forms raises constitutive activation in one receptor type. We propose that constitutive activation results from a lessened intrinsic barrier that restrains spontaneous coupling. Any ligand, regardless of its efficacy, must enhance this constraint to stabilize the ligand-bound complexed form. PMID:23836900

Vezzi, Vanessa; Onaran, H Ongun; Molinari, Paola; Guerrini, Remo; Balboni, Gianfranco; Calò, Girolamo; Costa, Tommaso

2013-07-08

338

Ethical issues raised by the new orientations in ergonomics and living labs.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

User Experience Theory (UXT) provides us with criteria for designing products and technical systems for everyday activities (playing, learning, working,…) so as to satisfy users. Living Labs (LL), are plateforms used for the design and evaluation of technical systems. As such, they constitute tools that bring to this process some constraints., However these constraints have to be articulated to the UXT. In other words, UXT should specify the place, the role and function LL should play in the design of new products, how it should contribute to satisfying UX, and how the methods and techniques should be conceived or borrowed from other disciplines. UXT also raises ethical issues: impartiality (independent, public, replicable) of research models in the context of economical constraints (dependant, private, secret prototypes) and of industrial pressure, the use of intrusive and persuasive techniques, even with the prior informed consent of participants, ergo-marketing, deontology codes, the use of specific participants, belonging of an UX innovative solution, confidentiality with ICT, and so on. Because the UX, as well as LL literature, have shown little concerns for ethical considerations, till now, we define LL-UX ethical issues as a new research topic, and we list a number of problems to be solved in order to have an ethical LL-UX methodology for open innovation.

Barcenilla J; Tijus C

2012-01-01

339

Radionuclides in raised bogs: a case study of Bór za Lasem.  

Science.gov (United States)

Bór za Lasem is a raised bog in the Orawsko-Nowotarska Valley (southern Poland). About half of the Bór za Lasem area has been exploited while the rest is undisturbed. Peat samples from both parts of the bog were analysed. Measurements of 137Cs, 134Cs, 239,240Pu, 238Pu, 40K, 228Ra, and 226Ra activity concentrations in all samples were performed. Comparison of the results of radiocaesium and plutonium activity concentrations reveals the highest activity concentrations of radionuclides in the undisturbed part of the peat-bog area. The radiocaesium content decreased with depth, whereas the plutonium concentration had a maximum value at a depth of 15-20 cm. The lowest activity concentrations were found in the exploited part of the bog. Potassium and radium isotopes were detected only in shallow openings within the heavily exploited part of the bog, which might suggest partial mixing of the peat with the mineral sub-soil. The growth rate of the top layer of the undisturbed part of the bog obtained from plutonium distribution was estimated as approximately 0.5 cm per year. PMID:11432272

Boro?, K J; Mietelski, J W; Lipka, K; Gaca, P; Jasi?ska, M

2001-06-01

340

The Radial Velocity Signature of Tides Raised in Stars Hosting Exoplanets  

CERN Multimedia

Close-in, massive exoplanets raise significant tides in their stellar hosts. We compute the radial velocity (RV) signal due to this fluid motion in the equilibrium tide approximation. The predicted radial velocities in the observed sample of exoplanets exceed 1 m/s for 17 systems, with the largest predicted signal being ~30 m/s for WASP-18 b. Tidally-induced RV's are thus detectable with present methods. Both tidal fluid flow and the epicyclic motion of a slightly eccentric orbit produce an RV signal at twice the orbital frequency. If care is not taken, the tidally induced RV may, in some cases, be confused with a finite orbital eccentricity. Indeed, WASP-18 b is reported to have an eccentric orbit with small e=0.009 and pericenter longitude \\omega=-\\pi/2. Whereas such a close alignment of the orbit and line of sight to the observer requires fine tuning, this phase in the RV signal is naturally explained by the tidal velocity signature of an e=0 orbit. Additionally, the equilibrium tide estimate for the ampli...

Arras, Phil; Quataert, Eliot; Weinberg, Nevin N

2011-01-01

 
 
 
 
341

[Status of reaching meridian research for Chinese matria medica and to raise "point-medicine" method].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: To analyze the status of reaching meridian research for the Chinese Matria Medica and to raise point-medicine method. METHOD: To review and analyze the studied situation of the corresponding relationships between "materials", as the constituents in the Chinese materia medica (CMM) as reaching meridian material foundation, and "image", as the function states of the zang-fu viscera, to investigate the problems and the measures to solve it. RESULT: There are imprinting relationships among "materials", as the constituents alike metabolic pathway in the CMM as reaching meridian material foundation, and "image", as the function of the zang-fu viscera related with meridians, and "symptom", the states of them, retroacted, represented and explored by the corresponding meridianed constituents in the CMM as quantitative pharmacologic parameters,also modified by special acupuncture points, finally to establish the new method of reaching meridian according to meridian point-medicine action and also to investigate the relations between the constituents in the CMM and network targets of disease as to kill two birds with one arrow. CONCLUSION: There are imprinting relationships among "materials", "image", "symptom" versus CMM, zang-fu viscera function related with meridians, their function status respectively, which are modified by acupuncture merisian points. The point-medicine method for assuring reaching meridian is the most simple way to investigate reaching meridian for CMM, is also a important way to investigate visceral and meridianal manifestations.

Deng KW; He FY

2013-05-01

342

Normative sciatic nerve excursion during a modified straight leg raise test.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Minimal data exists on how much sciatic nerve motion occurs during straight leg raise (SLR). The purpose of this study was to report preliminary normative ranges of sciatic nerve excursion using real time ultrasound during a modified SLR. The sciatic nerve was scanned in the posterior thigh in sixteen asymptomatic participants (age range 19-68 years). Nerve excursion was measured in transverse and longitudinal planes during knee extension from 90° to 0°, with the hip flexed to 30° and 60°. The ultrasound data was analysed off-line using cross correlation software. Results demonstrated that most nerves moved superficially during knee extension, a large proportion (10/16) moved laterally. Longitudinal excursion ranged from 6.4 to 14.7 mm (mean (SD) 9.92 mm (2.2)) in 30° hip flexion, and 5.1-20.2 mm (mean (SD) 12.4 mm (4.4)) in 60° hip flexion. Mean nerve excursion was significantly greater in 60° hip flexion (p = 0.02). There is a large between-subject variation in sciatic nerve excursion during this modified SLR in asymptomatic subjects. Mean nerve excursion was found to be higher with the hip pre-positioned in greater flexion, suggesting that pre-loading may not consistently reduce excursion.

Ridehalgh C; Moore A; Hough A

2013-09-01

343

PERFORMANCE, CARCASS YIELD AND LITTER QUALITY OF BROILERS RAISED ON LITTERS TREATED WITH MICRO-ORGANISMS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The present paper aimed at evaluating the effect of adding beneficial micro-organisms to the litters on litter quality, performance and carcass yield for broilers. A total of 240 one-day chicks were used, and randomly distributed in blocks with four treatments and four replications. The following treatments were carried out in the housing: Treatment 1 – Control with weekly spraying of water on the litters; Treatment 2 – Litter treated with a mixture of inoculated and fermented meal by micro-organisms and weekly spraying of water; Treatment 3 – Litter treated by weekly spraying of micro-organisms; Treatment 4 – Litter treated with the same mixture of meals from treatment two and weekly spraying of micro-organisms. Performance was evaluated by the feed consumption, weight gain, feed conversion, viability and carcass, breast and leg yield. From litter samples, pH, dry matter, ashes and nitrogen were evaluated. No differences were found among the treatments. In the conditions the animals were raised, it can be concluded that the treatment on the litter does not affect performance, carcass yield and quality of the litter for broilers.

Dayane Prado da Cruz; Luciana Kazue Otutumi; Ranulfo Piau Júnior; Rodrigo Panucci Cervantes; Taniara Suelen Mezalira; Edson Gerônimo

2013-01-01

344

Raising Students' Awareness of Cross-Cultural Contrastive Rhetoric Via an E-Learning Course  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study investigated the potential impact of e-learning on raising overseas students' cultural awareness and explored the possibility of creating an interactive learning environment for them to improve their English academic writing. The study was based on a comparison of Chinese and English rhetoric in academic writing, including a comparison of Chinese students' writings in Chinese with native English speakers' writings in English and Chinese students' writings in English with the help of an e-course and Chinese students' writings in English without the help of an e-course. Five features of contrastive rhetoric were used as criteria for the comparison. The experimental results show that the group using the e-course was successful in learning about defined aspects of English rhetoric in academic writing, reaching a level of performance that equalled that of native English speakers. Data analysis also revealed that e-learning resources helped students to compare rhetorical styles across cultures and that the interactive learning environment was effective in improving overseas students' English academic writing.

Minjie Xing; Jinghui Wang; Kenneth Spencer

2008-01-01

345

Levels of S100B are raised in female patients with schizophrenia.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: The neurotrophic factor, S100B, is released primarily from astrocytes, with serum and CSF levels of S100B reported as altered in schizophrenia. However, many of these reports are contradictory. Here, serum levels of S100B in schizophrenia and influence of age, gender, medication and illness severity were examined. METHODS: Serum S100B levels were measured in patients with schizophrenia treated with clozapine. Lifestyle, metabolic and illness severity parameters were correlated with S100B concentrations. RESULTS: Data showed raised serum levels of S100B in schizophrenia female patients, but not male patients, compared to controls. Correlation analysis demonstrated a positive association between S100B serum concentrations and BMI. CONCLUSIONS: This study supports previous findings that adipocytes may contribute to S100B serum concentrations in females, in addition to astrocytes. This study also supports the hypothesis that metabolic effects of medication, lifestyle choices and the illness itself, may be contributing factors to altered levels of S100B.

O'Connell K; Thakore J; Dev KK

2013-01-01

346

Use of Corn Germ Meal in Diets for Pond?Raised Channel Catfish, Ictalurus punctatus  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Corn germ meal (CGM) is a by?product of corn milling. On the basis of its nutrient composition and digestibility values, it appears to be a suitable ingredient for use in channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus, diets. A study was conducted to examine the use of various levels of CGM in diets for pond?raised channel catfish. Four 28% protein diets containing 0, 15, 25, and 35% CGM were evaluated. Fingerling channel catfish (mean initial weight: 71?g/fish) were stocked into 24, 0.04?ha ponds at a rate of 14,826?fish/ha. Fish were fed once daily to apparent satiation for a 167?d growing season. No significant differences were observed in total amount of diet fed, diet consumption per fish, net yield, weight gain, feed conversion ratio, survival, fillet yield, and fillet protein, fat, and moisture concentrations among fish fed diets containing various levels of CGM. Carcass yield decreased linearly as dietary CGM levels increased. Depending on prices, CGM can be used interchangeably with corn gluten feed in channel catfish diets as replacements for corn, wheat middlings, and soybean meal to reduce feed cost.

Li MH; Robinson EH; Oberle DF; Lucas PM; Bosworth BG

2013-04-01

347

The Quality of Liquid Fermented Products for Alternative Use of Antibiotics for Animal Raising  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The chemical properties of liquid fermented products (LFP) as probiotics substance for alternative uses of antibiotic were studied. The LFP of 235 were sampling from markets and farmers during 2005-2006. The total count of bacteria, fungi, lactic acid bacteria (LAB), Actinomyces and coliform bacteria were conducted. Chemical analysis of LFP showed medium nitrogen (0.01- 0.55%), maximum sugar contents (0.02 - 19.40%), high lactic acid contents (0.34 - 13.01%) and low pH (2.9-5.0). LFPs were free from fecal coliform and Escherichia coil (Ec); but in LAB (1.0 - 1.25x107 cfu/ml) and high Actinomyces (1.0 - 7.5 x 106 cfu/ml). LFPs inhibited Staphylococcus aureus (Sa), Samonella typhimurium (STM), Escherichia coil (Ec) and Ec 0157 at maximum yield by using Minimal Inhibition Concentration (MIC). But Pseudomonas aeruginosa (Pa) could medium inhibited. Therefore LFP samples are suitable as probiotics for alternative use of antibiotic for animal raising.

2006-01-01

348

Stereopsis in normal domestic cat, Siamese cat, and cat raised with alternating monocular occlusion.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Normal cats, cats raised with alternating monocular occluders, and Siamese cats were tested for stereoscopic vision using a shadow-casting technique that produced line stereograms. Human subjects were tested with the same apparatus. 1. Normal cats had stereoscopic vision, but AO and Siamese cats did not. 2. Normal AO cats, and Siamese cats all had equal visual activity (about 6 feet of arc) and all could make accurate judgments about the depth of real objects. 3. Normal cats could fuse crossed disparities as great as 50 feet of arc and uncrossed disparities as great as 30 feet of arc. 4. Normal cats could make stereoscopic discriminations with stimulus disparities greater than 1 degree, even though they could not fuse disparities of this magnitude. 5. Both the AO and the Siamese cats exhibited a convergent squint. 6. Human subjects viewing identical stimuli could not fuse stimuli having disparities greater than 10 feet, although they could make depth judgments for crossed disparities as great as 5 degrees. 7. These results imply that animals without binocular cells in area 17 do not have stereoscopic vision, but do not determine if disparity-selective cells in the visual cortex are responsible for stereopsis.

Packwood J; Gordon B

1975-11-01

349

Cellular and plasma oxidative stress biomarkers are raised in adults with bronchiectasis.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Oxidative stress is believed to play an important role in the pathophysiology of bronchiectasis. The aims of this study were to evaluate the oxidative stress status in bronchiectasis patients. METHODS: This cross-sectional study included 90 clinically stable adults with bronchiectasis of any aetiology (36 with cystic fibrosis [CF] and 54 without CF) plus 50 healthy controls. Plasma and serum oxidative stress biomarkers were measured using commercial kits. Cellular oxidative stress biomarkers in white blood cells (mitochondrial membrane potential, intracellular glutathione, superoxide anion and hydrogen peroxide) were analyzed by flow cytometry. RESULTS: Compared with the control group, the catalase activity and lipid peroxidation (TBARs and 8-isoprostanes) were significantly increased in the patient group and the total antioxidant capacity and the activity of superoxide dismutase were decreased. Intracellular superoxide anion and hydrogen peroxide were significantly elevated in the patients versus the controls in total leukocytes, lymphocytes, monocytes and neutrophils. Compared to the controls, the mitochondrial membrane potential was significantly lower in neutrophils and intracellular glutathione in monocytes. No significant differences were observed between CF and non-CF bronchiectasis patients in the oxidative stress biomarkers studied. CONCLUSIONS: Biomarkers of oxidative stress, both in plasma and intracellular were raised in patients with bronchiectasis compared with controls. No differences were seen in the CF patients compared with the others.

Olveira G; Olveira C; Dorado A; García-Fuentes E; Rubio E; Tinahones F; Soriguer F; Murri M

2013-02-01

350

Sustainable capacity building among immigrant communities: the Raising Sexually Healthy Children Program in Canada.  

Science.gov (United States)

The Raising Sexually Healthy Children (RSHC) program is a peer-to-peer leadership training program for immigrant parents in Toronto, Canada. It was established in 1998 with the goal of promoting family sex education and parent-child communication. This evaluative study examined the developmental processes and outcomes of the RSHC program to identify the strengths, challenges and insights that can be used to improve the program. It employed a multi-case study approach to compare the RSHC programs delivered in the Chinese, Portuguese and Tamil communities. Data collection methods included focus groups, individual interviews and document analysis. The cross-case analysis identified both common and unique capacity building processes and outcomes in the three communities. In this paper, we report factors that have enhanced and hindered sustainable capacity building at the individual, group/organizational and community levels, and the strategies used by these communities to address challenges common to immigrant families. We will discuss the ecological and synergetic, but time-consuming processes of capacity building, which contributed to the sustainability of RSHC as an empowering health promotion program for immigrant communities. We conclude the paper by noting the implications of using a capacity building approach to promote family health in ethno-racial-linguistic minority communities. PMID:23740257

Narushima, Miya; Wong, Josephine Pui-Hing; Li, Anda; Sutdhibhasilp, Noulmook

2013-06-01

351

Sustainable capacity building among immigrant communities: the Raising Sexually Healthy Children Program in Canada.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The Raising Sexually Healthy Children (RSHC) program is a peer-to-peer leadership training program for immigrant parents in Toronto, Canada. It was established in 1998 with the goal of promoting family sex education and parent-child communication. This evaluative study examined the developmental processes and outcomes of the RSHC program to identify the strengths, challenges and insights that can be used to improve the program. It employed a multi-case study approach to compare the RSHC programs delivered in the Chinese, Portuguese and Tamil communities. Data collection methods included focus groups, individual interviews and document analysis. The cross-case analysis identified both common and unique capacity building processes and outcomes in the three communities. In this paper, we report factors that have enhanced and hindered sustainable capacity building at the individual, group/organizational and community levels, and the strategies used by these communities to address challenges common to immigrant families. We will discuss the ecological and synergetic, but time-consuming processes of capacity building, which contributed to the sustainability of RSHC as an empowering health promotion program for immigrant communities. We conclude the paper by noting the implications of using a capacity building approach to promote family health in ethno-racial-linguistic minority communities.

Narushima M; Wong JP; Li A; Sutdhibhasilp N

2013-06-01

352

Parametrization of organic nitrogen mineralization models in soil treated with swine raising wastewater  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Little is known about the mineralization dynamic of organic nitrogen contained in swine manure, so models need to be adjusted for its prediction. The objective of the present study was to parameterize and assess models of organic nitrogen mineralization in soil treated with swine raising wastewater (SRW) at different temperatures and water contents. Samples of 57.3 cm3 of dystrophic Red-Yellow Latosol were mixed with SRW at the application dose of 400 kg ha-1 nitrogen, placed in plastic cups and incubated at four different temperatures (15, 20, 25 and 35°C) and water contents corresponding to tensions of 10, 30, 200 and 1500 kPa. Samples were removed from the incubated soil after 3, 6, 12, 24, 48 and 96 days to quantify the ammonium and nitrate concentrations. The parameters of the soil organic nitrogen mineralization models were determined from the organic nitrogen mineralization values obtained over the different incubation periods. The value of the potentially mineralizable nitrogen (N0) in soil with application of SRW was superior that of the soil without application of SRW. The mineralization constant (k) in soil with application of SRW was always superior that of the soil without application of SRW. There was a tendency for the simple exponential model to underestimate the values of the mineralized nitrogen concentration. In most of the situations the potential model was more efficient than the simple exponential model to predict the mineralization of the organic nitrogen.

Flavia Mariano Barros; Mauro Aparecido Martinez; Antonio Teixeira de Matos; Júlio César Lima Neves; Demétrius David da Silva

2010-01-01

353

Ligands Raise the Constraint That Limits Constitutive Activation in G Protein-coupled Opioid Receptors.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Using a cell-free bioluminescence resonance energy transfer strategy we compared the levels of spontaneous and ligand-induced receptor-G protein coupling in ? (DOP) and ? (MOP) opioid receptors. In this assay GDP can suppress spontaneous coupling, thus allowing its quantification. The level of constitutive activity was 4-5 times greater at the DOP than at the MOP receptor. A series of opioid analogues with a common peptidomimetic scaffold displayed remarkable inversions of efficacy in the two receptors. Agonists that enhanced coupling above the low intrinsic level of the MOP receptor were inverse agonists in reducing the greater level of constitutive coupling of the DOP receptor. Yet the intrinsic activities of such ligands are identical when scaled over the GDP base line of both receptors. This pattern is in conflict with the predictions of the ternary complex model and the "two state" extensions. According to this theory, the order of spontaneous and ligand-induced coupling cannot be reversed if a shift of the equilibrium between active and inactive forms raises constitutive activation in one receptor type. We propose that constitutive activation results from a lessened intrinsic barrier that restrains spontaneous coupling. Any ligand, regardless of its efficacy, must enhance this constraint to stabilize the ligand-bound complexed form.

Vezzi V; Onaran HO; Molinari P; Guerrini R; Balboni G; Calò G; Costa T

2013-08-01

354

How can we raise Tc in RO1-xFxFeAs superconductors?  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

By the discovery of RO1-xFxFeAs (R = lanthanide) superconductors in the beginning of 2008, it was shown for the first time that a non-cuprate superconductor can reach a superconducting transition temperature Tc above 50 K. This offers new opportunities for the development of new high temperature superconductors. However, the superconductors with the highest Tc show the most difficulties in formation of the right phase. Problems are the incorporation of fluorine and the homogeneity of the samples. A further challenge is the structural instability for rare earth elements with small ion radius (64?Z?71). In our studies, several opportunities to overcome these difficulties are evaluated: 1. variation of the grain size of the initial powder 2. use of slightly non-stoichiometric initial composition 3. high-pressure synthesis As a result, we raise the Tc of the material with a nominal composition GdO1-xFxFeAs from 20 up to 40 K. In a SmO0.9F0.1FeAs-compound could be observed superconductivity above 50 K after a small As-reduction at the surface of the sample. Measurements of the final composition and structure will animate the discussion about the requirements for realization of the superconducting state.

2010-01-01

355

Atmospheric flux of agricultural fumigants from raised-bed, plastic-mulch crop production systems  

Science.gov (United States)

Atmospheric emission of methyl isothiocyanate (MITC), chloropicrin (CP), 1,3-dichloropropene (1,3-D), and dimethyl disulfide (DMDS) were measured in the field under fumigant application scenarios representative of raised bed-plastic-mulched crop production systems. For three fumigation sites located in Florida, cumulative emissions of 1,3-D, MITC and CP were less than 11%, 6% and 2%, respectively. For three fumigation sites in located in Georgia, cumulative emissions of MITC and CP were <13% and 12%, respectively while DMDS emissions varied from 37% to 95%. In the Florida sites, emission peak flux of CP occurred within the first 6 h after application. Peak emission of 1,3-D and MITC occurred between 100 and 144 h after application. In the Georgia sites where fumigated soil was covered by low density polyethylene (LDPE) plastic, emission peak flux of DMDS and MITC occurred between 12and 48 h after application. Key factors affecting atmospheric emissions were soil moisture, soil tilth and the resistance to fumigant diffusion of the plastic film used to cover soil following application. This study demonstrated reduced atmospheric emissions of agricultural fumigants under commercial production conditions when applied using good agricultural practices including soil water contents above field capacity, uniform soil tilth in the fumigation zone and the use of metalized or virtually impermeable films to further reduce fumigant emissions. The results of this study show a need for regional flux studies due to the various interactions of soil and climate with local agricultural land management practices.

Chellemi, Dan O.; Ajwa, Husein A.; Sullivan, David A.

2010-12-01

356

Is it necessary to raise awareness about technologically enhanced naturally occurring radioactive materials?  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Since radiation risks are usually considered to be related to nuclear energy, the majority of research on radiation protection has focused on artificial radionuclides in radioactive wastes, spent nuclear fuel or global fallout caused by A-bomb tests and nuclear power plant failures. Far less attention has been paid to the radiation risk caused by exposure to ionizing radiation originating from natural radioactivity enhanced due to human activity, despite the fact that technologically enhanced naturally occurring radioactive materials are common in many branches of the non-nuclear industry. They differ significantly from "classical" nuclear materials and usually look like other industrial waste. The derived radiation risk is usually associated with risk caused by other pollutants and can not be controlled by applying rules designed for pure radioactive waste. Existing data have pointed out a strong need to take into account the non-nuclear industry where materials containing enhanced natural radioactivity occur as a special case of radiation risk and enclose them in the frame of the formal control. But up to now there are no reasonable and clear regulations in this matter. As a result, the non-nuclear industries of concern are not aware of problems connected with natural radioactivity or they would expect negative consequences in the case of implementing radiation protection measures. The modification of widely comprehended environmental legislation with requirements taken from radiation protection seems to be the first step to solve this problem and raise awareness about enhanced natural radioactivity for all stakeholders of concern.

Michalik B

2009-10-01

357

Raising yield potential of wheat. II. Increasing photosynthetic capacity and efficiency.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Past increases in yield potential of wheat have largely resulted from improvements in harvest index rather than increased biomass. Further large increases in harvest index are unlikely, but an opportunity exists for increasing productive biomass and harvestable grain. Photosynthetic capacity and efficiency are bottlenecks to raising productivity and there is strong evidence that increasing photosynthesis will increase crop yields provided that other constraints do not become limiting. Even small increases in the rate of net photosynthesis can translate into large increases in biomass and hence yield, since carbon assimilation is integrated over the entire growing season and crop canopy. This review discusses the strategies to increase photosynthesis that are being proposed by the wheat yield consortium in order to increase wheat yields. These include: selection for photosynthetic capacity and efficiency, increasing ear photosynthesis, optimizing canopy photosynthesis, introducing chloroplast CO(2) pumps, increasing RuBP regeneration, improving the thermal stability of Rubisco activase, and replacing wheat Rubisco with that from other species with different kinetic properties.

Parry MA; Reynolds M; Salvucci ME; Raines C; Andralojc PJ; Zhu XG; Price GD; Condon AG; Furbank RT

2011-01-01

358

Raising yield potential of wheat. II. Increasing photosynthetic capacity and efficiency.  

Science.gov (United States)

Past increases in yield potential of wheat have largely resulted from improvements in harvest index rather than increased biomass. Further large increases in harvest index are unlikely, but an opportunity exists for increasing productive biomass and harvestable grain. Photosynthetic capacity and efficiency are bottlenecks to raising productivity and there is strong evidence that increasing photosynthesis will increase crop yields provided that other constraints do not become limiting. Even small increases in the rate of net photosynthesis can translate into large increases in biomass and hence yield, since carbon assimilation is integrated over the entire growing season and crop canopy. This review discusses the strategies to increase photosynthesis that are being proposed by the wheat yield consortium in order to increase wheat yields. These include: selection for photosynthetic capacity and efficiency, increasing ear photosynthesis, optimizing canopy photosynthesis, introducing chloroplast CO(2) pumps, increasing RuBP regeneration, improving the thermal stability of Rubisco activase, and replacing wheat Rubisco with that from other species with different kinetic properties. PMID:21030385

Parry, Martin A J; Reynolds, Matthew; Salvucci, Michael E; Raines, Christine; Andralojc, P John; Zhu, Xin-Guang; Price, G Dean; Condon, Anthony G; Furbank, Robert T

2010-10-27

359

Fourth and Fifth Amendment issues raised by Chemical Weapons Convention inspections  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC) offers a unique challenge to the United States system of constitutional law. This discussion is about the Fourth and Fifth Amendment issues raised by the CWC and about how federal implementing legislation can allow verification inspections to take place in the United States under the Chemical Weapons Convention while remaining in compliance with the Constitution. By implementing legislation, the author means a federal statute that would be enacted separately from Senate approval of the Convention itself. Although implementing legislation is a relatively unusual accompaniment to a treaty, it will be necessary to the CWC, and the Administration has submitted a bill that was under consideration in the last Congress and presumably will be reintroduced early next year. The Fourth and Fifth Amendment problems posed by the CWC arise from the verification inspection scheme embodied in the treaty. The CWC depends heavily on on-site inspections to verify compliance with its key requirements. These include destroying all chemicals weapons stockpiles and bringing potential chemical weapons precursors under international control. The Convention contains four distinct kinds of inspections: systematic inspections of chemical weapons storage and destruction facilities, routine inspections of various declared facilities, challenge inspections, and a variant on challenge inspections in cases of alleged use of chemical weapons. All inspections are supposed to be only as intrusive as necessary to carry out the Convention. These inspections will be carried out by inspectors employed by the Organization for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons (OPCW), located in The Hague, which is responsible for enforcing the Convention. Generally, the inspected State Party is permitted to assign observers to accompany the inspectors.

Tanzman, E.A. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Economics and Law Section

1994-10-21

360

Serum estrogenicity and biological responses in African catfish raised in wastewater ponds in Ghana.  

Science.gov (United States)

Reuse of wastewater for aquaculture improves the efficient use of water and promotes sustainability but the potential effects of endocrine disrupting compounds including estrogens in wastewater are an emerging challenge that needs to be addressed. We examined the biological effects of wastewater-borne estrogens on African catfish (Clarias gariepinus) raised in a wastewater stabilization pond (WSP) of a functioning municipal wastewater treatment plant, a wastewater polishing pond (WWP) of a dysfunctional treatment plant, and a reference pond (RP) unimpacted by wastewater, located in Ghana. Measurements of estrogen concentrations in pond water by liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry showed that mean 17 ?-estradiol concentrations were higher in the wastewater ponds (WWP, 6.6ng/L±2.7ng/L; WSP, 4.9ng/L±1.0) than the reference (RP, 3.4±1.1ng/L). Estrone concentrations were found to be highest in the WSP (7.8ng/L±1.7) and lowest in the WWP (2.2ng/L±2.4) with the RP intermediate (4.7±5.0). Fish serum estrogenicity assayed by E-SCREEN was significantly higher in female vs. male catfish in the RP and WSP but not in the WWP (p?0.05). Histological examination of liver and gonad tissue showed no apparent signs of intersex or pathology in any ponds. The similarities in various measures of body indices between fish of this study and African catfish from freshwater systems suggest that aquaculture may be a suitable reuse option for treated municipal wastewater. PMID:23849063

Asem-Hiablie, S; Church, C D; Elliott, H A; Shappell, N W; Schoenfuss, H L; Drechsel, P; Williams, C F; Knopf, A L; Dabie, M Y

2013-07-10

 
 
 
 
361

Serum estrogenicity and biological responses in African catfish raised in wastewater ponds in Ghana.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Reuse of wastewater for aquaculture improves the efficient use of water and promotes sustainability but the potential effects of endocrine disrupting compounds including estrogens in wastewater are an emerging challenge that needs to be addressed. We examined the biological effects of wastewater-borne estrogens on African catfish (Clarias gariepinus) raised in a wastewater stabilization pond (WSP) of a functioning municipal wastewater treatment plant, a wastewater polishing pond (WWP) of a dysfunctional treatment plant, and a reference pond (RP) unimpacted by wastewater, located in Ghana. Measurements of estrogen concentrations in pond water by liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry showed that mean 17 ?-estradiol concentrations were higher in the wastewater ponds (WWP, 6.6ng/L±2.7ng/L; WSP, 4.9ng/L±1.0) than the reference (RP, 3.4±1.1ng/L). Estrone concentrations were found to be highest in the WSP (7.8ng/L±1.7) and lowest in the WWP (2.2ng/L±2.4) with the RP intermediate (4.7±5.0). Fish serum estrogenicity assayed by E-SCREEN was significantly higher in female vs. male catfish in the RP and WSP but not in the WWP (p?0.05). Histological examination of liver and gonad tissue showed no apparent signs of intersex or pathology in any ponds. The similarities in various measures of body indices between fish of this study and African catfish from freshwater systems suggest that aquaculture may be a suitable reuse option for treated municipal wastewater.

Asem-Hiablie S; Church CD; Elliott HA; Shappell NW; Schoenfuss HL; Drechsel P; Williams CF; Knopf AL; Dabie MY

2013-10-01

362

Cerebral perfusion pressure in giraffe: modelling the effects of head-raising and -lowering.  

Science.gov (United States)

Loss of consciousness caused by positional changes of the head results from reduced cerebral blood flow (CBF). CBF is related to cerebral perfusion pressure (CPP). CPP is the difference between mean arterial pressure (MAP) at the head and intracranial pressure (ICP). The positional change of the giraffe head between ground level and standing upright is the largest of all animals yet loss of consciousness does not occur. We have investigated the possibility that an increase in CPP protects giraffe from fainting, using a mechanical model that functioned as an anatomical U-tube. It consisted of a rigid ascending "carotid" limb, a collapsible "brain" tube drained by a rigid, "vertebral venous plexus" (VVP) tube, and a collapsible "head" tube drained by a collapsible tube representing the "jugular vein". The descending tubes could be rotated relative to the "carotid" tube to be horizontal, or at 30 degrees , 45 degrees , and 60 degrees to the vertical to simulate changes in head position. Pressure at the top of the "carotid" tube was intracranial MAP, at the top of the "VVP" tube was ICP, and the difference CPP. In the simulated "head-up" position and a fluid flow rate of 4 L min(-1), CPP was approximately 170 mmHg. With the VVP tube horizontal, CPP fell from approximately 170 to 45 mmHg, but increased to approximately 67 mmHg at 30 degrees "down", to approximately 70 mmHg at 45 degrees "down" and to approximately 75 at 60 degrees "down". The fall in CPP in the head-down positions resulted from a decrease in viscous resistance in, and dissipation of pressure to, the "head" and "jugular" tubes. These data provide an estimate of cranial pressure changes in giraffe during positional changes of the head, and suggest that an increase in CPP plays a significant role in maintaining CBF during head-raising and that it may be an important mechanism for preventing fainting in giraffe. PMID:18329049

Mitchell, G; Bobbitt, J P; Devries, S

2008-01-31

363

How valid are the common concerns raised against water birth? A focused review of the literature.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Women have birthed in water for many years, with researchers finding a number of benefits for mother and baby. Despite these benefits, many health institutions and clinicians are hesitant to support women's access to water immersion in birth for a number of reasons. As such, this paper aimed to (1) select five common concerns raised against water birth and (2) examine whether research supports these concerns as being evidence-based. METHOD: A literature review was conducted to (1) select the concerns for review and to (2) review each selected concern as to whether they were supported by the current evidence. A recent review of women's access to, and uptake of, water immersion in Queensland, Australia, was also used to determine the concerns for review in order to better capture concerns relevant to Australian practice. FINDINGS: Three clinical concerns were selected for review: water aspiration, neonatal and maternal infection, and neonatal and maternal thermo-regulation; and two concerns around the practice of water birth were selected: skills and education of workforce, and emergency procedures in case of maternal collapse. The three clinical concerns were not found to be supported by the available evidence and the two practice concerns can be addressed by appropriate policy, guidelines and practice. CONCLUSION: The reviewed common concerns against water birth are not evidence-based nor are they sufficient to prevent women from accessing the use of water in labour and birth. Health institutions and clinicians should ensure they take adequate precautions to enable women access to this valued and effective method of birth.

Young K; Kruske S

2013-06-01

364

Ethical issues raised by the introduction of payment for performance in France.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

CONTEXT: In France, a new payment for performance (P4P) scheme for primary care physicians was introduced in 2009 through the 'Contract for Improving Individual Practice' programme. Its objective was to reduce healthcare expenditures while enhancing improvement in guidelines' observance. Nevertheless, in all countries where the scheme was implemented, it raised several concerns in the domain of professional ethics. OBJECTIVE: To draw out in France the ethical tensions arising in the general practitioner's (GP) profession linked to the introduction of P4P. METHOD: Qualitative research using two focus groups: first one with a sample of GPs who joined P4P and second one with those who did not. All collective interviews were recorded and fully transcribed. An inductive analysis of thematic content with construction of categories was conducted. All the data were triangulated. RESULTS: All participants agreed that conflicts of interest were a real issue, leading to the resurgence of doctor's dirigisme, which could be detrimental for patient's autonomy. GPs who did not join P4P believed that the scheme would lead to patient's selection while those who joined P4P did not. The level of the maximal bonus of the P4P was considered low by all GPs. This was considered as an offense by non-participating GPs, whereas for participating ones, this low level minimised the risk of patient's selection. CONCLUSION: This work identified several areas of ethical tension, some being different from those previously described in other countries. The authors discuss the potential impact of institutional contexts and variability of implementation processes on shaping these differences.

Saint-Lary O; Plu I; Naiditch M

2012-08-01

365

Continuing professional development: issues raised by nurses and allied health professionals working in musculoskeletal settings.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Nurses and allied health professionals (AHPs) are required to evidence their engagement in continuing professional development (CPD) in order to retain their professional registration. Many challenges to CPD are reported, but little literature has explored pertinent CPD issues for clinicians with specialist roles or working in specialist services. No literature to date has explored the perceptions of CPD held by patients who receive these specialist services. METHODS: Three focus groups and two conference calls were conducted with nurses, physiotherapists, podiatrists and occupational therapists who work in musculoskeletal (MSK) services; managers of these services; and people who use MSK services. These focus groups aimed: to explore the CPD needs and issues for this group of clinicians; to explore the perceptions of CPD held by people who have MSK conditions; and to compare the above with current literature to discern any factors specific to MSK settings. The focus groups and conference calls were audio-recorded. The recordings were coded by the researchers using a priori and inductive coding. RESULTS: The main issues discussed were: funding and time for CPD, providing examples of ways to provide CPD in spite of the challenges faced; that CPD needs changed with level of experience; initiatives by clinical specialists to reduce professional isolation; and future trends in CPD, including concerns about succession planning. The views of people with MSK conditions demonstrated an emphasis on communication skills that was seldom raised by managers and clinicians. CONCLUSIONS: Sufficient time, funding and provision of study leave were key to facilitating CPD activity for nurses and AHPs working in MSK services. People with MSK conditions particularly valued health professionals who combined good listening and communication skills with an attempt to understand what it was like to live with their condition.

Haywood H; Pain H; Ryan S; Adams J

2013-09-01

366

Gonadal differentiation in frogs, Rana japonica and R. brevipoda, raised from UV irradiated eggs  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The gonadal differentiation of anurans, Rana japonica and R. brevipoda, was examined in animals raised from eggs which had been irradiated at the vegetal hemisphere with UV (9300 erg/mm2) at the 2-cell stage. In R. japonica about 70% of the larvae at stage I from the pressed and UV-irradiated eggs were germ cell free, but at a stage immediately after metamorphosis all animals had at least some germ cells, although their gonads often were extremely small and poorly differentiated. When male animals matured sexually, many of them had abnormal gonads. However, all of them were shown by artificial means to be capable of fertilization. In the nonpressed and irradiated group, no larvae were germ cell free and the animals immediately after metamorphosis showed nearly normal gonadal differentiation except for the presence of a few degenerate oocytes in the ovaries. The results in R. brevipoda were basically similar to those in R. japonica. In both species, sex ratios were determined at two stages, the first immediately after metamorphosis and the other when the animals matured, as based on gonad morphology and histology and on external sexually dimorphic characters as well. Sex ratios at these two stages in frogs from the pressed and irradiated eggs differed markedly in R. brevipoda. The ratio was normal at metamorphosis but high M/F ratios occurred when animals became mature. That sex reversal took place in this species as well as in R. japonica (in which sex-ratio deviation was not statistically significant) was supported by the sex ratios of the progenies of these supernumerary males.

1982-01-01

367

Cerebrovascular reactivity among native-raised high altitude residents: an fMRI study  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background The impact of long term residence on high altitude (HA) on human brain has raised concern among researchers in recent years. This study investigated the cerebrovascular reactivity among native-born high altitude (HA) residents as compared to native sea level (SL) residents. The two groups were matched on the ancestral line, ages, gender ratios, and education levels. A visual cue guided maximum inspiration task with brief breath holding was performed by all the subjects while Blood-Oxygenation-Level-Dependent (BOLD) functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) data were acquired from them. Results Compared to SL controls, the HA group showed generally decreased cerebrovascular reactivity and longer delay in hemodynamic response. Clusters showing significant differences in the former aspect were located at the bilateral primary motor cortex, the right somatosensory association cortex, the right thalamus and the right caudate, the bilateral precuneus, the right cingulate gyrus and the right posterior cingulate cortex, as well as the left fusiform gyrus and the right lingual cortex; clusters showing significant differences in the latter aspect were located at the precuneus, the insula, the superior frontal and temporal gyrus, the somatosensory cortex (the postcentral gyrus) and the cerebellar tonsil. Inspiratory reserve volume (IRV), which is an important aspect of pulmonary function, demonstrated significant correlation with the amount of BOLD signal change in multiple brain regions, particularly at the bilateral insula among the HA group. Conclusions Native-born HA residents generally showed reduced cerebrovascular reactivity as demonstrated in the hemodynamic response during a visual cue guided maximum inspiration task conducted with BOLD-fMRI. This effect was particularly manifested among brain regions that are typically involved in cerebral modulation of respiration.

Yan Xiaodan; Zhang Jiaxing; Gong Qiyong; Weng Xuchu

2011-01-01

368

Dryout power of a CANFLEX bundle string with raised bearing pads  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Dryout power data have been obtained with CANFLEX bundle strings equipped with raised bearing pads (1.7 mm and 1.8 mm height as compared to 1.4 mm in the current Mk-IV design) at Stern Laboratories. The experiment covered a wide range of steam-water flow conditions in three flow tubes simulating uncrept, and 3.3% and 5.1% crept profiles. The dryout power follows consistent parametric trends: it increases with increasing mass-flow rate, and decreases with increasing pressure, inlet-fluid temperature and channel creep. Local and boiling-length-average (BLA) critical-heat-flux (CHF) values were evaluated from the dryout-power measurements. The dryout power and BLA CHF values of the high bearing-pad bundles are higher than those of the low bearing-pad bundles at the same channel inlet flow conditions. On average, the dryout powers for bundles with 1.7 mm and 1.8 mm bearing pads are about 8% and 10%, respectively, higher than those for the bundle with 1.4 mm bearing pads. Compared to the 37-element bundle, an enhancement in dryout power is shown with CANFLEX bundles for all bearing-pad heights, at flow conditions of interest for reactor licensing. The average dryout power enhancement varies from 4% for the CANFLEX bundle with 1.4 mm bearing pads in the uncrept channel to 27% for the CANFLEX bundle with 1.8 mm bearing pads in the 5.1% crept channel. (author)

2001-01-01

369

Effects of Induced Astigmatism on Foot Placement Strategies when Stepping onto a Raised Surface  

Science.gov (United States)

Purpose Large changes in spectacle prescription can increase falls risk in older people. We investigated the effect of induced astigmatism (a common cause of distorted or blurred vision in older people) on locomotor stepping patterns to determine whether the orientation of astigmatic changes could have differential effects on gait safety when negotiating steps and stairs. Methods 10 older adults (mean age 76.0±6.4 years) walked up to and stepped onto a raised block whilst wearing their spectacle prescription and when blurred with ±3.00D cylinders at axes 45°, 90°, 135° and 180°. Gait measurements included foot placement before the block, toe clearance over the block edge and foot placement on the block. Results Induced astigmatism with axes at 90°, providing magnification in the horizontal meridian only, caused no change in stepping pattern. Induced astigmatism with axes at 180° caused foot placement changes in the anterior or posterior direction according to whether magnification was positive or negative in the vertical meridian (block perceived higher or lower respectively). Induced astigmatism with axes oblique at 45° and 135° (causing the block to be perceived as a parallelogram sloping downwards either to the right or left) caused gait changes in the anterior and posterior, vertical and lateral directions. Changes in lateral foot placement appeared to be an attempt to maintain constant foot clearance levels over the block edge by stepping over the perceived ‘lower’ side of the ‘sloping’ block. Conclusions Astigmatic changes with oblique axes had the greatest effect on gait. Clinicians, including optometrists, physiotherapists, occupational therapists and nurses should counsel older patients about the effects of astigmatism on gait safety. Furthermore, partial prescribing of astigmatic corrections should be considered to reduce the risk of falling.

Johnson, Louise; Supuk, Elvira; Buckley, John G.; Elliott, David B

2013-01-01

370

Prolific sands - geologic riddle yields openings for raising productivity with improved technology  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Geological characteristics of the Hibernia sandstones were described. Two formations, the Hibernia formation at 3,700 metres, and the Avalon formation at 2,400 metres are prominent. The Hibernia sands are considered superior. Officially, 615 million barrels have been cited as the recoverable reserves from the entire field, 515 million from the Hibernia and just 100 million from the Avalon. However, Mobil Oil, the senior partner in the project, raised the estimate to at least 750 million barrels, as a result of improving technology, including extended-reach and horizontal drilling. Indeed, the original oil in place is estimated at three billion barrels total, i. e. current technology is only expected to extract little more than 25 per cent of the total. The Hibernia sands were laid down before movements of the earth`s crust generated today`s geological structure, giving the formation relative uniformity. The sands are dominated by stacked, multi-storied fluvials at cretaceous basil. By contrast, the Avalon sands were laid down during movements of the crust that generated complicated underground faults. The reservoir lacks the consistency of Hibernia; depths, thickness and porosity vary considerably. The two pools do not lie on top of each other. The Avalon lies to the southwest of the best Hibernia deposit. So, although the first wells penetrated the Avalon, the first true Avalon well is not scheduled until 1999, with first oil in 2000. Hibernia crude is between 32 and 34 degrees API and has a sulphur content between 0.4 and 0.6 per cent. It is expected to trade a dollar or two below West Texas Intermediate crude.

Harvie, W.

1997-12-01

371

Maternal C-reactive protein levels are raised at 4 weeks gestation.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to determine whether there is evidence of a systemic maternal inflammatory response in very early pregnancy. METHODS: Successive women receiving treatment by IVF or ICSI had serum C-reactive protein (CRP) levels measured on the day of their pregnancy blood test at 4 weeks gestation (14 days post-egg collection). Women with positive betaHCG levels had ongoing pregnancies confirmed by serial transvaginal ultrasound scans up to 8 weeks gestation. RESULTS: Pregnant women (n = 40) were significantly younger (mean age 34 years) than women who failed to become pregnant (n = 95, mean age 37 years, P < 0.001), received significantly lower treatment doses of recombinant FSH (2000 versus 2400 IU, P < 0.05) and had significantly more eggs collected (11 versus 8, P < 0.01). There were no significant differences in body mass index, parity, a history of smoking, endometriosis or polycystic ovaries, pre-treatment CRP levels and white cell counts, peak serum estradiol levels and numbers of embryos transferred. Pregnant women had significantly higher CRP levels (median 3.68 mg/l) than those who were not pregnant (median 1.495 mg/l, P < 0.0001), a difference that persisted after excluding potential confounding variables. Six pregnant women with ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome had higher CRP levels than those who did not (P < 0.01). CONCLUSIONS: This well-controlled study is the first to demonstrate that maternal CRP levels are raised as early as 4 weeks gestation and thus that the maternal inflammatory response is established during the earliest phases of implantation. It is hypothesized that an abnormal response (either exaggerated or absent) could cause some cases of miscarriage.

Sacks GP; Seyani L; Lavery S; Trew G

2004-04-01

372

Manipulation of Rumen Fermentation with Organic Acids Supplementation in Ruminants Raised in the Tropics  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Locals feed resources are prime importance for ruminants raised in the tropic particularly low-quality roughages and agricultural crop-residues. Manipulating rumen fermentation through treatment of roughage, concentrate and strategic supplementation with organic acids could improve rumen efficiency by maintaining higher pH, optimum ammonia-nitrogen (NH3-N), thus reducing methane (CH4) and increasing microbial protein synthesis and essential volatile fatty acid (VFAs), for enhancing ruminant productivity in the tropics. The manipulation of rumen efficiency through the use of organic acids especially malate with local feeds would be an advantage. Indeed, organic acids potentially provide an alternative to currently used antimicrobial compounds by stimulating rather than inhibiting specific ruminal microbial populations. At the same time, local feed resources especially cassava chip could be used effectively at high level as an energy source for ruminants especially for beef and lactating cows. More recently, the combined use of concentrates containing high level of cassava chip with supplementation of sodium dl-malate and urea could improve rumen ecology and subsequent performance in dairy steers receiving urea-treated rice straw as a roughage. In addition, the high level of cassava chip in the diet resulted in increase population of bacteria and fungi, decreasing protozoal populations, and improving microbial protein synthesis and efficient microbial nitrogen supply in the rumen. Under these circumstances, malate was also effective in reducing the drop in ruminal pH normally seen 1 to 2 h after feeding a high-grain diet and improved cows performance efficiency. In summary, supplementation of organic acid like malate with local feed resources especially cassava chip or other carbohydrate sources with high rumen degradation would be a desirable alternative because there is no risk of developing antibiotic resistance or having unwanted residues appear in either meat or milk products as well as improving ruminal fermentation efficiency and productivity in ruminants in the tropics.

Sittisak Khampa; Metha Wanapat

2007-01-01

373

Gender Identity and Gender Role in DSD Patients Raised as Females: A Preliminary Outcome Study  

Science.gov (United States)

Gender identity and gender role are expected to be consistent with gender assignment for optimal DSD management outcome. To our knowledge, our study is the first to attempt evaluation of gender related outcomes in Turkish DSD patients. After receiving institutional ethical board approval and subject (or parent) informed consent, subjects with DSD raised as girls (22 patients 46 XX DSD, 11 patients 46 XY DSD) answered 566 questions of the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI) questionnaire including 60-item Masculinity-Femininity (MF) subscale which was the focus in this study. Controls (n: 50) were females similar to the probands in age, level of education, relationship status, and having a job or not also answered all questions. The answers were evaluated by a trained psychologist (Derya Inceoglu) on MMPI. For statistical purposes, seven findings were obtained from the data related to the MF subscale from the patients and controls. Of these seven findings (S1–S7), two were associated with masculinity (S3–S4) and another two were associated with femininity (S5–S6). In DSD patients, the percentages of masculinity findings were significantly higher when compared to controls (p?

Ercan, Oya; Kutlug, Seyhan; Uysal, Omer; Alikasifoglu, Mujgan; Inceoglu, Derya

2013-01-01

374

Gender Identity and Gender Role in DSD Patients Raised as Females: A Preliminary Outcome Study.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Gender identity and gender role are expected to be consistent with gender assignment for optimal DSD management outcome. To our knowledge, our study is the first to attempt evaluation of gender related outcomes in Turkish DSD patients. After receiving institutional ethical board approval and subject (or parent) informed consent, subjects with DSD raised as girls (22 patients 46 XX DSD, 11 patients 46 XY DSD) answered 566 questions of the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI) questionnaire including 60-item Masculinity-Femininity (MF) subscale which was the focus in this study. Controls (n: 50) were females similar to the probands in age, level of education, relationship status, and having a job or not also answered all questions. The answers were evaluated by a trained psychologist (Derya Inceoglu) on MMPI. For statistical purposes, seven findings were obtained from the data related to the MF subscale from the patients and controls. Of these seven findings (S1-S7), two were associated with masculinity (S3-S4) and another two were associated with femininity (S5-S6). In DSD patients, the percentages of masculinity findings were significantly higher when compared to controls (p?

Ercan O; Kutlug S; Uysal O; Alikasifoglu M; Inceoglu D

2013-01-01

375

The reverse posterior interosseous artery flap: technical considerations in raising an easier and more reliable flap.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

PURPOSE: Major injuries of the hand with skin loss often require early flap cover, which should be versatile, simple in technique, and safe. The reverse posterior interosseus flap satisfies all of these requirements. Over the years, refinements in the technique of harvesting this flap have evolved to prevent venous congestion and flap necrosis. This study presents adaptations to avoid such complications and raise a successful flap. METHODS: A total of 21 patients underwent this flap reconstruction between January 2008 and November 2010 for injuries around the wrist and hand. The average follow-up period was 6 months; 19 were male and 2 were female. The average age was 33 years (range, 9-70 y). In 17 patients, the flap reconstructions were done for posttraumatic injuries, in 2 after skin defects following tumor resection, and 1 each after defects resulting from release of first web contracture in multiple congenital contractures and burns. Average size of the flap was 51 cm(2) (range, 90- 30 cm(2)). The donor area was covered by a split skin graft. RESULTS: All flaps survived without major complications. Generally the flap matched the surrounding skin except for palmar defects. No patients reported donor skin graft color mismatch. CONCLUSIONS: The reverse posterior interosseous flap is a reliable and safe flap for soft tissue cover to the wrist, palm, dorsum of hand, first web space, and metacarpophalangeal joints. Thorough attention to the technical details, including performing a proximo-distal flap dissection with the deep fascia, avoiding dissection of the anastomotic arc between posterior and anterior interosseous artery, creating a broad pedicle with a cutaneous handle, and avoiding its tunneling for inset, will contribute to survival of the flap.

Acharya AM; Bhat AK; Bhaskaranand K

2012-03-01

376

The social and ecological integration of captive-raised adolescent male African elephants (Loxodonta africana) into a wild population.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: A rapid rise in the number of captive African elephants (Loxodonta africana) used in the tourism industry in southern Africa and orphaned elephants in human care has led to concerns about their long-term management, particularly males. One solution is to release them into the wild at adolescence, when young males naturally leave their herd. However, this raises significant welfare concerns: little is known about how well released elephants integrate into wild populations and whether they pose a greater threat to humans than wild elephants. We document the release of three captive-raised adolescent male African elephants in the Okavango Delta, Botswana. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Despite having been part of a herd of working elephants for at least eight years, the three males progressively integrated into the complex fission-fusion society of wild bull elephants. In the three years following release, they showed no tendency to be closer to human habitation, and there were no significant differences between wild and captive-raised adolescent males in the total number of social interactions, size of ranges and habitat use. However, the captive-raised elephants sparred less and vocalised more, and spent more time alone and in smaller social groups. Thereafter the released elephants continued to expand their ranges and interact with both mixed-sex herds and males. One male was shot by farmers 94 months after release, along with ten wild elephants, on a ranch outside the protected area. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We show that captive-raised adolescent male elephants can integrate into a wild population. Long-term studies are required to determine the longevity, breeding success, and eventual fate of released male elephants, but we identified no significant short-term welfare problems for the released elephants or recipient population. Release of captive-raised mammals with complex social systems is a husbandry option that should be explored further.

Evans K; Moore R; Harris S

2013-01-01

377

Raised serum TSH in morbid-obese and non-obese patients: effect on the circulating lipid profile.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Morbid obesity is associated with a high rate of raised serum TSH associated with normal free thyroid hormones. The body repercussions of this thyroid abnormality, suggesting subclinical hypothyroidism, are still debated. In particular, it is unclear whether the raised serum TSH of obesity results in changes of circulating lipids typically observed in hypothyroidism. Aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of a raised serum TSH on the lipid profile in morbid-obese and non-obese patients. Serum TSH, FT4, FT3, Tg-Ab, TPO-Ab and lipids were measured in 55 morbid-obese (BMI > 40 kg/m(2)) and 55 non-obese (BMI < 30 kg/m(2)) patients with a raised serum TSH. Despite similar serum levels of TSH, FT4 and FT3, morbid-obese patients displayed significantly lower mean levels of total cholesterol (200.8 ± 35.6 vs. 226.9 ± 41.4 mg/dl, p < 0.001) and a significantly lower prevalence of hypercholesterolemia (50.9 vs. 72.7 %, p < 0.01) when compared with non-obese patients. Morbid-obese patients also had lower mean serum HDL cholesterol and higher serum triglycerides. The impact of a raised serum TSH on the lipid profile differs in morbid-obese compared to non-obese patients, suggesting that obese patients might not be truly hypothyroid. Measuring total cholesterol could be a helpful tool for deciding whether a morbid-obese patient with a raised serum TSH should be given levothyroxine treatment.

Rotondi M; Leporati P; Rizza MI; Clerici A; Groppelli G; Pallavicini C; La Manna A; Fonte R; Magri F; Biondi B; Chiovato L

2013-03-01

378

An implicit assessment of the effect of artificial cheek raising: when your face smiles, the world looks nicer.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Experiments were conducted with 80 undergraduate participants (52 men and 28 women) to examine whether the sensation of having the cheeks lifted or pulled down would elicit different responses in an implicit association test. Implicit emotional responses were measured for two facial feedback conditions by utilizing a modified Affect Misattribution Procedure. The participants wore one of two types of simple devices designed to either raise or lower the cheeks, and rated neutral targets preceded by three types (positive, neutral, or negative) of prime photos. The results showed that the participants whose cheeks were raised tended to rate the targets statistically more positively than did those whose cheeks were lowered.

Mori H; Mori K

2013-04-01

379

Anonymous or known donors? A brief discussion of the psychosocial issues raised by removing anonymity from sperm donors.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In spite of a trend towards open identity, the ethical issues raised by the removal of anonymity from sperm donors are still contentious and raise controversy about the significance of genetic inheritance and what are often seen as competing rights claims for the children born, for donors and for the parents of donor insemination (DI) offspring. This review provides a short discussion of the arguments for and against the disclosure of donor insemination status to offspring, which are at the heart of the controversy over anonymity as they relate to the stakeholders in the process.

Burr JA

2013-03-01

380

Raising Awareness of Research Ethics in SoTL: The Role of Educational Developers  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Does the subject of research ethics take you by surprise? Does it make you somewhat uncomfortable? Does itseem to have nothing to do with your research or your practice? These are the attitudes we have encounteredabout research ethics among some SoTL researchers at workshops and conferences. In many cases, theseresearchers had conducted research that should have undergone research ethics board (REB) review, but didnot; that should have included a consent process for the use of student data or previous work, but did not; orthat started out as program evaluation and became research without meeting the criteria of ethicallyacceptable research conduct. In this essay, we will argue that familiarity with our national research ethicsPolicy: The Tri-Council Policy Statement: Ethical Conduct for Research Involving Humans, 2nd edition(TCPS 2) and how it applies to SoTL, is essential for researchers and for educational developers. We willpropose a role for Centre of Teaching and Learning staff in raising awareness of TCPS 2 and we will dispelsome of the most common myths and misconceptions that abound regarding SoTL and research ethics.Le sujet de l’éthique de la recherche vous surprend-il? Vous rend-il quelque peu mal à l’aise? Semble-t-il nerien avoir à faire avec votre recherche ou votre pratique? Ce sont des attitudes que nous avons rencontréesquant à l’éthique de la recherche chez certains chercheurs en ACEA dans des ateliers et des conférences. Dansde nombreux cas, les chercheurs ont effectué des recherches qui auraient dû être examinées par les conseilsd’éthique en recherche, mais qui ne l’ont pas été; qui auraient dû comprendre un processus de consentementpour l’utilisation de données sur les étudiants ou de travaux antérieurs et pour lesquelles mais ils n’en ont pas,ou qui ont commencé par être une évaluation de programme et qui sont devenues une recherche sanstoutefois respecter les critères relatifs à la conduite d’une recherche éthiquement acceptable. Dans cet essai,nous expliquons que la connaissance de notre politique nationale d’éthique en matière de recherche : l’Énoncéde politique des trois Conseils : Éthique de la recherche avec des êtres humains 2e édition (EPTC 2), estessentielle et nous montrons en quoi elle s’applique à l’ACEA. Nous proposons un rôle pour le personnel duCentre d’enseignement et d’apprentissage afin de mieux faire connaître l’EPTC 2 et dissipons les mythes etidées erronées les plus courants qui abondent concernant l’ACEA et l’éthique de la recherche.

Denise Stockley; Laura-Lee Balkwill

2013-01-01

 
 
 
 
381

Raising awareness for research on earth walls, and earth scientific aspects  

Science.gov (United States)

A conference to raise awareness In the Netherlands, little research on earth walls has been done. To improve attention for earth walls, a number of organisations, including Geoheritage NL, organized a conference at the RCE, the Cultural Heritage Agency of the Netherlands. The conference* presented a state-of-the-art of research done. The book with the presentations, and extra case studies added, was published in December 2012. The book concludes with a research action list, including earth science research, and can be downloaded freely from the internet. It has English summaries. The earth science aspects Historical earth walls do not only add cultural value to a landscape, but also geodiversity value. Apart from geomorphological aspects, the walls contain information about past land- and climate conditions: - They cover up a former topography, a past landscape. A relevant source of scientific information where lands are levelled, as is the case in many parts of The Netherlands; - The soil formation under the earth wall is a reference soil. The soil formation in the top of the wall gives insight in the rate of soil formation in relationship with the age and parent material of the wall; - The soil profiles of different age have ecological significance. Older walls with a more pronounced soil formation often hold forest flora that has disappeared from the surrounding environment, such as historical bush or tree species, autogenetic DNA material or a specific soil fauna; - The materials in the earth walls tell about the process of wall-building. Paleosols and sedimentary structures in the earth walls, in the gullies and colluvial fans along the walls contain information about past land management and climate. - The eroded appearance of the earth walls is part of their history, and contain information about past management and land conditions, has ecological relevance, for example for insects, and is often visually more interesting. Insight in the rates of erosion are important for earth wall maintenance. A reconnaissance study of earth science aspects of earth walls in Ede The poster further presents a reconnaissance study in the municipality Ede describing differences in morphology, geology and soil profile development. E.g. totally black plaggen A-like horizons occur over 1 m thick, as well as differences in brown B-horizons from 0 cm, 2-3 cm to 15-20 cm. Inferred from cultural data, 2-3 cm B-horizons have an age of about two - three hundred years. Reference Henk Baas, Bert Groenwoudt, Pim Jungerius, Hans Renes (eds.), 2012. Tot hier toe en niet verder - historische wallen in het Nederlandse landschap., RCE - Cultural Heritage Agency of the Netherlands, Amersfoort (includes English summaries)

van den Ancker, Hanneke; Jungerius, Pieter Dirk; Baas, Henk; Groenewoudt, Bert; Peen, Charlotte

2013-04-01

382

Grammatical consciousness-raising: a problem-solving, process-focused approach  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available How can we address the teaching of English as a second language in South African secondary schools given what we know about the nature of language acquisition, learners' lack of exposure to mother tongue English speakers and their widely divergent language experience at primary school/eve!? This paper argues that grammatical consciousness-raising should be the basis of the secondary school syllabus. Current syllabuses do not adequately consider language acquisition processes. Although their aims are defined as 'communicative: syllabuses continue to focus on what language should be taught, with the result that they remain essentially lists of structures and functions. Syllabuses should be completely redesigned to develop a coherent process-focused, problemsolving approach to second language teaching. At the moment there is a distinct reluctance to make any definitive pronouncements about the place of language instruction in the classroom. This has a detrimental effect on both teachers and learners. The only way to cope with the developing language needs of the learner in the secondary school is through a more conscious study of how language is used in natural discourse. A more deliberate language control on the part of the learner will enhance the efficacy of extensive listening, speaking, reading and writing activities designed to supply input which is a necessary but not sufficient criterion for acquisition at this leveL Hoe kan ons die onderrig van Engels as 'n tweede taal in Suid-Afrikaanse sekondere skole aanspreek, gegee ons kennis van die aard van taalverwerwing, die leerders se gebrek aan blootstelling aan Engels-moederlaalsprekers en hul uiteenlopende taalondervinding op laerskoolvlak? Hierdie arlikel voer aan dat grammatikale bewustheidsopskerping die basis van die sekondere skoolleerplan behoorl te wees. Huidige leerplanne neem nie taalverwerwingsprosesse voldoende in ag nie. Alhoewel hulle doelstellings as kommunikatief beskryf word, fokus leerplanne steeds op wafter taalinhoude onderrig moet word. Gevolglik bly leerplanne hoofsaaklik lyste van strukture en funksies. Leerplanne behoorl heeltemal herontwerp te word om 'n samehangende proses-gefokusde, probleemoplossingsbenadering tot tweede taalonderrig te ontwikkel. Tans is daar 'n duidelike onwilligheid om enige definitiewe uitspraak te !ewer oor die plek van taalonderrig in die klaskamer. Dit het 'n nadelige uitwerking op onderwysers en ook die leerders. Die enigste manier waarop die ontwikkelende taalbehoeftes van die sekondere skoolleerling geakkommodeer kan word, is deur 'n meer bewuste studie te maak van hoe taal in 'n natuurlike diskoers gebruik word. 'n Meer doelbewuste taalbeheer aan die kant van die leerder sal die doeltreffendheid van ekstensiewe luister-, praat-, lees- en skryfaktiwiteite bevorder. Hierdie aktiwiteite verskaf die nodige taalinsette, maar is op sigself onvoldoende om taalverwerwing op hierdie vlak te verseker.

Wendy R. Kilfoil

2013-01-01

383

Seven steps to raise world security. Op-Ed, published in the Finanical Times  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In recent years, three phenomena have radically altered the security landscape. They are the emergence of a nuclear black market, the determined efforts by more countries to acquire technology to produce the fissile material usable in nuclear weapons and the clear desire of terrorists to acquire weapons of mass destruction. The IAEA has been trying to solve these new problems with existing tools. But for every step forward, we have exposed vulnerabilities in the system. The system itself - the regime that implements non-proliferation treaty needs reinforcement. Some of the necessary remedies can be taken in New York at the Meeting to be held in May, but only if governments are ready to act. With seven straightforward steps, and without amending the treaty, this conference could reach a milestone in strengthening world security. The first step: put a five-year hold on additional facilities for uranium enrichment and plutonium separation. Second, speed up existing efforts, led by the US global threat reduction initiative and others, to modify the research reactors worldwide operating with highly enriched uranium - particularly those with metal fuel that could be readily employed as bomb material. Third, raise the bar for inspection standards by establishing the 'additional protocol' as the norm for verifying compliance with the NPT. Fourth, call on the United Nations Security Council to act swiftly and decisively in the case of any country that withdraws from the NPT, in terms of the threat the withdrawal poses to international peace and security. Fifth, urge states to act on the Security Council's recent resolution 1540, to pursue and prosecute any illicit trading in nuclear material and technology. Sixth, call on the five nuclear weapon states party to the NPT to accelerate implementation of their 'unequivocal commitment' to nuclear disarmament, building on efforts such as the 2002 Moscow treaty between Russia and the US. Last, acknowledge the volatility of longstanding tensions that give rise to proliferation, in regions such as the Middle East and the Korean peninsula, and take action to resolve existing security problems and, where needed, provide security assurances. None of these steps will work in isolation. Each requires a concession from someone. But with leadership from all sides, this package of proposals will create gains for everyone. This opportunity will come again - in 2010. But given current trends, the international community cannot afford to wait another five years

2005-01-01

384

Factors affecting irrigation water savings in raised beds in rice and wheat  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Raised beds have been proposed for rice-wheat (RW) cropping systems in the Indo-Gangetic Plains as a means of increasing irrigation water productivity, among many other potential benefits. Field experiments were carried out in Punjab, India, during 2002-2006 to compare irrigation water use and productivity of transplanted rice and drill-sown wheat on fresh and permanent beds and conventionally tilled flats. Total irrigation applications to conventionally tilled wheat (CTW) and wheat on beds were similar on both soils, in both small plots and in a farmers' field, with one exception—irrigation amount on fresh beds was 10% lower than on permanent beds in the farmers' field. Yields on beds and CTW were similar on the loam, but were sometimes lower on beds on the sandy loam. In the small plots, irrigation water productivity (WPIW) on beds and in CTW was similar (mean 2gkg?¹) on the loam, but about 20% on the sandy loam, mainly due to lower yields. In the farmers' field, WPIW (1.5gkg?¹) was 15% higher on the fresh beds than on the permanent beds due to lower irrigation amount. The amount of irrigation water applied to rice on permanent beds and puddled transplanted rice (PTR) was similar in the small plots on the sandy loam. However, on the loam, irrigation application to the permanent beds was significantly higher, by about 18%. There was a significant decline in grain yield on the permanent beds relative to that in PTR over the 4 years, on both soils. WPIW on the permanent beds decreased with time on both soils, mainly due to declining grain yield. Irrigation applications to rice on fresh beds were lower than applications to the puddled flats (by 11% on the sandy loam, and by 20-24% on the loam) while yields were 7 and 15% lower, resulting in similar WPIW on fresh beds and PTR. Reducing irrigation application from full-furrow to half-furrow depth in the farmers' field reduced the irrigation amount on both permanent and fresh beds by 40-50%, but yield was also reduced by about 20%. The results show that beds do not always save irrigation water or increase WPIW in comparison with conventionally tilled flat fields, for both rice and wheat under our soil and environmental conditions. The effects of the beds depend on irrigation/water management (of both beds and flats), age of the beds and soil type. The effect of beds on irrigation amount is also likely to depend on factors such as depth to the water table, levelness of the soil surface, and size and shape of fields relative to irrigation flow rate.

Kukal SS; Sudhir-Yadav; Humphreys E; Amanpreet-Kaur; Yadvinder-Singh; Thaman S; Singh B; Timsina J

2010-07-01

385

Immunochemical characterization of rhesus proteins with antibodies raised against synthetic peptides.  

Science.gov (United States)

Rabbit polyclonal antibodies were raised against synthetic peptides corresponding to hydrophilic regions of the human Rhesus (Rh) IX cDNA-encoded polypeptide predicted to be extracellularly or intracellularly exposed in the topologic model of the Rh blood group protein. Four antibodies encompassing residues 33-45 (MPC1), 224-233 (MPC4), 390-404 (MPC6), and 408-416 (MPC8) were characterized and compared with a polyclonal anti-Rh protein obtained by immunization with purified Rh proteins. All antibodies had specificity for authentic Rh polypeptides and reacted on Western blot with Rh proteins immunoprecipitated with human monoclonal anti-RhD, -c, and -E. MPC1, but not the other antibodies, agglutinated all human erythrocytes except Rhnull and Rhmod cells, which either lack totally or are severely deficient in Rh proteins, respectively. Immunoblotting analysis with membrane proteins from common and rare variants showed that MPC1 and MPC8 reacted in Western blot with 32-Kd Rh polypeptides from all common red blood cells except those from Rhnull and Rhmod, indicating that peptide regions 33-45 and 408-416 may be common to several if not all Rh proteins, whatever the Rh blood group specificity. MPC4 reacted only with membrane preparations from cells carrying the E antigen, whereas MPC6 recognized preferentially the Rh proteins from E and Ee preparations, suggesting that the protein encoded by the RhIXb cDNA carries the E and/or e antigen(s). Immunoadsorption experiments using inside-out or right-side-out sealed vesicules from DccEE red blood cells as competing antigen showed that the MPC6 and MPC8 antibodies bound only to the cytoplasmic side of the erythrocyte membrane, thus providing evidence for the intracellular orientation of the C-terminal 27 residues of the Rh polypeptides. Attempts to transiently or stably express the Rh polypeptides. Attempts to transiently or stably express the Rh cDNA in eukaryotic cells were largely unsuccessful, suggesting that Rh antigen expression at the cell surface requires correct transport and/or folding of the Rh proteins, possibly as a complex with one-membrane proteins of the Rh cluster that are lacking in Rhnull cells. PMID:8329720

Hermand, P; Mouro, I; Huet, M; Bloy, C; Suyama, K; Goldstein, J; Cartron, J P; Bailly, P

1993-07-15

386

Immunochemical characterization of rhesus proteins with antibodies raised against synthetic peptides.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Rabbit polyclonal antibodies were raised against synthetic peptides corresponding to hydrophilic regions of the human Rhesus (Rh) IX cDNA-encoded polypeptide predicted to be extracellularly or intracellularly exposed in the topologic model of the Rh blood group protein. Four antibodies encompassing residues 33-45 (MPC1), 224-233 (MPC4), 390-404 (MPC6), and 408-416 (MPC8) were characterized and compared with a polyclonal anti-Rh protein obtained by immunization with purified Rh proteins. All antibodies had specificity for authentic Rh polypeptides and reacted on Western blot with Rh proteins immunoprecipitated with human monoclonal anti-RhD, -c, and -E. MPC1, but not the other antibodies, agglutinated all human erythrocytes except Rhnull and Rhmod cells, which either lack totally or are severely deficient in Rh proteins, respectively. Immunoblotting analysis with membrane proteins from common and rare variants showed that MPC1 and MPC8 reacted in Western blot with 32-Kd Rh polypeptides from all common red blood cells except those from Rhnull and Rhmod, indicating that peptide regions 33-45 and 408-416 may be common to several if not all Rh proteins, whatever the Rh blood group specificity. MPC4 reacted only with membrane preparations from cells carrying the E antigen, whereas MPC6 recognized preferentially the Rh proteins from E and Ee preparations, suggesting that the protein encoded by the RhIXb cDNA carries the E and/or e antigen(s). Immunoadsorption experiments using inside-out or right-side-out sealed vesicules from DccEE red blood cells as competing antigen showed that the MPC6 and MPC8 antibodies bound only to the cytoplasmic side of the erythrocyte membrane, thus providing evidence for the intracellular orientation of the C-terminal 27 residues of the Rh polypeptides. Attempts to transiently or stably express the Rh polypeptides. Attempts to transiently or stably express the Rh cDNA in eukaryotic cells were largely unsuccessful, suggesting that Rh antigen expression at the cell surface requires correct transport and/or folding of the Rh proteins, possibly as a complex with one-membrane proteins of the Rh cluster that are lacking in Rhnull cells.

Hermand P; Mouro I; Huet M; Bloy C; Suyama K; Goldstein J; Cartron JP; Bailly P

1993-07-01

387

Policy Rationalities and Policy Technologies: A Programme for Analysing the Raised School-Leaving Age in Western Australia  

Science.gov (United States)

In this paper I outline an approach towards policy analysis that takes governmentality as its point of theoretical orientation and begin to apply this approach to my research into the recently raised compulsory school-leaving age in Western Australia. I aim to demonstrate the methodological potentials of this approach by giving examples of the…

Hodgson, David

2011-01-01

388

The Children Should Lead Us: Diane Ehrensaft's "Gender Born, Gender Made--Raising Healthy Gender-Nonconforming Children"  

Science.gov (United States)

This article reviews Diane Ehrensaft's "Gender Born, Gender Made: Raising Healthy Gender-Nonconforming Children", a thoughtful and practical guide that can help parents, other family members, and therapists better understand and support children and youth whom the author refers to as "gender creative." Ehrensaft's work is at the forefront of a…

Beemyn, Genny

2013-01-01

389

Cinta Senese and Large White x Cinta Senese raised on pasture in wood: sample join composition and meat quality  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available During recent years animal welfare has received considerable attention in Europe. To satisfy the demand for better ethics and health regarding pigs, it has become popular to raise pigs outdoors. In Mediterranean area free-ranged system is carried out with indigenous breed. In Italy Cinta Senese is one of the main autochthonous breed...

C. Pugliese; G. Campodoni; M. Badii; L. Pianaccioli; O. Franci

2011-01-01

390

Fund Raising at a Disco: Many Colleges Find Success with Special Appeals Aimed Just at Young Alumni.  

Science.gov (United States)

|Hamilton College has developed an imaginative program for young alumni that organizes activities geared to young adults' tastes and interests. Since its establishment, the college has had large increases in giving by this group. Nationwide, other colleges are raising substantial funds by targeting young graduates. (MSE)|

Greene, Elizabeth

1988-01-01

391

Evaluation of milk production of a local Algerian rabbit population raised in the Tizi-Ouzou area (Kabylia).  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In order to characterize the does of a local Kabylian rabbit population raised in Algeria, a study of their milk production was carried out in the experimental rabbitry of the Tizi-Ouzou University. Milk production of does was measured every day during the 21 days following 299 parturitions by weigh...

Zerrouki, N.; Lebas, F.; Berchiche, M.; Bolet, G.

392

Effect of Raising the Environmental Awareness on Reducing Kitchen Water Consumption by Jordanian Families Living in Amman City  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Problem statement: Improper use of water by Jordanian families accombined with acute shortage in water resources. Approach: This study aimed to raise the degree of the environmental awareness regarding the significance of reducing kitchen water consumption of the Jordanian families liv...

Damanhouri M. Said; Ayman S. Mazahreh; Heba Hammad; Ali F. Al-Shawabkeh; Khaled S. Al-Saraireh

393

Consciousness-Raising as Collective Rhetoric: The Articulation of Experience in the Redstockings' Abortion Speak-Out of 1969  

Science.gov (United States)

This essay offers a theory of collective rhetoric derived from a case study of a central rhetorical event of the second wave of feminism, the Redstockings' 1969 abortion speak-out. A central rhetorical function of consciousness-raising was the collective development of experiential knowledge, and I propose that collective rhetorics are…

Dubriwny, Tasha N.

2005-01-01

394

Compromised metamorphosis and thyroid hormone changes in wood frogs (Lithobates sylvaticus) raised on reclaimed wetlands on the Athabasca oil sands  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The wet landscape approach to oil sands tailings reclamation in the Athabasca Oil Sands region involves creating wetlands from fluid tailings in mined-out pits. We measured time to metamorphosis, thyroid hormone status, and detoxification enzyme (EROD) induction in Wood frog (Lithobates sylvaticus) tadpoles raised on reclaimed oil sands wetlands of different ages [young (?7 yr) vs. old (>7 yr)] and compared data with tadpoles raised on reference (control) wetlands. Metamorphosis was delayed or never occurred in tadpoles raised in young tailings; those exposed to older tailings developed similarly to those in reference wetlands. Thyroid hormone disruption likely played an important role in the metamorphosis delay as the T3:T4 ratio was lowest in tadpoles raised in young, tailings-affected wetlands. Our findings suggest tailings wetlands become less toxic with age, and that these amphibians will be able to complete their life cycle in tailing wetlands that have sufficiently detoxified with age. - This work provides guidance for reclamation of oil sands tailings and shows the usefulness of frogs and caging studies in environmental toxicology.

2011-01-01

395

What's the Problem? L2 Learners' Use of the L1 during Consciousness-Raising, Form-Focused Tasks  

Science.gov (United States)

This qualitative study provides preliminary insight into the role of the first language (L1) when pairs of intermediate-level college learners of French and Spanish are engaged in consciousness-raising, form-focused grammar tasks. Using conversation analysis of audiotaped interactions and stimulated recall sessions, we explored the ways students…

Scott, Virginia M.; de la Fuente, Maria Jose

2008-01-01

396

COMPARISON OF MORPHOLOGICAL AND REPRODUCTIVE PROPERTIES OF LIPPIZANER MARES IN STUD FARM RAISING AND ON FAMILY FARMS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper aimed at determination of defferences in morphological and reproductive properties of Lippizaner breed blood mares raised in stud farm ?akovo and on family farms. Results of morphological properties investigation indicate better development of investigated body measures of a stud farm mares, except chest width that was more pronounced in family farm mares. Significant differences were determined with withers height (cattle tape), back height and cannon bone circumference whereas differences of withers height (stick), small of the back height, chest depth and chest width were highly significant. As for reproductive properties stud farm raising mares were older at first fertilization and first foaling compared to the family farm mares. Statistically very significant differences in pregnancy duration were determined only at 5-12 pregnancy of stud farm raising mares. First, second, fourth and 5-12 service period lasted longer in stud farm raising mares whereas longer duration of the second and third service period was determined with family farm mares.

Tomo Rastija; Draženka Gutzmirtl; Zvonko Antunovi?; Ivan Kneževi?; Mirjana Baban

2000-01-01

397

Is the Week over yet? Insight for Educators about Social Network Support among Cyber Mothers Raising Children with ASD  

Science.gov (United States)

This study examined the motivation to participate in social networks maintained by mothers who blog and raise children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). The qualitative data analyzed in this study originated from a larger project that examined the perceptions, experiences, and meanings among mothers who maintained public blogs while parenting…

Swanke, Jayme; Doktor, Judy; Shrestha, Sabita; Zeman, Laura Dreuth

2013-01-01

398

Is the Week over yet? Insight for Educators about Social Network Support among Cyber Mothers Raising Children with ASD  

Science.gov (United States)

|This study examined the motivation to participate in social networks maintained by mothers who blog and raise children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). The qualitative data analyzed in this study originated from a larger project that examined the perceptions, experiences, and meanings among mothers who maintained public blogs while parenting…

Swanke, Jayme; Doktor, Judy; Shrestha, Sabita; Zeman, Laura Dreuth

2013-01-01

399

IT solutions enhance competitiveness. Raising economic efficiency of power plant operation; Steigerung der Wettbewerbsfaehigkeit durch IT. Betriebswirtschaftlichkeit in Kraftwerken  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

IT solutions help power plant operators in raising the economic efficiency and competitiveness of their plants. Siemens offers a comprehensive product portfolio for this purpose. (orig./GL) [German] IT-Loesungen helfen Kraftwerksbetreibern, die Produktivitaet, Effizienz und Wettbewerbsfaehigkeit ihres Kraftwerkes zu sichern und zu erhoehen. Siemens bietet dazu ein umfangreiches Produktportfolio. (orig.)

Anon.

2001-09-10

400

Coal deposition in the Noric Depression (Eastern Alps). Raised and low-lying mires in Miocene pull-apart basins  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Pull-apart basins often form during the late stage of continental collision. Provided appropriate climatic conditions, these basins may contain thick coal seams. Two such examples are the Leoben and Fohnsdorf Basins in Austria, which formed in Miocene times during the post-collisional stage of the Alpine orogene. Both basins contain more than 10 m of sub-bituminous coal. Despite similar ages, tectonic settings, and similar stratigraphic position of the seams within the sedimentary sequence, the properties of the coals differ significantly. The Leoben coal is quite clean, whereas Fohnsdorf coal is rich in ash and sulfur. Petrographical and geochemical methods were applied to reconstruct the environmental factors that controlled coal properties in these basins. Coal formation in the Leoben Basin commenced in an eutrophic, low-lying mire. This was followed by deposition of the main body of coal, which formed in an ombrotrophic raised mire. Coal deposition was only shortly interrupted by deposition of volcanic ashes. Due to an acid paleo-environment, the volcanic material within the raised mire was altered to kaolinite. Thick vitrain bands representing large trees are found in the lower part of the seam only. Siderite is the main inorganic constituent in the main coal body. Lakes within the raised mire were present during late stages of peat accumulation and were filled with sapropelic coal. The high ash yields of this facies are due to abundant siliceous sponges, siliceous crusts, and tuffogenic minerals. Finally, high subsidence rates caused the flooding of the raised mire and sapropelic shales were deposited in the newly formed lake. The iron, which formed siderite in the raised mire, and biogenic and abiogenic silica present in the lakes within the raised mire, are derived from volcanic ashes. The high-ash Fohnsdorf coal was formed in a low-lying mire close to a brackish lake. The seam geometry is controlled by the progradation of a fluvio-deltaic system into the brackish lake, and its subsequent drowning. The roof of the seam is formed by coquinoidal limestones and sapropelic shales. The brackish influence reduced the acidity of the mire, which resulted in the transformation of volcanic glass into montmorillonite. The low acidity also promoted high bacterial activity, which together with the high sulfate content of brackish waters, explains the high sulfur and pyrite content of the coal. Its high content of biogenic (?) methane is probably another effect of bacterial activity. Low-ash, low-sulfur coal is restricted to thin layers. These might represent local raised mires, which formed after the withdrawal of a fluvial system.

Gruber, W.; Sachsenhofer, R.F. [Institut fuer Geowissenschaften, Montanuniversitaet Leoben, Peter-Tunner-Strasse 5, A-8700 Leoben (Austria)

2001-12-01