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1

Evaluation of the validity of high serum antistreptolysin o titre only, as an indication for tonsillectomy.  

Science.gov (United States)

Serum Antistreptolysin O (ASO) titre is raised when there is infection of any organ of the body, by Group A beta haemolytic streptococci (GABHS), Group C or Group G streptococci [1]. Increased serum ASO titre should not be the only deciding criterion for tonsillectomy if GABHS is not present in the palatine tonsils. In this study, we evaluate the rationality of performing tonsillectomy in raised serum ASO titre only, in absence of GABHS in palatine tonsil. The study was designed as a prospective cohort study in which the main out come measure is to find out: The main outcome measure is to find out whether only the raised serum ASO titre is to be considered to perform tonsillectomy or not. Fifty consecutive patients (both children and adults) clinically diagnosed to have chronic tonsillitis were included in this prospective cohort study. Throat swab culture, tonsilar core tissue culture and Serum ASO titre tests were performed in all the patients. The results showed that out of the 50 patients 45 had raised ASO titre and 5 patients had normal ASO titre. GABHS was found in 5 cases (10 %) in throat swab culture and 8 cases (16 %) in FNA of tonsil core culture. The sensitivity of throat swab culture as compared to FNA Tonsil core culture was 62.5 % and positive predictive value was 100 %. The sensitivity of ASO titre as compared to core culture was 100 % and positive predictive value was 17.8 %. Specificity was only 12 %. From the results of this study, it is evident that FNA culture of the tonsil core is a valid and a reliable test for the diagnosis of bacterial micro flora in recurrent tonsillitis. One should perform throat swab culture and FNA culture from tonsil core along with ASO titre before doing tonsillectomy in absence of any other indications. Identifying GABHS in the tonsil by FNA test and/or in the throat swab culture along with high serum ASO titre may be one of the ideal indications for tonsillectomy. PMID:25032106

Hembrom, R; Roychaudhuri, B K; Saha, A K; Roychowdhury, A; Ghosh, S; Gon, S; Mandal, K

2014-09-01

2

Antistreptolysin O Levels in Patients with Behcet’s Disease  

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Objective: Behcet’s disease is a multisystem inflammatory disorder, and its etiology has not been defined clearly yet. In this study, we aimed to investigate the antistreptolysin O (ASO) levels of patients with Behcet’s disease. Materials and Methods: Thirty patients with Behcet’s disease and 30 healthy controls were enrolled in this study. We measured erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), serum C-reactive protein (CRP), and ASO levels in both groups.Results: There was no statistically ...

Hulya Uzkeser; Saliha Karatay; Kadir Yildirim; Ali Karakuzu; Muhammed Hamidullah Uyanik

2011-01-01

3

The clinical-diagnostic role of antistreptolysin O antibodies.  

Science.gov (United States)

The antistreptolysin O antibody (ASLO) test is often requested in a clinical setting with limited evidence for its usefulness. For this reason, the diagnostic scenario in which ASLO plays an evidence-based role and the analytical performance of the test are critically appraised, taking into account the clinical need and the direct medical cost. Little or no scientific evidence was found for the use of ASLO in patients with pharyngitis, post-streptococcal glomerulonephritis and in adults with rheumatoid arthritis. The clinical relevance of ASLO is restricted to paediatrics, where it contributes to fulfil the diagnosis of acute rheumatic fever (ARF) as per Jones criteria. The standardization of current automated ASLO-latex assays is limited. Attention should be paid to inaccurate reference values and many circumstances causing false positive and false negative results. Because of a low prevalence of ARF in the Western world, a high negative predictive value is obtained for the ASLO test (> 99%). In clinical practice, the result of the test is not urgent. To reduce overconsumption, the clinical laboratory should drive the request behaviour of physicians by a strategic lay-out of the application form. The health insurance/government also contributed by introducing a diagnostic rule for reimbursement. PMID:22338301

Geerts, I; De Vos, N; Frans, J; Mewis, A

2011-01-01

4

Is raised helicobacter pylori antibody titre enough to decide retreatment  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Background: Helicobacter pylori infection causes a rise in its antibodies which take almost a year to come to baseline following successful eradication treatment. Checking these values in between a year may give falsely high values and many patients may thus be over treated. Aims: To serially determine Helicobacter pylori antibody titres in patients after giving them triple therapy for H. pylori eradication and see how these values drop over time. Study type, Settings and duration: Longitudinal study conducted in Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Pakistan Medical Research Council, Research Centre, Jinnah Post Graduate Medical Centre, Karachi, from May 2006 to April 2010. Subjects and Methods: Over the period of four years, 186 patients who were found positive for campylobacter like organism test during endoscopy were further tested for anti H. pylori IgG titre before being treated for H. pylori. Patients were given triple therapy comprising of Omeprazole (20 mg twice daily), Amoxicillin (1 gm twice daily) and Clarythromycin (500 mg twice daily) for a week and were followed at 1, 3, 6 and 12 months to check symptomatic relief and they were tested again for H.Pylori antibody titres. Data was collected on pre-designed proforma which included patient's demography, symptoms and diagnosis. Results: Out of 186 patients who had a positive campylobacter like organism test, 173 patients consented to participate in the study. Serology for H.Pylori was positive in 11. Serology for H.Pylori was positive in 119(68%) cases. A decline in mean antibody titres was observed as 11%, 21.5%, 54.7% and 59.2% at 1, 3, 6 and 12 months respectively. Conclusions: Sensitivity of serology for diagnosing H. pylori infection is good but using these as a tool for monitoring response to treatment is doubtful. A slow drop in H.pylori antibodies was seen over 12 months and therefore, physicians are cautioned not to retreat the already treated cases till about one year post treatment. Policy message: H. pylori antibodies should be checked on regular basis to diagnose new cases but it should not be used in previously treated patients to retreat. (author)

5

Anti-streptolysin O titer, fifty-five years after Todd: a reappraisal of its clinical significance.  

Science.gov (United States)

Anti-streptolysin O (ASO) antibodies are an expression of the frequent encounters even during the first years of life with beta hemolytic Streptococci, they are easily measured by quantitative laboratory tests and so possess the characteristics of a screening test for impaired antibody production. We have assessed ASO titers in 1955 healthy subjects of different ages (range: 1 month to 97 years). The behaviour of ASO titer is extensively described in the text. The percentage of people with less than 10 TU titers is under 5% after the age of 5 years up to 15 years; from 15 to 60 years there are no subjects with undetectable ASO titer and after this age the percentage is still under 5%. It seems therefore advisable not to define a "normal" treshold when titrating these antibodies to avoid the risk of missing low antibody producers. PMID:3228500

Aguzzi, F; Rezzani, A; Nespoli, L; Monafo, V; Burgio, G R

1988-01-01

6

Evaluation of prophylactic penicillin administration in children with joint complaints andhigh serum anti-streptolysin O titers  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Objective: Eligibility criteria for the diagnosis of acuterheumatic fever and the reasons for the administration ofprophylactic penicillin were investigated in patients admittedwith complaints of joint and high anti-streptolysin O(ASO titers.Materials and methods: From the hospital reports, 240patients those ASO titers were higher than 300 Todd unitand aged between 6-16 years were included to the study.The presence of swelling /redness /limitation of movementand number of affected joints, duration of complaints,presence of fever, prophylactic penicillin administration,response to therapy and repetition were asked. Eligibilityfor Jones criteria for the diagnosis of acute rheumaticfever was investigated.Results: Arthritis was present in 39 (16.25% patientsand 31 (79.5% of these patients were given penicillinprophylaxis. The number of patients with joint pain was201 (83.75% and 109 (54.2% of them were given prophylacticpenicillin administration.Conclusion: In this study, we found high penicillin administrationrate without real indication. Acute rheumaticfever diagnosis in children should be carefully based onJones criteria suggested by WHO and AHA and should beavoided from unnecessary prophylaxis.Key words: joint pain, acute rheumatic fever, penicillin rophylaxis.

Ay?enur Paç K?saarslan

2013-03-01

7

Antistreptolysin O titer  

Science.gov (United States)

... Practice of Infectious Diseases. 7th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Churchill Livingstone; 2009:chap 199. Bisno AL, Stevens ... Practice of Infectious Diseases. 7th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Churchill Livingstone; 2009:chap 198. Comeau D, Heaton ...

8

Panda Raising  

Science.gov (United States)

This year has seen a record number of panda babies in zoos around the world, including precocious Tai Shan at the National Zoo in Washington, DC. Assistant curator Lisa Stevens is on the team that cares for Tai. She says his birth has been a good opportunity for the zoo to showcase its style of panda-raising which is to step back and let the mother do the work.

Science Update (AAAS; )

2005-12-08

9

Recurrences of transient synovitis of the hip.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Thirty six children with transient synovitis of the hip had a total of 80 recurrences, 69 of them personally observed, and 11 described by the mother. No features distinguished the initial attack of those who had a recurrence from that of the 18 children who have not so far had a recurrence. We analysed the total of 126 episodes. In 72 there was evidence of an associated infection from the history, clinical signs, and a raised antistreptolysin O titre or isolation of a pathogen from a throat ...

Illingworth, C. M.

1983-01-01

10

Endotoxin and liver diseases. High titres of enterobacterial common antigen antibodies in patients with alcoholic cirrhosis.  

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We have measured antibodies to the enterobacterial common antigen (ECA) in sera of 86 patients with various liver diseases. ECA is a component of the cell wall of all enteric bacteria, and ECA antibodies are a specific indication of the presence of enterobacterial components. Patients with alcoholic cirrhosis with or without signs of alcoholic hepatitis had significantly raised anti-ECA titres compared with healthy control subjects. Other groups of patients (alcoholic hepatitis and/or fatty l...

Turunen, U.; Malkama?ki, M.; Valtonen, V. V.; Larinkar?i, U.; Pikkarainen, P.; Salaspuro, M. P.; Ma?kela?, P. H.

1981-01-01

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Serum bactericidal and inhibitory titres in the management of melioidosis.  

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A retrospective evaluation of the relationship between serum bactericidal and inhibitory titres and treatment outcome in 195 adult Thai patients with severe melioidosis was conducted. Drug regimens included ceftazidime (52% of patients), co-amoxiclav (24%), imipenem (11%) or the conventional four-drug combination (11%). Pre- and 1 h post-dose serum samples were collected after 48-72 h of therapy, and serum inhibitory and bactericidal titrations determined. Median post-dose titres were: bacter...

Simpson, Aj; Dance, Da; Wuthiekanun, V.; White, Nj

2000-01-01

12

Raising the Titanic.  

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Described is an activity in which groups of students investigate engineering principles by writing a feasibility study to raise the luxury liner, Titanic. The problem statement and directions, and suggestions for problem solutions are included. (CW)

Baker, Romona

1990-01-01

13

Distracted Driving Raises Crash Risk  

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... review our exit disclaimer . Subscribe Distracted Driving Raises Crash Risk Video technology and in-vehicle sensors showed that ... the wheel.” search Health Capsules Distracted Driving Raises Crash Risk Caring for a Seriously Ill Child Featured Website: ...

14

Induced quantitative variation for penicillin titre in clonal populations of Aspergillus nidulans.  

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The variation in penicillin titre within populations of cultures of Aspergillus nidulans derived from untreated conidia and from conidia treated with ethyl methanesulphonate (EMS), near-ultraviolet light in the presence of 8-methoxypsoralen (8MOP) or N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine (NTG), each at several dose levels, was determined. Both mutagentreated and untreated populations showed a continuous distribution of pencillin titres. The population mean titre of the mutagenized populations was decreased and the range of titres was increased relative to those of the control populations. No differences between sister cultures could be detected in three untreated populations, but nine out of ten populations derived from mutagenized conidia showed significant variation for penicillin titre. In general the magnitude of this induced variation increased with increasing dosage of the mutagen. Comparisons at fixed survival levels indicate that 8MOP mutagenesis is less effective for the induction of variation in penicillin titre than EMS or NTG mutagenesis. A statistical procedure was adopted to classify the survivors as unchanged cultures ('0'), titre-increasing mutants ('+') or titre-decreasing mutants ("-"). The frequency of both '+' and '-' mutants increased following mutagenesis, with NTG being the most active of the three mutagens. Over all treatments, these two mutant classes were recovered with equal frequency. The frequency of "+" mutants was largely independent of mutagen dose, within the ranges used, and moderate treatments (around 10% survival) gave as high or higher frequencies than more extreme doses. All three mutagens, and in particular NTG, produced morphological mutants. These contained an increased frequency of titre-decreasing mutants, but increases in titre appeared to be independent of changes in colony morphology. Estimates based on the observed frequencies of penicillin titre mutants suggest that several hundred genes are potentially capable of affecting this continuous variable. PMID:372487

Simpson, I N; Caten, C E

1979-01-01

15

Multiple sclerosis in the Orkney and Shetland Islands. V: The effect on viral titres of histocompatibility determinants.  

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HLA phenotypes were correlated with serum antibody titres to eight viruses in patients with multiple sclerosis and two matched control groups in the Orkney Islands. In patients, no specific HLA antigen was associated wtih increased or decreased viral titres. However, HLA-B7 was significantly correlated with higher measles titres in healthy controls. Furthermore, controls who had the HLA haplotypes, B7, DW2 ad B-cell 4, demonstrated significantly higher antibody titres to measles and rubella t...

Poskanzer, D. C.; Sever, J. L.; Terasaki, P. I.; Prenney, L. B.; Sheridan, J. L.; Park, M. S.

1980-01-01

16

Raising HDL cholesterol in women  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Danny J Eapen1, Girish L Kalra1, Luay Rifai1, Christina A Eapen2, Nadya Merchant1, Bobby V Khan11Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA, USA; 2University of South Florida School of Medicine, Tampa, FL, USAAbstract: High-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C concentration is essential in the determination of coronary heart disease (CHD risk in women. This is especially true in the postmenopausal state, where lipid profiles and CHD risk mimic that of age-matched men. Thus, interventions designed to reduce CHD risk by raising HDL-C levels may have particular significance during the transition to menopause. This review discusses HDL-C-raising therapies and the role of HDL in the primary prevention of CHD in women. Lifestyle-based interventions such as dietary change, aerobic exercise regimens, and smoking cessation are initial steps that are effective in raising HDL-C, and available data suggest women respond similarly to men with these interventions. When combined with pharmacotherapy, the effects of these lifestyle alterations are further amplified. Though studies demonstrating gender-specific differences in therapy are limited, niacin continues to be the most effective agent in raising HDL-C levels, especially when used in combination with fibrate or statin therapy. Emerging treatments such as HDL mimetic therapy show much promise in further raising HDL-C levels and improving cardiovascular outcomes.Keywords: high-density lipoprotein, HDL, women, cholesterol, heart disease

Danny J Eapen

2009-11-01

17

Differences in natural antibody titres comparing free-ranging guanacos (Lama guanicoe) and capybaras (Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris).  

Science.gov (United States)

Natural antibodies are an important component of innate humoral immunity but have not been investigated to any great extent in wild mammals. In the current study, serum natural antibody titres were measured by hemagglutination assay for two South American herbivores, the guanaco (Lama guanicoe) and the capybara (Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris). Results indicated that capybaras had antibody titres on average more than four times higher than guanacos (median titres 1:256 and 1:4, respectively), suggesting differences in investment in constitutive humoral immunity between the two species. PMID:24321369

Racca, Andrea L; Eberhardt, Ayelen T; Moreno, Pablo G; Baldi, Cecilia; Beldomenico, Pablo M

2014-02-01

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Determination of baseline antibody titre to S. typhi/paratyphi in Ile-Ife, Nigeria.  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim of the study is to determine the baseline antibody titres to Salmonella typhi/paratyphi in healthy individuals with a view to establishing the significant titre for Widal agglutination test in Ile-Ife, Western Nigeria. Three hundred and ten healthy volunteers were admitted into the study and forty-eight clinically diagnosed and culture positive cases of Enteric fever were used as purposeful controls. Widal test was performed on each serum. Slide agglutination test was first done, then positive samples were further subjected to tube agglutination for quantitative titration. Of the 310 healthy volunteers, 274 (97.2%) had reciprocal antibody titre of or = 160 to O antigen and 38 (78.2%) had reciprocal titre of > or = 160 to H. antigen. The sensitivity and specificity of the test were 89.9% and 94.2% for O antibody, and 79.2% and 92.3% for H. antibody respectively. The baseline titre to S. typhi/paratyphi for both O & H antibody is 1:80 whilst the significant titre for O & H antibodies is 1:160 and above in Ile-Ife, Nigeria. PMID:15030094

Zailani, S B; Oyelese, A O; Aboderin, A O

2003-09-01

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Evaluation of the baseline Widal titres in healthy blood donors of Uttarakhand  

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Full Text Available Introduction: The interpretation of Widal test depends upon the baseline titre which is prevalent amongst healthy individuals in a particular geographical area. Aim and Objective: The aim of this study was to determine the baseline Widal titre of the apparently healthy population of a tertiary care centre of Uttarakhand. Material and Methods: Blood samples were collected from healthy blood donors (n=500 of the age group of 18-60 years, of both the sexes, who attended our blood bank from September 2013 to November 2013 and were analyzed for the presence of Salmonella antibodies by carrying out the Widal tube agglutination test. Results: Of the 500 serum samples which were tested, 255 (51% serum samples were positive for agglutinins (? 1:20 and 245 were negative. The most frequently recorded titre of the reactive sera was 1:40 for the anti-O antibodies and 1:80 for the anti-H antibodies for Salmonella enterica serotype typhi and this was the baseline titre. While the baseline titre of the ‘H’ agglutinins of Salmonella enterica serotype paratyphi A was 1:20 and of paratyphi B was also1:20. Conclusions: Based on the results of our study, it has been recommended that the significant titre of 1:80 for the anti-O antibodies and of 1:160 for the anti-H antibodies may be considered as diagnostic for enteric fever in the region of Uttarakhand, India.

Garima Mittal

2014-09-01

20

50 CFR 14.23 - Live farm-raised fish and farm-raised fish eggs.  

Science.gov (United States)

...Live farm-raised fish and farm-raised fish eggs. 14.23 Section 14.23 Wildlife and...Live farm-raised fish and farm-raised fish eggs. Live farm-raised fish and farm-raised fish eggs meet the definition of “bred in...

2010-10-01

 
 
 
 
21

N-Q Giving raises  

Science.gov (United States)

This is a task from the Illustrative Mathematics website that is one part of a complete illustration of the standard to which it is aligned. Each task has at least one solution and some commentary that addresses important asects of the task and its potential use. Here are the first few lines of the commentary for this task: A small company wants to give raises to their 5 employees. They have $10,000 available to distribute. Imagine you are in charge of deciding how the rai...

22

Study of baseline Widal titres in a healthy adult population of Wayanad district, Kerala, India.  

Science.gov (United States)

The Widal test is still widely used in diagnosing typhoid fever in developing countries. Often, specific chemotherapy is administered based on a single Widal test. Interpretation of a single Widal test, in turn, depends on the baseline agglutinin titres among the local population in that area. Hence, we aimed to find out the baseline titres in our area. A single blood sample was collected from hospital outpatients with non-infectious diseases, the patients being aged above 18 years and residing in Wayanad district continuously for at least 5 years. The test was performed according to the Widal test kit manufacturer's instructions and interpreted using standard guidelines. The baseline titre for Anti TO, TH, AH and BH agglutinins in our area was found to be 1:40, 1:80, 1:40 and 1:40, respectively. PMID:25234424

Maulingkar, Saleel V; Prakash, R; Harish, Pv; Salabha, B

2015-01-01

23

7 CFR 65.235 - Raised.  

Science.gov (United States)

... COUNTRY OF ORIGIN LABELING OF BEEF, PORK, LAMB, CHICKEN, GOAT MEAT, PERISHABLE AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES, MACADAMIA NUTS, PECANS, PEANUTS, AND GINSENG General Provisions Definitions § 65.235 Raised. Raised means,...

2010-01-01

24

Vibrations of raised access floors  

Science.gov (United States)

Raised access floors play a critical role in modern cleanroom design. They have unique mechanical properties that make them respond to dynamic loading in a manner quite different from conventional floors. For example, an unbraced floor is much more flexible horizontally than in the vertical direction. Horizontal vibration amplitudes with walker excitation may exceed 100 mum/s in an unbraced floor, exceeding the sensitivity of 1000 x inspection microscopes by as much as an order of magnitude. Issues such as these become important when moderately vibration-sensitive instruments, such as optical microscopes, are supported on access floors, typically the case in cleanrooms. This paper presents results of experimental studies involving a 3 m x3 m segment of floor and a large floor installed in a cleanroom, both of which were subjected to dynamic loads using a shaker. Both drive-point and propagation properties were examined. In addition, data are presented for variations in bracing and bolting using the 3 m x3 m segment.

Amick, Hal; Gendreau, Michael; Gordon, Colin G.

2002-11-01

25

Raised houses reduce mosquito bites.  

Science.gov (United States)

BACKGROUND: In many parts of continental Africa house construction does not appear to impede entry of malaria vectors and, given their generally late biting cycle, the great majority of transmission takes place indoors. In contrast, many houses in São Tomé, 140 km off the coast of Gabon, are raised on stilts and built of wooden planks. Building on stilts is a time-honoured, but largely untested, way of avoiding mosquito bites. Exposure may also be affected by mosquito activity times and age composition of host-seeking females. A study was therefore undertaken on the island of São Tomé to determine if exposure to Anopheles gambiae, the only vector on the island, varied with house construction or time of the night. METHODS: A series of all-night landing collections were undertaken out of doors at ground level, inside houses at ground level, on the verandas of, and inside houses built on stilts. The gonotrophic age of an unselected sample of insects from the first three hours of landing collection (18:00-21:00) was determined by dissection. In addition, 1,149 miniature light-trap collections were obtained from 125 houses in the study area. Numbers collected were related to house construction. RESULTS: Biting of An. gambiae took place primarily outside at ground level. Less than one third of biting occurred inside houses. Houses built on stilts had half the number of An. gambiae in them compared to those built at ground level. Conversely houses with an eaves gap had more An. gambiae in them than houses without such a gap. Gonotrophic age did not affect house entry rates in An. gambiae. House construction affected Culex quinquefasciatus less than An. gambiae. Mean density per house, derived from a series of 1,490 randomly assigned light-trap collections, was over-dispersed with 18% of houses having 70% of the vectors. CONCLUSION: House construction plays an important role in determining exposure to malaria vectors in São Tomé. Neighbours can have very different exposure levels. Recommendations for improvement in control are given. PMID:14667242

Charlwood, J Derek; Pinto, Joao; Ferrara, Patrica R; Sousa, Carla A; Ferreira, Conceicao; Gil, Vilfrido; Do Rosário, Virgillo E

2003-12-10

26

Raised houses reduce mosquito bites  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background In many parts of continental Africa house construction does not appear to impede entry of malaria vectors and, given their generally late biting cycle, the great majority of transmission takes place indoors. In contrast, many houses in São Tomé, 140 km off the coast of Gabon, are raised on stilts and built of wooden planks. Building on stilts is a time-honoured, but largely untested, way of avoiding mosquito bites. Exposure may also be affected by mosquito activity times and age composition of host-seeking females. A study was therefore undertaken on the island of São Tomé to determine if exposure to Anopheles gambiae, the only vector on the island, varied with house construction or time of the night. Methods A series of all-night landing collections were undertaken out of doors at ground level, inside houses at ground level, on the verandas of, and inside houses built on stilts. The gonotrophic age of an unselected sample of insects from the first three hours of landing collection (18:00–21:00 was determined by dissection. In addition, 1,149 miniature light-trap collections were obtained from 125 houses in the study area. Numbers collected were related to house construction. Results Biting of An. gambiae took place primarily outside at ground level. Less than one third of biting occurred inside houses. Houses built on stilts had half the number of An. gambiae in them compared to those built at ground level. Conversely houses with an eaves gap had more An. gambiae in them than houses without such a gap. Gonotrophic age did not affect house entry rates in An. gambiae. House construction affected Culex quinquefasciatus less than An. gambiae. Mean density per house, derived from a series of 1,490 randomly assigned light-trap collections, was over-dispersed with 18% of houses having 70% of the vectors. Conclusion House construction plays an important role in determining exposure to malaria vectors in São Tomé. Neighbours can have very different exposure levels. Recommendations for improvement in control are given.

Gil Vilfrido

2003-12-01

27

Research and practice of new raising method  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Traditional raising method, raising method currently used by uranium mines, and problems in use are described, and a new raising method is presented. The new method is summarized from aspects such as setting up methods of drilling platform, safety platform, pedestrian ladder,etc,the support of broken-rock zone, lighting and ventilation modes, and safety precautions. The practice has proved that the new method is safe and reliable, and can improve the drivage efficiency and reduce the cost. (authors)

28

A solid-phase radioimmunoassay for measurement of circulating antibody titres to wheat gliadin and its subfractions in patients with adult coeliac disease  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A solid-phase radioimmunoassay for the measurement of circulating antibody titres to wheat gliadin is described. Using this assay, the authors have measured antibody titres to unfractionated gliadin in normal healthy controls, in coeliac patients on a gluten-free or a normal diet, and in patients with ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease. High titres of antibodies to unfractionated gliadin were observed only in the patients with untreated coeliac disease. Antibody titres to ?, #betta#, #betta# and #betta# gliadin subfractions were measured in patients with untreated coeliac disease and compared with titres in normal controls. Patients with untreated coeliac disease had higher antibody titres to the gliadin subfractions. No specific pattern of circulating antibody titres to gliadin subfractions was observed in the untreated coeliac patients which would provide a diagnostic profile. These results suggest shared antigenicity between the gliadin subfractions. (Auth.)

29

Solid-phase radioimmunoassay for measurement of circulating antibody titres to wheat gliadin and its subfractions in patients with adult coeliac disease  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A solid-phase radioimmunoassay for the measurement of circulating antibody titres to wheat gliadin is described. Using this assay, the authors have measured antibody titres to unfractionated gliadin in normal healthy controls, in coeliac patients on a gluten-free or a normal diet, and in patients with ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease. High titres of antibodies to unfractionated gliadin were observed only in the patients with untreated coeliac disease. Antibody titres to ..cap alpha.., ..beta.., ..gamma.. and ..omega.. gliadin subfractions were measured in patients with untreated coeliac disease and compared with titres in normal controls. Patients with untreated coeliac disease had higher antibody titres to the gliadin subfractions. No specific pattern of circulating antibody titres to gliadin subfractions was observed in the untreated coeliac patients which would provide a diagnostic profile. These results suggest shared antigenicity between the gliadin subfractions.

Ciclitira, P.J.; Ellis, H.J. (Guy' s Hospital, London (UK)); Evans, D.J. (Hammersmith Hospital, London (UK))

1983-08-26

30

[Anti-hepatitis B surface antigen titres in vaccinated dentistry students at Damascus University].  

Science.gov (United States)

Dental practice carries considerable danger for acquiring bloodborne pathogens such as hepatitis B virus (HBV). Vaccination against this virus is an important approach to reducing the infection. Post-vaccination test to confirm the seroconversion is important also. Over the period 1 March-31 May 2010, we assessed the efficacy of HBV vaccination among 91 fourth-year dental students at Damascus University, who were vaccinated under the mandatory Faculty of Dentistry programme. Anti-HBsAg antibody titres were determined in the blood samples using an enzyme immunoassay to measure; > or = 10 IU/mm was considered an adequate response titer. Seven of the 91 dentistry students (7.7%) had anti-HBs antibody titre < 10 mlU/mL. The frequency of unresponsiveness was significantly higherwith smoking (P = 0.012) and alcohol consumption (P = 0.014). Anti-HBs test should be included in routine immunization services of the School of Dentistry at Damascus University. PMID:22888621

Srour, I H; Mashlah, A

2012-06-01

31

Determination of specific antibodies titre to salmonella enteritidis by elisa technique in several selected flocks of laying hens  

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In this paper, the antibody titre to Salmonella enteritidis (SE) was examined by the ELISA method in two flocks of laying hens, where during routine bacteriological investigations Salmonellae was never isolated, and in one flock where Colysepticemia was diagnosed and Salmonella isolated accidentally. In the flocks were Salmonellae were not isolated, a titre with a high level of specific antibodies to SE was discovered (15 and 45%), while the flock with accidental findings of SE was poorly pos...

Velhner Maja; Orli? Dušan B.; Potkonjak Dubravka; Kapetanov Miloš; Lazi? Sava

2004-01-01

32

Widal agglutination titre: a rapid serological diagnosis of typhoid fever in developing countries  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

To study the reliability of a single Widal test and to find out the diagnostic significance of 'O' and 'H' agglutinin titre in the diagnosis of typhoid fever. Community-based case-control study conducted from Jan 2001 to June 2007. The blood samples were collected from the medical and out door department of Sir Ganga Ram Hospitals, Lahore. The diagnostic value of an acute phase single Widal agglutination test for suspected typhoid fever was evaluated in 733 consecutive patients with fever lasting 6 or more days. In 733 patients with fever 84 (11.45%) were positive for Widal test. A noteworthy rise 1/320 of H and/or O agglutinin titre was observed in 86 (11.3%) of patients with typhoid fever. In the absence of vaccination an elevated level of H and/or O agglutinin titre of 1: 320 is of diagnostic value for typhoid fever especially in our setting where a single sample of serum is relied on for the diagnosis of typhoid fever. (author)

33

Variation in the reproductive potential of Schistocephalus infected male sticklebacks is associated with 11-ketotestosterone titre.  

Science.gov (United States)

Parasites can impact host reproduction by interfering with host endocrine systems, but the adaptive nature of such effects is disputed. Schistocephalus solidus plerocercoids are parasites of three-spined sticklebacks Gasterosteus aculeatus that are often associated with impaired host reproduction. Here, we relate reproductive behavior and physiology to levels of the androgen 11-ketotestosterone (11KT) in naturally infected and non-infected male sticklebacks from two UK populations. In one population infected males harbored heavy infections and showed uniformly reduced 11KT titres and kidney spiggin (nesting glue protein) content compared to non-infected fish. However in a second population infection levels were more variable and males with smaller infections recorded 11KT and spiggin titres that overlapped those of non-infected fish; among infected males from this population 11KT and kidney spiggin also both correlated negatively with infection severity. Male reproductive behavior correlated closely with 11KT titre in both populations, and infected males with high 11KT levels exhibited normal reproductive behavior. Our results suggest that Schistocephalus infection per se does not block reproductive development in male sticklebacks, and that some male fish may have the ability to breed whilst infected. Our results are not consistent with the hypothesis that Schistocephalus adaptively castrates male hosts via endocrine disruption; rather they support the hypothesis that reproductive disruption is a side effect of the energetic costs of infection. PMID:21781969

Macnab, V; Scott, A P; Katsiadaki, I; Barber, I

2011-09-01

34

Sleep Apnea May Raise Risk for Dementia  

Science.gov (United States)

... enable JavaScript. Sleep Apnea May Raise Risk for Dementia Study suggests low oxygen levels, less time in ... 2015) Wednesday, December 10, 2014 Related MedlinePlus Pages Dementia Men's Health Sleep Apnea WEDNESDAY, Dec. 10, 2014 ( ...

35

Pneumonia Raises Heart Disease Risk for Years  

Science.gov (United States)

... sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Pneumonia Raises Heart Disease Risk for Years: Study Findings ... January 20, 2015 Related MedlinePlus Pages Heart Diseases Pneumonia Seniors' Health TUESDAY, Jan. 20, 2015 (HealthDay News) -- ...

36

Steam raising unit for pressurised water reactors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The steam raising units for PWR's tend to deposit corrosion products on the tube plates. In order to reduce this, and in order to be able to manufacture the tube plates with less expense (by reaching the diameter) it is proposed to let a water chamber be situated adjacent to the two tube plattes, which lies inside the steam jacket limiting the steam raising unit. Further configurations are described in detail. (UWI)

37

Rituximab for the treatment of patients with very high-titre acquired factor VIII inhibitors refractory to conventional chemotherapy.  

Science.gov (United States)

Acquired factor VIII (FVIII) inhibitors are a rare cause of coagulopathy which are associated with a high mortality rate. Treatment of bleeding episodes is often difficult and may vary with the degree of titre elevation. Individuals with very high-titre antibodies [>100 Bethesda units mL(-1) (BU)] may have difficulty achieving a complete sustained remission and, consequently, various treatments including immunosuppression, cytotoxic chemotherapy and plasmapheresis have been reported. Rituximab is an anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody which has demonstrated efficacy in the treatment of individuals with acquired FVIII inhibitors, however there is limited data in the subgroup of patients with inhibitor titres >100 BU. In this study, we present four patients with acquired FVIII inhibitor titres >100 BU who were resistant to initial therapy with cyclophosphamide, vincristine and prednisone. The patients' inhibitor titres ranged from 249 BU mL(-1) to 725 BU mL(-1) and all received 4 weekly infusions of rituximab at 375 mg m(-2). Each patient partially responded to rituximab therapy with an improvement in inhibitor titres and FVIII activity, however, three of the four patients relapsed thereafter. The individual who did not relapse achieved a partial response for 13 months and then died of causes unrelated to her coagulopathy. We conclude that in patients with acquired FVIII inhibitors and titres >100 BU, treatment with rituximab alone is effective but not sufficient to achieve a sustained response. Rituximab in combination with other therapies may provide a better result in this high-risk population. PMID:17212724

Field, J J; Fenske, T S; Blinder, M A

2007-01-01

38

A study to determine significant titre-values of widal test in the diagnosis of enteric fever for a population of north Kerala, India  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Objectives: To determine the baseline Widal titres of a study population and to propose titre-values of significance in the diagnosis of enteric fever. Background: Enteric fever is endemic in the Indian subcontinent with high prevalence rates. Etiological diagnosis of the condition is problematic due to several limitations implicit in the region. Singly run Widal test is often the only means available for a workable diagnosis. A knowledge of prevalent baseline titres is essential for its inte...

Bijapur, Gufran Ahmed M.; Kakkeri, Shamshuddin R.; Raysa N.P; Shaik Mohammed Usman

2014-01-01

39

Raising venture capital in the biopharma industry.  

Science.gov (United States)

Raising venture capital (VC) is both an art and a science. Future entrepreneurs should carefully consider the various issues of VC financing that have a strong impact on the success of their business. In addition to attracting the best venture capital firms, these issues include such subtle but important points as the timing of financing (especially of the first round), external support sources, desirable qualities of a VC firm, amount to be raised, establishing a productive interface between the founders and the venture capitalists, and most importantly the effects of well-executed VC funding on hiring senior executives and scientific leaders. PMID:12546855

Leytes, Lev J

2002-11-15

40

Production of high titre disabled infectious single cycle (DISC) HSV from a microcarrier culture  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Disabled Infectious Single Cycle (DISC) HSV-2 has been cultured in the complimentary cell line CR2 to provide high titre bulk material suitable for the purification of the virus as a live viral vaccine. CR2 cells are cultured on the microcarrier Cytodex-1 at 5 g l-1 in small scale (1 l) and larger scale (15 l) reactors. The cells are infected at an MOI of 0.01 pfu cell-1 and the culture harvested 60–72 h later. The infected cells are removed from the microcarriers by the addition of a hypot...

Zecchini, T. A.; Smith, R. J.

1999-01-01

 
 
 
 
41

Immunization of rabbits to produce high serum titres of neutralizing antibodies and immunity to the paralyzing toxin of Ixodes holocyclus.  

Science.gov (United States)

Rabbits have been immunized against the effects of the paralyzing toxin of the Australian paralysis tick Ixodes holocyclus by injecting them with preparations extracted from tick salivary glands. Immunized rabbits were able to withstand doses of toxin known to kill unimmunized rabbits. Neutralizing antibodies were detectable in serum after 2-4 doses of the crude extract or of the relatively pure antigenic fraction. When injections were continued at intervals of from 2-7 weeks, hyperimmunity was retained for at least 68 weeks. Hyperimmune serum, reaching a very high titre of neutralizing antibodies, was obtained after 3-6 injections. Titres tended to decline when boosting ceased, but after a "rest period' high titres were restored by further boosting with normally lethal doses of toxin. No symptoms of tick paralysis developed despite low titres prior to boosting. Thus, once hyperimmunity had been established, high titres of circulating antibodies were not immediately essential for immunity to tick paralysis. An IgG fraction was obtained from rabbit serum using a Protein A-Sepharose method; 33.4 micrograms of IgG protein fully neutralized, and 19.5 micrograms IgG half neutralized, 1 micrograms of crude toxin protein. This procedure with rabbits may permit the production of a purified tick-paralysis antitoxin more suitable for human use than the existing antitoxin based on canine hyperimmune serum. PMID:7150119

Stone, B F; Neish, A L; Wright, I G

1982-08-01

42

Merging Microfluidics with Micro-titre Technology for More Efficient Drug Discovery.  

Science.gov (United States)

Detecting multiple components from a single red blood cell (RBC) sample within a flow-based system and in less than 20 minutes will enable improved in vitro determinations of drug efficacy and cellular response to administered drugs. Here, an example of an improved in vitro measurement involving iloprost, a pharmaceutical reported to improve blood flow, has been determined by incorporating multiple cell types onto a single device. The method allows fluid flow to address individual rows of wells contained within an 18-well microfluidic array that serves as a precursor to a 96-well micro-titre plate device. The ability to better mimic the in vivo circulation by incorporating the flow of blood components, coupled with simultaneous detection and laboratory automation in place for micro-titre plates, suggests that the microfluidic array presented here will allow for improved mechanistic drug research studies. Utilizing fluorescence microscopy, concentrations of multiple metabolites present within the RBC can also be determined using the microfluidic array. The current progress towards using this device for personalized medicine is presented here. PMID:21113418

Tolan, Nicole V; Genes, Luiza I; Spence, Dana M

2008-10-01

43

Raised Acne Scars: Treatment Can Ease Pain, Diminish Scars  

Science.gov (United States)

... Injections These injections, which your dermatologist may call “intralesional injections,” help shrink raised scars. Injections of corticosteroids can soften and flatten thick, raised scars. Interferon ...

44

Age, generation, life cycle et life course dans les titres d’articles sociologiques américains : 1940-2000  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Le matériau présenté dans cet article est formé d'un corpus de 259 titres d'articles de revues où apparaissent les mots clefs age(s), generation(s), lift cycle et lift course. Par l'analyse lexicale de ce corpus, on entend moins cerner l'intentionnalité des auteurs qu'objectiver la façon dont sont affichés dans les titres certaines orientations, thématiques et objets d'études. Cette étude sur la communication des savoirs scientifiques permet d'approcher autrement la façon dont le ...

Catherine Cichelli-Pugeault; Vincenzo Cichelli; Maurizio Merico

2009-01-01

45

Romanian restrictive relatives: A head raising analysis?  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The paper investigates the syntax of restrictive relative clauses from a mainly descriptive viewpoint. It offers a critical view of the head raising analysis (Kayne 1994 and shows that no conclusive evidence supports the application of this analysis to Romanian. I suggest that a different theoretical approach, provided by the Matching Analysis (Chomsky 1965, Sauerland 1998, might instead account for the empirical facts I will bring to attention. However, I leave for future research the details concerning its implementation.

Anca Sevcenco

2010-01-01

46

A heuristic sublevel stope optimizer with multiple raises  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO South Africa | Language: English Abstract in english A new heuristic sublevel mining stope optimizer is presented. The optimizer seeks the best locations and lengths of a series of vertical raises that, together with the blocks linked to each raise, define a mining stope. Five design constraints - the footwall angle, the hangingwall angle, the number [...] of raises, the maximum distance of a block from a raise, and the minimum width required to move the farthest block towards the raise - allow the shape of the sub-stopes associated with each raise to be controlled. The optimization is done on the locations and lengths of raises using a genetic algorithm to efficiently sample the parameters' space. For each raise, a local network is defined in cylindrical coordinates around the raise such as to impose the design constraints. A maxflow algorithm on the local network is used to determine the optimal sub-stope for each raise. All sub-stopes are combined to define the global stope for the entire deposit. The best global stope is obtained using a genetic algorithm to find the raise parameters providing the best profit over the entire deposit. Two synthetic cases and one real deposit are used to evaluate the new algorithm and compare the results with the single-raise optimizer. The multiple raises approach leads to significantly improved economics compared with the single-raise stope optimizer, and the dilution is also substantially reduced compared to the single-raise case.

X, Bai; D, Marcotte; R, Simon.

2014-06-01

47

Gene variant raises risk for colorectal cancer  

Science.gov (United States)

A common genetic variant that affects one in three people significantly increases the risk of colorectal cancer from the consumption of red meat and processed meat, according to a study presented by researchers from the Keck School of Medicine of USC (home of the USC Norris Comprehensive Cancer Center) at the annual American Society of Human Genetics meeting. In addition to identifying a gene that raises risk for colorectal cancer from eating red or processed meat, the study — the first to identify the interactions of genes and diet on a genome-wide scale — also revealed another specific genetic variation that appears to modify whether eating more fruits, vegetables and fiber actually lowers your colorectal cancer risk.

48

29 CFR 780.126 - Contract arrangements for raising poultry.  

Science.gov (United States)

...false Contract arrangements for raising poultry. 780.126 Section 780.126 Labor...Livestock, Bees, Fur-Bearing Animals, Or Poultry § 780.126 Contract arrangements for raising poultry. Feed dealers and...

2010-07-01

49

The Campus Green: Fund Raising in Higher Education. ERIC Digest.  

Science.gov (United States)

This digest summarizes issues raised in a research report on fund raising in higher education. The following questions are addressed: What are the changes and trends since the early days of educational fund raising? What are the implications? What is known about spending? What is known about donor behavior? What are the major ethical issues? What…

Brittingham, Barbara E.; Pezzullo, Thomas R.

50

Determination of specific antibodies titre to salmonella enteritidis by elisa technique in several selected flocks of laying hens  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this paper, the antibody titre to Salmonella enteritidis (SE was examined by the ELISA method in two flocks of laying hens, where during routine bacteriological investigations Salmonellae was never isolated, and in one flock where Colysepticemia was diagnosed and Salmonella isolated accidentally. In the flocks were Salmonellae were not isolated, a titre with a high level of specific antibodies to SE was discovered (15 and 45%, while the flock with accidental findings of SE was poorly positive (5%. These results point to the necessity of introducing serological monitoring to SE so that the infection of salmonella may be discovered early and the prevalence in the flock determined, and also for the purpose of applying adequate measures that could reduce the possibility of secretion of SE through eggs.

Velhner Maja

2004-01-01

51

Why not raise the SSC energy instead?  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The SSC design provides for luminosity upgrades to at least a factor of ten above the design value, 1033 cm-2s-1. Experimenters plan to take advantage of higher luminosity, in spite of the daunting challenge of dealing with even the design luminosity. Misstatements abound, but it is at least clear that only some fraction of this factor will appear as the multiplication factor for the number of events in a final histogram. In this note, the authors would like seriously to propose an alternative: Use the SSC design flexibility to raise the energy instead. Basically, the cryogenic capacity needed to obtain high luminosity is used to (a) absorb the extra synchrotron radiation from higher-energy protons, and (b) operate the magnets at a lower temperature in order to reach a higher field. The SSC could then operate at somewhat above ?s = 46 TeV. The trade-off of energy for luminosity for physics processes is very dependent on the relevant mass scale, but for several high-mass processes the expected 17% energy increase is roughly equivalent to increasing the integrated luminosity by a factor of 2.2. Given the realities of high-luminosity operation, an energy upgrade might well be the better option

52

False-positive legionella titres in routine clinical serology testing detected by absorption with campylobacter: implications for the serological diagnosis of legionnaires' disease.  

Science.gov (United States)

A simple absorption step using blocking fluid prepared from a selected campylobacter strain was introduced in parallel with routine legionella serology tests. Over 12 months, 2716 patients were tested for legionella antibodies by the Indirect Fluorescent Antibody Test of whom 58 (2.1%) had a positive titre (> or = 16) in one or more sera. Campylobacter blocking fluid significantly reduced the legionella titres in 17 of these patients (29%) including four patients with diagnostic serology results (two of whom had pneumonia) and 13 patients with non-diagnostic titres. Absorption with campylobacter however had no effect on the legionella titres in 10 patients with positive serology, in whom legionnaires' disease had been confirmed by culture of Legionella pneumophila from sputum or detection of legionella urinary antigen by ELISA. These results indicate that the serological cross-reaction between legionella and campylobacter is encountered in routine legionella serology tests. The important implications for the diagnosis of legionnaires' disease are discussed. PMID:8852547

Boswell, T C; Marshall, L E; Kudesia, G

1996-01-01

53

Importance of antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies in primary sclerosing cholangitis and ulcerative colitis: prevalence, titre, and IgG subclass.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (ANCA) have been reported in up to 87% of patients with primary sclerosing cholangitis with or without ulcerative colitis (PSC +/- UC) and in 68% of those with UC only. Compared with other liver and diarrhoeal diseases, ANCA have high specificity for PSC (+/- UC) and UC only. This study aimed to determine the prevalence and significance of ANCA in these two diseases and whether the ANCA titre or IgG subclass, or both, could distinguish between PSC + UC an...

Bansi, Ds; Fleming, Ka; Chapman, Rw

1996-01-01

54

Speed of exploration and risk-taking behavior are linked to corticosterone titres in zebra finches.  

Science.gov (United States)

The existence of consistent individual differences in behavioral strategies ("personalities" or coping styles) has been reported in several animal species. Recent work in great tits has shown that such traits are heritable and exhibit significant genetic variation. Free-living birds respond to environmental stresses by up-regulating corticosterone production. Behavior during mild stress can occur in accordance to two types of coping styles, i.e. active and passive. Using artificially selected lines of zebra finches that vary in the amount of corticosterone produced in response to a manual restraint stressor we ran three "personality" experiments. We show that birds in the different corticosterone lines differ in their exploratory and risk-taking behaviors. There was an increase in exploratory behavior as corticosterone titre increased but only in the low corticosterone line. Birds in high corticosterone line showed greater risk-taking behavior than birds in the other lines. Thus, in general, higher levels of circulating corticosterone following a mild stress result in greater exploratory behavior and greater risk taking. This study shows that lines of animals selected for endocrine hormonal responses differ in their "coping" styles or "personalities". PMID:17678929

Martins, Thaís L F; Roberts, Mark L; Giblin, Isobel; Huxham, Rebecca; Evans, Matthew R

2007-11-01

55

Evaluation of TH agglutinin titres of Widal test in the diagnosis of typhoid fever.  

Science.gov (United States)

This prospective study was evaluated the role of TH agglutinins and reevaluate the diagnostic value of Widal test in the diagnosis of typhoid fever by identifying the S. typhi specific antibody. The study was carried out in the department of Microbiology, Mymensingh Medical College, Mymensingh between July 2010 and June 2011, including 200 individuals of different ages and sexes. Widal test and blood culture were performed for each of the cases and controls. Among 150 blood samples from the suspected cases, 23(15.3%) were culture positive for S. typhi and 67(44.7%) had high titres of ?1:160 for 'O' or 'H' or both agglutinins. Out of 23 culture positive cases, 3(13%) had TO ?:160, 5(21.7%) had significant TH ?1:160. Based on the above findings, it was concluded that judicious interpretation of Widal test play an essential role in diagnosis of typhoid fever, especially in the resource poor countries like Bangladesh. PMID:24584364

Sultana, S; Hossain, M A; Paul, S K; Kabir, M R; Yesmin, T; Maruf, M A; Siddiqui, Z R; Rahman, S M; Hoque, M R

2014-01-01

56

Induced malaria and antibody titres in acute infections and in blood donors in Kuwait.  

Science.gov (United States)

Concurrent with the increase in the number of imported cases of malaria into non-endemic Kuwait during the past 5 years, induced infections have been identified for the first time. We report 10 such cases over a 4-year-period. Of 8 transfusion-induced infections, 4 were due to Plasmodium falciparum and 4 to P. vivax. The mean incubation period for P. falciparum patients was 13 d and for P. vivax, 17 d. An accidental syringe-needle transmission and a congenital infection were due to P. falciparum and P. vivax respectively. Malarial antibody levels were assayed on commercially-available cultured P. falciparum schizonts by the indirect fluorescent antibody (IFA) test. To establish a base line, the sera of patients with blood film-confirmed P. falciparum and P. vivax were assayed. 96% of the P. falciparum sera were positive, the geometric mean titre (GMT) being 10,280. However, all sera from P. vivax patients were reactive but the GMT was lower at 505. 28% of sera from Kuwaitis and 45% of sera of a consecutive group of blood donors were also reactive, the respective GMTs being 38 and 51. The risk of transfusion malaria was calculated as 79 per million units drawn, an unacceptably high figure for a non-endemic country. We suggest a revised blood donor policy. PMID:3318016

Hira, P R; Siboo, R; Al-Kandari, S; Behbehani, K

1987-01-01

57

Hyperglycemia and antibody titres against heat shock protein 27 in traumatic brain injury patients on parenteral nutrition  

Science.gov (United States)

Objective(s): Hyperglycemia worsens the neuronal death induced by cerebral ischemia. Previous studies demonstrated that diabetic hyperglycemia suppressed the expression of heat shock protein 70 and 60 (HSP70 and 60) in the liver. IgG antibody titres against heat shock protein 27 (anti HSP27) were measured to determine whether hyperglycemia exacerbates ischemic brain damage by suppressing the expression of heat shock protein 27 (HSP27) in the brain. Materials and Methods: A randomized controlled study of traumatic brain injury ICU patients treated either by intensive insulin treatment (IIT) or by conventional glucose control (CGC) was conducted. Patients received at least 50% of their estimated daily energy requirements parenterally. Serum anti HSP27 antibody concentration was assessed at baseline, day 7 and day 14. Results: Twenty-six out of 29 patients (n=13 in each group) completed the study. At baseline, there were no differences between the two groups. On day 14, there was a significant reduction in anti HSP27 titre concentration in the IIT compared to the GCG group (0.47±0.27 mg/dl vs 0.60±0.15 mg/dl, P=0.03). Conclusion: In this study, intensive control of traumatic brain injury patients on parenteral nutrition reduced anti HSP27 titre, possibly suggesting a reduction in stress. PMID:24711895

Mousavi, Seyedeh Neda; Samini, Fariborz; Nematy, Mohsen; Philippou, Elena; Safarian, Mohammad; Tavallaiee, Shima; Norouzy, Abdolreza

2014-01-01

58

Centerline rumble stripes as an alternative to raised pavement markers  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A raised pavement marker is a retroreflective lens on a substrate attached to the pavement so as to protrude slightly above the pavement surface. Raised pavement markers (RPMs) have been used in the United States for decades to improve lane delineation in low light conditions. In areas subject to winter snowfall, the retroreflective lens is protected by a cast iron body embedded into the roadway to protect the lens from snowplow blades. There is empirical evidence that raised pavement markers...

Mitkey, Stuart Richard

2012-01-01

59

Effect of Corn or Sorghum in Combination with Soybean Meal or Mungbean as Feed Ingredients on the Serum Antibody Titres to NDV Vaccine in Broiler Chickens  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A research was carried out to study the effect of feed types in the diet based on corn or sorghum in combination with soybean meal or broken green beans on titre antibody to NDV vaccine of broilers. Three hundreds day old chicks broilers with initial body weight of 46.35 ± 4.66 grams were randomly assigned into four treatment groups i.e. T1 (diet based on corn and soybean meal, T2 (diet based on corn and green-bean, T3 (diet based on sorghum and soybean meal, T4 (diet based on sorghum and green-bean. Isoenergy and isoprotein diet and water were given ad libitum. NDV vaccines were given via eyedrop on day 4 and intramuscularly on day 21. Serum antibody titres were measured on day 38, 42 and 48 by Haemaglutination Inhibition Test and expressed as Geometric Mean Titre (log2. Antibody titre to NDV vaccine was already detectable on day 38 and the value was highest in T4, reaching 5.2 and lowest in T3 i.e. 3.6 (P < 0.05. On day 42 the titre of all groups were increased reaching a value of greater than 5.0 (protective except in T3 which remains lower than 5.0 (not protected. On day 48 the highest titre was reached in T2 (6.4, while T3 remained low below 5 (4.2. These results showed that the types of feed ingredients in the diet can influence antibody titre against NDV vaccination.

Retno Murwani

2008-01-01

60

Persistent high antibody titres against Coxiella burnetii after acute Q fever not explained by continued exposure to the source of infection: a case¿control study.  

Science.gov (United States)

BackgroundFrom 2007 to 2010, (the southern part of) the Netherlands experienced a large Q fever epidemic, with more than 4,000 reported symptomatic cases. Approximately 1 ¿ 5% of the acute Q fever patients develop chronic Q fever. A high IgG antibody titre against phase I of Coxiella burnetii during follow-up is considered a marker of chronic Q fever. However, there is uncertainty about the significance and cause of persistence of high IgG phase I antibody titres in patients that do not have any additional manifestations of chronic Q fever. We studied whether continued or repeated exposure to the source of infection could explain elevated IgG phase I antibody levels.MethodsA case¿control study was performed to analyze predictors for possible chronic Q fever. Possible chronic Q fever cases (n¿=¿53) are patients with phase I IgG antibody titre ¿1:1,024 at any point in the 9 ¿ 18 months after acute Q fever diagnosis, with a negative PCR test result for C. burnetii DNA and without other disease manifestations. Controls (n¿=¿110) are acute Q fever patients that did not develop chronic Q fever, and who consistently had phase I IgG antibody titre Binary logistic regression was performed to analyze the effect of living close to an infected farm on the high antibody titres. A longitudinal analysis described the serological profiles of cases and controls.ResultsProximity to infected farms and contact with animal placental material were not associated with an increased risk for possible chronic Q fever. Possible chronic Q fever patients have high IgG phase II as well as IgG phase I antibody titres, even after 48 months of follow-up.ConclusionWe were unable to explain the cause of persistent high IgG phase I titres among possible chronic Q fever patients by being continuously exposed to the source of infection. PMID:25421141

Jajou, Rana; Wielders, Cornelia; Leclercq, Monique; van Leuken, Jeroen; Shamelian, Shahan; Renders, Nicole; van der Hoek, Wim; Schneeberger, Peter

2014-11-25

 
 
 
 
61

Lowering and raising operators for some special orthogonal polynomials  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper discusses operators lowering or raising the degree but preserving the parameters of special orthogonal polynomials. Results for one-variable classical (q-)orthogonal polynomials are surveyed. For Jacobi polynomials associated with root system BC_2 a new pair of lowering and raising operators is obtained.

Koornwinder, Tom H.

2005-01-01

62

Le premier élément du patrimoine maritime de Saint-Pierre-et-Miquelon protégé au titre des monuments historiques  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Ymac a été classé par arrêté du 14 février 2008 au titre des monuments historiques en raison de l’intérêt ethnologique lié à sa fonction de bateau-pilote. (fig. n° 1Figure 1Ymac, ex-Radar III. Photographie après 2003. © Yannick Lafourcade.Construit en 1965 à Mavilette (Nouvelle-Ecosse, Canada par le chantier Alfred Boudreau, ce bateau traditionnel de pêche à coque en bois avait été initialement armé pour la pêche aux poissons plats par Alex Doucet, d’où son premier nom Alex D. Après avoir p...

Herveline Delhumeau

2009-05-01

63

Age, generation, life cycle et life course dans les titres d’articles sociologiques américains : 1940-2000  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Le matériau présenté dans cet article est formé d'un corpus de 259 titres d'articles de revues où apparaissent les mots clefs age(s, generation(s, lift cycle et lift course. Par l'analyse lexicale de ce corpus, on entend moins cerner l'intentionnalité des auteurs qu'objectiver la façon dont sont affichés dans les titres certaines orientations, thématiques et objets d'études. Cette étude sur la communication des savoirs scientifiques permet d'approcher autrement la façon dont le raisonnement sociologique a intégré des perspectives d'analyse portant sur les temporalités humaines et sociales. Pour dégager leur historicité, ont été systématiquement dépouillées quatre revues sociologiques généralistes américaines (American Journal of Sociology, Social Forces, American Sociological Review and Social Problems, sur une période de soixante années (1940-2000.This paper rewiews the occurrence of the ftllowing key words: age(s, generation(s, life cycle and life course, in the titles of 259 articles published in scientific journals. Rather than indentifying the authors' intentions, the lexical analysis of the corpus objectifies the way certain orientations, topics and objects were highlighted. This study of the communication of scientific knowledge offers an alternative perception of how sociological reasoning has integrated the analysis of human and social temporalities. In order to demonstrate their historicity, four American general sociological journals (the American Journal of Sociology, Social Forces, the American Sociological Review and Social Problems appearing between 1940 and 2000 have heen systematically analyzed.

Catherine Cichelli-Pugeault

2009-06-01

64

A study to determine significant titre-values of widal test in the diagnosis of enteric fever for a population of north Kerala, India  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Objectives: To determine the baseline Widal titres of a study population and to propose titre-values of significance in the diagnosis of enteric fever. Background: Enteric fever is endemic in the Indian subcontinent with high prevalence rates. Etiological diagnosis of the condition is problematic due to several limitations implicit in the region. Singly run Widal test is often the only means available for a workable diagnosis. A knowledge of prevalent baseline titres is essential for its interpretation. Method: We performed the standard Widal tube agglutination test on the serum samples of 250 individuals of the local population selected by using appropriate criteria of inclusion and exclusion criteria. Results: A majority (74.8% of the subjects were non-reactive. Prevalence of anti-TO antibody was highest (25.2% followed by that of anti-TH antibody (15.2%, anti-AH antibody (6.8% and anti-BH antibody (0.8%. Based on the distribution of titre values, the baseline titres determined were 40 for anti-TO and anti-TH antibodies and <20 for anti-AH and anti-BH antibodies. Any value obtained in Widal test over and above these values, i.e., ?80 for anti-TO and anti-TH antibodies can be considered as significant. Similarly, for anti-AH and anti-BH antibodies, values of ?20 can be considered as significant for diagnosis in an appropriate clinical setting. Conclusion: The baseline Widal titres of the local population were lower than those found in most other parts of India.

Gufran Ahmed M. Bijapur

2014-01-01

65

Chasing, Tackling Suspects Raises Cops' Odds of Sudden Death  

Science.gov (United States)

... Chasing, Tackling Suspects Raises Cops' Odds of Sudden Death Overall risk to any one officer remains very ... Police face a higher risk of sudden cardiac death when they're restraining or chasing suspects or ...

66

Daily Statin Might Raise Your Risk for Cataracts  

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... features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Daily Statin Might Raise Your Risk for Cataracts: Study But ... Friday, December 5, 2014 Related MedlinePlus Pages Cataract Statins FRIDAY, Dec. 5, 2014 (HealthDay News) -- Taking a ...

67

Infants and Toddlers (Ages 0-3) - Raising Healthy Children  

Science.gov (United States)

... Address What's this? Submit What's this? Submit Button Infants & Toddlers (Ages 0-3) - Raising Healthy Children Share ... Developmental Milestones Fruits & Vegetables Hand Washing Hearing Screening Infant & Toddler Health Maternal and Infant Health Newborn Screening ...

68

Awareness raising as a component of the affected territories reviving  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Awareness raising about reviving of the contaminated territories aimed to form an appropriate impression of the affected areas and to change attitude of Belarusian population and international community towards them. (authors)

69

Want to Raise Colon Cancer Screening Rates? Run a Lottery  

Science.gov (United States)

... this page, please enable JavaScript. Want to Raise Colon Cancer Screening Rates? Run a Lottery VA study found ... means of getting people engaged in potentially lifesaving colon cancer screening, a new study suggests. The study focused ...

70

Prolonged High Cholesterol in Middle Age Raises Heart Risk Later  

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... features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Prolonged High Cholesterol in Middle Age Raises Heart Risk Later: Study ... ve lived with 11 to 20 years of high cholesterol showed double the risk of heart disease compared ...

71

Vowel Raising in Nkpor Dialect: A Pattern of Sound Change  

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This paper explores a pattern of phonological change known as vowel raising in the Nkpor dialect of the Igbo language. Using a corpus of conversational Nkpor speech collected from the respondents through tape-recording, we presented data from an authority analysis of the vowels and auditory data of vowel raising. The data support three main claims. First, the voiced palatal nasal /?/ is elided. It claims that in a word consisting of two root verbs, the initial verb root contains any consonan...

Mbah, Evelyn Ezinwanne; Okeke, Chukwuma Onyebuchi

2013-01-01

72

A practice of advancing return shaft by raised shaft technique  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Advance of super-high raise has been a difficult problem in the underground construction of mines. A main return shaft of a uranium mine was advanced by raised shaft technique. The technique has advantages such as high efficience, safety and economy. Monthly shaft completion averaged 85 m, the highest was up to 120 m. Blasting efficience was above 92%. A reference is provided for similar projects. (authors)

73

Raising finance to support developing country action: some economic considerations  

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This article explores the principles that should guide efforts to raise finance for climate action in developing countries. The main conclusions are that, first, there is an important role for private finance, which would be facilitated by having pervasive and broadly uniform emissions pricing around the world. Second, public finance is warranted by a range of market – and policy – failures associated with climate change and its mitigation. Third, raising tax revenues may be preferable...

Bowen, Alex

2011-01-01

74

Autoantibody Levels and Clinical Disease Severity in Patients with Pemphigus: Comparison of Aggregated Anti-desmoglein ELISA Values and Indirect Immunofluorescence Titres.  

Science.gov (United States)

Detecting serum-autoantibodies by anti-Desmoglein-1 (anti-Dsg1) and anti-Dsg3 ELISAs as well as indirect immunofluorescence (IIF) are established complementary methods to diagnose pemphigus. Whether autoantibody levels also reflect clinical disease activity is still a matter of debate, as head-to-head comparisons of ELISA values and IIF titres with clinical activity over a longer treatment period are scarce. In our retrospective study, we compared aggregated repetitive intra-patient ELISA values and IIF titres with grades of clinical disease (1?=?remission, 2?=?moderate activity, 3?=?exacerbation) in 47 patients suffering from pemphigus vulgaris (PV, n?=?36) and pemphigus foliaceus (PF, n=11). We found that anti-Dsg1 ELISA values in PF and mucocutaneous PV as well as anti-Dsg3 ELISA values in PV best reflect disease activity. IIF titres, by contrast, did not show a significant association with disease severity. From these data we conclude that ELISA index values can be a valuable tool to monitor disease in patients with pemphigus, whereas IIF titres reflect clinical activity only insufficiently. PMID:25423997

Weiss, Doris; Ristl, Robin; Griss, Johannes; Bangert, Christine; Foedinger, Dagmar; Stingl, Georg; Brunner, Patrick M

2014-11-26

75

Long-term survival in trial of medium-titre Edmonston-Zagreb measles vaccine in Guinea-Bissau : five-year follow-up  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

A trial of protective efficacy which compared medium-titre Edmonston-Zagreb (EZ) measles vaccine (10(4.6) p.f.u.) from the age of 4 months with the standard Schwarz (SW) measles vaccine given from the age of 9 months was started in an urban community in Guinea-Bissau in 1985. Because trials of high-titre measles vaccine have found increased mortality among female recipients, we examined whether EZ medium-titre vaccine was associated with any long-term impact on mortality, suppression of T-cells, or growth. The mortality rate ratio over 5 years of follow-up was 1.12 for EZ children compared with children in the standard group (P = 0.63). Seventy-five percent of the children still residing in the area at 5 years of age took part in an immunological and anthropometric examination. There was no difference in T-cell subsets between the two groups. There was no difference in mid-upper-arm circumference, but EZ children were significantly shorter than the children in the standard group. In conclusion, medium-titre EZ was not associated with reduced survival or persistent immunosuppression.

Aaby, Peter; Lisse, Ida

1994-01-01

76

Effect of recurrent invasive pneumococcal disease on serum anti-pneumolysin IgG titres in HIV infected adults  

Science.gov (United States)

We measured serum anti-pneumolysin IgG concentrations in a prospective cohort of 34 HIV infected adults who developed recurrent pneumococcal bacteraemia, and compared baseline levels with HIV positive and HIV negative control subjects that remained free of pneumococcal disease. Anti-pneumolysin concentrations in HIV positive cases and controls were higher compared to HIV negative controls. There was no significant difference in levels between HIV positive subjects who did and did not subsequently develop pneumococcal bacteraemia (geometric means 849.1 U/ml vs. 564.6 U/ml, p = 0.059). Anti-pneumolysin IgG titres before, and after the recurrent episode of pneumococcal bacteraemia did not differ significantly (p = 0.95). High levels of anti-pneumolysin IgG do not predict protection from invasive pneumococcal disease or indicate that an effective immune response has occurred in HIV infected patients. PMID:19376181

Etuwewe, Onajite M.; Swann, Natalie; Hollingshead, Susan; Tolmie, Helen; Zijlstra, Ed E.; Faragher, Brian; French, Neil; Gordon, Stephen B.

2009-01-01

77

ADHD May Raise Teens' Odds for Smoking, Drinking  

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... sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. ADHD May Raise Teens' Odds for Smoking, Drinking Researchers ... 2015) Wednesday, December 24, 2014 Related MedlinePlus Pages Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Smoking and Youth Underage Drinking WEDNESDAY, Dec. 24, ...

78

Flame Retardants May Raise Risk of Preterm Births, Study Finds  

Science.gov (United States)

... May Raise Risk of Preterm Births, Study Finds Women with higher blood levels of common chemicals were more likely to deliver ... study indicates. Researchers analyzed blood samples from pregnant women ... Those with higher levels of flame-retardant chemicals in their bodies were ...

79

Raising Retention and Achievement in Work-Based Learning  

Science.gov (United States)

Work based learning has been subject to some negative press in recent times. Particular emphasis has been given to poor inspection reports within the sector. The Raising Quality and Achievement programme of the Learning and Skills Development Agency, funded by the Learning and Skills Council as part of a grant for a programme of research and…

Smith, Vikki

2003-01-01

80

Raising Cultural Awareness in the English Language Classroom  

Science.gov (United States)

This article discusses how teachers can incorporate cultural knowledge into English language classes, exploring elements of culture, intercultural phenomena, and high-context and low-context cultures. Activities offered by the author to raise cultural awareness include web quests, role plays, cultural observations, and culture journals.

Frank, Jerrold

2013-01-01

 
 
 
 
81

How To Raise Test Scores. K-College.  

Science.gov (United States)

This booklet illustrates proven instructional strategies to help teachers help students raise their test scores. Techniques are outlined that will help students improve their communication skills, learn how to mediate their thinking strategies, and understand the best way to attack a question. The advice is developed in the structure of an…

Fogarty, Robin

82

T lymphocyte subpopulations diverge in commercially raised chickens.  

Science.gov (United States)

To evaluate immunocompetence in commercially raised chickens, we immunophenotyped Dekalb Delta and H&N White Leghorn (WLH) hybrids, 20 chickens in each of 3 age groups (9 wk [juvenile], 25 wk [young adult], and 79 or 80 wk [adult]), for circulating CD3+, CD4+, CD8+, TCR1+, TCR2+, and TCR3+ lymphocytes. The proportion of CD3+ T cells, including CD4+ and CD8+ subsets, was increased in the hybrids as compared with published values for laboratory-raised outbred WLH chickens. The proportion of the TCR2+ (Vbeta1) T cell subpopulation was also increased. An age-related decrease in the proportion of TCR1+ (gammasigma) T cells was noted in both hybrids. Further, a remarkably low CD4:CD8 ratio was evident in all age groups of both hybrids, indicating decreased immunocompetence. Overall, these experiments provide age-related proportions of various peripheral-blood T lymphocyte subpopulations in commercially raised Dekalb Delta and H&N chickens that diverge from the proportions in laboratory-raised outbred WLH chickens and suggest reduced immunocompetence. Such a decline in immunocompetence, including humoral immune capacity, could be attributed to genetic selection for production traits, environmental factors associated with commercial operations, and intense immunization. PMID:16850940

Bridle, Byram W; Julian, Richard; Shewen, Patricia E; Vaillancourt, Jean-Pierre; Kaushik, Azad K

2006-07-01

83

Congenital hypothyroidism with hereditary, raised thyroxine binding globulin.  

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A boy with congenital hypothyroidism and hereditary raised thyroxine binding globulin is described. This hitherto unreported combination resulted in under treatment of the thyroid deficiency until serum thyroid stimulating hormone measurement became routinely available. Inadequate L-thyroxine replacement treatment between 2 and 7 years of age caused retarded bone maturation, poor growth velocity, and probably added to his educational difficulties.

Archer, L. N.; O Malley, B. P.; Swift, P. G.

1985-01-01

84

Raising Critical Consciousness via Creative Writing in the EFL Classroom  

Science.gov (United States)

This study discusses a method to promote raising critical consciousness in the English as a foreign language (EFL) classroom via creative writing activities by having students write journals and/or personal letters from the perspective of individuals from outside groups that have been marginalized or vilified in the students' dominant culture.…

Stillar, Scott

2013-01-01

85

Optical Design of the RAISE Sounding Rocket Instrument  

Science.gov (United States)

The Rapid Acquisition Imaging Spectrograph Experiment (RAISE) is a recently selected sounding rocket program to investigate the dynamics and heating of the outer solar atmosphere on time scales as short as looms. Its optical design represents the first in a new class of two-reflection W / E W imaging spectrometers with Toroidal Varied-Line Space (TVLS) gratings. Due to the remarkable imaging properties of such gratings, RAISE will measure spectra simultaneously over four different wavelength bands (1205-1243 & 1524-1559 A in first order, 602.5-621.5 & 762.0-779.5 A in second), with an unprecedented combination of spatial, spectral, and temporal resolutions. These spectral regions include many bright, well-resolved lines covering the temperature range from the low chromosphere up to the 2 MK Fe XI1 corona. The RAISE optical design features an extremely fast beam (f/7.0) and a minimum number of reflections, which together allow enough throughput to provide high quality spectral data even at its very short exposure times. Moreover, by operating with high magnification (x4.25), the RAISE spectrometer can most effectively utilize the full length and width available in the sounding rocket payload. First launch of this exciting new instrument is scheduled for 2006 June 21.

Thomas, Roger J.; Hassler, Donald M.

2004-01-01

86

Raising Standards through INQUIRE in Pre-Service Teacher Education  

Science.gov (United States)

Raising standards through inquiry-based science education (IBSE)--what are the challenges for pre-service teacher education? What do ongoing teachers and active teachers learn from each other when planning, conducting and evaluating minds-on and hands-on IBSE activities in the classroom? What do they learn "beyond" IBSE? The Bremen…

Elster, D.; Barendziak, T.; Haskamp, F.; Kastenholz, L.

2014-01-01

87

Giambelli, Pieri, and tableau formulas via raising operators  

CERN Document Server

We give a direct proof of the equivalence between the Giambelli and Pieri type formulas for Hall-Littlewood functions using Young's raising operators, parallel to joint work with Buch and Kresch for the Schubert classes on isotropic Grassmannians. We prove several closely related mirror identities enjoyed by the Giambelli polynomials, which lead to new recursions for Schubert classes. The raising operator approach is applied to obtain tableau formulas for Hall-Littlewood functions, theta polynomials, and related Stanley symmetric functions. Finally, we introduce the notion of a skew element w of the hyperoctahedral group and identify the set of reduced words for w with the set of standard k-tableaux on a skew Young diagram.

Tamvakis, Harry

2008-01-01

88

Earth Orbit Raise Design for the ARTEMIS Mission  

Science.gov (United States)

ARTEMIS is a mission to send two spacecraft from Earth orbit to libration orbits around the Moon Lagrange points and then into lunar orbit. Lunar flybys were used early in the mission to send the spacecraft into low-energy lunar transfers which were designed libration orbits for minimal deltaV. ARTEMIS began by raising the Earth orbits of each spacecraft to achieve the planned lunar flybys. Spacecraft conguration and operation constraints made the Earth orbit raise phase of the mission a signicant mission design challenge by itself. This paper describes the process used to and trajectories that achieved mission goals and the resulting series of Earth orbits that culminated in successful lunar flybys.

Whiffen, Gregory J.; Sweetser, Theodore H.

2012-01-01

89

HOW TO RAISE EQUITY CAPITAL? A CASE OF POLISH COMPANIES  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The strategies of raising equity capital available to the Polish companies were studied, both in the theoretical and empirical dimension. According to the law regulations three strategies of raising equity capital were distinguished and characterized: the retaining profit strategy, the strategy based on the hybrid securities and the strategy using the issue of new shares. The empirical researches were conducted based on the aggregated data illustrating the practical application of the distinguished strategies in the activity of the Polish non-financial companies in 2006 – 2009, aiming at finding changes in the strategy profile due to the impact of the global financial crisis. The achieved results can be used as a basis for further, more detail studies, also for the cross-country comparative analysis.

Joanna B?ACH

2011-01-01

90

The cholesterol-raising factor from coffee beans.  

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Coffee beans and some types of coffee brew - not the regular types of coffee prepared with a paper filter or with soluble coffee granules - contain the diterpenes cafestol and kahweol. Cafestol and kahweol raise the serum concentration of cholesterol and triglycerides in humans, and they also appear mildly to affect the integrity of liver cells. Both effects are transient after withdrawal of the diterpenes, and it is as yet unsure whether these effects are associated. Patients at increased ri...

Urgert, R.; Katan, M. B.

1996-01-01

91

Some Aspects for Raising of Economic Competitiveness of Dairy Farming  

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In Hungary the last decade the number of cattle stock practically hasdiminished 50% because of the unfavourable economic conditions. This fact and the nearing joining to EU reflect the important for developing dairy farming in the knew circumstances. Theoretically the over production is favourable for the profitability, because of the decreasing of the specific stable cost. Unfortunately, this way is closedfor the Hungarian dairy farming because of the quota system. Raising of the milk qualit...

Sandor Kalmar

2003-01-01

92

Soil information in support of policy making and awareness raising  

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Soils play an important role in defining sustainable land-use options when facing major global environmental challenges such as food security, climate change, fresh water scarcity and biodiversity loss. Facing these problems, the 2006 EU Thematic Strategy for Soil Protection (TSSP), provides an important focal point for soil research and awareness raising. Unfortunately, the TSSP has not yet been followed up with a legally binding Framework Directive mainly because of political barriers. Two ...

Bouma, J.; Broll, G.; Crane, T. A.; Dewitte, O.; Gardi, C.; Schulte, R. P. O.; Towers, W.

2012-01-01

93

Existential Questions Raised in Never Let Me Go  

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In this report, we discuss the existential questions raised in Never Let Me Go, by Kazuo Ishiguro. In order to cover both dimensions of Text & Sign, as well as Science & Philosophy, we take an analytical and philosophical approach. Firstly, we analyze symbolic events using the Romberg model to shed light on the characters’ existential struggle. Secondly, we apply relevant theories by Jean-Paul Sartre and Albert Camus, to explain how the society in the novel is Absurd. Finally, we addres...

Mahinthan, Sarah; Nicolaysen, Isolde; Olsen, Alice Rita; Thorarinsdottir, Inga Dora

2008-01-01

94

Raising and Lowering Operators for Askey-Wilson Polynomials  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this paper we describe two pairs of raising/lowering operators for Askey-Wilson polynomials, which result from constructions involving very different techniques. The first technique is quite elementary, and depends only on the ''classical'' properties of these polynomials, viz. the q-difference equation and the three term recurrence. The second technique is less elementary, and involves the one-variable version of the double affine Hecke algebra.

Siddhartha Sahi

2007-01-01

95

What can teachers do to raise pupil achievement?  

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Improving weak teaching may be one of the most effective means of raising pupil achievement. However, teachers' classroom practices and the teaching 'process' may matter more to student learning than teachers' observed résumé characteristics (such as certification and experience). There may also be important differences in teacher characteristics across government and private schools which may help explain the large documented public-private achievement differences often found in studies...

Aslam, Monazza; Kingdon, Geeta

2008-01-01

96

New gene variants raise risk of neuroblastoma, influence tumor progression  

Science.gov (United States)

Researchers at the Children's Hospital of Philadelphia have discovered two gene variants that raise the risk of the pediatric cancer neuroblastoma. Using automated technology to perform genome-wide association studies on DNA from thousands of subjects, the study broadens understanding of how gene changes may make a child susceptible to this early childhood cancer, as well as causing a tumor to progress. The Children's Hospital of Philadelphia is affiliated with the Abramson Cancer Center at the University of Pennsylvania.

97

Seven Mile Reservoir raising environmental impact assessment and compensation proposals  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The 1984 Skagit River Valley Treaty Implementation Act provided for raising of the Seven Mile Reservoir normal operating level from 522.7 m to 527.3 m. The dam, located on the Pend d'Oreille River, was completed in 1980 and with this raising and the future installation of a fourth unit, can operate at its full potential. Work included spillway gate completion and reservoir preparation. The reservoir raising caused impacts, including loss of whitetail deer winter range, slightly improved access for coarse fish into the Salmo River, and a reduced number of sites with recreational development potential. A number of compensation, enhancement, and monitoring measures to offset the losses caused by the project were identified and British Columbia Hydro proposes funding to implement the measures. An integral part of identifying and developing the programs was an interactive process involving local interest groups, government agencies, and the utility. Continued cooperation is anticipated in the implementation phase of the programs. 54 refs., 4 figs., 5 tabs

98

Properties and structure of raised bog peat humic acids  

Science.gov (United States)

Humic substances form most of the organic components of soil, peat and natural waters, and their structure and properties differ very much depending on their source. The aims of this study are to characterize humic acids (HAs) from raised bog peat, to evaluate the homogeneity of peat HAs within peat profiles, and to study peat humification impact on properties of HAs. A major impact on the structure of peat HAs have lignin-free raised bog biota (dominantly represented by bryophytes of different origin). On diagenesis scale, peat HAs have an intermediate position between the living organic matter and coal organic matter, and their structure is formed in a process in which more labile structures (carbohydrates, amino acids, etc.) are destroyed, while thermodynamically more stable aromatic and polyaromatic structures emerge as a result of abiotic synthesis. However, in comparison with soil, aquatic and other HAs, aromaticity of peat HAs is much lower. Comparatively, the raised bog peat HAs are at the beginning of the transformation process of living organic matter. Concentrations of carboxyl and phenolic hydroxyl groups change depending on the peat age and decomposition degree from where HAs have been isolated, and carboxylic acidity of peat HAs increases with peat depth and humification degree.

Klavins, Maris; Purmalis, Oskars

2013-10-01

99

Effects of a Velogenic Newcastle Disease Virus on Packed Cell Volume, Total Protein and Hemagglutination Inhibition Antibody Titres of Vaccinated Shikabrown Cocks  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Fifty 20 week old Shikabrown cocks consisting of 22 red Shikabrown and 28 white Shikabrown cocks were purchased from the National Animal Production Research Institute, Shika and used for this study. Twenty-five of the cocks made up of 12 red and 13 white cocks selected on basis of weight were infected with 2 ml of 106.0 EID5.0 of a Velogenic Kudu 113 strain of Newcastle disease virus intranasally and orally. The remaining twenty-five cocks made up of 14 red and 11 white served as control. Blood samples were taken from the wing veins of both infected and control cocks and centrifuged in a Hermle Z364 centrifuge at 251.6 g for packed cell volume, total protein and Newcastle disease antibody titres. There was no significant difference in the packed cell volume of the control and infected red Shikabrown cocks. Similarly there was no significant difference in the packed cell volume of the control and infected white Shikabrown cocks, although the infected cocks had slightly lower values. Total protein did not show any significant difference between the control and infected red cocks and between the control and infected white cocks. The antibody titres of the control red and white cocks were significantly (p<0.05 lower than those of the infected red and white cocks. This finding showed that the challenged red and white cocks had high antibody titres and a slight drop in packed cell volume. The mean antibody titres of 1.9 ±0.7 to 4.6 ±0.4 log2 provided protection to the Shikabrown cocks against the velogenic Newcastle disease virus since none of the challenged cocks died. This study suggests that in an endemic environment like Zaria, poultry farmers keeping Shikabrown chickens should vaccinate them against Newcastle disease. Challenging the red and white Shikabrown cocks with the velogenic Newcastle disease virus increased their protection against the Newcastle disease.

J.S. Rwuaan

2009-01-01

100

Katmanl? kompozit dikdörtgen plaklar?n burkulma ve titre?im analizi=Buckling and vibration analysis of laminated composite rectangular plates  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

ÖZET Kompozit plaklar?n uzay-havac?l?k sanayii gibi pek çok mühendislik alan?nda kullan?mlar?n?n yayg?nla?mas? ile dinamik ve stabilite davran?? karakteristiklerinin belirlenmesi önem kazanm??t?r. Bunun nedeni, kompozit malzemelerin yüksek özgül modül ve dayan?ma sahip olmalar?, ayr?ca kompozit malzemelerden yap?lm?? yap?lar?n istenen mekanik özelliklerde tasarlanabilmesidir. Bu çal??mada dikdörtgen, katmanl? kompozit plaklar?n stabilite ve serbest titre?...

Aydog?du, Metin

2003-01-01

 
 
 
 
101

X-ray sensititvity of embryonated Capillaria hepatica eggs and serum-GLDH activities and antibody titres in Mastomys natalensis infected with untreated or irradiated eggs  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

X-ray irradiation of embryonated Capillaria hepatica eggs using 0.5, 1, or 2 Krd resulted in a progressive decrease of egg production of the female nematodes which had developed from irradiated first stage larvae in Mastomys natalensis. Egg production did not occur after irradiation with 3, 4, 5, 10, 30, 50, or 70 Krd. The capacity of the parasites to invade the liver was not influenced. Infection of M. natalensis using unirradiated eggs was followed by an increase of serum-GLDH-activities between days 6 and 8 post infection reaching maximum values in this period of infection. Furthermore high values have been determined after the beginning of patency. Increased activity persisted up to the end of the experiment on day 36 post infection. After infection with eggs which had received 2.2 or 5 Krd the increase of serum-GLDH-activities was decreased and occurred later in the course of infection using 5 Krd irradiated eggs. Antibodies could be demonstrated as early as one week after infection with unirradiated eggs. Employing the indirect haemagglutination test, using an aqueous extract from non-embryonated eggs as antigen, maximum titres occurred at the beginning of patency. After a nearly plateau-like course titres began to drop about 7 weeks p.i., i.e. about the end of egg production by the female worms, but antibodies were still detectable 17 weeks p.i. (end of the observation period). After infection with eggs which had received 2.2 or 5 Krd antibody development was ded 2.2 or 5 Krd antibody development was delayed. Maximum titres were somewhat (2.2 Krd) or markedly (5 Krd) lower. Thereafter titres dropped to values comparable to those of uninfected M. natalensis. The results are compared with published reports on the pathohistology of capillariasis. (orig.)

102

Studies on bilharzial dysentery: the relation among the egg count, the number of bowel motion and the antibody titre and the relation between the schistosomal antibody titre as detected by indirect haemagglutination test and the size of the wheal area of the intradermal test.  

Science.gov (United States)

The authors studied the relation among the egg count, the number of motions and the antibody titer in 185 patients suffering from bilharzial dysentery. They found that no significant relation between the level of antibody titre and the number of ova and also no relation between egg count and number of motions but a significant relation between the number of bowel motions and the level of antibody titre was recorded. An auto-immune mechanism in Schistosoma mansoni has also been shown in this work but it needs further proof. On the other hand two diagnostic tests were performed namely the intradermal test and the indirect haemagglutination test. The former gave 84% positivity while the latter gave 94% positivity. In comparing the wheal size of the intradermal test and the titre of haemagglutination, it has been found that the wheal increases in size with rise of the titre. Therefore the wheal size can roughly suggest the level of immunity of the patient. PMID:555752

Gawish, N; Wassfi, S; el-Fawzy, M; Montasar, L

1978-01-01

103

Prion subcellular fractionation reveals infectivity spectrum, with a high titre-low PrPres level disparity  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Prion disease transmission and pathogenesis are linked to misfolded, typically protease resistant (PrPres conformers of the normal cellular prion protein (PrPC, with the former posited to be the principal constituent of the infectious 'prion'. Unexplained discrepancies observed between detectable PrPres and infectivity levels exemplify the complexity in deciphering the exact biophysical nature of prions and those host cell factors, if any, which contribute to transmission efficiency. In order to improve our understanding of these important issues, this study utilized a bioassay validated cell culture model of prion infection to investigate discordance between PrPres levels and infectivity titres at a subcellular resolution. Findings Subcellular fractions enriched in lipid rafts or endoplasmic reticulum/mitochondrial marker proteins were equally highly efficient at prion transmission, despite lipid raft fractions containing up to eight times the levels of detectable PrPres. Brain homogenate infectivity was not differentially enhanced by subcellular fraction-specific co-factors, and proteinase K pre-treatment of selected fractions modestly, but equally reduced infectivity. Only lipid raft associated infectivity was enhanced by sonication. Conclusions This study authenticates a subcellular disparity in PrPres and infectivity levels, and eliminates simultaneous divergence of prion strains as the explanation for this phenomenon. On balance, the results align best with the concept that transmission efficiency is influenced more by intrinsic characteristics of the infectious prion, rather than cellular microenvironment conditions or absolute PrPres levels.

Lewis Victoria

2012-04-01

104

The effect of gold sodium thiomalate and its constituent part, thiomalate, on the virus titres and the lysosomal enzyme activity in peritoneal macrophages of Swiss/A2G mice infected with the avirulent strain of Semliki Forest virus.  

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Treatment of adult mice with gold sodium thiomalate made the normally non-lethal Semliki Forest virus infection lethal. Associated with this was a significant increase in brain virus titre and a depression of peritoneal macrophage lysosomal enzyme activity. In contrast, treatment of adult mice with the constituent part, thiomalate, did not make the non-lethal Semliki Forest virus infection lethal. Brain virus titre and peritoneal macrophage lysosomal enzyme activity were comparable to the con...

Mehta, S.; Webb, H. E.

1990-01-01

105

Radiation protection issues raised in Korea since Fukushima accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

For the past 3 years since Fukushima accident, various issues related to nuclear safety and radiation safety were raised in Korea. This presentation focuses radiation protection (RP) issues among the various issues and has the purpose to share experiences and lessons-learned related to the RP issues. Special safety inspections on NPPs in Korea were performed immediately after Fukushima accident and 50 follow-up measures were established in May, 2011 to improve the nuclear safety. Some of them were related to radiation protection and emergency responses. Recently, in March, 2014, additional follow-up measures were decided to be taken in additionally strengthening safety-related equipment and emergency response organization. The 50 Fukushima-accident-follow-up measures include radiation protection for members of the public in emergency responses. Based on the follow-up measures, expansion of emergency planning zone (EPZ) is to be made according to the approval of legislation by National Assembly on May 2, 2014. For the past 3 years, the degree of the public concerns on radiation risk has been the highest. Spontaneous activities for radiation monitoring happened in the public. Some members of the public found some contaminated paved roads in November, 2011 and a contaminated kitchen ware in January, 2012. These findings suggest the importance of the management of recycled metal scraps imported from other countries. Fukushima accident gave much impact on Korean society all. The public gets very sensitive to issues about nuclear safety and radiation safety. Most parts of RP issues raised are related to the public. The lessons-learned are that as an issue is raised, it has a chance to be solved. However, RP issues related to radiation workers in accident conditions in NPPs are difficult to be raised enough to confirm and improve the robustness of radiation protection programs in accident conditions. It is necessary to share RP issues raised in each country as well as experiences and lessons-learned. Then, the shared information could help to enhance RP programs in each country in different conditions. (author)

106

Neutralizing and cross-neutralizing antibody titres induced by bivalent and quadrivalent human papillomavirus vaccines in the target population of organized vaccination programmes.  

Science.gov (United States)

Aim of this investigator-initiated study was to evaluate and compare the titres of neutralizing and cross-neutralizing antibodies (NAbs) induced by the bivalent (Cervarix(®)) and quadrivalent (Gardasil(®)) HPV vaccines in a cohort of girls aged 11-13 years from organized vaccination programmes. To this aim, HPV16 and HPV18 NAbs were measured by pseudovirion-based neutralization assays in serum collected at 1-6 months after the third vaccine dose in 107 girls vaccinated with Cervarix(®) and 126 vaccinated with Gardasil(®), while HPV31 and HPV45 cross-NAbs were tested in the first 50 consecutive girls of both vaccine groups. The results of this study demonstrated that all vaccinated girls developed HPV16 and HPV18 NAbs, with the exception of two Gardasil(®) vaccinees with undetectable HPV18 NAbs. Geometric mean titres (GMTs) of both HPV16 and HPV18 NAbs were significantly higher in Cervarix(®) than in Gardasil(®) vaccinees [HPV16 NAb GMT 22,136 (95% CI, 18,811-26,073) vs 5092 (4230-6151), respectively; P<0.0001; HPV18 NAb GMT 11,962 (9536-14,363) vs 1804 (1574-2110), respectively; P<0.0001]. Cross-NAbs to HPV31 and HPV45 were detected more frequently Cervarix(®) (HPV31 NAb positivity rates 92.7% and 36%, respectively; P<0.05) than in Gardasil(®) vaccinees (HPV45 NAb positivity rates 56% and 6%, respectively; P<0.0001). The titres of cross-NAbs against HPV31 and HPV45 were also significantly higher in Cervarix(®) than in Gardasil(®) vaccinees [HPV31 NAb GMT 157.2 (95% CI, 92-269) vs 13.0 (6.5-25.8), respectively; P<0.0001; HPV45 NAb GMT 4.7 (2.1-10.2) vs 1.3 (0.3-3.1), respectively; P<0.01]. In conclusion, in adolescent girls vaccinated within organized vaccination programmes, HPV vaccines drive the generation not only of NAbs to HPV vaccine types, but also of cross-NAbs. The bivalent vaccine induced significantly higher HPV16 and HPV18 NAb titres and more frequently and at higher titre HPV31 and HPV45 cross-NAbs than the quadrivalent vaccine. PMID:25045814

Barzon, Luisa; Squarzon, Laura; Masiero, Serena; Pacenti, Monia; Marcati, Giorgia; Mantelli, Barbara; Gabrielli, Liliana; Pascucci, Maria Grazia; Lazzarotto, Tiziana; Caputo, Antonella; Palù, Giorgio

2014-09-15

107

Intestinal titres of anti-tissue transglutaminase 2 antibodies correlate positively with mucosal damage degree and inversely with gluten-free diet duration in coeliac disease.  

Science.gov (United States)

It has always been known that anti-tissue transglutaminase 2 (anti-TG2) antibodies are produced in the small intestine. Their serum titres correlate with mucosal damage degree and decrease on a gluten-free diet (GFD). We aimed to correlate intestinal anti-TG2 antibodies levels with degree of mucosal damage and GFD duration. Thirty-four active, 71 potential and 24 CD patients on GFD for at least 2 years were enrolled. Anti-TG2 deposits were detected in intestinal biopsies by double immunofluorescence. Biopsies were cultured for 24?h with medium, and with gliadin peptic tryptic digest (PTG) or A-gliadin peptide 31-43 (P31-43). Anti-TG2 antibodies secreted into supernatants were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). All active CD patients secreted high titres of anti-TG2 antibodies into culture medium that increased with the worsening of mucosal injury (Spearman's r?=?0·71; P?titres of anti-TG2 antibodies into supernatants, eight of nine negative treated patients being on GFD for more than 10 years. An inverse correlation between antibody titres and duration of GFD was found, (Spearman's r?=?-0·52; P?titres correlated positively with the degree of mucosal damage and inversely with the duration of GFD. PMID:24773630

Tosco, A; Auricchio, R; Aitoro, R; Ponticelli, D; Primario, M; Miele, E; Rotondi Aufiero, V; Discepolo, V; Greco, L; Troncone, R; Maglio, M

2014-09-01

108

Some Aspects for Raising of Economic Competitiveness of Dairy Farming  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In Hungary the last decade the number of cattle stock practically hasdiminished 50% because of the unfavourable economic conditions. This fact and the nearing joining to EU reflect the important for developing dairy farming in the knew circumstances. Theoretically the over production is favourable for the profitability, because of the decreasing of the specific stable cost. Unfortunately, this way is closedfor the Hungarian dairy farming because of the quota system. Raising of the milk quality is more possible and real way for raising of the economic competitiveness in the milk farming, especially in lower classes. In connection profit, price and cost it can be said, that the production cost of milk is lower at the private farms, but the milk price is higher at company farms every year. This means, that private farms are responsive to cost (more economical production, adaptation to environment, etc., and the companies are responsive to price (higher milk quality, technical level, etc.. The two opposite tendencies result in higher income at private farms. The production cost, of course, depends on a lot of factors (labour, technology,keeping, etc. but the feed cost plays decisive role. The feed cost variation is 2-3 times more than the average milk cost variation, so we can say, that environmentally adapted milk production ? throw the feed cost will play decisive role in milk economics. This fact especially will be true in the next quota system and guaranteed price! Purpose of the investigation was to examine some opportunities for raising of competitiveness of dairy farming.

Sandor Kalmar

2003-09-01

109

Legal problems raised by the dissemination of information  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Dissemination of nuclear information presents specific aspects at the legal level which are explained by historical, political and technical connotations. Certain international agreements notably the Euratom Treaty or the Treaty on the non-proliferation of nuclear weapons determine legal frameworks for the dissemination of information that specialized international organizations also try to facilitate. Agreements concluded in this field include characteristic provisions (duration, definition of knowledge, guarantee clauses, protection of secrecy, the importance of technical assistance R and D, ...) which give them a complex legal nature. These problems are now raised in particular in the nuclear safety sector. (Auth)

110

Les femmes et les enfants, prisonniers politiques ou déportés à titre préventif pendant la guerre civile grecque  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Les conditions et stratégies de survie des milliers de femmes condamnées ou déportées de la guerre civile grecque permettent d'établir une typologie.Pendant la guerre civile grecque (1946-1949 des milliers de personnes sont emprisonnées, déportées dans des camps de concentration ou exilées dans des îles, une population hétéroclite d’hommes et de femmes, persécutés pour leurs idées, leurs origines ou même des liens de parenté avec les communistes. Dans la présente étude, nous nous intéresserons à un groupe lui-même peu homogène, les femmes et les enfants, prisonniers politiques ou déportés à titre préventif pendant le conflit. Après un bref rappel de la pratique de la déportation et une esquisse de typologie de la réclusion, nous étudierons les conditions de détention et les stratégies de survie des femmes, souvent emprisonnées avec leurs enfants, leur statut au sein des prisonniers politiques ainsi que le sens de l'engagement politique dans leur système de valeurs.During the Greek Civil War (1946-1949 thousands of persons were imprisoned, deported to concentration camps or exiled on the islands, a heteroclite population of men and women, persecuted for their ideas, their origins or even their association with the Communists. In the present study, we are interested in a not particularly homogeneous group of women and children, political prisoners or deportees who had been detained for preventive reasons during the conflict. Following a brief summary of the practice of deportation and a typological sketch of the imprisonment, we shall study the detention conditions and the survival strategies of the women, often imprisoned with their children, their status vis-à-vis the political prisoners as well as the meaning of political commitment in their value system.

Christina Alexopoulos

2011-12-01

111

Raised Relief Mars Globe Brings the Red Planet Closer  

Science.gov (United States)

The Mars Globe 20x is the first digitally produced raised relief globe to be sold at retail establishments. The rises and dips of the Martian landscape have been multiplied by 20 to make the shapes more noticeable to human touch and sight. They make this globe, with its over 1 million elevation points, a visually stunning introduction to the planet. Spectrum 3D used the NASA digital land elevation data to aim lasers that then shaped and defined the master globe s surface. Subsequent copies were then made by creating a master globe mold. The molded copies are hand finished by workers who remove errant edges or lines that may appear on the raw globes and then paint the surfaces. The result is a globe that measures in at 18 inches in diameter, roughly 1:15,729,473 scale of the actual planet. The exaggerated raised relief is like having a 3-D digital microscope for planetary shapes. This makes the landmarks easier to learn and understand, as it provides easy visuals for orientation. People have a natural propensity for understanding 3-D shapes more easily than numbers or words. The 3-D globes appeal to both the kinetic and visual learning aspects of the brain, making it easy for people to readily memorize the landmarks and to make a mental model that they will remember for a long time.

2006-01-01

112

An Effective Method for Information Security Awareness Raising Initiatives  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Increasingly, all kinds of organizations and institutions are adopting the E-business model to conduct theiractivities and provide E-Services for their customers. In the process, whether they know it or not, thoseorganizations are also opening themselves up to the risk of information security breaches. Thereforeprotecting an organization’s ICT infrastructure, IT systems, and Data is a vital issue that is oftenunderestimated. Research has shown that one of the most significant threats to information security comesnot from external attack but rather from the system's users, because they are familiar with theinfrastructure and have access to its resources, but may be unaware of the risks. Moreover, using onlytechnological solutions to protect an organization’s assets is not enough; there is a need to consider thehuman factor by raising users’ security awareness. Our contribution to this problem is to propose anInformation Security Awareness Program that aims at raising and maintaining the level of users’ securityawareness. This paper puts forward a general model for an information security awareness program anddescribes how it could be incorporated into an organization’s website through the process of developmentlife cycle.

AliMaqousi

2013-05-01

113

School District Interests and Challenges Buying Chicken Raised without Antibiotics  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The overuse of antibiotics in animal agriculture is recognized as contributing to human antibiotic resistance. With large meat purchases, particularly chicken, school districts have an opportunity to leverage their buying power to engage with this issue. However, few school food service professionals have done so and little is known about their awareness, attitudes, or experiences. This research surveyed 36 school districts affiliated with School Food FOCUS, which works on procurement reform with many of the largest school districts in the country. Questions were designed to solicit familiarity with the issue of antibiotic use in poultry production, attitudes, and extent of relevant action taken. Motivations and barriers for purchasing poultry raised with minimal, safe and sustainable use of antibiotics as well as fresh (raw poultry, which has been found to be an affordable way to menu antibiotic-free chicken, were assessed. Results revealed that this issue is important to respondents but difficult to address due to more immediate concerns. Barriers are experienced with purchasing both chicken raised without antibiotics and preparing fresh chicken. Product cost was perceived as a particularly high barrier. Responding to concerns of parents and the community was a top motivation.

Kathryn J. A. Colasanti

2013-09-01

114

Civil engineering work to raise the level of Route Goward  

CERN Multimedia

Civil engineering work to raise the level of Route Goward will take place during Long Shutdown 1. The work will begin on 18 March 2013 and is expected to last around 5 months.   Route Goward runs over the top of the PS tunnel and is the only access route to the inside of the ring. The layer of shielding backfill beneath this road is the thinnest anywhere on the PS ring. As the purpose of this shielding is to protect against the ionising radiation emitted by the accelerator when in operation, this road has been classified as a “supervised radiation area” according to radiation protection regulations. This classification was merely a temporary solution and, on the recommendation of the PS Radiation Working Group (PSRWG), the decision has been taken to raise the surface level permanently by around 2 m in order to increase the thickness of the shielding and thus lower the dose rate to that of a non-designated area. As the PS tunnel itself is unable to withstand the weight of t...

2013-01-01

115

Evaluación anátomo-histopatológica de bursa, timo y bazo de pollos de carne criados sobre cama reutilizada vs. cama nueva / Anatomical and histopathological evaluation of the bursa, thymus and spleen of broiler chickens raised in new or reused litter  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Peru | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Se evaluó el desarrollo anátomo-histopatológico de la bursa, timo y bazo de pollos de carne criados en cama nueva y cama reutilizada por cinco campañas. Se criaron 250 pollos machos de la línea Ross 308, la mitad en cama nueva y la otra mitad en cama reutilizada. Semanalmente, se determinaron los ín [...] dices morfométricos de bursa, timo y bazo, y la relación entre bursa y bazo por grupo. Los órganos linfoides fueron evaluados mediante histopatología, y los títulos de anticuerpos contra las enfermedades de Gumboro, Newcastle, Bronquitis Infecciosa, Anemia Infecciosa y Reovirus, al inicio y final de la crianza (49 días), se determinaron por la prueba de ELISA. Se encontró diferencia estadística (p Abstract in english The anatomo-histopathological development of the bursa, thymus and spleen of broiler chickens raised in new and reused litter through five campaigns was evaluated. Two hundred and fifty male chickens of the Ross 308 line were raised, half in new and half in reused litter. On a weekly basis, the morp [...] hometric indexes of bursa, thymus and spleen, and the relation bursa/spleen were recorded. The lymphoid organs were evaluated by histopathology and ELISA test was used to determine antibody titres for Gumboro, Newcastle, Infectious Bronchitis, Infectious Anemia, and Reovirus at the beginning and end of the study (49 days). Statistical difference was found (p

Antonio, Tambini A.; Mónica, Alba C.; Rosa, Perales C; Néstor, Falcón P.

2010-07-01

116

Raise the management level of EPC contracting in six aspects  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Nuclear power construction develops rapidly today and EPC contracting for nuclear power projects, as a strategic decision of CNNC, has become a tendency. The target of engineering management can be smoothly realized or achieved by doing a good job in the following six aspects: effective communication between divisions of project department, high-degree consistency of managerial concepts for project management staff, clear objective for different divisions in the project department, presence of rules to be observed in construction management work, avoidance of human-initiated errors in the project, and clear distinction of management control concept. It is hoped that, through exchange and practice, management procedures and consciousness for EPC contracting can be further standardized and thus the level of management for EPC contracting will be raised finally. (authors)

117

Design of a Hybrid Propulsion System for Orbit Raising Applications  

Science.gov (United States)

A trade off between conventional liquid apogee engines used for orbit raising applications and hybrid rocket engines (HRE) has been performed using a case study approach. Current requirements for lower cost and enhanced safety places hybrid propulsion systems in the spotlight. For evaluating and design of a hybrid rocket engine a parametric engineering code is developed, based on the combustion chamber characteristics of selected propellants. A single port cylindrical section of fuel grain is considered. Polyethylene (PE) and hydroxyl-terminated polybutadiene (HTPB) represents the fuels investigated. The engine design is optimized to minimize the propulsion system volume and mass, while keeping the system as simple as possible. It is found that the fuel grain L/D ratio boundary condition has a major impact on the overall hybrid rocket engine design.

Boman, N.; Ford, M.

2004-10-01

118

THE CHALLENGES OF RAISING REVENUES AND RESTRUCTURING SUBSIDIES IN MALAYSIA  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Malaysia has run deficit budgets in all but five years since 1970 but past deficits have been managed thanks to substantial oil revenues and high domestic savings. However, the slow growth or decline of several traditional sources of revenue and the rising subsidy bill since 2007 have given pause for reflection on the traditional approach to fiscal management. In this paper, it is argued that fiscal management must not only centre around reducing non-productive expenditures and wasteful leakages but must also confront the problem of reducing and restructuring subsidies, particularly to petrol and petroleum-related products. The global dip in petroleum process has fortuitously provided the respite needed for such an exercise and should not lull policy makersinto complacency. When the economy recovers from the currentdownswing, a solid revenue raising instrument such as the value-addedtax must be introduced in order to wean the economy away from thecurrent over reliance on petroleum-based taxes.

Suresh Narayanan

2007-01-01

119

Intensional Verbs Without Type-Raising or Lexical Ambiguity  

CERN Document Server

We present an analysis of the semantic interpretation of intensional verbs such as seek that allows them to take direct objects of either individual or quantifier type, producing both de dicto and de re readings in the quantifier case, all without needing to stipulate type-raising or quantifying-in rules. This simple account follows directly from our use of logical deduction in linear logic to express the relationship between syntactic structures and meanings. While our analysis resembles current categorial approaches in important ways, it differs from them in allowing the greater type flexibility of categorial semantics while maintaining a precise connection to syntax. As a result, we are able to provide derivations for certain readings of sentences with intensional verbs and complex direct objects that are not derivable in current purely categorial accounts of the syntax-semantics interface. The analysis forms a part of our ongoing work on semantic interpretation within the framework of Lexical-Functional G...

Dalrymple, M; Pereira, F; Saraswat, V; Dalrymple, Mary; Lamping, John; Pereira, Fernando; Saraswat, Vijay

1994-01-01

120

Status of RAISE, the Rapid Acquisition Imaging Spectrograph Experiment  

Science.gov (United States)

The Rapid Acquisition Imaging Spectrograph Experiment (RAISE) sounding rocket payload is a high speed scanning-slit imaging spectrograph designed to observe the dynamics and heating of the solar chromosphere and corona on time scales as short as 100 ms, with 1 arcsec spatial resolution and a velocity sensitivity of 1-2 km/s. The instrument is based on a new class of UV/EUV imaging spectrometers that use only two reflections to provide quasi-stigmatic performance simultaneously over multiple wavelengths and spatial fields. The design uses an off-axis parabolic telescope mirror to form a real image of the sun on the spectrometer entrance aperture. A slit then selects a portion of the solar image, passing its light onto a near-normal incidence toroidal grating, which re-images the spectrally dispersed radiation onto two array detectors. Two full spectral passbands over the same one-dimensional spatial field are recorded simultaneously with no scanning of the detectors or grating. The two different spectral bands (1st-order 1205-1243Å and 1526-1564Å) are imaged onto two intensified Active Pixel Sensor (APS) detectors whose focal planes are individually adjusted for optimized performance. The telescope and grating are coated with B4C to enhance short wavelength (2nd order) reflectance, enabling the instrument to record the brightest lines between 602-622Å and 761-780Å at the same time. RAISE reads out the full field of both detectors at 5-10 Hz, allowing us to record over 1,500 complete spectral observations in a single 5-minute rocket flight, opening up a new domain of high time resolution spectral imaging and spectroscopy. We present an overview of the project, a summary of the maiden flight results, and an update on instrument status.Abstract (2,250 Maximum Characters): The Rapid Acquisition Imaging Spectrograph Experiment (RAISE) sounding rocket payload is a high speed scanning-slit imaging spectrograph designed to observe the dynamics and heating of the solar chromosphere and corona on time scales as short as 100 ms, with 1 arcsec spatial resolution and a velocity sensitivity of 1-2 km/s. The instrument is based on a new class of UV/EUV imaging spectrometers that use only two reflections to provide quasi-stigmatic performance simultaneously over multiple wavelengths and spatial fields. The design uses an off-axis parabolic telescope mirror to form a real image of the sun on the spectrometer entrance aperture. A slit then selects a portion of the solar image, passing its light onto a near-normal incidence toroidal grating, which re-images the spectrally dispersed radiation onto two array detectors. Two full spectral passbands over the same one-dimensional spatial field are recorded simultaneously with no scanning of the detectors or grating. The two different spectral bands (1st-order 1205-1243Å and 1526-1564Å) are imaged onto two intensified Active Pixel Sensor (APS) detectors whose focal planes are individually adjusted for optimized performance. The telescope and grating are coated with B4C to enhance short wavelength (2nd order) reflectance, enabling the instrument to record the brightest lines between 602-622Å and 761-780Å at the same time. RAISE reads out the full field of both detectors at 5-10 Hz, allowing us to record over 1,500 complete spectral observations in a single 5-minute rocket flight, opening up a new domain of high time resolution spectral imaging and spectroscopy. We present an overview of the project, a summary of the maiden flight results, and an update on instrument status.

Laurent, Glenn T.; Hassler, D. M.; DeForest, C.; Ayres, T. R.; Davis, M.; De Pontieu, B.; Schuehle, U.; Warren, H.

2013-07-01

 
 
 
 
121

How can arms control raise the nuclear threshold in Europe  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper discusses the potential contribution of arms control to raising the nuclear threshold in Europe, the general approach taken is that there are already a number of good ideas on this subject, that some of them may bring some modest progress in the next several years, and that the political process in the countries of the Western coalition is likely to promote even more serious action within the decade. Despite a great deal of contrary evidence, it may be that the East-West military confrontation in Europe has already passed a watershed and, however imperceptibly and confusedly, is gradually running down. Something even more fundamental than the role of nuclear weapons in defence and deterrence may be involved

122

Raise the management level of EPC contracting in six aspects  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Nuclear power construction develops rapidly today and EPC contracting for nuclear power projects, as a strategic decision of CNNC, has become a tendency. The target of engineering management can be smoothly realized or achieved by doing a good job in the following six aspects:effective communication between divisions of project department, high-degree consistency of managerial concepts for project management staff, clear objective for different divisions in the project department, presence of rules to be observed in construction management work, avoidance of human-initiated errors in the project, and clear distinction of management control concept. It is hoped that, through exchange and practice, management procedures and consciousness for EPC contracting can be further standardized and thus the level of management for EPC contracting will be raised finally. (authors)

123

HLA-DR3-DQ2 mice do not develop ataxia in the presence of high titre anti-gliadin antibodies.  

Science.gov (United States)

Recently, it has been suggested that anti-gliadin antibodies (?GAb) may produce "gluten ataxia", even in the absence of celiac disease enteropathy. ?GAb are reportedly present in 12-50 % of patients with sporadic ataxia, but also in 12 % of the general population, such that the importance of ?GAb as a cause of sporadic ataxia is not conclusively settled. We aimed to determine whether mice transgenic for HLA-DR3-DQ2 and immunised with gliadin to achieve high titres of ?GAb would develop ataxia and/or cerebellar damage. From 6 weeks of age, HLA-DR3-DQ2 transgenic mice were immunised fortnightly with gliadin (n?=?10) or a saline control (n?=?6) in adjuvant. Serum titres were measured by ?GAb enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. At 24 weeks of age, mice were tested for locomotor function using the accelerating rotarod, ledged beam, ink-paw gait, and several neurological severity score subtests. Brains were then collected and processed for immunohistochemistry. Sections were analysed for lymphocytic infiltration, changes in morphology and Purkinje cell (PC) dendritic volume and the number of PCs counted via unbiased stereology. Gliadin-immunised mice developed high ?GAb titres while controls did not. There was no statistically significant difference between the gliadin and sham-immunised HLA-DR3-DQ2 mice on any of the tests of motor coordination, in lymphocytic infiltration, PC number or in dendritic volume. High levels of ?GAb are not sufficient to produce ataxia or cerebellar damage in HLA-DR3-DQ2 transgenic mice. PMID:23086706

Tarlac, Volga; Kelly, Louise; Nag, Nupur; Allen-Graham, Judy; Anderson, Robert P; Storey, Elsdon

2013-06-01

124

A comparison of vaccine efficacity and mortality during routine use of high-titre Edmonston-Zagreb and Schwarz standard measles vaccines in rural Senegal  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Vaccine efficacy and mortality in successive cohorts of children who routinely received either Edmonston-Zagreb high-titre (EZ-HT) or Schwarz standard (SW-STD) measles vaccines have been examined in a rural area of Senegal. The 2 vaccines were equally protective against measles infection (vaccination efficacy : EZ-HT 94 % ; SW-STD 93 %). Children who did not attend a scheduled session to receive measles vaccine had a higher mortality rate between 9 months and 2 years of age than did children ...

Aaby, Peter; Samb, Badara; Simondon, Franc?ois; Knudsen, K.; Coll Seck, A. M.; Bennett, J.; Markowitz, L.; Wittle, H.

1996-01-01

125

7 CFR 760.204 - Eligible livestock, honeybees, and farm-raised fish.  

Science.gov (United States)

...of Agriculture (Continued) FARM SERVICE AGENCY, DEPARTMENT...for Livestock, Honeybees, and Farm-Raised Fish Program § 760...Eligible livestock, honeybees, and farm-raised fish. (a) To...alpacas, adult or non-adult dairy cattle, adult or...

2010-01-01

126

Titre de la présentation  

UNE DIVERSIFICATION UTILE Une approche sécurisante du marché de la promotion ...potentiels des surfaces vacantes à la valeur locative de marché rapportés à la valeur d'expertise hors droits des ...Une accélération des visites augurant d’un rebond proche du marché de la Défense Doublement des visites depuis la

127

Raised plasma aldosterone and natriuretic peptides in atrial fibrillation  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: During atrial fibrillation (AF), the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) may be activated. In this study, our aim was to evaluate at a long-term follow-up visit the levels of plasma aldosterone and natriuretic peptides as markers of neurohormonal remodeling in patients with earlier, documented AF in relation to present heart rhythm, clinical data, and the left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF). We hypothesized that increased levels of aldosterone and natriuretic peptides were significantly associated with present AF as markers of RAAS activation during the arrhythmia. METHODS: We studied 158 patients with earlier ECG-documented AF followed by restored sinus rhythm (SR) attending a follow-up visit 2.6 years (mean) after primary inclusion. RESULTS: At follow-up, 93 patients had SR. Heart rhythm at follow-up visit (SR/AF), plasma aldosterone, plasma N-terminal pro Brain Natriuretic Peptide (Nt-proBNP), plasma N-terminal pro Atrial Natriuretic Peptide (Nt-proANP), LVEF, medication,and clinical characteristics were recorded. Standard linear multiple regression analysis including age, sex, weight, hypertension, congestive heart failure, ischemic heart disease, present AF at follow-up, total duration of AF disease, ongoing medication, and the LVEF as explanatory variables showed that only ongoing treatment with diuretics was significantly associated (likelihood ratio test, p = 0.0057) with a raised log-transformed plasma aldosterone, although present AF at follow-up was related to a high aldosterone level (p = 0.09). For the natriuretic peptides, present AF at follow-up (p < 0.0001), age (p < 0.0001), female gender (p = 0.0047), ischemic heart disease (p = 0.0154), and ongoing treatment with sotalol (p = 0.0003) were all independently associated with high log-transformed plasma Nt-proANP. Likewise, present AF at follow-up (p = 0.0008) as well as age (p < 0.0001) were associated with high log-transformed plasma Nt-proBNP. CONCLUSIONS: In patients with earlier AF, AF at long-term follow-upvisit was independently associated with raised levels of Nt-proANP and Nt-proBNP and to some extent with plasma aldosterone indicating neurohormonal activation during arrhythmia. Copyright 2007 S. Karger AG, Basel.

Dixen, U; Ravn, L

2007-01-01

128

Raised Plasma Aldosterone and Natriuretic Peptides in Atrial Fibrillation.  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: During atrial fibrillation (AF), the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) may be activated. In this study, our aim was to evaluate at a long-term follow-up visit the levels of plasma aldosterone and natriuretic peptides as markers of neurohormonal remodeling in patients with earlier, documented AF in relation to present heart rhythm, clinical data, and the left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF). We hypothesized that increased levels of aldosterone and natriuretic peptides were significantly associated with present AF as markers of RAAS activation during the arrhythmia. METHODS: We studied 158 patients with earlier ECG-documented AF followed by restored sinus rhythm (SR) attending a follow-up visit 2.6 years (mean) after primary inclusion. RESULTS: At follow-up, 93 patients had SR. Heart rhythm at follow-up visit (SR/AF), plasma aldosterone, plasma N-terminal pro Brain Natriuretic Peptide (Nt-proBNP), plasma N-terminal pro Atrial Natriuretic Peptide (Nt-proANP), LVEF, medication, and clinical characteristics were recorded. Standard linear multiple regression analysis including age, sex, weight, hypertension, congestive heart failure, ischemic heart disease, present AF at follow-up, total duration of AF disease, ongoing medication, and the LVEF as explanatory variables showed that only ongoing treatment with diuretics was significantly associated (likelihood ratio test, p = 0.0057) with a raised log-transformed plasma aldosterone, although present AF at follow-up was related to a high aldosterone level (p = 0.09). For the natriuretic peptides, present AF at follow-up (p < 0.0001), age (p < 0.0001), female gender (p = 0.0047), ischemic heart disease (p = 0.0154), and ongoing treatment with sotalol (p = 0.0003) were all independently associated with high log-transformed plasma Nt-proANP. Likewise, present AF at follow-up (p = 0.0008) as well as age (p < 0.0001) were associated with high log-transformed plasma Nt-proBNP. CONCLUSIONS: In patients with earlier AF, AF at long-term follow-up visit was independently associated with raised levels of Nt-proANP and Nt-proBNP and to some extent with plasma aldosterone indicating neurohormonal activation during arrhythmia. Copyright 2007 S. Karger AG, Basel.

Dixen, U; SØby-Rasmussen, C

2006-01-01

129

Raised plasma aldosterone and natriuretic peptides in atrial fibrillation.  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: During atrial fibrillation (AF), the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) may be activated. In this study, our aim was to evaluate at a long-term follow-up visit the levels of plasma aldosterone and natriuretic peptides as markers of neurohormonal remodeling in patients with earlier, documented AF in relation to present heart rhythm, clinical data, and the left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF). We hypothesized that increased levels of aldosterone and natriuretic peptides were significantly associated with present AF as markers of RAAS activation during the arrhythmia. METHODS: We studied 158 patients with earlier ECG-documented AF followed by restored sinus rhythm (SR) attending a follow-up visit 2.6 years (mean) after primary inclusion. RESULTS: At follow-up, 93 patients had SR. Heart rhythm at follow-up visit (SR/AF), plasma aldosterone, plasma N-terminal pro Brain Natriuretic Peptide (Nt-proBNP), plasma N-terminal pro Atrial Natriuretic Peptide (Nt-proANP), LVEF, medication, and clinical characteristics were recorded. Standard linear multiple regression analysis including age, sex, weight, hypertension, congestive heart failure, ischemic heart disease, present AF at follow-up, total duration of AF disease, ongoing medication, and the LVEF as explanatory variables showed that only ongoing treatment with diuretics was significantly associated (likelihood ratio test, p = 0.0057) with a raised log-transformed plasma aldosterone, although present AF at follow-up was related to a high aldosterone level (p = 0.09). For the natriuretic peptides, present AF at follow-up (p < 0.0001), age (p < 0.0001), female gender (p = 0.0047), ischemic heart disease (p = 0.0154), and ongoing treatment with sotalol (p = 0.0003) were all independently associated with high log-transformed plasma Nt-proANP. Likewise, present AF at follow-up (p = 0.0008) as well as age (p < 0.0001) were associated with high log-transformed plasma Nt-proBNP. CONCLUSIONS: In patients with earlier AF, AF at long-term follow-up visit was independently associated with raised levels of Nt-proANP and Nt-proBNP and to some extent with plasma aldosterone indicating neurohormonal activation during arrhythmia. Copyright 2007 S. Karger AG, Basel.

Dixen, U; Ravn, L

2007-01-01

130

46 CFR 10.231 - Requirements for raises of grade or new endorsements.  

Science.gov (United States)

...Requirements for raises of grade or new endorsements. 10.231 Section 10.231 Shipping...Requirements for raises of grade or new endorsements. (a) This section applies to...transaction(s): (1) Add a new endorsement; or (2) Raise of grade of an...

2010-10-01

131

The Campus Green: Fund Raising in Higher Education. ASHE-ERIC Higher Education Report 1.  

Science.gov (United States)

This report reviews the research on fund raising in higher education in the United States. It considers such questions as: What are the costs of fund raising? What is known of donor motivation? and What is the connection between successful intercollegiate athletics and successful fund raising? Research findings indicating the consistent…

Brittingham, Barbara E.; Pezzullo, Thomas R.

132

Raised levels of circulating endothelial cells in systemic sclerosis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Objective: Circulating endothelial cells (CECs have been described in different conditions with vascular injury. Vascular abnormalities play a key role in the pathogenesis of Systemic Sclerosis (SSc. The aim of our study was to look for the presence of CECs in SSc patients and to evaluate their clinical significance. Methods: We studied 52 SSc patients and 40 healthy controls (HC. Five-parameter, 3-color flow cytometry was performed with a FACScan. CECs were defined as CD45 negative, CD31 and P1H12 positive, and activated CECs as CD45 negative and P1H12, CD62, or CD106 positive. Results: Total and activated CEC counts were significantly higher in SSc patients when compared with HC and positively correlated with disease activity score. We found a significant association between CECs and disease activity; as regard with organ involvement, CEC number correlate with the severity of pulmonary hypertension. Conclusions: Raised counts of CECs may represent direct evidence of active vascular disease in SSc as regard as visceral involvement, the association between CECs and pulmonary hypertension suggest a relevant role for CECs as a marker of prominent endothelial involvement.

N. Fracchiolla

2011-09-01

133

Leptospirosis control on an intensive raising pig farm  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Leptospirosis is an infective disease which represents serious health and economic problems in pig raising. The disease is caused by bacteria from genus Leptospira interrogans, which has over 250 serotypes and is isolated from most animal species and also from humans in almost every country in the world. In farm conditions the disease is seldom manifested as a clinically apparent illness. More often is manifested as reduced conception rate increased abortion rate and increased birth of dead and non-vital piglets. The leptospirosis control and eradication program was made for a state owned farm with a capacity of about 1500 sows and over 30000 fattened animals per year. The farm had an on going endemic leptospirosis infection and subsequent progressive economic losses. We detected 29,80% seropositive sows and gilts in which serotypes pomona and icterhaemorrhagiae were isolated. Serologic examination of blood was performed again after program implementation, and no positive animals were found, while production and economic results were improved. The control of leptospirosis and the eradication program for a five-year period were based on detailed quantification of economics losses. Using cost-benefit analysis the necessary inputs and planned outputs were defined, and program evolution was made on the basis of net present value and benefit/cost ratio.

Teši? M.

2005-01-01

134

Reproductive behaviour in bulls raised under tropical and subtropical conditions.  

Science.gov (United States)

The present review describes the behavioral characteristics of bulls raised under tropical and subtropical conditions and emphasizes the difficulties associated with adequately monitoring their performance in the field to predict reproductive potential. Most of the information generated for improving our understanding of bull behavior under range conditions has been generated in Bos taurus bulls. The limited information available in Bos indicus indicates that males searching for cows in estrus display different sexual patterns when compared to B. taurus bulls and a poor selection of a sire utilized in range conditions can have an important impact in cattle production. Screening and selecting [cg1] bulls for desirable reproductive traits and high libido is known to improve the reproductive performance of the herd. The reproductive and genetic potential of a bull is influenced by factors such as management, age, nutrition and problems related to the female such as embryonic death and anestrus. However, behavioral characteristics of bulls when detecting and serving cows in estrus is poorly understood. PMID:17482187

Galina, C S; Horn, M M; Molina, R

2007-06-01

135

Raising the Higgs mass in supersymmetry with t -t' mixing  

Science.gov (United States)

In this article we propose a new strategy to address the little hierarchy problem. We show that the addition of a fourth generation with vectorlike quarks to the minimal supersymmetric standard model can raise the predicted value of the physical Higgs mass by mixing with the top sector. The mixing requires a larger top quark Yukawa coupling (by up to ˜6%) to produce the same top mass. Since loop corrections to mh go as ytop4, this will in turn increase the predicted value of the physical Higgs mass, a point not previously emphasized in the literature. In the presence of mixing, for A terms and soft masses around 900 GeV, a Higgs mass of 125 GeV can be generated while retaining perturbativity of the gauge couplings, evading constraints from electroweak precision measurements and recent LHC searches, and pushing the Landau pole for the top Yukawa above the GUT scale. Soft masses can be as low as 800 GeV in parts of parameter space with a Landau pole at ˜1010 GeV. However, the Landau pole can still be pushed above the GUT scale if one sacrifices perturbative unification by adding fields in a 5+5¯ representation. With a ratio of weak-scale vector masses ?1, soft masses may be slightly below 800 GeV. The model predicts new quarks and squarks with masses ?750 GeV. We briefly discuss potential paths for discovery or exclusion at the LHC.

Faroughy, Cyrus; Grizzard, Kevin

2014-08-01

136

Raising antibodies against circulating foetal cells from maternal peripheral blood  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

OBJECTIVE: Cells of foetal origin circulating in the maternal peripheral bloodstream present a unique source for non-invasive prenatal diagnostics. The aims of this study were to raise antibodies against identified circulating foetal cells from the maternal blood, test the properties of these antibodies and to determine the foetal cell type recognised by the antibodies. METHOD: Cells from a male foetus were identified in a maternal blood sample by FISH analysis of the X- and Y- chromosomes. The identified cells were subjected to phage display selection using a novel single cell selection strategy. Selected antibodies were tested by immunocytochemistry on foetal and adult tissue arrays, an endothelial cell line, and peripheral blood mononuclear cells. RESULTS: Three identified foetal cells subjected to antibody selection, yielded a total of 12 antibodies. Three antibodies gave distinct staining patterns on tissue arrays, and endothelial cells. One antibody, SF1.3, shows specific staining of a subpopulation of peripheral blood mononuclear cells, including a fraction of CD34 positive cells. CONCLUSION: These findings indicate that the identified foetal cells could have been progenitor cells of haematopoietic origin. The antibody SF1.3 could be a potential tool toward non-invasive prenatal diagnostics.

SØrensen, Morten Dræby; Melchjorsen, Connie Jenning

2013-01-01

137

[Viral and bacterial shedding in calves raised under commercial conditions].  

Science.gov (United States)

Etiological, clinical, and epizootiological studies were carried out with newborn calves on two cow complexes of 500 animals each, raised under industrial conditions. Virologic and bacteriologic investigations of a total of 300 fecal samples taken from both calves and dams on the day of calving up to the 10th day as well as on the 20th and 30th day revealed that in 90 per cent of the cases there were rotaviruses. With calves that remained with the cows up to the 72nd hour 30 to 50 per cent of the rotaviruses were found from the second to the tenth day, and with calves that were separated from their dams immediately after calving rotaviruses were found at more advanced age too. Bacteriologically, as many as 92 strains of Escherichia coli were established as isolated from the fecal samples studied. Antigen K99 was demonstrated with 3.26 per cent of the strains. It was concluded that both with regard to the numbers of the E. coli strains isolated and to the period during which these were found the bacterium prevailed in calves that did not suck directly from their dams in the first days following calving. PMID:3811211

Sizov, I; Zarkov, I; Fetisova, K; Ivanov, I T

1986-01-01

138

Malaria infection by sporozoite challenge induces high functional antibody titres against blood stage antigens after a DNA prime, poxvirus boost vaccination strategy in Rhesus macaques  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background A DNA prime, poxvirus (COPAK boost vaccination regime with four antigens, i.e. a combination of two Plasmodium knowlesi sporozoite (csp/ssp2 and two blood stage (ama1/msp142 genes, leads to self-limited parasitaemia in 60% of rhesus monkeys and survival from an otherwise lethal infection with P. knowlesi. In the present study, the role of the blood stage antigens in protection was studied in depth, focusing on antibody formation against the blood stage antigens and the functionality thereof. Methods Rhesus macaques were immunized with the four-component vaccine and subsequently challenged i.v. with 100 P. knowlesi sporozoites. During immunization and challenge, antibody titres against the two blood stage antigens were determined, as well as the in vitro growth inhibition capacity of those antibodies. Antigen reversal experiments were performed to determine the relative contribution of antibodies against each of the two blood stage antigens to the inhibition. Results After vaccination, PkAMA1 and PkMSP119 antibody titres in vaccinated animals were low, which was reflected in low levels of inhibition by these antibodies as determined by in vitro inhibition assays. Interestingly, after sporozoite challenge antibody titres against blood stage antigens were boosted over 30-fold in both protected and not protected animals. The in vitro inhibition levels increased to high levels (median inhibitions of 59% and 56% at 6 mg/mL total IgG, respectively. As growth inhibition levels were not significantly different between protected and not protected animals, the ability to control infection appeared cannot be explained by GIA levels. Judged by in vitro antigen reversal growth inhibition assays, over 85% of the inhibitory activity of these antibodies was directed against PkAMA1. Conclusions This is the first report that demonstrates that a DNA prime/poxvirus boost vaccination regimen induces low levels of malaria parasite growth inhibitory antibodies, which are boosted to high levels upon challenge. No association could, however, be established between the levels of inhibitory capacity in vitro and protection, either after vaccination or after challenge.

Thomas Alan W

2011-02-01

139

30 CFR 57.4660 - Work in shafts, raises, or winzes and other activities involving hazard areas.  

Science.gov (United States)

... Materials in a shaft, raise, or winze that could be ignited...from falling down the shaft, raise, or winze. This alternative...activities involving a shaft, raise, or winze. (c) The...hazard continues to exist. Ventilation Control...

2010-07-01

140

Differences in female-male mortality after high-titre measles vaccine and association with subsequent vaccination with diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis and inactivated poliovirus : reanalysis of West African studies  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Females given high-titre measles vaccine (HTMV) have high mortality; diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis (DTP) vaccination might be associated with increased female mortality. We aimed to assess whether DTP or inactivated poliovirus (IPV) administered after HTMV was associated with increased female-male mortality ratio.

Aaby, Peter; Jensen, Henrik

2003-01-01

 
 
 
 
141

The "Geoparks" as a way to raise geoconservation in Kazakhstan  

Science.gov (United States)

Kazakhstan is one of the nine largest countries of the world and not only has significant mineral resources but rich geological heritage. However, to date geology is considered only as a way to search for minerals due to the established traditions. Faced with a geologist, we usually ask: "What are you looking for?". But the man with the hammer must answer the more important question - about the future of the Planet and Humanity. But it is necessary to save and to study the stone chronicle page for this. Only history of the Earth, recorded in the annals of rock sheets, gives a scientific answer on the fate of Planet and Mankind, and allows realistically assess the risk of disasters, floods, global warming, etc. During 20 years we are trying to give a push to protection and use of geological heritage of Kazakhstan. In our country this new direction gets accustomed with large labor. The spread of the world experience on geoconservation, the databases created of the geological heritage of Kazakhstan, numerous performances in the scientific press and the media has not lead to real steps to preserve and use geodiversity in our country. Today we are trying to raise the idea of geoconservation in Kazakhstan based on Geoparks. A project "Geological study of the geoparks development in Kazakhstan" is developed. 12 representative areas were selected on a background of the database that includes 500 sites of geological heritage, embracing a large variety of geological processes in all regions of Kazakhstan. On October 31st, 2012 in Astana the "Kazakh Geographical Society" held an international conference including "Geoparks" section. At the conference reports of all the regions of Kazakhstan representatives were presented, as well as European countries with extensive experience in geoconservation and geoparks creation (Portugal, Bulgaria, Turkey). The conference was supported by UNESCO. Album "Millions of years before the Silk Road", which represents the future Kazakhstan Geoparks, was published. Geoparks of Kazakhstan extremely visually represent global geological processes. Ustuyrt plateau is a part of a tectonic system Caspian-Aral-Ustyurt. The study of the plateau as part of a tectonic megasystem Caspian-Aral Ustyurt allows us to understand the nature of largest intercontinental hollow of the world (the "country-crater" by Alexander von Humboldt). As a result, the Caspian Sea is considered today as a "window into the mantle". Paleovolcanic area Shuyldak is relict of Devonian Ural Ocean World standard of volcanic structures of ancient mid-ocean type. It is an illustrative base of plate tectonics. At the Kokshetau National Park the world's largest diamond deposit is explored. 2.5 billion carats is more than in all the deposits in Yakutia. This technical microdiamonds that are not mined. The field is interesting not only for geologists, but for mass tourism too. National Park Burabaj linked to the ancient granite-metamorphic dome. For nearly a billion years (from Proterozoic to Mesozoic) metamorphic complexes and granite melts had been formed which compose the foundation of modern scenic lake and forest landscape.

Fishman, Ilya; Kazakova, Julia; Abdov, Nurlan

2013-04-01

142

RTP/I Payload Type Definition for Hand-Raising Tools  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This document specifies an application-level protocol (i.e., payload type) for hand-raising tools using the Real Time Protocol for Distributed Interactive Media (RTP/I). RTP/I defines a standardized framing for the transmission of application data and provides protocol mechanisms that are universally needed for the class of distributed interactive media. A hand-raising tool can support collaboration between spatially separated users. In a video conference, for example, a hand-raising tool can...

Vogel, Ju?rgen

2001-01-01

143

High-titre circulating tissue transglutaminase-2 antibodies predict small bowel villous atrophy, but decision cut-off limits must be locally validated.  

Science.gov (United States)

Numerous studies suggest that high levels of circulating immunoglobulin (Ig)A tissue transglutaminase (TTG2) antibodies predict coeliac disease with high specificity. Accordingly, it has been suggested that duodenal biopsy may not be required routinely for diagnostic confirmation where quantitative serology identifies the presence of high antibody titres. However, defining a cut-off TTG2 threshold is problematic, as the multiple available assay methods are not harmonized and most studies have been focused on the paediatric population. Recent paediatric guidelines proposed a TTG2 antibody diagnostic cut-off at 10?×?the upper limit of normal (ULN) for the method; however, concerns remain about errors of generalization, between both methods and laboratories. In this study, we used retrospective laboratory data to investigate the relationship between TTG2 antibody levels and Marsh 3 histology in the seropositive population of adults and children at a single centre. Among 202 seropositive patients with corresponding biopsies, it was possible to define a TTG2 antibody cut-off with 100% specificity for Marsh 3 histology, at just over 10?×?ULN for the method. However, UK National External Quality Assurance Scheme returns during the study period showed a wide dispersion of results and poor consensus, both between methods and between laboratories using the same method. Our results support the view that high-titre TTG2 antibody levels have strong predictive value for villous atrophy in adults and children, but suggest that decision cut-offs to guide biopsy requirement will require local validation. TTG2 antibody assay harmonization is a priority, in order to meet the evolving requirements of laboratory users in this field. PMID:24325651

Beltran, L; Koenig, M; Egner, W; Howard, M; Butt, A; Austin, M R; Patel, D; Sanderson, R R; Goubet, S; Saleh, F; Lavender, J; Stainer, E; Tarzi, M D

2014-05-01

144

Mumps virus infection in vaccinated patients can be detected by an increase in specific IgG antibodies to high titres: a retrospective study.  

Science.gov (United States)

Mumps outbreaks in highly vaccinated populations with genotype G have been reported repeatedly. Detection of these outbreaks can be difficult in a setting with relatively high vaccination coverage when acute cases of mumps are routinely diagnosed by IgM serology since this marker is not reliable for diagnosis of mumps re-infection. To learn whether diagnostic tests performed in a large private laboratory may be useful to detect mumps outbreaks retrospectively, we reviewed the results of almost 7000 mumps tests. Two groups were compared: group 1 comprised of 3438 samples from patients submitted by physicians and clinicians (it was assumed that these patients visited their doctor due to acute disease). Group 2 comprised of 3398 samples submitted from company medical officers and occupational physicians. Since these patients usually attend for routine check-ups and certification of immunity to vaccine-preventable diseases, these samples comprised a control group. From July 2010 to May 2011, a mumps virus outbreak with more than 300 cases occurred in Bavaria, Southeast Germany. Our study includes samples received for serological mumps tests from January 2009 until December 2011 (36 months). The two groups were analysed with regard to the number of IgM-positive cases per month and the level of IgG titre. We found a marked increase for both parameters in group 1 during the time of the outbreak, while the samples submitted by the occupational medical physicians did not display significant alterations. These parameters reflect the outbreak with high accuracy, indicating that a retrospective analysis of IgG titres may be a useful tool for detection of mumps outbreaks when, as was the case in Germany, (i) a nationwide notification system has not been implemented and (ii) a highly vaccinated population is affected. PMID:24423404

Borgmann, S; Schwab, F; Santibanez, S; Mankertz, A

2014-11-01

145

Factors Associated with the Empowerment of Japanese Families Raising a Child with Developmental Disorders  

Science.gov (United States)

We identified factors associated with the empowerment of Japanese families using the Family Empowerment Scale (FES) to contribute to the improvement of empowerment in Japanese families raising a child with developmental disorders (DDs). The study was conducted in 350 caregivers who raised children aged 4-18 years with DDs in urban and suburban…

Wakimizu, Rie; Fujioka, Hiroshi; Yoneyama, Akira; Iejima, Atsushi; Miyamoto, Shinya

2011-01-01

146

Fund Raising in Higher Education: Ethical Questions. ASHE Annual Meeting Paper.  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper discusses five issues in values and ethics relating to educational fund raising: (1) how should fund raising relate to the overall priorities of the institution? (2) what is the proper relationship between the institution and the donor? (3) what information is the institution obligated to present or make available with respect to its…

Pezzullo, Thomas R.; And Others

147

Grandmothers Raising Grandchildren with Disabilities: Sources of Support and Family Quality of Life  

Science.gov (United States)

Sources of support and quality of life of 50 grandmother-headed families raising grandchildren with and without disabilities were examined. Comparative analyses revealed significant differences between grandmothers raising grandchildren with and without disabilities in regard to sources of support and family quality of life. Informal support was…

Kresak, Karen E.; Gallagher, Peggy A.; Kelley, Susan J.

2014-01-01

148

Production of antibody fragment (Fab) throughout Escherichia coli fed-batch fermentation process: Changes in titre, location and form of product  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: English Abstract in english Background: Recombinant proteins, including antibodies and antibody fragments, often contain disulfide bond bridges that are necessary for their folding, stability and function. Production of disulfide-bond-containing proteins in the periplasm of Escherichia coli has been very useful, due to unique [...] characteristics of the periplasm, for obtaining fully active and correctly folded products and for alleviating downstream processing. Results: In this study, fed-batch cultivation of Escherichia coli (E. coli) for production of Fab D1.3, which is an anti-hen egg white lysozyme (HEWL) antibody fragment was carried out at 37ºC, and the bacterial cells were induced by adding 0.1 mM IPTG to the culture medium. Fermentor was sampled over the course of fermentation; the bacterial cells were centrifugally separated from the culture broth and subjected to osmotic shock (with excluding HEWL) and sonication procedures. The resulting fractions were analysed for Fab using a combination of ELISA, SDS-PAGE and Western blotting and changes in product titre, location, and form was assessed throughout growth. It was shown that osmotic shock released the Fab from the periplasm very efficiently and its efficacy was 20-45% more than sonication. This study demonstrates that, at high cell density cultivation in fermentor, target product can appear inside and outside the cells, depending on the time of induction. The maximum amount of Fab (47 mg/l) in the periplasm was reached at 14 hrs cultivation (4 hrs post induction), being suitable time for cell harvest, selective periplasmic extraction and downstream capture. The Fab increasingly leaked into the culture medium, and reached its maximum culture medium titre of ~78 mg/l after 6 hrs post induction. After 16 hrs cultivation (6 hrs post induction) the amount of Fab remained constant in different locations within and outside the cells. Western blot analysis of cell fractions showed that certain amount of the Fab was also produced in the cells as insoluble form. Conclusions: In this work we showed that the production of Fab in the periplasm during high cell density cultivation of E. coli in fermentor can be challenging as the product may appear in various locations within and outside the cells. To exploit the advantages of the periplasmic expression systems for purification in downstream processing, bacterial cells should be harvested when they maintain the majority of the target protein in their periplasmic space (i.e. 4 hrs post induction).

Reza, Jalalirad.

2013-05-15

149

Pelvic mass associated with raised CA 125 for benign condition: a case report  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract Background Raised CA 125 with associated pelvic mass is highly suggestive of ovarian malignancy, but there are various other benign conditions that can be associated with pelvic mass and a raised CA 125. Case presentation We present a case of 19 year old, Caucasian British woman who presented initially with sudden onset right sided iliac fossa pain and on imaging was found to have 9.8 × 4.5 cm complex cystic mass in right adnexa with a raised CA 125 of...

Asher Viren; Hammond Robert; Duncan Tim J

2010-01-01

150

Severe Hot Flashes During Menopause May Raise Hip Fracture Risk Later  

Science.gov (United States)

... features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Severe Hot Flashes During Menopause May Raise Hip Fracture Risk ... link between certain menopause symptoms -- moderate to severe hot flashes and night sweats -- and higher rates of ...

151

Effect of bite-raised condition on the hippocampal cholinergic system of aged SAMP8 mice.  

Science.gov (United States)

Occlusal disharmony induces chronic stress, which results in learning deficits in association with the morphologic changes in the hippocampus, e.g., neuronal degeneration and increased hypertrophied glial fibrillary acidic protein-positive cells. To investigate the mechanisms underlying impaired hippocampal function resulting from occlusal disharmony, we examined the effects of the bite-raised condition on the septohippocampal cholinergic system by assessing acetylcholine release in the hippocampus and choline acetyltransferase immunoreactivity in the medial septal nucleus in aged SAMP8 mice that underwent the bite raising procedure. Aged bite-raised mice showed decreased acetylcholine release in the hippocampus and a reduced number of choline acetyltransferase-immunopositive neurons in the medial septal nucleus compared to age-matched control mice. These findings suggest that the bite-raised condition in aged SAMP8 mice enhances the age-related decline in the septohippocampal cholinergic system, leading to impaired learning. PMID:22640898

Katayama, Tasuku; Mori, Daisuke; Miyake, Hidekazu; Fujiwara, Shuu; Ono, Yumie; Takahashi, Toru; Onozuka, Minoru; Kubo, Kin-Ya

2012-06-27

152

The bite-raised condition enhances the aging process in the dorsal and ventral hippocampus.  

Science.gov (United States)

The bite raised condition decreases the number of neurons and increases the amount of glial fibrillary acidic protein in the hippocampus of aged SAMP8 mice. In the present study, we examined whether these effects differ between the dorsal and ventral hippocampus. In bite-raised SAMP8 mice, the number of neurons was significantly lower in the hippocampal CA1 and dentate gyrus (DG) subfields compared to control mice. In the bite raised condition, the number of neurons was significantly lower in both the dorsal and ventral CA3 subfields, and the number of glial fibrillary acidic protein-labeled astrocytes was increased in the CA1, CA3, and DG subfields, compared to control mice. These data suggest that in aged SAMP8 mice, the bite-raised condition enhanced aging processes in both the dorsal and ventral hippocampus. PMID:18975611

Kubo, Kin-ya; Saitoh, Naonori; Kogaya, Yasutoku; Iwaku, Fumihiko; Ichihashi, Yukiko; Arakawa, Yoko; Kurata, Chika; Iinuma, Mitsuo; Tamura, Yasuo

2008-08-01

153

Singing the national anthem at major league baseball stadiums raises awareness of ALS.  

Science.gov (United States)

Mark Reiman, diagnosed with Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS), is raising awareness of the disease, better known as Lou Gehrig's disease, by singing the national anthem at all the major league baseball stadiums in the U.S. PMID:10186395

Herreria, J

1998-01-01

154

The social context of kentish raising: issues in old english sociolinguistics  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This article considers issues in Old English sociolinguistics, in relation to specific changes affecting the low front vowels in ninth-century Kentish, as manifest in spelling variation in charters of the time. This change is referred to as Kentish Raising (Hogg 1988). It is suggested that variationist sociolinguistics is not an appropriate framework within which to explain Kentish Raising, since the nature of the data is such that a variationist approach is untenable. A reconstruction of the...

Graeme Trousdale

2005-01-01

155

Raising and lowering operators, factorization and differential/difference operators of hypergeometric type  

CERN Document Server

Starting from Rodrigues formula we present a general construction of raising and lowering operators for orthogonal polynomials of continuous and discrete variable on uniform lattice. In order to have these operators mutually adjoint we introduce orthonormal functions with respect to the scalar product of unit weight. Using the Infeld-Hull factorization method, we generate from the raising and lowering operators the second order self-adjoint differential/difference operator of hypergeometric type.

Lorente, M

2001-01-01

156

Application of raise-boring technique to ventilation engineering of a uranium mine  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The world-wide development status, application conditions and advantages of raise-boring construction technique are briefly introduced. Two air shafts (above 300 m depth) and a air inclined shaft (84 m depth) were advanced by raise-boring technique in a mine of Fuzhou Jin'an Uranium Corporation. These shafts form the ventilating system of the mine. Ventilation effect was obviously improved and the good economic benefits were obtained. (authors)

157

The effect of emotional intelligence awareness-raising activities on L2 motivation  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This article reports a study investigating the effect of emotional intelligence (EI) awareness-raising on Iranian university students’ overall as well as variable-specific L2 motivation. The 136 participants (107 males, 29 females) were divided into a control group and an experimental group, both of which completed the same motivation questionnaire at the beginning and end of the study, with the latter receiving EI awareness-raising in seven sessions over a seven-week period....

Barzegar, Reza; Sadr, Sajjad Aref

2013-01-01

158

A Study of College English Writing Classes through Consciousness-raising  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

By consciousness-raising we mean the deliberate attempt to draw the learner’s attention specifically to the formal properties of the target language. It focuses its attention on teaching process and students’ activeness, so it can be well applied to teaching of college English writing. This study indicates that consciousness-raising provides a guideline for improving teaching of college English writing and plays a significant role in enhancing students’ writing ability.

Runjiang Xu; Qi Pan

2011-01-01

159

Mangla Dam Raising Project (Pakistan): General Review and Socio-Spatial Impact Assessment  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In this research paper, different aspects of Mangla dam raising project have been reviewed. The raising project like the construction of the dam brought with it dislocation of a large number of people as one major city and three towns in the state of Azad Jammu and Kashmir have been affected (partially inundated). The affected population of these areas has been offered a generous compensation package by the government and various development projects have been launched for rehabilitation and ...

Kayani, Saheeb-ahmed

2012-01-01

160

High antibody titres against predicted Mycoplasma surface proteins do not prevent sequestration in infected lung tissue in the course of experimental contagious bovine pleuropneumonia.  

Science.gov (United States)

Contagious bovine pleuropneumonia (CBPP), a severe respiratory disease of cattle caused by Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides (Mmm) is endemic in many African countries due to fragmented veterinary services and the lack of an efficient vaccine and sensitive diagnostics. More efficient tools to control the disease are needed, but to develop the tools, a better understanding of host-pathogen interactions is necessary. The aim of this study was to characterize the kinetics of the humoral immune response against 65 Mmm surface antigens for an extended period in cattle that survived a primary infection with Mmm. We describe clinical and haematological outcomes, and dissect the humoral immune response over time, to specific antigens and compared the antibody responses between different pathomorphological outcomes. No antigen-specific antibodies correlating with protection were identified. Interestingly we found that animals that developed Mycoplasma-containing sequestra had significantly higher antibody levels against proteins comprising the surface proteome than the animals that cleared Mycoplasma from their lungs. Based on these data we suggest that high antibody titres might play a role in the establishment of pathomorphological changes, such as vasculitis, which should be investigated in future studies. Beneficial antibody specificities and cellular immune responses need to be identified in order to foster the development of an improved vaccine in the future. PMID:24880898

Schieck, Elise; Liljander, Anne; Hamsten, Carl; Gicheru, Nimmo; Scacchia, Massimo; Sacchini, Flavio; Heller, Martin; Schnee, Christiane; Sterner-Kock, Anja; Hlinak, Andreas; Naessens, Jan; Poole, Jane; Persson, Anja; Jores, Joerg

2014-08-01

 
 
 
 
161

Comparison of Performance Metrics for QPSK and OQPSK Transmission Using Root Raised Cosine and Raised Cosine Pulse shaping Filters for Applications in Mobile Communication  

CERN Document Server

Quadrature Phase Shift Keying (QPSK) and Offset Quadrature Phase Shift Keying (OQPSK) are two well accepted modulation techniques used in Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA) system. The Pulse Shaping Filters play an important role in digital transmission. The type of Pulse Shaping Filter used, and its behavior would influence the performance of the communication system. This in turn, would have an effect on the performance of the Mobile Communication system, in which the digital communication technique has been employed. In this paper we have presented comparative study of some performance parameters or performance metrics of a digital communication system like, Error Vector Magnitude (EVM), Magnitude Error, Phase Error and Bandwidth Efficiency for a QPSK transmission system. Root Raised Cosine (RRC) and Raised Cosine (RC) Pulse shaping filters have been used for comparison. The measurement results serve as a guideline to the system designer to select the proper pulse shaping filter with the appropriate valu...

Chattopadhyay, Sudipta

2009-01-01

162

Fund Raising in Higher Education: What We Know, What We Need To Know. ASHE Annual Meeting Paper.  

Science.gov (United States)

The paper summarizes what is currently known about fund raising in higher education, and proposes priorities for research that will better inform fund raising practitioners. Research on fund raising has been limited for such reasons as lack of interest by the professoriate and the relative recency of the major professional association of fund…

Brittingham, Barbara E.; Pezzullo, Thomas R.

163

Raised fields in the Llanos de Moxos, Bolivia - description and analysis of their morphology  

Science.gov (United States)

The disturbance of Pre Columbian populations on Amazonian ecosystems is being actively debated. The traditional view of amazon being an untouched landscape because of its poor soils and harsh climate has been challenged and the extreme opposite idea of highly modified landscapes with complex societies is growing. Recent research has led to new impulses and issues requesting about the agricultural strategies people developed to survive in this climate. The Llanos de Moxos, situated in the Bolivian Lowlands in south-eastern Amazonia is one important region which was densely altered and where a great variety of earthworks can be found. One of the most impressive earth works are the raised fields, which are earth platforms for cultivation of differing shape and dimension that are elevated above the landscapes natural surface. In contrast to the "terra preta" formation where artefacts and amendments like charcoal and kitchen waste have been clearly identified, raised fields have shown to be artefact poor and studies up till now couldn't find any evidence of additional amendments which could have improved soil quality in the long term. As a result the function and productivity of raised fields is still not well understood and is being actively discussed. Detailed investigations on raised fields located in the indigenous community of Bermeo, in the vicinity of San Ignacio de Moxos provides data showing a novel explanation of the Pre-Columbian management of raised fields, and a chronological sequence of their utilization and abandonment. OSL dating has shown that the raised fields had been in use since as early as 600 AD. Comparison of Geochemistry with a reference profile, away from raised fields, showed that there is no evidence for manure amendments deriving from kitchen waste or animal residues suggesting a rather extensive use of those fields. Complementary the description of intern morphology and laboratory analysis of this raised fields, combined with radiocarbon dating of charcoal, points towards separate periods of management and use, indicating temporarily cultivation similar to shifting cultivation. This finding supports the idea that the construction of raised fields in the llanos de Moxos could have resulted from the need to extend the cultivation ground by draining land which is flooded during the rainy season.

Rodrigues, Leonor; Lombardo, Umberto; Veit, Heinz

2014-05-01

164

Irreligious Socialization? The Adult Religious Preferences of Individuals Raised with No Religion  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Recent birth cohorts of Americans are more likely than previous cohorts to be raised outside of a religious tradition. In addition, those raised with no religion are increasingly likely to have no religious preference as adults. Despite their growing numbers, individuals raised with no religion have received little attention from scholars. The adult religious preferences of these individuals provide researchers with a unique opportunity to test theories of religion and social change. Using General Social Survey data, I examine the adult religious preferences and beliefs of individuals raised with no religion. I provide evidence of a shift in socialization and social influences experienced by those who report growing up with no religion. Compared with earlier cohorts raised with no religion, more recent cohorts have had more secular upbringings and tend to be more secular, liberal, and wary of organized religion as adults. They are also more likely to have a religiously unaffiliated spouse, if they marry at all. Results from a logistic regression analysis indicate that these trends explain much of the cohort differences in the likelihood of remaining unaffiliated as an adult.

Stephen M. Merino

2012-01-01

165

Production of high titre antibody response against Russell's viper venom in mice immunized with ethanolic extract of fruits of Piper longum L. (Piperaceae) and piperine.  

Science.gov (United States)

Piper longum L. fruits have been traditionally used against snakebites in north-eastern and southern region of India. The aim of the study was to assess the production of antibody response against Russell's viper venom in mice after prophylactic immunization with ethanolic extract of fruits of Piper longum L. and piperine. The mice sera were tested for the presence of antibodies against Russell's viper venom by in vitro lethality neutralization assay and in vivo lethality neutralization assay. Polyvalent anti-snake venom serum (antivenom) manufactured by Haffkine Bio-Pharmaceutical Corporation Ltd. was used as standard. Further confirmation of presence of antibodies against the venom in sera of mice immunized with PLE and piperine was done using indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and double immunodiffusion test. Treatment with PLE-treated mice serum and piperine-treated mice serum was found to inhibit the lethal action of venom both in the in vitro lethality neutralization assay and in vivo lethality neutralization assay. ELISA testing indicated that there were significantly high (ppiperine treated mice serum and the venom antigens. In double immunodiffusion test, a white band was observed between the two wells of antigen and antibodies for both the PLE-treated and piperine-treated mice serum. Thus it can be concluded that immunization with ethanolic extract of fruits of Piper longum and piperine produced a high titre antibody response against Russell's viper venom in mice. The antibodies against PLE and piperine could be useful in antivenom therapy of Russell's viper bites. PLE and piperine may also have a potential interest in view of the development of antivenom formulations used as antidote against snake bites. PMID:24060214

Shenoy, P A; Nipate, S S; Sonpetkar, J M; Salvi, N C; Waghmare, A B; Chaudhari, P D

2014-01-15

166

Serum titres of anti-glutamic acid decarboxylase-65 and anti-IA-2 autoantibodies are associated with different immunoregulatory milieu in newly diagnosed type 1 diabetes patients.  

Science.gov (United States)

Several studies correlated genetic background and pancreatic islet-cell autoantibody status (type and number) in type 1A diabetes mellitus (T1AD), but there are no data evaluating the relationship among these markers with serum cytokines, regulatory T cells and ? cell function. This characterization has a potential importance with regard to T1AD patients' stratification and follow-up in therapeutic prevention. In this study we showed that peripheral sera cytokines [interleukin (IL)-12, IL-6, II-1?, tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-?, IL-10] and chemokines (CXCL10, CXCL8, CXCL9, CCL2) measured were significantly higher in newly diagnosed T1AD patients when compared to healthy controls (P?CCL2 (r?=?-0·65; P?=?0·000), while IA-2A showed a negative correlation with IL-10 (r?=?-0·38; P?=?0·027). Human leucocyte antigen (HLA) DR3, DR4 or DR3/DR4 and PTPN22 polymorphism did not show any association with pancreatic islet cell antibodies or cytokines studied. In summary, our results revealed that T1AD have a proinflammatory cytokine profile compared to healthy controls and that IA-2A sera titres seem to be associated with a more inflammatory peripheral cytokine/chemokine profile than GADA. A confirmation of these data in the pre-T1AD phase could help to explain the mechanistic of the well-known role of IA-2A as a more specific marker of beta-cell damage than GADA during the natural history of T1AD. PMID:22385239

Gabbay, M Andrade Lima; Sato, M N; Duarte, A J S; Dib, S A

2012-04-01

167

THE SOCIAL CONTEXT OF KENTISH RAISING: ISSUES IN OLD ENGLISH SOCIOLINGUISTICS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This article considers issues in Old English sociolinguistics, in relation to specific changes affecting the low front vowels in ninth-century Kentish, as manifest in spelling variation in charters of the time. This change is referred to as Kentish Raising (Hogg 1988. It is suggested that variationist sociolinguistics is not an appropriate framework within which to explain Kentish Raising, since the nature of the data is such that a variationist approach is untenable. A reconstruction of the social, political and cultural situation in ninth-century Kent is provided, which examines Mercian influence in the period, and suggests that a Mercian-driven change from above (Second Fronting cannot be the source of Kentish Raising. Finally, it is proposed that recent work in genetic anthropology, which seeks to discover more about the nature and extent of the continental migrations, may be useful in understanding the social context in which the varieties of Old English existed and developed.

Graeme Trousdale

2005-06-01

168

Liquid metal cooled nuclear energy plant with steam raising units integrated in the safety containment  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This is a proposal for sodium-cooled nuclear power-stations, which previously had separate steam raising unit buildings to integrate them in the safety containment in the form of special cells, in order to reduce the distance between the intermediate heat exchangers and the steam raising units, and therefore the length of the secondary circuit. This saves pipelines, expansion loops, insulation, trace heating and coolant. The cells can withstand the energy released during faults, e.g. by pressure release to the atmosphere through ducts. The safety containment is not loaded due to this. (orig./HP)

169

A study on a systematic method for evaluating values of raised concerns  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The objective of this study is to develop a methodology that can externalise potential concerns and evaluate the values of the concerns raised in corporations. By implementing this methodology into corporate governance, it is expected to improve the work environment and enhance the capability for the corporate governance through supporting the internal autonomic purification. This study comprises of: case studies of past wrongdoings in corporations such as JCO and Tokyo Electric Power Company (TEPCO); identifying the viewpoints for evaluating values of raised concerns; developing a model to evaluate the values. (author)

170

Obtaining raised density connections by thermosonic microwelding in 3D integrated microcircuits  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The authors consider the processes of obtaining raised density microwelded connections in 3D-integrated microcircuits by the thermosonic microwelding. The processes include the use of the raised frequencies of ultrasound, application of the microinstrument with a thinning of the working end and precision devices for ball formation, which provide reproducibility of connections quality. At a small step of contact pads, the use of a wire of small diameter (not more than 25 µm is necessary for devices with a multilevel arrangement of leads and chess arrangement of contact pads on the chip, providing the maximum length of the formed crosspieces does not exceed 4—5 mm.

Lanin V. L.

2014-06-01

171

From Diapers to Dating. A Parent's Guide to Raising Sexually Healthy Children.  

Science.gov (United States)

This step-by-step program for raising sexually healthy children helps parents provide accurate information and communicate their own values to their children. Chapter 1, "The Basics"; includes "Sexually Healthy Families"; "The Key: Finding Teachable Moments"; and "Guidelines for Communication." Chapter 2, "Infants and Toddlers, Birth to Age 2,"…

Haffner, Debra W.

172

Swimming kinematics and respiratory behaviour of Xenopus laevis larvae raised in altered gravity  

Science.gov (United States)

We examined the respiratory behaviours and swimming kinematics of Xenopus laevis tadpoles hatched in microgravity (Space Shuttle), simulated microgravity (clinostat) and hypergravity (3 g centrifuge). All observations were made in the normal 1 g environment. Previous research has shown that X. laevis raised in microgravity exhibit abnormalities in their lungs and vestibular system upon return to 1 g. The tadpoles raised in true microgravity exhibited a significantly lower tailbeat frequency than onboard 1 g centrifuge controls on the day of landing (day0), but this behaviour normalized within 9 days. The two groups did not differ significantly in buccal pumping rates. Altered buoyancy in the space-flight microgravity tadpoles was indicated by an increased swimming angle on the day after landing (day1). Tadpoles raised in simulated microgravity differed to a greater extent in swimming behaviours from their 1 g controls. The tadpoles raised in hypergravity showed no substantive effects on the development of swimming or respiratory behaviours, except swimming angle. Together, these results show that microgravity has a transient effect on the development of locomotion in X. laevis tadpoles, most notably on swimming angle, indicative of stunted lung development. On the basis of the behaviours we studied, there is no indication of neuromuscular retardation in amphibians associated with embryogenesis in microgravity.

Fejtek, M.; Souza, K.; Neff, A.; Wassersug, R.

1998-01-01

173

Ruled by Hetero-Norms? Raising Some Moral Questions for Teachers in South Africa  

Science.gov (United States)

Thirty-eight countries in Africa regard homosexuality as punishable by law with South Africa remaining a standout country advancing constitutional equality on the basis of sexual orientation. In the context of homophobic violence, however, concerns have been raised about schools' potential to improve the educational, moral and social outcomes…

Bhana, Deevia

2014-01-01

174

Evaluation of Preparatory Measures for Coping with Anxiety Raised by Media Coverage of Terrorism  

Science.gov (United States)

This study examines effects of television broadcasts of terrorism on viewers' anxiety and raises suggestions for 2 intervention strategies to moderate elevated anxiety. Participants were 120 young Israeli adults randomly allocated to a terrorism or a nonterrorism television broadcast and assigned to 1 of 3 intervention conditions prior to…

Slone, Michelle; Shoshani, Anat

2006-01-01

175

Noise, What Noise? Raising Awareness of Auditory Health among Future Primary-School Teachers  

Science.gov (United States)

We study the perception of acoustic contamination and its deleterious effects on students preparing to become school teachers and analyse their acoustic habits, with the aim of raising their awareness concerning this problem. We designed a number of activities, applied during a practical lesson, in which students evaluated some of their…

Jimenez-Tejada, M. -P.; Hodar, J. A.; Gonzalez-Garcia, F.

2012-01-01

176

Food and drug administration regulation of drugs that raise blood pressure.  

Science.gov (United States)

Although it is recognized that a systolic blood pressure (SBP) increase ? 2 mm Hg or a diastolic blood pressure (DBP) increase ? 1 mm Hg increases the risk of heart attacks and strokes in middle-aged adults, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) lacks an adequate policy for regulating medications that increase blood pressure (BP). Some FDA reviewers consider a clinically significant increase in BP to occur only if a drug raises SBP ? 20 mm Hg or if a drug raises DBP ? 10 to 15 mm Hg. In recent years, numerous drugs have been regulated or taken off the market due to cardiovascular safety concerns. The list includes rofecoxib (Vioxx), valdecoxib (Bextra), nonselective nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, sibutramine (Meridia), and phenylpropanolamine. It is probable that the hypertensive effect of these drugs explains why they increase the risk of adverse cardiovascular events. Other drugs, notably serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors and drugs used to treat attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, were approved without cardiovascular safety data despite the fact that they raise BP comparable to valdecoxib and sibutramine. It is the responsibility of the FDA to ensure that drugs are properly labeled regarding risk. Even if a drug raises BP only modestly, FDA guidelines for new drug approvals should include a requirement for cardiovascular safety data. However, such guidelines will not address the problem of how to obtain cardiovascular safety data for the many already approved drugs that increase BP. The FDA should play a role in obtaining cardiovascular safety data for such drugs. PMID:24803642

Blankfield, Robert P; Iftikhar, Imran H

2015-01-01

177

An elementary construction of lowering and raising operators for the trigonometric Calogero-Sutherland model  

CERN Document Server

Quantum Calogero-Sutherland model of $A_n$ type is completely integrable. Using this fact, we give an elementary construction of lowering an raising operators for the trigonometric case. This is similar, but more complicated (due to the fact that the energy spectrum is not equidistant) than the construction for the rational case.

García-Fuertes, W; Perelomov, A M; Fuertes, Wifredo Garcia; Lorente, Miguel; Perelomov, Askold

2001-01-01

178

Raising Children in Chinese Immigrant Families: Evidence from the Research Literature  

Science.gov (United States)

Children of Chinese culture are raised differently from children of other cultural groups. There is research evidence which contends that, regardless of where they live, the child-rearing practices within Chinese immigrant families are still influenced by Chinese traditional culture. Some studies also point out that Chinese immigrant parents…

Guo, Karen

2006-01-01

179

The Role of Online Communication in Raising Awareness of Bilingual Identity  

Science.gov (United States)

Children of binational couples are often raised in the community of one of the parents and, thus, have limited exposure to the language of the other parent. This study focuses on a British/Moroccan family in the UK, where English is the dominant home language and Moroccan Arabic is the "other" language. Analysis of "live"…

Marley, Dawn

2013-01-01

180

"More Bang for the Buck": Examining Influencers of Fundraising Efficiency and Total Dollars Raised  

Science.gov (United States)

This study examines institution-specific factors that are within the control of the advancement office and that predict fundraising efficiency and total dollars raised. Using data from the Council of Independent Colleges and IPEDS, fundraising outcomes are examined at private colleges in the United States. Most of the variables of interest are not…

Proper, Eve; Caboni, Timothy C.; Hartley, Harold V., III; Willmer, Wesley K.

2009-01-01

 
 
 
 
181

Differential equations for multiple orthogonal polynomials with respect to classical weights: raising and lowering operators  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We obtain a lowering operator for multiple orthogonal polynomials having orthogonality conditions with respect to r element of N classical weights. These multiple orthogonal polynomials are generalizations of the classical orthogonal polynomials. Combining the lowering operator with the raising operators, which have been obtained earlier in the literature, we then also obtain a linear differential equation of order r + 1

182

Augmentation du niveau pour U(3) (Level-Raising for U(3))  

CERN Document Server

We prove, for the form of unitary group in three variables attached to a CM extension which is compact at infinity, a level-raising theorem analogous to the one of Taylor (inv. math. 98, 265-280) in the case of a quaternion algebra. We give an application to non tempered automorphic forms.

Bellaiche, J; Bellaiche, Joel; Graftieaux, Philippe

2003-01-01

183

Caregiver Burden and Social Support among Mothers Raising Children with Developmental Disabilities in South Korea  

Science.gov (United States)

This study examines caregiver burden and social supports perceived by mothers raising children with developmental disabilities in South Korea. Mothers residing in the metropolitan areas of Seoul (n = 181) responded to the mail survey with a 56.6% response rate. Respondents expressed a high level of overall burden, particularly in financial…

Oh, Heykyung; Lee, Eun-Kyoung Othelia

2009-01-01

184

Presence and characterization of Campylobacter jejuni in organically raised chickens in Quebec  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The objective of this study was to estimate the presence of the important foodborne pathogen Campylobacter jejuni in organically raised chickens in the province of Quebec. The recovered isolates were further characterized for their antimicrobial resistance profile, autoagglutination property and chemotaxis. Antimicrobial resistance was evaluated using agar dilution for: tetracycline, erythromycin, chloramphenicol, ciprofloxacin, gentamicin, nalidixic acid, clindamycin, ampicillin, azithromyci...

Thibodeau, Alexandre; Fravalo, Philippe; Laurent-lewandowski, Sylvette; Gue?vremont, Evelyne; Quessy, Sylvain; Letellier, Ann

2011-01-01

185

The Language of Fund-Raising Direct Mail: Differences between Letters for National and Local Constituencies.  

Science.gov (United States)

A study examined differences in the language of direct mail advertising used by political campaigns at different levels--national state, and local. Seventeen direct mail fund-raising political campaign letters were content analyzed with Wiseman and Schenck-Hamlin's typology of compliance-gaining techniques, language style and readability. The…

Ringer, R. Jeffrey

186

Approaching Change: One School's Approach to Multicultural Education and Raising the Achievement of African Caribbean Students.  

Science.gov (United States)

Describes Holy Family College's (London) relationship with Waltham Forest's African Caribbean Attainment Project designed to identify and assess the needs of Caribbean students of African heritage and to raise their academic achievement. How the secondary school maximized the benefits of this partnership are highlighted. (GR)

Barron, Pat

1997-01-01

187

Chlortetracycline-resistant intestinal bacteria in organically raised and feral Swine.  

Science.gov (United States)

Organically raised swine had high fecal populations of chlortetracycline (CTC)-resistant (growing at 64 ?g CTC/ml) Escherichia coli, Megasphaera elsdenii, and anaerobic bacteria. By comparison, CTC-resistant bacteria in feral swine feces were over 1,000-fold fewer and exhibited lower taxonomic diversity. PMID:21821750

Stanton, Thad B; Humphrey, Samuel B; Stoffregen, William C

2011-10-01

188

Chlortetracycline-Resistant Intestinal Bacteria in Organically Raised and Feral Swine ?  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Organically raised swine had high fecal populations of chlortetracycline (CTC)-resistant (growing at 64 ?g CTC/ml) Escherichia coli, Megasphaera elsdenii, and anaerobic bacteria. By comparison, CTC-resistant bacteria in feral swine feces were over 1,000-fold fewer and exhibited lower taxonomic diversity.

Stanton, Thad B.; Humphrey, Samuel B.; Stoffregen, William C.

2011-01-01

189

Raising Awareness about Water Issues: The Role of Water Symbolism and Proverbs  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Sustainable water management is one of the global grand challenges of our time. Tackling this challenge through corrective actions would require the participation of the general public, a public with sound awareness of the challenge and commitment. One such awareness raising intervention could be through the use of water symbolism and proverbs, targeted to particular society. Water ha...

Joško Sindik; Yoseph Negusse Araya

2013-01-01

190

An Efficient In vitro Hardening Technique of Tissue Culture Raised Plants  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Micropropagation has been extensively used for the rapid multiplication of many plants species. However, its wider use is restricted often by the high percentage of plant loss or damaged when transferred to ex vitro condition. To acclimatize the micropropagated plants, different workers have employed different approach toward successful establishment of in vitro raised plants under ex vitro condition. In the present study, a successful attempt has been made to acclimatize the tissue culture raised plants which is cost effective compare to other existing hardening technique. Tissue culture raised orchid seedlings were acclimatized and hardened in vitro by using 1/10th liquid MS basal medium subsequently replaced by tap water with chips of charcoal, bricks and decayed wood as an alternate substratum. The newly formed roots under this condition firmly attached to the charcoal chips with the passage of time, similar to velamenous root attach to the trunk of a tree. Charcoal and moss substratum was more suitable than bricks for epiphytic species and decayed woods for terrestrial. The researchers report the novel and efficient one step hardening technique for tissue culture raised orchid seedlings which will reduce the production cost.

C.R. Deb

2010-01-01

191

"The Lesbian and Gay Parenting Handbook: Creating and Raising Our Families," by April Martin. Book Review.  

Science.gov (United States)

Found the book a thoughtful, articulate, well-written, and informative work that powerfully challenges traditional thinking about the suitability of gays and lesbians to raise children. Successfully completes the goal of writing a book for and about both lesbian mothers and gay fathers, as well as serving as a valuable resource to child welfare…

Mallon, Gerald P.

1997-01-01

192

Recurrent Attacks of Raised Intracranial Pressure in Case of Tuberculous Arachnoiditis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A ase of recurre'nt raised interacranial pressure is described. At operation posterio-rcfossa arachnoiditis was found. Histological examination suggested a Tuberculous etiology. Four months after the operation she died from an apparently acute tuberculoua meningiti

N. O. Ameli

1960-01-01

193

Slaughter and Carcass Characteristics of Norduz Male Kids Raised in Either Intensive or Pasture Conditions  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine of the slaughter and carcass characteristics of Norduz male kids raised in either intensive or pasture conditions. Hot and chilled carcass dressing percentages in intensive and pasture groups were appeared to be 42.94?0.484 % and 41.49?0.503 %; 46.26?1.050 % and 44.63?1.03 %, respectively. In intensive and pasture groups, the omental fat and heart-lungs-liver proportions at slaughter weight of kids were determined as 1.18?0.209 %, 0.29?0.065 %; 4.75?0.107 %, 4.08?0.134 %, respectively. The kidney-knob and pelvic fat proportions at left half carcass weight were determined as 2.05?0.196 % for kids raised in intensive conditions and 1.06?0.182 % for kids raised in pasture conditions. In the rack joints, the lean portions of the intensive group and pasture group kids were 46.42?0.892 % 50.50?1.990 %, respectively. Total fat portions which contain subcutaneous fat and intermuscular fat were determined as 10.05?1.020 % in intensive group and 4.16?0.477 % in pasture group. In this study, it was concluded that; pasture group kids had similar slaughter and carcass characteristic values as intensively raised ones due to the special environmental condition and rich flora of the mentioned Norduz region of Van province.

Irfan Daskiran

2006-01-01

194

Increasing Postsecondary Education Access and Success: Raising Achievement through Outreach Programs. Brief  

Science.gov (United States)

Closing the achievement gap depends on highly effective public schools, strong community support, and family involvement. Raising the overall rates of achievement in Minnesota is a vital part of this goal. Research has shown that pre-college outreach programs improve college access for underrepresented groups, including low-income,…

Broton, Katie

2009-01-01

195

Raising health care provider awareness of sexually transmitted disease in patients over age 50.  

Science.gov (United States)

An increase in sexual activity among persons over age 50 has resulted in a dramatically increased prevalence of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), including higher rates of HIV/AIDS, syphilis, gonorrhea, and chlamydia. Raising awareness of health care providers regarding STDs in this age group is essential for appropriate prevention and treatment. PMID:22409111

Jeffers, Lisa A; DiBartolo, Mary C

2011-01-01

196

Steam raising vessel for nuclear power stations, particularly for pressurised water reactors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An improvement is proposed of the detachable flange connection of the plate which connects and seals the pipe bundle in the steam raising unit of a p.w.r. type reactors, so that sealing shall be maintained even during temperature cycling. The flange connection is made with tapped bolts. (UWI) 891 HP/UWI 892 MKO

197

Thermo-hydraulic analysis for SCWR during power-raising phase of startup  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The study of thermal characteristics during startup is one of the most important aspects for safety analysis of supercritical water-cooled reactor (SCWR). According to the given sliding pressure mode of SCWR, thermal analysis on temperature-raising phase and power-raising phase of startup are carried out. Considering the radial heterogeneity of power distribution,thermal characteristics for different assemblies during startup are also put forward. The results show that,during temperature-raising phase with core power increased only, the temperature of moderator, coolant and fuel cladding in inner assemblies are increased with little amplitude. During power-raising phase with core power and feed-water flow rate increased, the coolant temperature keeps unchanged, but the moderator temperature is decreased. With a greater variation of power, fuel cladding temperature shows a greater increase. Furthermore, considering the uneven distribution of radial power, thermo-hydraulic characteristics with uneven cladding temperature distribution shows a certain horizontal heterogeneity for different fuel assemblies, which becomes serious as flow rate and power increase. By adjusting flow rate distribution in different fuel assemblies or changing power setting during startup, the cladding temperature difference could be effectively reduced, which provides a certain reference for startup optimization of SCWR. (authors)

198

Challenges and Opportunities for Vocational Education and Training in the Light of Raising the Participation Age  

Science.gov (United States)

By 2015, all young people must participate in some form of education and training until they are aged 18. This review discusses the challenges and opportunities involved if vocational education and training is to contribute to this raising of the participation age. We argue that as well as ensuring that young people who have made a full-time…

Acquah, Daniel K.; Huddleston, Prue

2014-01-01

199

Uncomplicated neurosurgical resection of a malignant glioneuronal tumour under haemostatic cover of rFVIIa in a severe haemophilia patient with a high-titre inhibitor: a case report and literature review of rFVIIa use in major surgeries.  

Science.gov (United States)

The development of inhibitors following factor VIII replacement therapy is a serious complication in severe inherited haemophilia. Whereas significant experience, notably in orthopaedic surgery, is now obtained with the use of bypassing agents in haemophilia with high-titre inhibitor, new surgical challenges might occur due to patients' increasing life expectancy. A 56-year-old severe haemophilia A patient with a high-titre inhibitor was diagnosed for probable right temporoparietal malignant glioneuronal tumour on cerebral magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) (4 cm x 3 cm cerebromeningeal tumour with perilesional oedema and transfalcial herniation) requiring total resection. Then recombinant activated FVII (rFVIIa) was chosen as the haemostatic agent: bolus of 270 microg kg(-1) every 2 h during the first 24 h, 180 microg kg(-1) every 3, 4 and 6 h, respectively, at days 2-3, from days 4-10 and finally from days 11-15. Tranexamic acid was associated. Pre- and postoperative courses were uneventful, the surgical procedure being assessed at optimal haemostatic condition without any unusual haemorrhage on MRI controls, diffuse intravascular coagulation criteria or thromboembolic event. Intensive rFVIIa therapy has shown to be safe and effective in this first reported neurosurgery about a malignant tumour exhibiting to a high-bleeding risk notably in haemophilia with high-titre inhibitor. The use of lower doses of rFVIIa might have been possible; however, in the absence of accurate test for monitoring rFVIIa therapy, the potentially life-threatening complications of this procedure required maximum haemostasis with high rFVIIa doses. PMID:19709314

Aouba, A; Dezamis, E; Sermet, A; Rothschild, C; Hermine, O; Lasne, D; Torchet, M-F

2010-01-01

200

RAISING ENVIRONMENTAL AWARENESS OF STUDENTS THROUG RESEARCH ACTIVITIES AT THE UNVIERSITY MUSEUM  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The article looks at raising environmental awareness of students in the course of research performed at the university museum. The author assumes that environmental museum of a university can become the space for innovation and exploration that could raise environmental awareness of students. In order to ensure proper pedagogical conditions there was elaborated a concept of raising environmental awareness of students with the help of a university museum. The article follows the main stages of creation of the exposition by the students, which was devoted to the 5th year of environmental disaster, which was the result of a series of shipwrecks on the ‘black Sunday’ of 11 November, 2007 in the Kerch Strait.The author assumes that the exposition is essential to shed light on real events, present them more vividly, follow the history of certain exhibits and emphasize the unbearable living conditions for the birds dying in the oil slick. The exposition unveils core problems of oil contamination of the world ocean. The exhibits prove the actual fact and foster deeper understanding of the situation. They help to picture the tragic events of the black Sunday more vividly and evoke feelings and emotions, which make the students their witnesses and participants.The author follows the process of raising environmental awareness of students and looks at the results before and after their involvement in research at the environmental museum with the help of the method by E.V. Asafova and concludes that engaging students in research through creating ecological exposition can considerably raise their environmental awareness.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12731/2218-7405-2013-8-24

Elena Vasilevna Khrabrova

2013-09-01

 
 
 
 
201

Toutes les publications par titre  

... The analysis concludes that for COP 18 to be considered a success, negotiators must tangentially balance cautious progress under the ADP with ...provides recommendations for policy-makers on the elements of good subsidy design, including analysis and research, stakeholder consultations, supporting interventions to mitigate risks ...

202

Dissemination of Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica Serovar Typhimurium var. Copenhagen Clonal Types through a Contract Heifer-Raising Operation  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Typhimurium var. Copenhagen isolates from a heifer-raising operation and from 11 dairy herds that had their calves contracted to the heifer-raising operation were examined for their phenotypic and genotypic characteristics. Results of the study showed that the heifer-raising operation could serve as a clearinghouse for Salmonella serovar Typhimurium var. Copenhagen and perhaps other Salmonella serotypes.

Hegde, Narasimha V.; Cook, Michelle L.; Wolfgang, David R.; Love, Brenda C.; Maddox, Carol C.; Jayarao, Bhushan M.

2005-01-01

203

Device for testing and/or repair of steam raising unit pipes  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The device is introduced into the chamber of a steam raising unit. A pillar extends from the pipe floor to the floor. In order to hold the device, a tensile element with a spreader finger projects into a pipe of the pipe floor. So that the tensile element will be easily accessible during faults and will reduce the probability of the spreader finger sheath jamming, the tensile element and the pillar are connected by coupling, which can be undone outside the steam raising unit. The sheath formed by separate clamping jaws is guided by support elements at its ends. The support element moves the sheath to its unstressed position during the release movement of the spreader finger push rod. The device is mainly used in nuclear powerstations. (orig./HP)

204

Repigmentation of Extensive Inflammatory Vitiligo with Raised Borders Using Early and Aggressive Treatment.  

Science.gov (United States)

In?ammatory vitiligo with raised borders (IVRB) is a rare subtype of vitiligo described as having a rim of raised erythema at the periphery of the depigmented patches. The etiology is poorly understood, and there are few reports of successful treatment of the condition in the literature. We report a 38-year-old South Asian male who presented with diffuse depigmented macules and patches surrounded by blue-gray rims involving a large body surface area. Light microscopy revealed inflammatory vitiligo. He was treated with 2 courses of oral prednisone and whole-body narrow-band ultraviolet B (NB-UVB) therapy, which resulted in cessation of disease spread as well as substantial repigmentation. Our observation suggests that early and aggressive treatment can lead to significant and rapid improvement in patients with IVRB. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel. PMID:25413601

Gunasekera, Nicole; Murphy, George F; Sheth, Vaneeta M

2014-11-18

205

Raising Children in an Evangelical Family Environment: Biblical Principles Applied to the Family  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available As Creator, God designed the family and determined the standards and rules for living and functioning in the family. As a basic unit of society, the family is to reflect God’s glory. God’s plan for marriage and the family has not changed, only the human approach to this institution has changed. Therefore, it is vital to re-emphasize how important it is that the family functions according to biblical standards. This article deals with raising children in an evangelical environment which assumes God’s presence, the reading and keeping of God’s Word, love between the parents, prayer, and worship of God. Clear goals for raising children are presented. This work offers valuable and lived examples of biblical discipline. It discusses the topic of discipline from childhood to the teen ages, trust, responsibility, communication and relationship with God. Finally, the article points out the importance of times of family worship.

Ljubinka Jambrek

2009-10-01

206

Bored raise overcoring for in situ stress determination at the Underground Research Laboratory  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

As part of a programme investigating the effect of scale on measured in situ stress data from granite rocks in the Underground Research Laboratory, an experiment in bored raise rosette overcoring has been conducted. Four resistance strain guage rosettes were positioned in the wall of a ventilation raise in two pairs at right angles to each other. Each rosette consisted of four guages and was individually over-cored using a 300 mm diameter bit, the output from each guage being monitored continuously. When the response from all four guages had levelled off to a constant value overcoring was stopped. This happened typically at overcore depths of about 100 mm. The magnitude and directions of the principal stresses were derived from an analysis of these strain measurements. The results compared favourably with triaxial strain cell overcore tests obtained by the Council for Scientific and Industrial Research and with an under-excavation stress determination test (5 figures, 8 references) (UK)

207

Active methodologies as strategies in nursing teaching: Raising awareness towards healthy habits  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Objective: To identify how the use of active methodology may influence healthy habits in nursing students. Method: A qualitative Assistential Convergent Research, undertaken with 43 students of the Nursing Graduation Course, at a Federal University in Southern Brazil. Data were collected with a semi-structured tool, from May to July 2008. Data were organized into categories and analysed according to scientific publications in the area. Results: Three study categories raised from the study: Characterization of Nursing Students from the study, Contributions of teaching-learning active methodologies in raising awareness towards healthy habits, and Healthy habits: feeding and physical exercising. They recognize healthy habits and practice it in their routine, it was detected that 16% are overweight, do not exercise regularly, consider their food, leisure, sleeping patterns and self-image to be adequate. Conclusion: The use of active methodologies may unfold new possibilities towards healthy habits practices.

Luciara Fabiane Sebold

2012-12-01

208

Monitoring and performance analysis of AGR boilers during commissioning and power raising  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The installed boiler plant, for two 1300 MW AGR stations, is comprehensively instrumented for boiler control, performance assessment and component monitoring to ensure the integrity and safe operation of the plant during normal and faulty operating conditions. Plant instrumentation and computer systems installed at site for vibration analysis during the engineering runs and data acquisition during the power raising stage have been described. The results, from early rig investigations and the vibration testing during the unfueled engineering runs, indicate that the behaviour of the plant within the practical range of operating conditions is free from vibration problems. Also the analysis of the steady state thermal and hydrodynamic behaviour of the boiler plant during the power raising phase confirms the methods and computer models used for the boiler design. (author)

209

A comparative study of treadmill tests and heel raising exercise for peripheral arterial disease.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

OBJECTIVES: This two part study validated a 1 min treadmill exercise test and compared this with simple heel raising exercise. METHODS: In an initial study of 24 claudicants (aged 43-79, median 63 years), ankle pressures were measured immediately after repeated treadmill exercises: for 1 min, until onset of claudication, and until maximum tolerated walking distance. Absolute value, fall and percent change in pressures were calculated. The results of this part of the study were then used as a ...

Amirhamzeh, Mm; Chant, Hj; Rees, Jl; Hands, Lj; Powell, Rj; Campbell, Wb

1997-01-01

210

Potential limitations for potato yields in raised soil field systems near Lake Titicaca  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

During the last two decades, various non-governmental organizations have strongly encouraged Bolivian farmers in the Altiplano region near Lake Titicaca to resume the ancestral agricultural practice of constructing raised fields. In addition to improved drainage and possibilities this practice affords for sub-irrigation, advocated benefits of this system traditionally include frost mitigation and high crop yields. Until recently, reliable data to assess the extent of these benefits were unfor...

Lozada Diego Sánchez de; Baveye Philippe; Lucey Robert F.; Mamani Ricardo; Fernandez Walter

2006-01-01

211

Self-assembled peptide nanofibers raising durable antibody responses against a malaria epitope  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Biomaterials that modulate innate and adaptive immune responses are receiving increasing interest as adjuvants for eliciting protective immunity against a variety of diseases. Previous results have indicated that self-assembling ?-sheet peptides, when fused with short peptide epitopes, can act as effective adjuvants and elicit robust and long-lived antibody responses. Here we investigated the mechanism of immunogenicity and the quality of antibody responses raised by a peptide epitope from P...

Rudra, Jai S.; Mishra, Satish; Chong, Anita S.; Mitchell, Robert; Nardin, Elizabeth H.; Nussenzweig, Victor; Collier, Joel H.

2012-01-01

212

Me, Myself and My Brain Implant: Deep Brain Stimulation Raises Questions of Personal Authenticity and Alienation  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In this article, I explore select case studies of Parkinson patients treated with deep brain stimulation (DBS) in light of the notions of alienation and authenticity. While the literature on DBS has so far neglected the issues of authenticity and alienation, I argue that interpreting these cases in terms of these concepts raises new issues for not only the philosophical discussion of neuro-ethics of DBS, but also for the psychological and medical approach to patients under DBS. In particular,...

Kraemer, Felicitas

2011-01-01

213

Your Genes, Your Choices: Exploring the Issues Raised by Genetic Research  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Your Genes, Your Choices provides accurate information about the ethical, legal, and social implications of the Human Genome Project and genetic research in an easy-to-read style and format. Each chapter in the book begins with a brief vignette, which introduces an issue within a human story, and raises a question for the reader to think about as the basic science and information are presented in the rest of the chapter.

Baker, C.

1999-05-31

214

The New Ways to Raise Capital: An Exploratory Study of Crowdfunding  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Purpose – Paper aims is to describe, analyze and to increase the knowledge of the emerging crowdfunding phenomenon. This can be defined as the practice of funding a project or venture by raising a lot of small quantities of money from a huge number of people. Even though the number of academic studies has been increasing, the coverage of the population is relatively weak and not well understood by entrepreneurs and individual investors.Design/Methodology/Findings - The research can be class...

Matteo Rossi

2014-01-01

215

Two cases of inflammatory muscle disease presenting with raised serum concentrations of troponin T  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Troponins T and I are highly sensitive markers of myocardial injury. However, non-cardiac disorders, such as pulmonary embolism, renal failure, subarachnoid haemorrhage, sepsis, eclampsia, chemotherapy, and inflammatory muscle conditions (dermatomyositis and polymyositis), can also result in raised serum troponin concentrations. This article describes two cases that occurred within a month of each other in Craigavon Area Hospital, whereby conditions unrelated to myocardial ischaemia resulted ...

Hamilton, J. S.; Sharpe, P. C.

2005-01-01

216

Source of raised serum estrogens in male rats with portal bypass.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We sought to establish the mechanism for the raised serum estrogen levels that occur in male rats with portal hypertension and resultant portal bypass. Using the portal vein ligated (PVL) rat model, we evaluated plasma steroid hormone concentrations, metabolic clearance rate (MCR) of estradiol, and hepatic metabolism of androstenedione to estrogens and other products. In contrast to serum testosterone levels that were reduced, serum androstenedione levels were normal in the PVL rat. Estradiol...

Farrell, G. C.; Koltai, A.; Murray, M.

1988-01-01

217

Restoration of minerotrophic vegetation within an Irish raised bog soak system.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Clara Bog is an oceanic raised bog of international ecological importance located in central Ireland. The occurrence of soak systems (areas of mesotrophic/minerotrophic vegetation within acid bog) adds greatly to the scientific interest of Clara Bog. Recent research into the vegetation history of a soak system on Clara Bog known as Lough Roe indicates that major vegetation changes have occurred within the soak over the past century. Vegetation communities were classified and mapped on three d...

Crushell, P. H.; Schouten, M. G. C.; Smolders, A. J. P.; Roelofs, J. G. M.; Giller, P. S.

2006-01-01

218

The Use of Consciousness-Raising Tasks in Learning and Teaching of Subject-Verb Agreement  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This study investigates the use of two types of Consciousness-Raising (CR) tasks in learning Subject-Verb Agreement (SVA). The sample consisted of 28 Form 2 students who were divided into two groups. Group 1 was assigned with Grammaticality Judgment (GJ) tasks and Group 2 received Sentence Production (SP) tasks for eight weeks. Learners were given a pretest before the treatment and a posttest once they completed the tasks. They were also required to answer questionnaires and some were inte...

Sirhajwan Idek; Lee Lai Fong; Gurnam Kaur Sidhu

2013-01-01

219

Information technologies and subjective well-being: Does the internet raise material aspirations?  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Existing work on the economics of well-being suggests that a person's subjective well-being depends to a large degree on his relative standing within his social environment. In this paper, we examine whether access to modern information and telecommunication technologies has an impact on relative concerns by raising material aspirations. We use cross-sectional data from the fifth wave of the World Values Survey and provide empirical evidence that people who regularly use the internet as a sou...

Lohmann, Steffen

2013-01-01

220

Some issues raised by the National Academy of Sciences study for MC and A  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Six of several issues raised by the recent DOE commissioned National Academy of Science Study for MC and A are briefly discussed in part along with resulting recommendations for DOE consideration. The activities discussed are: 1. Evaluating System Performance; 2. Management of Inventory Differences; 3. Management of Shipper-Receiver Differences; 4. Managing the MC and A Data Base; 5. Management of Threat and Vulnerability; and 6. MSSA Content and Preparation

 
 
 
 
221

Cerebrovascular reactivity among native-raised high altitude residents: an fMRI study  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract Background The impact of long term residence on high altitude (HA) on human brain has raised concern among researchers in recent years. This study investigated the cerebrovascular reactivity among native-born high altitude (HA) residents as compared to native sea level (SL) residents. The two groups were matched on the ancestral line, ages, gender ratios, and education levels. A visual cue guided maximum inspiration task with brief breath holding was performed by all...

Zhang Jiaxing; Yan Xiaodan; Gong Qiyong; Weng Xuchu

2011-01-01

222

The Radial Velocity Signature of Tides Raised in Stars Hosting Exoplanets  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Close-in, massive exoplanets raise significant tides in their stellar hosts. We compute the radial velocity (RV) signal due to this fluid motion in the equilibrium tide approximation. The predicted radial velocities in the observed sample of exoplanets exceed 1 m/s for 17 systems, with the largest predicted signal being ~30 m/s for WASP-18 b. Tidally-induced RV's are thus detectable with present methods. Both tidal fluid flow and the epicyclic motion of a slightly eccentric ...

Arras, Phil; Burkart, Joshua; Quataert, Eliot; Weinberg, Nevin N.

2011-01-01

223

Enhanced Rate of Multiplication of Tissue Cultured Raised Banana (MUSA Plants in the Field  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Multiplication rate of banana plants c.v. Basrai in the field was studied. The results showed that plants raised through culture produced 7.45 suckers plant-1 after 14 months of planting. On the other hand, number of suckers produced by banana plants propagated conventionally were 4015 in the same period of time. The results indicated that tissue culture plants produced 44% more suckers. This enhanced rate of multiplication may overcome the limited sucker production in the field.

Aish Muhammad

2003-01-01

224

International Technology Mergers & Acquisitions and Raising the Competitiveness of China Equipment Manufacturing Industry  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Developing and strengthening the competitiveness of the equipment manufacturing industry is that needs solving the weighty problem. China equipment manufacturing enterprises could acquire the core technique with international tech-nology mergers & acquisitions. This is an important strategy that could facilitate raising innovation capital and R&D level of the enterprise by a wide margin. This paper analyses the problems of China equipment manufacturing industry, advantages of internat...

Xiuling Liu; Li Cai; Huiping Tan

2012-01-01

225

International Technology Mergers & Acquisitions and Raising the Competitiveness of China Equipment Manufacturing Industry  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Developing and strengthening the competitiveness of the equipment manufacturing industry is that needs solving the weighty problem. China equipment manufacturing enterprises could acquire the core technique with international tech-nology mergers & acquisitions. This is an important strategy that could facilitate raising innovation capital and R&D level of the enterprise by a wide margin. This paper analyses the problems of China equipment manufacturing industry, advantages of internat...

Xiuling Liu; Li Cai; Huiping Tan

2012-01-01

226

Raised calcium and oxidative stress cooperatively promote alpha-synuclein aggregate formation.  

Science.gov (United States)

Cell loss in Parkinson's and Parkinson's-plus diseases is linked to abnormal, aggregated forms of the cytoplasmic protein, ?-synuclein (?-syn). The factors causing ?-syn aggregation may include oxidative stress, changes in protein turnover and dysregulation of calcium homeostasis, resulting in cytotoxic aggregated ?-syn species. Recently, we showed that raised calcium can promote ?-syn aggregation. We have now investigated the effects of raised calcium combined with oxidation/oxidative stress on ?-syn aggregation both in vitro and in vivo. We treated monomeric ?-syn with calcium, hydrogen peroxide or calcium plus hydrogen peroxide in vitro and used size exclusion chromatography, fluorescence correlation spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy and scanning electron microscopy to investigate protein aggregation. Our in vitro data is consistent with a cooperative interaction between calcium and oxidation resulting in ?-syn oligomers. In cell culture experiments, we used thapsigargin or ionophore A23187 to induce transient increases of intracellular free calcium in human 1321N1 cells expressing an ?-syn-GFP construct both with and without co-treatment with hydrogen peroxide and observed ?-syn aggregation by fluorescence microscopy. Our in vivo cell culture data shows that either transient increase in intracellular free calcium or hydrogen peroxide treatment individually were able to induce significantly (P=0.01) increased 1-4?m cytoplasmic ?-syn aggregates after 12h in cells transiently transfected with ?-syn-GFP. There was a greater proportion of cells positive for aggregates when both raised calcium and oxidative stress were combined, with a significantly increased proportion (P=0.001) of cells with multiple (3 or more) discrete ?-syn focal accumulations per cell in the combined treatment compared to raised calcium only. Our data indicates that calcium and oxidation/oxidative stress can cooperatively promote ?-syn aggregation both in vitro and in vivo and suggests that oxidative stress may play an important role in the calcium-dependent aggregation mechanism. PMID:23159813

Goodwin, J; Nath, S; Engelborghs, Y; Pountney, D L

2013-04-01

227

Raised bed technology for wheat crop in irrigated areas of punjab, pakistan  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The present paper analyzes the determinants of adoption of raised bed planting of wheat in irrigated areas of Punjab, Pakistan. Wheat is an important staple food of Pakistan. It contributes 13 % to the value added in agriculture and 2.6 % to the GDP. The agrarian economy of Pakistan is continuously under stress due to the low yield of almost all the crops and constrained with many problem. One of the most important issues of agriculture is water shortage which is increasing day by day and is a major challenge now a days. Therefore, water saving becomes the utmost need of the hour. The national research system is now putting their focus and efforts to manage the precious water through various modern/latest water saving models to draw some solid method of irrigation with less wastage. Raised bed planting method is also one of the modern methods of planting crop with significant water saving. The study was planned and conducted by the Social Sciences Research Institute, Faisalabad in 2011-12 to assess the determinants of the adoption of the raised bed technology for wheat crop in irrigated Punjab, Pakistan. The study was conducted at three sites of the districts Faisalabad and Toba Tek Singh where the Water Management Research Institute, University of Faisalabad promoted the raised bed technology for wheat crop. A sample of 63 farmers was interviewed in detail to understand the whole system and the factors contributing to the adoption of the technology. The study revealeption of the technology. The study revealed that adopters typically have a more favorable resource base and tend to variously outperform non-adopters. More access to education and other social indicators increases the chances to adopt new technologies by the farming community. However, the small farmers can also be benefited with the technology with proper education regarding the technology in the area with good social mobilization for the conservation of scarce and valuable farm resources. (author)

228

Specific Language Impairment (SLI: The Internet Ralli Campaign to Raise Awareness of SLI  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this short article, we discuss what is specific language impairment (SLI and why it is a hidden disability that few people have heard about. We describe the impact on research, policy and practice of SLI being a neglected condition. We end by providing the background and rationale of a new internet campaign, RALLI (www.youtube.com/rallicampaign, aimed at changing this state of affairs and raising awareness of SLI.

Conti-Ramsden Gina

2014-08-01

229

Structural evaluation of WIPP disposal room raised to Clay Seam G.  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

An error was discovered in the ALGEBBRA script used to calculate the disturbed rock zone around the disposal room and the shear failure zone in the anhydrite layers in the original version. To correct the error, a memorandum of correction was submitted according to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Quality Assurance program. The recommended course of action was to correct the error, to repeat the post-process, and to rewrite Section 7.4, 7.5, 8, and Appendix B in the original report. The sections and appendix revised by the post-process using the corrected ALGEBRA scripts are provided in this revision. The original report summarizes a series of structural calculations that examine effects of raising the WIPP repository horizon from the original design level upward 2.43 meters. Calculations were then repeated for grid changes appropriate for the new horizon raised to Clay Seam G. Results are presented in three main areas: (1) Disposal room porosity, (2) Disturbed rock zone characteristics, and (3) Anhydrite marker bed failure. No change to the porosity surface for the compliance re-certification application is necessary to account for raising the repository horizon, because the new porosity surface is essentially identical. The disturbed rock zone evolution and devolution are charted in terms of a stress invariant criterion over the regulatory period. This model shows that the propagation of the DRZ into the surrounding rock salt does not penetrate through MB 139 in the case of both the original horizon and the raised room. Damaged salt would be expected to heal in nominally 150 years. The shear failure does not occur in either the upper or lower anhydrite layers at the moment of excavation, but appears above and below the middle of the pillar one day after the excavation. The damaged anhydrite is not expected to heal as the salt in the DRZ is expected to.

Park, Byoung Yoon (Sandia National Laboratories, Carlsbad, NM); Holland, John F. (Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM)

2007-09-01

230

A level raising result for modular Galois representations modulo prime powers  

CERN Document Server

In this work we provide a level raising theorem for $\\mod \\lambda^n$ modular Galois representations. It allows one to see such a Galois representation that is modular of level $N$, weight 2 and trivial Nebentypus as one that is modular of level $Np$, for a prime $p$ coprime to $N$, when a certain local condition at $p$ is satisfied. It is a generalization of a result of Ribet concerning $\\mod \\ell$ Galois representations.

Tsaknias, Panagiotis

2012-01-01

231

Increasing Public Participation through Awareness Raising Activities: A Case Study in Trao Reef Marine Reserve, Vietnam  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In the last few decades, community-based management has evolved to become an effective approach in managing natural resources and solving environmental problems around the world. In this approach, stakeholder participation is considered as a very important factor contributing to the success or failure of the management effort. To promote and enhance stakeholder participation, awareness raising activities could be conducted in various innovative forms. This is clearly illustrated in the cas...

Hang Thi Minh Tran; Loke Ming Chou; Hue Thu Nguyen

2012-01-01

232

What Meaning does Raising a Child with Autism have for Parents? A Qualitative Exploration  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Introduction: Children with autism experience difficulties in social interaction and communication which are often manifested behaviourally. The nature of these difficulties means that the task of parenting is often challenging. This study therefore aims to explore which aspects of raising a child with autism are most meaningful for parents. It will also investigate what, if any, are the positive aspects related to the experience of having a child with autism. Method: A q...

Jardine, Kirsten Marie

2008-01-01

233

High-frequency configurations to raise the particle energy in PETRA  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A study was made of methods to raise the energy of the PETRA storage ring beyond the 19 GeV planned for the first extension stage. A brief summary is given of the analyses, and the use of superconducting cavity resonators is discussed. It is concluded that, if energies above 23 GeV are desired, then superconducting resonators will have to be used

234

The Cholesterol-Raising Factor from Boiled Coffee Does Not Pass a Paper Filter  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Previous studies have indicated that consumption of boiled coffee raises total and low density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, whereas drip-filtered coffee does not. We have tested the effect on serum lipids of consumed coffee that was first boiled and then filtered through commercial paper coffee filters. Sixty-four healthy volunteers consumed six cups per day of this boiled and filtered coffee for 17 days. Then, they were randomly divided into three groups, which, for the next 79 days, recei...

Vandusseldorp, M.; Katan, M. B.; Demacker, P. N. M.; Stalenhoef, A. F. H.

1990-01-01

235

Risk of diagnosis of ovarian cancer after raised serum CA 125 concentration: a prospective cohort study.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

OBJECTIVE: To determine the risk of invasive epithelial ovarian cancer and fallopian tube cancer associated with a raised concentration of the tumour marker CA 125 in asymptomatic postmenopausal women. DESIGN: Serum CA 125 concentration was measured annually in study participants for one to four years. Participants with a concentration > or = 30 U/ml were recalled for abdominal ultrasonography. Follow up was by annual postal questionnaire. SETTING: General practice, occupational health depart...

Jacobs, I. J.; Skates, S.; Davies, A. P.; Woolas, R. P.; Jeyerajah, A.; Weidemann, P.; Sibley, K.; Oram, D. H.

1996-01-01

236

An overview of the rangelands atmosphere hydrosphere biosphere interaction study experiment in northeastern Asia (RAISE)  

Science.gov (United States)

SummaryIntensive observations, analysis and modeling within the framework of the rangelands atmosphere-hydrosphere-biosphere interaction study experiment in northeastern Asia (RAISE) project, have allowed investigations into the hydrologic cycle in the ecotone of forest-steppe, and its relation to atmosphere and ecosystem in the eastern part of Mongolia. In this region, changes in the climate have been reported and a market oriented economy was introduced recently, but their impact on the natural environment is still not well understood. In this RAISE special issue, the outcome is presented of the studies carried out by six groups within RAISE, namely: (1) Land-atmosphere interaction analysis, (2) ecosystem analysis and modeling, (3) hydrologic cycle analysis, (4) climatic modeling, (5) hydrologic modeling, and (6) integration. The results are organized in five relevant categories comprising (i) hydrologic cycle including precipitation, groundwater, and surface water, (ii) hydrologic cycle and ecosystem, (iii) surface-atmosphere interaction, (iv) effect of grazing activities on soils, plant ecosystem and surface fluxes, and (v) future prediction. Comparison with studies on rangelands in other parts of the world, and some future directions of studies still needed in this region are also summarized.

Sugita, Michiaki; Asanuma, Jun; Tsujimura, Maki; Mariko, Shigeru; Lu, Minjiao; Kimura, Fujio; Azzaya, Dolgorsuren; Adyasuren, Tsokhio

2007-01-01

237

Self-assembled peptide nanofibers raising durable antibody responses against a malaria epitope.  

Science.gov (United States)

Biomaterials that modulate innate and adaptive immune responses are receiving increasing interest as adjuvants for eliciting protective immunity against a variety of diseases. Previous results have indicated that self-assembling ?-sheet peptides, when fused with short peptide epitopes, can act as effective adjuvants and elicit robust and long-lived antibody responses. Here we investigated the mechanism of immunogenicity and the quality of antibody responses raised by a peptide epitope from Plasmodium falciparum circumsporozoite (CS) protein, (NANP)(3),conjugated to the self-assembling peptide domain Q11. The mechanism of adjuvant action was investigated in knockout mice with impaired MyD88, NALP3, TLR-2, or TLR-5 function, and the quality of antibodies raised against (NANP)(3)-Q11 was assessed using a transgenic sporozoite neutralizing (TSN) assay for malaria infection. (NANP)(3)-Q11 self-assembled into nanofibers, and antibody responses lasted up to 40 weeks in C57BL/6 mice. The antibody responses were T cell- and MyD88-dependent. Sera from mice primed with either irradiated sporozoites or a synthetic peptide, (T1BT*)(4)-P3C, and boosted with (NANP)(3)-Q11 showed significant increases in antibody titers and significant inhibition of sporozoite infection in TSN assays. In addition, two different epitopes could be self-assembled together without compromising the strength or duration of the antibody responses raised against either of them, making these materials promising platforms for self-adjuvanting multi-antigenic immunotherapies. PMID:22695068

Rudra, Jai S; Mishra, Satish; Chong, Anita S; Mitchell, Robert A; Nardin, Elizabeth H; Nussenzweig, Victor; Collier, Joel H

2012-09-01

238

Communicating adaptation with emotions: the role of intense experiences in raising concern about extreme weather.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Adaptation to extreme weather is often considered as having a low urgency and being a low priority governance option, even though the intensity of extreme weather events is expected to increase as a result of climate change. An important issue is how to raise an adequate level of concern among individuals, policy makers, and broader decision makers in companies and organizations so that adaptation to extreme events becomes mainstream practice. We conducted 40 indepth interviews with individuals from different sectors in The Netherlands to identify the different types of experiences with extreme events, as well as the relationship between such experiences and the level of concern about extreme weather. Our results indicate that individuals who have experienced an intense, life-threatening event have a significantly higher level of concern than those without such an experience. Professional experience and secondhand experience through participating in information events do not significantly affect the level of concern about extreme events. This suggests limited intervention possibilities for communication of adaptation, as well as for raising support for adaptation measures. Framing adaptation measures in relation to personal circumstances and emotions during extreme events could help raise concern about extreme weather events, as well as societal support for adaptation measures.

Eleftheria Vasileiadou

2014-06-01

239

Burst protection device for largely cylindrical steam raising units, preferably of pressurized water nuclear power stations  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This burst protection device controls forces to be expected in an accident by resolving them into axial (vertical) and radial (horizontal) components, which are taken by a large number of elements stressed in tension. The steam raising unit is surrounded by a containment, but remains easily accessible. The containment consists of a steel jacket, lid and floor. Several cylindrical sections above one another form the steel jacket, which surrounds the steam raising unit with an intermediate insulating layer of concrete. The insulating concrete cylinder is of several times the thickness of the steel jacket, and also consists of cylindrical sections. An outer supporting ring for the lid and floor of the containment have outside diameters which project beyond the jacket. Prestressed circumferential vertical tension ropes between the supporting ring and floor take any additional tensional forces. The lid is domed with downward curvature towards the upper boiler dome. Internal bursting forces produce compressive stresses in the lid, which thus pass along its outside diameter into the surrounding ring. The lid, which is devided along one diameter, makes dismantling and access to the boiler easy even with a central steam pipe going upwards. The floor of the burst protection is also the floor of the steam raising unit. It is of several times the thickness of the tube floor, which, with its spacing above the floor forms the usual inlet and outlet space for the reactor cooling water. The main coolant pump installed there is driven by an external motor through a floor penetration. (HP)

240

Structural evaluation of WIPP disposal room raised to Clay Seam G.  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report summarizes a series of structural calculations that examine effects of raising the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant repository horizon from the original design level upward 2.43 meters. These calculations allow evaluation of various features incorporated in conceptual models used for performance assessment. Material presented in this report supports the regulatory compliance re-certification, and therefore begins by replicating the calculations used in the initial compliance certification application. Calculations are then repeated for grid changes appropriate for the new horizon raised to Clay Seam G. Results are presented in three main areas: 1. Disposal room porosity, 2. Disturbed rock zone characteristics, and 3. Anhydrite marker bed failure. No change to the porosity surface for the compliance re-certification application is necessary to account for raising the repository horizon, because the new porosity surface is essentially identical. The disturbed rock zone evolution and devolution are charted in terms of a stress invariant criterion over the regulatory period. This model shows that the damage zone does not extend upward to MB 138, but does reach MB 139 below the repository. Damaged salt would be expected to heal in nominally 100 years. The anhydrite marker beds sustain states of stress that promote failure and substantial marker bed deformation into the room assures fractured anhydrite will sustain in the proximity of the disposal rooms.

Park, Byoung Yoon; Holland, John F.

2004-01-01

 
 
 
 
241

Evidence of streptococcal origin of acute non-necrotising cellulitis: a serological study.  

Science.gov (United States)

Bacteriological diagnosis is rarely achieved in acute cellulitis. Beta-haemolytic streptococci and Staphylococcus aureus are considered the main pathogens. The role of the latter is, however, unclear in cases of non-suppurative cellulitis. We conducted a serological study to investigate the bacterial aetiology of acute non-necrotising cellulitis. Anti-streptolysin O (ASO), anti-deoxyribonuclease B (ADN) and anti-staphylolysin (ASTA) titres were measured from acute and convalescent phase sera of 77 patients hospitalised because of acute bacterial non-necrotising cellulitis and from the serum samples of 89 control subjects matched for age and sex. Antibiotic treatment decisions were also reviewed. Streptococcal serology was positive in 53 (69 %) of the 77 cases. Furthermore, ten cases without serological evidence of streptococcal infection were successfully treated with penicillin. Positive ASO and ADN titres were detected in ten (11 %) and three (3 %) of the 89 controls, respectively, and ASTA was elevated in three patients and 11 controls. Our findings suggest that acute non-necrotising cellulitis without pus formation is mostly of streptococcal origin and that penicillin can be used as the first-line therapy for most patients. PMID:25403372

Karppelin, M; Siljander, T; Haapala, A-M; Aittoniemi, J; Huttunen, R; Kere, J; Vuopio, J; Syrjänen, J

2014-11-18

242

Role of hypertonic saline and mannitol in the management of raised intracranial pressure in children: A randomized comparative study  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Objective : To compare the efficacy and side effects of 3% hypertonic saline and mannitol in the management of raised intracranial pressure in children. Design : Prospective randomized study. Setting : Pediatric intensive care unit (PICU) in a tertiary care hospital. Subject : 200 patients with raised intracranial pressure. Materials and Methods : Patients were randomized into two statistically comparable groups; Group A (n = 98) was treated with mann...

Upadhyay Piyush; Tripathi V; Singh R; Sachan D

2010-01-01

243

The Effects of Explicit Feedback and Form--Meaning Processing on the Development of Pragmatic Proficiency in Consciousness-Raising Tasks  

Science.gov (United States)

The present study evaluates the relative effectiveness of two types of input-based instruction, consciousness-raising instruction (the consciousness-raising task only) and consciousness-raising instruction with feedback (the consciousness-raising task + reactive explicit feedback) for teaching English polite requestive forms, involving 45 Japanese…

Takimoto, Masahiro

2006-01-01

244

Proof support for RAISE - by a Reuse Approach Based on Institutions  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Formal methods are mathematically based methods for developing software. Such methods usually involve that software and requirements are specified in a formal specification language, after which it is verified that the software meets the requirements. RAISE is a formal method with the associated specification language RSL and a proof system. Computer-based proof tools are available for RAISE, but a higher degree of automation is desired. Isabelle/HOL is a proof assistant for higher-order logic (HOL). It is an instantiation of the generic proof assistant Isabelle which offers a suitable degree of automation and flexibility. In order to use the Isabelle/HOL proof assistant for the RAISE method, translation from RSL to HOL is considered. The translation is based on institutions which formalize the informal notion of "a logical system". Institutions and morphisms between institutions are presented together with specifications over institutions and model-theoretic semantics of specifications. The concept of "light institution comorphisms" is introduced as a modification of well-known institution comorphisms, and it is proved that a light institution comorphism enables sound reuse of proof assistants when it has certain properties. Moreover, the concept of looser semantics of specifications is introduced as a model-theoretic description of the semantics of RSL specifications, and an equivalence result is proved. An institution for an applicative, deterministic subset of RSL, referred to as "mRSL", is defined. Then, a well-known institution for HOL is presented, and Isabelle/HOL is briefly described. An institution comorphism from the mRSL institution to the HOL institution is defined, providing a translation from mRSL to Isabelle/HOL, and it is proved that the light institution comorphism has the properties that enable sound reuse of the Isabelle/HOL proof assistant. The use of the translation is described in connection with three examples: logical circuits, a generalized railway crossing, and an encoding of Duration Calculus in RSL. In Danish: Formelle metoder er matematisk baserede metoder til udvikling af programmel. Sådanne metoder involverer som regel, at programmel og krav beskrives i et formelt specifikationssprog, hvorefter det verificeres, at programmellet opfylder de ønskede krav. RAISE er en formel metode med det tilhørende specifikationssprog RSL og et bevissystem. Der findes datamatbaserede bevisværktøjer til RAISE, men en højere grad af automation er ønskværdig. Isabelle/HOL er en bevisfører for højereordens logik (HOL). Bevisføreren er en instantiering af den generiske bevisfører Isabelle, der tilbyder en passende grad af automation og fleksibilitet. Med henblik på at benytte bevisføreren Isabelle/HOL i forbindelse med RAISE metoden, betragtes oversættelse fra RSL til HOL. Oversættelsen baseres på institutioner, der formaliserer det uformelle begreb "logisk system ". Institutioner og morfier mellem institutioner gennemgås sammen med specifikationer over institutioner og modelteoretisk semantikaf specifikationer. Begrebet "let institutionscomorfi" introduceres som en modifikation af velkendte institutionscomorfier, og det bevises, at en let institutionscomorfi muliggør sund genbrug af bevisførere, når den har visse egenskaber. Derudover introduceres begrebet løsere semantik af specifikationer som en modelteoretisk beskrivelse af semantikken af RSL- specifikationer, og et ækvivalensresultat bevises. Der defineres en institution for en applikativ, deterministisk delmængde af RSL, der benævnes "mRSL". Herefter præsenteres en velkendt institution for HOL, og Isabelle/HOL gennemgås kort. Der defineres en let institutionscomorfi fra mRSL- institutionen til HOL-institutionen, hvorved der fås en oversættelse fra mRSL til Isabelle/HOL, og det bevises, at den definerede lette institutionscomorfi har de egenskaber, der muliggør sund genbrug af bevisføreren Isabelle/HOL. Brugen af den definerede oversættelse beskrives i forbindelse med tre eksempler: logiske kredsløb, en jernbaneoverskæring

Lindegaard, Morten Peter

2004-01-01

245

Growth curve of locally adapted pantaneiro cows raised under natural conditions  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english The objective of this study was to use morphometric and ultrasound evaluations to estimate the growth curve of the Pantaneiro cattle breed, raised in its natural habitat, aiming at the re-insertion of this breed in production systems. One hundred and three females, aging from months to 11 years, and [...] raised on native pastures, were evaluated. The animals belonged to the Conservation Nucleus of Embrapa Pantanal, located in the Pantanal of Mato Grosso do Sul (Brazil). Weight, thoracic perimeter (TP), body length (BL), rump height (RH), height at withers (HW), hip height (HH), depth (DP), distance between the ilia (DI) (cm) and rib-eye area (REA) were measured. To relate the measurements with the age of the animals, the univariate regression model was used, assigning the variable response to gamma distribution. The Pearson correlation between variables was also estimated. The inflection point of the growth curve was 37 months for HH; between 38 and 39 months for TP and HW; between 40 and 41 months for DI, HH and DP; and 45 months for BL. The REA results could not fit in a statistical model. The majority of the variables presented a correlation above 60% among themselves, except for REA × Age, of 15.81%; REA × HW, of 34.44%; HH × Age, of 46.19; HH × DI, of 58.07%; REA × HH, of 24.57%; and REA × TP, of 39.9%. The cows showed maturity age at 40 months, which may have occurred because they were raised in natural farming conditions. In Pantaneiro cows reared in extensive systems only on natural pastures, the use of ultrasound is not effective to estimate the curve of muscular development, perhaps because this breed was not selected for weight gain.

Eleonora Araújo, Barbosa; Andréa Alves do, Egito; Urbano Gomes Pinto de, Abreu; Raquel Soares, Juliano; Joseane Padilha da, Silva; Arthur da Silva, Mariante; Alexandre Floriani, Ramos.

2013-11-01

246

Effects of different raising systems on colour and quality characteristics of turkish pekin duck meats  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO South Africa | Language: English Abstract in english The current trial was conducted to determine the influence of different raising systems on the meat quality properties of male Turkish Pekin ducks. Ninety male ducklings were randomly allocated to three experimental groups: an animal-fish integrated farming group (IG), a non-animal-fish integrated f [...] arming group (NIG) and a poultry house group (PHG). All ducklings were fed a starter diet from weeks 2 to 6 and a finisher diet from weeks 6 to 10. Feed and water were offered ad libitum. At the end of the trial all ducks were slaughtered and the carcasses were stored at 3 °C for 24 hours, after which L*, a* and b* values of the carcass skins were measured. After standard dissection of carcasses, pectoralis muscles were obtained on which pH, colour (L*, a*, b*, C and H), total aerobic mesophilic, total aerobic psychrotrophic, lactic acid bacteria, Micrococcus/Staphylococcus, yeast-mould and Enterobacteriaceae counts were determined. The different raising systems of the ducks had significant effects on the pH, total aerobic mesophilic, Enterobacteriaceae, and L* and b* values of the pectoralis muscle. The lowest pH, total aerobic mesophilic and Enterobacteriaceae counts were found in the PHG group. The lowest L* values for the pectoralis muscle were found in the IG group while the highest a* value was recorded in the IG group. Significant differences in skin colour were observed between the experimental groups. For all production groups, all microbial counts were found to be within acceptable ranges. However, pH, total aerobic mesophilic and Enterobacteriaceae results were found to be lower in the PHG group than in the other groups. Different raising systems were thus found to affect the meat and skin colour of ducks, which may influence the preference of consumers.

E., Lacin; M.I., Aksu; M., Macit; A., Yildiz; M., Karaoglu; N., Esenbuga; M.A., Yoruk.

2008-03-01

247

Effect of Raising Beef Cattle in the Double Shaded House on Their Fattening Performance in Thailand  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The fattening performance of beef cattle improved by raising in double shaded house in Thailand. Eight fattening crossbred beef cattle, (50 to 75% Charolais crossbred cattle, were randomly assigned into two groups. They were raised under the management of small holders in Pon-Yang-Kham Co-operative in Sakon Nakhon, Thailand. In group 1, cattle were allocated in normal house which had one shade of zinc metal roof without ceiling and it was open house. In group 2, cattle were allocated in double shaded house which had one lower shade of zinc metal roof at the under and one upper shade of black plastic slant over the latter roof. After preliminary experimental period for 2 weeks, the temperature and relative humidity in houses were recorded and blood samples were collected on day 0, 90 and 180 of experimental duration to determine cortisol concentration. Changes in general physiology (rectal temperature, pulse rates, respiration rates, heat tolerance co-efficiency; HTC and sweating rates and hematology (hematocrit (%, hemoglobin, blood glucose and blood urea nitrogen and cortisol concentration were recorded through the experimental period. The temperature humidity index (THI affected on the general physiological changes of cattle between group 1 and group 2 which were highly significant different (p2/h, respectively and hematology and cortisol concentration in blood serum of fattening beef cattle in both groups were increased (p<0.01. The fattening performance of cattle between group 1 and group 2 were significant different (p<0.05 as follows; final weight (722.62 and 748.20 kg, ADG (656.15 and 732.50 g/d, dressing percentage (54.24 and 60.40% and marbling (3.51 and 3.84%. We suggest that raising beef cattle in a modified double shaded house is capable of improving fattening performance in the semi-tropical countries.

Hanchai Umpapol

2014-01-01

248

Raising students and educators awareness of radioactive materials transport through creative classroom materials and exhibits  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The public is concerned about how the shipping and handling of radioactive materials affects them and their environment. Through exhibit showings doing professional education conferences and smaller, focussed workshops, the United States Department of Energy (DOE) has found teachers and students to be an especially interested audience for hazardous and radioactive materials transportation information. DOE recognizes the importance of presenting educational opportunities to students about scientific and societal issues associated with planning for and safely transporting these types of materials. Raising students' and educators' awareness of hazardous and radioactive materials transport through creative classroom materials and exhibits may help them make informed decisions as adults about this often controversial and difficult issue

249

Mutagenic Potential and Nutritive Quality of Turnip Plants Raised over Chromium Amended Soils  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Use of waste water for irrigation has lead to an increase in the chromium content of agricultural soils in many areas and the plants grown over these soils are known to accumulate this heavy metal in their parts, thus paving way for its entry into the food chain. The present study aims at assessment of mutagenicity of turnip plants raised over soils amended with chromium as well as to study the effect of this heavy metal in soil on various biochemical constituents of this important food crop....

Saggoo, M. I. S.; Gill, A.

2010-01-01

250

Diurnal and seasonal variation of carbon dioxide exchange from a former true raised bog.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Carbon dioxide exchange was measured, using the eddy covariance technique, during a one and a half year period in 1994 and 1995. The measurements took place over a former true raised bog, characterized by a shallow peat layer and a vegetation dominated by Molinia caerulea. The growing season extended from May until late October, with a maximum LAI in August of 1.7. The carbon balance shows a net release of 97 g C m-2 y-1 (265 kg C ha-1 y-1) from the peat bog ecosystem to the atmosphere. Durin...

Nieveen, J. P.; Jacobs, C. M. J.; Jacobs, A. F. G.

1998-01-01

251

Parametrization of organic nitrogen mineralization models in soil treated with swine raising wastewater  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Little is known about the mineralization dynamic of organic nitrogen contained in swine manure, so models need to be adjusted for its prediction. The objective of the present study was to parameterize and assess models of organic nitrogen mineralization in soil treated with swine raising wastewater (SRW) at different temperatures and water contents. Samples of 57.3 cm3 of dystrophic Red-Yellow Latosol were mixed with SRW at the application dose of 400 kg ha-1 nitrogen, placed in plastic cups ...

Demétrius David da Silva; Júlio César Lima Neves; Antonio Teixeira Matos; Mauro Aparecido Martinez; Flavia Mariano Barros

2010-01-01

252

Development of organs and tissues in lambs raised on Spanish mountain grassland  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The present study was conducted to establish the pattern of body development in grass-raised Churra Tensina lambs. Forty-nine single male lambs were slaughtered at three body-weight intervals, according to the commercial categories of suckling (11.191.0kg), light (22.190.8 kg) and heavy lamb (32.092.9 kg). Non-carcass and carcass components were recorded and the half left carcasses were completely dissected. Lambs showed a low growth rate of main organs in relation to empty body w...

A?lvarez-rodri?guez, J.; Sanz, A.; Joy, M.; Carrasco, S.; Ripoll, G.; Teixeira, A.

2009-01-01

253

Building America Case Study: Raised Ceiling Interior Duct System, New Smyrna, Florida (Fact Sheet)  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

One of BA-PIRC's longtime Habitat for Humanity partners, S.E. Volusia CO (SEVHFH), was interested in building a home to the new Challenge Home standards. SEVHFH routinely builds ENERGY STAR V3.1 homes. The only modification to their design needed to comply with the Challenge Home criteria was the interior duct requirement. Unwilling to incur the added costs of a foam roof deck or wall heights above 8 feet to accommodate a fur-down chase SEVHFH opted to build a fur-up or raised ceiling chase.

2014-09-01

254

Baseline hematology and clinical chemistry results from captive-raised trumpeter swans  

Science.gov (United States)

Results from hematology and clinical chemistry tests are presented for healthy captive-raised Trumpeter Swans (Cygnus buccinator) to help establish baseline data. Blood samples were obtained from 14 cygnets between the ages of three to four and seven to eight months that were the subjects of a study to teach migration routes to swans. Males and females differed significantly in asparatate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase and total protein. Age categories differed significantly in hematocrit, white blood cell counts, alkaline phosphatase, aspar-rate aminotransferase, glucose, cholesterol and uric acid. There were no significant differences among age categories in values of alanine aminotransferase, calcium, triglycerides and total protein.

Olsen, G.H.; Rininger, D.L.; Ets, M.K.; Sladen, W.J.L.

2002-01-01

255

Antibiotic resistance pattern of motile aeromonads from farm raised fresh water fish.  

Science.gov (United States)

Motile aeromonads isolated from the intestines of farm-raised freshwater fish such as Catla catla, Labeo rohita and Ctenopharyngodon idella have been characterized to species level. Morphological and physiological grouping revealed 61% Aeromonas hydrophila, 30% Aeromonas caviae, 7% Aeromonas sobria and 2% which remained unidentified. Hemolytic activity was detected mostly in A. hydrophila, while only half of the A. sobria and A. caviae showed this activity. Antibiotic resistance patterns of the strains revealed that they had acquired a relatively higher resistance to oxytetracycline, amoxycillin, ampicillin, novobiocin and polymixin-B, implicating possible use of these antibiotics in the aquaculture systems. PMID:15747443

Hatha, Mohamed; Vivekanandhan, A A; Joice, G Julie; Christol

2005-02-01

256

Technique improvement of thoracoabdominal CT scan for patients with arm-raising disability  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Objective: To explore a new scanning technique to reduce and avoid image artifacts of thoracoabdominal CT and improve image quality for patients who cannot raise their arms. Methods: Sixty-one patients with arm-raising disability between March 2004 and May 2009 were enrolled in the study. Thirty-one cases before June 2007 were scanned with their arms beside their body (control group), 30 cases after June 2007 were scanned with their arms shifting to different imaging planes of the spine (study group), and another 30 patients who can raising their arms were taken as routine group. The images artifacts were blindly evaluated by 5-points scale (severe, less severe, moderate, minimum and no artifact) by 2 experienced CT technologists and one radiologist and compared between the three groups (X2 test). CT values and its noise of the liver with or without artifact of the three groups were measured and analyzed by one-way ANOVA test. Results: In the control group, 11 cases had severe, 15 cases had less severe, 5 cases had moderate. In the study group, 6 cases had moderate, 15 cases had minimum, 9 cases had no artifact. In the routine group, 8 cases minimum and 22 cases had no artifact. Image quality was significantly improved in the study group compared to the conventional group where X2=95.32 and P<0.01. CT value and the noise of the liver without artifact were (54.5 ± 3.0) HU and 10.7 ± 2.4 in the control group, (52.0 ± 3.5) HU and 10.7 ± 0.5 in tp, (52.0 ± 3.5) HU and 10.7 ± 0.5 in the study group, (53.7 ± 3.1) HU and 9.9 ± 0.5 in the routine group, respectively. CT value and noise of the liver with artifact were (41.7 ± 8.4) HU and 17.9 ± 2.6 in control group, (53.1 ± 6.9) HU and 11.0 ± 0.7 in the study group, (54.1 ± 2.4) HU and 9.9 ± 0.5 in the routine group, respectively. The CT value and its noise variation with artifact were significantly higher in the control group than the study group and the control group, where F=36.352, 235.848, respectively and P<0.01. Conclusion: The image quality can be improved and the artifact can be minimized for the patients with arm-raising disability by shifting their arm position to the different imaging planes of the spine. (authors)

257

The changing landscape of Clara Bog: the history of an Irish raised bog  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Clara Bog is one of the few raised bogs that has not been fully exploited in the Irish midlands and is a reminder of how the landscape of this region once appeared. This paper describes how the Clara Bog landscape has been changing since the commencement of the Holocene 11,500 years ago. Initially change was relatively slow as the bog naturally developed from its origins in an early Holocene lake, which became in-filled to form a fen circa 8000 years ago, before it continued to develop into a...

Crushell, P. H.; Connolly, A.; Schouten, M. G. C.; Mitchell, F. J. G.

2008-01-01

258

The Use of Consciousness-Raising Tasks in Learning and Teaching of Subject-Verb Agreement  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study investigates the use of two types of Consciousness-Raising (CR tasks in learning Subject-Verb Agreement (SVA. The sample consisted of 28 Form 2 students who were divided into two groups. Group 1 was assigned with Grammaticality Judgment (GJ tasks and Group 2 received Sentence Production (SP tasks for eight weeks. Learners were given a pretest before the treatment and a posttest once they completed the tasks. They were also required to answer questionnaires and some were interviewed. The findings show the two CR tasks promote SVA learning among students but SP tasks are descriptively better than GJ tasks in terms of gain scores.

Sirhajwan Idek

2013-05-01

259

Nuclear development strategic and policy issues raised by the transition from thermal to fast nuclear systems  

CERN Document Server

The renewed interest in nuclear energy triggered by concerns about global climate change and security of supply could lead to substantial growth in nuclear electricity generation and expanded interest in fast neutron reactors with closed fuel cycles. Moving from the current fleet of thermal neutron reactors to fast neutron systems will require many decades and extensive RD&D efforts. This book identifies and analyses key strategic and policy issues raised by such a transition, and provides guidance to decision makers on the best approaches for implementing transition scenarios.

2009-01-01

260

Studies on the Genetic Constitution of Black and White Dairy Cattles Raised in Tahirova State Farm  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this study 1504 individual milk yield records were analysed to evaluate the breeding potential of dairy cattles raised in Tahirova State Farm. Milk yields records of 468 Black and White cattle were obtained from the period of 1978-1995. Heritability of reproductive (first breeding age-FBE; first calving age-FCA; calving interval-Cl; service period-SP and days in dry-DID and milk yield (lactation length-LL., 305 day milk yield-305d-MY traits were estimated from the data. Phenotypic correlation`s between reproductive traits and between milk yield traits were also calculated.

Yahya Tuncay Tuna

2004-01-01

 
 
 
 
261

European bank stress test results raise doubts, hopes | EurActiv  

...European bank stress test results raise doubts, hopes | EurActiv The European Banking Authority (EBA), which conducted the stress ... test, said after the market close on Friday (15 July) that eight banks failed the exercise, with a total capital ... euro-finance,transport,bank capital,bank crisis,European Banking Authority,stress tests EU news & policy debates- across languages - en fr Click ...Finland finally punches above its weight News | Italy’s Renzi to pass first test in parliament News | Greens present ‘Green New Deal’ at ...

262

DETERMINATION OF ZERDAVA DOG (KAPI KOPEGI RAISED IN NORTHEAST OF TURKEY  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This is the first document on Turkish Zerdava dogs raised in northeast of Turkey. This study was carried out to define the morphologic traits of the Turkish Zerdava dogs raised in east of Turkey comparing with some other native dog breeds of Turkey. To this end, a total of 39 (19 male and 20 female dogs was analyzed using the Minitab 15 statistical software program using ANOVA and Student’s t-Test. Descriptive statistics and comparison results were for height at shoulders 51.2±0.35, height at rump 51.6±0.28, body length 56.3±0.35, heart girth circumference 50±1.43, chest width 25.6±0.22, cannon circumference 9.4±0.14, and head length 19.4±0.17 cm respectively. The overall results of the study demonstrated that Turkish Zerdava dogs had a very close resemblance to the Turkish Kangal (Karabash and Akbash Shepherd dogs related with body measurements. The Zerdava dogs reach mature body weight and size at around 18 months of age.

Orhan YILMAZ

2012-01-01

263

Rooks use stones to raise the water level to reach a floating worm.  

Science.gov (United States)

In Aesop's fable "The Crow and the Pitcher," a thirsty crow uses stones to raise the level of water in a pitcher and quench its thirst. A number of corvids have been found to use tools in the wild, and New Caledonian crows appear to understand the functional properties of tools and solve complex physical problems via causal and analogical reasoning. The rook, another member of the corvid family that does not appear to use tools in the wild, also appears able to solve non-tool-related problems via similar reasoning. Here, we present evidence that captive rooks are also able to solve a complex problem by using tools. We presented four captive rooks with a problem analogous to Aesop's fable: raising the level of water so that a floating worm moved into reach. All four subjects solved the problem with an appreciation of precisely how many stones were needed. Three subjects also rapidly learned to use large stones over small ones, and that sawdust cannot be manipulated in the same manner as water. This behavior demonstrates a flexible ability to use tools, a finding with implications for the evolution of tool use and cognition in animals. PMID:19664926

Bird, Christopher David; Emery, Nathan John

2009-08-25

264

Thermal stress analysis of pipe flange connections with raised-face gasket subjected to heat conduction  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper deals with thermal stress analysis of a pipe flange connection with a raised-face gasket subjected to heat conduction. In the analysis, pipe flange, hubs of the flanges and a raised-face gasket are replaced by finite hollow cylinders. When the inner surface is subjected to heat conduction due to contained fluid and the outer surface are kept at a constant temperature, temperature distribution of the connection is analyzed. Using the temperature distribution, thermoelastic displacement potential is determined. Thermal stresses and displacements are analyzed by using the thermoelastic displacement potential and axisymmetrical theory of elasticity. Experiments are performed. The analytical results are in fairly good agreement with the experimental results concerning the variation of axial bolt force and the axial strain at the hubs of pipe flange. In the numerical calculations, the effects of the ratios of Young's modulus and the gasket thickness between the flanges and the gaskets on the contact stress distribution are examined. As the results, it is seen that the thermal stress at the inner surface increases with a decrease of the ratio of Young's modulus and that it increases with a decrease of the gasket thickness

265

ESR dating of raised coral reefs from Kish Island, Persian Gulf  

Science.gov (United States)

Electron spin resonance (ESR) dating of raised coral reefs from Kish Island, Persian Gulf, Iran, was used for the calculation of uplift rates. From the methodological point of view, it has been demonstrated that concentrations of uranium, as needed for the calculation of dose rates, determined by instrumental neutron activation analyses were significantly lower than the results of inductively coupled plasma—mass spectrometry and are probably systematically underestimated. The ESR ages for the corals show no increase with elevation as was expected due to field observations. This apparent discrepancy is explained by the dicyclic nature of the palaeo-reef. Average uplift rates for Kish Island are between ˜0.13 and ˜0.24 mm a -1. This is consistent with previous estimates based on 230Th/ 234U dating of raised marine deposits from the nearby Iranian mainland and Qeshm Island, Strait of Hormuz, but contrary to results based on 14C dating that predicted uplift rates as high as 3 mm a -1 in that area. It is once more demonstrated that 14C dates >20 ka from this context often have to be interpreted as minimum ages.

Preusser, F.; Radtke, U.; Fontugne, M.; Haghipour, A.; Hilgers, A.; Kasper, H. U.; Nazari, H.; Pirazzoli, P. A.

2003-05-01

266

User's manual for CASSANDRA: cloud snapshots of dust raised aloft. Final report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The computer code, Cloud Snapshots of Dust Raised Aloft (CASSANDRA), was developed to simulate the spatial distribution and concentrations of dust raised aloft by a nuclear cloud. The code utilizes the DELFIC cloud rise description as the basis for a dynamic wafer shape/transport model. Dust concentration for a particular particle size class is calculated directly from the radius of the contributing wafer at the altitude of interest. The outputs of the program are either an array of numbers specifying the values of collective dust density on a gridwork of points in space or a tabulation of dust concentration at specified coordinates and times. As a test case a simulation of the high explosive test Dial Pack was performed. The computed values were within the range of values reported from the cloud sampling. In addition to a general description of the code, a user's guide has been incorporated. Examples have been included of computer generated output along with a complete listing of the CASSANDRA code.

Showers, R.L.; Crisco, C.

1978-11-01

267

Raising Climate Finance from International Transport Sectors. Identification and Analysis of Governance Structures  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Market based instruments (MBIs) for maritime transport have the potential to reduce emissions while at the same time raising funds for climate policies in developing countries. GHG emissions from international aviation and maritime transport accounted for approximately 5% of global anthropogenic emissions in 2005 and are rising rapidly. There is a clear need to address these emissions in order not to undermine policies for mitigating land based emissions. Developing countries need financial support to carry out climate policies, both adaptation and mitigation. The UN Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) makes policies by developing countries conditional on climate finance. In the current economic and financial circumstances, there is a need for new sources of finance. The governance of such MBIs should ensure that they are neither an international tax nor require hypothecation of fiscal revenues, while they should provide new and additional finance. MBIs which are in fact an international tax would not be politically feasible, and likewise hypothecation would be opposed by many states. This report finds that an emissions trading scheme (ETS) can satisfy these criteria, provided that: (1) it transfers a share of allowances directly to developing countries in order to ensure there is no net incidence on them; developing countries could auction these allowances in order to raise revenue; (2) it transfers allowances to the Green Climate Fund to support climate policies; auctioning these allowances would provide revenues for the Fund; (3) it transfers allowances to IMO or another organisation in order to finance fuel-efficiency improvements in international transport.

Faber, J. [CE Delft, Delft (Netherlands); Pahuja, N.; Garg, A. [The Energy and Resources Institute TERI, New Delhi (India)

2012-03-15

268

Plasma cholesterol-raising potency of dietary free cholesterol versus cholesteryl ester and effect of ?-sitosterol.  

Science.gov (United States)

The present study (i) compared plasma cholesterol-raising activity of free cholesterol (FC) with that of cholesteryl palmitate (CP) and (ii) examined plasma cholesterol-reducing activity of ?-sitosterol in FC-induced and CP-induced hypercholesterolemia. Male hamsters were divided into five groups and fed one of the five diets containing no cholesterol (NC), 2.6mmol cholesterol (C), 2.6mmol cholesterol plus 2.6mmol ?-sitosterol (C+S), 2.6mmol cholesteryl palmitate (CP), and 2.6mmol CP plus 2.6mmol ?-sitosterol (CP+S), respectively, for 8weeks. Hamsters fed diet C had plasma TC of 317.5mg/dl whereas hamsters fed diet CP has plasma TC of 281.3mg/dl. ?-Sitosterol reduced plasma TC by 17.4% and 11.6%, respectively, in FC-induced and CP-induced hypercholesterolemia (not significant). It was concluded that plasma cholesterol-raising activity of dietary cholesterol was a function of its chemical forms in diet, and ?-sitosterol could similarly suppress the hypercholesterolemia induced by both dietary FC and CP. PMID:25236227

Liu, Yuwei; Lei, Lin; Wang, Xiaobo; Ma, Ka Ying; Li, Yuk Man; Wang, Lijun; Man, Sun Wa; Huang, Yu; Chen, Zhen-Yu

2015-02-15

269

Increasing Public Participation through Awareness Raising Activities: A Case Study in Trao Reef Marine Reserve, Vietnam  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In the last few decades, community-based management has evolved to become an effective approach in managing natural resources and solving environmental problems around the world. In this approach, stakeholder participation is considered as a very important factor contributing to the success or failure of the management effort. To promote and enhance stakeholder participation, awareness raising activities could be conducted in various innovative forms. This is clearly illustrated in the case of Trao Reef, a locally-managed marine reserve in central Vietnam. The paper reviews the management approach applied to Trao Reef, focusing on analysis of stakeholder participation. The high level of environmental awareness of the local community contributed to the successful outcome of the project. Many communication activities and awareness raising campaigns were organized within the community to get them involved in all steps of the management process. The project enhanced the marine resources and ecosystem health, and helped to build a more sustainable livelihood and living lifestyle for the local community. Trao Reef has become a role model for effective environmental management that harmonizes the socio-economic benefits of the local community and nature conservation.

Hang Thi Minh Tran

2012-10-01

270

Status of tuberculosis in bovine animals raised by tuberculosis infected patients in Western Chitwan, Nepal  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Bovine tuberculosis (bTB is an important public health concern worldwide. This study was conducted to determine the status of bTB in animals raised by tuberculosis patients in Western Chitwan, Nepal.MATERIALS AND METHODS: This cross-sectional study was conducted from August, 2011 to January, 2012. A total of 100 bovines (cattle and buffalo raised in 60 farms of tuberculosis patients were tested with single intradermal tuberculin test considering various animal factors. Well designed questionnaire survey was taken with 70 tuberculosis patients of same 60 families focusing knowledge, awareness and various practices related to bovine tuberculosis.RESULTS: Overall 15% bovines were positive for tuberculosis (13.6% cattle and 15.4% buffaloes. Age of animal was significantly associated with tuberculosis (p<0.05 while sex and species were not. 24% tuberculosis patients had raw milk consuming habit while very few of them (9% were aware of zoonotic aspect of bovine tuberculosis.CONCLUSIONS: There is high chance of tuberculosis transmission form animals to humans or vice versa. Further detailed study is needed in large scale with stronger intersectoral collaboration of medical and veterinary health sector to determine the scale of problem and find out prevention and control strategies against zoonotic tuberculosis.

Dhakal IP

2012-12-01

271

Ochratoxin A in dried figs, raisings, apricots, dates on Iranian retail market  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Ochratoxin A (OTA is among the most important mycotoxins, and the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC classifies it as possibly carcinogenic to humans (group 2B. A total of 121 samples of dried fruits from the central zone of Iran were analyzed for OTA by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA technique. The recovery percentages of OTA in spiked dried fruit samples at concentrations of 5, 10 and 20 ng/g were found to be 84.9%, 89.3% and 90.4% as mean, respectively. OTA was found in 20.7% of the analyzed samples by average concentration of 6.7 ± 3.9 ng/g. The incidence rates of OTA contamination in dried fig, raising, apricots, and date samples were 10.4%, 44.7%, 6.7% and 10.0%, respectively. The concentrations of OTA in 7.9% of contaminated dried raising samples and 2.1% of dried fig samples were higher than maximum tolerance limit accepted by European Union (10 ng/g. This value reflects that the analyzed samples have a minimal contribution to toxicological risk. To our best knowledge, the present study is the first report of the presence of OTA by ELISA in dried fruit samples in Iran.  

Ebrahim Rahimi

2013-12-01

272

Development of survival skills in captive-raised Siberian polecats (Mustela eversmanni) I: locating prey  

Science.gov (United States)

Captive-raised mustelids appear to have a rudimentary capacity to kill prey, but the skills necessary for locating prey may be eroded during captivity. We tested the maturational component of prey-searching behavior with captive-raised Siberian polecats (Mustela eversmanni) by subjecting polecats to a simulated prairie dog colony of 6 burrows within a 200 m2 arena. Ten naive Siberian polecats at ages 2.5, 3.5, and 4.5 months (30 total) were deprived of food for 12 hours. A dead prairie dog was placed in 1 prairie dog burrow and the other 5 were empty. A single Siberian polecat was released onto the colony shortly before sunset and its movements monitored from an observation tower. Older Siberian polecats located prey significantly quicker than younger polecats, but all age groups spent a great deal of time in surface activity not directed toward a burrow. When Siberian polecats were about 10 months old, all burrows in the arena were plugged with dirt including the burrow with the prairie dog. In this winter test, Siberian polecats located the prey but still spent a great deal of time in non-burrow directed surface activity. Economical use of surface time, with a low amount of non-burrow directed behavior, would presumably reduce the risk of predation for hunting polecats.

Miller, Brian; Biggins, Dean; Wemmer, Chris; Powell, Roger; Hanebury, Lou; Horn, Deborah; Vargas, Astrid

1990-01-01

273

Characteristics of milk production traits of Balkan goats raised under “low-input” production systems  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In order to analyse dairy production traits (milk yield in full lactation, milk fat content, daily milk yield and length of lactation of Balkan goats raised under “low-input” production systems, data on 440 lactation records from 118 does raised on 9 farms in south-east part of Serbia were used. General linear model, used for analysing variability of lactation length, was consisting of following fixed effects: farm, year of birth, year of production and number of lactation. Model for milk yield in full lactation, milk fat content and daily milk yield was consisting of farms, year of birth, year of production and number of lactation as fixed effects and length of lactation as covariate. The highest milk yield (392 kg and the highest milk fat content (3.89 % were achieved in III lactation. Effects of farm, year of production and number of lactation were very significant sources of variation (P<0.001 for milk yield, daily milk yield and milk fat content, while the year of birth as factor of phenotypic variation in these traits expressed no such consistency. Highly significant sources of variation (P<0.001 for the length of lactation were farm and year of production, while the length of lactation had a significant influence (P<0.001 only for total milk yield variability.

Vladan Bogdanovi?

2010-03-01

274

Durability of protective antibody titres is not enhanced by a two-dose schedule of an ASO3-adjuvanted pandemic H1N1 influenza vaccine in adult HIV-1-infected patients.  

Science.gov (United States)

The immune response after influenza vaccination is impaired in HIV-infected individuals and can be enhanced by a second dose. The durability of the antibody protection and its clinical benefit is not known. We investigated clinical symptoms and antibody titres against H1N1 influenza A following no dose, 1 dose, or 2 doses of an ASO3-adjuvanted H1N1 vaccine in HIV-infected patients. Seroprotection was found in 7.9%, 52.2%, and 57.3% of patients who received no dose, 1 dose, and 2 doses of the vaccine, respectively (p-value for group comparison influenza-like illness were slightly more frequently reported in the unvaccinated group. Vaccinated HIV-infected patients were more likely to be seroprotected at follow-up, but there was no difference comparing those who had received 1 or 2 doses of the vaccine. PMID:25004089

Bickel, Markus; Lais, Corinna; Wieters, Imke; Kroon, Frank P; Doerr, Hans Wilhelm; Herrmann, Eva; Brodt, Hans Reinhard; Jung, Oliver; Allwinn, Regina; Stephan, Christoph

2014-09-01

275

Compromised metamorphosis and thyroid hormone changes in wood frogs (Lithobates sylvaticus) raised on reclaimed wetlands on the Athabasca oil sands.  

Science.gov (United States)

The wet landscape approach to oil sands tailings reclamation in the Athabasca Oil Sands region involves creating wetlands from fluid tailings in mined-out pits. We measured time to metamorphosis, thyroid hormone status, and detoxification enzyme (EROD) induction in Wood frog (Lithobates sylvaticus) tadpoles raised on reclaimed oil sands wetlands of different ages [young (? 7 yr) vs. old (> 7 yr)] and compared data with tadpoles raised on reference (control) wetlands. Metamorphosis was delayed or never occurred in tadpoles raised in young tailings; those exposed to older tailings developed similarly to those in reference wetlands. Thyroid hormone disruption likely played an important role in the metamorphosis delay as the T3:T4 ratio was lowest in tadpoles raised in young, tailings-affected wetlands. Our findings suggest tailings wetlands become less toxic with age, and that these amphibians will be able to complete their life cycle in tailing wetlands that have sufficiently detoxified with age. PMID:21036440

Hersikorn, Blair D; Smits, Judit E G

2011-02-01

276

Duration-dependent effects of the bite-raised condition on hippocampal function in SAMP8 mice.  

Science.gov (United States)

We evaluated the effect of the duration of occlusal disharmony induced chronic stress on hippocampal function by examining spatial memory in the Morris water maze and on the number of hippocampal neurons in aged senescence-accelerated prone (SAMP8) mice. The bite of SAMP8 mice was raised 0.1 mm using dental adhesive. Groups of mice were tested in the Morris water maze 8, 11, or 22 d after raising the bite. The results indicated that the longer the duration of the bite-raised condition, the greater the impairment in spatial learning ability and the greater the decrease in the number of neurons in the hippocampal CA3 subfield. Thus, behavioral and morphologic deficits induced by the bite-raised condition in aged SAMP8 mice are influenced by the duration of the occlusal disharmony. PMID:18186225

Arakawa, Yoko; Ichihashi, Yukiko; Iinuma, Mitsuo; Tamura, Yasuo; Iwaku, Fumihiko; Kubo, Kin-Ya

2007-11-01

277

Analysis of Cattle Raising and Institutional Perspectives Regarding Collective Action in the El Ocote Biosphere Reserve, Chiapas, Mexico  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The objective of this study was to analyze the perceptions of representatives of government agencies and educational institutions regarding problems related to cattle raising in the El Ocote Biosphere Reserve. Through a structural analysis, we identified and prioritized problems which due to their joint relevance, require immediate attention in order to elaborate inter-institutional plans of action which would contribute to the sustainability of cattle raising systems in natural protected are...

Rodriguez-larramendi, L.; Nahed-toral, J.; Hernandez-lopez, M. H.; Guevara-hernandez, F.; Gomez-castro, H.; Pinto-ruiz, R.

2012-01-01

278

Monoclonal antibody raised against envelope glycoprotein peptide neutralizes Japanese encephalitis virus.  

Science.gov (United States)

Epitopes on envelope glycoprotein of Indian strain of Japanese encephalitis virus were delineated by prediction methods. Monoclonal antibodies (MAb) raised against a putative B cell epitope peptide, reacted with the virion in ELISA and immunofluorescence assays. One MAb was also able to neutralize the virus. The reactivity of this MAb against a Sri Lankan strain was checked, since this strain had a substitution within the B cell epitope at position Egp 153 (G-->W). The MAb was able to bind to, but was not able to neutralize the Sri Lankan isolate. The data indicated that the predicted B cell epitope is a neutralizing epitope and may be included in a peptide-based vaccine against the virus. PMID:11556718

Dewasthaly, S; Ayachit, V M; Sarthi, S A; Gore, M M

2001-07-01

279

Dependence of UV effect on quality of light during raising of seedlings (Lactuca sativa L.)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Greenhouse seedlings of Lactuca sativa L. show a decreased rate of photosynthesis under normal outdoor light conditions due to the effect of UV-light. In this study, the relationship between the declining rate of photosynthesis and the amount of UV in the spectrum was investigated. The determination was made in climatized gas exchange chambers under Xenon arc lamps (XBO 2500 W, Osram). The amount of UV in the spectrum was varied by the use of different surface mirrors made by aluminium evaporation. A linear relationship between the amount of UV-light in the spectrum and the rate of decrease of photosynthesis was obtained with 12 hour radiation. The decrease in photosynthesis is less when the plants are raised under UV-light lamps. (orig.)

280

Economic growth to raise U.S. oil products, natural gas demand  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An accelerating economy will raise consumption of oil products and natural gas in the US this year. Contributing to demand growth will be the slump that began late last year in prices for crude oil and petroleum products. Some price recovery is likely in 1994, but there's little reason to expect a major increase. With oil production falling and demand rising, imports will have to climb again this year. OGJ projects a 2.6% increase this year following a 6.6% increase last year. Imports are expected to fill a record high 49.3% of US oil demand this year. The paper discusses energy and the economy, overall energy use, energy by source, the electrification trend, energy supplies, imports, refining operations, the growth of margins, and the energy demand of motor gasoline, jet fuel, distillate fuels, residual fuel oils, other petroleum products, and natural gas

 
 
 
 
281

Most frequent nematode parasites of artificially raised pheasants (Phasianus colchicus L and measures for their control  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Helminthoses have an important role in the pathology of artificially raised game pheasants. During the period 1997-2002. we examined a total of 1893 pheasant poults aged from 4 to 14 weeks and 1432 adult birds at several pheasanteries in Serbia. The following nematode species were found: Syngamus trachea, Ascaridia galli, A. columbae, Heterakis gallinarum, H. isolonche Capillaria gallinae (sin. C. caudinflata, C. columbae (sin. C. obsignata and C. phasianis. The intensity of infection in total was not high, except for infection with ascaridata and gapeworms, and depended of age of the examined birds. Consisting of anthelmintic drugs mixed with meal gave the most favourable results in therapy on rhe medicated food.

Pavlovi? Ivan

2003-01-01

282

Raising Awareness about Water Issues: The Role of Water Symbolism and Proverbs  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Sustainable water management is one of the global grand challenges of our time. Tackling this challenge through corrective actions would require the participation of the general public, a public with sound awareness of the challenge and commitment. One such awareness raising intervention could be through the use of water symbolism and proverbs, targeted to particular society. Water has the different symbolism and levels of importance to people, depending of their personal characteristics and socio-demographic factors (e.g. gender, age, occupation, residence. Similarly, water proverbs can also demonstrate attitudes towards water among communities, ethnic groups and whole nations. Such meanings and symbolism could help determine attitude and be a powerful tool towards education. In this context, we describe and propose a psychological Health Belief Model (HBM as a way to explain behaviour and stimulate sustainable water management practice.

Joško Sindik

2013-04-01

283

Raising energy efficiency and cutting greenhouse gas emissions : an analysis of publicly funded petroleum research  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

From the preface: This brochure is based on an analysis study that ascertained that since 2004 the Research Council's PETROMAKS and DEMO 2000 programmes have allocated funding to more than 80 projects carried out by the research community and private industry relating to climate challenges. Once these projects have been concluded, they will have received a total of over half a billion kroner in public funding. There is no doubt that many of the measures recommended by these projects will have positive impacts on the environment. Many of these research findings can contribute to making processes more energy efficient or to directly reducing emissions of greenhouse gases. The brochure presents a selection of these projects. A complete list of projects under the PETROMAKS and DEMO 2000 programmes which address raising energy efficiency may be found at the end of the brochure.(eb)

NONE

2012-11-01

284

Transfer of jacking up anchor for steam raising unit in Tokai Power Station  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Tokai power station was closed down in March 1998 and is being decommissioned. Removal works of steam raising unit (four units of heat exchangers) by jacking down method of construction started from August 2010 with decommissioning data accumulated. 'Tear 2' of heat exchanger shell was removed by April 2012 and transfer work of jacking up anchor firstly attached at 'tear 7' of heat exchanger shell was performed with newly installed anchor by welding and annealing at top head shell of heat exchanger outside controlled areas so as to avoid possible interference with support hoist of remote-operated primary cutting equipment with further removal work of heat exchanger. Jack system on the roof floor of heat exchanger area of reactor building was horizontally moved toward the center of heat exchanger and its strands were connected to new anchor. (T. Tanaka)

285

Seroepidemiological survey on Japanese encephalitis virus in swine raising on the southern border of Thailand  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available From February to March 1999, a seroepidemiological survey on Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV was carried out. One thousand and thirteen serum samples of swine were collected from 37 farms in 4 provinces at the southern border of Thailand; Songkhla, Yala, Narathiwat and Satun. Japanese encephalitis virus antibody was measured using microtiter hemagglutination inhibition (HI test. The results indicated that 95.12 - 99.42% of the breeder pigs had JE-HI antibodies at > 1:40 compared with 89.08% of the gilts. The percentages of seropositive animals were 49.75%, 50.65% and 100% in fattening pigs, weaning and suckling piglets, respectively. The study demonstrated a high exposure rate of JEV infection among swine population raised on the southern border of Thailand.

Antarasena, C.

2002-07-01

286

How high the temperature of a liquid be raised without boiling?  

CERN Document Server

How high the temperature of a liquid be raised beyond its boiling point without vaporizing (known as the limit of superheat) is an interesting subject of investigation. A new method of finding the limit of superheat of liquids is presented here. The superheated liquids are taken in the form of drops suspended in visco elastic gel. The nucleation is detected acoustically by a sensitive piezo-electric transducer, coupled to a multi channel scaler and the nucleation is observed as a funtion of time and with increase of temperature. The limit of superheat measured by the present method supersedes all other measurements and theoretical predictions in reaching closest to the critical temperature and warrants improved theoretical predictions.

Das, M; Roy, B; Roy, S C; Das, Mala

2000-01-01

287

Raising money with tax incentives: an overview of how U.S. tax credits are marketed  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This article outlines a method for using certain U.S. income tax credits to raise investment capital. With proper structuring, these tax credits can essentially be ''sold'' to outside investors. A project which may not have sufficient income to take advantage of tax benefits, such as the 29 alternative fuel credit, may sell an interest in the project to commercial investors who can use tax credits. The investors provide cash for the project in return for the tax credits, as well as a portion of the income generated by the project. This article outlines how this type of arrangement can be structured and which tax credits are available for ''sale''. It also identifies possible sources of investment money, issues that an investor will likely consider before investing in such a project, and the potential pitfalls of such a project. (author)

288

Grammar Consciousness-Raising Activities and Iranian EFL Learners' Attitudes toward English Language  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The first purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of consciousness-raising (C-R activities on learning grammatical structures by Iranian EFL learners. The second one was to investigate the effect of gender through C-R activities and tasks. Finally, this study wanted to investigate the Iranian students’ attitudes toward learning English prior to and after applying the C-R activities. An attitude questionnaire was use to investigate the participants' attitudes toward learning English before and after applying C-R activities. Data analysis indicated that using C-R activities in is significantly more effective than the traditional approaches. Regarding gender, male outperformed females. Therefore, it is recommended that other teachers consider C-R activities as useful options in teaching other aspects of language.  Based on the statistics and findings, Iranian students’ attitudes toward learning English language were not much different prior to and after applying C-R activities.

Farrokhlagha Heidari

2014-08-01

289

Strained-Si nMOSFET with a raised source/drain structure  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this paper, electrical characteristics for strained-Si n-channel metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect-transistors (nMOSFETs) combining raised source/drain (RSD) structure and cobalt silicide have been studied using the devices with various gate pattern areas (W × L). A strained-Si device with RSD structure provides an additional driving current enhancement (up to 12%) for large-area devices (W × L = 10 × 10 µm2) compared to a strained-Si device without RSD. Further improvement of 24% for device areas down to W × L = 0.15 × 0.15 µm2 indicates that obvious pattern effects exist in strained-Si without RSD case, which is mainly due to the formation of silicide agglomeration at the source/drain (S/D) region and is responsible for the increased S/D resistance

290

Removal of Cu and Zn from swine raising wastewater using organic filters.  

Science.gov (United States)

Rice husks, coffee bean skins, sugar cane bagasse, maize cobs, saw dust and fine charcoal dust were evaluated as filters for the removal of heavy metals (Cu and Zn) from the waste water of swine raising installations. The specific mass, pH and the sum of bases and removable acids were determined to characterize each of the filter materials. Each filtering material was placed in a 100 mm diameter, 600 mm long, PVC column to a height of 500 mm under 12,500 N m(-2) of compression. Chemical and physical analyses were determined on effluent samples collected for each 1.5 l up to a total of 15 l. The organic materials reduced the concentration of sediment solids (> 90%), total solids (up to 33%) and Cu (up to 43.6%) of the inffluent but had little or no effect on Zn concentration. PMID:12666787

de Matos, A T; Brandão, V S; Neves, J C L; Martinez, M A

2003-02-01

291

Sweet Potato and Cassava Can Modify Cholesterol Profile in Humans with Moderately Raised Serum Cholesterol Levels  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Sweet potato (kamote and cassava are good sources of dietary fiber and resistant starch and are staple foods in the Philippines. The objective of the study is to determine changes in glucose and lipid profile after consumption of sweet potato and cassava in humans with moderately raised serum glucose and lipid profile. Sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas, Super Taiwan variety, and cassava (Manihot esculenta were used as test foods while white bread was used as the control food. Fifty-nine apparently healthy human adults were fed with the test foods for 90 days and grouped into three: Control, Sweet potato and Cassava. After an overnight fast, 10 mL blood samples were taken from the study participants for total cholesterol, HDL-C, LDL-C, triglycerides, glucose and hemoglobin A1C measurements. Height/weight and percent fat mass were also determined. The groups given sweet potato and cassava significantly increased HDL-C (P 0.05. There was a significant decrease in LDL-C in the cassava group (P 0.05. The group given slice bread significantly increased serum triglycerides (P 0.05. No significant results were observed with regards to BMI, percent fat, glucose, HbA1C, and total cholesterol. In conclusion, sweet potato and cassava increased HDL-C and decreased LDL-C in humans with moderately raised serum glucose and cholesterol levels. Sustainable intake of sweet potato and cassava may be promising in the prevention for risk of cardiovascular diseases as well as obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus.

Theressa F. Aviles

2013-05-01

292

Mutagenic Potential and Nutritive Quality of Turnip Plants Raised over Chromium Amended Soils  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Use of waste water for irrigation has lead to an increase in the chromium content of agricultural soils in many areas and the plants grown over these soils are known to accumulate this heavy metal in their parts, thus paving way for its entry into the food chain. The present study aims at assessment of mutagenicity of turnip plants raised over soils amended with chromium as well as to study the effect of this heavy metal in soil on various biochemical constituents of this important food crop. Turnip plants were raised from seeds in pots filled with soils amended with chromium. Potassium dichromate was used as the source of chromium and final concentrations taken in pots were 1, 10, 50 and 100 ?gCr g-1 dry weight of the soil. The plants were uprooted on reaching edible stage and evaluated for their food quality. The chromium uptake by plants were found to increase with the chromium added to the soil and this was observed to have an adverse effect on the vitamin A, C and fibre content, the content of total soluble proteins and the carbohydrates was however, observed to be higher in roots of plants from chromium amended soils as compared to the control plants. The mutagenic potential of the water extracts of roots of turnip plants was tested using Ames assay on TA98 and TA100 strains of Salmonella typhimurium (Loeffler, 1892 with some modifications. The number of revertant colonies formed in spots containing test extracts bore a direct relationship with the chromium in the soil as well as that accumulated by the plants. The present study thus showed that the turnip plants harvested from chromium rich soils showed a decrease in the contents of vitamins and fibre and there is also possibility of such crops being mutagenic to the consumer.

M.I.S. Saggoo

2010-01-01

293

Importance of the horse and financial impact of equine trypanosomiasis on cattle raising in Venezuela.  

Science.gov (United States)

In Venezuela, horses are indispensable for extensive cattle raising, and extensive cattle raising prevails in all regions. This determines the numerical relationship between horses and cattle (r?=?0.93) to be relatively constant nationwide. At regional level, the average extension of cattle ranches varies greatly. However, in relation to the area covered by pastures, the numbers of horses (r?=?0.95) and cattle (r?=?0.93) are relatively uniform nationwide. Water buffalo occupy small fractions of the territory; therefore, their numbers are related to the area of pastures less strongly (r?=?0.56). There is no information on the numerical relationship between the numbers of horses and water buffalo. In the Llanos region of the country, equine trypanosomiasis is responsible for a high mortality in horses, causing considerable financial losses to cattle ranches. So far, such losses have not been assessed. For this region, in 2008, it can be calculated that: (1) with no treatment, losses owing to horse mortality caused by this hemoparasitosis would have amounted to US$7,486,000; (2) the diagnosis and treatment of affected horses would have required an investment of US$805,000; and (3) in terms of horses saved, this investment would have resulted in benefit of US$6,232,000. Therefore, for every monetary unit invested, there would be a benefit 7.75 times greater, this ratio being applicable to any year and all regions of the country. It follows that the profitability of investing in the diagnosis and treatment of equine trypanosomiasis is guaranteed. PMID:23666515

Moreno, S Andrea; Concepción, Juan Luis; Nava, Mayerly; Molinari, Jesús

2013-11-01

294

Antibodies raised against hemolymph of Anopheles culicifacies reduce the fecundity and malaria parasite development  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background & objectives: Several studies have been made to study the effect of antisera raisedagainst different tissues (hemolymh, ovary, midgut and salivary glands on the fecundity andmalaria parasite development in the different species of mosquitoes but there are no reports on theantisera raised against the hemolymph of Anopheles culicifacies, the principal malaria vector inIndia accounting for 65% of malaria cases. Hence, an attempt was made to study the same andevaluate its impact on malaria parasite development.Methods: Polyclonal and multifactorial antibodies were produced in rabbits against heterogenousmixture of hemolymph proteins. Antibodies against hemolymph proteins were screened for theirpotential to influence reproductive performance of mosquitoes. Antibody titer in rabbit serum wasdetermined by ELISA and putative candidate antigens were identified in the hemolymph of An.culicifacies by western blotting. Cross reactivity amongst various tissues vis-a-vis hemolymphprotein was also identified. In addition, a significant reduction in oocyst development was alsoobserved in An. culicifacies mosquitoes that ingested antihemolymph antibodies along withPlasmodium vivax.Results: The maximum reduction in fecundity (57% was observed during fourth week, after thelast booster and number of oocyts per infected mosquito reduced by 73.35% in the group ofmosquitoes that ingested antihemolymph antibodies along with the infected blood meal respectively.However, the ingestion of antibodies against hemolymph proteins did not have significant influenceon hatchability. Antisera raised against hemolymph proteins of An. culicifacies recognized 11polypeptides by western blotting.Interpretation & conclusion: During the present study, 11 putative candidate antigens were identifiedin the hemolymph of An. culicifacies, against which antibodies produced significantly reduced thefecundity by 57%. In addition, a significant reduction in oocyst development was also observed inAn. culicifacies that ingested antihemolymph antibodies along with P.vivax.

Amrita Kumari

2009-12-01

295

An awareness-raising E-learning approach for children living in a high diabetic population.  

Science.gov (United States)

Recent epidemiological studies have shown an increased incidence of diabetes worldwide. In United Arab Emirates (UAE), where this study on Emirati children was conducted, over 20% of the population has diabetes. With such a high incidence, there is a need to raise the awareness of the disease in order to reduce the growing number of cases and manage the disease more effectively. This research aims to identify the needs of affected children and proposes a design for an E-learning prototype that can pedagogically raise their awareness and knowledge of the disease. The use of a prototype was chosen in order to validate and refine the usability of the system, and to quickly evaluate user-interface designs without the need for an expensive working model to help refine and develop the system design. The system requirements were identified through a set of interviews with kindergarten teachers, curriculum design experts in UAE, and diabetes nutrition specialists and clinicians. The rationale behind the interview was to identify the optimal age group, describe the appropriate level of the instructional materials and activities, and propose a suitable learning approach that could facilitate and improve diabetes awareness among this age group. The prototype was evaluated by children, teachers, parents (or guardians) and nutrition specialists. We followed a three-stage software development based on a user-informed approach model for stepwise refinement that ranged from prototype to final design. The evaluation results indicate that the proposed computer-supported learning approach can generate positive learning and behavior in children while reducing the time needed to complete awareness tasks when compared to traditional methods; thus making learning more engaging and allowing children to learn at their own pace. PMID:24517457

Shaalan, Khaled; Al-Mansoori, Mona; Tawfik, Hissam

2014-03-01

296

Raising healthy children: examining the impact of promoting healthy driving behavior within a social development intervention.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study evaluated the impact of two targeted family sessions focused on driving issues delivered within the context of the Raising Healthy Children project. The Raising Healthy Children project began in the fall of 1993, drawing students in the 1st or 2nd grades from 10 schools. Schools were assigned to an intervention or control condition, and the school-wide, family- and student-focused preventive intervention to address developmentally salient risk and protective factors was delivered during elementary and middle school. The family driving sessions were administered to families in the intervention condition prior to and after teenagers received their driver's license. The first session consisted of a home visit with families designed to help parents and their children improve decision-making skills concerning driving and to develop clear standards and expectations regarding driving-related behavior. A second session, at the time of licensure, was designed to help parents and teens develop a written contract that stated family expectations, a plan for monitoring compliance with these expectations, and consequences for compliance or non-compliance. Consistent with the study's group-randomized design, intervention effects were assessed with multi-level logistic regression models in which students were grouped by their original school assignment. These models assessed specific effects of the driving sessions by adjusting for control variables measured when students were in 8th grade, prior to the driving sessions. Results indicated that students in the intervention group were more likely than students in the control group to report that they had a written driving contract (p = .003, OR = 4.98), and had participated in making the driving rules in the family (p = .025, OR = 1.70). Further, students in the intervention group reported significantly fewer risky behaviors including driving under the influence of alcohol (p = .021, OR = .45) and driving with someone who had been drinking (p = .038, OR = .56). PMID:16752099

Haggerty, Kevin P; Fleming, Charles B; Catalano, Richard F; Harachi, Tracy W; Abbott, Robert D

2006-09-01

297

25 CFR 1000.195 - When must an affected Tribe/Consortium or Tribal organization raise the issue of a limitation or...  

Science.gov (United States)

...Tribal organization raise the issue of a limitation or reduction of services, contracts...SELF-DETERMINATION AND EDUCATION ACT Limitation and/or Reduction of BIA Services...Tribal organization raise the issue of a limitation or reduction of services,...

2010-04-01

298

Metabolic changes of masseter muscle in experimental unilateral bite-raised rat determined by {sup 31}P-MRS  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Occlusal interference is known to alter the functional activity of masticatory muscle, but no alteration of the energy metabolism of masticatory muscle which has gone occlusal interference has been reported. The purpose of this study was to investigate the energy metabolism in rat masseter muscle during masticatory movements following unilateral bite-raising. A bite-raising splint (1 mm) was fixed on the unilateral upper molar of experimental rats, and after 2, 4 and 6 weeks, the rats were anesthetized and masticatory movements were induced by electrical stimulation applied to the masseter muscle (with a biting force of 40 g, a frequency of 5 Hz and a stimulation time of 32 min). {sup 31}P Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy of the masseter muscle were recorded during a sequence of rest, stimulation and recovery periods, and the resonance signal area ratio of PCr and Pi ((PCr)/(PCr + Pi)) and the muscle pH were determined. After 4 and 6 weeks following the bite-raising, the masseter of the bite-raised side showed a decrease in the (PCr)/(PCr + Pi) ratio compared with a control group during stimulation (p<0.05). Neither the bite-raised side masseter at 2 weeks and the contralateral side at 4 weeks showed any differences compared with the control. The muscle pH during stimulation was similar in both the control and the bite-raised groups of rats. These findings suggest that the occlusal alteration induced by unilateral bite-raising reduces the masseter energy level during mastication. (author)

Nishide, Naoto [Kyoto Prefectural Univ. of Medicine (Japan)

1997-05-01

299

Aspectos epidemiológicos da caprinocultura cearense / Epidemiological aspects of the raising goat in Ceará State, Brazil  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O desenvolvimento da caprinocultura na região Nordeste do Brasil é severamente afetado por inúmeros fatores, entre eles a alta incidência de doenças. Objetivou-se conhecer o atual manejo sanitário empregado e os problemas sanitários existentes na opinião do criador do Ceará. O trabalho foi realizado [...] nas várias regiões criadoras de caprinos de raças leiteiras, nativas ou sem raça definida. Foram selecionadas 127 propriedades onde se aplicou um questionário. A percentagem média de mortalidade de animais foi de 22,8% e 4,6% em jovens e adultos, respectivamente. Os sinais clínicos relatados, por ordem, foram: anemia e edema de barbela (81,9% dos criatórios), diarréia (78,7%), aborto (75,6%), pododermatite (67,7%), linfadenite (66,9%), ectoparasitoses (63,8%), mamite (51,2%), pneumonia (44,9%), lesões vesiculares de pele (35,4%), ceratoconjuntivite (29,1%), problemas de ordem nervosa (26,8%), malformação fetal (15%), criptorquidismo (11%), prolapso de vagina/útero (11%) e artrite (8,7%). Pode-se concluir que o manejo sanitário dos caprinos desses criatórios é precário, independente do tipo de exploração ou regime de criação, a mortalidade de animais, principalmente de jovens, é considerada alta. Mesmo em criatórios com exploração leiteira não existe uma preocupação rigorosa com higiene e qualidade do leite. Abstract in english The development of the goat raising in the Northeastern region of Brazil is hardly affected by several factors, among them, the high incidence of illness. The aim of this study was to assess the adopted sanitary management and the healthy problems according to Ceara’s goat breeders. The work was car [...] ried out in many regions of dairy and native goat raising. There were selected 127 properties where a questionnaire was applied. Mean percentage of animals’ mortality was 22.8 and 4.6% for young and adult, respectively. Reported clinical signs were: anemia and dewlap edema (81.9% of the properties), diarrhea (78.7%), abortion (75.6%), foot rot (67.7%), lymphadenitis (66.9%), external parasites (63.8%), mastitis (51.2%), pneumonia (44.9%), goat pox (35.4%), keratoconjunctivitis (29.1%), nervous disorders (26.8%), fetal malformation (15%), cryptorchidism (11%), uterus/vagina prolapsed (11%), arthritis (8.7%), foot and mouth disease (2.4%) and rabies (0.8%). It could be concluded that the goats’ sanitary management of those properties is precarious, independently either the exploitation way or the raising regimen; the animals’ mortality, especially the youngest ones, is considered high; and even in dairy properties there is a lack of rigid worry concerning about hygiene and milk quality.

R.R., Pinheiro; A.M.G., Gouveia; F.S.F., Alves; J.P.A., Haddad.

2000-10-01

300

Puberty and sexual maturity in Anglo-Nubian male goats raised in semi-intensive system  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english The objective of this study was to characterize the sexual development in Anglo-Nubian male goats raised in semi-intensive system. Eight animals were monitored every fifteen days, from the 12th to the 44th week for age at penis detachment, live weight, scrotal circumference, seminal parameters (volu [...] me, aspect, concentration, wave motion, progressive individual motility, vigor and spermatic abnormalities) and serum testosterone levels. Serum testosterone levels were determined in blood samples collected at the 20th, 28th and 38th weeks of age. Penis detachment occurred at 102.9 ± 15.4 days of age. Live weight and scrotal circumference at 20th and 44th weeks of age ranged from 25.9 ± 3.5 to 44.7 ± 4.7 kg and from 21.2 ± 1.6 cm to 26.0 ± 1.5 cm, respectively. The ejaculate volume ranged from 0.38 ± 0.05 to 0.96 ± 0.04 mL, concentration ranged from 1.33 ± 0.64 to 3.54 ± 0.14.10(9) mL-1 and the progressive individual motility varied from 48.0 ± 10.52% to 82.0 ± 3.74%, at the same age. The number of defective spermatozoa (major and minor) was 32.2 ± 5.8% vs. 8.80 ± 2.9% at the 20th and the 44th week of age, respectively. Serum testosterone level was 2.70 ± 1.40 ng.mL-1 at the 20th week, 8.50 ± 4.66 ng.mL-1 at the 28th week and 2.21 ± 2.28 ng.mL-1 at the 38th week of age. Age showed a correlation with live weight, scrotal circumference, and all the qualitative parameters of semen except for volume, with all other qualitative parameters of semen, and the correlation among sperm abnormalities and the other traits was negative. Serum testosterone levels and andrological parameters of Anglo-Nubian goats raised in semi-intensive system are closely related to age. In those animals, puberty is reached at the 20th week and sexual maturity is reached at the 38th week of age.

Luiz Eduardo Barreto de, Souza; Jurandir Ferreira da, Cruz; Milton Rezende, Teixeira Neto; Rita de Cássia Santos, Nunes; Maria Helena Coelho, Cruz.

1533-15-01

 
 
 
 
301

Puberty and sexual maturity in Anglo-Nubian male goats raised in semi-intensive system  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The objective of this study was to characterize the sexual development in Anglo-Nubian male goats raised in semi-intensive system. Eight animals were monitored every fifteen days, from the 12th to the 44th week for age at penis detachment, live weight, scrotal circumference, seminal parameters (volume, aspect, concentration, wave motion, progressive individual motility, vigor and spermatic abnormalities and serum testosterone levels. Serum testosterone levels were determined in blood samples collected at the 20th, 28th and 38th weeks of age. Penis detachment occurred at 102.9 ± 15.4 days of age. Live weight and scrotal circumference at 20th and 44th weeks of age ranged from 25.9 ± 3.5 to 44.7 ± 4.7 kg and from 21.2 ± 1.6 cm to 26.0 ± 1.5 cm, respectively. The ejaculate volume ranged from 0.38 ± 0.05 to 0.96 ± 0.04 mL, concentration ranged from 1.33 ± 0.64 to 3.54 ± 0.14.10(9 mL-1 and the progressive individual motility varied from 48.0 ± 10.52% to 82.0 ± 3.74%, at the same age. The number of defective spermatozoa (major and minor was 32.2 ± 5.8% vs. 8.80 ± 2.9% at the 20th and the 44th week of age, respectively. Serum testosterone level was 2.70 ± 1.40 ng.mL-1 at the 20th week, 8.50 ± 4.66 ng.mL-1 at the 28th week and 2.21 ± 2.28 ng.mL-1 at the 38th week of age. Age showed a correlation with live weight, scrotal circumference, and all the qualitative parameters of semen except for volume, with all other qualitative parameters of semen, and the correlation among sperm abnormalities and the other traits was negative. Serum testosterone levels and andrological parameters of Anglo-Nubian goats raised in semi-intensive system are closely related to age. In those animals, puberty is reached at the 20th week and sexual maturity is reached at the 38th week of age.

Luiz Eduardo Barreto de Souza

2011-07-01

302

Low temperature boron and phosphorous doped SiGe for recessed and raised sources and drains  

Science.gov (United States)

We have first of all studied the growth kinetics of boron and phosphorous doped, 20-30 nm thick Si 0.65Ge 0.35 layers, the aim being their integration in recessed and raised sources and drains. Those layers have been grown at low pressure (20 Torr) and low temperature (650 °C) with a heavily chlorinated chemistry (in order to be selective versus SiO 2 (isolation) and Si 3N 4 (sidewall spacers)). We have quantified the impact of the diborane and phosphine flow on (i) the SiGe crystalline quality and strain state, (ii) the amount of boron or phosphorous atoms incorporated in it and (iii) the SiGe:B or SiGe:P growth kinetics. As the diborane flow increases, the SiGe:B growth rate definitely increases, while the real Ge concentration (from Time-Of-Flight Secondary Ions Mass Spectrometry) is more or less steady. B atoms, being much smaller than Si or Ge, partially compensate the compressive strain in the SiGe:B layers, leading to a decrease in the apparent Ge concentration (from X-ray diffraction). Opposite trends are observed for SiGe:P. There is indeed a definite decrease in the SiGe:P growth rate together with a definite increase in both the apparent and real Ge concentration as the phosphine flow increases. The Boron atomic concentration increases linearly with the diborane flow, with however a practical limit around 3.5×10 20 cm -3 in order to stay monocrystalline. Meanwhile, the phosphorous atomic concentration saturates quite rapidly at values close to 8-9×10 19 cm -3 as the phosphine flow increases (most likely due to surface segregation). In the second part we have highlighted some of the difficulties encountered when trying to selectively grow intrinsic SiGe raised S/Ds at 650 °C on patterned, extra-thin Silicon-On-Insulator wafers and some of the solutions identified in order to obtain 2D thick films. Amongst those, we can mention the 750 °C deposition of a thin Si buffer or the in-situ high HCl partial pressure etch at 650 °C of a few nm of Si prior to SiGe Selective Epitaxial Growth (SEG), the drastic reduction of the incoming HCl flow during SiGe SEG, etc.

Hartmann, J. M.; Py, M.; Barnes, J. P.; Prévitali, B.; Batude, P.; Billon, T.

2011-07-01

303

Rope NDT as means to raise safety of crane and elevator use  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Steel rope NDT by magnetic flaw detectors is usual for mine hoist inspection through the world. But it is no ordinary by crane and especially by elevator inspection. However, magnetic NDT statistic data of 60 crane and 227 elevator ropes in use shows that about 23% of crane and 9% of elevator ropes should be discarded in accordance with actual discarding criterion in Russia. Russian State Rules for crane safe exploitation require the magnetic NDT while periodically inspection. But not all the inspecting companies meet it in Russia, contenting themselves by visual inspection only. This is not objective and does not provide rope inner faults detection. That is a reason of rope break rather high percentage in general statistics of crane accidents and damages. Investigation of accidents with crane ropes in Moscow region in 2001 shows that they would de prevented by the magnetic NDT fulfilled timely. The elevator rope NDT problem is not so sharp but attention should de attracted to it to raise safety of elevators. (author)

304

Silicon on Raised Insulator Field Effect Diode Sori-Fed for Alleviating Scaling Problem in Fed  

Science.gov (United States)

One of the main shortcomings in a field effect diode (FED) is its scaling. Use of an oxide layer in the channel is proposed to enhance the control of the gate on the channel carriers. This is the so-called silicon on raised insulator FED (SORI-FFD) structure. The Shockley-Read-Hall (SRH) mechanism is one of the main components of leakage current in FED devices. The potential induced by the gates in the OFF-state of a SORI-FFD, is larger than that induced by the gates of a regular FED. This reduces, SRH recombination rate. Hence, OFF-state characteristics of the SORI-FED device improves. We evaluate the impact of band-to-band tunneling (BTBT) on the electrical characteristics of Modified FED (M-FED).We show that for channel lengths of 35 nm and lower this device does not turn off. While, the proposed structure makes device channel length scaling possible down to 15 nm. We will also compare electrical characteristics of SORI-FED and M-FED using three metrics: gate delay time versus channel length, gate delay time versus ION/IOFF ratio and energy-delay product versus channel length. Benchmarking results show the proposed FED structure provides improvement in ION/IOFF ratio and holds promise for future logic transistor applications.

Vadizadeh, Mahdi; Fathipour, Morteza; Darvish, Ghafar

2014-12-01

305

Analysis of the stress raising action of flaws in laser clad deposits  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Highlights: ? Laser clad defects are 0D-pores/inclusions, 1D-clad waviness or 2D-planar defects. ? Surface pore of laser clad bar initiates fatigue cracks. ? Side edge surface pores are more critical than in-clad surface pores. ? Smaller notch radius and angle of as-laser clad surface raises stress significantly. ? Planar inner defects grow faster towards surface. - Abstract: Fatigue cracking of laser clad cylindrical and square section bars depends upon a variety of factors. This paper presents Finite Element Analysis (FEA) of the different macro stress fields generated as well as stress raisers created by laser cladding defects for four different fatigue load conditions. As important as the defect types are their locations and orientations, categorized into zero-, one- and two-dimensional defects. Pores and inclusions become critical close to surfaces. The performance of as-clad surfaces can be governed by the sharpness of surface notches and planar defects like hot cracks or lack-of-fusion (LOF) are most critical if oriented vertically, transverse to the bar axis. The combination of the macro stress field with the defect type and its position and orientation determines whether it is the most critical stress raiser. Based on calculated cases, quantitative and qualitative charts were developed as guidelines to visualize the trends of different combinations

306

Does Raising the Early Retirement Age Increase Employment of Older Workers?  

Science.gov (United States)

Two pension reforms in Austria increased the early retirement age (ERA) from 60 to 62 for men and from 55 to 58.25 for women. We find that raising the ERA increased employment by 9.75 percentage points among affected men and by 11 percentage points among affected women. The reforms had large spillover effects on the unemployment insurance program but negligible effects on disability insurance claims. Specifically, unemployment increased by 12.5 percentage points among men and by 11.8 percentage points among women. The employment response was largest among high-wage and healthy workers, while low-wage and less healthy workers either continued to retire early via disability benefits or bridged the gap to the ERA via unemployment benefits. Taking spillover effects and additional tax revenues into account, we find that for a typical birth-year cohort a one year increase in the ERA resulted in a reduction of net government expenditures of 107 million euros for men and of 122 million euros for women. PMID:24319299

Staubli, Stefan; Zweimüller, Josef

2013-12-01

307

In vivo localization of antibodies raised against Eimeria maxima wall forming bodies during sexual intracellular development.  

Science.gov (United States)

SUMMARY Apicomplexan parasites cause devastating diseases in humans and livestock. Previously we demonstrated that antibodies targeting transmissible forms of the apicomplexan parasite, Eimeria, are effective at reducing parasite shedding thus preventing the transmission of the disease. However, the mechanisms responsible have not been fully defined. Moreover, there is no direct evidence that the parasite-specific IgG antibodies can reach the parasite developing in the enterocytes of the infected chicken host. This study summarizes our efforts using host immunity, parasite proteomics and 3D microscopy to provide a step forward in our understanding of how this immune response works. Eimeria maxima is an important pathogen of poultry and used as a surrogate for a number of human pathogens including Toxoplasma and Plasmodium. Our studies demonstrate that immunization with the purified wall forming bodies (WFBs) results in a production of parasite-specific IgG antibodies, which have the ability to reach in situ gametocytes in the intestinal lumen and permeate the enterocyte/parasite membranes in order to bind to the cytoplasmic Type 1 and Type 2 WFBs. This raises the intriguing possibility that via this process antibodies block the development of Eimeria maxima in vivo. PMID:25075563

Frölich, Sonja; Shahparee, Annisha; Wasinger, Valerie C; Wallach, Michael

2014-11-01

308

The Quality of Liquid Fermented Products for Alternative Use of Antibiotics for Animal Raising  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The chemical properties of liquid fermented products (LFP) as probiotics substance for alternative uses of antibiotic were studied. The LFP of 235 were sampling from markets and farmers during 2005-2006. The total count of bacteria, fungi, lactic acid bacteria (LAB), Actinomyces and coliform bacteria were conducted. Chemical analysis of LFP showed medium nitrogen (0.01- 0.55%), maximum sugar contents (0.02 - 19.40%), high lactic acid contents (0.34 - 13.01%) and low pH (2.9-5.0). LFPs were free from fecal coliform and Escherichia coil (Ec); but in LAB (1.0 - 1.25x107 cfu/ml) and high Actinomyces (1.0 - 7.5 x 106 cfu/ml). LFPs inhibited Staphylococcus aureus (Sa), Samonella typhimurium (STM), Escherichia coil (Ec) and Ec 0157 at maximum yield by using Minimal Inhibition Concentration (MIC). But Pseudomonas aeruginosa (Pa) could medium inhibited. Therefore LFP samples are suitable as probiotics for alternative use of antibiotic for animal raising.

309

Root Raised Cosine (RRC) Filters and Pulse Shaping in Communication Systems  

Science.gov (United States)

This presentation briefly discusses application of the Root Raised Cosine (RRC) pulse shaping in the space telecommunication. Use of the RRC filtering (i.e., pulse shaping) is adopted in commercial communications, such as cellular technology, and used extensively. However, its use in space communication is still relatively new. This will possibly change as the crowding of the frequency spectrum used in the space communication becomes a problem. The two conflicting requirements in telecommunication are the demand for high data rates per channel (or user) and need for more channels, i.e., more users. Theoretically as the channel bandwidth is increased to provide higher data rates the number of channels allocated in a fixed spectrum must be reduced. Tackling these two conflicting requirements at the same time led to the development of the RRC filters. More channels with wider bandwidth might be tightly packed in the frequency spectrum achieving the desired goals. A link model with the RRC filters has been developed and simulated. Using 90% power Bandwidth (BW) measurement definition showed that the RRC filtering might improve spectrum efficiency by more than 75%. Furthermore using the matching RRC filters both in the transmitter and receiver provides the improved Bit Error Rate (BER) performance. In this presentation the theory of three related concepts, namely pulse shaping, Inter Symbol Interference (ISI), and Bandwidth (BW) will be touched upon. Additionally the concept of the RRC filtering and some facts about the RRC filters will be presented

Cubukcu, Erkin

2012-01-01

310

Ligands Raise the Constraint That Limits Constitutive Activation in G Protein-coupled Opioid Receptors*  

Science.gov (United States)

Using a cell-free bioluminescence resonance energy transfer strategy we compared the levels of spontaneous and ligand-induced receptor-G protein coupling in ? (DOP) and ? (MOP) opioid receptors. In this assay GDP can suppress spontaneous coupling, thus allowing its quantification. The level of constitutive activity was 4–5 times greater at the DOP than at the MOP receptor. A series of opioid analogues with a common peptidomimetic scaffold displayed remarkable inversions of efficacy in the two receptors. Agonists that enhanced coupling above the low intrinsic level of the MOP receptor were inverse agonists in reducing the greater level of constitutive coupling of the DOP receptor. Yet the intrinsic activities of such ligands are identical when scaled over the GDP base line of both receptors. This pattern is in conflict with the predictions of the ternary complex model and the “two state” extensions. According to this theory, the order of spontaneous and ligand-induced coupling cannot be reversed if a shift of the equilibrium between active and inactive forms raises constitutive activation in one receptor type. We propose that constitutive activation results from a lessened intrinsic barrier that restrains spontaneous coupling. Any ligand, regardless of its efficacy, must enhance this constraint to stabilize the ligand-bound complexed form. PMID:23836900

Vezzi, Vanessa; Onaran, H. Ongun; Molinari, Paola; Guerrini, Remo; Balboni, Gianfranco; Calò, Girolamo; Costa, Tommaso

2013-01-01

311

Hyperglycemia raises the threshold of levosimendan- but not milrinone-induced postconditioning in rat hearts  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background The authors examined whether milrinone and levosimendan could exert cardiac postconditioning effects in rats under normoglycemia and hyperglycemia, and whether the effects could be mediated by mitochondrial permeability transition pore (mPTP. Methods Wistar rats underwent 30-min coronary artery occlusion followed by 2-h reperfusion. The rats received milrinone or levosimendan just before reperfusion under normoglycemic or hyperglycemic conditions with or without atractyloside, an mPTP opener. Results Under normoglycemia, both 30 ?g/kg milrinone (29 ± 12% and 10 ?g/kg levosimendan (33 ± 13% reduced infarct size compared with that in the control (58 ± 7%. Under hyperglycemia, milrinone (34 ± 13% reduced infarct size at the same dose as under normoglycemia. In contrast, neither 10 nor 30 ?g/kg levosimendan protected hyperglycemic hearts, and only 100 ?g/kg levosimendan (32 ± 9% reduced infarct size compared with that in the hyperglycemic control (58 ± 13%. All of these cardioprotective effects under normoglycemia and hyperglycemia are abolished by atractyloside. Conclusion Milrinone and levosimendan exert postconditioning effects via inhibition of mPTP opening. Hyperglycemia raises the threshold of levosimendan-induced postconditioning, while milrinone-induced postconditioning is not influenced by hyperglycemia.

Matsumoto Shuhei

2012-01-01

312

Presence and characterization of Campylobacter jejuni in organically raised chickens in Quebec  

Science.gov (United States)

The objective of this study was to estimate the presence of the important foodborne pathogen Campylobacter jejuni in organically raised chickens in the province of Quebec. The recovered isolates were further characterized for their antimicrobial resistance profile, autoagglutination property and chemotaxis. Antimicrobial resistance was evaluated using agar dilution for: tetracycline, erythromycin, chloramphenicol, ciprofloxacin, gentamicin, nalidixic acid, clindamycin, ampicillin, azithromycin, bacitracin, and ceftiofur. Autoagglutination was measured by monitoring optical density changes in a bacterial suspension after 3 h of incubation at room temperature. Chemotaxis was evaluated after a contact time of 3 h between isolates and mucin, using a quantitative protocol. A total of 10 lots of chickens was sampled in August and September 2009; half of them were positive for the presence of C. jejuni. Antimicrobial resistance was found only for tetracycline (44%), erythromycin (6%), azithromycin (6%) and clindamycin (2%). Variation was observed in the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) for ceftiofur and bacitracin, for which C. jejuni possess intrinsic resistance. Autoagglutination and chemotaxis varied among isolates and lot-level differences in these were observed. Autoagglutination and chemotaxis levels appeared as independent isolate properties. Further monitoring and characterization of isolates originating from organic chickens is of interest since this type of production might represent another source of exposure of consumers to a variety of the foodborne pathogen C. jejuni. PMID:22468028

Thibodeau, Alexandre; Fravalo, Philippe; Laurent-Lewandowski, Sylvette; Guévremont, Evelyne; Quessy, Sylvain; Letellier, Ann

2011-01-01

313

Raising Seismic Awareness on- and off-campus with class-built seismometers  

Science.gov (United States)

To engage students of all ages and raise awareness with the general public of seismic activity in Idaho and beyond, we have established a program that starts with building cheap seismometers, followed by learning how to record and analyze seismic events. Every step along the way is performed and documented by the students of Geophysics 201: "Seeing the Unseen". Our class website provides building instructions, part lists, live data, and processed data from earthquakes from around the globe. Three sensors are recording and displayed in a clear case in the lobby of our building, and a touch screen computer with IRIS-provided software on earthquakes completes the setup. As a result, we have increased awareness and interest in seismicity on a number of levels. Boise State University students in the class are hands-on involved. Steady increase in enrollment in this class, and the recent inclusion of the class in the sophomore core curriculum for BSU Geoscience majors indicate the seismology program is working. In addition, BSU students -- not enrolled in GEOPH201 -- who just walk past the display also show great interest: the display is well visited. Off campus, our project draws a lot of attention, and our data is routinely displayed on the Idaho local news. Now we have a three-component system in the lobby of our building, we are reaching out to local K-12 institutions to place our instruments.

Ferguson, K. J.; van Wijk, K.; Channel, T.; Nuxoll, R.

2010-12-01

314

Studies on the reproductive performance of indigenous beef cattle breeds raised on-farm in Ghana  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Studies were undertaken to investigate the reproductive performance of a mixture of N'dama and West African Shorthorn (N'dama/WASH) and Sanga cattle raised under traditional management conditions on four privately owned small-holder farms. The first study involved an analysis of reproductive records and the measurement of plasma progesterone concentration to delineate the onset of various reproductive phenomena, including age at puberty and first calving, post-partum resumption of ovarian activity and other abnormal events like abortions. The second study investigated the influence of dry-season feed supplementation on reproductive performance. In study 1 the ages at first plasma progesterone rise (puberty), first mating and first calving for N'dama/WASH cattle on three farms averaged 981, 1016 and 1296 days respectively. The calving interval, calving-to-progesterone rise and calving-to-mating averaged 412, 129 and 114 days respectively. Significant differences existed among farms with Farms 1 and 2 out-performing Farm 3. The respective mean ages at first progesterone elevation, first mating and first calving for Sanga cattle (Farm 4) were 964, 990 and 1271 days while calving-to-progesterone rise, calving-to-mating and calving intervals averaged 107, 150 and 431 days. In study 2, dry-season feed supplementation generally reduced ages at puberty and first calving as well as the interval of post-partum acyclicity. (author). 18 refs, 3 figs, 9 tabsefs, 3 figs, 9 tabs

315

Dams and displacement: Raising the standards and broadening the research agenda  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The World Commission on Dams provided an analytical overview of the cumulative effects of years of dam development. A lack of commitment or capacity to cope with displacement or to consider the civil rights of, or risks to, displaced people led to the impoverishment and suffering of tens of millions and growing opposition to dams by affected communities worldwide. However, after the WCD, little has changed for the better in terms of resettlement policies. In fact, the standards of key agencies, like the Asian Development Bank, have been lowered and diluted compared to prior policies. Dam-induced development and displacement are stifled by a 'managerialist' approach to planning, in which solutions are sought internally and subordinated to the economics that underpins the existence of the project. The aim of successful resettlement is to prevent impoverishment and to enable displaced people to share in the project’s benefits. Within the field of dam-induced resettlement, this is a lofty goal rarely achieved. However, in other fields of resettlement, such as refugee studies and adaptation to environmental change, such a goal is regarded as a minimum standard. In this paper we seek to broaden the research agenda on dam-induced resettlement and to raise the standards of development projects that entail resettlement. We do this by importing some of the considerations and concerns from practice and research from the fields of refugee studies and adaptation to environmental change.

Brooke McDonald-Wilmsen

2010-06-01

316

Luminescence and radiocarbon dating of raised beach sediments, Bunger Hills, East Antarctica  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Luminescence and radiocarbon dating of raised marine sediments from the Bunger Hills, East Antarctica, demonstrates that luminescence methods can be applied to such poorly bleached sediments as long as the luminescence behaviour of the sediments is understood. This is essential as the complete zeroing of the luminescence signal due to light exposure is required to allow an accurate age for the sediment accumulation. Unfortunately, independent checks on the luminescence ages are rare. In the present study, some independent age control is provided by AMS radiocarbon ages from shell obtained from and adjacent to the luminescence dated horizons, although the radiocarbon ages may suffer to some degree from variability in the marine reservoir effect. Application of the single aliquot luminescence technique to feldspar grains from the marine sediments demonstrated that the luminescence behaviour of the sediments was complex. For each sample, 18 replicate paleodose estimates were used to demonstrate whether the sediments were well bleached before deposition. Optically, well-bleached samples give younger luminescence ages, whilst poorly bleached samples often give excessively old ages compared to the associated radiocarbon-dated material. (author)

317

Atmospheric flux of agricultural fumigants from raised-bed, plastic-mulch crop production systems  

Science.gov (United States)

Atmospheric emission of methyl isothiocyanate (MITC), chloropicrin (CP), 1,3-dichloropropene (1,3-D), and dimethyl disulfide (DMDS) were measured in the field under fumigant application scenarios representative of raised bed-plastic-mulched crop production systems. For three fumigation sites located in Florida, cumulative emissions of 1,3-D, MITC and CP were less than 11%, 6% and 2%, respectively. For three fumigation sites in located in Georgia, cumulative emissions of MITC and CP were <13% and 12%, respectively while DMDS emissions varied from 37% to 95%. In the Florida sites, emission peak flux of CP occurred within the first 6 h after application. Peak emission of 1,3-D and MITC occurred between 100 and 144 h after application. In the Georgia sites where fumigated soil was covered by low density polyethylene (LDPE) plastic, emission peak flux of DMDS and MITC occurred between 12and 48 h after application. Key factors affecting atmospheric emissions were soil moisture, soil tilth and the resistance to fumigant diffusion of the plastic film used to cover soil following application. This study demonstrated reduced atmospheric emissions of agricultural fumigants under commercial production conditions when applied using good agricultural practices including soil water contents above field capacity, uniform soil tilth in the fumigation zone and the use of metalized or virtually impermeable films to further reduce fumigant emissions. The results of this study show a need for regional flux studies due to the various interactions of soil and climate with local agricultural land management practices.

Chellemi, Dan O.; Ajwa, Husein A.; Sullivan, David A.

2010-12-01

318

Sustainable capacity building among immigrant communities: the raising sexually healthy children program in Canada.  

Science.gov (United States)

The Raising Sexually Healthy Children (RSHC) program is a peer-to-peer leadership training program for immigrant parents in Toronto, Canada. It was established in 1998 with the goal of promoting family sex education and parent-child communication. This evaluative study examined the developmental processes and outcomes of the RSHC program to identify the strengths, challenges and insights that can be used to improve the program. It employed a multi-case study approach to compare the RSHC programs delivered in the Chinese, Portuguese and Tamil communities. Data collection methods included focus groups, individual interviews and document analysis. The cross-case analysis identified both common and unique capacity building processes and outcomes in the three communities. In this paper, we report factors that have enhanced and hindered sustainable capacity building at the individual, group/organizational and community levels, and the strategies used by these communities to address challenges common to immigrant families. We will discuss the ecological and synergetic, but time-consuming processes of capacity building, which contributed to the sustainability of RSHC as an empowering health promotion program for immigrant communities. We conclude the paper by noting the implications of using a capacity building approach to promote family health in ethno-racial-linguistic minority communities. PMID:23740257

Narushima, Miya; Wong, Josephine Pui-Hing; Li, Anda; Sutdhibhasilp, Noulmook

2014-03-01

319

SCHOOL-BASED SAVINGS PROGRAMMES AS A METHOD OF RAISING FINANCIAL AWARENESS IN CHILDREN  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Saving money and budgeting concerns every one of us. One of the most famous ways of depositing money is the use of an account or a traditional piggy bank. Not only the last option is close to the youngest. It has long been known School-based Savings Programmes (SSP. We try to instill in the youngest ability and habit of depositing mon-ey. Bank goes out to meet the needs and continually improve the SSP. The first part of the article focuses on the notion of SSP. It was raised matter of passbook evolution into an online account, and thus describes the functions and capabilities of such an account. The article describes the operation and maintenance of accounts, SSP and its rules. At the end of the article, condensed results of a survey conducted at the school in Stare Juchy were placed. The result was to assess the awareness of the youngest in terms of saving and School-based Savings Programmes.

Joanna Lenkiewicz

2014-03-01

320

Ethical issues raised by the new orientations in ergonomics and living labs.  

Science.gov (United States)

User Experience Theory (UXT) provides us with criteria for designing products and technical systems for everyday activities (playing, learning, working,…) so as to satisfy users. Living Labs (LL), are plateforms used for the design and evaluation of technical systems. As such, they constitute tools that bring to this process some constraints., However these constraints have to be articulated to the UXT. In other words, UXT should specify the place, the role and function LL should play in the design of new products, how it should contribute to satisfying UX, and how the methods and techniques should be conceived or borrowed from other disciplines. UXT also raises ethical issues: impartiality (independent, public, replicable) of research models in the context of economical constraints (dependant, private, secret prototypes) and of industrial pressure, the use of intrusive and persuasive techniques, even with the prior informed consent of participants, ergo-marketing, deontology codes, the use of specific participants, belonging of an UX innovative solution, confidentiality with ICT, and so on. Because the UX, as well as LL literature, have shown little concerns for ethical considerations, till now, we define LL-UX ethical issues as a new research topic, and we list a number of problems to be solved in order to have an ethical LL-UX methodology for open innovation. PMID:22317534

Barcenilla, Javier; Tijus, Charles

2012-01-01

 
 
 
 
321

Developing and disseminating a foodprint tool to raise awareness about healthy and environmentally conscious food choices  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This article describes the development and dissemination of an ecological footprint tool that provides a concise and scientifically grounded summary of the environmental impact of personal food choices. Developed to be easy to use and available to consumers via online social networking platforms, the tool aims to raise awareness and to provide an impetus for behavior change. The foodprint tool communicates scientifically informed and customized practical advice on how individuals can reduce their ecological footprint (EF (or “foodprint”. The first part of the article describes the process of developing this tool, the choice of indicator, the goals, and the results. Among other aspects, the tool enables users to understand that the largest contributors to their foodprint are sources of animal protein: dairy, meat, and fish. The second part of the article describes the strategy guiding the tool’s design and implementation, which is based on a combination of contextual communication, feedback from peers, and intrinsic motivation. In this footprint tool, a focus on food patterns, interactive feedback, and social media plays a key role. The tool consists of a survey with fifteen questions about personal food choice that allow users to receive individualized feedback, including five suggestions for reducing personal foodprints. Users can also share their results through customary social media. Due to an effective outreach campaign, a total of 90,000 Dutch consumers used this tool over a period of four months, with 1% indicating that they intended to change behavior.

Tine Bosschaert

2013-09-01

322

How can we raise Tc in RO1-xFxFeAs superconductors?  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

By the discovery of RO1-xFxFeAs (R = lanthanide) superconductors in the beginning of 2008, it was shown for the first time that a non-cuprate superconductor can reach a superconducting transition temperature Tc above 50 K. This offers new opportunities for the development of new high temperature superconductors. However, the superconductors with the highest Tc show the most difficulties in formation of the right phase. Problems are the incorporation of fluorine and the homogeneity of the samples. A further challenge is the structural instability for rare earth elements with small ion radius (64?Z?71). In our studies, several opportunities to overcome these difficulties are evaluated: 1. variation of the grain size of the initial powder 2. use of slightly non-stoichiometric initial composition 3. high-pressure synthesis As a result, we raise the Tc of the material with a nominal composition GdO1-xFxFeAs from 20 up to 40 K. In a SmO0.9F0.1FeAs-compound could be observed superconductivity above 50 K after a small As-reduction at the surface of the sample. Measurements of the final composition and structure will animate the discussion about the requirements for realization of the superconducting state.

323

Contribution of ?-globin cluster polymorphisms to raise fetal hemoglobin levels in normal adults.  

Science.gov (United States)

Hereditary persistence of fetal hemoglobin (HPFH) is a group of genetically heterogeneous conditions characterized by continued expression of fetal hemoglobin (HbF) in adulthood. HPFH may be due not only to point mutations or large deletions in different regions of the cluster ? globin, but also to variations in several polymorphic sequences in this cluster. The objective of this work was to evaluate effects of polymorphic markers within cluster ? globin on HbF expression. For the purpose, we have explored in this first study of Tunisian HPFH four polymorphic regions of ? globin cluster in 68 healthy adults (34 subjects with high levels of HbF and 34 with normal HbF levels). Our results showed that the increase of HbF levels is associated with the -158 G? C ? T polymorphism, the TG(18)CG(2)CACG, TC TG(9)AG TG(2)CG(2) and TG(11)CG(4) configurations in the second intron of G? gene and the -540 ? (AT)(6)T(9) and (AT)(7)T(8) repeated sequences. Among the 34 subjects with raised levels of HbF, approximately 97% carried one or more of these six markers. This study suggests that there is a significant association between certain polymorphic configurations of the ? globin cluster and the increase of HbF levels in healthy individuals. PMID:21947948

Jouini, Latifa; Bibi, Amina; Ouali, Faida; Hadj Fredj, Sondess; Ouennich, Fekria; Siala, Hajer; Messaoud, Taieb; Fattoum, Slaheddine

2012-04-01

324

Reference Strains of Ornithobacterium rhinotracheale Raise Detectabl Hemagglutination-Inhibition Antibodies in Immunized Specific-Pathogen-Free Chickens  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The ability of nine reference strains of Ornithobacterium rhinotracheale (serovars A-I to raise detectable, hemagglutination-inhibition antibodies in immunized specific-pathogen-free chickens was investigated. Six of the nine O. rhinotracheale serovar (A-H reference strains raised detectable hemagglutination-inhibition antibodies 14 and 21 days after vaccination. Detectable serum hemagglutination-inhibition antibody titers ranged from 512-16348. Furthermore, transmission electron microscopic examination of a hemagglutinating reference strain (B 3263/91, serovar A demonstrated a close interaction between the bacterial and chicken erythrocyte surfaces. The results indicate that most of the hemagglutinating O. rhinotracheale reference strains included in this study are able to raised detectable hemagglutination-inhibition antibodies in immunized specific-pathogen-free chickens. The findings have the potential to become an alternative laboratory approach for detecting serum antibodies from chickens immunized with O. rhinotracheale.

N.L. Calderon-Apodaca

2011-01-01

325

A comparison of responses to raised extracellular potassium and endothelium-derived hyperpolarizing factor (EDHF) in rat pressurised mesenteric arteries.  

Science.gov (United States)

The present study examined the hypothesis that potassium ions act as an endothelium-derived hyperpolarizing factor (EDHF) released in response to ACh in small mesenteric arteries displaying myogenic tone. Small mesenteric arteries isolated from rats were set up in a pressure myograph at either 60 or 90 mmHg. After developing myogenic tone, responses to raising extracellular potassium were compared to those obtained with ACh (in the presence of nitric oxide synthase and cyclo-oxygenase inhibitors). The effects of barium and oubain, or capsaicin, on responses to raised extracellular potassium or ACh were also determined. The effects of raised extracellular potassium levels and ACh on membrane potential, were measured using sharp microelectrodes in pressurised arteries. Rat small mesenteric arteries developed myogenic tone when pressurised. On the background of vascular tone set by a physiological stimulus (i.e pressure), ACh fully dilated the small arteries in a concentration-dependent manner. This response was relatively insensitive to the combination of barium and ouabain, and insensitive to capsaicin. Raising extracellular potassium produced a more inconsistent and modest vasodilator response in pressurised small mesenteric arteries. Responses to raising extracellular potassium were sensitive to capsaicin, and the combination of barium and ouabain. ACh caused a substantial hyperpolarisation in pressurized arteries, while raising extracellular potassium did not. These data indicate that K+ is not the EDHF released in response to ACh in myogenically active rat mesenteric small arteries. Since the hyperpolarization produced by ACh was sensitive to carbenoxolone, gap junctions are the likely mediator of EDH responses under physiological conditions. PMID:25372386

Mathewson, Alastair M; Dunn, William R

2014-01-01

326

A Comparison of Responses to Raised Extracellular Potassium and Endothelium-Derived Hyperpolarizing Factor (EDHF) in Rat Pressurised Mesenteric Arteries  

Science.gov (United States)

The present study examined the hypothesis that potassium ions act as an endothelium-derived hyperpolarizing factor (EDHF) released in response to ACh in small mesenteric arteries displaying myogenic tone. Small mesenteric arteries isolated from rats were set up in a pressure myograph at either 60 or 90 mmHg. After developing myogenic tone, responses to raising extracellular potassium were compared to those obtained with ACh (in the presence of nitric oxide synthase and cyclo-oxygenase inhibitors). The effects of barium and oubain, or capsaicin, on responses to raised extracellular potassium or ACh were also determined. The effects of raised extracellular potassium levels and ACh on membrane potential, were measured using sharp microelectrodes in pressurised arteries. Rat small mesenteric arteries developed myogenic tone when pressurised. On the background of vascular tone set by a physiological stimulus (i.e pressure), ACh fully dilated the small arteries in a concentration-dependent manner. This response was relatively insensitive to the combination of barium and ouabain, and insensitive to capsaicin. Raising extracellular potassium produced a more inconsistent and modest vasodilator response in pressurised small mesenteric arteries. Responses to raising extracellular potassium were sensitive to capsaicin, and the combination of barium and ouabain. ACh caused a substantial hyperpolarisation in pressurized arteries, while raising extracellular potassium did not. These data indicate that K+ is not the EDHF released in response to ACh in myogenically active rat mesenteric small arteries. Since the hyperpolarization produced by ACh was sensitive to carbenoxolone, gap junctions are the likely mediator of EDH responses under physiological conditions. PMID:25372386

Mathewson, Alastair M.; Dunn, William R.

2014-01-01

327

Inhibition of cholesteryl ester transfer protein activity: a new therapeutic approach to raising high-density lipoprotein.  

Science.gov (United States)

High-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol levels are inversely associated with risk of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD), leading to the concept that pharmacologic therapy to raise HDL cholesterol levels may reduce ASCVD risk. There is substantial interest in the concept of inhibition of the cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) as a novel strategy for raising HDL cholesterol levels, as well as reducing levels of atherogenic lipoproteins. This article reviews the physiology of CETP in lipoprotein metabolism and the data in animals and humans that are relevant to the question of whether CETP inhibition may some day be part of the clinical armamentarium for treating dyslipidemia and atherosclerotic vascular disease. PMID:15296707

Rader, Daniel J

2004-09-01

328

Late Quaternary environmental changes in Marguerite Bay, Antarctic Peninsula, inferred from lake sediments and raised beaches  

Science.gov (United States)

The Antarctic Peninsula is one of the fastest-warming regions on Earth, but its palaeoenvironmental history south of 63° latitude is relatively poorly documented, relying principally on the marine geological record and short ice cores. In this paper, we present evidence of late-Quaternary environmental change from the Marguerite Bay region combining data from lake sediment records on Horseshoe Island and Pourquoi-Pas Island, and raised beaches at Horseshoe Island, Pourquoi-Pas Island and Calmette Bay. Lake sediments were radiocarbon dated and analysed using a combination of sedimentological, geochemical and microfossil methods. Raised beaches were surveyed and analysed for changes in clast composition, size and roundness. Results suggest a non-erosive glacial regime could have existed on Horseshoe Island from 35,780 (38,650-33,380) or 32,910 (34,630-31,370) cal yr BP onwards. There is radiocarbon and macrofossil evidence for possible local deglaciation events at 28,830 (29,370-28,320) cal yr BP, immediately post-dating Antarctic Isotopic Maximum 4, and 21,110 (21,510-20,730 interpolated) cal yr BP coinciding with, or immediately post-dating, Antarctic Isotopic Maximum 2. The Holocene deglaciation of Horseshoe Island commenced from 10,610 (11,000-10,300) cal yr BP at the same time as the early Holocene temperature maximum recorded in Antarctic ice cores. This was followed by the onset of marine sedimentation in The Narrows, Pourquoi-Pas Island, before 8850 (8480-9260) cal yr BP. Relative sea level high stands of 40.79 m above present at Pourquoi-Pas Island and 40.55 m above present at Calmette Bay occurred sometime after 9000 cal yr BP and suggest that a thicker ice sheet, including grounded ice streams, was present in this region of the Antarctic Peninsula than that recorded at sites further north. Isolation of the Narrows Lake basin on Pourquoi-Pas Island shows relative sea level in this region had fallen rapidly to 19.41 m by 7270 (7385-7155) cal yr BP. Chaetoceros resting spores suggest high productivity and stratified surface waters in The Narrows after 8850 (9260-8480) cal yr BP and beach clasts provide evidence of a period of increased wave energy at approximately 8000 yr BP. Lake sediment and beach data suggest an extended period of regional warming sometime between 6200 and 2030 cal yr BP followed by the onset of Neoglacial conditions from 2630 and 2030 cal yr BP in Narrows Lake and Col Lake 1, respectively. Diatom and ?13C vs C/N and macrofossil evidence suggest a potential increase in the number of birds and seals visiting the Narrows Lake catchment sometime after 2100 (2250-2000) cal yr BP, with enhanced nutrient enrichment evident after 1150 (1230-1080) cal yr BP, and particularly from c. 460 (540-380) cal yr BP. A very recent increase in Gomphonema species and organic carbon in the top centimetre of the Narrows Lake sediment core after c. 410 (490-320) cal yr BP, and increased sedimentation rates in the Col Lake 1 sediment core, after c. 400 (490-310) cal yr BP may be a response to the regional late-Holocene warming of the Antarctic Peninsula.

Hodgson, Dominic A.; Roberts, Stephen J.; Smith, James A.; Verleyen, Elie; Sterken, Mieke; Labarque, Minke; Sabbe, Koen; Vyverman, Wim; Allen, Claire S.; Leng, Melanie J.; Bryant, Charlotte

2013-05-01

329

In Romania, exposure to Toxoplasma gondii occurs twice as often in swine raised for familial consumption as in hunted wild boar, but occurs rarely if ever among fattening pigs raised in confinement  

Science.gov (United States)

A wide range of swine husbandry practices prevail in Romania: pork for human consumption is derived from hunting wild boar, from household rearing of small numbers of backyard pigs, and from indoor, industrial production of swine raised in confinement indoors. Romania thus represents an instructive ...

330

Gonadal differentiation in frogs, Rana japonica and R. brevipoda, raised from UV irradiated eggs  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The gonadal differentiation of anurans, Rana japonica and R. brevipoda, was examined in animals raised from eggs which had been irradiated at the vegetal hemisphere with UV (9300 erg/mm2) at the 2-cell stage. In R. japonica about 70% of the larvae at stage I from the pressed and UV-irradiated eggs were germ cell free, but at a stage immediately after metamorphosis all animals had at least some germ cells, although their gonads often were extremely small and poorly differentiated. When male animals matured sexually, many of them had abnormal gonads. However, all of them were shown by artificial means to be capable of fertilization. In the nonpressed and irradiated group, no larvae were germ cell free and the animals immediately after metamorphosis showed nearly normal gonadal differentiation except for the presence of a few degenerate oocytes in the ovaries. The results in R. brevipoda were basically similar to those in R. japonica. In both species, sex ratios were determined at two stages, the first immediately after metamorphosis and the other when the animals matured, as based on gonad morphology and histology and on external sexually dimorphic characters as well. Sex ratios at these two stages in frogs from the pressed and irradiated eggs differed markedly in R. brevipoda. The ratio was normal at metamorphosis but high M/F ratios occurred when animals became mature. That sex reversal took place in this species as well as in R. japonica (in which sex-ratio deviation R. japonica (in which sex-ratio deviation was not statistically significant) was supported by the sex ratios of the progenies of these supernumerary males

331

A REPOSITORY DESIGNED TO RAISE THE STUDENTS’ KNOWLEDGE AND AWARENESS ON NANOSCIENCE AND NANOTECHNOLOGY  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available As defined in the information technology area, a repository represents a digital collection in which data is preserved and maintained in an organized and structured manner. This comes helpful for many projects that envisage sharing specific databases, files or resources for being accessed or distributed. More, several free and open-source software solutions for designing open-access repositories are available at present, having features very similar to the systems built for document management. Trying to implement such digital collection, as extra-readings and references related to Nanoscience and Nanotechnology area, in the frame of the LLP KA3-ICT project no. 511787-LLP-1-2010-1-TR-KA3-KA3MP: “Nano-Tech Science Education”, it was set up a repository/database for being used by students, Science prospective teachers and teachers, as a part of a Virtual Lab, which represents the main project product - an experimental virtual aid created for Science education. The Lab mainly consists of experimental room, podcasting room and repository, and serves as a platform for Science lessons, as a database of teaching materials, and as a hub for science-learning-related graphic aids and recorded and illustrated appealing experiments on Nanoscience and Nanotechnology. Its repository includes articles, books, chapters, posters, videos, experiments, methodological documents which introduce in fact, actual findings and researches developed in different countries. Basically, the main role of the repository is to update the virtual lab users’ knowledge and to raise their awareness on Nanoscience and Nanotechnology. The paper presents the features of the designed repository, its main services, and specific developments. As this is an instrument under continuous updating, the paper offers also a status of its actual structure and content.

GABRIEL GORGHIU

2013-09-01

332

Dryout power of a CANFLEX bundle string with raised bearing pads  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Dryout power data have been obtained with CANFLEX bundle strings equipped with raised bearing pads (1.7 mm and 1.8 mm height as compared to 1.4 mm in the current Mk-IV design) at Stern Laboratories. The experiment covered a wide range of steam-water flow conditions in three flow tubes simulating uncrept, and 3.3% and 5.1% crept profiles. The dryout power follows consistent parametric trends: it increases with increasing mass-flow rate, and decreases with increasing pressure, inlet-fluid temperature and channel creep. Local and boiling-length-average (BLA) critical-heat-flux (CHF) values were evaluated from the dryout-power measurements. The dryout power and BLA CHF values of the high bearing-pad bundles are higher than those of the low bearing-pad bundles at the same channel inlet flow conditions. On average, the dryout powers for bundles with 1.7 mm and 1.8 mm bearing pads are about 8% and 10%, respectively, higher than those for the bundle with 1.4 mm bearing pads. Compared to the 37-element bundle, an enhancement in dryout power is shown with CANFLEX bundles for all bearing-pad heights, at flow conditions of interest for reactor licensing. The average dryout power enhancement varies from 4% for the CANFLEX bundle with 1.4 mm bearing pads in the uncrept channel to 27% for the CANFLEX bundle with 1.8 mm bearing pads in the 5.1% crept channel. (author)

333

Fourth and Fifth Amendment issues raised by Chemical Weapons Convention inspections  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC) offers a unique challenge to the United States system of constitutional law. This discussion is about the Fourth and Fifth Amendment issues raised by the CWC and about how federal implementing legislation can allow verification inspections to take place in the United States under the Chemical Weapons Convention while remaining in compliance with the Constitution. By implementing legislation, the author means a federal statute that would be enacted separately from Senate approval of the Convention itself. Although implementing legislation is a relatively unusual accompaniment to a treaty, it will be necessary to the CWC, and the Administration has submitted a bill that was under consideration in the last Congress and presumably will be reintroduced early next year. The Fourth and Fifth Amendment problems posed by the CWC arise from the verification inspection scheme embodied in the treaty. The CWC depends heavily on on-site inspections to verify compliance with its key requirements. These include destroying all chemicals weapons stockpiles and bringing potential chemical weapons precursors under international control. The Convention contains four distinct kinds of inspections: systematic inspections of chemical weapons storage and destruction facilities, routine inspections of various declared facilities, challenge inspections, and a variant on challenge inspections in cases of alleged use of chemical weapons. All inspections are supposed to be only as intrusive as necessary to carry out the Convention. These inspections will be carried out by inspectors employed by the Organization for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons (OPCW), located in The Hague, which is responsible for enforcing the Convention. Generally, the inspected State Party is permitted to assign observers to accompany the inspectors.

Tanzman, E.A. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Economics and Law Section

1994-10-21

334

Gonadal differentiation in frogs, Rana japonica and R. brevipoda, raised from UV irradiated eggs  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The gonadal differentiation of anurans, Rana japonica and R. brevipoda, was examined in animals raised from eggs which had been irradiated at the vegetal hemisphere with UV (9300 erg/mm2) at the 2-cell stage. In R. japonica about 70% of the larvae at stage I from the pressed and UV-irradiated eggs were germ cell free, but at a stage immediately after metamorphosis all animals had at least some germ cells, although their gonads often were extremely small and poorly differentiated. When male animals matured sexually, many of them had abnormal gonads. However, all of them were shown by artificial means to be capable of fertilization. In the nonpressed and irradiated group, no larvae were germ cell free and the animals immediately after metamorphosis showed nearly normal gonadal differentiation except for the presence of a few degenerate oocytes in the ovaries. The results in R. brevipoda were basically similar to those in R. japonica. In both species, sex ratios were determined at two stages, the first immediately after metamorphosis and the other when the animals matured, as based on gonad morphology and histology and on external sexually dimorphic characters as well. Sex ratios at these two stages in frogs from the pressed and irradiated eggs differed markedly in R. brevipoda. The ratio was normal at metamorphosis but high M/F ratios occurred when animals became mature. That sex reversal took place in this species as well as in R. japonica (in which sex-ratio deviation was not statistically significant) was supported by the sex ratios of the progenies of these supernumerary males.

Shirane, T.

1982-10-10

335

Courses for "Soil Practitioner" and other measures for raising soil awareness  

Science.gov (United States)

Today, unfortunately, little use is made of the findings of rhizosphere research in practice. Therefore the author, together with the organic farmers` associations Distelverein and Bio Austria, developed the education programme "Soil Practitioner" for organic farmers. The 9-days` course focuses on the topics nutrient dynamics in soil, plant-root interactions, soil management, humus management and practical evaluation of soil functions. A second series of courses developed by Bio Forschung Austria aims at improving organic matter management on farm level. In order to enable the farmers to estimate if the humus content of their fields is increasing or decreasing, they are familiarized with the humus balancing method. In a second step, humus balances of farmers' fields are calculated and the results are discussed together. Another activity to raise soil awareness is the "Mobile Soil Laboratory", which is presented at various events. The soil functions are demonstrated to the public using special exhibits, which illustrate for example infiltration rate in soils with and without earthworms, or water holding capacity of soils with and without earthworms or erosion intensity on soil blocks from adjacent plots which had been cultivated with different crop rotations. The habitat function of soil is illustrated with portable rhizotrons, which show the ability of plants to root surprisingly deep and to penetrate compacted soil layers. Another exhibit shows a habitat preference test between differently fertilized soils with earthworms as indicator organisms. In the "Mobile Soil Laboratory", visitors are also invited to watch live soil animals through the binocular microscope. They are supplied with information on the soil animals` habitat and behaviour and on how agriculture benefits from biologically active soil. And last but not least, the "Root Demonstration Arena" at our institute features a 3-m-deep excavation lined with large viewing windows into the soil profile, where visitors can observe the root growth of different plants.

Hartl, Wilfried

2014-05-01

336

Children are costly, but raising them may pay: The economic approach to fertility  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Objective: This article provides a non-technical introduction to analyses of fertility which are based on a rational-choice paradigm and which acknowledge that raising children may have a strong impact on the well-being of parents that can be described in terms of costs and benefits. It surveys different types of economic fertility models which can be used to address a variety of research questions, and it also discusses some basic strengths and weaknesses of applying economic analyses in this particular field. Results: Starting from a seminal contribution by Becker (1960 which may have been of little use for applied research or for interdisciplinary work, the economic theory of fertility has unfolded a differentiated research programme with indispensable contributions to the broader field of fertility research. Important features are the inclusion of (i different bargaining positions and differing incentives of partners interacting in fertility choices; (ii simultaneous decisions regarding labour force participation (as well as education and fertility, and the role played by employers, labour market institutions, and other public interventions; (iii the idea that children (or their "human capital" are investment goods with various kinds of returns that may be dispersed over an extremely long period of time, are subject to enormous uncertainties, and are strongly influenced by the social context and, again, by public policies. Conclusions: Economic aspects and elements of economic models should be included in any large-scale attempt at understanding fertility behaviour through interdisciplinary research. Improvements in the data infrastructure, which are only partly underway thus far, would be an important pre-requisite.

Martin Werding

2014-01-01

337

Prospects of raising Sahiwal cow calves for veal production under tropical environment.  

Science.gov (United States)

The objective of present study was to evaluate the growth potential of Sahiwal calves for veal production on whole milk or whole milk and milk replacer combined in a ratio of 50:50 (MMR). For this purpose, 48 Sahiwal calves (both male and female) were assigned to four dietary treatments having 12 animals/treatment. Calves in the treatments A and B were offered whole milk at 15 or 20% of their body weight (BW), respectively, up to day 84 adjusted on weekly basis. The calves in treatments C and D received the same amount of milk as in treatments A and B until day 21, respectively, after which 50% of the milk offered was replaced with a blend of chickpea (Cicer arietinum) flour and vegetable (corn) oil mixed in water (MR) until day 84. The constituted MR had 3.1, 2.8, and 14.3%, CP, EE, and DM, respectively. The growth and intake data were analyzed using repeated measures analysis, with MIXED Procedures of SAS in a 2 × 2 factorial design. The two factors were feeding level and feeding source. Calves offered whole milk grew faster (Pcalves given treatment B while the lowest production cost/kg of BW gain (?US$3.6 ± 0.2) was observed in calves given treatment A. The daily BW gain of calves fed milk ad libitum was 716 ± 40 and 836 ± 40 g/day, during 5-8 and 9-12 weeks, respectively. The number of days calves exhibited scours was higher in calves offered MMR than those offered whole milk. Replacement of 50% milk with a blend of chickpea flour and vegetable oil, as an alternative to milk replacer, did not support growth equivalent to whole milk and was not effective in reducing feeding cost during the weaning period. Sahiwal calves may have promise for being raised for veal production under tropical environments. PMID:23143738

Bhatti, Shaukat Ali; Nazir, Kamran; Basra, Muhammad Jamil; Khan, Muhammad Sajjad; Sarwar, Muhammad; Mughal, Muhammad Ashraf Iqbal

2013-04-01

338

A REAPPRAISAL OF MAPUCHE TEXTILE PRODUCTION AND SHEEP RAISING DURING THE NINETEENTH CENTURY  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: English Abstract in spanish Este artículo trata sobre la crianza de ovejas y la producción de lana de los mapuche durante gran parte del siglo XIX, y sobre la percepción que los compradores tenían de los productos lanares. Basado en reportes consulares británicos y diarios de viajeros, escritos después de la Independencia de C [...] hile, el artículo entrega nueva y consistente información que sostiene que la producción textil mapuche era de alta calidad y muy importante para toda la economía; que el comercio mapuche de lanas era comparable al europeo antes del año 1850; y que la industria lanar mapuche era, por cierto, más desarrollada que la existente en Chile, principal mercado de las exportaciones mapuche. También muestra que esta superioridad sobre la industria lanar chilena incluía la producción de materias primas para la producción textil, principalmente, lana sin procesar. Abstract in english This paper is about Mapuche sheep raising and woollens production during the first three quarters of the nineteenth century, as well as about the perception customers had of Mapuche wool manufactures. Based on the British consular reports and travellers' diaries written after Chile gained independen [...] ce, this article provides new and stronger evidence to support the case that Mapuche textile production was of high-quality and very important for their entire economy; that the Mapuche woollens trade was comparable to European industries before the 1850s; and that the Mapuche wool industry was certainly more developed than the one existing in Chile, the main market for Mapuche exports. This article also shows that this superiority over the Chilean woollens industry included the production of the main raw material used to produce woollens, namely raw wool.

MANUEL, LLORCA-JAÑA.

2014-06-01

339

Cerebrovascular reactivity among native-raised high altitude residents: an fMRI study  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background The impact of long term residence on high altitude (HA on human brain has raised concern among researchers in recent years. This study investigated the cerebrovascular reactivity among native-born high altitude (HA residents as compared to native sea level (SL residents. The two groups were matched on the ancestral line, ages, gender ratios, and education levels. A visual cue guided maximum inspiration task with brief breath holding was performed by all the subjects while Blood-Oxygenation-Level-Dependent (BOLD functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI data were acquired from them. Results Compared to SL controls, the HA group showed generally decreased cerebrovascular reactivity and longer delay in hemodynamic response. Clusters showing significant differences in the former aspect were located at the bilateral primary motor cortex, the right somatosensory association cortex, the right thalamus and the right caudate, the bilateral precuneus, the right cingulate gyrus and the right posterior cingulate cortex, as well as the left fusiform gyrus and the right lingual cortex; clusters showing significant differences in the latter aspect were located at the precuneus, the insula, the superior frontal and temporal gyrus, the somatosensory cortex (the postcentral gyrus and the cerebellar tonsil. Inspiratory reserve volume (IRV, which is an important aspect of pulmonary function, demonstrated significant correlation with the amount of BOLD signal change in multiple brain regions, particularly at the bilateral insula among the HA group. Conclusions Native-born HA residents generally showed reduced cerebrovascular reactivity as demonstrated in the hemodynamic response during a visual cue guided maximum inspiration task conducted with BOLD-fMRI. This effect was particularly manifested among brain regions that are typically involved in cerebral modulation of respiration.

Zhang Jiaxing

2011-09-01

340

Kinetic epitope mapping of monoclonal antibodies raised against the Yersinia pestis virulence factor LcrV.  

Science.gov (United States)

Five monoclonal antibodies, mAb7.3, mAb29.3, mAb46.3, mAb12.3 and mAb36.3, raised to the LcrV virulence factor from Yersinia pestis were characterised for their Fab affinity against the purified protein and their Fc affinity to Protein A/G as a proxy for the Fc?R receptor. Kinetic measurements were performed label-free in a localised particle plasmon array reader. The Fc-ProteinA/G complex first-order half-life was determined for each antibody and fell in the range of 0.8-3.8h. The Fab first-order half-lives had ranged from 3.4 to 9.2h although two antibodies, mAb12.3 and mAb36.3, showed low affinity interactions. Competitive binding studies of mixtures of the Fab-active antibodies were performed to measure the relative binding efficiency of one antibody in the presence of the other. A geometric relative positioning of the epitopes of mAb7.3, mAb29.3 and mAb46.3 was determined based on the footprint locus of the antibody and the percentage of competitive binding. The two known protective antibodies mAb7.3 and mAb29.3 showed greater interference, indicating epitopes close to one another compared to the non-protective mAb46.3 antibody. The Fab-Fc complex half-life screen and epitope mapping are potentially useful tools in the screening of therapeutic antibodies or vaccine candidates. PMID:25461137

Read, Thomas; Olkhov, Rouslan V; Williamson, E Diane; Shaw, Andrew M

2014-10-01

 
 
 
 
341

Cholesterol-raising factor from boiled coffee does not pass a paper filter.  

Science.gov (United States)

Previous studies have indicated that consumption of boiled coffee raises total and low density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, whereas drip-filtered coffee does not. We have tested the effect on serum lipids of consumed coffee that was first boiled and then filtered through commercial paper coffee filters. Sixty-four healthy volunteers consumed six cups per day of this boiled and filtered coffee for 17 days. Then, they were randomly divided into three groups, which, for the next 79 days, received either unfiltered boiled coffee (lipid content, 1.0 g/l), boiled and filtered coffee (0.02 g lipid/l), or no coffee. Serum total cholesterol levels rose by 0.42 mmol/l (16 mg/dl; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.14-0.71), LDL cholesterol levels by 0.41 mmol/l (16 mg/dl; 95% CI, 0.16-0.66), and apolipoprotein B levels by 8.6 mg/dl (95% CI, 3.8-13.4) in those who consumed boiled coffee relative to those who consumed boiled and filtered coffee. Responses of triglycerides, high density lipoprotein cholesterol, and apolipoprotein A-I did not differ significantly among these groups. No significant effects on serum lipid levels were found in the boiled and filtered coffee-consuming group compared with those who drank no coffee. In subjects who drank boiled coffee, serum campesterol level, an indicator of cholesterol absorption, remained constant. The serum lathosterol level, an indicator of cholesterol synthesis, increased by 11% (p less than 0.05), but the lathosterol to cholesterol ratio did not change. We propose that paper filters of the type used for drip-filtered coffee retain the lipid present in boiled coffee and in that way remove the hypercholesterolemic factor.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2029499

van Dusseldorp, M; Katan, M B; van Vliet, T; Demacker, P N; Stalenhoef, A F

1991-01-01

342

The Methods Applied by Pre-School Teachers to Raise the Curiosity of Children and Their Views  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of this study is to determine the strategies used by pre-school teachers in order to raise curiosity in children. Based on this aim, sample is composed of 52 pre-school teachers working in kindergartens affiliated to Ministry of National Education. Study data were collected via qualitative research methods. Research data were gathered…

Buyuktaskapu Soydan, Sema; Erbay, Filiz

2013-01-01

343

INHIBITION OF IN VITRO FERTILIZATION IN THE HAMSTER BY ANTIBODIES RAISED AGAINST THE RAT SPERM PROTEIN SP22  

Science.gov (United States)

INHIBITION OF IN VITRO FERTILIZATION IN THE HAMSTER BY ANTIBODIES RAISED AGAINST THE RAT SPERM PROTEIN SP22. SC Jeffay*, SD Perreault, KL Bobseine*, JE Welch*, GR Klinefelter, US EPA, Research Triangle Park, NC. SP22, a rat sperm membrane protein that is highly-correlated w...

344

Is the Week over yet? Insight for Educators about Social Network Support among Cyber Mothers Raising Children with ASD  

Science.gov (United States)

This study examined the motivation to participate in social networks maintained by mothers who blog and raise children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). The qualitative data analyzed in this study originated from a larger project that examined the perceptions, experiences, and meanings among mothers who maintained public blogs while parenting…

Swanke, Jayme; Doktor, Judy; Shrestha, Sabita; Zeman, Laura Dreuth

2013-01-01

345

COMPARISON OF MORPHOLOGICAL AND REPRODUCTIVE PROPERTIES OF LIPPIZANER MARES IN STUD FARM RAISING AND ON FAMILY FARMS  

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Full Text Available This paper aimed at determination of defferences in morphological and reproductive properties of Lippizaner breed blood mares raised in stud farm ?akovo and on family farms. Results of morphological properties investigation indicate better development of investigated body measures of a stud farm mares, except chest width that was more pronounced in family farm mares. Significant differences were determined with withers height (cattle tape, back height and cannon bone circumference whereas differences of withers height (stick, small of the back height, chest depth and chest width were highly significant. As for reproductive properties stud farm raising mares were older at first fertilization and first foaling compared to the family farm mares. Statistically very significant differences in pregnancy duration were determined only at 5-12 pregnancy of stud farm raising mares. First, second, fourth and 5-12 service period lasted longer in stud farm raising mares whereas longer duration of the second and third service period was determined with family farm mares.

Tomo Rastija

2000-12-01

346

Policy Rationalities and Policy Technologies: A Programme for Analysing the Raised School-Leaving Age in Western Australia  

Science.gov (United States)

In this paper I outline an approach towards policy analysis that takes governmentality as its point of theoretical orientation and begin to apply this approach to my research into the recently raised compulsory school-leaving age in Western Australia. I aim to demonstrate the methodological potentials of this approach by giving examples of the…

Hodgson, David

2011-01-01

347

Family Functioning in Asian Families Raising Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders: The Role of Capabilities and Positive Meanings  

Science.gov (United States)

Background: There has been increasing interest in exploring the factors contributing to successful adaptation and family functioning in ethnically and culturally diverse families who raise children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD), in order to inform more appropriate strength-based family support services. This pilot study used the Family…

Xue, J.; Ooh, J.; Magiati, I.

2014-01-01

348

Compromised metamorphosis and thyroid hormone changes in wood frogs (Lithobates sylvaticus) raised on reclaimed wetlands on the Athabasca oil sands  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The wet landscape approach to oil sands tailings reclamation in the Athabasca Oil Sands region involves creating wetlands from fluid tailings in mined-out pits. We measured time to metamorphosis, thyroid hormone status, and detoxification enzyme (EROD) induction in Wood frog (Lithobates sylvaticus) tadpoles raised on reclaimed oil sands wetlands of different ages [young ({<=}7 yr) vs. old (>7 yr)] and compared data with tadpoles raised on reference (control) wetlands. Metamorphosis was delayed or never occurred in tadpoles raised in young tailings; those exposed to older tailings developed similarly to those in reference wetlands. Thyroid hormone disruption likely played an important role in the metamorphosis delay as the T3:T4 ratio was lowest in tadpoles raised in young, tailings-affected wetlands. Our findings suggest tailings wetlands become less toxic with age, and that these amphibians will be able to complete their life cycle in tailing wetlands that have sufficiently detoxified with age. - This work provides guidance for reclamation of oil sands tailings and shows the usefulness of frogs and caging studies in environmental toxicology.

Hersikorn, Blair D., E-mail: blair.hersikorn@usask.c [Toxicology Centre, University of Saskatchewan, 44 Campus Drive, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, S7N 5B3 (Canada); Smits, Judit E.G., E-mail: judit.smits@ucalgary.c [Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Calgary, 3280 Hospital Drive NW, Calgary, Alberta, T2N 4Z6 (Canada)

2011-02-15

349

Compromised metamorphosis and thyroid hormone changes in wood frogs (Lithobates sylvaticus) raised on reclaimed wetlands on the Athabasca oil sands  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The wet landscape approach to oil sands tailings reclamation in the Athabasca Oil Sands region involves creating wetlands from fluid tailings in mined-out pits. We measured time to metamorphosis, thyroid hormone status, and detoxification enzyme (EROD) induction in Wood frog (Lithobates sylvaticus) tadpoles raised on reclaimed oil sands wetlands of different ages [young (?7 yr) vs. old (>7 yr)] and compared data with tadpoles raised on reference (control) wetlands. Metamorphosis was delayed or never occurred in tadpoles raised in young tailings; those exposed to older tailings developed similarly to those in reference wetlands. Thyroid hormone disruption likely played an important role in the metamorphosis delay as the T3:T4 ratio was lowest in tadpoles raised in young, tailings-affected wetlands. Our findings suggest tailings wetlands become less toxic with age, and that these amphibians will be able to complete their life cycle in tailing wetlands that have sufficiently detoxified with age. - This work provides guidance for reclamation of oil sands tailings and shows the usefulness of frogs and caging studies in environmental toxicology.

350

War against Rape (WAR): The Experience of an Activist Group in Karachi in Raising Awareness of Sexual Crimes against Women.  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper describes the experiences of an activist group in Karachi (Pakistan) in raising awareness of sexual crimes against women, pursuant to a rape of a professional woman which occurred during an armed robbery. It describes how, since rape was regarded as rare or nonexistent in a conservative, Islamic society, the efforts of the Women's…

Zaman, Riffat Moazam

351

Effect of Plastic Tarps Over Raised-beds and Potassium Thiosulfate in Furrows on Chloropicrin Emissions from Drip Fumigated Fields  

Science.gov (United States)

Plastic tarps are commonly used in raised bed strawberry production to minimize emissions of preplant soil fumigants and are left in place throughout the growing season as part of the standard cultural practices. Use of tarps with lower permeability or soil amendments with chemical such as thiosulf...

352

Entrevista/Interview: Q: How to Raise Money for Your Hispanic Students? A: Involve Your Alumni and Their Corporate Contacts.  

Science.gov (United States)

An interview with Raul Vargas, the director of the University of Southern California's Office for Mexican American Programs is presented. The office provides scholarships for some of USC's Hispanic undergraduates, raises scholarship money through alumni and corporate contacts, and acts as a liaison between the university and the Hispanic…

Taylor, Karla

1983-01-01

353

Subject-to-Subject Raising and the Syntax of Tense in L2 Spanish: A Full Access Approach  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper investigates the acquisition of syntax in L2 grammars. We tested adult L2 speakers of Spanish (English L1) on the feature specification of T(ense), which is different in English and Spanish in so-called subject-to-subject raising structures. We present experimental results with the verb parecer "to seem/to appear" in different…

Campos-Dintrans, Gonzalo; Pires, Acrisio; Rothman, Jason

2014-01-01

354

Raising Students' Awareness of Cross-Cultural Contrastive Rhetoric in English Writing via an E-Learning Course  

Science.gov (United States)

This study investigated the potential impact of e-learning on raising overseas students' cultural awareness and explored the possibility of creating an interactive learning environment for them to improve their English academic writing. The study was based on a comparison of Chinese and English rhetoric in academic writing, including a comparison…

Xing, Minjie; Wang, Jinghui; Spencer, Kenneth

2008-01-01

355

Does It Really Take a Whole Village To Raise a Child? Mixing Metaphor and Meaning in the Educational Partnerships Program.  

Science.gov (United States)

In the course of evaluating the Educational Partnerships Program of the Office of Educational Research and Improvement, researchers often heard the aphorism "It takes a whole village to raise a child." The village image appeared a powerful metaphor for program participants. This paper develops the hypothesis that the language and metaphors used by…

Tushnet, Naida C.

356

Microsatellite based genetic diversity and relationships among ten Creole and commercial cattle breeds raised in Brazil  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Brazil holds the largest commercial cattle populations worldwide. Local cattle breeds can be classified according to their origin, as exotic or Creole. Exotic breeds imported in the last 100 years, both zebuine and taurine, currently make up the bulk of the intensively managed populations. Locally adapted Creole breeds, originated from cattle introduced by the European conquerors derive from natural selection and events of breed admixture. While historical knowledge exists on the Brazilian Creole breeds very little is known on their genetic composition. The objective of this study was to assess the levels of genetic diversity, phylogenetic relationships and patterns of taurine/zebuine admixture among ten cattle breeds raised in Brazil. Results Significant reduction of heterozygosity exists due both to within-population inbreeding and to breed differentiation in both subspecies (taurine and zebuine. For taurine breeds the number of markers that contribute to breed differentiation is larger than for zebuine. A consistently similar number of alleles was seen in both subspecies for all microsatellites. Four Creole breeds were the most genetically diverse followed by the zebuine breeds, the two specialized taurine breeds and the Creole Caracu. Pairwise genetic differentiation were all significant indicating that all breeds can be considered as genetically independent entities. A STRUCTURE based diagram indicated introgression of indicine genes in the local Creole breeds and suggested that occasional Creole introgression can be detected in some Zebuine animals. Conclusion This study reports on a comprehensive study of the genetic structure and diversity of cattle breeds in Brazil. A significant amount of genetic variation is maintained in the local cattle populations. The genetic data show that Brazilian Creole breeds constitute an important and diverse reservoir of genetic diversity for bovine breeding and conservation. The genetic data was able to shed light on a number of issues related to the local breeds origin and structure. The Brazilian Creole breeds are all important and viable targets for conservation for they display peculiar traits both phenotypic and of cultural and historical nature that deserve conservation efforts.

Almeida Leonardo D

2007-12-01

357

Raising awareness for research on earth walls, and earth scientific aspects  

Science.gov (United States)

A conference to raise awareness In the Netherlands, little research on earth walls has been done. To improve attention for earth walls, a number of organisations, including Geoheritage NL, organized a conference at the RCE, the Cultural Heritage Agency of the Netherlands. The conference* presented a state-of-the-art of research done. The book with the presentations, and extra case studies added, was published in December 2012. The book concludes with a research action list, including earth science research, and can be downloaded freely from the internet. It has English summaries. The earth science aspects Historical earth walls do not only add cultural value to a landscape, but also geodiversity value. Apart from geomorphological aspects, the walls contain information about past land- and climate conditions: - They cover up a former topography, a past landscape. A relevant source of scientific information where lands are levelled, as is the case in many parts of The Netherlands; - The soil formation under the earth wall is a reference soil. The soil formation in the top of the wall gives insight in the rate of soil formation in relationship with the age and parent material of the wall; - The soil profiles of different age have ecological significance. Older walls with a more pronounced soil formation often hold forest flora that has disappeared from the surrounding environment, such as historical bush or tree species, autogenetic DNA material or a specific soil fauna; - The materials in the earth walls tell about the process of wall-building. Paleosols and sedimentary structures in the earth walls, in the gullies and colluvial fans along the walls contain information about past land management and climate. - The eroded appearance of the earth walls is part of their history, and contain information about past management and land conditions, has ecological relevance, for example for insects, and is often visually more interesting. Insight in the rates of erosion are important for earth wall maintenance. A reconnaissance study of earth science aspects of earth walls in Ede The poster further presents a reconnaissance study in the municipality Ede describing differences in morphology, geology and soil profile development. E.g. totally black plaggen A-like horizons occur over 1 m thick, as well as differences in brown B-horizons from 0 cm, 2-3 cm to 15-20 cm. Inferred from cultural data, 2-3 cm B-horizons have an age of about two - three hundred years. Reference Henk Baas, Bert Groenwoudt, Pim Jungerius, Hans Renes (eds.), 2012. Tot hier toe en niet verder - historische wallen in het Nederlandse landschap., RCE - Cultural Heritage Agency of the Netherlands, Amersfoort (includes English summaries)

van den Ancker, Hanneke; Jungerius, Pieter Dirk; Baas, Henk; Groenewoudt, Bert; Peen, Charlotte

2013-04-01

358

Grammatical consciousness-raising: a problem-solving, process-focused approach  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available How can we address the teaching of English as a second language in South African secondary schools given what we know about the nature of language acquisition, learners' lack of exposure to mother tongue English speakers and their widely divergent language experience at primary school/eve!? This paper argues that grammatical consciousness-raising should be the basis of the secondary school syllabus. Current syllabuses do not adequately consider language acquisition processes. Although their aims are defined as 'communicative: syllabuses continue to focus on what language should be taught, with the result that they remain essentially lists of structures and functions. Syllabuses should be completely redesigned to develop a coherent process-focused, problemsolving approach to second language teaching. At the moment there is a distinct reluctance to make any definitive pronouncements about the place of language instruction in the classroom. This has a detrimental effect on both teachers and learners. The only way to cope with the developing language needs of the learner in the secondary school is through a more conscious study of how language is used in natural discourse. A more deliberate language control on the part of the learner will enhance the efficacy of extensive listening, speaking, reading and writing activities designed to supply input which is a necessary but not sufficient criterion for acquisition at this leveL Hoe kan ons die onderrig van Engels as 'n tweede taal in Suid-Afrikaanse sekondere skole aanspreek, gegee ons kennis van die aard van taalverwerwing, die leerders se gebrek aan blootstelling aan Engels-moederlaalsprekers en hul uiteenlopende taalondervinding op laerskoolvlak? Hierdie arlikel voer aan dat grammatikale bewustheidsopskerping die basis van die sekondere skoolleerplan behoorl te wees. Huidige leerplanne neem nie taalverwerwingsprosesse voldoende in ag nie. Alhoewel hulle doelstellings as kommunikatief beskryf word, fokus leerplanne steeds op wafter taalinhoude onderrig moet word. Gevolglik bly leerplanne hoofsaaklik lyste van strukture en funksies. Leerplanne behoorl heeltemal herontwerp te word om 'n samehangende proses-gefokusde, probleemoplossingsbenadering tot tweede taalonderrig te ontwikkel. Tans is daar 'n duidelike onwilligheid om enige definitiewe uitspraak te !ewer oor die plek van taalonderrig in die klaskamer. Dit het 'n nadelige uitwerking op onderwysers en ook die leerders. Die enigste manier waarop die ontwikkelende taalbehoeftes van die sekondere skoolleerling geakkommodeer kan word, is deur 'n meer bewuste studie te maak van hoe taal in 'n natuurlike diskoers gebruik word. 'n Meer doelbewuste taalbeheer aan die kant van die leerder sal die doeltreffendheid van ekstensiewe luister-, praat-, lees- en skryfaktiwiteite bevorder. Hierdie aktiwiteite verskaf die nodige taalinsette, maar is op sigself onvoldoende om taalverwerwing op hierdie vlak te verseker.

Wendy R. Kilfoil

2013-02-01

359

Seven steps to raise world security. Op-Ed, published in the Finanical Times  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In recent years, three phenomena have radically altered the security landscape. They are the emergence of a nuclear black market, the determined efforts by more countries to acquire technology to produce the fissile material usable in nuclear weapons and the clear desire of terrorists to acquire weapons of mass destruction. The IAEA has been trying to solve these new problems with existing tools. But for every step forward, we have exposed vulnerabilities in the system. The system itself - the regime that implements non-proliferation treaty needs reinforcement. Some of the necessary remedies can be taken in New York at the Meeting to be held in May, but only if governments are ready to act. With seven straightforward steps, and without amending the treaty, this conference could reach a milestone in strengthening world security. The first step: put a five-year hold on additional facilities for uranium enrichment and plutonium separation. Second, speed up existing efforts, led by the US global threat reduction initiative and others, to modify the research reactors worldwide operating with highly enriched uranium - particularly those with metal fuel that could be readily employed as bomb material. Third, raise the bar for inspection standards by establishing the 'additional protocol' as the norm for verifying compliance with the NPT. Fourth, call on the United Nations Security Council to act swiftly and decisively in the case of any country that withdraws from the NPT, in terms of the threat the withdrawal poses to international peace and security. Fifth, urge states to act on the Security Council's recent resolution 1540, to pursue and prosecute any illicit trading in nuclear material and technology. Sixth, call on the five nuclear weapon states party to the NPT to accelerate implementation of their 'unequivocal commitment' to nuclear disarmament, building on efforts such as the 2002 Moscow treaty between Russia and the US. Last, acknowledge the volatility of longstanding tensions that give rise to proliferation, in regions such as the Middle East and the Korean peninsula, and take action to resolve existing security problems and, where needed, provide security assurances. None of these steps will work in isolation. Each requires a concession from someone. But with leadership from all sides, this package of proposals will create gains for everyone. This opportunity will come again - in 2010. But given current trends, the international community cannot afford to wait another five years

360

Children with acute rheumatic fever and acute poststreptococcal glomerulonephritis and their families in a subtropical zone: a three-year prospective comparative epidemiological study.  

Science.gov (United States)

Over a period of three years (December 1980 through November 1983) the incidence and epidemiological features of acute rheumatic fever (ARF) and acute poststreptococcal glomerulonephritis (AGN) were studied prospectively in two regional hospitals in Kuwait serving a childhood population of 225,000. The study included 146 children with ARF and 256 family members and 125 children with AGN and 199 family members. The annual incidence of ARF and AGN were 19.6 and 17.8 respectively per 100,000 childhood population (7.3 and 6.7 respectively per 100,000 total population). Both diseases occurred sporadically throughout the year with a similar peak in winter. The clinical profile of ARF was essentially similar to that reported from temperate climates, and AGN followed mainly throat infections. Microscopic haematuria was detected in ten ARF family members (4%) and in 20 AGN family members (10%). Haematuria and low C3 were found in two (0.8%) and in seven (3.5%) ARF and AGN family members respectively. Of the nine family members with subclinical nephritis the group C streptococcus was isolated from three (33%). The geometric mean titre (GMT) of antistreptolysin O (ASO) and of antihyaluronidase (AH) in ARF and AGN patients were markedly elevated. Although the median age of ARF and AGN family members were 13 and 15 years respectively, yet the GMT of ASO and AH in the family members were slightly higher than those of the normal childhood population. PMID:3440666

Majeed, H A; Khuffash, F A; Sharda, D C; Farwana, S S; el-Sherbiny, A F; Ghafour, S Y

1987-12-01

 
 
 
 
361

Inquiry into the Central Asia Institute's financials raises questions about oversight of charities  

Science.gov (United States)

Greg Mortenson and our false ideals about social changehttp://www.csmonitor.com/Commentary/Opinion/2011/0425/Greg-Mortenson-and-our-false-ideals-about-social-changeThe Greg Mortenson Scandal: One University's Bitter Cup of Teahttp://www.time.com/time/nation/article/0,8599,2066239,00.htmlThe Greg Mortenson We Knewhttp://www.newwest.net/topic/article/the_greg_mortenson_we_knew/C39/L39/Greg Mortenson: 60 Minuteshttp://www.cbsnews.com/video/watch/?id=7363068nCharity Navigatorhttp://www.charitynavigator.org/Several weeks ago, author Greg Mortenson found himself in a bit of an unwanted media firestorm. Mortenson wrote the tremendously popular book "Three Cups of Tea" about his time spent in Central Asia in the early 1990s. The work has inspired others to donate to his organization (the Central Asia Institute), which is dedicated to building girls' schools in Pakistan. Unfortunately, it appears that Mortenson may have fabricated some of the details of his original trek to the region, and many literary commentators are quite upset. The other thread of the story belongs to the world of charitable giving, and a number of people are even more upset by the concerns raised about Central Asia Institute's finances than by any unseemly fabrications in Mortenson's book. The USA Today's Sandra Block reported this week that Daniel Borochoff, founder of the American Institute of Philanthropy had requested financial information from the Central Asia Institute in 2009, and found out that the organization did not have any audited financial statements at that time. In a piece for the Christian Science Monitor, Courtney E. Martin and John Cary talk about the problems of "do gooder celebrity" which seem to have incredible influence on certain aspects of the non-profit world, including Mortenson's own organization. It is a story that is still very much playing out, and one that those in the non-profit world will be following closely. [KMG]The first link will take interested parties to the piece mentioned above, from the USA Today's Sandra Block, about the investigation into the Central Asia Institute. The second link leads to the other aforementioned piece in this Monday's Christian Science Monitor regarding "do gooder celebrity". Moving on, the third link will take users to a piece from last week's Time magazine about an award given to Mortenson by the University of Louisville which is now under review. The fourth link will whisk interested parties to an opinion piece by Dennis Higman (writing for the New West literary website) about his relationship and encounters with Mortenson. The fifth link leads to a recent investigative piece from 60 Minutes on Mortenson and the controversy surrounding his book "Three Cups of Tea" and the Institute. For those who might be considering a gift to a charitable organization, the sixth link leads to the Charity Navigator website. Here visitors can search for information about charities of interest and view top ten lists such as "10 Highly-Rated Charities with Low Paid CEOs".

Grinnell, Max

2011-04-29

362

Education and Raising Awareness of Seismic Risk in the Black Sea Basin  

Science.gov (United States)

The Project "Black Sea Earthquake Safety Net(work)" ESNET has the intention to educate and raise awareness of seismic risk in the Black Sea Basin in four countries: Moldova, Romania, Bulgaria and Turkey. The project is financed through "The Black Sea Basin Joint Operational Programme", an EU operational programmes under European Neighborhood & Partnership Instrument (ENPI). The programme is financed by ENPI. The participation of Turkey is financed by Instrument for Pre-accession Assistance. It is implemented during the period 2007 - 2013. The project wants to contribute to the prevention of natural disasters generated by earthquakes in Black Sea Basin by developing a joint monitoring and intervention concept. All the countries involved in the project have their own studies, strategies, prevention and intervention systems in case of earthquakes, but until now there has not been an integrated approach so far in the Black Sea Basin. Given the cross-border character of seismic activity, it is necessary to have a cross-border approach on prevention, monitoring and intervention in case of earthquakes. Main objectives : 1. The assessment of the disaster potential, with accent on the seismic risk degree and the earthquakes effects in the intervention area. For achieving the main objective is to have an accurate and up-to-date assessment of the potential of disasters provoked by earthquakes in the project area/regions. This assessment will be carried out at national level and will be used in designing the common concept/approach for dealing with earthquakes at regional level, thus ensuring the cross-border character of the objective. 2.To develop an integrated seismic monitoring and intervention concept. This integrated concept, built on the basis of the previous objective, will have a cross-border relevance and is at the core of the action. The monitoring and intervention in case of earthquakes will be coordinated among the participating countries based on this, thus a more effective and efficient approach being ensured. 3. To increase the capacity of local institutions emergency intervention units for joint response activities in case of disasters. By involving the local emergency units and public administration in the project activities, especially in trainings, conferences and consultations, a better cooperation at cross-border level will be achieved. Step by step, the respective bodies will increase the cooperation and will benefit from each others expertise. Target groups : Research institutions and universities; Emergency intervention units; Local public authorities; NGOs. Final beneficiaries of the project: the population in the regions of the project. The project has a high educational perspective through its: a)training activities and b)training tools applied in the process. A) the training of 20 people from the emergency units from each country (80 in total) by experts in risk management. B) The Seismic Safety Web Portal of the project presenting all activities, maps and materials posted by members of the network agreement and not only. Also for changing expertise, opinions and long distance conferences is available a special software communication tool. An educational book is printed in 3 languages to be distributed in partner countries with main results.

Florin Balan, Stefan; Alcaz, Vasile; Trifonova, Petya; Uker, Nalan; Tataru, Dragos

2014-05-01

363

Water saving in chufa cultivation using flat raised beds and drip irrigation  

Science.gov (United States)

Chufa (Cyperus esculentus L. var. sativus), also known as tiger nut, is a typical crop in the Region of Valencia (Spain). Its tubers are used to produce a beverage called horchata. Chufa has been cultivated traditionally in ridges and furrow irrigated. Currently, the quality of water used is acceptable, there are no limitations on supply, and water is not expensive; therefore, large amounts of water are used. The European Water Framework Directive 2000/60 is based on the precautionary principle, considering preventive action for measures to be taken; thus, water use is an issue to improve. Moreover, drought periods are becoming more frequent and extended, and water is being diverted to other uses. In this two year study (2007-2008), we analysed how yield and irrigation water use efficiency (IWUE) are affected by two cultivation factors: planting strategy and irrigation system. Three planting strategies were analysed: ridges (R) and flat raised beds, with two (B2) and three (B3) plant rows along them, while two irrigation systems were compared, furrow (FI) and drip irrigation (DI). Within the beds, the effect of the position of the plant row was considered, differing among plants grown in the north (n), central (c), and south (s) rows. Distances between ridge and bed axes were 60, 80 and 120 cm for R, B2 and B3, respectively. Irrigation was based on the Volumetric Soil Water Content (VSWC), which was continuously monitored with capacitance sensors (ECH2O EC-5 in FI and multidepth capacitance sensors C-Probe in DI). Each irrigation session started when the VSWC in R dropped to 60% and 80% of field capacity in FI and DI, respectively. Each DI session lasted 60 min in 2007; while in 2008 the installation was automated, stopping each session when the sum of the VSWC at 10, 20, and 30 cm soil depth reached its corresponding field capacity value. With both irrigation systems, beds were irrigated simultaneously with ridges and with the same irrigation duration. Plants from the different plant rows were sampled periodically and later fractionated into leaves, roots, and tubers, to examine the evolution of the different plant organs. The results showed that there were no differences among planting strategies in 2007; however, in 2008, R produced lower yields than the two types of beds. The interaction between the experimental years and the irrigation strategy did affect the yield significantly, obtaining higher yields with DI than with FI, which led to higher yields in 2007 than in 2008. Regarding the IWUE, DI gave the highest values, especially in 2008. Ridges led to the highest IWUE with DI, and the lowest IWUE with FI. When comparing the different planting lines, the highest yield was obtained in the southern row. It can be concluded that modifications to the planting strategy and the irrigation system within the traditional cultivation practices of the chufa crop would increase IWUE and lead to major water savings.

Pascual-Seva, N.; San Bautista, A.; López-Galarza, S.; Maroto, J. V.; Pascual, B.

2012-04-01

364

Failure to detect bovine viral diarrhea virus in necropsied farm-raised white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in Pennsylvania.  

Science.gov (United States)

Between January 1 and December 31, 2005 gross and histologic examinations were performed on carcasses of 61 farm-raised white-tailed deer originating from Pennsylvania. Single-tube real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (real-time RT-PCR) for the detection of bovine viral diarrhea virus type 1 (BVDV-1) and type 2 (BVDV-2) was performed on each animal. Virus isolation was performed on tissue samples from 25 of 61 animals. Immunohistochemical (IHC) staining of ear-notch skin to identify BVDV antigen was performed on each animal. All tissues samples tested negative for both BVDV-1 and BVDV-2 by real-time RT-PCR, virus isolation, and IHC. Gross or histopathologic lesions suggestive of BVDV infection were not detected. Results of this study suggest that BVD is not a common cause of mortality in farm-raised white-tailed deer in Pennsylvania. PMID:17459862

Brooks, Jason W; Key, Douglas W; Hattel, Arthur L; Hovingh, Ernest P; Peterson, Ryan; Shaw, Daniel P; Fisher, Jenny S

2007-05-01

365

Effect of Antibodies Raised in Bovine and Guineapigs on The Genetic Characters of Seroytpe Asia1 FMD Virus  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In the present work, the effect of antibodies (raised in Bovine against IND 63/72 and in Guineapigs against IND 63/72 and IND 491/97 on foot-and-mouth disease serotype Asia1 vaccine strain IND 63/72 was compared by analyzing the data obtained in nucleotide sequencing. The Nr viruses (neutralization resistant viruses which were selected by growing them in the presence of antibodies (Bovine Vaccinate Serum, BVS and Guineapig Serum, GPS showed certain characteristic features like common changes in the structural protein coding P1 region of this virus. This shows that the virus responds equally to the antibodies raised in both bovine (natural host and guineapig (experimental host. The result hereIn extends the finding that selection exerted by host antibody also plays a major role in the rapid evolution of FMD Virus serotype Asia1.

A. Sanyal

2006-01-01

366

Comparison of lipid and fatty acid profiles of commercially raised pigs with laboratory pigs and wild-ranging warthogs  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO South Africa | Language: English Abstract in english The perception that commercial livestock meat products have adverse nutritional effects, especially from the point of view of lipids and cardiovascular disease, is linked to assumptions concerning their inherent lipid profile. However, when commercially reared domestic pig meat samples were compared [...] with those from laboratory pigs or wild-ranging warthogs, the warthog and laboratory pig samples shared similar lipid profiles, whereas the commercially reared pig samples were different. Pork is not inherently high in saturated fatty acids, unless this has been induced by the current intensive agricultural practices employed in raising the animal. We conclude that problems of high saturated fatty acid content in commercially raised pork could be ameliorated by appropriate changes to current intensive animal production methods.

L-B., Fine; B.C., Davidson.

2008-08-01

367

Competition between Spagnum magellanicum and Eriophorum angustifolium as affected by raised CO{sub 2} and increased N deposition  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The competition between peat mosses (Sphagnum) and vascular plants as affected by raised CO{sub 2} and increased N deposition was studied in a glass house experiment by exposing peat monoliths with monocultures and mixtures of Sphagnum magellanicum and Eriophorum angustifolium to ambient (350 ppmv) or raised (560 ppmv) atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentrations, combined with low (no N addition) or high (5 g m{sup -2} yr{sup -1} added) N deposition. Growth of the two species was monitored for three growing seasons. The presence of Eriophorum did not affect Sphagnum biomass, because Eriophorum density did not become high enough to severely shade the moss surface. In contrast, Sphagnum had a negative effect on Eriophorum biomass, particularly on the number of flowering stems. Possibly, the presence of a living Sphagnum layer decreased nutrient availability to Eriophorum by immobilising nutrients mineralised from the peat. Raised CO{sub 2} and/or increased N deposition did not change these competitive relationships between Sphagnum and Eriophorum, but had independent effects. Raised CO{sub 2} had a positive effect both on Sphagnum and Eriophorum biomass, though on Eriophorum the effect was transient, probably because of P limitation. Nitrogen addition had a direct negative effect on Sphagnum height growth in the first growing season, but by the third year an increased shoot density had cancelled this out, so no N effect on Sphagnum biomass was present at the end of the experiment. The response of Eriophorum to N addition was small; N availability appeared not to limit its growth. (au)

Heijmans, M.M.P.D.; Klees, H.; Berendse, F. [Wageningen Univ., Dept. of Environmental Sciences, Nature Conservation and Plant Ecology Group, Wageningen (Netherlands)

2002-06-01

368

Prevalence of antibiotic-resistant E. coli in retail chicken: comparing conventional, organic, kosher, and raised without antibiotics  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Retail poultry products are known sources of antibiotic-resistant Escherichia coli, a major human health concern. Consumers have a range of choices for poultry, including conventional, organic, kosher, and raised without antibiotics (RWA) – designations that are perceived to indicate differences in quality and safety. However, whether these categories vary in the frequency of contamination with antibiotic-resistant E. coli is unknown. We examined the occurrence of antibiotic-resista...

Millman, Jack M.; Waits, Kara; Grande, Heidi; Marks, Ann R.; Marks, Jane C.; Price, Lance B.; Hungate, Bruce A.

2013-01-01

369

RAISING OF PEDAGOGICAL MASTERSHIP STANDARD BY E-LEARNING / Zvyšovanie úrovne pedagogického majstrovstva prostredníctvom e-learningu  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Raising of pedagogical mastership in school is inherently part of everyone's pedagogical process. Contribution oneself dealt with new form of teaching -e-learning and its using in pedagogical process. It gives some informations about using U lern as supporting tool by multimedial materials and documents creation for students, it describes general organizational process by using of these documents and by appraising students through electronic testing. In contribution has found visual demonstra...

Teplická Katarína

2010-01-01

370

COMPARISON OF MORPHOLOGICAL AND REPRODUCTIVE PROPERTIES OF LIPPIZANER MARES IN STUD FARM RAISING AND ON FAMILY FARMS  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper aimed at determination of defferences in morphological and reproductive properties of Lippizaner breed blood mares raised in stud farm ?akovo and on family farms. Results of morphological properties investigation indicate better development of investigated body measures of a stud farm mares, except chest width that was more pronounced in family farm mares. Significant differences were determined with withers height (cattle tape), back height and cannon bone circumference whereas d...

Tomo Rastija; Draženka Gutzmirtl; Zvonko Antunovi?; Ivan Kneževi?; Mirjana Baban

2000-01-01

371

‘Bridging the Gap. Raising Public Awareness of and Engagement in Natural and Cultural Heritage through Outdoor Education’.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Application of outdoor education to cultural and natural heritage issues has received very little attention to date. While research in the fields of heritage and culture/nature relations addresses the connections between cultures, environments and societies, this is largely neglected in outdoor education studies. Therefore, the overall aim of this research is to establish the possibility of raising awareness of the importance of and teaching about natural and cultural heritage through outdoor...

Litwa, Katarzyna Eliza

2012-01-01

372

Analysis of Cattle Raising and Institutional Perspectives Regarding Collective Action in the El Ocote Biosphere Reserve, Chiapas, Mexico  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The objective of this study was to analyze the perceptions of representatives of government agencies and educational institutions regarding problems related to cattle raising in the El Ocote Biosphere Reserve. Through a structural analysis, we identified and prioritized problems which due to their joint relevance, require immediate attention in order to elaborate inter-institutional plans of action which would contribute to the sustainability of cattle raising systems in natural protected areas. Problems in the zone of power (fairly uninfluenced by other problems but which highly influence other problems were the following: lack of inter-institutional coordination with a motricity index of 10.7% and a dependence index of 3.31%, lack of public policies which promote environmentally friendly cattle raising with a motricity index of 9.09% and a dependence index of 7.74% and lack of organization among producers with a motricity index of 8.26% and a dependence index of 4.13%. A prioritization of the problems illustrates the importance of the institutions working together to seek solutions to those problems of greater motrocity in order to transcend currently prevalent force fields. Through collective action, the institutions should collectively propose actions and strategies to decision makers, legislators and other political actors in favor of sustainable cattle raising. Furthermore, there is a need for institutions to foment organization among producers and institutions in order to enhance the impact of projects. Meanwhile, institutions should transcend unilateral interests which often hinder efforts of representatives of institutions which work within the El Ocote Biosphere Reserve.

L. Rodriguez-Larramendi

2012-01-01

373

Raised plasma glutathione S-transferase values in hyperthyroidism and in hypothyroid patients receiving thyroxine replacement: evidence for hepatic damage.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Using plasma glutathione S-transferase measurements hepatocellular integrity was assessed in groups of hyperthyroid and hypothyroid patients before and after treatment. Ten of 14 hyperthyroid patients had clearly raised plasma glutathione S-transferase values at presentation and in each patient treatment with either iodine-131 or carbimazole resulted in a significant fall in glutathione S-transferase. The eight hypothyroid patients had normal glutathione S-transferase values at presentation a...

Beckett, G. J.; Kellett, H. A.; Gow, S. M.; Hussey, A. J.; Hayes, J. D.; Toft, A. D.

1985-01-01

374

Raised serum urate concentration as risk factor for premature mortality in middle aged men: relation to death from cancer.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Low serum cholesterol concentrations are associated with deaths from cancer. This association was found in a prospective study of middle aged men in Malmö and consideration of possible explanations for the lowering of serum cholesterol prompted an analysis of serum urate in relation to deaths from cancer. A total of 127 of the 7725 participants in the Malmö study had died since screening. A weakly positive but significant correlation between raised serum urate concentration and total mortal...

Petersson, B.; Trell, E.

1983-01-01

375

The WBC raising effect and the side effects of LPS-701 injection of cervix cancer patients receiving radiotherapy  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper reports that LPS-701, an endotoxin extracted and purified by the authors' laboratory from Salmonella typhoid bacilli, has a marked effect on raising the white blood cell count of cervix cancer patients receiving radiotherapy, while the systemic and local side effects are slight. It is suggested that injection of LPS-701 can be used as a non-specific immunological stimulating agent for patients receiving radiotherapy. (Auth.)

376

Occurrence of heavy metals and antibiotic resistance in bacteria from internal organs of american bullfrog (Rana catesbeiana) raised in Malaysia  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A total of 40 bacteria have been successfully isolated from internal organs of the American bullfrog (Rana catesbeiana) raised in Malaysia, namely, eight isolates of Aeromonas spp., 21 of Edwardsiella spp., six of Flavobacterium spp. and five of Vibrio spp. In terms of antibiotic susceptibility testing, each isolate was tested against 21 antibiotics, resulting in 482 (57.3%) cases of sensitivity and 61 (7.3%) cases of partial sensitivity. Meanwhile, 297 (35.4%) bacterial isolates were registe...

Sw, Lee; Najiah, M.; Wendy, W.; Nadirah, M.; Sh, Faizah

2009-01-01

377

Development and validation of rabbit polyclonal antibodies raised against uncoupling proteins of gilthead sea bream, Sparus aurata  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Uncoupling proteins (UCP) are mitochondrial transporters that uncouple oxidative phosphorylation by the net discharge of proton gradient. This protein family is widely distributed in animal phyla with a core group of three UCP genes that are expressed in a tissue-specific manner. Recently, UCP1 and UCP3 have been molecularly characterized in gilthead sea bream and their transcriptional regulation has been addressed in different physiological conditions. This raises the hypothesis of a role of...

Bermejo-nogales, Azucena; Borrel-roda, Miriam; Pe?rez-sa?nchez, Jaume

2011-01-01

378

The gut bacterial communities associated with lab-raised and field-collected ants of Camponotus fragilis (Formicidae: Formicinae).  

Science.gov (United States)

Camponotus is the second largest ant genus and known to harbor the primary endosymbiotic bacteria of the genus Blochmannia. However, little is known about the effect of diet and environment changes on the gut bacterial communities of these ants. We investigated the intestinal bacterial communities in the lab-raised and field-collected ants of Camponotus fragilis which is found in the southwestern United States and northern reaches of Mexico. We determined the difference of gut bacterial composition and distribution among the crop, midgut, and hindgut of the two types of colonies. Number of bacterial species varied with the methods of detection and the source of the ants. Lab-raised ants yielded 12 and 11 species using classical microbial culture methods and small-subunit rRNA genes (16S rRNAs) polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment-length polymorphism analysis, respectively. Field-collected ants yielded just 4 and 1-3 species using the same methods. Most gut bacterial species from the lab-raised ants were unevenly distributed among the crop, midgut, and hindgut, and each section had its own dominant bacterial species. Acetobacter was the prominent bacteria group in crop, accounting for about 55 % of the crop clone library. Blochmannia was the dominant species in midgut, nearly reaching 90 % of the midgut clone library. Pseudomonas aeruginosa dominated the hindgut, accounting for over 98 % of the hindgut clone library. P. aeruginosa was the only species common to all three sections. A comparison between lab-raised and field-collected ants, and comparison with other species, shows that gut bacterial communities vary with local environment and diet. The bacterial species identified here were most likely commensals with little effect on their hosts or mild pathogens deleterious to colony health. PMID:24748441

He, Hong; Wei, Cong; Wheeler, Diana E

2014-09-01

379

Should governments in Europe be more aggressive in pushing for gender equality to raise fertility? The first "NO"  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper takes the "no" side in the debate on the question posed in the title. The paper assumes that the dual-earner/dual-carer household model is the most likely aim of policies that push aggressively for gender equality in order to raise fertility. Five objections are discussed: the model does not necessarily lead to a fertility increase; aggressiveness will lead to an imbalance of labor supply and demand, and is likely to confront slowly changing cultural norms; similar polici...

Dimiter Philipov

2011-01-01

380

Raising livestock in resource-poor communities of the North West Province of South Africa - a participatory rural appraisal study  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A participatory research model was used in six village communities in the Central Region of the North West Province of South Africa in order to achieve the following broad objectives : to obtain information on the challenges owners face in raising livestock in these areas and to evaluate the livestock owners' level of knowledge of internal parasites in their animals. Information obtained at participatory workshops clearly indicated a need for improvements in water supply, schools, job creatio...

Getchell, J. K.; Vatta, A. F.; Motswatswe, P. W.; Krecek, R. C.; Moerane, R.; Pell, A. N.; Tucker, T. W.; Leshomo, S.

2012-01-01

 
 
 
 
381

Effect of Raising the Environmental Awareness on Reducing Kitchen Water Consumption by Jordanian Families Living in Amman City  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Problem statement: Improper use of water by Jordanian families accombined with acute shortage in water resources. Approach: This study aimed to raise the degree of the environmental awareness regarding the significance of reducing kitchen water consumption of the Jordanian families living in Amman and to provide them with the necessary knowledge and practices about the right practices to reduce water consumption. Results: The results revealed that the average consumption ...

Said, Damanhouri M.; Mazahreh, Ayman S.; Heba Hammad; Al-shawabkeh, Ali F.; Al-saraireh, Khaled S.

2010-01-01

382

Gender-Bending in Virtual Space : Using Voice-Morphing in Second Life to Raise Sociolinguistic Gender Awareness  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper presents further innovative use of virtual worlds under the pilot stages of ASSIS (A Second Step in Second Life), a project funded by Umeå University. One aim of the project is to make use of the affordances offered by Second Life in order to raise sociolinguistic language awareness among teacher trainees and other students studying sociolinguistics. Several experiments have been conducted where creative use of the avatar in combination with so-called “voice-morphing” allowed ...

Deutschmann, Mats; Steinvall, Anders; Lagerstro?m, Anna

2011-01-01

383

Barberry treatment reduces serum anti-heat shock protein 27 and 60 antibody titres and high-sensitivity c-reactive protein in patients with metabolic syndrome: a double-blind, randomized placebo-controlled trial.  

Science.gov (United States)

Metabolic syndrome is an important risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD). The heat shock proteins (HSPs) are associated with risk factors for CVD. The aim of the present study was to survey the effect of barberry on antibody titres to HSPs and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) in patients with metabolic syndrome. In our study, subjects (N=106, 79 women and 27 men, 18-65 years old) with metabolic syndrome were randomized into two groups: a group of patients who received three capsules of barberry and a control group who received three capsules of placebo for 6 weeks. Antibodies against HSPs 27, 60/65 and 70, hs-CRP and lipid profile were determined in patients before (week 0) and after (week 6) intervention. spss software (version 16.0; Inc, Chicago, IL) was used for data analysis. Results showed that barberry had no significant effect on serum level of anti-HSPs 65 and 70. But there was a significant decrease in anti-HSP 27 in both case and control groups (p=0.001 and pgroups). Barberry decreased significantly anti-HSP 60 in the case group (p=0.03). High-sensitivity CRP was decreased non-significantly (p=0.17) in the case group and increased significantly (p=0.04) in the control group. Barberry decreased significantly low-density lipoprotein and total cholesterol and increased significantly high-density cholesterol (p<0.05). Results of the present study suggested that barberry supplementation in patients with metabolic syndrome decreased significantly anti-HSPs 27 and 60 and hs-CRP levels and improved lipid profile. PMID:24536039

Zilaee, Marzie; Kermany, Tayyebeh; Tavalaee, Shima; Salehi, Maryam; Ghayour-Mobarhan, Majid; Ferns, Gordon A A

2014-08-01

384

Numerical Solution of Three-Dimensional Flow over Angled Backward-Facing Step with Raised Upper Wall  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In the present study, results obtained from three-dimensional incompressible flow over backward-facing step in a rectangular duct using Realizable k-? turbulence model are reported. Effects of step inclination angle have been investigated for ?=30?, 45?, 90? while upper wall of duct kept parallel to the bottom wall and then rose to ?=6?. Reynolds number based on freestream velocity and step height is examined by varying its magnitude in the range of 15,000-64,000. Simulated results are presented for revealing the general flow features and reattachment lengths after a successful validation of the present work with the experimental data of Driver and Seegmiller (1985. It is found that turbulence kinetic energy increases suddenly after the step for both straight and raised upper walls and reaches its maximum at x/h=5 that consistent with the published literature. The size of reattachment lengths increases with the step inclination angle, i.e., maximum reattachment length occurs at 90? for both straight and raised upper walls. It is seen that raising the upper wall leads to longer reattachment lengths.

Seyfettin Bayraktar

2014-01-01

385

Raised D-dimer levels in acute sickle cell crisis and their correlation with chest X-ray abnormalities  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Objective: Quantitation of D-dimer level during a sickling crisis and its correlation with other clinical abnormalities. Design: Prospective longitudinal study. Setting: Armed Forces Hospital, Southern Region, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Patients: Adult patients (12 years and older admitted acutely with a sickle cell crisis who consent to taking part in the study. Candidates may re-participate if they are readmitted with a further acute painful crisis. Results: 36 patients with homozygous sickle cell disease consented to take part in the study. D-dimer levels were raised in 31 (68.9% of 45 episodes of painful crisis of whom 13 had an abnormal chest X-ray. Of those with a normal chest X-ray only one patient had a raised D-dimer level: sensitivity of 92.3%, specificity 40.6%, positive predictive value 38.7% and negative predictive value of 92.9% for an abnormal chest X-ray. Conclusion: D-dimer levels are frequently raised during an acute painful crisis. A normal level has a high negative predictive value for an abnormal chest X-ray.

Hassan, Imad S. A.

2010-01-01

386

Increased decomposition of subsurface peat in Swedish raised bogs:are temperate peatlands still net sinks of carbon?  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available An increased rate of decomposition has been observed in a large number of raised bogs in southern Sweden and elsewhere since the 1970s. The effect is manifest as a discoloured and mucous subsurface peat layer, and there is associated subsidence of mire surfaces. This paper reports the results of a systematic investigation of the phenomenon in 14 raised bogs in southern Sweden, which was carried out between 1997 and 2005. Degree of decomposition, bulk density and ash content were measured and evidence of surface subsidence over recent decades was collected. Shallow peat layers of ‘normal’ appearance could not be found anywhere within the study sites, and all showed the same signs of secondary decomposition. In particular, the ombrotrophic parts of the Komosse Bog Complex appeared to have subsided by at least 150 mm over the last 35 years, i.e. at a rate of approximately 4.3 mm per annum, which is more than four times the average rate of peat formation in circumboreal raised bogs. The changes observed could have been caused by change in any one of a number of factors, e.g. climate, hydrology and rate of nutrient supply; or by a combination of such factors. However it seems most likely that they are attributable to the heavy modern nutrient load, e.g. of dust from anthropogenic sources. There is cause for concern that many high-latitude peatlands may consequently have switched over from being net sinks, to net sources, of atmospheric carbon.

L.G. Franzén

2006-02-01

387

Exposure ethics: does hiv pre-exposure prophylaxis raise ethical problems for the health care provider and policy maker?  

Science.gov (United States)

The last few years have seen dramatic progress in the development of HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP). These developments have been met by ethical concerns. HIV interventions are often thought to be ethically difficult. In a context which includes disagreements over human rights, controversies over testing policies, and questions about sexual morality and individual responsibility, PrEP has been seen as an ethically complex intervention. We argue that this is mistaken, and that in fact, PrEP does not raise new ethical concerns. Some of the questions posed by PrEP are not specific to HIV prophylaxis, but simply standard public health considerations about resource allocation and striking a balance between individual benefit and public good. We consider sexual disinhibition in the context of private prescriptions, and conclude that only unjustified AIDS-exceptionalism or inappropriate moralism about sex supports thinking that PrEP raises new ethical problems. This negative conclusion is significant in a context where supposed ethical concerns about PrEP have been raised, and in the context of HIV exceptionalism. PMID:23796241

Venter, Francois; Allais, Lucy; Richter, Marlise

2014-07-01

388

Anti-Tribbles homolog 2 (TRIB2) autoantibodies in narcolepsy are associated with recent onset of cataplexy  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Recent studies have found increased autoantibodies against Tribbles homolog 2 (anti-TRIB2) and anti-streptolysin O (ASO) in narcolepsy. In this study, we replicated this finding with a primary focus on recent onset cases.

Kawashima, Minae; Lin, Ling

2010-01-01

389

Should governments in Europe be more aggressive in pushing for gender equality to raise fertility? The first "YES"  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Together with three colleagues, I have been asked by the MPIDR to debate the following question: "Should governments in Europe be more aggressive in pushing for gender equality to raise fertility? Setting aside the "lighthearted" side of this "Rostocker Debate," (12 minutes for each speech, one minute for each comment, I saw this as a good opportunity to think about the stakes behind the question. In order to address this complex issue, it is necessary to think about the many "preliminary questions" that we have to ponder before responding: Why should fertility be raised? Are political measures legitimate? Are they efficient? On what basis are we qualified to give "expert" opinions on such a topic? When the question comes to the fore, we as scholars are sometimes asked to provide an answer. It would, of course, be more comfortable not to answer, but our interlocutors (politicians, journalists, teachers, and also funding agencies often want a definite response one way or the other. Even though our position may be a matter of politics as well as a matter of science, we must give an answer. The empirical evidence shows that European countries where gender inequality is lower are also the countries where fertility is the highest. This is the evidence-based response that we can give to that question. European countries need to find a new equilibrium after the end of the baby boom period, when gender equality was very low. In all countries, the empowerment of women is underway, thanks to the economic independence given by work-related income. Increasing gender equality is an efficient way to reduce the opportunity costs of having and raising children, and thus to increase fertility. Finally, "pushing for gender equality" may have many positive effects other than raising fertility, and has few negative side effects. Gender equality is thus a convenient political aim per se; an institutional goal which leaves many political questions open. So, yes, we agree that governments in Europe should be more aggressive in pushing for gender equality to raise fertility!

Laurent Toulemon

2011-02-01

390

Effect of Raising the Environmental Awareness on Reducing Kitchen Water Consumption by Jordanian Families Living in Amman City  

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Full Text Available Problem statement: Improper use of water by Jordanian families accombined with acute shortage in water resources. Approach: This study aimed to raise the degree of the environmental awareness regarding the significance of reducing kitchen water consumption of the Jordanian families living in Amman and to provide them with the necessary knowledge and practices about the right practices to reduce water consumption. Results: The results revealed that the average consumption of kitchen water before the environmental awareness about water consumption was 59.5 L day-1 and after raising the awareness was reduced to 49.8 L day-1, with an average of 9.7 L day-1 which is a very vital indicator. The difference in the consumption were found to be more for the families consisting of (10-14 members where the average differences was 12-14 L day-1, but after environmental awareness differences were all statistically significant with all the other groups of family members. The average difference of consumption by family of members aged from (6-9 was (10-39 L daily and it was statistically significant in the family group of (2-5. The family group of (2-5 showed an average difference of 7.25 L daily. However, the family of with members aged between (15-22 years was the best in making use of raising the degree of environmental awareness to preserve water and reduce its consumption. The study also showed that the differences of consumption were more for the family groups of the average of income (601-1000 JD/month. The study also revealed that there is a positive relationship (0.801 regarding the amount of the consumed water and the number of utensils used through the three meals of day after raising the degree of environmental awareness in this study which shows the necessity of education the consumers to reduce the number of utensils, to reduce the amount of lost water out of consumed water. Conclusion: It can be concluded that raising awareness by holding sessions for the families is about water consumption is a reliable method to rationalize their consumption.

Damanhouri M. Said

2010-01-01

391

Study of the lateral raise in foot wear for the management of medial compartment degenerative joint disease of knee  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A wide spread disease, which may lead the patient to severe outcomes e.g. pain, loss of joint motion, inflexibility and even disability, is Knee osteoarthritis (OA). It is most common among adults of older age and should not be ignored at all. Literature does not show any clear pathogenesis for occurrence of Knee OA, but most of the indications point toward biomechanical stresses which may influence the articular cartilage and sub chondral bone. Objective: The Aim of this study is to become aware of the effects of physical therapy with and without laterally raised footwear in the management of medial knee osteoarthritis. Methodology: We have used experimental comparative study in 35 patients which were randomly selected from Department of Physiotherapy, Fatima Memorial Hospital, Shadman, Lahore. The study consisted of 2 groups, Group I (Experimental Group): In experimental group, patients were treated with laterally raised foot wear and physical therapy both. Group II (Control Group): Whereas in control group patients were treated by physical therapy alone. Kellgren and Lawrence (KL) scale was used to assess radiograph of the knee joints after an anteroposterior weight-bearing standing. The assessment of disease in patients was done by using the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities (WOMAC) Index, Muscle flexibility, Muscle strengthening and Tolerance scales. Results: In group-I the mean age of patients observed was 59.52+-13.66 years and 65+-12.87 years in Group-II. In Group-I, 9 (52.9%) patients were males and 8 (47.1%) patients were females while in Group-II, 9 patients (50%) were male and 9 (50%) were female. In Group-I 2 (11.8%) patients used flat and open shoes, 6 (35.3%) used flat and close shoe, 3 (17.6%) patients used dress shoes and 2 (11.8%) used flat shoes. In Group-I, the frequency of patients wearing laterally raised foot wear in terms of duration was; 5 (29.4%) patients for 20 days, 4 (23.5%) for 24 days, 4 (23.5%) for 25 days, whilst 2 patients used it for 26 and 30 days respectively. Among 10 (58.8%) patients the use of lateral raised foot wear was intermittent wile in 7 (41.2%) patients the use of lateral raised foot wear was continuous. Overall Group-I presented better results compared to Group-II in this study. Conclusion: We have concluded in our study that the physical therapy with laterally raised footwear is a successful treatment in the management of medial knee OA. In laterally raised footwear the physical therapy is an effective method in terms of relief of pain in patient, improvement in function by stiffness reduction and. this treatment method is recommended for the management of medial knee OA. (author)

392

Titulação de aloanticorpos anti-a e anti-b em gatos domésticos sem raça definida em Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil / Anti-a and anti-b alloantibodies titres in non-pedigree domestic cats in Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese A probabilidade de ocorrência de reação transfusional em um felino depende da prevalência local dos tipos sanguíneos felinos e dos títulos de aloanticorpos. A determinação dos títulos de aloanticorpos auxilia na estimativa do risco e da severidade de reação transfusional, após transfusão não compatí [...] vel, em uma população de gatos. O objetivo deste trabalho foi determinar a titulação de aloanticorpos e o risco de possível reação transfusional, em felinos domésticos sem raça definida, da cidade de Porto Alegre. Foram selecionados aleatoriamente 100 gatos clinicamente saudáveis, sem raça definida e sem parentesco entre si e sem histórico de transfusão prévia. Amostras de sangue foram coletadas da veia jugular e a titulação de aloanticorpos foi determinada no soro de gatos com tipo sanguíneo previamente definido. O risco estimado foi calculado de acordo com estudos prévios. No presente trabalho, 82,5 e 100% dos gatos do tipo A e B, respectivamente, apresentaram titulação variada de aloanticorpos. Com base nos títulos encontrados, verificou-se que uma transfusão de sangue, do tipo A ou AB, em gatos do tipo B apresenta risco de 33,3% de reação aguda severa e de 66,7% de reação aguda leve, nos receptores felinos. A transfusão de sangue do tipo AB ou B em gatos do tipo A apresenta risco de reação aguda severa em 1,0%; reação aguda leve em 37,1% e destruição prematura dos eritrócitos em 44,3% dos receptores felinos. Abstract in english The probability of occurrence of a transfusion reaction in a cat depends on the local prevalence of feline blood types and alloantibody titres. Determination of alloantibody titres assists in estimating the risk and the severity of transfusion reactions following an unmatched transfusion in a cat po [...] pulation. The objective of this study was to determine alloantibody titres and the risk of a possible transfusion reaction in non-pedigree domestic cats in Porto Alegre , Brazil. One hundred clinically healthy non-pedigree and non-related cats with no history of previous transfusion were randomly selected. Blood samples were collected from the jugular vein and the alloantibody titres were determined by tube serial dilution of the serum from cats with known blood types, the estimated risk was calculated according previous studies. In the present study, 82.5% and 100% of types A and B cats, respectively, showed varied alloantibodies titres. Based on the titres found in the present study, the risk of an acute severe reaction is 33.3% and an acute mild reaction is 66.7% in a type B cat transfused with blood type A or AB. In type A cats transfused with blood type AB or B, the risk of an acute severe reaction is 1.0%, an acute mild reaction is 37.1% and premature red cell destruction is 44.3%.

Luciana de Almeida, Lacerda; Simone Tostes de, Oliveira; Gisele Guiomara, Stein; Tatiana Amaral, Guerra; Félix, Gonzáles.

2011-02-01

393

Titulação de aloanticorpos anti-a e anti-b em gatos domésticos sem raça definida em Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil Anti-a and anti-b alloantibodies titres in non-pedigree domestic cats in Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A probabilidade de ocorrência de reação transfusional em um felino depende da prevalência local dos tipos sanguíneos felinos e dos títulos de aloanticorpos. A determinação dos títulos de aloanticorpos auxilia na estimativa do risco e da severidade de reação transfusional, após transfusão não compatível, em uma população de gatos. O objetivo deste trabalho foi determinar a titulação de aloanticorpos e o risco de possível reação transfusional, em felinos domésticos sem raça definida, da cidade de Porto Alegre. Foram selecionados aleatoriamente 100 gatos clinicamente saudáveis, sem raça definida e sem parentesco entre si e sem histórico de transfusão prévia. Amostras de sangue foram coletadas da veia jugular e a titulação de aloanticorpos foi determinada no soro de gatos com tipo sanguíneo previamente definido. O risco estimado foi calculado de acordo com estudos prévios. No presente trabalho, 82,5 e 100% dos gatos do tipo A e B, respectivamente, apresentaram titulação variada de aloanticorpos. Com base nos títulos encontrados, verificou-se que uma transfusão de sangue, do tipo A ou AB, em gatos do tipo B apresenta risco de 33,3% de reação aguda severa e de 66,7% de reação aguda leve, nos receptores felinos. A transfusão de sangue do tipo AB ou B em gatos do tipo A apresenta risco de reação aguda severa em 1,0%; reação aguda leve em 37,1% e destruição prematura dos eritrócitos em 44,3% dos receptores felinos.The probability of occurrence of a transfusion reaction in a cat depends on the local prevalence of feline blood types and alloantibody titres. Determination of alloantibody titres assists in estimating the risk and the severity of transfusion reactions following an unmatched transfusion in a cat population. The objective of this study was to determine alloantibody titres and the risk of a possible transfusion reaction in non-pedigree domestic cats in Porto Alegre , Brazil. One hundred clinically healthy non-pedigree and non-related cats with no history of previous transfusion were randomly selected. Blood samples were collected from the jugular vein and the alloantibody titres were determined by tube serial dilution of the serum from cats with known blood types, the estimated risk was calculated according previous studies. In the present study, 82.5% and 100% of types A and B cats, respectively, showed varied alloantibodies titres. Based on the titres found in the present study, the risk of an acute severe reaction is 33.3% and an acute mild reaction is 66.7% in a type B cat transfused with blood type A or AB. In type A cats transfused with blood type AB or B, the risk of an acute severe reaction is 1.0%, an acute mild reaction is 37.1% and premature red cell destruction is 44.3%.

Luciana de Almeida Lacerda

2011-02-01

394

High power and high efficiency operation of 77 GHz gyrotrons by stepwise raising of the anode voltage  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

High power and high efficiency operation of 77 GHz gyrotrons was achieved by the stepwise raising of the anode voltage. In particular, a stable MOU output power of 1.8MW was obtained for 1 s. The effect of beam-charge neutralization on the oscillation characteristics was examined. The intended beam acceleration voltage was not initially reached due to the space-charge effect but was achieved over time through the charge neutralization process. By applying the stepped anode voltage, the gyrotr...

Takahashi, H.; Shimozuma, T.; Ito, S.; Kubo, S.; Yoshimura, Y.; Igami, H.; Nishiura, M.; Kobayashi, S.; Mizuno, Y.; Okada, K.; Takita, Y.; Ogasawara, S.; Makino, R.; Mutoh, T.; Kariya, T.

2012-01-01

395

Weak bases and ionophores rapidly and reversibly raise the pH of endocytic vesicles in cultured mouse fibroblasts  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

It has been shown that endocytic vesicles in BALB/c 3T3 cells have a pH of 5.0 (Tycko and Maxfield, Cell, 28:643-651). In this paper, a method for measuring the effect of various agents, including weak bases and ionophores, on the pH of endocytic vesicles is presented. The method is based on the increase in fluorescein fluorescence with 490-nm excitation as the pH is raised above 5.0. Intensities of cells were measured using a microscope spectrofluorometer after internalization of fluorescein...

1982-01-01

396

Ivermectin in the treatment of helminthiasis in caged raised adult guinea-fowl (Numida meleagris galeata Pallas).  

Science.gov (United States)

The treatment of natural infections of helminthiasis in caged raised guinea-fowls indicates a high efficacy of ivermectin in the elimination of infection due to both juvenile and adult stages of Heterakis gallinarum, Ascaridia galli, Subulura suctoria, Raillietina spp. and Capillaria caudinflata at dose levels of 0.07 mg/kg and 0.14 mg/kg per adult bird, subcutaneously administered. Guinea-fowls treated responded with no observable side effect and remained clean of any helminth infection for over 6 weeks. Discussion on the broad-spectrum and cost-effectiveness of the drug are briefly mentioned. PMID:2626577

Okaeme, A N; Agbontale, J

1989-01-01

397

Protozoan parasites in captive chinchillas (Chinchilla lanigera raised in the State of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to identify Giardia sp., Eimeria spp. and Cryptosporidium spp. in fecal samples of chinchillas, respectively raised on farms located in the cities of Gravataí and Porto Alegre (State of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, Giardia sp. was detected in 8% of 250 samples. The variables age (p = 0.47 and gender (p = 0.07, submitted to Fisher's exact test, were not related to the results obtained through the method of Faust et al. (1939 apud Hoffmann (1987. Oocysts of Eimeria spp. and Cryptosporidium spp. were not identified in any of the samples

ANA CLÁUDIA FAGUNDES GURGEL

2005-12-01

398

Investigating the Effect of Consciousness-raising Techniques on Learning the English Tense System by EFL Students  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This study explores the effect Consciousness-raising techniques (henceforth, C-R techniques) can have on the learning of the English tense system. The sample of the study (n=100) was randomly drawn from beginning EFL students at Taif University, KSA. The experimental design was used to carry out the study. The sample was divided into an experimental group (n=50) and a control group (n=50). Data for the study was collected via a test the researcher designed and administered to the two groups o...

Abdalla, Amir H.

2014-01-01

399

Effect of Antibodies Raised in Bovine and Guineapigs on The Genetic Characters of Seroytpe Asia1 FMD Virus  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In the present work, the effect of antibodies (raised in Bovine against IND 63/72 and in Guineapigs against IND 63/72 and IND 491/97) on foot-and-mouth disease serotype Asia1 vaccine strain IND 63/72 was compared by analyzing the data obtained in nucleotide sequencing. The Nr viruses (neutralization resistant viruses) which were selected by growing them in the presence of antibodies (Bovine Vaccinate Serum, BVS and Guineapig Serum, GPS) showed certain characteristic features like common chang...

Sanyal, A.; Manoj Kumar, R.; Hemadri, D.

2006-01-01

400

How the Entrepreneurial Top Management Team Setup Influences Firm Performance and the Ability to Raise Capital: A Literature Review  

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Full Text Available This paper reviews research findings on entrepreneurial top management teams within the last 20 years. It concentrates on team-based management factors and their influence on a new venture’s growth and ability to raise capital. This paper integrates recent findings and provides an overview of the current state of research. Moreover, it contributes to the overall topic by proposing five clusters of major team-specific influences, derives determinants of success and failure, and reveals recommendations for further research.

Konstantin Maschke

2012-05-01

 
 
 
 
401

Development of cross border gas transmission projects raise challenging issues. Case studies: The transmed and the Maghreb/Europe pipelines  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Development of cross border gas transmission projects raise complex and interdependent issues whose successful resolution require not only technical and management strengths but also a close cooperation between the key players involved in the game. In this paper we shall attempt to explain some of the major issues encountered during the appraisal and construction of long distance gas pipeline schemes. The information used derive essentially from the experience gained during the development of the Trans-mediterranean and the Maghreb/Europe pipelines. Running through the various issues we shall also identify and then discuss a number of factors which contributed to the successful implementation of these two projects. (au)

Khene, D. [Sonatrach (Algeria)

1997-11-01

402

hCG treatment raises H2O2 levels and induces germ cell apoptosis in rat testis.  

Science.gov (United States)

The clinical significance of exogenous hCG treatment is to stimulate steroidogenesis and spermatogenesis in the testis. However, the pathogenesis of detrimental effects on the testis arising out of chronic hCG treatment is yet to be clearly ascertained. In the present study we have shown that hCG treatment (100 IU/day) to rats for 30 days raises testicular oxidative stress leading to germ cell apoptosis and impairment of spermatogenesis. The treatment raises testicular H(2)O(2) levels along with increase in lipid peroxidation and concomitant decrease in the enzymatic antioxidant activities like superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione-s-transferase. The rise in the number of apoptotic germ cells was associated with up regulation of Fas protein expression and caspase-3 activity in the testis. However, serum testosterone which was elevated by 15 days of hCG treatment declined to pretreatment levels by 30 days. No significant alteration in serum gonadotropins was observed. The above findings indicate that the pathogenesis of deleterious effects following chronic hCG treatment is due to increase in testicular oxidative stress with high H(2)O(2) availability leading to apoptosis among germ cells. PMID:17333317

Gautam, Dinesh K; Misro, M M; Chaki, S P; Chandra, Mahesh; Sehgal, N

2007-07-01

403

Father's occupational exposure to radiation and the raised level of childhood leukemia near the Sellafield Nuclear Plant  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The first indications that childhood leukemia rates may be raised near the Sellafield nuclear plant in West Cumbria, England, came from largely anecdotal evidence in a television program Windscale: The Nuclear Laundry shown during 1983. During subsequent years, various epidemiological studies have investigated the claim in more detail. Geographical analyses of childhood leukemia incidence in the northern region and mortality in England and Wales using routinely available data made the first contribution. As a result, it was confirmed that leukemia rates in the area, particularly the neighboring village of Seascale, were high compared to other districts, although not totally extreme. Cohort studies of children born in Seascale or attending schools in Seascale were carried out to resolve some of the difficulties of interpretation of geographical analysis. Cohort studies indicated that the excess of leukemia was concentrated among children born in Seascale and was not found among those moving in after birth and suggested that any causal factors may be acting before birth or very early in life. A case-control study of leukemia (and lymphoma) among young people in West Cumbria has examined potentially important individual factors in detail. The study demonstrated a relationship between the raised incidence of leukemia in children and father's recorded external radiation dose during work at Sellafield before his child's conception. The association can effectively explain stThe association can effectively explain statistically the observed geographical excess

404

Fully Depleted SOI Complementary MOS Device with Raised Source/Drain for 90 nm Embedded Static RAM Technology  

Science.gov (United States)

Fully depleted silicon-on-insulator (FD SOI) devices with 70 nm gate lengths for embedded static random access memory (SRAM) technology were investigated for different SOI film thickness. Transistor performances of 700 ?A/?m and 320 ?A/?m were obtained for n-type and p-type metal-oxide semiconductor field effect transistor (NMOSFET and PMOSFET) devices, respectively at 1.0 V operation voltage and Ioff=75 nA/?m. Si selective epitaxial growth (SEG) process was well optimized. Both the single raised (SR) and double raised (DR) source/drain process were studied to reduce parasitic series resistance. For the DR process, both NMOSFET and PMOSFET performance are improved by 9 and 13% respectively, compared to the SR process. Drain induced barrier lowering (DIBL) was improved from 100 mV to 13 mV as the SOI film thickness was scaled down from 50 nm to 17 nm. Due to the self-heating effect, the AC current is 15% higher than the DC current for the case of 40 nm SOI thickness. The static noise margin (SNM) for a 1.1 ?m2 6T-SRAM cell was 210 mV and ring oscillator speed was improved by 24% compared to bulk devices.

Park, Chang Hyun; Oh, Myung Hwan; Kang, Hee Sung; Oh, Chang Bong; Jung, Mu Kyeng; Kim, Young Wug

2004-04-01

405

RAISING OF PEDAGOGICAL MASTERSHIP STANDARD BY E-LEARNING / Zvyšovanie úrovne pedagogického majstrovstva prostredníctvom e-learningu  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Raising of pedagogical mastership in school is inherently part of everyone's pedagogical process. Contribution oneself dealt with new form of teaching -e-learning and its using in pedagogical process. It gives some informations about using U lern as supporting tool by multimedial materials and documents creation for students, it describes general organizational process by using of these documents and by appraising students through electronic testing. In contribution has found visual demonstration of U lern assistances working-out educational documents, enviroment description and orientation on e- portale. General gain of contribution is in presentation of new simple tools for teachers for raising their pedagogical mastership and for enhancement and easement their works.Zvyšovanie pedagogického majstrovstva na školách je neodmyslite?nou sú?as?ou každého pedagogického procesu. Príspevok sa zaoberá novou formou výu?by – elearningom a jeho využitím v pedagogickom procese. Podáva informácie o možnosti využitia podporného nástroja U Lern pri tvorbe multimediálnych materiálov a dokumentov pre študentov, popisuje celkový organiza?ný proces pri využívaní týchto dokumentov a hodnotení študentov prostredníctvom elektronických testov. V príspevku sa nachádzajú názorne ukážky Ulern podpory vypracovaných u?ebných textov, popis prostredia a orientácia na e-portály. Celkový prínos príspevku spo?íva v prezentácií nových jednoduchých nástrojov pre u?ite?ov pre zvyšovanie ich pedagogického majstrovstva a skvalitnenie a u?ah?enie ich práce.

Teplická Katarína

2010-01-01

406

Analysis of the process of raising the temperature in the spark channel at a discharge in gas  

CERN Document Server

Analysis of the process of raising the temperature in the spark channel at a discharge in gas is performed. The quantitative evaluation was made in main for the air. The effect of steadying a thermodynamic equilibrium in gas,as well as the influence of power discharge parameters on the process of temperature increasing was analyzed. The quantitative evaluation of time parameters of the processes of rotary, oscillatory relaxation, dissociation and ionization has allowed to reveal the influence of each of them on temperature increasing in the spark channel. The problems arising in the course of practical realization of a spark discharge which influence on the process of temperature raising are detected,and the ways for their solution are determined. The results obtained can be put in a basis of developing the methods to design devices for intensive increase of temperatures in gas media using the electrical discharge,as well as for analysis of a dependence of shock wave intensity on dynamic parameters of the ele...

Korytchenko, K V; Chumakov, V I

2001-01-01

407

The Axillary Approach to Raising the Latissimus Dorsi Free Flap for Facial Re-Animation: A Descriptive Surgical Technique  

Science.gov (United States)

The latissimus dorsi flap is popular due to the versatile nature of its applications. When used as a pedicled flap it provides a robust solution when soft tissue coverage is required following breast, thoracic and head and neck surgery. Its utilization as a free flap is extensive due to the muscle's size, constant anatomy, large caliber of the pedicle and the fact it can be used for functional muscle transfers. In facial palsy it provides the surgeon with a long neurovascular pedicle that is invaluable in situations where commonly used facial vessels are not available, in congenital cases or where previous free functional muscle transfers have been attempted, or patients where a one-stage procedure is indicated and a long nerve is required to reach the contra-lateral side. Although some facial palsy surgeons use the trans-axillary approach, an operative guide of raising the flap by this method has not been provided. A clear guide of raising the flap with the patient in the supine position is described in detail and offers the benefits of reducing the risk of potential brachial plexus injury and allows two surgical teams to work synchronously to reduce operative time. PMID:25606493

Butler, Daniel; Grobbelaar, Adriaan

2015-01-01

408

Meat quality of Nguni, Bonsmara and Aberdeen Angus steers raised on natural pasture in the Eastern Cape, South Africa.  

Science.gov (United States)

The current study compared meat quality of Nguni, Bonsmara and Angus steers raised on natural pasture. Fifteen seven-month-old weaners of each breed were kept at the University of Fort Hare Farm for 12 months till slaughter. Monthly weights of the steers were recorded. Carcasses were electrically stimulated. The m. longissimus thoracis et lumborum was sampled for the measurement of meat colour, pH, drip loss, sarcomere length, myofibrillar fragmentation length and Warner Bratzler (WB) shear force. The Nguni had the highest (P<0.05) average daily gain. Bonsmara and Angus steers had higher (P<0.05) carcass weight and dressing percentage than the Nguni steers. Meat quality characteristics were similar among all the breeds except that Nguni meat was darker (L(?)) (P<0.05) than meat from the other two breeds. The respective L(?) values for Nguni, Bonsmara and Angus steers were 36.5, 38.6 and 39.9. There were significant (P<0.05) correlations among some meat quality traits. There were significant (P<0.05) correlations between WB values of meat aged for 2 and 21 days in Nguni and Bonsmara, but not in Angus. Meat quality from Nguni compares favourably with that from established breeds, when raised on natural pasture. PMID:22062594

Muchenje, V; Dzama, K; Chimonyo, M; Raats, J G; Strydom, P E

2008-05-01

409

Occurrence of heavy metals and antibiotic resistance in bacteria from internal organs of american bullfrog (Rana catesbeiana) raised in Malaysia  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english A total of 40 bacteria have been successfully isolated from internal organs of the American bullfrog (Rana catesbeiana) raised in Malaysia, namely, eight isolates of Aeromonas spp., 21 of Edwardsiella spp., six of Flavobacterium spp. and five of Vibrio spp. In terms of antibiotic susceptibility test [...] ing, each isolate was tested against 21 antibiotics, resulting in 482 (57.3%) cases of sensitivity and 61 (7.3%) cases of partial sensitivity. Meanwhile, 297 (35.4%) bacterial isolates were registered as resistant. The multiple antibiotic resistance (MAR) index of each bacterial species indicated that bacteria from raised bullfrogs have been exposed to tested antibiotics with results ranging from 0.27 to 0.39. Additionally, high percentages of heavy metal resistance among these isolates were observed, with values ranging from 85.0 to 100.0%. The current results provided us information on bacterial levels of locally farmed bullfrogs exposed to copper, cadmium, chromium as well as 21 types of antibiotics.

SW, Lee; M, Najiah; W, Wendy; M, Nadirah; SH, Faizah.

410

Occurrence of heavy metals and antibiotic resistance in bacteria from internal organs of american bullfrog (Rana catesbeiana raised in Malaysia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A total of 40 bacteria have been successfully isolated from internal organs of the American bullfrog (Rana catesbeiana raised in Malaysia, namely, eight isolates of Aeromonas spp., 21 of Edwardsiella spp., six of Flavobacterium spp. and five of Vibrio spp. In terms of antibiotic susceptibility testing, each isolate was tested against 21 antibiotics, resulting in 482 (57.3% cases of sensitivity and 61 (7.3% cases of partial sensitivity. Meanwhile, 297 (35.4% bacterial isolates were registered as resistant. The multiple antibiotic resistance (MAR index of each bacterial species indicated that bacteria from raised bullfrogs have been exposed to tested antibiotics with results ranging from 0.27 to 0.39. Additionally, high percentages of heavy metal resistance among these isolates were observed, with values ranging from 85.0 to 100.0%. The current results provided us information on bacterial levels of locally farmed bullfrogs exposed to copper, cadmium, chromium as well as 21 types of antibiotics.

SW Lee

2009-01-01

411

Consequences of marginal drainage from a raised bog and understanding the hydrogeological dynamics as a basis for restoration  

Science.gov (United States)

Raised bogs in Ireland have long been exploited for local fuel utilisation. The drainage associated with such activities alters the hydrological regime of the bog as consolidation of the peat substrate results in significant water loss and subsidence of the bog. Undisturbed raised bog environments are typically characterised by distinct ecological systems, or ecotopes, which are controlled by the relationship between surface slopes, flow path lengths and drainage conditions. Shrinkage of the main peat profile, or catotelm, invariably alters these conditions, changes of which significantly damage ecotopes of conservational value. Clara Bog, Ireland, is one of western Europe's largest remaining raised bogs and on which much hydroecological research has been conducted since the early 1990's. Though a relatively intact raised bog, it has been extensively damaged in the past with the construction of a road through the centre of the bog known to have resulted in subsidence of 9-10m. However, the western tract of Clara Bog, Clara Bog West, has also subsided significantly since the early 1990's due to on-going peat cutting activities on the bogs margins. Current research now indicates that the bog is not an isolated hydrological entity, as generally perceived of bogs, but rather that Clara Bog West is intrinsically linked to the regional groundwater table, which appears to provide a significant ‘support' function to the bog. Hydrogeological monitoring and analysis has shown that water losses are not simply a result of lateral seepage of water through the peat profile at the bogs margins. Measurements of flow rates and electrical conductivity in drains bordering the bog indicate that little water is discharging laterally through the peat profile. However, piezometric head levels in mineral subsoil underlying the bog and close to the margins of the bog have decreased by 0.3 to 0.5m and 0.4 to 1.0m respectively since the early 1990s and it is believed that this is a result of vertical water losses in the peat profile not confined to the bog margins. Distinct zones of groundwater seepage in the marginal drains have been mapped based on hydrochemical and stable isotopic composition of the water and occur where drains have cut into permeable subsoil beneath the peat substrate and where the potentiometric surface of the regional groundwater table is below, or coincident with, the elevation at the base of the drain. Groundwater as a ‘supporting' ecological condition is usually confined to the perimeter of a raised bog, where peat and underlying clay thin towards the margin, allowing regional groundwater and peat water to converge and mix, thereby giving rise to characteristic nutrient rich ‘lagg' zone vegetation. However, in Clara Bog West it appears there is also a connection between the regional groundwater table and the high bog. Such a connection appears to be unique to Clara Bog West as a result of the prevailing geological conditions. A succession of Carboniferous Limestone to relatively permeable glacial till deposits to low permeability lacustrine clay sediment is the predominant underlying geology of the bog. However, there are areas where the glacial till protrudes through the lacustrine clay, which ordinarily isolates the high bog from underlying groundwater, thereby engendering a dependency on regional groundwater conditions. The hydrogeological data now suggest that drainage at the bog margin has created a hydraulic connection between these ‘subsoil subcrops' and the marginal drains, developed within the same subsoil, thereby lowering the regional groundwater table, steepening the hydraulic gradient and resulting in significant water loss from the main bog body. As such, understanding this hydrogeological connection is central to restoration activities that will aim to arrest subsidence and restore water levels that are indicative for ecotope development, on the high bog. Acknowledgements Clara Restoration Group: Jan Streekferk (Staatsbosbeheer), Jim Ryan (National Parks and Wildlife Service), Ray Flynn (Queens Univ

Regan, Shane; Johnston, Paul

2010-05-01

412

Evolución del título de anticuerpos contra el receptor tipo M de la fosfolipasa A2 y respuesta clínica en pacientes con nefropatía membranosa idiopática tratados con tacrolimus / Evolution of antibody titre against the M-type phospholipase A2 receptor and clinical response in idiopathic membranous nephropathy patients treated with tacrolimus  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Spain | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Introducción y objetivos: Se ha descrito que el nivel de anticuerpos circulantes contra el receptor tipo M de la fosfolipasa A2 tiene correlación significativa con la actividad clínica de la enfermedad en la nefropatía membranosa idiopática (NMI). Sin embargo, la utilidad de la monitorización del tí [...] tulo de anticuerpos como predictor de respuesta clínica tras el inicio del tratamiento no ha sido formalmente analizada. En el siguiente estudio se analiza el valor predictivo de la evolución del título de anticuerpos anti-PLA2R sobre la respuesta clínica en enfermos con NMI tratados con tacrolimus. Pacientes y métodos: 36 enfermos con síndrome nefrótico secundario a NMI, con criterios de indicación de tratamiento inmunosupresor, fueron tratados con tacrolimus en monoterapia. Se determinó el nivel de anticuerpos anti-PLA2R antes del tratamiento y a los 3, 6, 9 y 12 meses tras su inicio. Se analizó el valor predictivo de la pendiente de reducción en el título de anticuerpos y de la reducción absoluta y relativa en el título de anticuerpos a los 3 y 6 meses sobre el tiempo hasta la remisión y sobre la probabilidad de remisión a los 6, 9 y 12 meses. Resultados: La reducción relativa en el título de anticuerpos anti-PLA2R fue significativamente mayor en los enfermos que presentaron remisión y precedió a la respuesta clínica. No se apreció asociación entre el título de anticuerpos previo al tratamiento con el tiempo medio de respuesta o la respuesta a los 12 meses. La pendiente de reducción en el título de anticuerpos se asoció significativamente con el tiempo hasta la evidencia de remisión. La reducción relativa en el título de anticuerpos anti-PLA2R a los 3 meses tuvo una elevada sensibilidad y especificidad para predecir la respuesta a los 6 y 9 meses, pero no a los 12 meses, mientras que la reducción relativa en el título de anticuerpos a los 6 meses tuvo una elevada sensibilidad y especificidad para predecir la respuesta a los 12 meses. Conclusión: En enfermos con NMI asociada a anticuerpos anti-PLA2R, la monitorización del título de anticuerpos tras el inicio del tratamiento es útil para estimar el período de tiempo hasta la remisión y para predecir la probabilidad de remisión a los 12 meses. Abstract in english Introduction and objectives: The level of circulating antibodies against M-type phospolipase A2 receptor has been reported as having a significant correlation with clinical activity in idiopathic membranous nephropathy. However, the usefulness of monitoring antibody titre as a predictor of clinical [...] response following the onset of treatment has not been formally analysed. The predictive value of the evolution of anti-PLA2R antibody titre on the clinical response of idiopathic membranous nephropathy patients treated with tacrolimus is analysed in the following study. Patients and method: 36 patients with nephrotic syndrome secondary to idiopathic membranous nephropathy with immunosuppressive treatment indication criteria were treated with tacrolimus in monotherapy. The level of anti-PLA2R antibodies was determined before treatment and at 3, 6, 9 and 12 months after the onset of treatment. The study analysed the predictive value of the reduction in antibody titre and the relative and absolute reduction in antibody titre at 3 and 6 months over the period until remission and on the probability of remission at 6, 9 and 12 months. Results: The relative reduction in the anti-PLA2R antibody titre was significantly greater in those patients with remission and it preceded the clinical response. No association was observed between the antibody titre prior to treatment and the mean response time or the response at 12 months. Reduction in antibody titre is significantly associated with the time until signs of remission. Relative reduction in anti-PLA2R antibody titre at 3 months had a high sensitivity and specificity to predict the response at 6 and 9 months, but not at 12 months; however the relative

Alfons, Segarra-Medrano; Elias, Jatem-Escalante; Clara, Carnicer-Cáceres; Irene, Agraz-Pamplona; M. Teresa, Salcedo; Naiara, Valtierra; Elena, Ostos-Roldán; Karla V., Arredondo; Juliana, Jaramillo.

413

SiteChar. Characterisation of European CO2 storage. Deliverable D8.2. Trust building and raising public awareness  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

At local level, public support has proven crucial to the implementation of CO2 capture and storage (CCS) demonstration projects. Whereas no method exists to guarantee public acceptability of any project, a constructive stakeholder and community engagement process does increase the likelihood thereof. This deliverable is a follow-up to deliverable D8.1 'Social site characterisation'. Social site characterisation can be used as an instrument to explore, plan and evaluate a process of active and constructive local stakeholder and citizen engagement in a prospective CCS project as a parallel activity to technical site characterisation. It serves as an analytical tool to describe the local social circumstances in the area and to design and evaluate stakeholder and community engagement efforts with the aims of building trust and raising public awareness. Using results from the social site characterisation of the area, the present deliverable focuses on the second purpose. It presents results from public engagement activities designed to raise public awareness and inform public opinion of a prospective CCS site in Poland (onshore) and the UK (offshore): focus conferences. Furthermore, by initiating an enhanced cooperation in planning of new storage sites between project developers, authorities and the local public, focus conferences aim to serve as a 'hinge' between social site characterisation as a research effort and application to real-life project settings. The focus conferences are part of a range of public engagement activities including the setup of public information websites on generic and site-specific CCS, information meetings. A second survey eventually shall evaluate the results of the public engagement activities. The aim of the focus conferences was to raise public awareness and assist public opinion forming processes of a prospective CCS site in Poland (onshore) and the UK (offshore). At the same time, it aimed to present and test a format in which project developers, authorities, and the local public could enhance their cooperation in project planning. To this end, a group of 11-16 participants recruited from the local public gathered on two weekends to be informed about CCS technology, to discuss their perceptions of the rewards and risks of CCS technology, and to state their conditions for a socially acceptable implementation of CCS projects. Experts from research, politics, industry and NGOs were invited to participate in both weekends, during which they gave presentations and answered questions from the participants. This process resulted in a positioning paper written by the participants representing a statement on CCS technology from their perspective.

Brunsting, S.; Pol, M.; Mastop, E.A. [ECN Policy Studies, Energy research Centre of the Netherlands ECN, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Kaiser, M.; Zimmer, R. [Unabhaengiges Institut fuer Umweltfragen UfU, Berlin (Germany); Shackley, S.; Mabon, L.; Howell, R. [Scottish Carbon Capture and Storage SCCS, Edinburg, Scotland (United Kingdom)

2012-08-15

414

Reference Strains of Ornithobacterium rhinotracheale Raise Detectabl Hemagglutination-Inhibition Antibodies in Immunized Specific-Pathogen-Free Chickens  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The ability of nine reference strains of Ornithobacterium rhinotracheale (serovars A-I) to raise detectable, hemagglutination-inhibition antibodies in immunized specific-pathogen-free chickens was investigated. Six of the nine O. rhinotracheale serovar (A-H) reference strains raised detectable hemagglutination-inhibition antibodies 14 and 21 days after vaccination. Detectable serum hemagglutination-inhibition antibody titers ranged from 512-16348. Furthermore, transmission elect...

Calderon-apodaca, N. L.; Lagunas-bernabe, S.; Salgado-miranda, C.; Vega-sanchez, V.; Edgardo Soriano-Vargas

2011-01-01

415

Effect of Passive Leg Raising on Systemic Hemodynamics of Pregnant Women: A Dynamic Assessment of Maternal Cardiovascular Function at 22–24 Weeks of Gestation  

Science.gov (United States)

Objective To investigate functional hemodynamic response to passive leg raising in healthy pregnant women and compare it with non-pregnant controls. Materials and Methods This was a prospective cross-sectional study with a case-control design. A total of 108 healthy pregnant women at 22–24 weeks of gestation and 54 non-pregnant women were included. Cardiac function and systemic hemodynamics were studied at baseline and 90 seconds after passive leg raising using non-invasive impedance cardiography. Main outcome measures Trends and magnitudes of changes in impedance cardiography derived parameters of cardiac function and systemic hemodynamics caused by passive leg raising, and preload responsiveness defined as >10% increase in stroke volume or cardiac output after passive leg raising compared to baseline. Results The hemodynamic parameters in both pregnant and non-pregnant women changed significantly during passive leg raising compared to baseline, but the magnitude and trend of change was similar in both groups. The stroke volume increased both in pregnant (p?=?0.042) and non-pregnant (p?=?0.018) women, whereas the blood pressure and systemic vascular resistance decreased (p<0.001) following passive leg raising in both groups. Only 14.8% of pregnant women and 18.5% of non-pregnant women were preload responsive and the difference between groups was not significant (p?=?0.705). Conclusion Static measures of cardiovascular status are different between healthy pregnant and non-pregnant women, but the physiological response to passive leg raising is similar and not modified by pregnancy at 22–24 weeks of gestation. Whether physiological response to passive leg raising is different in earlier and later stages of pregnancy merit further investigation. PMID:24732308

Vårtun, Åse; Flo, Kari; Acharya, Ganesh

2014-01-01

416

Fatty acid profiles in meat from Caiman yacare (Caiman crocodilus yacare) raised in the wild or in captivity.  

Science.gov (United States)

Chemical composition and fatty acid profiles were determined in Caiman yacare meat originating from the neck and tail cuts of animals raised in the wild (n=6) or in captivity (n=6), slaughtered at a live weight of approximately 6 kg. All experimental methods were approved by the appropriate environmental protection agencies. Most chemical components were affected by the origin-cut interaction, with the tail cut of wild animals having the highest amount of intramuscular fat (19.2% of DM) and the lowest of moisture (71.8%) and protein (77.0% of DM). Yacare meat had low amounts of SFA (35.1%), which were similar (P>0.05) in the cuts and origins studied. The total amount of PUFA was higher (Pyacare meat had a desirable PUFA/SFA ratio above 0.4. PMID:20435419

Vicente-Neto, João; Bressan, Maria Cristina; Faria, Peter Bitencourt; E Vieira, Josye Oliveira; Cardoso, Maria das Graças; Glória, Maria Beatriz de Abreu; da Gama, Luis Telo

2010-08-01

417

Protozoan parasites in captive chinchillas (Chinchilla lanigera) raised in the State of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: English Abstract in english The aim of the present study was to identify Giardia sp., Eimeria spp. and Cryptosporidium spp. in fecal samples of chinchillas, respectively raised on farms located in the cities of Gravataí and Porto Alegre (State of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil), Giardia sp. was detected in 8% of 250 samples. The va [...] riables age (p = 0.47) and gender (p = 0.07), submitted to Fisher's exact test, were not related to the results obtained through the method of Faust et al. (1939) apud Hoffmann (1987). Oocysts of Eimeria spp. and Cryptosporidium spp. were not identified in any of the samples

ANA CLÁUDIA, FAGUNDES GURGEL; AMANDA, DOS SANTOS SARTORI; FLÁVIO ANTÔNIO, PACHECO DE ARAÚJO.

2005-12-01

418

Bridging the gap between farmers and consumers : Value creation and mediation in “pasture-raised beef” food networks  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The aim of this article is to explore how different quality dimensions (safety, aesthetics, ethics and rooted ness) are created in food networks; how these qualities are transferred until the consumers; and how this process is supported by the organisation of the food network. Our postulate is that combining the quality and organisation dimensions and exploring the link between them will provide an interesting perspective for improving the sharing of values in food networks. This framework is applied to five case studies of “pasture-raised beef” food networks in France, representing a diversity of organisations such as public label scheme, cooperate owned brand and direct sell from farmer to consumer. The results highlight the importance of the role of certification and personal commitment for the creation, and also for the mediation of added-value.

Bedoin, Florence; Kristensen, Troels

2009-01-01

419

Selection and characterization of human respiratory syncytial virus escape mutants resistant to a polyclonal antiserum raised against the F protein.  

Science.gov (United States)

A human respiratory syncytial virus (HRSV) neutralization escape mutant was obtained after 56 serial passages in the presence of a polyclonal antiserum raised against the F protein. Nucleotide sequence analysis of this escape mutant virus revealed two amino acid substitutions: Asn268Ile and Val533Met. When this virus was allowed to grow in the absence of the anti-F polyclonal serum, only the mutation Asn268Ile was stably maintained. Both the double and single escape mutant viruses lost reactivity with mAbs belonging to antigenic site II of the fusion protein of RSV. Mutation Asn268Ile has already been reported in RS viruses that are resistant to mAbs 47F and 11 and palivizumab (PZ). We have thus identified a novel mutation (Val533Met) in the transmembrane domain of the F protein that was selected under immune pressure. PMID:22411099

Tomé, Lorena; Frabasile, Sandra; Candia, Claudia; Pittini, Alvaro; Farina, Natalia; Melero, José Antonio; Arbiza, Juan

2012-06-01

420

Cell motility in models of wounded human skin is improved by Gap27 despite raised glucose, insulin and IGFBP-5  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Reducing Cx43 expression stimulates skin wound healing. This is mimicked in models when Cx43 function is blocked by the connexin mimetic peptide Gap27. IGF-I also stimulates wound healing with IGFBP-5 attenuating its actions. Further, the IGF-I to IGFBP-5 ratio is altered in diabetic skin, where wound closure is impaired. We investigated whether Gap27 remains effective in augmenting scrape-wound closure in human skin wound models simulating diabetes-induced changes, using culture conditions with raised glucose, insulin and IGFBP-5. Gap27 increased scrape-wound closure in normal glucose and insulin (NGI) and to a lesser extent in high glucose and insulin (HGI). IGF-I enhanced scrape-wound closure in keratinocytes whereas IGFBP-5 inhibited this response. Gap27 overcame the inhibitory effects of IGFBP-5 on IGF-I activity. Connexin-mediated communication (CMC) was reduced in HGI, despite raised Cx43, and Gap27 significantly decreased CMC in NGI and HGI. IGF-I and IGFBP-5 did not affect CMC. IGF-I increased keratinocyte proliferation in NGI, and Gap27 increased proliferation in NGI to a greater extent than in HGI. We conclude that IGF-I and Gap27 stimulate scrape-wound closure by independent mechanisms with Gap27 inhibiting Cx43 function. Gap27 can enhance wound closure in diabetic conditions, irrespective of the IGF-I:IGFBP-5 balance. - Highlights: ? Human organotypic and keratinocyte ‘diabetic’ skin models were used to demonstrate the ability of Gap27 to improve scrape-wound closure. ? Gap27 enhanced scrape-wound closure by reducing Cx43-mediated communication, whereas IGFBP-5 retarded cell migration. ? IGF-I and IGFBP-5 did not affect connexin-mediated pathways. ? Gap27 can override altered glucose, insulin, IGF-I, and IGFBP-5 in ‘diabetic’ skin models and thus has therapeutic potential.

Wright, Catherine S.; Berends, Rebecca F. [Department of Life Sciences, School of Health and Life Sciences, Glasgow Caledonian University, 70 Cowcaddens Road, Glasgow G4 0BA (United Kingdom); Flint, David J. [Strathclyde Institute of Pharmacy and Biomedical Sciences, University of Strathclyde, 161 Cathedral Street, Glasgow G4 0RE (United Kingdom); Martin, Patricia E.M., E-mail: Patricia.Martin@gcu.ac.uk [Department of Life Sciences, School of Health and Life Sciences, Glasgow Caledonian University, 70 Cowcaddens Road, Glasgow G4 0BA (United Kingdom)

2013-02-15

 
 
 
 
421

Long term survival of patients with raised pulmonary arterial systolic pressure utilizing echocardiography—a five-year prospective study  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background Pulmonary arterial systolic pressure (PASP can be estimated with transthoracic echocardiography. However, the sig¬nificance of raised PASP on routine echocardiography is uncertain. In this study, we evaluated the mortality and hospitalization rates of subjects with raised PASP in a cohort of patients referred directly by their general practitioners for routine outpatient (open access echocardiography for further analysis of suspected heart failure. Results A total of 485 subjects were referred for open access echocardiography at our hospital in 2002. A cohort of 209/485 (43% consecutive subjects with measurable tricuspid regurgitation were followed for a minimum of five years investigating hospitalization rates and survival. Some 62 of 209 (30% subjects had pulmonary hypertension (PH. Subjects with PH were significantly more likely to have four or more hospital admissions (22% vs. 8%; P 30 days of cumulative hospital stay over five years (29% vs. 13%; P < 0.01. PH was significantly associated with mortality (P = 0.003, while moderate to severe PH was an independent predictor of mortality (hazard ratio: 4.31; 95% confidence interval (95% CI: 1.51–12.30. Records from the Office of National Statistics revealed that subjects with PH were more likely to have chronic lung diseases recorded as immediate or contributory causes of death (50% vs. 14%; P < 0.05. Conclusions PASP ? 36 mmHg on routine echocardiography is associated with recurrent hospital admissions, prolonged hospitalizations and increased cause of mortality. Therefore, the diagnosis of PH on echocardiography deserves further clinical evaluation, with future studies designed at defining a suitable diagnostic strategy.

Maw Pin Tan

2012-12-01

422

Bioaccumulation of Some Trace Metals in Wild and Farm-Raised African Catfish Clarias gariepinus in Kaduna, Nigeria  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Bioaccumulation of some trace metals that occurred in juvenile and matured wild and farm-raised African catfish, Clarias gariepinus from River Kaduna and Fadama fish pond (Near NAF base, Kawo was investigated by estimating trace metal concentration in the fish and water samples thereafter the transfer factor was evaluated. The concentration in (?g/g wet wt. of Cu, Zn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cd and Pb for all fish samples ranged from 0.25-0.80, 0.42-0.61, ND-0.5, 0.10-0.75, 0.18-0.85, 1.25-3.2 and 0.1-0.7, that of water samples was 0.18-0.34, 0.45-0.73, 3.0-7.2, 0.53-0.93, 0.13-0.41, 1.5-4.5 and 0.1-1.25. while the transfer factors had a range of 0.658-2.353, 0.575-0.980, 0.058-0.1, 0.139-1.0, 0.04-02.0, 0.560-1.50 and 0.278-1.196, respectively. There were little variation in concentration of trace metals in the juvenile and matured catfishes from the wild except in Cadmium. In the farmed fish Iron was present in the matured fishes but was not detected in the juvenile fishes and there were no significant variations in other trace metals. This study showed that wild and farm-raised catfish can be exposed to minerals (metals in one form or the other, therefore water quality should be maintained and monitored closely for sustainability of fish human health.