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Sample records for raised antistreptolysin-o titre

  1. Evaluation of the Validity of High Serum Antistreptolysin O Titre Only, as an Indication for Tonsillectomy

    Hembrom, R.; Roychaudhuri, B. K.; Saha, A K; Roychowdhury, A.; Ghosh, S.; Gon, S.; Mandal, K.

    2012-01-01

    Serum Antistreptolysin O (ASO) titre is raised when there is infection of any organ of the body, by Group A beta haemolytic streptococci (GABHS), Group C or Group G streptococci [1]. Increased serum ASO titre should not be the only deciding criterion for tonsillectomy if GABHS is not present in the palatine tonsils. In this study, we evaluate the rationality of performing tonsillectomy in raised serum ASO titre only, in absence of GABHS in palatine tonsil. The study was designed as a prospect...

  2. Antistreptolysin O titer in health and disease: levels and significance

    Alyaa Amal Kotby

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Over diagnosis of acute rheumatic fever (ARF based on a raised antistreptolysin O titer (ASOT is not uncommon in endemic areas. In this study, 660 children (aged 9.2 ±1.7 years were recruited consecutively and classified as: G1 (control group, n=200 healthy children, G2 (n=20 with ARF 1st attack, G3 (n=40 with recurrent ARF, G4 (n=100 with rheumatic heart disease (RHD on long acting penicillin (LAP, G5 (n=100 with acute follicular tonsillitis, and G6 (n=200 healthy children with history of repeated follicular tonsillitis more than three times a year. Serum ASOT was measured by latex agglutination. Upper limit of normal (ULN ASOT (80th percentile was 400 IU in G1, 200 IU in G4, and 1600 IU in G6. Significantly high levels were seen in ARF 1st attack when compared to groups 1 and 5 (P<0.001 and P<0.05, respectively. ASOT was significantly high in children over ten years of age, during winter and in those with acute rheumatic carditis. ASOT showed significant direct correlation with the number of attacks of tonsillitis (P<0.05. Egyptian children have high ULN ASOT reaching 400 IU. This has to be taken into consideration when interpreting its values in suspected ARF. A rise in ASOT is less prominent in recurrent ARF compared to 1st attack, and acute and recurrent tonsillitis. Basal levels of ASOT increase with age but the pattern of increase during infection is not age dependent

  3. Is raised helicobacter pylori antibody titre enough to decide retreatment

    Background: Helicobacter pylori infection causes a rise in its antibodies which take almost a year to come to baseline following successful eradication treatment. Checking these values in between a year may give falsely high values and many patients may thus be over treated. Aims: To serially determine Helicobacter pylori antibody titres in patients after giving them triple therapy for H. pylori eradication and see how these values drop over time. Study type, Settings and duration: Longitudinal study conducted in Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Pakistan Medical Research Council, Research Centre, Jinnah Post Graduate Medical Centre, Karachi, from May 2006 to April 2010. Subjects and Methods: Over the period of four years, 186 patients who were found positive for campylobacter like organism test during endoscopy were further tested for anti H. pylori IgG titre before being treated for H. pylori. Patients were given triple therapy comprising of Omeprazole (20 mg twice daily), Amoxicillin (1 gm twice daily) and Clarythromycin (500 mg twice daily) for a week and were followed at 1, 3, 6 and 12 months to check symptomatic relief and they were tested again for H.Pylori antibody titres. Data was collected on pre-designed proforma which included patient's demography, symptoms and diagnosis. Results: Out of 186 patients who had a positive campylobacter like organism test, 173 patients consented to participate in the study. Serology for H.Pylori was positive in 119(68%) cases. A decline in mean antibody titres was observed as 11%, 21.5%, 54.7% and 59.2% at 1, 3, 6 and 12 months respectively. Conclusions: Sensitivity of serology for diagnosing H. pylori infection is good but using these as a tool for monitoring response to treatment is doubtful. A slow drop in H.pylori antibodies was seen over 12 months and therefore, physicians are cautioned not to retreat the already treated cases till about one year post treatment. Policy message: H. pylori antibodies should be checked on regular basis to diagnose new cases but it should not be used in previously treated patients to retreat. (author)

  4. Homogeneous liposome lysis assay for determination of anti-streptolysin O antibody titer in serum.

    Umeda, M.; Tomita, T; Shibata, H; Seki, M; Yasuda, T.

    1988-01-01

    We developed a liposome lysis assay for determining anti-streptolysin O antibodies (ASO) in human sera involving the use of carboxyfluorescein-entrapped multilamellar liposomes. This assay system was based on the inhibition of streptolysin O-induced liposome lysis by ASO. Briefly, after incubation of a given amount of streptolysin O with ASO for 30 min at 37 degrees C, carboxyfluorescein-entrapped liposomes composed of egg yolk phosphatidylcholine and cholesterol in a molar ratio of 1:1 were ...

  5. ASO: Antistreptolysin O titer

    ... joint, especially in the ankles, knees, elbows and wrists, sometimes moving from one joint to another Small, painless nodules under the skin Rapid, jerky movements (Sydenham's chorea) Skin rash Sometimes the heart can become inflamed (carditis); this ...

  6. Prediction of antibody persistency from antibody titres to natalizumab

    Jensen, Poul Erik H; Koch-Henriksen, Nils; Sellebjerg, Finn Thorup; Sørensen, Per S

    2012-01-01

    -natalizumab antibodies to predict persistency of antibodies.Patients and methods:In 525 consecutive natalizumab treated patients tested for anti-natalizumab antibodies 43 (8.2%) were antibody-positive. Thirty of the antibody-positive patients, who were tested both at three and at six months after treatment start, had...... antibody titres in blood measured using an extended ELISA method.Results:Samples from persistently positive patients (N=18) had higher titre values than samples from transiently positive patients (N=12). A cut-off value for high titre values was generated, above which patients may discontinue natalizumab...... therapy after three months. The method had a sensitivity of 0.83, a specificity of 1.00 and a diagnostic accuracy of 0.90.Conclusion:An extended ELISA method for measuring anti-natalizumab antibody titres in multiple sclerosis patients on natalizumab therapy may be used for evaluation of antibody...

  7. VDRL titres in early syphilis before and after treatment.

    Talwar, S; Tutakne, M A; Tiwari, V D

    1992-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To observe the pretreatment VDRL titres in different stages of early syphilis and evaluate the changes in VDRL titre following treatment using different treatment schedules. DESIGN--Retrospective study was carried out by analysing the records of cases of early syphilis treated between 1976 to 1981. SETTING--Armed Forces personnel treated at different service hospitals in India. SUBJECTS--Of 3183 cases of early syphilis treated with different regimens during this period, 1532 were f...

  8. Musique et référentialité sur les titres des disques Blue Note

    Philippe Carrard

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Les titres qui figurent sur la pochette des disques de la marque Blue Note peuvent dénoter le contenu musical de l’album (Boogie-Woogie Classics, le connoter (Blue Hour ou fonctionner strictement comme index (Speak No Evil. Quelle que soit leur valeur précise, ces titres permettent de revisiter un problème maintes fois soulevé par les musicologues et les sémioticiens: celui de savoir si la musique « réfère », et à quoi. Dans le cas des disques Blue Note, la question se pose d’une manière particulièrement aiguë à propos de certains enregistrements des années 1960, dont les titres (It’s Time, Right Now, Let Freedom Ring, etc. peuvent référer aux structures du jazz ou à la situation des noirs dans la société américaine, qu’il s’agit tous deux de transformer dans le sens d’une liberté accrue.The titles on the jackets of the records of the label Blue Note can denote the musical content of the album (Boogie-Woogie Classics, connote it (Blue Hour, or function strictly as indexes (Speak No Evil. Whatever their exact value might be, those titles make it possible to revisit a problem frequently raised in semiotics and musicology: the problem of knowing whether music « refers », and to what exactly. The question is especially acute in the case of some of the records released by Blue Note in the1960s, whose titles (It’s Time, Right Now, Let Freedom Ring may refer to musical structures or to the situation of African-Americans in American sociey, which have both to be changed in the sense of more freedom.

  9. Analysis of factor VIII mediated suppression of lentiviral vector titres.

    Radcliffe, P A; Sion, C J M; Wilkes, F J; Custard, E J; Beard, G L; Kingsman, S M; Mitrophanous, K A

    2008-02-01

    Effective gene therapy for haemophilia A necessitates a vector system that is not subject to a pre-existing immune response, has adequate coding capacity, gives long-term expression and preferably can target non-dividing cells. Vector systems based on lentiviruses such as equine infectious anaemia virus (EIAV) fulfil these criteria for the delivery of factor VIII (FVIII). We have found that B domain-deleted (BDD) FVIII protein inhibits functional viral particle production when co-expressed with the EIAV vector system. Although particle numbers (as measured by reverse transcriptase activity) are near normal, RNA genome levels are reduced and measurement of integrated copies revealed the virus is severely defective in its ability to transduce target cells. This is due to the absence of sufficient vesicular stomatitis virus glycoprotein (VSV-G) envelope on viral particles derived from cells expressing FVIII. By using an internal tissue-specific promoter, that has low activity in the producer cells, to drive expression of FVIII we have overcome this inhibitory effect allowing us to generate titres approaching those obtained with vector genomes encoding reporter genes. Furthermore, we report that codon optimization of the full-length FVIII gene increased vector titres approximately 10-fold in addition to substantially improving expression per integrated vector copy. PMID:18046428

  10. STUDY OF THE BASELINE WIDAL TITRES AMONG HEALTHY INDIVIDUALS OF RURAL POPULATION IN PUDUCHERRY

    Jeyakumari D, Jaberlin Sneha AJ, Gopal R

    2015-01-01

    Background: Enteric fever is endemic in developing countries like India. Widal test in a single serum sample is often the only test relied upon for laboratory diagnosis. The test is considered positive if the antibody titres are higher than the cut – off value in a single test or a rising titre in paired sera. But normal baseline titres in healthy population and cutoff values have not been established in our area. So the aim of our study was to determine the base line titres of antibodies amo...

  11. Baseline Titre of Widal amongst Healthy Blood Donors in Raichur, Karnataka

    B. V. Peerapur

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Lack of proper knowledge ofbaseline titre of Widal test can lead to over di-agnosis of typhoid fever leading to mismanage-ment of patients. Rapid semiquantitative slideWidal test has replaced conventional tube Widaltest in many laboratories, but there is paucityof scientific data regarding how far the resultsof this rapid test correlate with that of conven-tional tube Widal test. Aims and Objectives:To evaluate baseline titre of widal using quanti-tative tube Widal test, to suggest the cut-offvalue for positive Widal test in this region, andto correlate the results obtained in quantitativetube Widal test with that of rapidsemiquantitative slide Widal test. Material andMethods: Sera of 107 apparently healthy blooddonors (AHDs were subjected to quantitativetube and semiquantitative slide Widal test toknow the titre. Results: Highest titre obtainedby tube Widal test for TO was 1:160, for TH -1:320, for AH- 1:20, and for BH- 1:80. TubeWidal titres of 1:160 were seen in 4(3.7% and 10 (9.3%respectively. TH titre of 1:320 was seen in1(0.93% and no such high titre was reportedin relation to TO. Highest titre obtained bysemiquantitative slide Widal for TO was 1:320,for TH- 1:320, for AH-1:40 and for BH- 1:160.Conclusion: We recommend TO and TH titreof > 1:320 as diagnostic of typhoid fever andfor AH and BH, titres of >1:40 and >1:160should be considered diagnostic respectivelyin our region. Because of high expected falsepositivity rate of slide Widal test even at thehigher cut-off titre of 1:320, single slide Widaltest appears to have little value in the diagnosisof typhoid fever in this region.

  12. Relationship between haemagglutination inhibition titre and immunity to influenza in ferrets.

    Wikramaratna, Paul S; Rambaut, Andrew

    2015-10-01

    Our understanding of the antigenic evolution of the human influenza virus is chiefly derived from experiments in which serum from influenza infected ferrets is tested against panels of virus isolates in the haemagglutination inhibition (HI) assay. The interpretation of these results has been much aided by the development of antigenic mapping techniques, which suppose that the antigenic distance between two different influenza viruses is directly proportional to their fold-difference in titre in this assay. Yet, antigenic distance is not necessarily the same as cross-protection, and high levels of protection have been observed in humans against strains to which they have low HI titres. However, no study has previously addressed the relationship between HI titre and cross-protection in ferrets: the standard animal model. This study fills this gap by analysing published data where pre-challenge HI titres are available for individual ferrets, and post-challenge outcomes have been recorded. Ultimately, this work confirms that it is the absolute, rather than relative, HI titre that determines the extent of immunity and that there is a threshold HI titre beyond which ferrets are completely protected from infection. Nevertheless, this titre is much higher in ferrets than has been suggested for humans. Further, we are consequently able to show that using distance between strains within an antigenic map to predict cross-protection between influenza viruses can be misleading. PMID:26342848

  13. STUDY OF THE BASELINE WIDAL TITRES AMONG HEALTHY INDIVIDUALS OF RURAL POPULATION IN PUDUCHERRY

    Jeyakumari D, Jaberlin Sneha AJ, Gopal R

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Enteric fever is endemic in developing countries like India. Widal test in a single serum sample is often the only test relied upon for laboratory diagnosis. The test is considered positive if the antibody titres are higher than the cut – off value in a single test or a rising titre in paired sera. But normal baseline titres in healthy population and cutoff values have not been established in our area. So the aim of our study was to determine the base line titres of antibodies among apparently healthy populations and to define the significant titres of widal test. Materials and Methods: Samples were initially screened by Widal slide agglutination test and further confirmed by the Quantitative tube agglutination test. Results: Among the 500 samples from apparently healthy individuals, 260 samples were positive for agglutinins. 141 were positive for ‘O’ agglutinin and 163 were positive for ‘H’ agglutinin of Salmonella typhi. Among 141 samples, 30 showed agglutination up to 1in 20 titre, 100 up to 1in 40 and 25 (4.8% up to 1in 80. Among 163 samples, 18 showed a titre of 1 in 20, 120 showed a titre of 1 in 40 and 21(4.2% up to 1 in 80. Conclusion: When a single widal titre is used for the diagnosis of enteric fever in our locality, it will be more appropriate to change the currently used cutoff levels against S.typhi to ≥ 1 in 160 for anti-O and ‘H’ agglutinins remains the same of ≥ 1 in 160.

  14. BASELINE WIDAL TITRES AMONG APPARENTLY HEALTHY INDIVIDUALS IN HADOTI REGION, RAJASTHAN

    Naveen; Deepak; Divya

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT: AIM AND OBJECTIVE: The interpretation of the Widal test depends upon the baseline titre among healthy individuals in a parti cular geographical area. This study was undertaken to determine the baseline Widal titre in apparently healthy individuals in, Hadoti region, Rajasthan. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Blood samples were collected from healthy blood donors (n= 200) who attended blood bank of th is institution from May 2012 to August 2012. The Widal tube...

  15. Evaluation of the baseline Widal titres in healthy blood donors of Uttarakhand

    Garima Mittal; Pratima Gupta; Rajiv K Agarwal; Manju K Talekar; Gita Negi; Shalini Gupta

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: The interpretation of Widal test depends upon the baseline titre which is prevalent amongst healthy individuals in a particular geographical area. Aim and Objective: The aim of this study was to determine the baseline Widal titre of the apparently healthy population of a tertiary care centre of Uttarakhand. Material and Methods: Blood samples were collected from healthy blood donors (n=500) of the age group of 18-60 years, of both the sexes, who attended our blood bank from Sept...

  16. Thyroxine, methimazole, and thyroid microsomal autoantibody titres in hypothyroid Hashimoto's thyroiditis.

    Jansson, R.; Karlsson, A.; Dahlberg, P A

    1985-01-01

    Ten hypothyroid patients with Hashimoto's thyroiditis were treated with methimazole 30 mg in addition to thyroxine 0.15 mg daily. Another 10 hypothyroid patients with Hashimoto's thyroiditis were given thyroxine 0.15 mg alone. After 22 weeks of treatment significant decreases in thyroid microsomal autoantibody titres were observed in both groups (p less than 0.01). There was no difference in the mean change in titre between the two groups. When the patients treated with methimazole were subse...

  17. Evaluation of the baseline Widal titres in healthy blood donors of Uttarakhand

    Garima Mittal

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The interpretation of Widal test depends upon the baseline titre which is prevalent amongst healthy individuals in a particular geographical area. Aim and Objective: The aim of this study was to determine the baseline Widal titre of the apparently healthy population of a tertiary care centre of Uttarakhand. Material and Methods: Blood samples were collected from healthy blood donors (n=500 of the age group of 18-60 years, of both the sexes, who attended our blood bank from September 2013 to November 2013 and were analyzed for the presence of Salmonella antibodies by carrying out the Widal tube agglutination test. Results: Of the 500 serum samples which were tested, 255 (51% serum samples were positive for agglutinins (≥ 1:20 and 245 were negative. The most frequently recorded titre of the reactive sera was 1:40 for the anti-O antibodies and 1:80 for the anti-H antibodies for Salmonella enterica serotype typhi and this was the baseline titre. While the baseline titre of the ‘H’ agglutinins of Salmonella enterica serotype paratyphi A was 1:20 and of paratyphi B was also1:20. Conclusions: Based on the results of our study, it has been recommended that the significant titre of 1:80 for the anti-O antibodies and of 1:160 for the anti-H antibodies may be considered as diagnostic for enteric fever in the region of Uttarakhand, India.

  18. [Comparative evaluation of several methods of determining anti-streptolysin O].

    Grimaldi, A; Telesforo, P; Giuliani, N; Salino, L; Cela, P; Cappucci, M

    1980-09-01

    The Authors have carried out some experiences on four tests for the detection of anti O streptolysin, determining in 210 samples of sera: 1. the antistreptolysin titer according to Rantz and Randall; 2. the antistreptolysin titer according to the latex reaction; 3. five different antistreptococcal antibodies (ASO, ASK, ASHA, ADN-aseB, NAD-ase) with a rapid multi-purpose test for a simultaneous detection; 4. the antistreptolysin titer according to Aso Quantum method. The results obtained on the 210 samples of sera were compared. The relationship between the four methods were examined. PMID:7244098

  19. BASELINE WIDAL TITRES AMONG APPARENTLY HEALTHY INDIVIDUALS IN HADOTI REGION, RAJASTHAN

    Naveen

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: AIM AND OBJECTIVE: The interpretation of the Widal test depends upon the baseline titre among healthy individuals in a parti cular geographical area. This study was undertaken to determine the baseline Widal titre in apparently healthy individuals in, Hadoti region, Rajasthan. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Blood samples were collected from healthy blood donors (n= 200 who attended blood bank of th is institution from May 2012 to August 2012. The Widal tube agglutination test was carried out. 0.5 ml of two fold serially diluted patients’ sera (dilutions from 1:20 to 1:160 in 0.9 % normal saline was tested by adding an equal amount of antigen. RESULTS: Of the 200 serum samples which were tested, 108 ser um samples were positive for agglutinins against Salmone lla serotypes (≥ 1:20 and 92 serum samples were negative for agglutinins. Among 54 sampl es with an anti-O titer (≥ 1:20 , 39 samples had titres of 1:40. Among the 63 samples demo nstrating anti-H titres of ≥ 1:20 to salmonella serotype, 48 had a titer of 1:40. For sal monella Paratyphi A and B, anti-H titres of 1:20 were found in 3% and 1.5%, respectively, of al l samples tested. CONCLUSION: We recommended that the significant titre of the ‘H’ a gglutinin and the ‘O’ agglutinin of Salmonella Typhi is ≥ 1: 80. While the significant titre of the ‘H’ agglutinins of Salmonella Paratyphi A and Salmonella Paratyphi B is ≥ 1: 40

  20. Study of baseline Widal titres in a healthy adult population of Wayanad district, Kerala, India.

    Maulingkar, Saleel V; Prakash, R; Harish, P V; Salabha, B

    2015-01-01

    The Widal test is still widely used in diagnosing typhoid fever in developing countries. Often, specific chemotherapy is administered based on a single Widal test. Interpretation of a single Widal test, in turn, depends on the baseline agglutinin titres among the local population in that area. Hence, we aimed to find out the baseline titres in our area. A single blood sample was collected from hospital outpatients with non-infectious diseases, the patients being aged above 18 years and residing in Wayanad district continuously for at least 5 years. The test was performed according to the Widal test kit manufacturer's instructions and interpreted using standard guidelines. The baseline titre for Anti TO, TH, AH and BH agglutinins in our area was found to be 1:40, 1:80, 1:40 and 1:40, respectively. PMID:25234424

  1. Performance of high titre attenuated canine parvovirus vaccine in pups with maternally derived antibody.

    Burtonboy, S; Charlier, P; Hertoghs, J; Lobmann, M; Wiseman, A; Woods, S

    1991-04-20

    The performance of live, attenuated, homologous, canine parvovirus vaccines was studied in 140 puppies aged from four to 11 weeks. In the presence of maternally derived antibody the ability of the vaccines to elicit a serological response, as determined by the haemagglutination inhibition test and a standardised ELISA, was found to be dose (infectious titre) related. An experimental vaccine containing 10(7.0) TCID50 of virus induced seroconversion rates of 95, 89, 82 and 44 per cent in dogs with haemagglutination inhibition antibody titres of less than or equal to 8, 16, 32 and greater than 32, respectively. The standardised ELISA appeared to be better than the haemagglutination inhibition test with respect to variability and subjectivity, especially when titres were low. PMID:2053262

  2. Baseline Titre of Widal amongst Healthy Blood Donors in Raichur, Karnataka

    B. V. Peerapur; Abdul Kaleem Bahadur

    2013-01-01

    Background: Lack of proper knowledge ofbaseline titre of Widal test can lead to over di-agnosis of typhoid fever leading to mismanage-ment of patients. Rapid semiquantitative slideWidal test has replaced conventional tube Widaltest in many laboratories, but there is paucityof scientific data regarding how far the resultsof this rapid test correlate with that of conven-tional tube Widal test. Aims and Objectives:To evaluate baseline titre of widal using quanti-tative tube Widal test, to sugges...

  3. Determination of Baseline Widal Titres Amongst Apparently Healthy Blood Donors in Ahmednagar, Maharashtra, India

    Gunjal, Shraddha Prasad; Gunjal, Prasad Niranjan; Patil, Narendra Khandu; Vanaparthi, Nagaraju; Nalawade, Anil Vasant; Banerjee, Swati; Keshav, Kher Sudheer

    2013-01-01

    Background: Enteric fever is endemic in all parts of India. The Widal agglutination test is widely used for its diagnosis. But the interpretation of Widal test depends upon the baseline titre which is prevalent amongst healthy individuals in a particular geographical area.

  4. Enhancement of Antibody Titre and Development of Additional Red Cell Alloantibodies Following Intrauterine Transfusion.

    Dubey, Anju; Sonker, Atul; Chaudhary, Rajendra

    2016-03-01

    Intrauterine blood transfusion is the mainstay of managing foetuses with severe anemia. It may however result in fetomaternal hemorrhage, which in cases of Rh isoimmunisation may increase the severity of the disease by enhancing the maternal immunological response to fetal antigens. This study was conducted to determine the frequency, specificity and origin of additional red cell antibodies which developed after IUT. The change in the titre of allo anti-D following IUT was also determined. Antibody detection and titration was done on the blood samples of all the patients before and after intrauterine blood transfusion to check for the development of additional antibody and change in the titre of existing anti-D. Severe anemia was found in 17 (58.6 %) fetuses who received a total of 42 ultrasound-guided IUTs. Development of antibodies additional to anti-D in maternal serum was seen in 5 (29.4 %) cases. The specificity of additional alloantibodies was anti-C in four cases whereas it was anti-E in one case. Four fold or greater increase in existing allo-anti D titre was seen in 6 (35.3 %) cases after IUT. Enhancement of maternal sensitisation leading to an increase in maternal antibody titre is particularly seen after the first IUT. Matching of the donor RBCs particularly for Rh antigens might prevent the induction of additional alloantibodies against these antigens. IUT as a treatment modality should be given judiciously and only when the need is inevitable. PMID:26855513

  5. Identifiabilité et activation référentielles dans les titres de presse

    Salles Mathilde

    2014-01-01

    Après avoir soumis la théorie de l’accessibilité d’Ariel à l’épreuve des titres – de manière comparable à Kronrod & Engel (2001), mais avec des résultats, on le verra, très différents –, on soulignera, dans cette communication, l’importance des deux catégories de Chafe (1976), l’identifiabilité et l’activation, pour l’étude des expressions référentielles dans les titres de presse. Si la théorie de l’accessibilité d’Ariel (1990) se révèle intéressante pour étudier les e...

  6. [Anti-hepatitis B surface antigen titres in vaccinated dentistry students at Damascus University].

    Srour, I H; Mashlah, A

    2012-06-01

    Dental practice carries considerable danger for acquiring bloodborne pathogens such as hepatitis B virus (HBV). Vaccination against this virus is an important approach to reducing the infection. Post-vaccination test to confirm the seroconversion is important also. Over the period 1 March-31 May 2010, we assessed the efficacy of HBV vaccination among 91 fourth-year dental students at Damascus University, who were vaccinated under the mandatory Faculty of Dentistry programme. Anti-HBsAg antibody titres were determined in the blood samples using an enzyme immunoassay to measure; > or = 10 IU/mm was considered an adequate response titer. Seven of the 91 dentistry students (7.7%) had anti-HBs antibody titre < 10 mlU/mL. The frequency of unresponsiveness was significantly higherwith smoking (P = 0.012) and alcohol consumption (P = 0.014). Anti-HBs test should be included in routine immunization services of the School of Dentistry at Damascus University. PMID:22888621

  7. Discriminant analysis of symptom pattern and serum antibody titres in humidifier related disease.

    McSharry, C.; Anderson, K.; Speekenbrink, A; Lewis, C; Boyd, G.

    1993-01-01

    BACKGROUND--The heterogeneous patterns of symptoms among factory workers exposed to aerosols from contaminated air humidifiers were analysed to assess the association between specific symptoms and the serum IgG antibody response to the humidifier water contaminants, and to test the ability of specific symptoms to predict this antibody response. METHODS--Symptoms from 88 factory workers were surveyed by a doctor administered questionnaire and compared with their serum IgG antibody titres to hu...

  8. Widal agglutination titre: a rapid serological diagnosis of typhoid fever in developing countries

    To study the reliability of a single Widal test and to find out the diagnostic significance of 'O' and 'H' agglutinin titre in the diagnosis of typhoid fever. Community-based case-control study conducted from Jan 2001 to June 2007. The blood samples were collected from the medical and out door department of Sir Ganga Ram Hospitals, Lahore. The diagnostic value of an acute phase single Widal agglutination test for suspected typhoid fever was evaluated in 733 consecutive patients with fever lasting 6 or more days. In 733 patients with fever 84 (11.45%) were positive for Widal test. A noteworthy rise 1/320 of H and/or O agglutinin titre was observed in 86 (11.3%) of patients with typhoid fever. In the absence of vaccination an elevated level of H and/or O agglutinin titre of 1: 320 is of diagnostic value for typhoid fever especially in our setting where a single sample of serum is relied on for the diagnosis of typhoid fever. (author)

  9. Cattle rabies vaccination--A longitudinal study of rabies antibody titres in an Israeli dairy herd.

    Yakobson, Boris; Taylor, Nick; Dveres, Nelli; Rozenblut, Shira; Tov, Boris Even; Markos, Majid; Gallon, Nadav; Homer, David; Maki, Joanne

    2015-09-01

    In contrast to many regions of the world where rabies is endemic in terrestrial wildlife species, wildlife rabies has been controlled in Israel by oral rabies vaccination programs, but canine rabies is re-emerging in the northern area of the Golan Heights. From 2009 to 2014 there were 208 animal rabies cases in Israel; 96 (46%) were considered introduced primary cases in dogs, triggering 112 secondary cases. One third (37/112) of the secondary cases were in cattle. Rabies vaccination is voluntary for cattle in Israel, except those on public exhibit. Rabies vaccination schedules for cattle vary based on farm practices and perception of risk. In this study 59 cattle from a dairy farm which routinely vaccinates against rabies were assigned into six groups according to age and vaccination histories. Four groups contained adult cows which had received one previous rabies vaccination, one group of adults had received two previous vaccinations, and one group was unvaccinated calves. Serum samples were collected and the cows were vaccinated with a commercial rabies vaccine. Sera were again collected 39 days later and the calf group re-vaccinated and re-sampled 18 days later. Sera were analyzed for the presence of rabies virus neutralizing antibodies using the rapid immunofluorescent antibody test. Cattle with antibody titres ≥ 0.5 IU/ml were considered to be protected against rabies. Twenty-six of 27 adult cattle (96%) vaccinated once at less than five months old did not have protective titres. Sixty percent (6/10) cattle vaccinated once at around six months of age did have adequate titres. Cattle previously vaccinated twice (n=10; 100%) with an 18 month interval between inoculations, had protective titres and protective antibody titres following booster vaccination (n=51; 100%). The anamnestic response of cattle to a killed rabies vaccine was not affected by the time interval between vaccinations, which ranged from 12 to 36 months. These results suggest that calves from vaccinated cows should not be vaccinated before six months old to avoid maternal antibody interference. Whilst most cattle older than six months old will be protected after a single inoculation, a second inoculation ensures a higher antibody levels for improved protection. Cattle receiving an effective priming dose responded well to a booster up to 36 months later. Such results demonstrate the effectiveness of rabies vaccination in cattle and the added value of a second dose to ensure a prolonged immune response against rabies. PMID:26032721

  10. The Baseline Widal Titre Among the Healthy Individuals of the Hilly Areas in the Garhwal Region of Uttarakhand, India

    Pal, Shekhar; Prakash, Rajat; Juyal, Deepak; Sharma, Neelam; Rana, Amit; Negi, Sandeep

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: Typhoid fever is endemic in all parts of India and the Widal test is widely used for its diagnosis. In the endemic areas, the healthy people may contain antibodies which are capable of reacting upto a variable titre in the Widal test, due to a past exposure, TAB vaccination and cross reacting antigens. Therefore it varies widely from place to place and is referred to as the baseline titre of that area.

  11. Raising the Titanic.

    Baker, Romona

    1990-01-01

    Described is an activity in which groups of students investigate engineering principles by writing a feasibility study to raise the luxury liner, Titanic. The problem statement and directions, and suggestions for problem solutions are included. (CW)

  12. Raising Consciousness about Sexism

    Delworth, Ursula

    1973-01-01

    The sexism consciousness raising exercises provided in this article can help both men and women understand how cultural attitudes toward the sexes are embedded in our individual psychological makeup. (Author)

  13. Thromboembolic risk in patients with high titre anticardiolipin and multiple antiphospholipid antibodies.

    Neville, Carolyn; Rauch, Joyce; Kassis, Jeannine; Chang, Erika R; Joseph, Lawrence; Le Comte, Martine; Fortin, Paul R

    2003-07-01

    Asymptomatic antiphospholipid antibody (aPL) carriers with high risk for thrombosis may benefit from preventive anticoagulation. It was our objective to test whether the risk of thrombosis increases with: 1). increasing titres of anticardiolipin antibodies (aCL) after adjustment for other cardiovascular risk factors and 2). the number of aPL detected. In a cross-sectional study, blood was collected from clinics in two teaching hospitals. The study included 208 individuals suspected of having an aPL and 208 age- and sex-matched controls having blood drawn for a complete blood count. Clinical variables included history of previous arterial (ATE) or venous (VTE) thrombotic events, traditional risk factors for cardiovascular disease, and systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Laboratory variables included IgG/IgM aCL, lupus anticoagulant, and IgG/IgM anti-beta2-glycoprotein I. Mean age was 46.5 years and 83% were female. Seventy-five of the 416 participants had >or= 1 aPL, and 69 had confirmed >or= 1 ATE or VTE. Family history was positive in 48% of participants, smoking in 28%, hypertension in 16%, diabetes in 6%, and SLE in 20%. A 10-unit increase in aCL IgG titre was associated with an odds ratio (OR) [95% CI] of 1.07 [1.01-1.13] for ATE and 1.06 [1.02-1.11] for VTE. The odds of a previous thrombosis increased with each additional aPL detected: 1.5 [0.93-2.3] for ATE and 1.7 [1.1-2.5] for VTE. These results indicate that increased titres of aCL and multiple aPL were associated with an increased risk of a previous thrombotic event. PMID:12876633

  14. Impact of hepatitis B immunization among the Nicobarese tribe - antibody titres & seroprotection five years after vaccination

    Sugunan, A. P.; Bhattacharya, Haimanti; Bhattacharya, Debdutta; Mandal, A.; Ghosal, S. R.; Rao, R. C.; Mandal, A. K.

    2014-01-01

    Background & objectives: A total of 237 Nicobarese subjects who had received hepatitis B vaccination as part of mass vaccination project during 2000-2001 were screened for anti-HBsAg titres by quantitative ELISA five years after vaccination. Methods: Anti-HBsAg antibody was estimated using quantitative ELISA. Proportion of the subjects with protective levels of antibody and geometric mean antibody titres were calculated. Results: Among the 237 study subjects, 213 had received three doses of vaccine, 17 had received two doses and seven had received one dose. The geometric mean titres of anti-HBs antibodies were 201.7, 31.9 and 23.1 mIU/ml among those who received three, two and one dose of vaccine, respectively. Among those who received three doses of vaccination, 85.9 per cent had anti-HBs antibody levels of 10 mIU/ml or more, indicating seroprotection. The difference in the seroprotection rates among those who received three doses of vaccination (85.9%) and those who received less than three doses (58.3%) was significant. Seroprotection rates one month after the first, second and third dose of vaccination were 49.1, 86.9 and 96.7 per cent, respectively. It then declined to 89 per cent by the end of the second year and to 85.5 per cent by the end of the third year, but there was no decline thereafter. Interpretation & conclusions: Seroprotection rate reached at the maximum one month after the third dose of HBV vaccine. Although about 15 per cent of the vaccinated persons lost seroprotection by the end of the third year, no further loss in seroprotection was observed between the third year and the fifth year. PMID:24820837

  15. A solid-phase radioimmunoassay for measurement of circulating antibody titres to wheat gliadin and its subfractions in patients with adult coeliac disease

    A solid-phase radioimmunoassay for the measurement of circulating antibody titres to wheat gliadin is described. Using this assay, the authors have measured antibody titres to unfractionated gliadin in normal healthy controls, in coeliac patients on a gluten-free or a normal diet, and in patients with ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease. High titres of antibodies to unfractionated gliadin were observed only in the patients with untreated coeliac disease. Antibody titres to α, #betta#, #betta# and #betta# gliadin subfractions were measured in patients with untreated coeliac disease and compared with titres in normal controls. Patients with untreated coeliac disease had higher antibody titres to the gliadin subfractions. No specific pattern of circulating antibody titres to gliadin subfractions was observed in the untreated coeliac patients which would provide a diagnostic profile. These results suggest shared antigenicity between the gliadin subfractions. (Auth.)

  16. Seismology: Raising Kathmandu

    Bilham, Roger

    2015-08-01

    On 25 April 2015 northern Nepal shifted up to 7 m southward and Kathmandu was raised by 1 m. The causal earthquake failed to fully rupture the main fault beneath the Himalaya and hence a large earthquake appears to be inevitable in Nepal's future.

  17. Long-term survival in trial of medium-titre Edmonston-Zagreb measles vaccine in Guinea-Bissau

    Aaby, Peter; Lisse, Ida; Whittle, H; Knudsen, K; Thaarup, Jeppe; Poulsen, A; Sodemann, Morten; Jakobsen, M; Brink, L; Gansted, U

    1994-01-01

    A trial of protective efficacy which compared medium-titre Edmonston-Zagreb (EZ) measles vaccine (10(4.6) p.f.u.) from the age of 4 months with the standard Schwarz (SW) measles vaccine given from the age of 9 months was started in an urban community in Guinea-Bissau in 1985. Because trials of high......-titre measles vaccine have found increased mortality among female recipients, we examined whether EZ medium-titre vaccine was associated with any long-term impact on mortality, suppression of T-cells, or growth. The mortality rate ratio over 5 years of follow-up was 1.12 for EZ children compared with children...

  18. A study to determine significant titre-values of widal test in the diagnosis of enteric fever for a population of north Kerala, India

    Gufran Ahmed M. Bijapur; Shamshuddin R. Kakkeri; Raysa N.P; Shaik Mohammed Usman

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: To determine the baseline Widal titres of a study population and to propose titre-values of significance in the diagnosis of enteric fever. Background: Enteric fever is endemic in the Indian subcontinent with high prevalence rates. Etiological diagnosis of the condition is problematic due to several limitations implicit in the region. Singly run Widal test is often the only means available for a workable diagnosis. A knowledge of prevalent baseline titres is essential for its inte...

  19. Effect of arginine or glutamine supplementation on production, organ weights, interferon gamma, interleukin 6 and antibody titre of broilers.

    Szabó, József; Andrásofszky, Emese; Tuboly, Tamás; Bersényi, András; Weisz, Andrea; Hetényi, Nikoletta; Hullár, István

    2014-09-01

    The objective of this study was designed to test whether supplementation of the diet with arginine (Arg) or glutamine (Gln) or their combination influences the production, organ weights and humoral immune response of broilers. A total of 432 one-day-old male Ross 308 broiler chickens were divided into 6 treatment groups: control, Arg-0.5%, Arg-1%, Gln-0.5%, Gln-1% and Arg-0.5%+Gln-0.5%. Drinking water and feed were provided ad libitum. On day 18 of the experiment 50% of chickens in each treatment group were immunised with bovine serum albumin. Ten and 21 days after immunisation blood samples were collected to determine the anti-albumin IgY titre, interleukin 6 (IL6) and interferon gamma (IFNG) and to measure the weight of the liver, spleen, bursa of Fabricius and thymus. Arg or Gln supplementation of the diets influenced neither the production nor the organ weights until 18 days of age. Between 18 and 39 days of age both Arg (0.5% and 1%) and Arg + Gln supplementation improved the feed conversion ratio (FCR) by 3.7%, 6.3% and 4.9%, respectively, while Gln-1% worsened it by 15%. Immunisation slightly (-0.79%) depressed the body weight gain of broilers fed the control diet, which was significantly improved by both Arg (0.5 or 1%) and Arg + Gln supplementation. Immunisation increased the weight of the spleen, bursa and thymus and decreased that of the liver. Supplementation with 1% Gln depressed (-5.13%) the body weight gain of the immunised chickens but strongly stimulated the immune response. Supplementations with Arg and Gln did not influence the IL6 and IFNG level of the blood; however, on day 10 after immunisation these two parameters showed a negative correlation with each other. Regarding production, organ weights and immunity, Arg supplementation should be recommended in the grower phase, while Gln supplementation can be useful in pullets raised for egg production, where a good immune response to vaccinations is an important factor. PMID:25038949

  20. Raising children bilingually

    Henriette W. Langdon

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to describe the process of becoming bilingual by sharing my own experience being raised in a four-language environment and how it influenced the upbringing of my daughter in two, and subsequently three languages. The other purpose is to dispel the myth that children with language, developmental and/or intellectual impairments or those diagnosed as being on the autism spectrum cannot or should not be exposed to two languages because it is confusing, or because th...

  1. Evaluation of TH agglutinin titres of Widal test in the diagnosis of typhoid fever.

    Sultana, S; Hossain, M A; Paul, S K; Kabir, M R; Yesmin, T; Maruf, M A; Siddiqui, Z R; Rahman, S M; Hoque, M R

    2014-01-01

    This prospective study was evaluated the role of TH agglutinins and reevaluate the diagnostic value of Widal test in the diagnosis of typhoid fever by identifying the S. typhi specific antibody. The study was carried out in the department of Microbiology, Mymensingh Medical College, Mymensingh between July 2010 and June 2011, including 200 individuals of different ages and sexes. Widal test and blood culture were performed for each of the cases and controls. Among 150 blood samples from the suspected cases, 23(15.3%) were culture positive for S. typhi and 67(44.7%) had high titres of ≥1:160 for 'O' or 'H' or both agglutinins. Out of 23 culture positive cases, 3(13%) had TO ≥:160, 5(21.7%) had significant TH ≥1:160. Based on the above findings, it was concluded that judicious interpretation of Widal test play an essential role in diagnosis of typhoid fever, especially in the resource poor countries like Bangladesh. PMID:24584364

  2. Rh sensitized pregnancy with high ICT titre with favourable foetal outcome: a rare case

    Namrata Saxena

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Leiomyosarcoma Rhesus (Rh isoimmunization is the development of maternal IgG antibodies against fetal Rh Red Blood Cell (RBC antigens. Transplacental passage of maternal Rh antibody (IgG anti-D may result in Hemolytic Disease of the Newborn (HDN, a condition characterized by hemolysis, severe fetal anemia and generalized fetal edema (hydrops fetalis. The severity of Rh hemolytic disease may be assessed in the Immunized patient by several different means which include: past obstetric history, maternal antibody titer, ultrasonography, amniotic fluid bilirubin quantification, and percutaneous umbilical blood sampling. A past history of fetal demise, hydrops fetalis, intrauterine transfusion or neonatal exchange transfusion implies that the present pregnancy is or will be severely affected because Rh disease effects on the fetus generally recur or present progressively earlier or more severely with each successive Rh positive pregnancy. We present here a rare case of Rh sensitized pregnancy with high ICT titre who had normal fetal outcome. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2015; 4(5.000: 1574-1576

  3. Distracted Driving Raises Crash Risk

    ... review our exit disclaimer . Subscribe Distracted Driving Raises Crash Risk Video technology and in-vehicle sensors showed ... among new drivers, raises the risk for car crashes and near crashes. The study also found that ...

  4. Raising children bilingually

    Henriette W. Langdon

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to describe the process of becoming bilingual by sharing my own experience being raised in a four-language environment and how it influenced the upbringing of my daughter in two, and subsequently three languages. The other purpose is to dispel the myth that children with language, developmental and/or intellectual impairments or those diagnosed as being on the autism spectrum cannot or should not be exposed to two languages because it is confusing, or because they simply cannot handle two languages due to their disability. As a bilingual speech and language pathologist (SLP who has practiced in the United States for four decades, I have unfortunately witnessed that many teachers as well as other well-meaning professionals including psychologists, therapists and even physicians discourage these children’s parents from using their first language because it might be confusing or too difficult for the child to handle. A review of recent research on children with special needs who have a variety of language, learning and communication challenges contradicts this view. The information presented should be helpful not only to parents but also to various professionals including therapists and physicians who come into contact with children with special needs who are growing up in a bilingual environment.

  5. Determination of specific antibodies titre to salmonella enteritidis by elisa technique in several selected flocks of laying hens

    Velhner Maja

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the antibody titre to Salmonella enteritidis (SE was examined by the ELISA method in two flocks of laying hens, where during routine bacteriological investigations Salmonellae was never isolated, and in one flock where Colysepticemia was diagnosed and Salmonella isolated accidentally. In the flocks were Salmonellae were not isolated, a titre with a high level of specific antibodies to SE was discovered (15 and 45%, while the flock with accidental findings of SE was poorly positive (5%. These results point to the necessity of introducing serological monitoring to SE so that the infection of salmonella may be discovered early and the prevalence in the flock determined, and also for the purpose of applying adequate measures that could reduce the possibility of secretion of SE through eggs.

  6. Hyaluronan treatment of biotinylated packaging cells increases titre of progeny retrovirus affinity-captured onto paramagnetic particles.

    Nesbeth, D. N.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The polysaccharide hyaluronan is a major component of the extracellular matrix and has been observed to impact retrovirus infectivity in biological settings. Hyaluronan has also been applied in biotechnology as a non-immunogenic, biocompatible agent to improve control of drug delivery and lentiviral transduction. We carried out a preliminary investigation to ascertain if the presence of hyaluronan influenced titre performance of an engineered retrovirus during the production, capt...

  7. String Vacuous Overt Verb Raising.

    Koisumi, Masatoshi

    2000-01-01

    Presents evidence for overt verb raising in Japanese, thereby defending the validity of the head parameter with its two values (head initial and head final). Explores consequences of the overt verb raising analysis of Japanese to various aspects of syntactic theory. (Author/VWL)

  8. Raising Awareness in Science Education for Women (RAISE-W)

    Faherty, Jacqueline K.; Holford, M.

    2014-01-01

    Raising Awareness in Science Education for Women (RAISE-W) is a 501c non profit corporation whose mission is to aid in increasing and retaining the number of women - especially underrepresented females - engaged in scientific teaching and research. Initiated by a Protein Chemist and an Astronomer, our ultimate goal has been to develop informational tools and create innovative outreach programs for women across all STEM fields. At present RAISE-W is recruiting women at the undergraduate, graduate, and early career stages to participate in a unique, 1-year, executive coaching program modeled after those used in the business sector.

  9. Relationship between haemagglutination-inhibiting antibody titres and clinical protection against influenza: development and application of a bayesian random-effects model

    Megas Françoise

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Antibodies directed against haemagglutinin, measured by the haemagglutination inhibition (HI assay are essential to protective immunity against influenza infection. An HI titre of 1:40 is generally accepted to correspond to a 50% reduction in the risk of contracting influenza in a susceptible population, but limited attempts have been made to further quantify the association between HI titre and protective efficacy. Methods We present a model, using a meta-analytical approach, that estimates the level of clinical protection against influenza at any HI titre level. Source data were derived from a systematic literature review that identified 15 studies, representing a total of 5899 adult subjects and 1304 influenza cases with interval-censored information on HI titre. The parameters of the relationship between HI titre and clinical protection were estimated using Bayesian inference with a consideration of random effects and censorship in the available information. Results A significant and positive relationship between HI titre and clinical protection against influenza was observed in all tested models. This relationship was found to be similar irrespective of the type of viral strain (A or B and the vaccination status of the individuals. Conclusion Although limitations in the data used should not be overlooked, the relationship derived in this analysis provides a means to predict the efficacy of inactivated influenza vaccines when only immunogenicity data are available. This relationship can also be useful for comparing the efficacy of different influenza vaccines based on their immunological profile.

  10. Raising Public Awareness of Mathematics

    Behrends, Ehrhard; Rodrigues, José Francisco

    2012-01-01

    This collective book aims to encourage and inspire actions directed towards raising public awareness of the importance of mathematical sciences for our contemporary society in a cultural and historical perspective. Mathematical societies, in Europe and around the world, can find ideas, blueprints and suggestions for activities - including concerted actions with other international organizations - directed towards raising public awareness of science, technology and other fields where mathematics plays a strong role. The material is divided into four parts: * National experiences * Exhibitions /

  11. A rapid assay for Hendra virus IgG antibody detection and its titre estimation using magnetic nanoparticles and phycoerythrin.

    Gao, Yuan; Pallister, Jackie; Lapierre, Florian; Crameri, Gary; Wang, Lin-Fa; Zhu, Yonggang

    2015-09-15

    Detection of Hendra viral IgG antibody in animal sera is useful for surveillance following a virus outbreak. The commonly used enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and fluorescence-based Luminex assay typically consist of three steps and take at least several hours to complete. We have simplified the procedure to two steps in an effort to develop a rapid procedure for IgG antibody, but not IgM antibody, detection. This is achieved by conjugating the fluorescence label R-phycoerythrin directly onto the IgG binding protein Protein G. The use of magnetic nanoparticles, due to their large specific surface area, has helped reduce each of the binding steps to 20 min. As a result, the whole assay can be completed in 60 min. We also demonstrate a method to quickly estimate IgG antibody titres by assaying the sera at only two dilutions (i.e. 1:20 and 1:1000) and using the fluorescence ratio at these dilutions as an indicator of antibody titre. The results of this approach correlated well with the well-regarded serum neutralization test in virus antibody assays. This protocol reported here can be adopted in Luminex assays, fluorescence-linked immunosorbent assays and assays on microfluidics platforms for rapid antibody surveillance of Hendra and other viruses. PMID:26141730

  12. Raising HDL cholesterol in women

    Danny J Eapen

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Danny J Eapen1, Girish L Kalra1, Luay Rifai1, Christina A Eapen2, Nadya Merchant1, Bobby V Khan11Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA, USA; 2University of South Florida School of Medicine, Tampa, FL, USAAbstract: High-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C concentration is essential in the determination of coronary heart disease (CHD risk in women. This is especially true in the postmenopausal state, where lipid profiles and CHD risk mimic that of age-matched men. Thus, interventions designed to reduce CHD risk by raising HDL-C levels may have particular significance during the transition to menopause. This review discusses HDL-C-raising therapies and the role of HDL in the primary prevention of CHD in women. Lifestyle-based interventions such as dietary change, aerobic exercise regimens, and smoking cessation are initial steps that are effective in raising HDL-C, and available data suggest women respond similarly to men with these interventions. When combined with pharmacotherapy, the effects of these lifestyle alterations are further amplified. Though studies demonstrating gender-specific differences in therapy are limited, niacin continues to be the most effective agent in raising HDL-C levels, especially when used in combination with fibrate or statin therapy. Emerging treatments such as HDL mimetic therapy show much promise in further raising HDL-C levels and improving cardiovascular outcomes.Keywords: high-density lipoprotein, HDL, women, cholesterol, heart disease

  13. High bioethanol titre from Manihot glaziovii through fed-batch simultaneous saccharification and fermentation in Automatic Gas Potential Test System.

    Moshi, Anselm P; Crespo, Carla F; Badshah, Malik; Hosea, Kenneth M M; Mshandete, Anthony Manoni; Mattiasson, Bo

    2014-03-01

    A process for the production of high bioethanol titre was established through fed-batch and simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (FB-SSF) of wild, non-edible cassava Manihot glaziovii. FB-SSF allowed fermentation of up to 390g/L of starch-derived glucose achieving high bioethanol concentration of up to 190g/L (24% v/v) with yields of around 94% of the theoretical value. The wild cassava M. glaziovii starch is hydrolysable with a low dosage of amylolytic enzymes (0.1-0.15% v/w, Termamyl® and AMG®). The Automatic Gas Potential Test System (AMPTS) was adapted to yeast ethanol fermentation and demonstrated to be an accurate, reliable and flexible device for studying the kinetics of yeast in SSF and FB-SSF. The bioethanol derived stoichiometrically from the CO2 registered in the AMPTS software correlated positively with samples analysed by HPLC (R(2)=0.99). PMID:24534761

  14. The role of antibody affinity and titre in immunity to Schistosoma mansoni following vaccination with highly irradiated cercariae

    Sera from rabbits and rats vaccinated with highly irradiated cercariae of Schistosoma mansoni (VRabS, VRatS) were found to be of substantially higher affinity than sera from CBA mice vaccinated four times (4 x CVMS), single sex sera (SSS) or chronic infection sera (CIS). In contrast, immunoprecipitation studies demonstrated that sera from vaccinated LA mice (LVMS) recognized 125I-labelled schistosomular surface antigens more intensely than sera from vaccinated HA mice (HVMS). However, peritoneal macrophages from HA and LA mice in the presence of HVMS, LVMS or 4 x CVMS, and naive macrophages activated in vitro with interferon-gamma (IFN-γ)/lipopolysaccharide (LPS) mediated comparable levels of schistosomula killing in vitro. The experiments described here provide evidence that the titre of antibody rather than its affinity may be a more critical factor in the development of optimal immunity to S. mansoni. (author)

  15. The role of antibody affinity and titre in immunity to Schistosoma mansoni following vaccination with highly irradiated cercariae

    Vignali, D.A.A.; Devey, M.E.; Bickle, Q.D.; Taylor, M.G. (London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine (UK))

    1990-02-01

    Sera from rabbits and rats vaccinated with highly irradiated cercariae of Schistosoma mansoni (VRabS, VRatS) were found to be of substantially higher affinity than sera from CBA mice vaccinated four times (4 x CVMS), single sex sera (SSS) or chronic infection sera (CIS). In contrast, immunoprecipitation studies demonstrated that sera from vaccinated LA mice (LVMS) recognized {sup 125}I-labelled schistosomular surface antigens more intensely than sera from vaccinated HA mice (HVMS). However, peritoneal macrophages from HA and LA mice in the presence of HVMS, LVMS or 4 x CVMS, and naive macrophages activated in vitro with interferon-gamma (IFN-{gamma})/lipopolysaccharide (LPS) mediated comparable levels of schistosomula killing in vitro. The experiments described here provide evidence that the titre of antibody rather than its affinity may be a more critical factor in the development of optimal immunity to S. mansoni. (author).

  16. A study to determine significant titre-values of widal test in the diagnosis of enteric fever for a population of north Kerala, India

    Gufran Ahmed M. Bijapur

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To determine the baseline Widal titres of a study population and to propose titre-values of significance in the diagnosis of enteric fever. Background: Enteric fever is endemic in the Indian subcontinent with high prevalence rates. Etiological diagnosis of the condition is problematic due to several limitations implicit in the region. Singly run Widal test is often the only means available for a workable diagnosis. A knowledge of prevalent baseline titres is essential for its interpretation. Method: We performed the standard Widal tube agglutination test on the serum samples of 250 individuals of the local population selected by using appropriate criteria of inclusion and exclusion criteria. Results: A majority (74.8% of the subjects were non-reactive. Prevalence of anti-TO antibody was highest (25.2% followed by that of anti-TH antibody (15.2%, anti-AH antibody (6.8% and anti-BH antibody (0.8%. Based on the distribution of titre values, the baseline titres determined were 40 for anti-TO and anti-TH antibodies and <20 for anti-AH and anti-BH antibodies. Any value obtained in Widal test over and above these values, i.e., ≥80 for anti-TO and anti-TH antibodies can be considered as significant. Similarly, for anti-AH and anti-BH antibodies, values of ≥20 can be considered as significant for diagnosis in an appropriate clinical setting. Conclusion: The baseline Widal titres of the local population were lower than those found in most other parts of India.

  17. Serum antibody titres to canine parvovirus, adenovirus and distemper virus in dogs in the UK which had not been vaccinated for at least three years.

    Böhm, M; Thompson, H; Weir, A; Hasted, A M; Maxwell, N S; Herrtage, M E

    2004-04-10

    Antibody titres to canine distemper (CDV), canine parvovirus (CPV) and canine adenovirus (CAV) were measured in 144 adult dogs that had not been vaccinated for between three and 15 years. Protective antibodies to CPV were present in 95 per cent of the population, to CDV in 71.5 per cent and to CAV in 82 per cent. The prevalence of protective titres did not decrease with increasing time interval from the last vaccination for any of the three diseases studied. Booster vaccination increased the dogs CAV titres. For comparative purposes, 199 puppies were sampled at the time of their first and second vaccination. In the case of CPV and CAV a significantly higher proportion of the adult dogs were protected than of the puppies immediately after they were vaccinated. Natural CPV boosting was strongly suspected because the dogs had significantly higher titres three years after their primary vaccination than two weeks after it and three unvaccinated dogs had acquired protective antibody levels uneventfully. There was no evidence of natural exposure to CDV. PMID:15119729

  18. Differences in female-male mortality after high-titre measles vaccine and association with subsequent vaccination with diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis and inactivated poliovirus

    Aaby, Peter; Jensen, Henrik; Samb, Badara; Cisse, Badara; Sodemann, Morten; Jakobsen, Marianne; Poulsen, Anja; Rodrigues, Amabelia; Lisse, Ida Maria; Simondon, Francois; Whittle, Hilton

    2003-01-01

    Females given high-titre measles vaccine (HTMV) have high mortality; diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis (DTP) vaccination might be associated with increased female mortality. We aimed to assess whether DTP or inactivated poliovirus (IPV) administered after HTMV was associated with increased female...

  19. Simultaneous saccharification and fermentation of steam exploded duckweed: Improvement of the ethanol yield by increasing yeast titre

    Zhao, X.; Moates, G.K.; Elliston, A.; Wilson, D.R.; Coleman, M.J.; Waldron, K.W.

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the conversion of Lemna minor biomass to bioethanol. The biomass was pre-treated by steam explosion (SE, 210 °C, 10 min) and then subjected to simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) using Cellic® CTec 2 (20 U or 0.87 FPU g−1 substrate) cellulase plus β-glucosidase (2 U g−1 substrate) and a yeast inoculum of 10% (v/v or 8.0 × 107 cells mL−1). At a substrate concentration of 1% (w/v) an ethanol yield of 80% (w/w, theoretical) was achieved. However at a substrate concentration of 20% (w/v), the ethanol yield was lowered to 18.8% (w/w, theoretical). Yields were considerably improved by increasing the yeast titre in the inoculum or preconditioning the yeast on steam exploded liquor. These approaches enhanced the ethanol yield up to 70% (w/w, theoretical) at a substrate concentration of 20% (w/v) by metabolising fermentation inhibitors. PMID:26210138

  20. Simultaneous saccharification and fermentation of steam exploded duckweed: Improvement of the ethanol yield by increasing yeast titre.

    Zhao, X; Moates, G K; Elliston, A; Wilson, D R; Coleman, M J; Waldron, K W

    2015-10-01

    This study investigated the conversion of Lemna minor biomass to bioethanol. The biomass was pre-treated by steam explosion (SE, 210°C, 10 min) and then subjected to simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) using Cellic® CTec 2 (20 U or 0.87 FPU g(-1) substrate) cellulase plus β-glucosidase (2 U g(-1) substrate) and a yeast inoculum of 10% (v/v or 8.0×10(7) cells mL(-1)). At a substrate concentration of 1% (w/v) an ethanol yield of 80% (w/w, theoretical) was achieved. However at a substrate concentration of 20% (w/v), the ethanol yield was lowered to 18.8% (w/w, theoretical). Yields were considerably improved by increasing the yeast titre in the inoculum or preconditioning the yeast on steam exploded liquor. These approaches enhanced the ethanol yield up to 70% (w/w, theoretical) at a substrate concentration of 20% (w/v) by metabolising fermentation inhibitors. PMID:26210138

  1. Prion subcellular fractionation reveals infectivity spectrum, with a high titre-low PrPres level disparity

    Lewis Victoria

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Prion disease transmission and pathogenesis are linked to misfolded, typically protease resistant (PrPres conformers of the normal cellular prion protein (PrPC, with the former posited to be the principal constituent of the infectious 'prion'. Unexplained discrepancies observed between detectable PrPres and infectivity levels exemplify the complexity in deciphering the exact biophysical nature of prions and those host cell factors, if any, which contribute to transmission efficiency. In order to improve our understanding of these important issues, this study utilized a bioassay validated cell culture model of prion infection to investigate discordance between PrPres levels and infectivity titres at a subcellular resolution. Findings Subcellular fractions enriched in lipid rafts or endoplasmic reticulum/mitochondrial marker proteins were equally highly efficient at prion transmission, despite lipid raft fractions containing up to eight times the levels of detectable PrPres. Brain homogenate infectivity was not differentially enhanced by subcellular fraction-specific co-factors, and proteinase K pre-treatment of selected fractions modestly, but equally reduced infectivity. Only lipid raft associated infectivity was enhanced by sonication. Conclusions This study authenticates a subcellular disparity in PrPres and infectivity levels, and eliminates simultaneous divergence of prion strains as the explanation for this phenomenon. On balance, the results align best with the concept that transmission efficiency is influenced more by intrinsic characteristics of the infectious prion, rather than cellular microenvironment conditions or absolute PrPres levels.

  2. ERREUR : Titre anglais vide

    T. Soltwedel; Von Juterzenka, K; Premke, K.; Klages, M.

    2003-01-01

    Although the use of deep-sea imagery considerably increased during the last decades, reports on nekton falls to the deep seafloor are very scarce. Whereas there are a few reports describing the finding of whale carcasses in the deep north-eastern and south-eastern Pacific, descriptions of invertebrate or vertebrate food-falls at centimetre to metre scale are extremely rare. After 4 years of extensive work at a deep-sea long-term station in northern polar regions (AWI-"Hausgarten"), including ...

  3. Capture market share, raise prices

    Robbins RA

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available No abstract available. Article truncated after 150 words. Two principles in medical economics central to the Affordable Care Act (ACA were dealt blows by recently published studies. The first principle is the belief that economies of scale will result in lower prices. The theory is that larger insurers will have lower prices because they are more administratively efficient. The second principle is that provider-owned health plans, usually hospitals, will reduce premiums. The theory is that by controlling doctors over charging health plans in a fee-for-service model will lower prices. The first study published in Technology Science found that the largest insurer in each of the states served by HealthCare.gov raised their prices in 2015 by an average of over 10 per cent compared to smaller competitors in the same market (1. Those steeper price hikes for monthly premiums did not seem warranted by the level of health claims which did not significantly differ as a percentage of premiums ...

  4. Effects of aflatoxin B1 and fumonisin B1 on body weight, antibody titres and histology of broiler chicks.

    Tessari, E N C; Oliveira, C A F; Cardoso, A L S P; Ledoux, D R; Rottinghaus, G E

    2006-06-01

    1. Our objective was to evaluate the toxic effects of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) and fumonisin B1 (FB1), administered singly or in combination to broilers. 2. Feeds were prepared with concentrations equal to 0, 50 and 200 microg AFB1/kg, and/or 0, 50 and 200 mg FB1/kg, and offered to broiler chicks from 8 to 41 d of age. The experimental design was totally randomised, in a 3 x 3 factorial arrangement with 9 treatments and 12 birds per treatment. Animals were vaccinated against Newcastle disease on d 14 of life and killed at 41 d. 3. Compared with controls, all mycotoxin-treated groups at 41 d had lower body weight and weight gain, and higher relative heart weight. The relative weight of the liver increased only in birds fed diets containing 200 mg FB1, singly or in combination with AFB1. 4. At 35 d, all groups receiving mycotoxin-treated rations had reduced geometrical mean antibody titres, with birds from groups fed combinations of AFB1 and FB1/kg having even lower values, when compared to the other groups. 5. Histological changes were observed only in liver from birds fed mycotoxin-contaminated rations, and in kidneys of birds fed the diet containing 200 microg AFB1 and 200 mg FB1/kg. Main alterations included vacuolar degeneration and cell proliferation of bile ducts in the liver, and hydropic degeneration in renal tubules in the kidneys. 6. We concluded that AFB1 and FB1 in combination have primarily additive effects on body weight, liver structure and immunological response of broilers at the concentrations used. PMID:16787861

  5. 50 CFR 14.23 - Live farm-raised fish and farm-raised fish eggs.

    2010-10-01

    ... Exportation at Designated Ports § 14.23 Live farm-raised fish and farm-raised fish eggs. Live farm-raised fish and farm-raised fish eggs meet the definition of “bred in captivity” as stated in 50 CFR 17.3. Except... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Live farm-raised fish and farm-raised...

  6. O perfil da antiestreptolisina O no diagnóstico da febre reumática aguda Antistreptolysin O titer profile in acute rheumatic fever diagnosis

    Claudia Saad Magalhães Machado

    2001-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: estabelecer o perfil dos títulos de ASO, mediante o diagnóstico diferencial da FRA com outras afecções que também cursam com níveis elevados de ASO. MÉTODOS: foram estudados 78 casos de FRA na apresentação e seguimento, 22 de coréia isolada, 45 de infecções orofaringeanas recorrentes (IOR e 23 de artrites idiopáticas juvenis (AIJ, com início ou reativação recente. A determinação seqüencial de ASO (UI/ml foi realizada por ensaio nefelométrico automatizado (Behring®-Germany nos períodos de 0-7 dias, 1-2 semanas, 2-4 semanas, 1-2 meses, 2-4 meses, 4-6 meses, 6-12 meses, 1-2 anos, 2-3 anos, 3-4 anos e 4-5 anos após o diagnóstico. RESULTADOS: os títulos de ASO na fase aguda da FRA apresentaram elevação significante até o intervalo de 2- 4 meses (p 960 UI/ml. CONCLUSÃO: esta reavaliação do perfil da ASO indicou uma resposta exuberante na fase aguda da febre reumática indicou ainda que os seus níveis séricos podem diferenciá-la de outras afecções que também cursam com níveis elevados de ASO, como as infecções orofaringeanas recorrentes ou as artrites idiopáticas juvenis em atividade.OBJECTIVE: to determine ASO titer profile by establishing ARF differential diagnoses of other diseases with high levels of ASO antibodies. METHODS: we investigated 78 patients with ARF at onset and follow-up, 22 with isolated chorea at onset, 45 with recurrent oropharyngeal tonsillitis, and 23 with recent flare of juvenile idiopathic arthritis. We tested ASO with automated particle-enhanced immunonephelometric assay (Behring®-Germany. The ASO (IU/ml titers were assessed at the following time intervals: 0-7 days, 1-2 weeks, 2-4 weeks, 1-2 months, 2-4 months, 4-6 months, 6-12 months, 1-2 years, 2-3 years, 3-4 years, and 4-5 years after onset of ARF. RESULTS: ASO titers in patients diagnosed with ARF had a significant increase up to the 2-4-month time interval (P < 0.0001. Baseline levels were observed afterwards in patients under regular penicillin prophylaxis. The levels of ASO in ARF were also significantly higher than in patients with isolated chorea, recurrent oropharyngeal infections or juvenile idiopathic arthritis (P = 0.0025, when age-matched samples of these groups were compared. The test’s sensitivity was 73.3% and the specificity was 57.6%, and it was calculated taking into account the upper limit of normality at 320 IU/ml, as well as the established diagnosis of ARF. The test’s specificity and positive predictive value increased with rising or higher titers, being higher with titers above 960 UI/ml. CONCLUSION: this reappraisal of ASO profile in ARF patients indicates a remarkable response during the acute phase, and that points to the extent to which ASO levels may differentiate ARF from other diseases with high levels of ASO antibodies, as coincidental but unrelated streptococcal infection or chronic arthritis flareup.

  7. Humoral response to influenza vaccination in relation to pre-vaccination antibody titres, vaccination history, cytomegalovirus serostatus and CD4/CD8 ratio.

    Strindhall, Jan; Ernerudh, Jan; Mörner, Andreas; Waalen, Kristian; Löfgren, Sture; Matussek, Andreas; Bengner, Malin

    2016-06-01

    Background Annual vaccination against influenza virus is generally recommended to elderly and chronically ill, but the relative importance of factors influencing the outcome is not fully understood. Methods In this study of 88 individuals all aged 69 years, the increase in haemagglutinin-inhibiting (HI) antibodies to trivalent inactivated influenza vaccine was correlated with HI titres before vaccination, prior vaccinations against influenza, cytomegalovirus serostatus and, as an estimate of immune risk profile, the ratio between CD4 + and CD8 + T cells. Results Vaccine responses were impaired by high pre-existing HI antibody titres. For influenza B repeated vaccinations and an inverse CD4/CD8 ratio had a negative impact on the vaccine response. Cytomegalovirus seropositivity had no apparent effect on HI titres before or after vaccination. Conclusions It is concluded that both pre-existing HI antibodies and previous vaccinations to influenza may influence the humoral response to influenza vaccination and that a CD4/CD8 ratio < 1 may indicate an impaired ability to respond to repeated antigenic stimulation. PMID:27030916

  8. Evaluation of safety and effectiveness of factor VIII treatment in haemophilia A patients with low titre inhibitors or a personal history of inhibitor. Patient Data Meta-analysis of rAFH-PFM Post-Authorization Safety Studies.

    Romanov, Vadim; Marcucci, Maura; Cheng, Ji; Thabane, Lehana; Iorio, Alfonso

    2015-07-01

    There is no prospective evidence on inhibitor recurrence among haemophilia A patients with low titre inhibitors or history of inhibitors, and whether or how therapeutic choices affect the risk of recurrence. The aims of this study were to synthesise safety data in patients with moderate-severe haemophilia A and with low titre inhibitors or inhibitor history enrolled in the rAHF PFM (ADVATE) - Post-Authorization Safety Studies (ADVATE-PASS) international programme. The study was conducted in clinics participating to the ADVATE PASS programme. The patient population consisted of patients entering the studies with low titre (??5 BU) inhibitors or a positive personal history of inhibitors. Patients on Immune Tolerance Induction at study entry were excluded. Primary outcome was new or recurrent inhibitor titre >?5 BU. Secondary outcomes were any increase of inhibitor titre not reaching 5 BU; any unexplained change in treatment regimen. Primary analysis was done by two-stage random effects meta-analysis. Secondary analysis was done by a hierarchical Bayesian random effects logistic model. A total of 219 patients from seven studies were included. Of these 214 (97.7?%) patients had been previously treated for more than 50 exposure days. Two hundred ten patients had positive history for inhibitors, nine a baseline measurable titre. No patient presented a primary outcome event (95?% confidence interval [CI] 0-1.6?%). Six patients with previous history developed a low titre recurrence (overall rate 2.2, 95?%CI 0-4.8?%). When any increase of inhibitor titre or any treatment change was accounted for, overall 3.7?% (95?% CI 0?%-8.0?%) of patients experienced the outcome. In conclusion, the observed rate of events does not support the definition of this population as at high risk for inhibitor development. PMID:26017627

  9. The effect of gold sodium thiomalate and its constituent part, thiomalate, on the virus titres and the lysosomal enzyme activity in peritoneal macrophages of Swiss/A2G mice infected with the avirulent strain of Semliki Forest virus.

    Mehta, S.; Webb, H E

    1990-01-01

    Treatment of adult mice with gold sodium thiomalate made the normally non-lethal Semliki Forest virus infection lethal. Associated with this was a significant increase in brain virus titre and a depression of peritoneal macrophage lysosomal enzyme activity. In contrast, treatment of adult mice with the constituent part, thiomalate, did not make the non-lethal Semliki Forest virus infection lethal. Brain virus titre and peritoneal macrophage lysosomal enzyme activity were comparable to the con...

  10. Neutralizing and cross-neutralizing antibody titres induced by bivalent and quadrivalent human papillomavirus vaccines in the target population of organized vaccination programmes.

    Barzon, Luisa; Squarzon, Laura; Masiero, Serena; Pacenti, Monia; Marcati, Giorgia; Mantelli, Barbara; Gabrielli, Liliana; Pascucci, Maria Grazia; Lazzarotto, Tiziana; Caputo, Antonella; Palù, Giorgio

    2014-09-15

    Aim of this investigator-initiated study was to evaluate and compare the titres of neutralizing and cross-neutralizing antibodies (NAbs) induced by the bivalent (Cervarix(®)) and quadrivalent (Gardasil(®)) HPV vaccines in a cohort of girls aged 11-13 years from organized vaccination programmes. To this aim, HPV16 and HPV18 NAbs were measured by pseudovirion-based neutralization assays in serum collected at 1-6 months after the third vaccine dose in 107 girls vaccinated with Cervarix(®) and 126 vaccinated with Gardasil(®), while HPV31 and HPV45 cross-NAbs were tested in the first 50 consecutive girls of both vaccine groups. The results of this study demonstrated that all vaccinated girls developed HPV16 and HPV18 NAbs, with the exception of two Gardasil(®) vaccinees with undetectable HPV18 NAbs. Geometric mean titres (GMTs) of both HPV16 and HPV18 NAbs were significantly higher in Cervarix(®) than in Gardasil(®) vaccinees [HPV16 NAb GMT 22,136 (95% CI, 18,811-26,073) vs 5092 (4230-6151), respectively; PHPV18 NAb GMT 11,962 (9536-14,363) vs 1804 (1574-2110), respectively; PHPV31 and HPV45 were detected more frequently Cervarix(®) (HPV31 NAb positivity rates 92.7% and 36%, respectively; PGardasil(®) vaccinees (HPV45 NAb positivity rates 56% and 6%, respectively; PHPV31 and HPV45 were also significantly higher in Cervarix(®) than in Gardasil(®) vaccinees [HPV31 NAb GMT 157.2 (95% CI, 92-269) vs 13.0 (6.5-25.8), respectively; PHPV45 NAb GMT 4.7 (2.1-10.2) vs 1.3 (0.3-3.1), respectively; Pvaccinated within organized vaccination programmes, HPV vaccines drive the generation not only of NAbs to HPV vaccine types, but also of cross-NAbs. The bivalent vaccine induced significantly higher HPV16 and HPV18 NAb titres and more frequently and at higher titre HPV31 and HPV45 cross-NAbs than the quadrivalent vaccine. PMID:25045814

  11. The Logic of the RAISE Specification Language

    George, Chris; Haxthausen, Anne Elisabeth

    2008-01-01

    This chapter describes the logic of the RAISE Specification Language, RSL. It explains the particular logic chosen for RAISE, and motivates this choice as suitable for a wide spectrum language to be used for designs as well as initial specifications, and supporting imperative and concurrent...... specifications as well as applicative sequential ones. It also describes the logical definition of RSL, its axiomatic semantics, as well as the proof system for carrying out proofs. Finally, a case study illustrates specification and verification methods in RAISE....

  12. A novel method for the measurement of hepatitis C virus infectious titres using the IncuCyte ZOOM and its application to antiviral screening.

    Stewart, Hazel; Bartlett, Christopher; Ross-Thriepland, Douglas; Shaw, Joseph; Griffin, Stephen; Harris, Mark

    2015-06-15

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a significant human pathogen infecting 3% of the world population. An infectious molecular clone capable of replicating and releasing infectious virions in cell culture has only been available since 2005, leaving a significant knowledge gap concerning post-RNA replication events such as particle assembly, trafficking and release. Thus, a fast, efficient and accurate method of measuring infectious viral titres is highly desirable. Current methods rely upon manual counting of infected cell foci and so are both labour-intensive and susceptible to human error. Here, we report a novel protocol, which utilises the IncuCyte ZOOM instrument and related software to accurately count infected cells and extrapolation of this data to produce an infectious titre, reported as infectious units per millilitre (IU/mL). This method reduces cost, time and error in experiments. We also demonstrate that this approach is amenable to high-throughput compound screening, thereby expediting the identification of novel antivirals. PMID:25796989

  13. Asthma May Raise Risk for Abdominal Aneurysm

    ... nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_157202.html Asthma May Raise Risk for Abdominal Aneurysm Airway disease ... People 50 and older who have had recent asthma activity appear to be at an increased risk ...

  14. Raised intracranial pressure not detected by ultrasound.

    Pilling, D W; Cudmore, R. E.

    1985-01-01

    Two patients with raised intracranial pressure responding to ventriculoperitoneal shunting are described in whom ultrasound failed to show dilated ventricles. The importance of not equating absence of ventricular dilatation with normal pressure and ventricular dilatation with high pressure is emphasised.

  15. The Logic of the RAISE Specification Language

    George, Chris; Haxthausen, Anne Elisabeth

    This paper describes the logic of the RAISE Specification Language, RSL. It explains the particular logic chosen for RAISE, and motivates this choice as suitable for a wide spectrum language to be used for designs as well as initial specifications, and supporting imperative and concurrent...... specifications as well as applicative sequential ones. It also describes the logical definition of RSL, its axiomatic semantics, as well as the proof system for carrying out proofs....

  16. Le premier élément du patrimoine maritime de Saint-Pierre-et-Miquelon protégé au titre des monuments historiques

    Herveline Delhumeau

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Ymac a été classé par arrêté du 14 février 2008 au titre des monuments historiques en raison de l’intérêt ethnologique lié à sa fonction de bateau-pilote. (fig. n° 1Figure 1Ymac, ex-Radar III. Photographie après 2003. © Yannick Lafourcade.Construit en 1965 à Mavilette (Nouvelle-Ecosse, Canada par le chantier Alfred Boudreau, ce bateau traditionnel de pêche à coque en bois avait été initialement armé pour la pêche aux poissons plats par Alex Doucet, d’où son premier nom Alex D. Après avoir p...

  17. Haematopoietic depletion in vaccine-induced neonatal pancytopenia depends on both the titre and specificity of alloantibody and levels of MHC I expression.

    Bell, Charlotte R; MacHugh, Niall D; Connelley, Timothy K; Degnan, Kathryn; Morrison, W Ivan

    2015-07-01

    Bovine Neonatal Pancytopenia (BNP) is a disease of calves characterised by haematopoietic depletion, mediated by ingestion of alloantibodies in colostrum. It has been linked epidemiologically to vaccination of the dams of affected calves with a particular vaccine (Pregsure) containing a novel adjuvant. Evidence suggests that BNP-alloantibodies are directed against MHC I molecules, induced by contaminant bovine cellular material from Madin-Darby Bovine Kidney (MDBK) cells used in the vaccine's production. We aimed to investigate the specificity of BNP-alloantibody for bovine MHC I alleles, particularly those expressed by MDBK cells, and whether depletion of particular cell types is due to differential MHC I expression levels. A complement-mediated cytotoxicity assay was used to assess functional serum alloantibody titres in BNP-dams, Pregsure-vaccinated dams with healthy calves, cows vaccinated with an alternative product and unvaccinated controls. Alloantibody specificity was investigated using transfected mouse lines expressing the individual MHC I alleles identified from MDBK cells and MHC I-defined bovine leukocyte lines. All BNP-dams and 50% of Pregsure-vaccinated cows were shown to have MDBK-MHC I specific alloantibodies, which cross-reacted to varying degrees with other MHC I genotypes. MHC I expression levels on different blood cell types, assessed by flow cytometry, were found to correlate with levels of alloantibody-mediated damage in vitro and in vivo. Alloantibody-killed bone marrow cells were shown to express higher levels of MHC I than undamaged cells. The results provide evidence that MHC I-specific alloantibodies play a dominant role in the pathogenesis of BNP. Haematopoietic depletion was shown to be dependent on the titre and specificity of alloantibody produced by individual cows and the density of surface MHC I expression by different cell types. Collectively, the results support the hypothesis that MHC I molecules originating from MDBK cells used in vaccine production, coupled with a powerful adjuvant, are responsible for the generation of pathogenic alloantibodies. PMID:26055292

  18. Raise Your Profile: Build Your Program

    Nutefall, Jennifer E.; Gaspar, Deborah

    2008-01-01

    To raise the library's profile within the campus community, it is critical to create a strategic plan and align library goals with those of the university. At George Washington University's Gelman Library, the instruction librarians gained internal and external support to hire two new instruction librarians to better support collaboration with the…

  19. Raising Butterflies from Your Own Garden.

    Howley-Pfeifer, Patricia

    2002-01-01

    Describes how raising monarch, black swallowtail, and mourning cloak butterflies in a kindergarten class garden can provide opportunities for observation experiences. Includes detailed steps for instruction and describes stages of growth. Excerpts children's journal dictations to illustrate ways to support the discovery process. Describes related…

  20. Consciousness-Raising, Error Correction and Proofreading

    O'Brien, Josephine

    2015-01-01

    The paper discusses the impact of developing a consciousness-raising approach in error correction at the sentence level to improve students' proofreading ability. Learners of English in a foreign language environment often rely on translation as a composing tool and while this may act as a scaffold and provide some support, it frequently leads to…

  1. People on the Farm: Raising Beef Cattle.

    Crain, Robert L.

    This booklet provides information on raising beef cattle through profiles of two families, the Ritschards of Colorado and the Schuttes of Missouri. Through descriptions of daily life for these families, the booklet discusses the way of life on modern beef cattle farms and the problems and decisions faced by farmers. The booklet explains how…

  2. Children Seem to Know Raising: Raising and Intervention in Child Language

    Choe, Jinsun

    2012-01-01

    English-speaking children exhibit difficulty in their comprehension of raising patterns, such as (1), in which the NP the boy is semantically linked to the VP in the embedded clause, but is syntactically realized as the subject of the matrix clause. (1) Raising pattern: [s "The boy" seems to the girl [s _ to be happy

  3. Head raising analysis and case revaluation

    Ager Gondra

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper shows that Basque relative clause construction follows the Head Raising Analysis: the CP of the relative clause is a complement to the external D and the Head of the relative clause, base-generated inside the TP, moves to the specifier position of the CP. This analysis predicts that the raised DPwill show a TP-internal Case. However, this is not the case, and the DP manifests the Case associated with the main clause. In order to address these Case inconsistencies, Precariousness Condition is proposed. This condition states that a DCase valued u-feature is precarious until it is sent to Spell-Out and therefore, the value is visible for further targeting by a c-commanding Probe.  Evidence for this multiple Agree operation comes from a DP long distance extraction.

  4. Raising and resolving issues with scalar modifiers

    Elizabeth Coppock; Thomas Brochhagen

    2013-01-01

    We argue that the superlative modifiers at least and at most quantify over a scale of answers to the current question under discussion (and in this sense, resolve issues), and that they draw attention to the individual possibilities along the scale (and in this sense, raise issues for discussion). The point of departure is a simple analysis on which at least denotes what only presupposes, and at most denotes what only contributes as its ordinary atissue content. This analysis captures the tru...

  5. Raising OER Awareness: VT Libraries and Beyond

    Walz, Anita R.

    2014-01-01

    This presentation highlights the first year of exploration into a possible Open Educational Resources (OER) initiative at the University Libraries, Virginia Tech. Key messages to convey while raising OER awareness include: copyright, open licensing, Creative Commons, OER availability and retrieval, adaptation and innovation, understanding one's institution, and pedagogy. Various events and activities of VT Libraries are mentioned in addition to resources for OER librarian support, library cha...

  6. Production of antibody fragment (Fab) throughout Escherichia coli fed-batch fermentation process: Changes in titre, location and form of product

    Reza, Jalalirad.

    2013-05-15

    Full Text Available Background: Recombinant proteins, including antibodies and antibody fragments, often contain disulfide bond bridges that are necessary for their folding, stability and function. Production of disulfide-bond-containing proteins in the periplasm of Escherichia coli has been very useful, due to unique [...] characteristics of the periplasm, for obtaining fully active and correctly folded products and for alleviating downstream processing. Results: In this study, fed-batch cultivation of Escherichia coli (E. coli) for production of Fab D1.3, which is an anti-hen egg white lysozyme (HEWL) antibody fragment was carried out at 37ºC, and the bacterial cells were induced by adding 0.1 mM IPTG to the culture medium. Fermentor was sampled over the course of fermentation; the bacterial cells were centrifugally separated from the culture broth and subjected to osmotic shock (with excluding HEWL) and sonication procedures. The resulting fractions were analysed for Fab using a combination of ELISA, SDS-PAGE and Western blotting and changes in product titre, location, and form was assessed throughout growth. It was shown that osmotic shock released the Fab from the periplasm very efficiently and its efficacy was 20-45% more than sonication. This study demonstrates that, at high cell density cultivation in fermentor, target product can appear inside and outside the cells, depending on the time of induction. The maximum amount of Fab (47 mg/l) in the periplasm was reached at 14 hrs cultivation (4 hrs post induction), being suitable time for cell harvest, selective periplasmic extraction and downstream capture. The Fab increasingly leaked into the culture medium, and reached its maximum culture medium titre of ~78 mg/l after 6 hrs post induction. After 16 hrs cultivation (6 hrs post induction) the amount of Fab remained constant in different locations within and outside the cells. Western blot analysis of cell fractions showed that certain amount of the Fab was also produced in the cells as insoluble form. Conclusions: In this work we showed that the production of Fab in the periplasm during high cell density cultivation of E. coli in fermentor can be challenging as the product may appear in various locations within and outside the cells. To exploit the advantages of the periplasmic expression systems for purification in downstream processing, bacterial cells should be harvested when they maintain the majority of the target protein in their periplasmic space (i.e. 4 hrs post induction).

  7. 29 CFR 780.123 - Raising of bees.

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Raising of bees. 780.123 Section 780.123 Labor Regulations... Raising of Livestock, Bees, Fur-Bearing Animals, Or Poultry § 780.123 Raising of bees. The term “raising of * * * bees” refers to all of those activities customarily performed in connection with...

  8. High antibody titres against predicted Mycoplasma surface proteins do not prevent sequestration in infected lung tissue in the course of experimental contagious bovine pleuropneumonia.

    Schieck, Elise; Liljander, Anne; Hamsten, Carl; Gicheru, Nimmo; Scacchia, Massimo; Sacchini, Flavio; Heller, Martin; Schnee, Christiane; Sterner-Kock, Anja; Hlinak, Andreas; Naessens, Jan; Poole, Jane; Persson, Anja; Jores, Joerg

    2014-08-01

    Contagious bovine pleuropneumonia (CBPP), a severe respiratory disease of cattle caused by Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides (Mmm) is endemic in many African countries due to fragmented veterinary services and the lack of an efficient vaccine and sensitive diagnostics. More efficient tools to control the disease are needed, but to develop the tools, a better understanding of host-pathogen interactions is necessary. The aim of this study was to characterize the kinetics of the humoral immune response against 65 Mmm surface antigens for an extended period in cattle that survived a primary infection with Mmm. We describe clinical and haematological outcomes, and dissect the humoral immune response over time, to specific antigens and compared the antibody responses between different pathomorphological outcomes. No antigen-specific antibodies correlating with protection were identified. Interestingly we found that animals that developed Mycoplasma-containing sequestra had significantly higher antibody levels against proteins comprising the surface proteome than the animals that cleared Mycoplasma from their lungs. Based on these data we suggest that high antibody titres might play a role in the establishment of pathomorphological changes, such as vasculitis, which should be investigated in future studies. Beneficial antibody specificities and cellular immune responses need to be identified in order to foster the development of an improved vaccine in the future. PMID:24880898

  9. Effect of sow and piglet porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) vaccination on piglet mortality, viraemia, antibody titre and production parameters.

    Fraile, Lorenzo; Sibila, Marina; Nofrarías, Miquel; López-Jimenez, Rosa; Huerta, Eva; Llorens, Anna; López-Soria, Sergio; Pérez, Diego; Segalés, Joaquim

    2012-12-28

    The present study describes the effects of sow and/or piglet porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) vaccination on viraemia, antibody response and production parameters (average daily weight gain [ADWG] and mortality) of piglets from a PCV2 subclinically infected farm. Four hundred seventy-six piglets born from vaccinated (V) or non-vaccinated (NV) sows were further subdivided in a total of four groups: NV sows-NV pigs (NV-NV, n=134), NV sows-V pigs (NV-V, n=135);V sows-NV pigs (V-NV, n=104) and V sows-V pigs (V-V, n=103). A single vaccination of sows before mating was able to confer significantly higher antibody titres to their piglets at 4 weeks of age and a different PCV2 dynamics infection compared to piglets coming from NV sows. Piglet vaccination (independently of sow treatment) caused an earlier seroconversion and lower percentages of PCV2 infected pigs compared to the NV ones throughout their life. The double PCV2 vaccination strategy was able to reduce PCV2 infection but apparently caused some interference in piglet humoral response development. PCV2 vaccination was able to overcome this interference since the ADWG was improved in both groups of vaccinated piglets, independently of the sow treatment, being the highest ones obtained in the double vaccination group. PMID:22858231

  10. Raising children in America: Korean parents' experiences.

    Choi, H; Dancy, B L; Lee, J

    2013-08-01

    This qualitative description study was designed to describe Korean American parents' perceptions of challenges and difficulties they encounter while raising their children in the USA. A convenience sampling of 21 parents of adolescents aged 11-14 years recruited from the Midwest Korean American community participated in the study. Data were collected using in-depth, face-to-face interviews, which took place in agreed-upon, convenient locations. All interviews were audiotaped and transcribed in Korean and the transcripts were translated into English. Qualitative content analysis revealed that the main stresses that parents encountered while raising their children in the USA were inability to advocate for children, feeling uneasy and insecure about incompatible American culture, ambivalence towards children's ethnic identities, and feeling alienated. In relation to these stresses, parents often felt inadequate, ashamed, guilty, regretful and powerless. The findings demonstrated the importance of understanding parents' feelings that are deeply embedded in the conflicted parent-child relationships and their perceptions of being parents in the USA. The present study highlights the need for and importance of providing intervention programmes for parents, particularly programmes that would empower parents, strengthen parent-child relationships and address ways to integrate two very different cultures while upholding ethnic identity and pride. PMID:22295897

  11. Pas de titre en français

    Pandey, Amit Kumar

    2012-01-01

    Robots are no longer going to be isolated machines working in factory or merely research platforms used in controlled lab environment. Very soon, robots will be the part of our day-to-day lives. Whether it is street, o ce, home or supermarket, robots will be there to assist and serve us. For such robots to be accepted and appreciated, they should explicitly consider the presence of human in all their planning and decision making strategies, whether it is for motion, manipulation or interactio...

  12. Against Raising Hope of Raising the Dead: Contra Moody and Kubler-Ross.

    Vicchio, Stephen J.; And Others

    1979-01-01

    Kubler-Ross and Moody have made assertions about survival after death. They argued that the subjects were not dead, but in the process of dying. An alternative explanation to this "glimpse of the afterlife" approach is offered. Other theological objections are raised to the Moody/Kubler-Ross approach. (Author)

  13. Infants and Toddlers (Ages 0-3) - Raising Healthy Children

    ... Makers Infants & Toddlers (Ages 0-3) - Raising Healthy Children Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir The information below will help you raise a healthy baby. Topics Breastfeeding Developmental Milestones Fruits & Vegetables Hand Washing Hearing Screening Infant & Toddler ...

  14. Raising and resolving issues with scalar modifiers

    Elizabeth Coppock

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available We argue that the superlative modifiers at least and at most quantify over a scale of answers to the current question under discussion (and in this sense, resolve issues, and that they draw attention to the individual possibilities along the scale (and in this sense, raise issues for discussion. The point of departure is a simple analysis on which at least denotes what only presupposes, and at most denotes what only contributes as its ordinary atissue content. This analysis captures the truth conditions, focus-sensitivity, and distribution of superlative modifiers but leaves some pragmatic facts unexplained. We enrich the simple account with unrestricted inquisitive semantics in order to explain the fact that superlative modifiers give rise to ignorance implicatures while comparative modifiers like more and less do not, the fact that superlative modifiers do not give rise to scalar implicatures, and two puzzles concerning the interaction between superlative modifiers and deontic modals. We argue that this proposal provides the most empirically successful published account of superlative modifiers to date. http://dx.doi.org/10.3765/sp.6.3 BibTeX info

  15. Why not raise the SSC energy instead?

    The SSC design provides for luminosity upgrades to at least a factor of ten above the design value, 1033 cm-2s-1. Experimenters plan to take advantage of higher luminosity, in spite of the daunting challenge of dealing with even the design luminosity. Misstatements abound, but it is at least clear that only some fraction of this factor will appear as the multiplication factor for the number of events in a final histogram. In this note, the authors would like seriously to propose an alternative: Use the SSC design flexibility to raise the energy instead. Basically, the cryogenic capacity needed to obtain high luminosity is used to (a) absorb the extra synchrotron radiation from higher-energy protons, and (b) operate the magnets at a lower temperature in order to reach a higher field. The SSC could then operate at somewhat above √s = 46 TeV. The trade-off of energy for luminosity for physics processes is very dependent on the relevant mass scale, but for several high-mass processes the expected 17% energy increase is roughly equivalent to increasing the integrated luminosity by a factor of 2.2. Given the realities of high-luminosity operation, an energy upgrade might well be the better option

  16. The Campus Green: Fund Raising in Higher Education. ERIC Digest.

    Brittingham, Barbara E.; Pezzullo, Thomas R.

    This digest summarizes issues raised in a research report on fund raising in higher education. The following questions are addressed: What are the changes and trends since the early days of educational fund raising? What are the implications? What is known about spending? What is known about donor behavior? What are the major ethical issues? What…

  17. RAISED BOGS ON THE NORTH-EAST OF EUROPE

    T. K. YURKOVSKAYA

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available In the Northeastern Europe 2 types of raised bogs are distinguished: coastal (Southern White Sea raised hogs and continental (Pechora-Onega raised bogs. They have been compared as to their flora, prevailing syntaxa, characteristics of their complexes, structure of mire massifs and composition of peat deposits.

  18. 29 CFR 780.125 - Raising of poultry in general.

    2010-07-01

    ... AGRICULTURE, PROCESSING OF AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES, AND RELATED SUBJECTS UNDER THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT General Scope of Agriculture Raising of Livestock, Bees, Fur-Bearing Animals, Or Poultry § 780.125 Raising... antithesis of “raising,” is not included. To constitute “agriculture,” slaughtering must come within...

  19. Consciousness Raising: From Revolution to Re-Evaluation.

    Rosenthal, Naomi Braun

    1984-01-01

    Examines the development of consciousness raising as part of the women's liberation movement, and the transformations of consciousness raising as it moved into the group therapy movement. Considers whether consciouness raising has value for the women's movement and for individuals, as long as the political content is left out. (BH)

  20. Perfectionism in schools raising medical manpower

    Huseyin Abuhanoglu

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Aim: In this study, it was aimed to examine the perfectionist traits of the students studying at faculty of medicine, school of nursing and vocational school of health services within a university in Ankara which raises medical manpower. Method: To measure the students' perfectionist traits, and ldquo;Multidimensional Perfectionism Scale and rdquo; was put account. In the scope of the research, perfectionist traits of 436 students (175 students from faculty of medicine, 122 students from school of nursing and 129 students from vocational school of health services were evaluated. This study was realized between from 25 st April to 31st May 2013. Results: Significant differences in statistical terms were found between variables regarded as dependent variables (self-perfectionism, perfectionism towards others and perfectionism determined by others and independent variables such as school type, gender, family income, educational background of father, number of siblings and residence of family. Additionally, in consequence of the covariation analysis, the results proved that school type affects the sub-dimensions of perfectionism which are self-perfectionism, perfectionism towards others and perfectionism determined by others in a substantive way, statistically (respectively; F=8,307 p <001; F=3,783 p=,024; F=5,713 p=,004 . Conclusion: All in all, the interpretation can be made that bringing about required changes in the curriculum may be useful in order to have an optimal teamwork eliminating the negative effects of perfectionism in health services [TAF Prev Med Bull 2015; 14(5.000: 421-431

  1. Enti religiosi e fund raising: un binomio possibile (anzi, necessario

    Fabio Franceschi

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Contributo sottoposto a valutazioniSOMMARIO: 1. Premessa - 2. Il fund raising: inquadramento concettuale - 3. (segue Strategie, strumenti e tecniche di fund raising - 4. Il fund raising come fattore di potenziale sviluppo delle organizzazioni non profit - 5. Enti religiosi e fund raising: un binomio che necessita di essere consolidato (e potenziato - 6. Peculiarità dell’azione di fund raising degli enti religiosi - 7. Fund raising e aspetti economici e gestionali degli enti religiosi - 8. Considerazioni conclusive.Abstract:Religious organizations and fundraising: a possible combination (indeed necessary Fund-raising activities represent the principal livelihood and sources of growth and development for non-profit organisations. Fund-raising is, also, an increasingly important part of religious organizations life. Almost each of them engages in some kind of fund-raising activity, with the purpose of generating income to sustain the organization’s programs and activities. The present study analyzes the relationship between religious organizations and fund-raising activities: a correlation that always existed, but now calls for consolidation and improvement in order to allow religious organizations to achieve economic sustainability. Therefore, religious organizations should develop competency and capacity to design and implement fund-raising activities, through appropriate policies, tools and methodologies. In this perspective, the author examines all the facets of fund-raising activities related to the religious organizations sector and, more in general, the possible applications of business administration principles to the management of religious bodies (so-called “church management”.Parole chiave: enti religiosi; fund raising; sostenibilità economica; management

  2. Family Formation and Raising Children Among Same-sex Couples

    Gates, Gary

    2012-01-01

    Proportionally fewer same-sex couples are raising children today than in 2006, and their families reflect greater racial/ethnic and socioeconomic diversity than often represented in the media and academic research. Notably, childrearing is substantially higher among racial/ethnic minorities. Also, among individuals in same-sex couples who did not finish high school, 43% are raising children, and 20% of children raised by same-sex couples live in poverty. The decrease in the proportio...

  3. Key technologies of drilling process with raise boring method

    Zhiqiang Liu

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This study presents the concept of shaft constructed by raise boring in underground mines, and the idea of inverse construction can be extended to other fields of underground engineering. The conventional raise boring methods, such as the wood support method, the hanging cage method, the creeping cage method, and the deep-hole blasting method, are analyzed and compared. In addition, the raise boring machines are classified into different types and the characteristics of each type are described. The components of a raise boring machine including the drill rig, the drill string and the auxiliary system are also presented. Based on the analysis of the raise boring method, the rock mechanics problems during the raise boring process are put forward, including rock fragmentation, removal of cuttings, shaft wall stability, and borehole deviation control. Finally, the development trends of raise boring technology are described as follows: (i improvement of rock-breaking modes to raise drilling efficiency, (ii development of an intelligent control technique, and (iii development of technology and equipment for nonlinear raise boring.

  4. Lowering and raising operators for some special orthogonal polynomials

    Koornwinder, Tom H.

    2005-01-01

    This paper discusses operators lowering or raising the degree but preserving the parameters of special orthogonal polynomials. Results for one-variable classical (q-)orthogonal polynomials are surveyed. For Jacobi polynomials associated with root system BC_2 a new pair of lowering and raising operators is obtained.

  5. 12 CFR 1805.503 - Time frame for raising match.

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Time frame for raising match. 1805.503 Section 1805.503 Banks and Banking COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT FINANCIAL INSTITUTIONS FUND, DEPARTMENT OF THE... frame for raising match. Applicants shall satisfy matching funds requirements within the period...

  6. 29 CFR 780.126 - Contract arrangements for raising poultry.

    2010-07-01

    ... AGRICULTURE, PROCESSING OF AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES, AND RELATED SUBJECTS UNDER THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT General Scope of Agriculture Raising of Livestock, Bees, Fur-Bearing Animals, Or Poultry § 780.126... raising of poultry on the farm are employed in “secondary” agriculture (see §§ 780.137 et seq....

  7. Parents: ABCs of Raising Safe and Healthy Kids

    ... please visit this page: About CDC.gov . Family Health Share Compartir Parents: ABCs of Raising Safe and Healthy Kids Click on ... Students Families with Special Needs Kids and Teens ABCs of Raising Safe & Healthy Kids Autumn Games and Health Tips for Kids and Parents Autumn Tips to ...

  8. Neg-raising and positive polarity: The view from modals

    Vincent Homer

    2015-01-01

    This article shows that the deontic modals must, should and supposed to are all Positive Polarity Items which can raise in order to avoid being in an anti-licensing environment; it also establishes that should has a dual nature, i.e., it is not just a PPI, but it is also a neg-raising predicate, which can achieve wide scope through a homogeneity inference, and that supposed to, also a PPI, exhibits a neg-raising behavior under certain pragmatic conditions which shed new light on the neg-raisi...

  9. Obesity Before Pregnancy Tied to Raised Risk of Newborn Death

    ... nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_156851.html Obesity Before Pregnancy Tied to Raised Risk of Newborn ... even though the researchers found that pre-pregnancy obesity was related to worse outcomes for infants, it's ...

  10. Neg-raising and positive polarity: The view from modals

    Vincent Homer

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This article shows that the deontic modals must, should and supposed to are all Positive Polarity Items which can raise in order to avoid being in an anti-licensing environment; it also establishes that should has a dual nature, i.e., it is not just a PPI, but it is also a neg-raising predicate, which can achieve wide scope through a homogeneity inference, and that supposed to, also a PPI, exhibits a neg-raising behavior under certain pragmatic conditions which shed new light on the neg-raising phenomenon. http://dx.doi.org/10.3765/sp.8.4 BibTeX info

  11. Children and Family Finances. The Cost of Raising a Child

    Hayhoe, Celia Ray; Hsu, Chungwen

    2009-01-01

    There are seven main categories on which the USDA bases its calculations for raising a child: housing, food, transportation, clothing, health care, childcare, education, and miscellaneous goods and services. This is an overview of those seven categories.

  12. Pregnancy Choices: Raising the Baby, Adoption, and Abortion

    ... PREGNANCY Pregnancy Choices: Raising the Baby, Adoption, and Abortion • What are my options if I find out ... is financial help available? • If I am considering abortion, what should I know about my state’s laws? • ...

  13. Violence May Raise a Woman's Risk for Stroke

    ... nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_157585.html Violence May Raise a Woman's Risk for Stroke Victims ... 4, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Being a victim of violence may increase a woman's risk of blood vessel ...

  14. Smog Raises Heart Risks in Those with Diabetes

    ... html Smog Raises Heart Risks in Those With Diabetes, Study Says Long-term study showed prolonged exposure ... car exhaust -- heightens heart risks for women with diabetes, a large, new study indicates. Building on prior ...

  15. Sleep Apnea May Raise Heart Risks in People with Pacemakers

    ... nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_158688.html Sleep Apnea May Raise Heart Risks in People With ... 2016 (HealthDay News) -- People with heart pacemakers and sleep apnea are at much greater risk for a ...

  16. Could PMS Raise Women's Risk for High Blood Pressure?

    ... nih.gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_155890.html Could PMS Raise Women's Risk for High Blood Pressure? Study ... for hypertension in those with moderate-to-severe premenstrual syndrome To use the sharing features on this page, ...

  17. Fitness Could Raise Survival After First Heart Attack

    ... nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_157012.html Fitness Could Raise Survival After First Heart Attack Patients ... live longer, but we now have evidence linking fitness to survival after a first heart attack," said ...

  18. Untreated High Blood Pressure Greatly Raises Risk of 'Bleeding' Stroke

    ... gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_157337.html Untreated High Blood Pressure Greatly Raises Risk of 'Bleeding' Stroke Threat is ... 18, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- People with untreated high blood pressure face a much greater risk of a bleeding ...

  19. Drug for Yeast Infections May Raise Miscarriage Risk, FDA Warns

    ... gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_158503.html Drug for Yeast Infections May Raise Miscarriage Risk, FDA Warns Agency ... brand name Diflucan) is used to treat vaginal yeast infections. "Patients who are pregnant or actively trying ...

  20. Childhood Cancer Treatment May Raise Adult Heart Disease Risk

    ... nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_156504.html Childhood Cancer Treatment May Raise Adult Heart Disease Risk ... However, while the study revealed a link between childhood cancer treatment and later heart disease, it didn' ...

  1. Rapid Acquisition Imaging Spectrograph (RAISE) Renewal Proposal Project

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The optical design of RAISE is based on a new class of UV/EUV imaging spectrometers that use  only two reflections to provide quasi-stigmatic performance...

  2. Blogging to raise awareness: the DrugScope experience

    Welsh, Anne

    2005-01-01

    This article describes how the DrugScope blog has been used to highlight the organisation's collection of evidence-based alcohol and other drug (AOD) material. It discusses the fine line between information provision to raise awareness and marketing.

  3. Can Certain 'Poor Carb' Diets Raise Nonsmokers' Lung Cancer Risk?

    ... news/fullstory_157612.html Can Certain 'Poor Carb' Diets Raise Nonsmokers' Lung Cancer Risk? Study suggests link ... the disease may rise if they eat a diet rich in certain carbohydrates. These so-called "high ...

  4. Alcohol Sales Dropped After Maryland Raised Liquor Tax

    ... html Alcohol Sales Dropped After Maryland Raised Liquor Tax Study finding suggests the tactic could help to ... in Maryland following an increase in the sales tax, according to a finding that suggests the tactic ...

  5. Sleepless Nights Might Raise Women's Type 2 Diabetes Risk

    ... fullstory_156950.html Sleepless Nights Might Raise Women's Type 2 Diabetes Risk Insomnia can disrupt hormones, and may play ... problems may have an increased risk of developing type 2 diabetes, Harvard researchers report. Problems such as trouble falling ...

  6. Underactive Thyroid May Raise Odds for Type 2 Diabetes

    ... 158132.html Underactive Thyroid May Raise Odds for Type 2 Diabetes: Study Experts say many thyroid patients are already ... or hypothyroidism, may be at greater risk for type 2 diabetes -- even if their thyroid hormone levels are kept ...

  7. Diabetes May Raise Risk for Dangerous Staph Infection

    ... 157736.html Diabetes May Raise Risk for Dangerous Staph Infection Researchers believe the disease might dampen immune system, ... News Related MedlinePlus Health Topics Diabetes Diabetes Complications Staphylococcal Infections About MedlinePlus Site Map FAQs Contact Us Get ...

  8. Two Genes May Raise Odds for Fraternal Twin Pregnancies

    ... nih.gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_158554.html Two Genes May Raise Odds for Fraternal Twin Pregnancies Variants ... families, researchers say they've just pinpointed two genes that seem to be associated with having such ...

  9. Awareness raising as a component of the affected territories reviving

    Awareness raising about reviving of the contaminated territories aimed to form an appropriate impression of the affected areas and to change attitude of Belarusian population and international community towards them. (authors)

  10. Stress of Caring for Sick Spouse May Raise Stroke Risk

    ... nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_157606.html Stress of Caring for Sick Spouse May Raise Stroke ... University of California, San Francisco (UCSF), said chronic stress boosts blood levels of the hormone cortisol and ...

  11. Raised intracranial pressure following abdominal closure in a polytrauma patient

    Hendrickson, Susan; Chacko, Liza; Wilson, Mark H

    2015-01-01

    Lesson We report a polytrauma case requiring simultaneous neurosurgery and laparotomy. Upon abdominal closure, raised intracranial pressure occurred. This illustrates the important physiological interplay between body compartments in critical care patients.

  12. Supersensitive gastrin assay using antibodies raised against a cholecystokinin homolog

    Rehfeld, Jens F; Ericsson, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Peptide hormones may occur in particularly low amounts in samples from small animals. Hence, in a rat microdialysis study conventional immunoassays were not sufficiently sensitive to measure gastrin in the dialysis samples. We therefore exploited the observation that antibodies raised against the...... obtained with the most avid conventional gastrin antibodies. The results may encourage similar approaches for other peptides using homologue-raised antibodies when supersensitivity is required....

  13. Bisimulatioll abstraction for selecting software compollents ill RAISE

    Estevez, Elsa Clara; Janowski, Thomas

    1999-01-01

    Sorne questions and problems arise when working with ComponentBased Design. One of these is the abstraction needed to decide suitability of a component for the designo Bisimulation is a relation between the states of two systems expressing that we cannot distinguish between them by observation. RAISE is a formal approach to industrial software engineering based on higher-order logic. In this paper we present how to apply bisimulations to compare RAISE modules. We present concepts of strong an...

  14. A practice of advancing return shaft by raised shaft technique

    Advance of super-high raise has been a difficult problem in the underground construction of mines. A main return shaft of a uranium mine was advanced by raised shaft technique. The technique has advantages such as high efficience, safety and economy. Monthly shaft completion averaged 85 m, the highest was up to 120 m. Blasting efficience was above 92%. A reference is provided for similar projects. (authors)

  15. Raising finance to support developing country action: some economic considerations

    Bowen, Alex

    2011-01-01

    This article explores the principles that should guide efforts to raise finance for climate action in developing countries. The main conclusions are that, first, there is an important role for private finance, which would be facilitated by having pervasive and broadly uniform emissions pricing around the world. Second, public finance is warranted by a range of market � and policy � failures associated with climate change and its mitigation. Third, raising tax revenues may be preferable to...

  16. Raised Intracranial Pressure (ICP): Management in Emergency Department

    Sangani S.; Parikh S

    2014-01-01

    Elevated intracranial pressure (ICP) is a potentially devastating complication which requires prompt recognition. The best therapy for raised intracranial pressure is resolution of the cause. Regardless of the cause, treatment should be undertaken as quickly as possible, and should be based on the principles of resuscitation, reduction of the volume of the intracranial contents, and reassessment. Emergency management of a patient with raised intracranial pressure is reviewed here in brief.

  17. Concrete creep with multiaxial stress and at raised temperatures

    The knowledge of the creep behaviour of concrete under multiaxial stress at raised temperatures is necessary for the design and calculation of prestressed-concrete reactor pressure vessels due to the loading conditions prestressing and internal temperature. Therefore, in addition to the research programmes on the behaviour of concrete under multiaxial short-term stress at normal temperature done at the 'Institut fuer Massivbau' in the framework of the prestressed-concrete pressure vessel programme, the influences of raised temperature is experimentally tested. (orig./LH)

  18. Raised intracranial pressure in Crouzon syndrome: incidence, causes, and management.

    Abu-Sittah, Ghassan S; Jeelani, Owase; Dunaway, David; Hayward, Richard

    2016-04-01

    OBJECT Patients with Crouzon syndrome (CS) are at risk for developing raised intracranial pressure (ICP), which has the potential to impair both vision and neurocognitive development. For this reason, some experts recommend early prophylactic cranial vault expansion on the basis that if ICP is not currently raised, it is likely to become so. The aim of this study was to examine the justification for such a policy. This was done by analyzing the incidence, causes, and subsequent risk of recurrence in a series of patients with CS, in whom raised ICP was treated only after it had been diagnosed. METHODS This study was a retrospective review of the medical records and imaging data of patients with a clinical diagnosis of CS. RESULTS There were 49 patients in the study, of whom 30 (61.2%) developed at least 1 episode of raised ICP. First episodes occurred at an average age of 1.42 years and were attributable to craniocerebral disproportion/venous hypertension (19 patients), hydrocephalus (8 patients), and airway obstruction (3 patients). They were managed, respectively, by vault expansion, ventriculoperitoneal shunt insertion, and airway improvement. Fourteen of the 30 patients developed a second episode of raised ICP an average of 1.42 years after treatment for their initial episode, and 3 patients developed a third episode an average of 3.15 years after that. Causes of subsequent episodes of raised ICP often differed from previous episodes and required different management. Patients who were < 1 year old when the first episode was diagnosed were at increased risk of recurrence. CONCLUSIONS Although the incidence of raised ICP in CS is high, it did not occur in nearly 40% of children during the course of this study. The several possible causes of CS require different management and may vary from episode to episode. The authors recommend an expectant policy toward these children with careful clinical, ophthalmological, respiratory, and radiological monitoring for raised ICP, reserving intervention for when it has been detected and the appropriate treatment can be initiated. PMID:26613275

  19. Raising and Lowering operators of spin-weighted spheroidal harmonics

    Shah, Abhay G

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we generalize the spin-raising and lowering operators of spin-weighted spherical harmonics to linear-in-$\\gamma$ spin-weighted spheroidal harmonics where $\\gamma$ is an additional parameter present in the second order ordinary differential equation governing these harmonics. One can then generalize these operators to higher powers in $\\gamma$. Constructing these operators required calculating the $\\ell$-, $s$- and $m$-raising and lowering operators (and various combinations of them) of spin-weighted spherical harmonics which have been calculated and shown explicitly in this paper.

  20. Does Poor Sleep Raise Risk for Alzheimer's Disease?

    ... About ADEAR Does poor sleep raise risk for Alzheimer’s disease? February 29, 2016 Studies confirm what many ... prevent Alzheimer’s. Which comes first, poor sleep or Alzheimer’s? The chicken-and-egg question is whether Alzheimer’s- ...

  1. How to Raise Money for Kids (Public and Private).

    Dodge, Anne Burr

    This guide for social service organizations provides basic information concerning proposal writing and grant application procedures which could be useful to anyone beginning fund raising efforts. It is organized in three sections. Section 1 covers preparation for proposal writing and components and format of a proposal. Section 2 outlines a plan…

  2. The Voices of Latino Families Raising Children with Special Needs

    Hughes, Marie Tejero; Valle-Riestra, Diana Martinez; Arguelles, Maria Elena

    2008-01-01

    In this study we examined the perceptions of 16 Latino families regarding their views and experiences raising a child with special needs and their involvement in their child's schooling. Families talked about treating their child like a "normal child" regardless of the child's unique needs, but they also stated that their level of involvement was…

  3. Operating Classroom Aesthetic Reading Environment to Raise Children's Reading Motivation

    Chou, Mei-Ju; Cheng, Jui-Ching; Cheng, Ya-Wen

    2016-01-01

    This research aims to explore how preschool educators understand about raising children's reading motivation through operating classroom aesthetic reading environment. With one year qualitative research, sixteen 4-6 years old young were observed and interviewed. The first stage interviews were undergone with environmental guidance. After the…

  4. Raising Standards through INQUIRE in Pre-Service Teacher Education

    Elster, D.; Barendziak, T.; Haskamp, F.; Kastenholz, L.

    2014-01-01

    Raising standards through inquiry-based science education (IBSE)--what are the challenges for pre-service teacher education? What do ongoing teachers and active teachers learn from each other when planning, conducting and evaluating minds-on and hands-on IBSE activities in the classroom? What do they learn "beyond" IBSE? The Bremen…

  5. Alcohol, Processed Meats May Raise Stomach Cancer Risk

    ... gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_158407.html Alcohol, Processed Meats May Raise Stomach Cancer Risk Excess weight also seems to boost chances ... October, the World Health Organization determined that processed meat can cause cancer. Nearly 1 million new stomach cancer cases are ...

  6. 'New Lamps for Old': Current Awareness and Profile-Raising

    Welsh, Anne

    2006-01-01

    Over the last three years, the DrugScope ILS has streamlined its acquisitions, cataloguing and indexing processes so it has been possible to increase its current awareness services. This article illustrates how it is quick and easy to promote new material through these services, and how the services themselves have raised the profile of the ILS internally and externally.

  7. Raising Cultural Awareness in the English Language Classroom

    Frank, Jerrold

    2013-01-01

    This article discusses how teachers can incorporate cultural knowledge into English language classes, exploring elements of culture, intercultural phenomena, and high-context and low-context cultures. Activities offered by the author to raise cultural awareness include web quests, role plays, cultural observations, and culture journals.

  8. Influenza Virus Infection in Guinea Pigs Raised as Livestock, Ecuador

    Leyva-Grado, Victor H.; Mubareka, Samira; Krammer, Florian; Cárdenas, Washington B; Palese, Peter

    2012-01-01

    To determine whether guinea pigs are infected with influenza virus in nature, we conducted a serologic study in domestic guinea pigs in Ecuador. Detection of antibodies against influenza A and B raises the question about the role of guinea pigs in the ecology and epidemiology of influenza virus in the region.

  9. Language Strategies To Raise Achievement in Business Education.

    Seliet, Hala; Swift, Helen

    1999-01-01

    Describes the difficulties low achieving students, many of whom are from ethnic minorities, have in dealing with the language of Business Studies in the British curriculum and suggests some strategies to raise language awareness within the discipline and increase the business vocabularies of students. (SLD)

  10. Congenital hypothyroidism with hereditary, raised thyroxine binding globulin.

    Archer, L N; O'Malley, B. P.; Swift, P. G.

    1985-01-01

    A boy with congenital hypothyroidism and hereditary raised thyroxine binding globulin is described. This hitherto unreported combination resulted in under treatment of the thyroid deficiency until serum thyroid stimulating hormone measurement became routinely available. Inadequate L-thyroxine replacement treatment between 2 and 7 years of age caused retarded bone maturation, poor growth velocity, and probably added to his educational difficulties.

  11. Utilized Strategies by Urban Superintendents to Raise Student Achievement

    Aguilar-Nuno, Andrea Marie

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify the utilized strategies and practices that urban superintendents use to raise student achievement. This study examined the strategies, practices, and leadership skills that are applied by urban superintendents. Three research questions were used in this mixed-methods study. A survey instrument was used…

  12. From Dialogue to Action: Consciousness-Raising with Academic Mothers

    Seher, Christin L.; Iverson, Susan V.

    2015-01-01

    In this article, the authors argue that facilitated dialogues with academic mothers can provide space for consciousness-raising, validation, co-mentoring, and taking action. Stemming from the authors' experiences of negotiating motherhood in the academy, and their facilitation of a book discussion about academic motherhood through a faculty…

  13. The RIF Book of Ideas: Raising Funds. No. 2.

    Smithsonian Institution, Washington, DC. National Reading is Fun-damental Program.

    Intended to help communities raise funds for Reading Is Fundamental (RIF) projects, this booklet lists ideas and examples, many volunteered and tested by RIF projects themselves. The first of the booklet's four sections offers suggestions for preparing for a fundraising effort. The next two sections contain ideas on the main avenues of…

  14. Raising public awareness of nuclear science in action

    The activity and the present status of the Department of Training and Consulting of the Soltan Institute for Nuclear Studies at Swierk, Poland, are presented. The motivation for this activity, its methods and our experience of over 5 years in raising public awareness of applications of nuclear sciences among different social groups, are discussed. (author)

  15. Grandmothers Raising Grandchildren: An Exploration of Their Experiences and Emotions.

    Williamson, Jonathan; Softas-Nall, Basilia; Miller, Jill

    2003-01-01

    A qualitative study was designed to provide an in-depth understanding of the experiences and emotions of grandmothers raising their grandchildren. The grandmothers' stories revealed common themes of anger, frustration, loss, hurt, and depression. A key finding was that grandmothers who did not report depression had positive and helpful…

  16. Trajectories of Conflict over Raising Adolescent Children and Marital Satisfaction

    Cui, Ming; Donnellan, M. Brent

    2009-01-01

    The present study examined trajectories of marital satisfaction among couples with adolescent children and evaluated how changes in parents' conflict over raising adolescent children were associated with changes in marital satisfaction over 4 years. Using a prospective, longitudinal research design and controlling for family socioeconomic status,…

  17. Implementing a Strategy Awareness Raising Programme: Strategy Changes and Feedback

    Blanco, Maria; Pino, Margarita; Rodriguez, Beatriz

    2010-01-01

    This article reports on a collaborative action research study carried out on three groups of Spanish beginners during the implementation of a strategy awareness raising programme (SAR). The objective was to analyse the impact of the SAR programme on the students' learning process in three main areas: strategy awareness, strategy use in learning…

  18. Raising the Pedagogic Status of Discourse Intonation Teaching.

    Clennell, Charles

    1997-01-01

    Presents a case for teaching the pragmatic (discourse-based) features of English intonation to foreign students of English as a Second Language. Advocates a systematic approach to teaching these functions of English intonation through a consciousness-raising methodology that uses authentic academic oral texts. (25 references) (Author/CK)

  19. Raising the Level of Programming Abstraction in Scalable Programming Models

    Bernholdt, David E.; Nieplocha, Jarek; Sadayappan, Ponnuswamy

    2004-02-14

    The complexity of modern scientific simulations combined with the complexity of the high-performance computer hardware on which they run places an ever-increasing burden on scientific software developers, with clear impacts on both productivity and performance. We argue that raising the level of abstraction of the programming model/environment is a key element of addressing this situation. We present examples of two distinctly different approaches to raising the level of abstraction of the programming model while maintaining or increasing performance: the Tensor Contraction engine, a narrowly-focused domain specific language together with an optimizing compiler; and Extended Global Arrays, a programming framework that integrates programming models dealing with different layers of the memory/storage hierarchy using compiler analysis and code transformation techniques.

  20. AGAINST “PURE” EPP CHECKING: EVIDENCE FROM FURTHER-RAISING

    Gerardo Fernández-Salgueiro

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper I attempt to throw some light on the issue of whether we need to appeal to an EPP feature (EPP-F in order to account for why Tense heads demand that a specifier be created. I briefly review Boškovi?’s (2002 proposal that there is no “pure” EPP checking, and that instances of DP movement to Spec-Tense can be motivated independently of an EPP-F in Tense. I argue that there are some problems with his conclusion because of confounding factors surrounding the data that he considers. I then provide data from Spanish further-raising constructions (see Fernández-Salgueiro, 2011, which constitute a much clearer test bed for Boškovi?’s hypothesis. It turns out that the further-raising data provides stronger and less controversial empirical support for Boškovi?’s claim that the EPP-F should be eliminated from the grammar.

  1. Trajectories of Conflict over Raising Adolescent Children and Marital Satisfaction

    Cui, Ming; Donnellan, M. Brent

    2009-01-01

    The present study examined trajectories of marital satisfaction among couples with adolescent children and evaluated how changes in parents’ conflict over raising adolescent children were associated with changes in marital satisfaction over four years. Using a prospective, longitudinal research design and controlling for family socioeconomic status, dyadic growth curve analysis from a sample of 431 couples with adolescent children indicated that marital satisfaction decreased over time for pa...

  2. Current Situation of Postmenopausal Grandmothers Raising Their Grandchildren

    Jin, Jang Yong; Kim, Tae-hee

    2015-01-01

    As the average life expectancy of women increases, the family and social roles of postmenopausal women have become more important. With the growing number of dual-income households, postmenopausal grandmothers occupy a large role in child-rearing. Postmenopausal women mainly experience social changes as a family member along with personal changes. Postmenopausal women face changes in physical and mental aspects due to drastic hormonal changes. Grandmothers sharing the burden of raising childr...

  3. Individual Websites: Innovation for Raising Language Awareness in Adult Learners

    Galina Kavaliauskienė; Lilija Anusienė; Viktorija Mažeikienė

    2011-01-01

    The paper aims to demonstrate how weblogging can raise learners’ language awareness and prepare them for communication in the networked world. The research included the application of the innovative technique for written and oral communication in English classes. The exploratory study of using a variety of Information Communication Technology activities at tertiary level was conducted. Class experiences of creating weblogs for learning purposes and using them for online activities with the st...

  4. The cholesterol-raising factor from coffee beans.

    Urgert, R; Katan, M.B.

    1996-01-01

    Coffee beans and some types of coffee brew - not the regular types of coffee prepared with a paper filter or with soluble coffee granules - contain the diterpenes cafestol and kahweol. Cafestol and kahweol raise the serum concentration of cholesterol and triglycerides in humans, and they also appear mildly to affect the integrity of liver cells. Both effects are transient after withdrawal of the diterpenes, and it is as yet unsure whether these effects are associated. Patients at increased ri...

  5. Existential Questions Raised in Never Let Me Go

    Mahinthan, Sarah; Nicolaysen, Isolde; Olsen, Alice Rita; Thorarinsdottir, Inga Dora

    2008-01-01

    In this report, we discuss the existential questions raised in Never Let Me Go, by Kazuo Ishiguro. In order to cover both dimensions of Text & Sign, as well as Science & Philosophy, we take an analytical and philosophical approach. Firstly, we analyze symbolic events using the Romberg model to shed light on the characters’ existential struggle. Secondly, we apply relevant theories by Jean-Paul Sartre and Albert Camus, to explain how the society in the novel is Absurd. Finally, we address ...

  6. Retail impact of raising tobacco sales age to 21 years.

    Winickoff, Jonathan P; Hartman, Lester; Chen, Minghua L; Gottlieb, Mark; Nabi-Burza, Emara; DiFranza, Joseph R

    2014-11-01

    The majority of tobacco use emerges in individuals before they reach 21 years of age, and many adult distributors of tobacco to youths are young adults aged between 18 and 20 years. Raising the tobacco sales minimum age to 21 years across the United States would decrease tobacco retailer and industry sales by approximately 2% but could contribute to a substantial reduction in the prevalence of youths' tobacco use and dependency by limiting access. PMID:25211755

  7. Raising rivals' costs with environmental regulation: An intertemporal lobbying approach

    Körber, Achim

    1995-01-01

    This paper addresses the question why a lot of firms demand stricter environmental regulation. With non-identical producers within the same industry, lobbying for tighter environmental rules turns out to be an important strategy of raising rivals' costs. Furthermore, the paper explains when the potential target firms of stricter regulation in such an intra-industrial competition engage in counter-lobbying and when they remain silent.

  8. The treatment of raised intracranial pressure following aneurysm surgery.

    Fearnside, M R; Adams, C. B.

    1980-01-01

    The effect of intravenous mannitol infusion and withdrawal of cerebrospinal fluid on the intracranial pressure and clinical state was studied in 26 patients with raised intracranial pressure after direct surgery for ruptured aneurysm. Each method decreased the mean intracranial pressure by about 60% of the pre-treatment level. The maximal decrease following mannitol occurred after 60-90 minutes and generally lasted between three and four hours. The effects of mannitol did not decrease when re...

  9. Raising the issue of DNAR orders in vascular surgery patients.

    McIntosh, Rachel; Webb, Hannah; Hartley, Matthew; Brooks, Marcus

    2016-01-01

    The Tracey Report has recently raised the status of Do Not Attempt Cardio Pulmonary Resuscitation (DNACPR) orders in the hospital setting.[1] Guidelines are in place both nationally and locally to provide advice to clinicians on when to discuss DNACPR, and the approach to be taken. There was concern that on a busy regional vascular surgery unit, discussion of resuscitation status was not regular practice. Consequently, some patients were at risk of being inappropriately resuscitated, particularly out of hours. The North Bristol Somerset and Gloucester DNAR decision tree[2] was the tool used to decide whether a patient should have a documented discussion and/or a DNACPR form completed. We correlated the outcome of the decision tree with the presence of a DNACPR form or documented resuscitation discussion. Baseline measurements from all vascular inpatients on the vascular surgery unit demonstrated that only 27% had a DNACPR form or documented discussion in concordance with the DNACPR Decision Tree outcome. The aim of this project was to increase the proportion of patients with concordance of the DNACPR decision tree outcome with documented discussion or DNACPR form. The following three simple interventions raised concordance from 27% to 64% of patients on the vascular surgery unit. 1. Including resuscitation status of each patient as a column in the doctors daily handover. 2. Posters in staff only areas to highlight the meaning of DNACPR and raise awareness of the DNACPR decision tree. 3. Educational meeting surrounding DNACPR with the vascular surgery consultants, led by a care of the elderly consultant . This project has highlighted how raising awareness around DNACPR increases discussion amongst the clinical team surrounding resuscitation status of a patient. Consequently, this enables discussion to be had with patient and their family. PMID:26893897

  10. Environmental NGOs in the raising debate of climate change

    Dahan Dalmedico, Amy; Buffet, Christophe

    2009-01-01

    The issue of climate change was raising since the last 20 years, up to preempting debates about sustainable development This paper aims, in a first part, at underlining the diversity of environmental NGOs involved in climate change debate at all levels. In a second part, the text analyses how environmental NGOs interacted within climate change regime within United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) negotiations.

  11. Cultural and Economic Motivation of Pig Raising Practices in Bangladesh.

    Nahar, Nazmun; Uddin, Main; Gurley, Emily S; Jahangir Hossain, M; Sultana, Rebeca; Luby, Stephen P

    2015-12-01

    The interactions that pig raisers in Bangladesh have with their pigs could increase the risk of zoonotic disease transmission. Since raising pigs is a cultural taboo to Muslims, we aimed at understanding the motivation for raising pigs and resulting practices that could pose the risk of transmitting disease from pigs to humans in Bangladesh, a predominantly Muslim country. These understandings could help identify acceptable strategies to reduce the risk of disease transmission from pigs to people. To achieve this objective, we conducted 34 in-depth interviews among pig herders and backyard pig raisers in eight districts of Bangladesh. Informants explained that pig raising is an old tradition, embedded in cultural and religious beliefs and practices, the primary livelihood of pig herders, and a supplemental income of backyard pig raisers. To secure additional income, pig raisers sell feces, liver, bile, and other pig parts often used as traditional medicine. Pig raisers have limited economic ability to change the current practices that may put them at risk of exposure to diseases from their pigs. An intervention that improves their financial situation and reduces the risk of zoonotic disease may be of interest to pig raisers. PMID:26122206

  12. Properties and structure of raised bog peat humic acids

    Klavins, Maris; Purmalis, Oskars

    2013-10-01

    Humic substances form most of the organic components of soil, peat and natural waters, and their structure and properties differ very much depending on their source. The aims of this study are to characterize humic acids (HAs) from raised bog peat, to evaluate the homogeneity of peat HAs within peat profiles, and to study peat humification impact on properties of HAs. A major impact on the structure of peat HAs have lignin-free raised bog biota (dominantly represented by bryophytes of different origin). On diagenesis scale, peat HAs have an intermediate position between the living organic matter and coal organic matter, and their structure is formed in a process in which more labile structures (carbohydrates, amino acids, etc.) are destroyed, while thermodynamically more stable aromatic and polyaromatic structures emerge as a result of abiotic synthesis. However, in comparison with soil, aquatic and other HAs, aromaticity of peat HAs is much lower. Comparatively, the raised bog peat HAs are at the beginning of the transformation process of living organic matter. Concentrations of carboxyl and phenolic hydroxyl groups change depending on the peat age and decomposition degree from where HAs have been isolated, and carboxylic acidity of peat HAs increases with peat depth and humification degree.

  13. First detection of microsporidia in raised pigeons in Poland.

    Słodkowicz-Kowalska, Anna; Graczyk, Thaddeus K; Nowosad, Andrzej; Majewska, Anna C

    2013-01-01

    Microsporidia are single-celled intracellular parasites which occur in a number of animals, both vertebrates and invertebrates. Several species of microsporidia can cause disease in humans in both immunocompromised and immunocompetent individuals. However, the sources of human infection and the routes of transmission of microsporidia have not yet been fully determined, although more and more researchers are of the opinion that microsporidia in humans is zoonotic. The aim of the presented study was to identify the most common microsporidial species in the droppings of raised and wild pigeons in Poland. A total of 139 collective samples of droppings (33 samples of droppings from feral pigeons and 106 samples from raised pigeons) were examined using conventional staining and molecular techniques. Using chromotrope staining and multiplex FISH techniques, the microsporidial spores were found in 12 (8.6%) of the 139 samples of droppings. The spores of Encephalitozoon hellem were detected in five samples of pigeon droppings (3.6%), spores of E. intestinalis in four samples of droppings (2.9%), while spores of E. cuniculi and E. bieneusi were only detected in two samples (1.4%). Furthermore, a mixed infection of E. bieneusi and E. cuniculi was found in a single sample of droppings (0.7%). The presence of microsporidial spores in droppings collected from raised pigeons indicates a risk of infection to humans, mainly pigeon fanciers. PMID:23540206

  14. Raising consciousness about the nuclear threat through music

    Ungerleider, J.H.

    1987-01-01

    This dissertation examines the use of music, in particular topical collaborative group song writing, as a tool for raising consciousness about the threat of nuclear war. Consciousness raising is one way to overcome the phenomenon of denial and to increase discussion and social action in response to the nuclear threat. This dissertation measures the impact of a group song writing workshop on developing critical problem-solving in adult groups; it reviews how music is applied in psychological research and clinical work, has been used historically as a tool in social-change movements in America, and is used in the contemporary field of peace education. The perspectives of several theorists who discuss the potential of music to contribute to social change are presented. It is concluded that consciousness about the nuclear threat - in terms of naming and analyzing - can be raised by working with music's potential for developing affective, expressive, and collaborative capabilities in individuals and groups. Potential applications of the group song writing workshop are in schools, with peace organizations, music groups, and in relation to other social issues.

  15. Pathogenesis of optic disc edema in raised intracranial pressure.

    Hayreh, Sohan Singh

    2016-01-01

    Optic disc edema in raised intracranial pressure was first described in 1853. Ever since, there has been a plethora of controversial hypotheses to explain its pathogenesis. I have explored the subject comprehensively by doing basic, experimental and clinical studies. My objective was to investigate the fundamentals of the subject, to test the validity of the previous theories, and finally, based on all these studies, to find a logical explanation for the pathogenesis. My studies included the following issues pertinent to the pathogenesis of optic disc edema in raised intracranial pressure: the anatomy and blood supply of the optic nerve, the roles of the sheath of the optic nerve, of the centripetal flow of fluids along the optic nerve, of compression of the central retinal vein, and of acute intracranial hypertension and its associated effects. I found that, contrary to some previous claims, an acute rise of intracranial pressure was not quickly followed by production of optic disc edema. Then, in rhesus monkeys, I produced experimentally chronic intracranial hypertension by slowly increasing in size space-occupying lesions, in different parts of the brain. Those produced raised cerebrospinal fluid pressure (CSFP) and optic disc edema, identical to those seen in patients with elevated CSFP. Having achieved that, I investigated various aspects of optic disc edema by ophthalmoscopy, stereoscopic color fundus photography and fluorescein fundus angiography, and light microscopic, electron microscopic, horseradish peroxidase and axoplasmic transport studies, and evaluated the effect of opening the sheath of the optic nerve on the optic disc edema. This latter study showed that opening the sheath resulted in resolution of optic disc edema on the side of the sheath fenestration, in spite of high intracranial CSFP, proving that a rise of CSFP in the sheath was the essential pre-requisite for the development of optic disc edema. I also investigated optic disc edema with raised CSFP in patients, by evaluating optic disc and fundus changes by stereoscopic fundus photography and fluorescein fundus angiography. Based on the combined information from all the studies discussed above, it is clear that the pathogenesis of optic disc edema in raised intracranial pressure is a mechanical phenomenon. It is primarily due to a rise of CSFP in the optic nerve sheath, which produces axoplasmic flow stasis in the optic nerve fibers in the surface nerve fiber layer and prelaminar region of the optic nerve head. Axoplasmic flow stasis then results in swelling of the nerve fibers, and consequently of the optic disc. Swelling of the nerve fibers and of the optic disc secondarily compresses the fine, low-pressure venules in that region, resulting in venous stasis and fluid leakage; that leads to the accumulation of extracellular fluid. Contrary to the previous theories, the various vascular changes seen in optic disc edema are secondary and not primary. Thus, optic disc edema in raised CSFP is due to a combination of swollen nerve fibers and the accumulation of extracellular fluid. My studies also provided information about the pathogeneses of visual disturbances in raised intracranial pressure. PMID:26453995

  16. Issues Raised in Relation to Radioactive Waste Management

    Nirex has undertaken various consultations with different stakeholders to identify their issues and concerns about radioactive waste management in general and specific aspects of Nirex's work. This paper will outline what dialogue techniques Nirex has undertaken and the issues and concerns that people have raised during the events. It will outline some of the work that Nirex is undertaking to address stakeholders' issues and concerns. Nirex has used a variety of dialogue techniques co-ordinated under the Nirex Involvement Programme to engage with stakeholders about the work we undertake. We are now trying to address the issues, concerns, scenarios and questions raised in our work programme. Key lessons that we have learned in undertaking the dialogues include: The importance of appropriate facilitation and organisation of meetings; The need for a clear purpose for meetings; Being flexible to the needs of the attendees and the issues they raise; Providing feedback to those who participate and following up issues. Through engaging with the public Nirex has learned that: Radioactive waste is not an everyday concern for people; The public can, will and want to engage with the issue of radioactive waste management. This includes engaging with the ethical debate. To facilitate this Nirex and others need to: Provide information in a neutral form outlining the pros and cons and including various people's opinions; Use proactive techniques to allow access and space for people to discuss the issues; Demonstrate how people's opinions have been taken into account. People understand the issues very differently to the way institutions understand them. There is a need for institutions to learn to understand public concerns and the ways in which the public understand issues, as well as for the public to understand the institutional positions better. We are using these insights to develop our future work in this area

  17. Tenneco raises $75 million for independents' E and P

    Tenneco Gas's ventures group, Houston, has raised $75 million to invest in gas exploration and production by independent operations on the U.S. Gulf Coast. Institutional investors committed $50 million to the fund and a group of industrial investors $25 million. Tenneco the the fund will expand to accommodate additional investors through this year. This paper reports that the company's ventures group is evaluating acquisition and drilling opportunities with independents. Ventures group capital will be invested in independent exploratory, development, and producing properties

  18. Paroxysmal non-kinesigenic dyskinesia, post-streptococcal syndromes and psychogenic movement disorders: a diagnostic challenge.

    Peila, Elena; Mortara, Paolo; Cicerale, Alessandro; Pinessi, Lorenzo

    2015-01-01

    We report a case of a 15-year-old boy presenting with sudden attacks of hyperkinetic movements of the limbs, trunk and neck. Clinical features were suggestive of paroxysmal non-kinesigenic dyskinesia, but the elevated antistreptolysin O antibody titre and history of recurrent upper airways infection led us to consider a post-streptococcal syndrome as a possible diagnosis. The patient started therapy with benzathine penicillin, sodium valproate and clonazepam without any significant improvement. A successive psychiatric assessment revealed the presence of a psychogenic movement disorder. Psychodynamic psychotherapy and individual counselling were started with progressive improvement of psychological symptoms and gradual resolution of hyperkinetic episodes, without any recurrence recorded during the follow-up (10 months). PMID:25795754

  19. Raised Relief Mars Globe Brings the Red Planet Closer

    2006-01-01

    The Mars Globe 20x is the first digitally produced raised relief globe to be sold at retail establishments. The rises and dips of the Martian landscape have been multiplied by 20 to make the shapes more noticeable to human touch and sight. They make this globe, with its over 1 million elevation points, a visually stunning introduction to the planet. Spectrum 3D used the NASA digital land elevation data to aim lasers that then shaped and defined the master globe s surface. Subsequent copies were then made by creating a master globe mold. The molded copies are hand finished by workers who remove errant edges or lines that may appear on the raw globes and then paint the surfaces. The result is a globe that measures in at 18 inches in diameter, roughly 1:15,729,473 scale of the actual planet. The exaggerated raised relief is like having a 3-D digital microscope for planetary shapes. This makes the landmarks easier to learn and understand, as it provides easy visuals for orientation. People have a natural propensity for understanding 3-D shapes more easily than numbers or words. The 3-D globes appeal to both the kinetic and visual learning aspects of the brain, making it easy for people to readily memorize the landmarks and to make a mental model that they will remember for a long time.

  20. Civil engineering work to raise the level of Route Goward

    2013-01-01

    Civil engineering work to raise the level of Route Goward will take place during Long Shutdown 1. The work will begin on 18 March 2013 and is expected to last around 5 months.   Route Goward runs over the top of the PS tunnel and is the only access route to the inside of the ring. The layer of shielding backfill beneath this road is the thinnest anywhere on the PS ring. As the purpose of this shielding is to protect against the ionising radiation emitted by the accelerator when in operation, this road has been classified as a “supervised radiation area” according to radiation protection regulations. This classification was merely a temporary solution and, on the recommendation of the PS Radiation Working Group (PSRWG), the decision has been taken to raise the surface level permanently by around 2 m in order to increase the thickness of the shielding and thus lower the dose rate to that of a non-designated area. As the PS tunnel itself is unable to withstand the weight of t...

  1. Titre français non fourni

    Michel, Fabrice

    2013-01-01

    Alors que la perspective de la fusion d’images médicales capturées par des systèmes d’imageries de type différent est largement contemplée, la mise en pratique est toujours victime d’un obstacle théorique : la définition d’une mesure de similarité entre les images. Des efforts dans le domaine ont rencontrés un certain succès pour certains types d’images, cependant la définition d’un critère de similarité entre les images quelle que soit leur origine et un des plus gros défis en recalage d’ima...

  2. Soil nitrogen and carbon impacts of raising chickens on pasture

    Ryals, R.; Leach, A.; Tang, J.; Hastings, M. G.; Galloway, J. N.

    2014-12-01

    Chicken is the most consumed meat in the US, and production continues to intensify rapidly around the world. Chicken manure from confined feeding operations is typically applied in its raw form to nearby croplands, resulting in hotspots of soil nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions. Pasture-raised chicken is an alternative to industrial production and is growing in popularity with rising consumer demand for more humanely raised protein sources. In this agricultural model, manure is deposited directly onto grassland soils where it is thought to increase pools of soil carbon and nitrogen. The fate of manure nitrogen from pasture-raised chicken production remains poorly understood. We conducted a controlled, replicated experiment on a permaculture farm in Charlottesville, Virginia (Timbercreek Organics) in which small chicken coops (10 ft x 12 ft) were moved daily in a pasture. We measured manure deposition rates, soil inorganic nitrogen pools, soil moisture, and soil N2O and CO2 emissions. Measurements were made for the 28-day pasture life of three separate flocks of chickens in the spring, summer, and fall. Each flock consisted of approximately 200-300 chickens occupying three to five coops (~65 chickens/coop). Measurements were also made in paired ungrazed control plots. Manure deposition rates were similar across flocks and averaged 1.5 kgdrywt ha-1 during the spring grazing event and 4.0 kgdrywt ha-1 during the summer and fall grazing events. Manure deposition was relatively constant over the four weeks pasture-lifetime of the chickens. Compared to control plots, grazed areas exhibited higher soil N2O and CO2 fluxes. The magnitude of these fluxes diminished significantly over the four-week span. Soil gas fluxes significantly increased following rainfall events. For a given rainfall event, higher fluxes were observed from transects that were grazed more recently. Soil gaseous reactive nitrogen losses were less in this pasture system compared to cultivated field amended with raw chicken manure. These results suggest that pasture manure management may have a smaller impact on gaseous reactive nitrogen pollution.

  3. THE CHALLENGES OF RAISING REVENUES AND RESTRUCTURING SUBSIDIES IN MALAYSIA

    Suresh Narayanan

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Malaysia has run deficit budgets in all but five years since 1970 but past deficits have been managed thanks to substantial oil revenues and high domestic savings. However, the slow growth or decline of several traditional sources of revenue and the rising subsidy bill since 2007 have given pause for reflection on the traditional approach to fiscal management. In this paper, it is argued that fiscal management must not only centre around reducing non-productive expenditures and wasteful leakages but must also confront the problem of reducing and restructuring subsidies, particularly to petrol and petroleum-related products. The global dip in petroleum process has fortuitously provided the respite needed for such an exercise and should not lull policy makersinto complacency. When the economy recovers from the currentdownswing, a solid revenue raising instrument such as the value-addedtax must be introduced in order to wean the economy away from thecurrent over reliance on petroleum-based taxes.

  4. Raising chickens in city backyards: the public health role.

    Pollock, S L; Stephen, C; Skuridina, N; Kosatsky, T

    2012-06-01

    There is increasing interest in raising chickens in urban settings across North America. Current regulations on backyard chickens vary by jurisdiction due to concerns about perceived health threats. Proposed negative impacts on public health and community well-being include infectious diseases acquired through rearing practices or consumption of eggs, inappropriate waste management, interaction with pests and predators and nuisance factors such as noise and odour. Proposed benefits are derived largely from the human-animal bond and from feelings of autonomy over food selection. The importance or validity of claims of positive and negative effects cannot be supported by literature specific to the urban agriculture context. Public health practitioners might approach this issue in a manner analogous to concerns over keeping domestic pets. PMID:22083301

  5. Steam raising unit for a thermal power plant

    Golowanow, N.W.; Iwanow, W.A.; Mitor, W.W.; Parshin, A.A.; Sapozhnikow, F.W.; Ter-Minosian, S.M.; Schawschanidze, E.K.

    1977-12-01

    This heat exchanger can be used for a steam raising unit with forced steam circulation and output above 300MW. In principle, it contains a boiler and a closed heating flue connected to it. Part of the heating flue is made as a cooling chamber for the heated gases. The flow ducts for the heated gases are brought into close contact with the cooling chamber by curved tube walls. Each tube wall consists of wholly welded sets of tubes, whose tubes run parallel to each other. Each set of tubes is bent several times. Adjacent sets of tubes are connected at the top of these bends. This forms a rigid construction of high strength and high efficiency.

  6. Does Stock Market Development Raise Economic Growth? Evidence from Nigeria

    Abu Nurudeen

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates whether stock market development raises economic growthin Nigeria, by employing the error correction approach. The econometric results indicate thatstock market development (market capitalization-GDP ratio increases economic growth.The recommendations therein include: removal of impediments to stock market developmentwhich include tax, legal, and regulatory barriers; development of the nation’s infrastructureto create an enabling environment for where business can strive; employment of policies thatwill increase the productivity and efficiency of firms as well encourage them to access capitalon the stock market; enhancement of the capacity of the Nigeria Security and ExchangeCommission to facilitate the growth of the stock market, restore the confidence of stockmarket participants and safeguard the interest of shareholders by checking sharp practicesof market operators (particularly speculators.

  7. Raise the management level of EPC contracting in six aspects

    Nuclear power construction develops rapidly today and EPC contracting for nuclear power projects, as a strategic decision of CNNC, has become a tendency. The target of engineering management can be smoothly realized or achieved by doing a good job in the following six aspects:effective communication between divisions of project department, high-degree consistency of managerial concepts for project management staff, clear objective for different divisions in the project department, presence of rules to be observed in construction management work, avoidance of human-initiated errors in the project, and clear distinction of management control concept. It is hoped that, through exchange and practice, management procedures and consciousness for EPC contracting can be further standardized and thus the level of management for EPC contracting will be raised finally. (authors)

  8. Air flow management in raised floor data centers

    Arghode, Vaibhav K

    2016-01-01

    The Brief discuss primarily two aspects of air flow management in raised floor data centers. Firstly, cooling air delivery through perforated tiles will be examined and influence of the tile geometry on flow field development and hot air entrainment above perforated tiles will be discussed. Secondly, the use of cold aisle containment to physically separate hot and cold regions, and minimize hot and cold air mixing will be presented. Both experimental investigations and computational efforts are discussed and development of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) based models for simulating air flow in data centers is included. In addition, metrology tools for facility scale air velocity and temperature measurement, and air flow rate measurement through perforated floor tiles and server racks are examined and the authors present thermodynamics-based models to gauge the effectiveness and importance of air flow management schemes in data centers.

  9. Lexical consciousness-raising in the vicinity of target vocabulary

    Hadi, Farjami

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study compared the effectiveness of three techniques for teaching English vocabulary to Persian native speakers: a traditional procedure, the classical cloze procedure, and an innovative procedure, which is dubbed here as vicinity technique, based on incidental learning, noticing and consciousness-raising. To do the comparison, 51 students, registered at a private language institute, were randomly assigned to three groups and were taught 40 vocabulary items in five sessions in the three procedures. To evaluate the vocabulary gain in the three conditions, immediate and delayed post-tests were administered and the obtained data were analyzed using ANOVA. The results revealed that the vicinity technique was more effective than the traditional procedure; both in immediate and delayed evaluations. It was also revealed that, although there was no significant difference between the vicinity technique and the classical cloze technique in short-term, the vicinity technique was more effective than the classical cloze one for long-term retention.

  10. Individual Websites: Innovation for Raising Language Awareness in Adult Learners

    Galina Kavaliauskien?

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper aims to demonstrate how weblogging can raise learners’ language awareness and prepare them for communication in the networked world. The research included the application of the innovative technique for written and oral communication in English classes. The exploratory study of using a variety of Information Communication Technology activities at tertiary level was conducted. Class experiences of creating weblogs for learning purposes and using them for online activities with the students who learn English for Specific Purposes are described. The methods employed for data gathering consisted of administering specially designed questionnaires, analyzing students’ responses, carrying out weblogging activities, providing feedback to learners, evaluating students’ performance in various online activities, and finally assessing the utility of weblogging. Our results show that the experience of public writing provides an important opportunity for learning English. Despite a limitation of research - the data are received from a comparatively small sample of participants - some practical implications are indicated.

  11. Raising Relational Critical Consciousness to Enhance Empathy in Clinical Hypnosis.

    Vargas, H Luis

    2016-01-01

    Empathic involvement theory suggests that a trance-like experience occurs when a cross-relational empathic connection is achieved. The empathically-laden relational phenomenon is thought to enhance hypnosis. Empathic involvement theory suggests hypnotizables are highly empathic. By the same token, the relational empathic connection necessitates a highly empathic practitioner of hypnosis. In the United States, where values of individualism are thought to be socially embedded and internalized, practitioners of hypnosis and clients alike may be impeded by an individually oriented worldview to empathically connect with others. Raising a relational critical consciousness is promoted as a way to increase sensitivity to the marginalization of relationships, limit empathic-effort burn-out, and promote cross-relational empathic connection. PMID:26675156

  12. Raise the management level of EPC contracting in six aspects

    Nuclear power construction develops rapidly today and EPC contracting for nuclear power projects, as a strategic decision of CNNC, has become a tendency. The target of engineering management can be smoothly realized or achieved by doing a good job in the following six aspects: effective communication between divisions of project department, high-degree consistency of managerial concepts for project management staff, clear objective for different divisions in the project department, presence of rules to be observed in construction management work, avoidance of human-initiated errors in the project, and clear distinction of management control concept. It is hoped that, through exchange and practice, management procedures and consciousness for EPC contracting can be further standardized and thus the level of management for EPC contracting will be raised finally. (authors)

  13. High efficacy plasma display panel with vertically raised bus electrodes

    The authors propose a high efficacy alternating current plasma display panel utilizing vertically raised multilayer bus electrodes. The cell structure was designed to provide an opposite discharge mode and low discharge current in a relatively long gap. The test panels having discharge gaps of 330, 350, and 370 ?m were fabricated and basic properties of the panel were investigated in terms of current-voltage characteristics, luminance, and luminous efficiency. The cells with proposed structure show higher luminance and lower current simultaneously. The improvement in luminous efficiency is found to be a factor of 2 compared with the conventional coplanar structure having an electrode gap of 60 ?m. Emission spectra and spatio-temporal distribution of infrared light in discharge were measured. It is shown that high luminous efficiency of proposed cell originates from high excitation efficiency, low surface loss of charged particles, and enlarged discharge volume

  14. The Potential of Book Floods for Raising Literacy Levels

    Elley, Warwick B.

    2000-07-01

    The problem of raising literacy levels in developing countries is particularly challenging when pupils have their schooling in a non-native language. One promising strategy which has been tried and evaluated in the schools of several developing countries is the Book Flood approach. This article summarises the findings of Book Flood studies in Niue, Fiji, Singapore, Sri Lanka, South Africa, Solomon Islands, and several other countries. The evidence is now strong that it is possible to double the rate of reading acquisition of Third World primary school pupils with a "Book Flood" of about 100 high-interest books, per class, and short teacher training sessions. The benefits for reading skill and enthusiasm are consistent across diverse cultures, mother tongues and age levels, and they appear to generate corresponding improvements in children's writing, listening comprehension, and related language skills. Such skills are typically found to develop very slowly under traditional textbook styles of teaching. The problems of cost per school and cultural suitability of imported books are addressed. Several countries have adopted Book Flood programmes on a national scale, and others are currently planning to do so.

  15. Leptospirosis control on an intensive raising pig farm

    Tešić M.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Leptospirosis is an infective disease which represents serious health and economic problems in pig raising. The disease is caused by bacteria from genus Leptospira interrogans, which has over 250 serotypes and is isolated from most animal species and also from humans in almost every country in the world. In farm conditions the disease is seldom manifested as a clinically apparent illness. More often is manifested as reduced conception rate increased abortion rate and increased birth of dead and non-vital piglets. The leptospirosis control and eradication program was made for a state owned farm with a capacity of about 1500 sows and over 30000 fattened animals per year. The farm had an on going endemic leptospirosis infection and subsequent progressive economic losses. We detected 29,80% seropositive sows and gilts in which serotypes pomona and icterhaemorrhagiae were isolated. Serologic examination of blood was performed again after program implementation, and no positive animals were found, while production and economic results were improved. The control of leptospirosis and the eradication program for a five-year period were based on detailed quantification of economics losses. Using cost-benefit analysis the necessary inputs and planned outputs were defined, and program evolution was made on the basis of net present value and benefit/cost ratio.

  16. Raising salinity tolerant rice: recent progress and future perspectives.

    Singh, Anil K; Ansari, Mohammad W; Pareek, Ashwani; Singla-Pareek, Sneh L

    2008-04-01

    With the rapid growth in population consuming rice as staple food and the deteriorating soil and water quality around the globe, there is an urgent need to understand the response of this important crop towards these environmental abuses. With the ultimate goal to raise rice plant with better suitability towards rapidly changing environmental inputs, intensive efforts are on worldwide employing physiological, biochemical and molecular tools to perform this task. In this regard, efforts of plant breeders need to be duly acknowledged as several salinity tolerant varieties have reached the farmers field. Parallel efforts from molecular biologists have yielded relevant knowledge related to perturbations in gene expression and proteins during stress. Employing transgenic technology, functional validation of various target genes involved in diverse processes such as signaling, transcription, ion homeostasis, antioxidant defense etc for enhanced salinity stress tolerance has been attempted in various model systems and some of them have been extended to crop plant rice too. However, the fact remains that these transgenic plants showing improved performance towards salinity stress are yet to move from 'lab to the land'. Pondering this, we propose that future efforts should be channelized more towards multigene engineering that may enable the taming of this multigene controlled trait. Recent technological achievements such as the whole genome sequencing of rice is leading to a shift from single gene based studies to genome wide analysis that may prove to be a boon in re-defining salt stress responsive targets. PMID:23572881

  17. Raised Vaginal Fluid Fibronectin Level Indicates Premature Rupture of Membrane

    Amrita Bhowmik

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Premature rupture of membrane (PROM is one of the common complications of pregnancy that has major impact on fetal and neonatal outcome. It is the commonest clinical event where a normal pregnancy becomes suddenly a high-risk one for mother and fetus or neonate. Objective: The study was undertaken to investigate whether raised fibronectin level in vaginal fluid may indicate premature rupture of membrane. Materials and Methods: This cross sectional study was conducted in the department of Obstetrics and Gynecology in Sir Salimullah Medical College & Mitford Hospital, Dhaka during the period of January 2006 to December 2007. A total of 114 pregnant women with gestational age 28th week up to 40th week were included. Sixty were PROM (Group I and 54 were non-PROM (Group II subjects. Fibronectin in vaginal fluid was measured by an immunochemical reaction by nephelometer. Statistical analysis was done by SPSS version 10.0. Results: The PROM patients had significantly higher concentration of fibronectin (225.77 ± 115.18 ng/mL compared to that in non-PROM subjects (8.04 ± 16.17 ng/mL (p < 0.001. Conclusion: It can be concluded that in cases of unequivocal rupture or intactness of the membranes, the result of the fibronectin test corresponds well with the clinical situation. So fibronectin is a sensitive test for detection of amniotic fluid in the vagina.

  18. Characterization of cattle raising in Paraíba State, Northeastern Brazil

    Inácio José Clementino

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to characterize the cattle raising in Paraíba State, Northeastern Brazil. The State was divided into three cattle production regions according to its mesoregions: production region 1 (Sertão mesoregion, production region 2 (Borborema mesoregion and production region 3 (Agreste and Zona da Mata mesoregions. Overall, 689 rural properties from the three production regions were randomly selected. The variables used in the characterization were production system, farming system, type of milking, use of artificial insemination, milk cooling, number of lactating cows, daily milk production, herd size and number of bovine females > 24 months of age. It was found that most farms in Paraíba State are family or subsistence farms, predominantly mixed production, semi-intensive farming, with utilization of hand milking and natural mating, without use of milk cooling, low number of lactating cows and daily milk production. It were found differences and similarities among production regions so that it is suggested that such aspects must be taking into account in livestock development public policy planning, as well as in the implementation of disease control strategies.

  19. Toward raising the higher level of radiological nursing

    The role and purpose of nursing in the radiological field are discussed with essentials of radiological nursing for raising its higher level and needed fundamental education. The discussion is from the thought that, at Fukushima Nuclear Power Plant Accident (Mar. 2011), general medical staff including nurses are rather insufficient of radiological knowledge like the exposure, radiation effect and risk. In the medical radiological field, nurses are expected to play roles of arranging the circumstance for patient's ease like explanation about health effect/risk, appropriate nursing of them after radiological diagnosis, radiation protection of nurses themselves, and of environment. At such an emergency as the Accident, care for the acutely exposed victims, their decontamination and responding to patient's concern are necessary. At the later phase, also needed are nursing of victims undergoing health management done by authorities and of radiological workers concerned as well as the third item above. Therefore, fundamentals of radiological knowledge such as physics, exposure, health effects, protection, contamination, legal rules and risk communication are required in the education of nurses. Otherwise, this education can be conducted as a part of safety security and physical assessment. The Accident also gives us the importance of radiological risk communication with its victims. (T.T.)

  20. Potential of the Public Relations Department as a Deterrent to Fund-Raising Encroachment.

    Kelly, Kathleen S.

    A national survey of 175 public relations managers documented fund-raising encroachment (subordination of public relations functions to fund-raising) at 23% of their charitable organizations, with variation in vulnerability among different types (e.g., the public relations function is managed by fund raising at 50% of the private colleges and…

  1. Application of Program Life Cycle Concepts for Fund Raising Strategies in Higher Education.

    Hekmat, Firooz; Heischmidt, Kenneth A.

    1993-01-01

    The concept of program life-cycle management is applied to college fund raising. Program life-cycle stages (introduction, take-off, maturation, saturation, decline) and fund-raising steps (identification of objectives, targeting of markets, estimate potential for contribution, organization, strategy development, fund-raising performance…

  2. Raise Management Standards of Property Tax on Transnational Corporations

    Ying-hui CUI

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available
    As China joined WTO, more and more foreign multinational companies will enter China. They run enterprises within the territory of China. This will inevitably play an active role in promoting the economic construction of China. But we should pay attention to some foreign multinational companies in China that often reduce the incomes of Chinese branch companies by utilizing transfer prices. Thus they achieve the goal of evading payment of duty. These make the tax revenue of Chinese Government fall sharply. So it is very important to raise management level of property tax to the multinational companies. This text explains the loss caused by the foreign businessmen using improper means to transfer prices. They import raw materials at a high price and export the products at a low price. Also the corresponding measures are made out in this paper.
    Key words: Multinational companies, Import at a high price and export at a low price, Current capital, Transfer prices
    Résumé: Avec l’adhésion de la Chine à l’OMC, de plus en plus nombreux sont les entreprises transnationales qui s’investiraient en Chine. Cela poussera inévitablement la construction économique de la Chine. Néanmoins, nons devons noter que, actuellement, des entreprises étrangères en Chine diminuent les profits des filiales chinoise en transférant les prix et atteint ainsi leur but d’éviter la taxe. De cet effet, les recettes fiscales de la Chine diminuent considérablement. Donc, il est très important d’améliorer le viveau de gestion fiscale à l’égard des entreprises transnationales. Cet article expose d’abord le déficit provoqué par les actions malhonnêtes de commerçants étrangers qui transfèrent les prix avec des moyens illégitimes pour acheter les ressources productives à haut prix et vendre les produits à bas prix, et propose ensuite des contre-mesures.
    Mots-Clés: entreprise transnationale, acheter cher et vendre moins cher, fonds liquides

  3. The nanotechnological inventions raise competitive ability of the products

    VLASOV Vladimir Alexeevich

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A brief description of the nanotechnological inventions is given. The inventions in the area of nanotechnologies and nanomaterials produce a profound effect in construction, housing and communal services and adjacent economic fields as they allow us: to obtain high strength and durability of surfaces of the details, to provide different materials with hydrophil properties, to increase efficiency of transformation of light energy into electrical one etc., and in general – to raise competitive ability of the products. For example, the method of production of solar element and a unit of solar elements (RU 2532137 comprises following stages: formation of pn-transfer in semiconductor base plate, formation of passivating layer on the light-receptive surface and/or non light-receptive surface of semiconductor base plate and formation of power robbing electrodes on the light-receptive surface and non light-receptive. A film of aluminium oxide is formed as passivating layer, its thickness is up to 40 nm, and lectrode is formed by baking conductive paste under the temperature 500–900ͦͦ°C for 1 second – 30 inutes with formation of sintered product. The sintered product penetrates through passivating layer setting electric contact between electrode and base plate. The formation of aluminium ide with specified thickness on the surface of base plate makes it possible to achieve good passivating characteristics and good electric contact between silica and electrode only by eans of baking conductive paste, that is standard technology. Moreover the baking stage which was necessary to get the effect of film passivation for aluminium oxide in the past now can be cancelled to decrease costs. The specialists may be also interested in the following nanotechnological inventions: reinforced flaked element made of natural or conglomerate stone and its multilayer protective coating (RU 2520193; fine organic suspension of carbon metal-containing nanostructures and the method to produce it (RU 2515858; the method of production of carbon nanomaterial (RU 2509053; the method to produce nanopowder of zinc oxide with the surface modification for the use in construction sealing materials (RU 2505379; building structures reinforcement composition (RU 2493337; nanostructured thermoelectric material (RU 2528338; conglutination composition for metal articles (RU 2526991; the method of nanosize structures formation структур (RU 2529458 etc.

  4. Believe-type raising-to-object and raising-to-subject verbs in English and Dutch: A contrastive investigation in diachronic construction grammar

    Noël, D; Colleman, T

    2010-01-01

    The so-called 'raising-to-subject' pattern that verbs of the type believe can occur in is usually treated as the passive alternative for the so-called 'raising-to-object' pattern. In addition to broadening the empirical basis for the opposite claim that the English and Dutch raising-to-subject (or 'nominative and infinitive') patterns have a special functionality which is different from that of the passive construction, this paper specifically examines the stronger proposition that this has a...

  5. Seismic monitoring experiment of raise boring in 2014

    Saari, J.; Malm, M. [AaF-Consult Oy, Espoo (Finland)

    2015-01-15

    In Olkiluoto, Posiva Oy has operated a local seismic network since February 2002. The purpose of the microearthquake measurements at Olkiluoto is to improve understanding of the structure, behaviour and long term stability of the bedrock. The studies include both tectonic and excavation-induced microearthquakes. An additional task of monitoring is related to safeguarding of ONKALO. The possibility to excavate an illegal access to ONKALO has been concerned when the safeguards are discussed. Therefore all recorded explosions in the Olkiluoto area and in ONKALO are located. If a concentration of explosions is observed, the origin of that is found out. Also a concept of hidden illegal explosions, detonated at the same time as the real excavation blasts, has been examined. According to the experience gained in Olkiluoto, it can be concluded that, as long the seismic network is in operation and the results are analysed by a skilled person, it is practically impossible to do illegal undetected excavation by blasting within the Olkiluoto seismic network area. In this report a possibility of seismic monitoring of undeclared excavation done by tunnel boring machine (TBM) has been investigated. In the earlier investigations the instruments were at the ground surface and the sensors were triaxial short period (1 Hz) geophones or broadband geophones. The characteristics (frequency content, polarity and amplitude) of the continuous seismic vibration generated by TMB were studied. The onset time of the seismic signal were not distinguished. Altogether 16 new 10 kHz accelerometers were installed in boreholes inside ONKALO March 2012. The sensors comprised a new subnetwork that monitored the raise boring of two shafts done 2014, from the level -455 m to the level -290 m. The aim was to record the seismic signal generated when the drill bit hits the rock at the moment the tunnel boring begins. Altogether 113 seismic signals generated by the drill bit were located during the experiment. The location accuracy was from few meters to few tens of meters in horizontal direction. In vertical direction the location accuracy was not as good and depended strongly on the vertical distribution of recordings. When the TBM is running continuous strong vibration is generated. This is usually observed by the Posiva's permanent seismic network. This study presents a method that can be used, if the location of the TBM or tunnel cannot be verified by the documentation of construction works or by field studies. Posiva's permanent seismic network can be designed so that it takes the possible undeclared TBM into account. The sensor types used in monitoring of the ONKALO's excavation induced seismicity are also suitable for monitoring the hits of the TBM's drill bit. If necessary, the network can be tuned to operate temporarily in a more sensitive mode for that purpose. (orig.)

  6. Seismic monitoring experiment of raise boring in 2014

    In Olkiluoto, Posiva Oy has operated a local seismic network since February 2002. The purpose of the microearthquake measurements at Olkiluoto is to improve understanding of the structure, behaviour and long term stability of the bedrock. The studies include both tectonic and excavation-induced microearthquakes. An additional task of monitoring is related to safeguarding of ONKALO. The possibility to excavate an illegal access to ONKALO has been concerned when the safeguards are discussed. Therefore all recorded explosions in the Olkiluoto area and in ONKALO are located. If a concentration of explosions is observed, the origin of that is found out. Also a concept of hidden illegal explosions, detonated at the same time as the real excavation blasts, has been examined. According to the experience gained in Olkiluoto, it can be concluded that, as long the seismic network is in operation and the results are analysed by a skilled person, it is practically impossible to do illegal undetected excavation by blasting within the Olkiluoto seismic network area. In this report a possibility of seismic monitoring of undeclared excavation done by tunnel boring machine (TBM) has been investigated. In the earlier investigations the instruments were at the ground surface and the sensors were triaxial short period (1 Hz) geophones or broadband geophones. The characteristics (frequency content, polarity and amplitude) of the continuous seismic vibration generated by TMB were studied. The onset time of the seismic signal were not distinguished. Altogether 16 new 10 kHz accelerometers were installed in boreholes inside ONKALO March 2012. The sensors comprised a new subnetwork that monitored the raise boring of two shafts done 2014, from the level -455 m to the level -290 m. The aim was to record the seismic signal generated when the drill bit hits the rock at the moment the tunnel boring begins. Altogether 113 seismic signals generated by the drill bit were located during the experiment. The location accuracy was from few meters to few tens of meters in horizontal direction. In vertical direction the location accuracy was not as good and depended strongly on the vertical distribution of recordings. When the TBM is running continuous strong vibration is generated. This is usually observed by the Posiva's permanent seismic network. This study presents a method that can be used, if the location of the TBM or tunnel cannot be verified by the documentation of construction works or by field studies. Posiva's permanent seismic network can be designed so that it takes the possible undeclared TBM into account. The sensor types used in monitoring of the ONKALO's excavation induced seismicity are also suitable for monitoring the hits of the TBM's drill bit. If necessary, the network can be tuned to operate temporarily in a more sensitive mode for that purpose. (orig.)

  7. Raising public awareness of nuclear science in action

    Full text: Department of Training and Consulting was created at the Soltan Institute for Nuclear Studies about 7 years ago. Its main goal consists in dissemination of knowledge of nuclear physics and its applications with special emphasis on the use of radiation in everyday life, its biological effects and the risks connected with the use of nuclear radiation. The second important goal is to counteract social radiophobia. Last but not least, is presentation of the scientific and technological achievements of the Institute. The main target groups are secondary-school teachers and their pupils who in spite of various obstacles in organisation of travels to Otwierk, are coming in mass. During last 4 years we accepted more than 20,000 visitors from all over Poland. In addition to lectures themselves and lectures with experimental demonstrations two permanent exhibitions are displayed permanently. One is called 'Nuclear Wastes: Problems, Solutions', the other one is displaying 1:10 model of nuclear power plant (VVER-440-type), both extremely useful in discussing the problems of nuclear wastes, and organisation and use of the nuclear power plants. Very specific place in the Department is quite unique Laboratory of Atomic and Nuclear Physics, dedicated to secondary schools' students although it is also used by university students and in teachers' trainings. Number of basic experiments from nuclear physics can be carried out by students, so the very basis of atomic and nuclear physics can be learnt on experimental basis. The experimental park can also be used in any professional courses on e.g. radiation protection. The need of having this type of units at the otherwise research institute is clearly seen by the systematically growing number of visitors, and their demands for educational material. One can also see some direct results: the groups who visited our centre were winning in all-Poland conquest for a project from radioactivity (organised on 100th Anniversary of Nobel Prize for Maria Skodowska-Curie), the schools - after visiting us - try to organise their own minisymposia on the radioactivity, the visitors seem to receive proper message about the real risk connected with nuclear radiation. The latter is judged by the fact that very seldom we encounter typical symptoms of radio phobia after the visit to our Department. We are strongly convinced that our work will result in an increased interest of students in physics, and may regain the popularity of nuclear physics among the students. This is necessary if the nuclear energy is going to be developed and used safely in the country. We also believe that similar educational centres, if wherever absent, should be organised in other nuclear centres in Europe and all of them should form a network in which new didactical methods would be worked out and the experience could be easily evaluated and exchanged between the network's partners. The paper presents motivation, present status, methodology and results of our more than 5-years experience in raising public awareness of nuclear problems in various social groups. (author)

  8. The "Geoparks" as a way to raise geoconservation in Kazakhstan

    Fishman, Ilya; Kazakova, Julia; Abdov, Nurlan

    2013-04-01

    Kazakhstan is one of the nine largest countries of the world and not only has significant mineral resources but rich geological heritage. However, to date geology is considered only as a way to search for minerals due to the established traditions. Faced with a geologist, we usually ask: "What are you looking for?". But the man with the hammer must answer the more important question - about the future of the Planet and Humanity. But it is necessary to save and to study the stone chronicle page for this. Only history of the Earth, recorded in the annals of rock sheets, gives a scientific answer on the fate of Planet and Mankind, and allows realistically assess the risk of disasters, floods, global warming, etc. During 20 years we are trying to give a push to protection and use of geological heritage of Kazakhstan. In our country this new direction gets accustomed with large labor. The spread of the world experience on geoconservation, the databases created of the geological heritage of Kazakhstan, numerous performances in the scientific press and the media has not lead to real steps to preserve and use geodiversity in our country. Today we are trying to raise the idea of geoconservation in Kazakhstan based on Geoparks. A project "Geological study of the geoparks development in Kazakhstan" is developed. 12 representative areas were selected on a background of the database that includes 500 sites of geological heritage, embracing a large variety of geological processes in all regions of Kazakhstan. On October 31st, 2012 in Astana the "Kazakh Geographical Society" held an international conference including "Geoparks" section. At the conference reports of all the regions of Kazakhstan representatives were presented, as well as European countries with extensive experience in geoconservation and geoparks creation (Portugal, Bulgaria, Turkey). The conference was supported by UNESCO. Album "Millions of years before the Silk Road", which represents the future Kazakhstan Geoparks, was published. Geoparks of Kazakhstan extremely visually represent global geological processes. Ustuyrt plateau is a part of a tectonic system Caspian-Aral-Ustyurt. The study of the plateau as part of a tectonic megasystem Caspian-Aral Ustyurt allows us to understand the nature of largest intercontinental hollow of the world (the "country-crater" by Alexander von Humboldt). As a result, the Caspian Sea is considered today as a "window into the mantle". Paleovolcanic area Shuyldak is relict of Devonian Ural Ocean World standard of volcanic structures of ancient mid-ocean type. It is an illustrative base of plate tectonics. At the Kokshetau National Park the world's largest diamond deposit is explored. 2.5 billion carats is more than in all the deposits in Yakutia. This technical microdiamonds that are not mined. The field is interesting not only for geologists, but for mass tourism too. National Park Burabaj linked to the ancient granite-metamorphic dome. For nearly a billion years (from Proterozoic to Mesozoic) metamorphic complexes and granite melts had been formed which compose the foundation of modern scenic lake and forest landscape.

  9. Primary antiphospholipid syndrome: features of patients with raised anticardiolipin antibodies and no other disorder.

    C. G. Mackworth-Young; Loizou, S; Walport, M. J.

    1989-01-01

    Raised levels of serum antiphospholipid antibodies have most commonly been reported in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). There remains, however, a group of patients with raised antiphospholipid antibody levels who do not have any other well defined disease, but do have clinical features associated with these raised antibodies. The clinical, haematological, and serological features of 20 such patients are reported. Antiphospholipid antibody levels were measured by a solid phase...

  10. [Being raised by lesbian parents or in a single-parent family is no risk factor for problem behavior, however being raised as an adopted child is].

    Verhulst, F C; Versluis-den Bieman, H O; Balmus, N C

    1997-03-01

    Modern reproductive techniques and alternative family structures (with single or homosexual parents and adoption situations) raise questions about the consequences for the growing children involved. Genetic links appear to be less important for the functioning of a family than a strong wish for parenthood; parents who have become parents only through great efforts display a better quality of parenthood than average natural parents. Characteristics of the parent/parents, such as paedagogic qualities, and the quality of the parent-child relationship appear more important than the type of family. Published results of research reveal no reason why lesbian families should be judged differently from heterosexual ones as family types for the raising of children. The main negative factor for the functioning of the child growing up in a single-parent family is the marriage conflicts that have led to the single-parent situation; being raised by a single parent in itself has no adverse effect. Raising adopted children from other countries makes far greater demands on the adoptive parents than parents of biological children have to meet. The raising of a foreign adopted child by a single parent entails additional risks for the child's development. Data on the development of children in alternative family structures frequently concern exceptionally competent parents, which may have biased the findings. PMID:9173300

  11. Grandmothers Raising Grandchildren with Disabilities: Sources of Support and Family Quality of Life

    Kresak, Karen E.; Gallagher, Peggy A.; Kelley, Susan J.

    2014-01-01

    Sources of support and quality of life of 50 grandmother-headed families raising grandchildren with and without disabilities were examined. Comparative analyses revealed significant differences between grandmothers raising grandchildren with and without disabilities in regard to sources of support and family quality of life. Informal support was…

  12. Teaching Effective Hand Raising to Children with Autism during Group Instruction

    Charania, Shaireen M.; LeBlanc, Linda A.; Sabanathan, Narmatha; Ktaech, Inas A.; Carr, James E.; Gunby, Kristin

    2010-01-01

    We taught 3 children with autism to raise a hand or keep both hands down depending on their status (e.g., having heard a target word, possessing a specific item) using modeling, prompting, and reinforcement. All 3 children acquired accurate hand-raising skills in response to progressively more difficult discrimination tasks during group…

  13. Recession Tempers the Usual Optimism in College Fund-Raising Offices

    Masterson, Kathryn

    2009-01-01

    After years of growth and predictions that fund raising for higher education would escape the brunt of the economic crash, the recession has started to affect colleges' efforts to raise money, according to a survey by "The Chronicle" and Moody's Investors Service. Predictions are that 2009 may be an even tougher year for fund raisers, with…

  14. Factors Associated with the Empowerment of Japanese Families Raising a Child with Developmental Disorders

    Wakimizu, Rie; Fujioka, Hiroshi; Yoneyama, Akira; Iejima, Atsushi; Miyamoto, Shinya

    2011-01-01

    We identified factors associated with the empowerment of Japanese families using the Family Empowerment Scale (FES) to contribute to the improvement of empowerment in Japanese families raising a child with developmental disorders (DDs). The study was conducted in 350 caregivers who raised children aged 4-18 years with DDs in urban and suburban…

  15. Staff Development for Raising Attainment: A Practitioner's View of What Works

    Bates, Sharon; Watt, Laura

    2016-01-01

    This paper offers a practitioner's view of how continuing professional development (CPD) can help raise achievement in schools. It is one of four papers in this issue linked to a research project in Stoke-on-Trent seeking to raise attainment in schools in deprived communicates. Based on over 20 years' experience working in and with different…

  16. 7 CFR 760.204 - Eligible livestock, honeybees, and farm-raised fish.

    2010-01-01

    ...: (i) Be bait fish or game fish that are propagated and reared in a controlled environment; (ii) Been... controlled environment so to be considered “farm raised fish” as defined in this subpart, and the farm-raised... environment; (ii) Be maintained and harvested for commercial use as part of a farming operation; and (iii)...

  17. Raised seedbeds for soybean in twin rows increase yields over flat seedbeds

    Irrigated soybean (Glycine max L. Merr.) grown using raised beds often produces higher yields than crops grown on flat surfaces. However, research confirming this is limited. Two soybean cultivars were grown at Stoneville, MS in 25 cm twin-rows, spaced 102 cm between centers on raised beds and fla...

  18. Does Teacher Testing Raise Teacher Quality? Evidence from State Certification Requirements

    Angrist, Joshua D.; Guryan, Jonathan

    2008-01-01

    The education reform movement includes efforts to raise teacher quality through stricter certification and licensing provisions. Most US states now require public school teachers to pass a standardized test such as the Praxis. Although any barrier to entry is likely to raise wages in the affected occupation, the theoretical effects of such…

  19. Grandparents Raising Their Grandchildren: A Review of the Literature and Suggestions for Practice

    Hayslip, Bert; Kaminski, Patricia L.

    2005-01-01

    An increasingly prevalent family constellation is a home headed by a grandparent who is raising grandchildren. We explore the state of our knowledge about such grandparents with particular attention to its implications for service providers and researchers. In our review we address several key areas: (a) the costs and benefits of raising a…

  20. Pelvic mass associated with raised CA 125 for benign condition: a case report

    Asher Viren; Hammond Robert; Duncan Tim J

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Raised CA 125 with associated pelvic mass is highly suggestive of ovarian malignancy, but there are various other benign conditions that can be associated with pelvic mass and a raised CA 125. Case presentation We present a case of 19 year old, Caucasian British woman who presented initially with sudden onset right sided iliac fossa pain and on imaging was found to have 9.8 × 4.5 cm complex cystic mass in right adnexa with a raised CA 125 of 657, which was initially though...

  1. Raising Generation Tech Preparing Your Children for a Media-Fueled World

    Taylor, Jim

    2012-01-01

    Today's children are being raised as 'digital natives' in a world dominated by popular culture and technology. TV shows, computers, video games, social networking sites, advertisements, and cell phones too often have an unnecessarily strong-and negative? influence on children.  But pulling the plug just isn't an option in a world where being connected is essential for success. In Raising Generation Tech,  noted parenting and new-media expert Dr. Jim Taylor explores how popular culture and technology shape children's lives. The essential message from Raising Generation Tech is that excessive

  2. Is a raised intraepithelial lymphocyte count with normal duodenal villous architecture clinically relevant?

    Mahadeva, S.; Wyatt, J I; Howdle, P D

    2002-01-01

    Background: A raised intraepithelial lymphocyte (IEL) count with normal villous architecture is a recognised finding in latent coeliac disease. Little information is available in cases without gluten sensitive enteropathy in adults.

  3. Taiwan's plan to dispose of nuclear waste in North Korea stirs protests, raises questions

    As the furor raised by the Taiwan endash North Korea deal illustrates, the technical issues of nuclear waste disposal are inseparable from the social and political concerns.copyright 1997 American Institute of Physics

  4. Breast Cancer Meds Won't Raise Chances of Heart Attack, Stroke, Study Suggests

    ... nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_158441.html Breast Cancer Meds Won't Raise Chances of Heart Attack, ... the risk of heart attacks and strokes among breast cancer survivors, a new study suggests. However, the researchers ...

  5. Anxiety Meds Like Valium, Xanax Won't Raise Seniors' Dementia Risk

    ... nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_157065.html Anxiety Meds Like Valium, Xanax Won't Raise Seniors' ... News) -- Taking one of a class of anti-anxiety pills that includes Ativan, Valium or Xanax does ...

  6. Obesity in Teens Seems to Raise Risk for Illness, Death in Middle Age

    ... nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_158289.html Obesity in Teens Seems to Raise Risk for Illness, ... is largely related to the fact that teen obesity has become so prevalent. In the United States, ...

  7. Report of geophysical raising of the amethyst and agate in two quarries in Artigas district Uruguay

    In a geophysical raising of amethyst and agate was studied the possibility to apply a better suitable geophysical method. The conclusion was that the electromagnetic VLF method was suitable to identify the zones.

  8. 29 CFR 780.124 - Raising of fur-bearing animals.

    2010-07-01

    ... AGRICULTURE, PROCESSING OF AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES, AND RELATED SUBJECTS UNDER THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT General Scope of Agriculture Raising of Livestock, Bees, Fur-Bearing Animals, Or Poultry § 780.124...

  9. More Evidence Diabetes Drug Actos Raises Bladder Cancer Risk a Bit

    ... 158051.html More Evidence Diabetes Drug Actos Raises Bladder Cancer Risk a Bit But odds are small, and ... diabetes drug Actos to an increased risk of bladder cancer has surfaced in a new study that also ...

  10. A President's Guide to Fund-Raising Success: Relationships Are Key.

    Bornstein, Rita

    2000-01-01

    Stresses the importance of the relationship between the institution's president and its advancement vice president for successful college fund raising. Suggests that a successful external relations program requires expertise, loyalty, and reciprocity in this working relationship. (DB)

  11. California gull chicks raised near colony edges have elevated stress levels

    Herring, Garth; Ackerman, Joshua T.

    2011-01-01

    Coloniality in nesting birds represents an important life history strategy for maximizing reproductive success. Birds nesting near the edge of colonies tend to have lower reproductive success than individuals nesting near colony centers, and offspring of edge-nesting parents may be impaired relative to those of central-nesting parents. We used fecal corticosterone metabolites in California gull chicks (Larus californicus) to examine whether colony size or location within the colony influenced a chick's physiological condition. We found that chicks being raised near colony edges had higher fecal corticosterone metabolite concentrations than chicks raised near colony centers, but that colony size (ranging from 150 to 11,554 nests) had no influence on fecal corticosterone levels. Fecal corticosterone metabolite concentrations also increased with chick age. Our results suggest that similarly aged California gull chicks raised near colony edges may be more physiologically stressed, as indicated by corticosterone metabolites, than chicks raised near colony centers.

  12. Heart Defects At Birth May Raise Risk for PTSD Later in Life

    ... Heart Defects at Birth May Raise Risk for PTSD Later in Life Rate is three times higher ... heart defects may be at increased risk for post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), researchers say. The reason? High levels of ...

  13. Students, Blacksburg merchants team up for April 24 tailgate to raise money for Haiti

    Crumbley, Liz

    2010-01-01

    Virginia Tech students and the Blacksburg community are teaming up to throw a tailgate party on April 24 to raise money for reliefs efforts in Haiti and to celebrate the university's and town's spirit of service.

  14. Raising the level of radioresistance of cultivated plants seeds by using natural antioxidant

    Investigations showed possibility of raising radioresistance and viability (Liupinus angustifolius, Hordeum vulgare, Triticum aestivum) seeds by using natural antioxidant (aqueous solution of extraction of Urtica Dioica) which inhibit lipid peroxidation and protein protection

  15. Raising tibet.

    Harrison, T M; Copeland, P; Kidd, W S; Yin, A

    1992-03-27

    Thermochronologic, sedimentologic, oceanographic, and paleoclimatic studies suggest that rapid uplift and unroofing of southern Tibet began about 20 million years ago and that the present elevation of much of the Tibetan plateau was attained by about 8 million years ago. Hypotheses advanced to explain the tectonic evolution of the India-Asia collision, which began about 40 to 50 million years ago, predict the timing and rates of crustal thickening of the southern margin of Asia. However, these models do not predict the prominently enhanced early Miocene denudation and uplift that are manifested in a variety of geological records. A model involving continental extrusion, development of a crustal-scale thrust ramp of the Main Central Thrust beneath the Gangdese belt, and lithospheric delamination provides a history consistent with these observations. PMID:17749419

  16. A Study of College English Writing Classes through Consciousness-raising

    Runjiang Xu; Qi Pan

    2011-01-01

    By consciousness-raising we mean the deliberate attempt to draw the learner’s attention specifically to the formal properties of the target language. It focuses its attention on teaching process and students’ activeness, so it can be well applied to teaching of college English writing. This study indicates that consciousness-raising provides a guideline for improving teaching of college English writing and plays a significant role in enhancing students’ writing ability.

  17. Parent and family impact of raising a child with perinatal stroke

    Bemister, Taryn B.; Brooks, Brian L.; Dyck, Richard H.; Kirton, Adam

    2014-01-01

    Background Perinatal stroke is a leading cause of early brain injury, cerebral palsy, and lifelong neurological morbidity. No study to date has examined the impact of raising a child with perinatal stroke on parents and families. However, a large breadth of research suggests that parents, especially mothers, may be at increased risk for psychological concerns. The primary aim of this study was to examine the impact of raising a child with perinatal stroke on mothers’ wellbeing. A secondary ai...

  18. TEACHING EFFECTIVE HAND RAISING TO CHILDREN WITH AUTISM DURING GROUP INSTRUCTION

    Charania, Shaireen M; LeBlanc, Linda A; Sabanathan, Narmatha; Ktaech, Inas A; Carr, James E; Gunby, Kristin

    2010-01-01

    We taught 3 children with autism to raise a hand or keep both hands down depending on their status (e.g., having heard a target word, possessing a specific item) using modeling, prompting, and reinforcement. All 3 children acquired accurate hand-raising skills in response to progressively more difficult discrimination tasks during group instruction. The implications for preparing children for general education settings are discussed.

  19. Status of tuberculosis in bovine animals raised by tuberculosis infected patients in Western Chitwan, Nepal

    Dhakal IP; Pandey KR; Subedi S; Sadaula A; KC G; Dhakal S; Pandey G

    2012-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Bovine tuberculosis (bTB) is an important public health concern worldwide. This study was conducted to determine the status of bTB in animals raised by tuberculosis patients in Western Chitwan, Nepal.MATERIALS AND METHODS: This cross-sectional study was conducted from August, 2011 to January, 2012. A total of 100 bovines (cattle and buffalo) raised in 60 farms of tuberculosis patients were tested with single intradermal tuberculin test considering various animal factors. Well de...

  20. AN ECONOMIC ANALYSIS OF PASTURE-RAISED BEEF SYSTEMS IN APPALACHIA

    Evans, Jason R.; D'Souza, Gerard E.; Sperow, Mark; Rayburn, Edward B.

    2004-01-01

    Cow-calf operations are important enterprises for family farmers in Appalachia and provide significant opportunity for supplemental income. This analysis constitutes a thorough economic assessment of pasture-raised beef production, an alternative to traditional production that could benefit the region's producers in terms of profitability and mitigated risk. Stochastic budgeting was utilized for profitability and risk comparison between traditional and pasture-raised operations and accounted ...

  1. Application of raise-boring technique to ventilation engineering of a uranium mine

    The world-wide development status, application conditions and advantages of raise-boring construction technique are briefly introduced. Two air shafts (above 300 m depth) and a air inclined shaft (84 m depth) were advanced by raise-boring technique in a mine of Fuzhou Jin'an Uranium Corporation. These shafts form the ventilating system of the mine. Ventilation effect was obviously improved and the good economic benefits were obtained. (authors)

  2. Does Teacher Testing Raise Teacher Quality? : Evidence from State Certification Requirements

    Angrist, Joshua D; Guryan, Jonathan

    2005-01-01

    The education reform movement includes efforts to raise teacher quality through stricter certification and licensing provisions. Most US states now require public school teachers to pass a standardized test such as the Praxis. Although any barrier to entry is likely to raise wages in the affected occupation, the theoretical effects of such requirements on teacher quality are ambiguous. Teacher testing places a floor on whatever skills are measured by the required test, but testing is also cos...

  3. Falsely raised TSH levels due to human anti‐mouse antibody interfering with thyrotropin assay

    Krishnan, S G S; Pathalapati, R; Kaplan, L.

    2006-01-01

    The case of a 39‐year‐old woman who was referred for weight gain and amenorrhoea is reported. Laboratory evaluation showed high levels of thyroid‐stimulating hormone (TSH). The patient was started on increasing doses of levothyroxine for subclinical hypothyroidism. TSH remained persistently raised and the patient became thyrotoxic. Evaluation at another laboratory showed normal levels of TSH, raising the possibility of interfering substances. TSH levels were normalised with the addition of mo...

  4. Review and recommendations on management of refractory raised intracranial pressure in aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage

    Mak CH; Lu YY; Wong GK

    2013-01-01

    Calvin Hoi Kwan Mak, Yeow Yuen Lu, George Kwok Chu Wong Department of Surgery, Prince of Wales Hospital, Shatin, Hong Kong Abstract: Intracranial hypertension is commonly encountered in poor-grade aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage patients. Refractory raised intracranial pressure is associated with poor prognosis. The management of raised intracranial pressure is commonly referenced to experiences in traumatic brain injury. However, pathophysiologically, aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage is...

  5. Influence of raised floor on zone design cooling load in commercial buildings

    Schiavon, Stefano; Lee, Kwang Ho; Bauman, Fred; Webster, Tom [Center for the Built Environment, University of California at Berkeley, 390 Wurster Hall, Berkeley, CA 94720-1839 (United States)

    2010-08-15

    The installation of a raised floor system can change the thermal behaviour of the building by reducing the interaction between the heat gains and the thermally massive concrete slab. In this study, the influence of the raised floor on the summer design day zone cooling load profile is evaluated with EnergyPlus for an office building located in San Francisco. The effects of structure type, window-to-wall ratio and the presence of carpet on the thermal behaviour of the raised floor are also investigated. The results show that the mere presence of the raised floor largely affects the zone cooling load profile and the peak cooling load over the range of -7 to +40%. The most significant parameters are the zone orientation, i.e. the exposure to direct solar radiation, and the presence of floor carpeting. If carpeting is present, commonly used in U.S. office buildings, the overall impact on zone peak cooling load is reduced, ranging from 0 to 5% greater for the raised floor than without it. Without carpet the peak cooling load is 4% greater with raised floor than without it in the north zone, 22% in the east and west zones, and 12% in the south zone. (author)

  6. How different modes of child delivery influence abdominal muscle activities in the active straight leg raise.

    Kwon, Yu-Jeong; Hyung, Eun-Ju; Yang, Kyung-Hye; Lee, Hyun-Ok

    2014-08-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to examine the activities of the abdominal muscles of women who had experienced vaginal delivery in comparison with those who had experienced Cesarean childbirth. [Subjects and Methods] A total of 14 subjects (7 vaginal delivery, 7 Cesarean section) performed an active straight leg raise to 20 cm above the ground, and we measured the activities of the internal oblique abdominal muscle, the external oblique abdominal muscle, and the rectus abdominal muscle on both sides using electromyography. The effort required to raise the leg was scored on a Likert scale. Then, the subjects conducted maximum isometric contraction for hip joint flexion with the leg raised at 20 cm, and maximum torque and abdominal muscle activities were measured using electromyography. [Results] During the active straight leg raise, abdominal muscle activities were higher in the Cesarean section subjects. The Likert scale did not show a significant difference. The activities of the abdominal muscles and the maximum torque of the hip joint flexion at maximum isometric contraction were higher in the vaginal delivery subjects. [Conclusion] The abdominal muscles of Cesarean section subjects showed greater recruitment for maintaining pelvic stability during the active straight leg raising, but were relatively weaker when powerful force was required. Therefore, we consider that more abdominal muscle training is necessary for maintaining pelvic stability of Cesarean section subjects. PMID:25202194

  7. The Study of Money; What We Know and What We Need to Know about College Fund Raising.

    Pezzullo, Thomas R.; Brittingham, Barbara E.

    1990-01-01

    Scientific research on development in higher education is limited and fragmented. Fund-raising research has provided information on whether a winning football team helps raise outside support, donor behavior, how much institutions spend on fund raising, major ethical issues fund raisers face, etc. (MLW)

  8. Evidence of streptococcal origin of acute non-necrotising cellulitis: a serological study.

    Karppelin, M; Siljander, T; Haapala, A-M; Aittoniemi, J; Huttunen, R; Kere, J; Vuopio, J; Syrjänen, J

    2015-04-01

    Bacteriological diagnosis is rarely achieved in acute cellulitis. Beta-haemolytic streptococci and Staphylococcus aureus are considered the main pathogens. The role of the latter is, however, unclear in cases of non-suppurative cellulitis. We conducted a serological study to investigate the bacterial aetiology of acute non-necrotising cellulitis. Anti-streptolysin O (ASO), anti-deoxyribonuclease B (ADN) and anti-staphylolysin (ASTA) titres were measured from acute and convalescent phase sera of 77 patients hospitalised because of acute bacterial non-necrotising cellulitis and from the serum samples of 89 control subjects matched for age and sex. Antibiotic treatment decisions were also reviewed. Streptococcal serology was positive in 53 (69%) of the 77 cases. Furthermore, ten cases without serological evidence of streptococcal infection were successfully treated with penicillin. Positive ASO and ADN titres were detected in ten (11%) and three (3%) of the 89 controls, respectively, and ASTA was elevated in three patients and 11 controls. Our findings suggest that acute non-necrotising cellulitis without pus formation is mostly of streptococcal origin and that penicillin can be used as the first-line therapy for most patients. PMID:25403372

  9. The water balance as an approach to assessing groundwater dependency in raised bog wetlands

    Regan, Shane

    2014-05-01

    The management of raised bogs, as active peat-forming ecosystems, requires an understanding of the relationships between regional hydrology and wetland ecohydrological processes. Marginal drainage, water seeping through the bog body to the regional groundwater table is in the order of 40 mm/ year. The downward seepage rate in Clara is > 100 mm/ year. A reduction in pore water pressure, due to drainage of the regional groundwater table, has disturbed the structure of the peat substratum and induced water loss from peat storage, resulting in the ecohydrological modification of the bog surface. Numerical modelling of a simulated raised groundwater table reduces the leakage rate to between 30 and 50 mm/ year. The significance is that the hydraulic gradient of the regional groundwater table is an important environmental supporting condition in raised bog ecosystems, implying indirect groundwater dependence.

  10. THE SOCIAL CONTEXT OF KENTISH RAISING: ISSUES IN OLD ENGLISH SOCIOLINGUISTICS

    Graeme Trousdale

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available This article considers issues in Old English sociolinguistics, in relation to specific changes affecting the low front vowels in ninth-century Kentish, as manifest in spelling variation in charters of the time. This change is referred to as Kentish Raising (Hogg 1988. It is suggested that variationist sociolinguistics is not an appropriate framework within which to explain Kentish Raising, since the nature of the data is such that a variationist approach is untenable. A reconstruction of the social, political and cultural situation in ninth-century Kent is provided, which examines Mercian influence in the period, and suggests that a Mercian-driven change from above (Second Fronting cannot be the source of Kentish Raising. Finally, it is proposed that recent work in genetic anthropology, which seeks to discover more about the nature and extent of the continental migrations, may be useful in understanding the social context in which the varieties of Old English existed and developed.

  11. The Contribution of Io-Raised Tides to Europa's Diurnally-Varying Surface Stresses

    Rhoden, Alyssa Rose; Hurford, Terry A,; Manga, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Europa's icy surface records a rich history of geologic activity, Several features appear to be tectonic in origin and may have formed in response to Europa's daily-varying tidal stress [I]. Strike-slip faults and arcuate features called cycloids have both been linked to the patterns of stress change caused by eccentricity and obliquity [2J[3]. In fact, as Europa's obliquity has not been directly measured, observed tectonic patterns arc currently the best indicators of a theoretically supported [4] non-negligible obliquity. The diurnal tidal stress due to eccentricity is calculated by subtracting the average (or static) tidal shape of Europa generated by Jupiter's gravitational field from the instantaneous shape, which varies as Europa moves through its eccentric orbit [5]. In other words, it is the change of shape away from average that generates tidal stress. One might expect tidal contributions from the other large moons of Jupiter to be negligible given their size and the height of the tides they raise on Europa versus Jupiter's mass and the height of the tide it raises on Europa, However, what matters for tidally-induced stress is not how large the lo-raised bulge is compared to the Jupiter-raised bulge but rather the differences bet\\Veen the instantaneous and static bulges in each case. For example, when Europa is at apocenter, Jupiter raises a tide 30m lower than its static tide. At the same time, 10 raises a tide about 0.5m higher than its static tide. Hence, the change in Io's tidal distortion is about 2% of the change in the Jovian distortion when Europa is at apocenter

  12. Raising of a heavy semi-circular vault on a rigid centering

    Parshin, D A, E-mail: parshin@ipmnet.r [Ishlinsky Institute for Problems in Mechanics, Russian Academy of Sciences, Vernadsky Ave. 101 bldg 1, Moscow, 119526 (Russian Federation)

    2009-08-01

    The modelling of a process of a semi-circular vault raising on a rigid cylindrical centering is conducted. Within the bounds of accreted solids mechanics the evolution of the vault stress-strain state under gravity action during the raising and after its completion is investigated. The vault material is described with defining relationships for elastic or aging viscoelastic materials. The formulation of the non-classical quasi-static initial-boundary accretion problem is given. Its analytical solution in series and quadratures is built. An effective method of calculation of residual stresses in the finished vault after supporting centering removing is offered.

  13. Raising of a heavy semi-circular vault on a rigid centering

    The modelling of a process of a semi-circular vault raising on a rigid cylindrical centering is conducted. Within the bounds of accreted solids mechanics the evolution of the vault stress-strain state under gravity action during the raising and after its completion is investigated. The vault material is described with defining relationships for elastic or aging viscoelastic materials. The formulation of the non-classical quasi-static initial-boundary accretion problem is given. Its analytical solution in series and quadratures is built. An effective method of calculation of residual stresses in the finished vault after supporting centering removing is offered.

  14. Ecology and hydrology of pristine and cutover lowland raised bogs: relationships and implications for restoration

    Labadz, Jillian; Hart, Roger; Robbins, Jane; Butcher, David; Topliss, David

    2013-04-01

    This paper will examine relationships in vegetation communities and hydrological conditions on areas of lowland raised bog in north west England, comparing damaged and relatively intact sites on two adjacent bogs in Cumbria. Walton Moss is a relatively pristine site whilst and Bolton Fell Moss has a small nature reserve area with remnant vegetation which is surrounded by commercial peat cutting. The intended outcome is to provide a mechanism to inform management decisions, with a view to assisting in the long-term protection and rehabilitation of lowland raised bogs.

  15. An Educational Trial about Creative Robot Making with the Aim of Raising Students‧ Motivation

    Tsutsumi, Hirotaka; Fukuda, Katsumi

    In recent years, the necessity for education which helps to raise students‧ motivation toward engineering has become acutely recognized. In response to this need, the Mechanical Engineering Department of Tokyo National College of Technology has been striving to increase its focus on education that nurtures creativity. This paper describes an educational trial which focuses on creative robot making. In particular, some educational innovations and their effects are presented. Based on favorable responses from students, this educational trial would seem to indicate that the methods employed have a positive effect on raising student motivation.

  16. CT changes in children with drained hydrocephalus and intermittently raised intracranial pressure

    Seven children with drained hydrocephalus are described who showed increasingly severe and frequent episodes of intermittently raised intracranial pressure. CT examinations during symptom-free intervals, or after conservative treatment, showed collapsed slit-like ventricles. Examination during attacks of raised pressure showed relative dilatation of the ventricles as compared with earlier examinations. Children with ventricular shunts of long duration may develop a shunt-dependent syndrome; CT may show normal or narrow ventricles and this does not exclude the possibility of a rise of intracranial pressure. These findings may help in making the diagnosis by means of CT without any further invasive procedure. (orig.)

  17. The cost of raising equity for firms listed on Oslo stock exchange

    Lunåshaug, Asgeir; Endal, Øystein K.

    2014-01-01

    This thesis examines the direct cost of raising equity for firms listed on Oslo stock exchange in the period 2006-2011. US research indicates a cost of raising equity about 4-5% of the total amount issued. According to our panel data analysis the Norwegian cost is 5,62 %. This is significantly lower than the 14,6% earlier studies made on Norwegian initial public offerings in the period 1998-2008. We do not find a significant time variable that can provide proof of changes in the direct cos...

  18. Obtaining raised density connections by thermosonic microwelding in 3D integrated microcircuits

    Lanin V. L.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The authors consider the processes of obtaining raised density microwelded connections in 3D-integrated microcircuits by the thermosonic microwelding. The processes include the use of the raised frequencies of ultrasound, application of the microinstrument with a thinning of the working end and precision devices for ball formation, which provide reproducibility of connections quality. At a small step of contact pads, the use of a wire of small diameter (not more than 25 µm is necessary for devices with a multilevel arrangement of leads and chess arrangement of contact pads on the chip, providing the maximum length of the formed crosspieces does not exceed 4—5 mm.

  19. A RAISE Specification Framework and Justification assistant for the Duration Calculus

    Haxthausen, Anne Elisabeth; Xia, Yong

    1998-01-01

    . The goal of our work is two-fold:(1) to extend RSL with real-time features, and (2) to provide a specification language and tools support (e.g. a syntax and type checker, a justification assistant, etc.) for DC. A first step towards this goal, could be to combine DC and RSL achieving the power of both.......So far, we have encoded DC in RSL and set up a proof assistant tool to verify (encoded) DC formulas using the RAISE Justification tools. This paper first introduces a RAISE specification framework for DC, and then explains how the justification assistant is set up....

  20. A study on a systematic method for evaluating values of raised concerns

    The objective of this study is to develop a methodology that can externalise potential concerns and evaluate the values of the concerns raised in corporations. By implementing this methodology into corporate governance, it is expected to improve the work environment and enhance the capability for the corporate governance through supporting the internal autonomic purification. This study comprises of: case studies of past wrongdoings in corporations such as JCO and Tokyo Electric Power Company (TEPCO); identifying the viewpoints for evaluating values of raised concerns; developing a model to evaluate the values. (author)

  1. Characteristics of milk production traits of Balkan goats raised under “low-input” production systems

    Vladan Bogdanović

    2010-01-01

    In order to analyse dairy production traits (milk yield in full lactation, milk fat content, daily milk yield and length of lactation) of Balkan goats raised under “low-input” production systems, data on 440 lactation records from 118 does raised on 9 farms in south-east part of Serbia were used. General linear model, used for analysing variability of lactation length, was consisting of following fixed effects: farm, year of birth, year of production and number of lactation. Model for milk yi...

  2. Mothers Raising Children with Sickle Cell Disease at the Intersection of Race, Gender, and Illness Stigma

    Burnes, David P. R.; Antle, Beverley J.; Williams, Charmaine C.; Cook, Lisa

    2008-01-01

    This qualitative study used the long interview method with Canadian mothers of African and Caribbean descent to understand the underresearched experience of raising a child with sickle cell disease (SCD). Mothers' realities were explored through three levels of social organization: daily caregiver coping (micro level); community views of SCD, such…

  3. Murder-suicide involving BC doctor raises troubling questions about euthanasia.

    Wilson, V.

    1995-01-01

    The deaths last September of a British Columbia physician and his wife have raised troubling questions about euthanasia and Alzheimer's disease. Police described the deaths of Dr. Tom Powell and his wife Dr. Lorraine Miles, a retired dentist, as a murder-suicide. Friends of the couple wonder if more lenient laws concerning euthanasia and assisted suicide might have saved Miles' life.

  4. Investigation of Raising Burden of Children with Autism, Physical Disability and Mental Disability in China

    Xiong, Nina; Yang, Li; Yu, Yang; Hou, Jiaxun; Li, Jia; Li, Yuanyuan; Liu, Hairong; Zhang, Ying; Jiao, Zhengang

    2011-01-01

    The family economic burden of raising autistic children, physical disabled children and mental disabled children were evaluated in China. 227 parents of children with autism, children with physical disability, children with mental disability and normal children were interviewed for children's costs, family income and economic assistance, etc. The…

  5. Strengths Classification of Social Relationships among Cybermothers Raising Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Zeman, Laura Dreuth; Swanke, Jayme; Doktor, Judy

    2011-01-01

    Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) and their families are different. Parents often surf the Internet in search of supportive solutions to the unique challenges they face. One source of insight for parents raising children with ASD comes from blog writers and the parents who surf the net to read their blogs, or cyberparents. The study…

  6. How Parents Cope with Raising Children with Developmental Disorders: A Phenomenological Study

    McLurkin, Carol

    2012-01-01

    A qualitative narrative transcendental-phenomenological study was conducted to explore the lived experiences and coping strategies of parents in California raising children with development disorders (DDs). Twenty parents of children with Prader-Willi syndrome, attention deficit hyperactive disorder, or autism spectrum disorder were interviewed to…

  7. Effects of the ACT Raising Safe Kids Parenting Program on Children's Externalizing Problems

    Knox, Michele; Burkhart, Kimberly; Howe, Tasha

    2011-01-01

    Eighty-seven parents and primary caregivers of children aged 10 years or younger participated in a study examining the effects of the ACT Raising Safe Kids program on children's behavior. It was hypothesized that children of caregivers who complete ACT-RSK would demonstrate reduced behavior problems compared to children of caregivers in a…

  8. Material Hardship in U.S. Families Raising Children with Disabilities

    Parish, Susan L.; Rose, Roderick A.; Grinstein-Weiss, Michal; Richman, Erica L.; Andrews, Megan E.

    2008-01-01

    Researchers analyzed the 2002 wave of the National Survey of America's Families, conducted by the Urban Institute and Child Trends, and examined material hardship in families raising children with disabilities. Measures of hardship included food insecurity, housing instability, health care access, and telephone disconnection. The research…

  9. Caregiver Burden and Social Support among Mothers Raising Children with Developmental Disabilities in South Korea

    Oh, Heykyung; Lee, Eun-Kyoung Othelia

    2009-01-01

    This study examines caregiver burden and social supports perceived by mothers raising children with developmental disabilities in South Korea. Mothers residing in the metropolitan areas of Seoul (n = 181) responded to the mail survey with a 56.6% response rate. Respondents expressed a high level of overall burden, particularly in financial…

  10. Raising Children in Chinese Immigrant Families: Evidence from the Research Literature

    Guo, Karen

    2006-01-01

    Children of Chinese culture are raised differently from children of other cultural groups. There is research evidence which contends that, regardless of where they live, the child-rearing practices within Chinese immigrant families are still influenced by Chinese traditional culture. Some studies also point out that Chinese immigrant parents…

  11. Disentangling Ethnic and Contextual Influences among Parents Raising Youth in High-Risk Communities

    Pinderhughes, Ellen E.; Hurley, Sean

    2008-01-01

    This article reports on analyses examining contextual influences on parenting with an ethnically and geographically diverse sample of parents (predominantly mothers) raising 387 children (49% ethnic minority; 51% male) in high-risk communities. Parents and children were followed longitudinally from first through tenth grades. Contextual influences…

  12. Basque Relative Clauses: Head Raising, Case and Micro-Variation within Bizkaiera

    Gondra, Ager

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation establishes the syntactic representation and derivation of relative clause (RC) constructions in Bizkaiera Basque. Using native speaker introspection, grammaticality judgment under direct elicitation and formal experiments, I show that Bizkaiera follows the Head raising strategy in RC construction. Evidence for this comes from…

  13. Ruled by Hetero-Norms? Raising Some Moral Questions for Teachers in South Africa

    Bhana, Deevia

    2014-01-01

    Thirty-eight countries in Africa regard homosexuality as punishable by law with South Africa remaining a standout country advancing constitutional equality on the basis of sexual orientation. In the context of homophobic violence, however, concerns have been raised about schools' potential to improve the educational, moral and social outcomes…

  14. Raising the Bar: Engaging Staff and Students in a Culture of Participation

    Kowalski, Sue

    2012-01-01

    To thrive, a successful school library program needs active participation from all members of its community. As an instructional leader, the school librarian must be the one to raise the bar, not just informing other educators about resources and services, but empowering all adults to become engaged in the school library program. For example,…

  15. Educational Fund Raising: Principles and Practice. American Council on Education Series on Higher Education.

    Worth, Michael J., Ed.

    This volume offers 36 papers on higher education fundraising. Major topics treated are the development function, foundations of fund raising, annual giving, major gifts, campaigns, corporate and foundation support, special constituencies, managing development programs, special considerations for institutions, and special considerations for the…

  16. The Role of Online Communication in Raising Awareness of Bilingual Identity

    Marley, Dawn

    2013-01-01

    Children of binational couples are often raised in the community of one of the parents and, thus, have limited exposure to the language of the other parent. This study focuses on a British/Moroccan family in the UK, where English is the dominant home language and Moroccan Arabic is the "other" language. Analysis of "live"…

  17. Math, Science, and Web-Based Activities to Raise Awareness about Nutrition and Obesity

    Zuercher, Deborah K.

    2011-01-01

    The incidence of child obesity in the United States is increasing at an alarming rate. This article provides information about nutrition, obesity, and related health conditions and suggests some classroom activities to raise awareness about these issues and empower students to live healthier, more active lives. A list of recommended health-related…

  18. Challenges and Opportunities for Vocational Education and Training in the Light of Raising the Participation Age

    Acquah, Daniel K.; Huddleston, Prue

    2014-01-01

    By 2015, all young people must participate in some form of education and training until they are aged 18. This review discusses the challenges and opportunities involved if vocational education and training is to contribute to this raising of the participation age. We argue that as well as ensuring that young people who have made a full-time…

  19. In the Eye of the Beholder: Mothers' Perceptions of Poor Neighborhoods as Places to Raise Children

    Dahl, Trayci; Ceballo, Rosario; Huerta, Marisela

    2010-01-01

    This study explores how mothers facing similar neighborhood conditions evaluate their neighborhoods as places to raise children. The authors relied upon a triangulation of methods, using both quantitative and qualitative methodologies, with a sample of 91 low-income mothers. Content analysis of qualitative interviews revealed that mothers often…

  20. Raising Bilingual Children: A Qualitative Study of Parental Attitudes, Beliefs, and Intended Behaviors

    Lee, Michael; Shetgiri, Rashmi; Barina, Alexis; Tillitski, John; Flores, Glenn

    2015-01-01

    We examined parental preferences in raising Spanish/English bilingual children. We identified factors influencing their decisions, and the strategies used to promote bilingualism. Focus groups were conducted with Spanish-primary-language parents of children 3 to 7 years old. These groups were audiotaped and transcribed. Three reviewers…

  1. Structure and binding properties of a cameloid nanobody raised against KDM5B

    Wiuf, Anders; Kristensen, Line Hyltoft; Kristensen, Ole; Dorosz, Jerzy; Jensen, Jonas; Gajhede, Michael

    The histone demethylase KDM5B is considered to be a promising target for anticancer therapy. Single-chain antibodies from llama (nanobodies) have been raised to aid in crystallization and structure determination of this enzyme. The antigen-binding properties of 15 of these nanobodies have been...

  2. Firearms law raises issue of MDs' duty to predict and report potentially violent patients.

    Capen, K

    1995-01-01

    The possibility that an amendment to new firearms legislation would require physicians to report potentially violent patients raises the controversial issues of physicians' legal duty to warn and the ability of physicians and other health care professionals to predict violent behaviour. For these reasons, it will be necessary to follow carefully any proposed amendments to the legislation.

  3. Ruled by Hetero-Norms? Raising Some Moral Questions for Teachers in South Africa

    Bhana, Deevia

    2014-01-01

    Thirty-eight countries in Africa regard homosexuality as punishable by law with South Africa remaining a standout country advancing constitutional equality on the basis of sexual orientation. In the context of homophobic violence, however, concerns have been raised about schools' potential to improve the educational, moral and social outcomes…

  4. Marital Relationship in Greek Families: Raising a Child with a Severe Disability

    Tsibidaki, Assimina

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: The target of the study is to examine important aspects of the marital relationship: marital satisfaction, spouse's representation of the marital relationship, roles and boundaries in families raising a child with a severe disability. Also, this study compares families with a child with a severe disability to those with children…

  5. Raising the Bar for Hispanic Serving Institutions: An Analysis of College Completion and Success Rates

    Contreras, Frances; Contreras, Gilbert J.

    2015-01-01

    Hispanic serving institutions (HSIs) in California have the potential to play a key role in raising Latino college completion rates. However, while HSIs provide access to higher education for Latinos, student success, persistence, and completion rates remain low. This study utilized the Integrated Postsecondary Education Data System and the…

  6. Raising production of pretonic mid vowels in Ouro Branco-MG

    Melina Rezende Dias

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the results of a research about the raising production of the pretonic mid vowels, this was carried out at the city of Ouro Branco, Minas Gerais State, Brazil. For this study, we selected eight stratified informants distributed by gender (male and female and age (young and adults. Based on the Theory of Variation and Change, we analyzed the following linguistic factors: vowel of the stressed syllable, vowel between the vowel of the variable and the stressed one, manner of articulation of the preceding segment, place of articulation of the preceding segment, manner of articulation of the next segment and place of articulation of the next segment. We establish that in the city of Ouro Branco occurs vowel harmony triggered by the following high vowel, both for the raising of /e/, and for the raising of /o/. We conclude that for the raising of /o/, occurs also the process of vowel reduction. We also observed that there are lexical restrictions.

  7. Specification, proof, and model checking of the Mondex electronic purse using RAISE

    George, C.; Haxthausen, Anne Elisabeth

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes how the communication protocol of Mondex electronic purses can be specified and verified against desired security properties. The specification is developed by stepwise refinement using the RAISE formal specification language, RSL, and the proofs are made by translation to PVS...

  8. DIY Materials: A Consciousness-Raising Exercise Prepared in Response to a Textbook "GAP."

    Maddalena, Sean R.

    2003-01-01

    Presents one teacher's evaluation of his own English-as-a-Second/Foreign-Language teaching materials produced in response to a textbook "gap" in Japan. Focuses on a consciousness-raising exercise created to elucidate clearly the difference between two grammatical forms. (Author/VWL)

  9. Investigation of Raising Burden of Children with Autism, Physical Disability and Mental Disability in China

    Xiong, Nina; Yang, Li; Yu, Yang; Hou, Jiaxun; Li, Jia; Li, Yuanyuan; Liu, Hairong; Zhang, Ying; Jiao, Zhengang

    2011-01-01

    The family economic burden of raising autistic children, physical disabled children and mental disabled children were evaluated in China. 227 parents of children with autism, children with physical disability, children with mental disability and normal children were interviewed for children's costs, family income and economic assistance, etc. The…

  10. Raising the Bar on Faculty Productivity: Realigning Performance Standards to Enhance Quality Trajectories

    Hardré, Patricia L.

    2014-01-01

    Many universities have observed needs and shared goals that include increasing faculty members' research productivity (in quantity or quality). Strategies for raising faculty performance include revising standards and supporting valued outcomes with rewards and incentives. One college at a research-extensive university received institutional…

  11. Raising Children with Disabilities in China: The Need for Early Interventions

    Chiang, Linda H.; Hadadian, Azar

    2010-01-01

    In China, the national strategy for Early Childhood Care and Education (ECCE) is coherent with the national policy and the needs of children's families. This policy has raised the public awareness of the value of early childhood education (ECE). However, there is a gap in services for children with disabilities. Based on the available sources,…

  12. An assessment of behavioral syndromes in rangeland-raised beef cattle

    Individuals in most animal groups exhibit consistent behavioural differences across situations or over time known as behavioural syndromes. We conducted a study with a herd of young rangeland-raised cows to determine whether animals exhibited consistent differences in foraging behaviours across cont...

  13. Raising the Bar on Faculty Productivity: Realigning Performance Standards to Enhance Quality Trajectories

    Hardré, Patricia L.

    2014-01-01

    Many universities have observed needs and shared goals that include increasing faculty members' research productivity (in quantity or quality). Strategies for raising faculty performance include revising standards and supporting valued outcomes with rewards and incentives. One college at a research-extensive university received institutional…

  14. "More Bang for the Buck": Examining Influencers of Fundraising Efficiency and Total Dollars Raised

    Proper, Eve; Caboni, Timothy C.; Hartley, Harold V., III; Willmer, Wesley K.

    2009-01-01

    This study examines institution-specific factors that are within the control of the advancement office and that predict fundraising efficiency and total dollars raised. Using data from the Council of Independent Colleges and IPEDS, fundraising outcomes are examined at private colleges in the United States. Most of the variables of interest are not…

  15. Impact of Consciousness-Raising Activities on Young English Language Learners' Grammar Performance

    Fatemipour, Hamidreza; Hemmati, Shiva

    2015-01-01

    Grammar Consciousness-Raising (GCR) is an approach to teaching of grammar which learners instead of being taught the given rules, experience language data. The data challenge them to rethink, restructure their existing mental grammar and construct an explicit rule to describe the grammatical feature which the data illustrate (Ellis, 2002). And…

  16. "The Silence Itself Is Enough of a Statement": The Day of Silence and LGBTQ Awareness Raising

    Woolley, Susan W.

    2012-01-01

    This ethnographic study of a high school gay-straight alliance club examines unintended consequences of silence during the Day of Silence, a day of action aimed at addressing anti-LGBTQ bias in schools. While this strategy calls for students to engage in intentional silences to raise awareness of anti-LGBTQ bias, it does not necessarily lead…

  17. Marital Relationship in Greek Families: Raising a Child with a Severe Disability

    Tsibidaki, Assimina

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: The target of the study is to examine important aspects of the marital relationship: marital satisfaction, spouse's representation of the marital relationship, roles and boundaries in families raising a child with a severe disability. Also, this study compares families with a child with a severe disability to those with children…

  18. Raising the Age of Compulsory Education in England: A NEET Solution?

    Simmons, Robin

    2008-01-01

    This paper problematises the official discourse of economic competitiveness and social inclusion used by the 2007 Education and Skills Bill to justify the proposal to extend compulsory participation in education and training in England to the age of 18. Comparisons are drawn between this attempt to raise the age of compulsion and previous…

  19. Will Raising the Participation Age in England Solve the NEET Problem?

    Maguire, Sue

    2013-01-01

    This paper considers the rationale for introducing the raising of the participation age (RPA) in learning in England from 2013 and assesses how, if fully implemented, it could contribute to improving the outcomes for young people who do not participate in any form of post-16 education, employment or training, and are currently defined as not in…

  20. A Relational Frame Training Intervention to Raise Intelligence Quotients: A Pilot Study

    Cassidy, Sarah; Roche, Bryan; Hayes, Steven C.

    2011-01-01

    The current research consisted of 2 studies designed to test the effectiveness of automated multiple-exemplar relational training in raising children's general intellectual skills. In Study 1, 4 participants were exposed to multiple exemplar training in stimulus equivalence and the relational frames of SAME, OPPOSITE, MORE THAN, and LESS THAN…

  1. Process and device for the protection of steam-raising units, particularly of nuclear reactors

    To protect the housing against corrosion by chemical conditioning of the feedwater, the redox potential of the feedwater and the corrosion potential of at least one pipe of the pipe bundle is continuously determined during operation of the steam raising unit. With potentials indicating the danger of corrosion, the quality of the secondary water can be improved by suitable measures. (orig./HP)

  2. Results of a Test and Win Contest to Raise Radon Awareness in Urban and Rural Settings

    Hahn, Ellen J.; Rayens, Mary Kay; Kercsmar, Sarah E.; Robertson, Heather; Adkins, Sarah M.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Radon is a leading cause of lung cancer, but few test their homes to determine radon levels. Purpose: The study assessed feasibility and success of a Test and Win Contest to promote radon testing in rural and urban communities. Methods: The prospective, quasi-experimental study tested a novel contest to raise radon awareness. Paid and…

  3. Challenges and Opportunities for Vocational Education and Training in the Light of Raising the Participation Age

    Acquah, Daniel K.; Huddleston, Prue

    2014-01-01

    By 2015, all young people must participate in some form of education and training until they are aged 18. This review discusses the challenges and opportunities involved if vocational education and training is to contribute to this raising of the participation age. We argue that as well as ensuring that young people who have made a full-time…

  4. Flap raising on pulsatile perfused cadaveric tissue: a novel method for surgical teaching and exercise.

    Wolff, Klaus-Dietrich; Fichter, Andreas; Braun, Christian; Bauer, Florian; Humbs, Martin

    2014-10-01

    Exercising flap raising procedures on cadavers is considered a prerequisite to prepare for clinical practise. To improve teaching and create conditions as realistic as possible, a perfusion device was developed providing pulsatile flow through the vessels of different donor sites. A plastic bag filled with red stained tab water was placed into a pump, which was driven by an electric motor. The bag was set under rhythmic compression with variable frequency and pressure. The pedicles of the radial forearm, anterolateral thigh, rectus abdominis, fibular and iliac crest flap were cannulated at the origin from their source arteries. Flap raising was performed under pulsatile perfusion in 15 fresh bodies and subsequently in 6 Thiel-embalmed cadavers during a flap raising course. We regularly observed staining of the skin and skin bleeding in fresh bodies and less reliable in embalmed cadavers. All flap pedicles showed pulsatile movements, and the radial pulse became palpable. Most perforators of the anterolateral thigh and osteocutaneous fibular flap could be identified by their pulse. Bleeding from bony tissue and venous return was seldom observed. We conclude that pulsatile perfusion of cadaveric tissue creates more realistic conditions for flap raising and improves teaching for beginners and advanced surgeons. PMID:24938642

  5. Navigating Interdependence: How Adolescents Raised Solely by Grandparents Experience Their Family Relationships

    Dolbin-MacNab, Megan L.; Keiley, Margaret K.

    2009-01-01

    This study examined how adolescents raised solely by grandparents navigated their relationships with their parents and grandparents and how these relationships were influenced by the caregiving context. Forty-one adolescents participated in qualitative, semistructured interviews. Findings suggest that relationships with parents were primarily…

  6. Raising the Bar: Engaging Staff and Students in a Culture of Participation

    Kowalski, Sue

    2012-01-01

    To thrive, a successful school library program needs active participation from all members of its community. As an instructional leader, the school librarian must be the one to raise the bar, not just informing other educators about resources and services, but empowering all adults to become engaged in the school library program. For example,…

  7. A Coordinated Approach to Raising the Socio-Economic Status of Latinos in California.

    Lopez, Elias, Ed.; Puddefoot, Ginny, Ed.; Gandara, Patricia, Ed.

    This report presents a collection of papers that focuses on a coordinated approach to raising the socioeconomic status of Hispanic Americans living in California. After presenting "The Need for a Coordinated Approach," the papers are: "Preschool Access" (Theresa Garcia, Sandra Gutierrez, and Giovanna Stark); "K-12 Performance" (Patricia de Cos,…

  8. Raising Bilingual Children: A Qualitative Study of Parental Attitudes, Beliefs, and Intended Behaviors

    Lee, Michael; Shetgiri, Rashmi; Barina, Alexis; Tillitski, John; Flores, Glenn

    2015-01-01

    We examined parental preferences in raising Spanish/English bilingual children. We identified factors influencing their decisions, and the strategies used to promote bilingualism. Focus groups were conducted with Spanish-primary-language parents of children 3 to 7 years old. These groups were audiotaped and transcribed. Three reviewers…

  9. With the Benefit of Hindsight: A Mother's Reflections on Raising a Child with Down Syndrome.

    Maxwell, Virginia; Barr, Owen

    2003-01-01

    In this article an Irish mother reflects on her experience of raising a child with Down syndrome, how his presence affected the family, and how she as a person changed as a result. Professionals are urged to recognize the importance of effective listening, ongoing coordinated support, and learning to work in partnership with families. (Contains…

  10. Math, Science, and Web-Based Activities to Raise Awareness about Nutrition and Obesity

    Zuercher, Deborah K.

    2011-01-01

    The incidence of child obesity in the United States is increasing at an alarming rate. This article provides information about nutrition, obesity, and related health conditions and suggests some classroom activities to raise awareness about these issues and empower students to live healthier, more active lives. A list of recommended health-related…

  11. Results of a Test and Win Contest to Raise Radon Awareness in Urban and Rural Settings

    Hahn, Ellen J.; Rayens, Mary Kay; Kercsmar, Sarah E.; Robertson, Heather; Adkins, Sarah M.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Radon is a leading cause of lung cancer, but few test their homes to determine radon levels. Purpose: The study assessed feasibility and success of a Test and Win Contest to promote radon testing in rural and urban communities. Methods: The prospective, quasi-experimental study tested a novel contest to raise radon awareness. Paid and…

  12. Reduced Blood Flow to Back of Brain Raises Recurrent Stroke Risk

    ... 156339.html Reduced Blood Flow to Back of Brain Raises Recurrent Stroke Risk: Study Procedure to open blocked arteries may ... normal blood flow to the back of their brains had a 96 percent stroke-free survival rate at 12 months. People with ...

  13. Thermo-hydraulic analysis for SCWR during power-raising phase of startup

    The study of thermal characteristics during startup is one of the most important aspects for safety analysis of supercritical water-cooled reactor (SCWR). According to the given sliding pressure mode of SCWR, thermal analysis on temperature-raising phase and power-raising phase of startup are carried out. Considering the radial heterogeneity of power distribution,thermal characteristics for different assemblies during startup are also put forward. The results show that,during temperature-raising phase with core power increased only, the temperature of moderator, coolant and fuel cladding in inner assemblies are increased with little amplitude. During power-raising phase with core power and feed-water flow rate increased, the coolant temperature keeps unchanged, but the moderator temperature is decreased. With a greater variation of power, fuel cladding temperature shows a greater increase. Furthermore, considering the uneven distribution of radial power, thermo-hydraulic characteristics with uneven cladding temperature distribution shows a certain horizontal heterogeneity for different fuel assemblies, which becomes serious as flow rate and power increase. By adjusting flow rate distribution in different fuel assemblies or changing power setting during startup, the cladding temperature difference could be effectively reduced, which provides a certain reference for startup optimization of SCWR. (authors)

  14. Noise, What Noise? Raising Awareness of Auditory Health among Future Primary-School Teachers

    Jimenez-Tejada, M. -P.; Hodar, J. A.; Gonzalez-Garcia, F.

    2012-01-01

    We study the perception of acoustic contamination and its deleterious effects on students preparing to become school teachers and analyse their acoustic habits, with the aim of raising their awareness concerning this problem. We designed a number of activities, applied during a practical lesson, in which students evaluated some of their…

  15. Technological Literacy for All: A Course Designed to Raise the Technological Literacy of College Students

    Baskette, Kimberly G.; Fantz, Todd D.

    2013-01-01

    Understanding what technology is, and is not, is the first step in becoming technologically literate. One should also understand how technology is created, how it works, how it shapes society, and how society shapes technology. This study was designed to gauge the ability of a single-semester course to raise students' technological literacy…

  16. Losing Control in the Nonprofit Sector: An Examination of Fund-Raising Encroachment.

    Kelly, Kathleen S.

    To build theory, a study (the third stage in a program of research) examined encroachment by fund raising on public relations in the nonprofit sector. Two sets of in-depth interviews were conducted with 19 public relations managers in nonprofit organizations in Maryland and Louisiana. The organizations represented in the purposive sample fell into…

  17. A Review on Some Parameters of Environment in Youth Intensive Raising of Japanese Quail

    Lucian Ioniţă

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to review the state-of-art of scientific research on some environmentalparameters recommended by the literature in the intensive raising of young quails. As a result ofthe research it can be said that the temperature in the raising area of the young Japanese quailvaries between 35 º - 37.8 º C in the first week of life, after which it decreases by 3-4 ° C / week.The relative humidity in the shelter of young quails in the first week of raising must bemaintained at 80% (made with trays of water; then it should decrease at the value of 70%. Lightregime recommended for intensive young quails raising can be 24 hours light per day to 42 daysor can choose a program of light of 24 hours a day during the first 7 days of life, after which itcan be reducde up to 16 hours a day until the age of 42 days. Light intensity should be between20 lux and 45 lux for the first 7 days of life of the youth, then can be reduced by 20 to 5 lux untilthe age of 41 days. Density per area unit in the house is of 150 chicken / sqm (for ground riasing,reaching the age of 6 weeks at a density of 100 chicks / sqm or 250 chicken / sqm cage (in thecase of youth raising in batteries The number of chickens decreases to 250 for 1.5 sqm of cagearea in the second week of life and 250 chicken for 2 sqm cage area in the third week.

  18. Poultry raising systems and highly pathogenic avian influenza outbreaks in Thailand: the situation, associations, and impacts.

    Chantong, Wasan; Kaneene, John B

    2011-05-01

    Highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI), caused by the virus strain H5N1, currently occurs worldwide with the greatest burden in Southeast Asia where the disease was first reported. In Thailand where the disease was first confirmed in January 2004, the virus had been persistent as a major threat to the poultry industry and human health over the past several years. It was generally hypothesized that the main reason for the disease to circulate in Thailand was the existence of traditional backyard chickens and free-range ducks raising systems. Consequently, this study reviewed the structure of poultry raising systems, the recent outbreaks of HPAI H5N1, the disease association to the backyard and free-grazing poultry production, and consequences of the outbreaks in Thailand. Although the major outbreaks in the country had declined, the sustaining disease surveillance and prevention are still strongly recommended. PMID:21706938

  19. Monitoring and performance analysis of AGR boilers during commissioning and power raising

    The installed boiler plant, for two 1300 MW AGR stations, is comprehensively instrumented for boiler control, performance assessment and component monitoring to ensure the integrity and safe operation of the plant during normal and faulty operating conditions. Plant instrumentation and computer systems installed at site for vibration analysis during the engineering runs and data acquisition during the power raising stage have been described. The results, from early rig investigations and the vibration testing during the unfueled engineering runs, indicate that the behaviour of the plant within the practical range of operating conditions is free from vibration problems. Also the analysis of the steady state thermal and hydrodynamic behaviour of the boiler plant during the power raising phase confirms the methods and computer models used for the boiler design. (author)

  20. Raising Children in an Evangelical Family Environment: Biblical Principles Applied to the Family

    Ljubinka Jambrek

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available As Creator, God designed the family and determined the standards and rules for living and functioning in the family. As a basic unit of society, the family is to reflect God’s glory. God’s plan for marriage and the family has not changed, only the human approach to this institution has changed. Therefore, it is vital to re-emphasize how important it is that the family functions according to biblical standards. This article deals with raising children in an evangelical environment which assumes God’s presence, the reading and keeping of God’s Word, love between the parents, prayer, and worship of God. Clear goals for raising children are presented. This work offers valuable and lived examples of biblical discipline. It discusses the topic of discipline from childhood to the teen ages, trust, responsibility, communication and relationship with God. Finally, the article points out the importance of times of family worship.

  1. Device for testing and/or repair of steam raising unit pipes

    The device is introduced into the chamber of a steam raising unit. A pillar extends from the pipe floor to the floor. In order to hold the device, a tensile element with a spreader finger projects into a pipe of the pipe floor. So that the tensile element will be easily accessible during faults and will reduce the probability of the spreader finger sheath jamming, the tensile element and the pillar are connected by coupling, which can be undone outside the steam raising unit. The sheath formed by separate clamping jaws is guided by support elements at its ends. The support element moves the sheath to its unstressed position during the release movement of the spreader finger push rod. The device is mainly used in nuclear powerstations. (orig./HP)

  2. Raising medium-sized livestock and hepatitis risk: A national study in Indonesia

    Maria Holly Herawati

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Latar belakang: Sanitasi lingkungan, termasuk kandang pemeliharaan ternak sedang, berpengaruh terhadap penyebaran penyakit hepatitis A dan E. Tujuan penelitian ini menilai lokasi kandang pemeliharaan ternak sedang berkaitan dengan risiko gejala hepatitis di beberapa propinsi dengan prevalensi hepatitis tinggi di Indonesia. Metode: Data berasal dari sebagian hasil Riset Kesehatan Dasar (Riskesdas tahun 2007 di Indonesia. Untuk penilaian ini, data yang dipakai berasal dari 12 propinsi dengan prevalensi tinggi (0,6% hepatitis di Indonesia, dan dipilih hanya subjek yang tidak memelihara ternak serta hanya yang memelihara ternak sedang. Subjek hepatitis adalah responden yang pada saat wawancara mengatakan pernah mempunyai gejala hepatitis atau pernah di diagnosis menderita hepatitis oleh dokter atau paramedik dalam kurun waktu 12 bulan terakhir. Hasil: Dari 141.291 subjek, 1.257 (0,8% menderita hepatitis. Pada umumnya yang memelihara ternak sedang berisiko 86% lebih banyak terkena hepatitis dibandingkan dengan yang tidak memelihara  ternak [rasio odds suaian (ORa=1,86; 95% interval kepercayaan (CI=1,61-2,09]. Risiko tertinggi (2 kali lipat terkena hepatitis terjadi di antara subjek yang mengandangkan ternak sedang di dalam rumah (ORa=1,98; 95% CI=1,47-2,66, sedangkan risiko terkecil (38% lebih besar terkena hepatitis terjadi di antara yang mengandangkan ternak sedangnya di luar luar rumah dibandingkan dengan tidak memelihara ternak sedang (ORa=1,38; 95% CI=1,14-1,67 dibandingkan dengan tidak memelihara ternak. Kesimpulan: Kandang di luar rumah untuk meliharaan ternak sedang yang paling kecil menyebabkan risiko hepatitis. (Health Science Indones 2011;2:14-20   Abstract Background: Environmental sanitation, among others raising medium-sized livestock, affect the spread of hepatitis A and E. This paper presents an assessment of relation between place of raising medium-sized livestock and risk of hepatitis in high prevalence endemic hepatitis provinces in Indonesia. Methods: This paper used a part data of the Basic Health Survey (Riskesdas 2007 in 33 provinces in Indonesia. For this assessment samples consisted of those who had as well as did not have medium-sized livestock in twelve provinces with Hepatitis prevalence above national average. Hepatitis subject was those who ever diagnosed hepatitis by health workers (physician or paramedic or ever had symptoms of hepatitis in the last 12 months. Results: Of 141,291subjectts, 1,257 (0.8% subjects ever had hepatitis. In general, subjects who had raising medium-sized livestock had 83% more hepatitis risk compared to who did not have raising medium-sized livestock [adjusted odds ratio (ORa= 1.83; 95% confidence interval (CI= 1.61-2.09]. The highest risk (almost 2-fold to be hepatitis occurred among who had corral inside the house for raising medium-sized livestock (ORa=1.98; 95% CI=1.47-2.66, and the least risk (38% more risk to be hepatitis occurred among who had corral outside the house for raising medium-sized livestock (ORa=1.38; 95% CI=1.14-1.67 compared with who did not have raising medium-sized livestock. Conclusion: The least risk to be hepatitis occurred among who had corral outside the house among whom raising medium-sized livestock. (Health Science Indones 2011;2:14-20

  3. Original Education with Lectures for Creation of Products to Raise Ability for Solving a Problem

    Kawaguchi, Kiyoshi; Hasegawa, Kiyoshi; Kuroda, Shigeyasu; Masugata, Katsumi

    The important abilities for which the young engineers are required are creativity, ability for solving a problem and presentation ability. However, the education curriculum for creation of products in the present university has the contents that the students in each group only make a product, so that they can not learn how to raise above-mentioned three abilities. In the faculty of engineering, University of Toyama, a new subject “creative engineering exercise” opened to all courses and grades students has started in 2004. The authors reexamined the subject, and then the improved new subject “creative engineering exercise” that can meet the requirements from society has started in 2005. The feature of this new subject is that the lectures are adopted in the subject in order to learn how to raise above-mentioned creativity, ability for solving a problem and presentation ability. This paper described how to learn ability for solving a problem.

  4. Potassium and Haemoglobin Polymorphism in Hair Goat Raising in Antalya Province

    KARABAĞ, Kemal; BALCIOĞLU, M. Soner; Firat, M. Ziya; YOLCU, H. İbrahim

    2002-01-01

    In this study, whole blood potassium and haemoglobin (Hb) polymorphism were investigated in the Hair goats raised in the Antalya province. The separation of erythrocyte haemoglobin types was carried out using horizontal starch-gel electrophoresis and the determination of the potassium level was done using an atomic absorption spectrometer in randomly chosen whole blood samples of 188 Hair goats. The gene frequency for the higher potassium (KH) was 0.985±0.038. As a result of this research, tw...

  5. Bivariate raising and lowering differential operators for eigenfunctions of a 2D Fourier transform

    We define a two-dimensional (2D) Fourier transform that self-reproduces a one-parameter family of bivariate Hermite functions; these are eigenfunctions of a Hamiltonian differential operator of second order, whose exponential is that transform. We find explicit forms of the bivariate raising and lowering partial differential operators of first degree for the eigenfunctions of this 2D Fourier transform. (paper)

  6. Raising Awareness about Water Issues: The Role of Water Symbolism and Proverbs

    Joško Sindik; Yoseph Negusse Araya

    2013-01-01

    Sustainable water management is one of the global grand challenges of our time. Tackling this challenge through corrective actions would require the participation of the general public, a public with sound awareness of the challenge and commitment. One such awareness raising intervention could be through the use of water symbolism and proverbs, targeted to particular society. Water has the different symbolism and levels of importance to people, depending of their personal characteristics and...

  7. Learning Verbs that Lack Argument Structure : The case of raising verbs

    Becker, Misha

    2004-01-01

    "In this paper, I address the question of how language learners come to distinguish the class of ‘raising’ predicates from other kinds of predicates. The class of raising predicates is a small class, containing verbs such as seem, appear, tend and a few others. What distinguishes these predicates from other main verbs is that while they share the morphosyntactic properties of main verbs (for example, they take regular verbal inflection, they follow negation, they do not invert in questions), ...

  8. Raising the dead without a Red Sea-Dead Sea canal? Hydro-economics and governance

    Rosenberg, D. E.

    2010-01-01

    Seven decades of extractions have dramatically reduced Jordan River flows, lowered the Dead Sea level, opened sink holes, and caused other environmental problems. The fix Jordan, Israel, and the Palestinians propose would build an expensive multipurpose canal from the Red Sea to the Dead Sea that would also generate hydropower and desalinated water. This paper compares the Red-Dead project to alternatives that may also raise the Dead Sea l...

  9. Raising the Dead without a Red Sea-Dead Sea project? Hydro-economics and governance

    Rosenberg, D. E.

    2011-01-01

    Seven decades of extractions have dramatically reduced Jordan River flows, lowered the Dead Sea level, opened sink holes, and caused other environmental problems. The fix Jordan, Israel, and the Palestinians propose would build an expensive multipurpose conveyance project from the Red Sea to the Dead Sea that would also generate hydropower and desalinate water. This paper compares the Red-Dead project to alternatives that may also raise the Dead Sea level. Hydro-economic model results for the...

  10. Me, Myself and My Brain Implant: Deep Brain Stimulation Raises Questions of Personal Authenticity and Alienation

    2011-01-01

    In this article, I explore select case studies of Parkinson patients treated with deep brain stimulation (DBS) in light of the notions of alienation and authenticity. While the literature on DBS has so far neglected the issues of authenticity and alienation, I argue that interpreting these cases in terms of these concepts raises new issues for not only the philosophical discussion of neuro-ethics of DBS, but also for the psychological and medical approach to patients under DBS. In particular,...

  11. The cost-effectiveness of raising the legal smoking age in California.

    Ahmad, Sajjad

    2005-01-01

    Given evidence that most smokers start smoking before the age of 18 and that smokers who start earlier in life are less likely to quit, policies that reduce or delay initiation could have a large impact on public health. Raising the legal minimum purchase age of cigarettes to 21 may be an effective way for states to reduce youth smoking by making it harder for teens to buy cigarettes from stores and by reducing the number of legal buyers they encounter in their normal social circles. To inform the ongoing debate over this policy option in California, this study provides an evaluation of the cost-effectiveness of raising the state's legal smoking age to 21. Costs and benefits were estimated from a societal perspective using a dynamic computer simulation model that simulates changes to the California population in age, composition, and smoking behavior over time. Secondary data for model parameters were obtained from publicly available sources. Population health impacts were estimated in terms of smoking prevalence and the change in cumulative quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) to the California population over a 50-year period. Economic impacts were measured in monetary terms for medical cost savings, cost of law enforcement, and cost of checking identification. Compared to a status quo simulation, raising the smoking age to 21 would result in a drop in teen (ages 14-17) smoking prevalence from 13.3% to 2.4% (82% reduction). The policy would generate no net costs, in fact saving the state and its inhabitants a total of $24 billion over the next 50 years with a gain of 1.47 million QALYs compared to status quo. This research should prove useful to California's policy makers as they contemplate legislation to raise the state's legal smoking age. PMID:15951460

  12. The cholesterol-raising factor from boiled coffee does not pass a paper filter.

    Dusseldorp, van, M.; Katan, M B; Vliet, van, M.; Demacker, P.N.M.; Stalenhoef, A.F.H.

    1991-01-01

    Previous studies have indicated that consumption of boiled coffee raises total and low density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, whereas drip-filtered coffee does not. We have tested the effect on serum lipids of consumed coffee that was first boiled and then filtered through commercial paper coffee filters. Sixty-four healthy volunteers consumed six cups per day of this boiled and filtered coffee for 17 days. Then, they were randomly divided into three groups, which, for the next 79 days, recei...

  13. The active straight leg raising test and mobility of the pelvic joints

    Mens, J.M.A.; Vleeming, Andry; Snijders, Chris J.; Stam, Henk J; Ginai, Abida Z

    1999-01-01

    Objective signs to assess impairment in patients who are disabled by peripartum pelvic girdle pain hardly exist. The purpose of this study was to develop a clinical test to quantify and qualify disability in these patients. The study examined the relationship between impaired active straight leg raising (ASLR) and mobility of pelvic joints in patients with peripartum pelvic girdle pain, focusing on (1) the reduction of impairment of ASLR when the patient was wearing a pelvic belt, and (2) mot...

  14. Steam raising unit heated by the coolant gas of a nuclear reactor

    The steam raising unit consists of a bundle of straight pipes, which includes a superheater, an evaporator and a preheater part. Hot helium enters the superheater in the upper area. The lower part of the bundle of straight pipes is separated off by a plate, where the individual pipes in this space free of coolant gas are made as compensation pipes. The stresses on the individual pipes at the feedwater inlet are considerably reduced in this way. (DG)

  15. Structural evaluation of WIPP disposal room raised to Clay Seam G.

    Park, Byoung Yoon (Sandia National Laboratories, Carlsbad, NM); Holland, John F. (Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM)

    2007-09-01

    An error was discovered in the ALGEBBRA script used to calculate the disturbed rock zone around the disposal room and the shear failure zone in the anhydrite layers in the original version. To correct the error, a memorandum of correction was submitted according to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Quality Assurance program. The recommended course of action was to correct the error, to repeat the post-process, and to rewrite Section 7.4, 7.5, 8, and Appendix B in the original report. The sections and appendix revised by the post-process using the corrected ALGEBRA scripts are provided in this revision. The original report summarizes a series of structural calculations that examine effects of raising the WIPP repository horizon from the original design level upward 2.43 meters. Calculations were then repeated for grid changes appropriate for the new horizon raised to Clay Seam G. Results are presented in three main areas: (1) Disposal room porosity, (2) Disturbed rock zone characteristics, and (3) Anhydrite marker bed failure. No change to the porosity surface for the compliance re-certification application is necessary to account for raising the repository horizon, because the new porosity surface is essentially identical. The disturbed rock zone evolution and devolution are charted in terms of a stress invariant criterion over the regulatory period. This model shows that the propagation of the DRZ into the surrounding rock salt does not penetrate through MB 139 in the case of both the original horizon and the raised room. Damaged salt would be expected to heal in nominally 150 years. The shear failure does not occur in either the upper or lower anhydrite layers at the moment of excavation, but appears above and below the middle of the pillar one day after the excavation. The damaged anhydrite is not expected to heal as the salt in the DRZ is expected to.

  16. A simple method for predicting survival of pedicled skin flaps before completely raising them

    S Mishra

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Pedicled skin and fasciocutaneous flaps are commonly used in plastic surgery. Once such a flap is completely raised on its pedicle it becomes defenceless against any possible necrosis. Aim: To use a simple method for raising such a flap in a manner that can predict the vascularity better, offering additional protection against necrosis. Materials and Methods: A total of 30 skin and fasciocutaneous flaps were raised in 27 patients. They were raised as bipedicle flaps; and the vascularity of the flap was tested by occluding the additional pedicle with a pedicle occlusion clamp. If the vascularity was found to be satisfactory the flap was primarily transferred; if found unsatisfactory it was either delayed or abandoned. The delayed flaps were again tested during transfer. Results: Nineteen (63.3% flaps were primarily transferred, 11 (36.7% flaps were delayed, and two (6.7% delayed flaps displayed an unsatisfactory pattern during transfer. Twenty-two (73.3% flaps fully survived and seven (23.3% underwent partial thickness necrosis at the tip, which healed without any further surgical intervention, making 29 (96.7% flaps clinically successful. There was major necrosis of one flap. All the flaps with a scar at the base survived. Discussion: The clinical success of 96.7% indicated a high-degree of predictability of flap survival through this method. Also, this method could safely assess the vascularity of flaps during primary transfer, during delayed transfer, and also those with a scar at the base. Conclusions: This technique is recommended in all major pedicled skin and fasciocutaneous flaps.

  17. THE INTERACTION OF EXTRAPOSITION FROM DP AND RIGHT NODE RAISING IN ENGLISH AND SPANISH

    Alves, M

    2015-01-01

    This paper explores the interaction of two operations that have been traditionally analyzed as involving rightward movement: extraposition from dp (ex) and Right Node Raising (rnr)1. The two operations are illustrated in (1) and (2), respectively. In the two sets of data the low hyphen indicates the positions in which the sentence-final constituent is interpreted. In what follows, it will also be shown that Spanish and English display the same patterns in this particular area of g...

  18. Restoration of minerotrophic vegetation within an Irish raised bog soak system.

    Crushell, P.H.; Schouten, M.G.C.; A. J. P. Smolders; Roelofs, J.G.M.; Giller, P. S.

    2006-01-01

    Clara Bog is an oceanic raised bog of international ecological importance located in central Ireland. The occurrence of soak systems (areas of mesotrophic/minerotrophic vegetation within acid bog) adds greatly to the scientific interest of Clara Bog. Recent research into the vegetation history of a soak system on Clara Bog known as Lough Roe indicates that major vegetation changes have occurred within the soak over the past century. Vegetation communities were classified and mapped on three d...

  19. An Efficient In vitro Hardening Technique of Tissue Culture Raised Plants

    C.R. Deb; T. Imchen

    2010-01-01

    Micropropagation has been extensively used for the rapid multiplication of many plants species. However, its wider use is restricted often by the high percentage of plant loss or damaged when transferred to ex vitro condition. To acclimatize the micropropagated plants, different workers have employed different approach toward successful establishment of in vitro raised plants under ex vitro condition. In the present study, a successful attempt has been made to acclimatize the tissue culture r...

  20. A basic income can raise employment and welfare for a majority

    FitzRoy, Felix R.; Jin, Jim Yongtao

    2015-01-01

    With growing interest in a universal basic income (BI), we provide new results for a majority to benefit from replacing (some) unemployment benefits with BI. Given any income distribution and an extensive margin, such a replacement always benefits those remaining unemployed, raises utilitarian welfare, and benefits a poor - or even a working - majority. Similar results follow with involuntary unemployment, and joint distributions of wages and costs of work. Moreover, using quasi-linear utilit...

  1. Hydrolysis of pyridoxal-5'-phosphate in plasma in conditions with raised alkaline phosphate.

    Anderson, B B; O'Brien, H.; Griffin, G E; Mollin, D. L.

    1980-01-01

    Hydrolysis of pyridoxal phosphate in plasma was demonstrated in patients with liver disease and other conditions with raised alkaline phosphatase, and this usually closely paralleled the alkaline phosphatase level, whether of liver or bone origin. The endogenous plasma pyridoxal phosphate was inversely related to the alkaline phosphatase, and plasma hydrolysis of pyridoxal phosphate may at least in part be responsible. Very large doses of vitamin B6 may be necessary to compensate for this hyd...

  2. Gender Identity and Gender Role in DSD Patients Raised as Females: A Preliminary Outcome Study

    Ercan, Oya; Kutlug, Seyhan; Uysal, Omer; Alikasifoglu, Mujgan; Inceoglu, Derya

    2013-01-01

    Gender identity and gender role are expected to be consistent with gender assignment for optimal DSD management outcome. To our knowledge, our study is the first to attempt evaluation of gender related outcomes in Turkish DSD patients. After receiving institutional ethical board approval and subject (or parent) informed consent, subjects with DSD raised as girls (22 patients 46 XX DSD, 11 patients 46 XY DSD) answered 566 questions of the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI) ques...

  3. Structural evaluation of WIPP disposal room raised to clay seam G

    An error was discovered in the ALGEBBRA script used to calculate the disturbed rock zone around the disposal room and the shear failure zone in the anhydrite layers in the original version. To correct the error, a memorandum of correction was submitted according to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Quality Assurance program. The recommended course of action was to correct the error, to repeat the post-process, and to rewrite Section 7.4, 7.5, 8, and Appendix B in the original report. The sections and appendix revised by the post-process using the corrected ALGEBRA scripts are provided in this revision. The original report summarizes a series of structural calculations that examine effects of raising the WIPP repository horizon from the original design level upward 2.43 meters. Calculations were then repeated for grid changes appropriate for the new horizon raised to Clay Seam G. Results are presented in three main areas: (1) Disposal room porosity, (2) Disturbed rock zone characteristics, and (3) Anhydrite marker bed failure. No change to the porosity surface for the compliance re-certification application is necessary to account for raising the repository horizon, because the new porosity surface is essentially identical. The disturbed rock zone evolution and devolution are charted in terms of a stress invariant criterion over the regulatory period. This model shows that the propagation of the DRZ into the surrounding rock salt does not penetrate through MB 139 in the case of both the original horizon and the raised room. Damaged salt would be expected to heal in nominally 150 years. The shear failure does not occur in either the upper or lower anhydrite layers at the moment of excavation, but appears above and below the middle of the pillar one day after the excavation. The damaged anhydrite is not expected to heal as the salt in the DRZ is expected to

  4. Raising Citizens: Parenting Education Classes and Somali Mothers’ Experiences of Childrearing in Canada

    Melissa Fellin

    2015-01-01

    Mothers are viewed as the people who are raising future citizens of Canada; therefore, their parenting practices are being targeted for intervention by civic organizations funded by the state. In this article, I argue that modernity narratives and neoliberalism approaches to mothering inform parenting education classes for Somali refugee women to Canada. Thus, Somali women are often seen as victims. Stereotyped identities conceal their social and historical agency. This research draws on 15 i...

  5. Plant traits in response to raising groundwater levels in wetland restoration: evidence from three case studies

    P. M. van Bodegom; Grootjans, A.P.; B. K. Sorrell; Bekker, R.M.; Bakker, C.; Ozinga, W A; Middleton, B

    2006-01-01

    Question: Is raising groundwater tables successful as a wetland restoration strategy? Location: Kennemer dunes, The Netherlands; Moksloot dunes, The Netherlands and Bullock Creek fen, New Zealand. Methods: Generalizations were made by analysing soil dynamics and the responsiveness of integrative plant traits on moisture, nutrient regime and seed dispersal in three case studies of rewetted vs. control wetlands with the same actual groundwater levels. Soil conditions included mineral (calcareou...

  6. Strategic Management of Tourism Sector in Bangladesh to raise Gross Domestic Product: An analysis

    Muhammad Mahboob Ali; Rehana Parvin

    2010-01-01

    Tourism sector brings tremendous opportunities as a fastest-growing economic sector in terms of foreign exchange earnings, creation of employment opportunities and raising purchasing power. As such tourism sector can play positive contribution towards enhancing Gross Domestic Product (GDP) of a country. The tourism sector in Bangladesh has been gradually growing from mid Nineties to till now. The study has been undertaken to observe effective and efficient utilization of strategic management ...

  7. Your Genes, Your Choices: Exploring the Issues Raised by Genetic Research

    Baker, C.

    1999-05-31

    Your Genes, Your Choices provides accurate information about the ethical, legal, and social implications of the Human Genome Project and genetic research in an easy-to-read style and format. Each chapter in the book begins with a brief vignette, which introduces an issue within a human story, and raises a question for the reader to think about as the basic science and information are presented in the rest of the chapter.

  8. Raised bed technology for wheat crop in irrigated areas of punjab, pakistan

    The present paper analyzes the determinants of adoption of raised bed planting of wheat in irrigated areas of Punjab, Pakistan. Wheat is an important staple food of Pakistan. It contributes 13 % to the value added in agriculture and 2.6 % to the GDP. The agrarian economy of Pakistan is continuously under stress due to the low yield of almost all the crops and constrained with many problem. One of the most important issues of agriculture is water shortage which is increasing day by day and is a major challenge now a days. Therefore, water saving becomes the utmost need of the hour. The national research system is now putting their focus and efforts to manage the precious water through various modern/latest water saving models to draw some solid method of irrigation with less wastage. Raised bed planting method is also one of the modern methods of planting crop with significant water saving. The study was planned and conducted by the Social Sciences Research Institute, Faisalabad in 2011-12 to assess the determinants of the adoption of the raised bed technology for wheat crop in irrigated Punjab, Pakistan. The study was conducted at three sites of the districts Faisalabad and Toba Tek Singh where the Water Management Research Institute, University of Faisalabad promoted the raised bed technology for wheat crop. A sample of 63 farmers was interviewed in detail to understand the whole system and the factors contributing to the adoption of the technology. The study revealed that adopters typically have a more favorable resource base and tend to variously outperform non-adopters. More access to education and other social indicators increases the chances to adopt new technologies by the farming community. However, the small farmers can also be benefited with the technology with proper education regarding the technology in the area with good social mobilization for the conservation of scarce and valuable farm resources. (author)

  9. On a relativistic model for baryons with a scalar raising potential

    The Bogolinbov model for baryons permits to include the relativistic effect in a first approximation when quarks as Dirac particles interacting among themselves through a central potential are considered. Further, based on gauge theories and the results of charmonium model, it is assumed that the potential and raising. It is shown that for several processes involving baryons, the results obtained by taking relativistic effects into account are better than the non-relativistic ones

  10. Impact of Consciousness-Raising Activities on Young English Language Learners’ Grammar Performance

    Hamidreza Fatemipour; Shiva Hemmati

    2015-01-01

    Grammar Consciousness-Raising (GCR) is an approach to teaching of grammar which learners instead of being taught the given rules, experience language data. The data challenge them to rethink, restructure their existing mental grammar and construct an explicit rule to describe the grammatical feature which the data illustrate (Ellis, 2002). And also GCR approach encourages learners to pay attention to language form (Richards & Smidth, 2002). The present study aimed to consider the effectiv...

  11. Food and drug administration regulation of drugs that raise blood pressure.

    Blankfield, Robert P; Iftikhar, Imran H

    2015-01-01

    Although it is recognized that a systolic blood pressure (SBP) increase ≥ 2 mm Hg or a diastolic blood pressure (DBP) increase ≥ 1 mm Hg increases the risk of heart attacks and strokes in middle-aged adults, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) lacks an adequate policy for regulating medications that increase blood pressure (BP). Some FDA reviewers consider a clinically significant increase in BP to occur only if a drug raises SBP ≥ 20 mm Hg or if a drug raises DBP ≥ 10 to 15 mm Hg. In recent years, numerous drugs have been regulated or taken off the market due to cardiovascular safety concerns. The list includes rofecoxib (Vioxx), valdecoxib (Bextra), nonselective nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, sibutramine (Meridia), and phenylpropanolamine. It is probable that the hypertensive effect of these drugs explains why they increase the risk of adverse cardiovascular events. Other drugs, notably serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors and drugs used to treat attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, were approved without cardiovascular safety data despite the fact that they raise BP comparable to valdecoxib and sibutramine. It is the responsibility of the FDA to ensure that drugs are properly labeled regarding risk. Even if a drug raises BP only modestly, FDA guidelines for new drug approvals should include a requirement for cardiovascular safety data. However, such guidelines will not address the problem of how to obtain cardiovascular safety data for the many already approved drugs that increase BP. The FDA should play a role in obtaining cardiovascular safety data for such drugs. PMID:24803642

  12. The eurozone’s struggling economies are increasingly selling citizenship to raise much needed capital

    Dzankic, Jelena

    2012-01-01

    How far should countries go to encourage foreign investment? Jelena Dzankic writes that in a time of economic crisis, some countries in Europe are now seeking investment in exchange for citizenship. Assessing recent developments in Bulgaria, Hungary, Portugal and Ireland, she argues that despite the obvious financial benefits to such policies, they are not without risks. They may raise the potential for tax evasion and security issues, and could also reduce the relationship between the indivi...

  13. How Different Modes of Child Delivery Influence Abdominal Muscle Activities in the Active Straight Leg Raise

    Kwon, Yu-Jeong; Hyung, Eun-Ju; Yang, Kyung-Hye; Lee, Hyun-Ok

    2014-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to examine the activities of the abdominal muscles of women who had experienced vaginal delivery in comparison with those who had experienced Cesarean childbirth. [Subjects and Methods] A total of 14 subjects (7 vaginal delivery, 7 Cesarean section) performed an active straight leg raise to 20?cm above the ground, and we measured the activities of the internal oblique abdominal muscle, the external oblique abdominal muscle, and the rectus...

  14. Topics raised by the summary report of the first review meeting

    This document presents the fulfilling of the Brazilian obligations under the Convention on Nuclear Safety. The Chapter 7 of the document contains topics raised by the summary report of the first review meeting. The chapter covers status and position of the regulatory body, collective doses, effluents release trends, adoption of the ICRP 60 and basic safety standards, regulatory strategy, quality assurance, monitoring safety management, international cooperation, probabilistic safety assessment and safety improvement programmes

  15. Structural evaluation of WIPP disposal room raised to Clay Seam G

    This report summarizes a series of structural calculations that examine effects of raising the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant repository horizon from the original design level upward 2.43 meters. These calculations allow evaluation of various features incorporated in conceptual models used for performance assessment. Material presented in this report supports the regulatory compliance re-certification, and therefore begins by replicating the calculations used in the initial compliance certification application. Calculations are then repeated for grid changes appropriate for the new horizon raised to Clay Seam G. Results are presented in three main areas: 1. Disposal room porosity, 2. Disturbed rock zone characteristics, and 3. Anhydrite marker bed failure. No change to the porosity surface for the compliance re-certification application is necessary to account for raising the repository horizon, because the new porosity surface is essentially identical. The disturbed rock zone evolution and devolution are charted in terms of a stress invariant criterion over the regulatory period. This model shows that the damage zone does not extend upward to MB 138, but does reach MB 139 below the repository. Damaged salt would be expected to heal in nominally 100 years. The anhydrite marker beds sustain states of stress that promote failure and substantial marker bed deformation into the room assures fractured anhydrite will sustain in the proximity of the disposal rooms

  16. The influence of facing direction on the haptic identification of two-dimensional raised pictures.

    Scocchia, Lisa; Stucchi, Natale; Loomis, Jack M

    2009-01-01

    It has been hypothesized (Lederman et al, 1990 Perception & Psychophysics 47 54-64) that sighted people adopt a visual translation process when attempting to identify 2-D raised images by touch they employ a visual image as a mediator between haptic sensory information and the object representation. If this hypothesis is correct, the performance in identifying pictures by touch (with eyes closed) ought to be better when the head is facing the picture than when facing in a very different direction. In this study, thirty-six blindfolded participants were required to identify raised pictures of common objects with their head facing either in the same direction as the raised picture or in an orthogonal direction. Identification performance was measured in terms of accuracy and response latencies. Overall, participants were more accurate and faster when their heads faced in the same direction as the picture. This finding is discussed in terms of spatial congruency between haptic representations of pictures and visual (or spatial) imagery created during exploration of haptic pictures. PMID:19522327

  17. Prediction of antibody persistency from antibody titres to natalizumab

    Jensen, Poul Erik H; Koch-Henriksen, Nils; Sellebjerg, Finn; Sørensen, Per S

    2012-01-01

    In a subgroup of patients with multiple sclerosis natalizumab therapy causes generation of anti-natalizumab antibodies that may be transient or persistent. It is recommended to discontinue natalizumab therapy in persistently antibody-positive patients.......In a subgroup of patients with multiple sclerosis natalizumab therapy causes generation of anti-natalizumab antibodies that may be transient or persistent. It is recommended to discontinue natalizumab therapy in persistently antibody-positive patients....

  18. WIDAL TITRES AMONG CHILDREN IN A TERTIARY CARE HOSPITAL

    Poornima; Radhana

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the titers of antibodies against O, H, AH & BH antigens of S.typhi & S. paratypi by Widal test over a 1 year study period among children in a tertiary level hospital. METHODS: This observational study was conducted in the Pediatric wards of a tertiary hospital at Bangalore, Karnataka from 1st January 2013 to December 31st 2013. Children who presented with a history of fever of =/> 7 days were included in the study. These children underwent a...

  19. WIDAL TITRES AMONG CHILDREN IN A TERTIARY CARE HOSPITAL

    Poornima

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To determine the titers of antibodies against O, H, AH & BH antigens of S.typhi & S. paratypi by Widal test over a 1 year study period among children in a tertiary level hospital. METHODS: This observational study was conducted in the Pediatric wards of a tertiary hospital at Bangalore, Karnataka from 1st January 2013 to December 31st 2013. Children who presented with a history of fever of =/> 7 days were included in the study. These children underwent a Widal test to rule out typhoid fever. A total of 1197 such patients were included in the study. Children with antibody titers more than 1:160 were considered to have enteric fever. RESULTS: Out of the 1197 children, 515 were females & 682 were males. Among females in the age group of /=1:160. Similarly, 5.97%, 6.9% & 7.41% of males in the age group of /=1:160.The titers were similar among the males & the females in all the 3 age groups that were studied. CONCLUSION: The level of antibody titers may vary with time. The highest level of Widal titers of 1:320 against both O & H antigen were found in 3.08%, 2.22% & 1.67% of females in the age group of <2yrs, 2-5 years & 5-18 yrs. Similarly, 1.49%, 3.45% & 1.4% of males in the age group of <2yrs, 2-5 years & 5-18 years had the highest level of titers of 1: 320 against both antigens . Thus there has been an increase in the level of baseline titers against Salmonella species, which needs to be considered while interpreting the results of Widal test for the diagnosis of enteric fever.

  20. Pas de titre en français

    Deaconu, Georgia

    2013-01-01

    La réalisation des missions spatiales repose de plus en plus souvent sur la coopération entre différents engins spatiaux. Parmi les opérations de proximité, ! le rendez-vous orbital est une pratique aussi ancienne que la ! conquête spatiale, qui continue de générer de nombreux travaux de recherche. Cependant, les motivations et les objectifs des récentes missions de rendez-vous orbital ont largement évolués. En effet, les besoins d'une autonomie accrue, d'une sécurité améliorée, d'une plus gr...

  1. Where Are We With HDL Raising and Inhibition of Cholesteryl Ester Transfer for Heart Disease Risk Reduction?

    Purpose: To review recent research in the area of high density lipoprotein (HDL) raising and coronary heart disease (CHD) risk reduction. Recent Findings: It is known that a decreased HDL cholesterol is an important CHD risk factor, and that raising HDL cholesterol has been associated with CHD risk...

  2. Measuring Metacognition and Reaction Time: Further Findings on the Performances of General Education, Low-Achieving, and Institutionally Raised Students

    Al-Hilawani, Yasser A.; Abdullah, Ahmad A.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to use the picture format to examine in depth the metacognitive performances and reaction time in general education, low-achieving, and institutionally raised students. Results revealed that institutionally raised students, unlike low-achieving students, took significantly the longest reaction time to finish the test…

  3. 30 CFR 57.4660 - Work in shafts, raises, or winzes and other activities involving hazard areas.

    2010-07-01

    ... Work in shafts, raises, or winzes and other activities involving hazard areas. During performance of an activity underground described in Table C-2 or when falling sparks or hot metal from work performed in a... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Work in shafts, raises, or winzes and...

  4. A Web-Based Fact Sheet Series for Grandparents Raising Grandchildren and the Professionals Who Serve Them

    Brintnall-Peterson, Mary; Poehlmann, Julie; Morgan, Kari; Shlafer, Rebecca

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: To develop and evaluate a series of web-based fact sheets for grandparents raising grandchildren. The fact sheets focus on child development issues that grandparents may face when raising their grandchildren. Design and Methods: The fact sheets were developed using research on attachment theory, child development, and the needs of…

  5. Bio-Economic Evaluation of the Performance of Rabbits Raised under Two Different Housing Systems

    Mobolaji-Bukola, PU.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to evaluate the bio-economic performance of rabbits raised under two different housing systems: conventional hutch with cage system as control (A and the non-conventional floor housing system (B. Thirty six adult rabbits of medium size breed category of both sexes aged 5-6 months comprising Chinchilla (20, New Zealand White (10, Dutch (6 were used in the study which lasted 24 weeks. Fifteen does and 3 bucks were each randomly but equally assigned to both housing systems. Data on individual and group treatments were analysed with a one-way analysis of variance and students' ttest, employed in testing differences between the means. A benefit-cost analysis was used to evaluate the relative cost effectiveness of each housing option. Results obtained showed that rabbits raised on floor performed better (6 kittens < 0.05 biologically than those reared in hutched (3 kittens. For example, significant final weights (1.9 kg and weight gains (0.4 kg were observed in rabbits reared on floor as against those in hutch 1.6 kg and 0.09 kg. From an economic viewpoint, rabbits raised on floor contributed higher positive income (N 58.2 per unit of meat produced than rabbits reared in hutch or cage. Rate of return on investment in the former was estimated at about 50%. The floor housing system which is the cheaper, more productive and cost-effective is therefore recommended for farmers who are lacking the fundamental factors of production namely land and particularly capital as observed in the study location or environment.

  6. Effect of ultraviolet rays upon the productivity and adaptive possibilities of sows raised under industrial conditions

    Two experiments, aimed at establishing the effect of treatment with UV-rays on productivity of sows, the growth rate of pigs up to weaning, their adaptive reactions, and the micro-climate on the premises were carried out with 60 sows, divided into two groups: group i (controls) raised on premises without treatment with UV-rays, and group ii (experimental) raised on premises under treatment with UV-rays. Both nursing sows and piglets until their weaning were raised under industrial conditions. Type PRK-2 mercury lamp of 120 V, 3.75 A, and 375 W was used as a source of UV-rays. Each animal was exposed to irradiation daily for a period of 2 min. The live weight of sows, prolificacy, live weight of pigs at weaning and number of culled pigs during the sucking period, were checked. The adaptive reactions of sows and pigs were examined by ACT-hormon testing. Before treatment and 3 h after treatment with this hormone leucocyte, eosinophile and erythrocyte count and the haemoglobin, Ca, blood sugar, total protein, albumin and globulin in the blood were checked. The temperature, moisture, velocity of movement and gas composition of air were measured prior to blood sampling. Under the conditions existing in industrial pig-breeding complexes ensuring complete feeding of animals UV-treatment did not produce essential effects on the productivity of sows and the growth rate of pigs as well as on the adaptive reactions of animals and the micro-climate on the premises

  7. Study of problems raised by the production of electronic preamplifier by thin layer evaporation

    This research thesis reports the study of the different methods of manufacturing electronic assemblies by deposition of various thin layers in order to reduce dimensions and weight of such assemblies. Thin layers have been prepared by vacuum evaporation. During this preparation, the author identified the problems raised by this miniaturisation technique. The most important ones have been solved and it was then possible to produce by this method charge preamplifiers aimed at the detection of nuclear particles. The author envisages the production of capacitors with such a technique based on thin layers

  8. Raising the Profile of Today’s Greek Children’s Literature

    Yiannis S. Papadatos; Dimitris Politis

    2012-01-01

    The main scope of this article is to raise a concise profile of today’s Greek Literature for Children, which has been shaped during last years. After a short report on the reasons that contributed to the configuration of such a profile, some representative books written for children are presented, divided into three categories according to their main theme. There is also a reference to the various genres of literature address children as well as to the translations into Greek, to the illustra...

  9. Children are costly, but raising them may pay : The economic approach to fertility

    Martin Werding

    2014-01-01

    Objective: This article provides a non-technical introduction to analyses of fertility which are based on a rational-choice paradigm and which acknowledge that raising children may have a strong impact on the well-being of parents that can be described in terms of costs and benefits. It surveys different types of economic fertility models which can be used to address a variety of research questions, and it also discusses some basic strengths and weaknesses of applying economic analyses in thi...

  10. The Double Passive in Swedish : A case of creating raising verbs in the Scandinavian languages.

    Söderberg, Benny

    2013-01-01

    The primary aim of this thesis is to map the syntactic and semantic nature, and the frequency of the Double Passive in Swedish. The results showed that the Double Passive is a control construction where the internal argument (OBJ) of the embedded verb is raised to subject of the s-passive matrix verb, and the verb of the infinitival complement co-occurs as an s-passive infinitive. In the thesis Lexical functional grammar (LFG) is used as a model for semantic and syntactic analysis. The analys...

  11. ‘One of the Challenges that Can Plausibly Be Raised Against Them’?

    Holtermann, Jakob v. H.

    2016-01-01

    International criminal tribunals (ICTs) are epistemic engines in the sense that they find (or claim to find) factual truths about such past events that qualify as genocide, crimes against humanity and war crimes. The value of this kind of knowledge would seem to be beyond dispute. Yet, in general...... under-stood, truth in law is intimately connected to ordinary truth. Truth-finding capacity therefore does belong in legitimacy debates as a challenge that can plausibly be raised against them. This, in turn makes it relevant, in future research, to map, analyse and interrelate the various critiques...

  12. Technique improvement of thoracoabdominal CT scan for patients with arm-raising disability

    Objective: To explore a new scanning technique to reduce and avoid image artifacts of thoracoabdominal CT and improve image quality for patients who cannot raise their arms. Methods: Sixty-one patients with arm-raising disability between March 2004 and May 2009 were enrolled in the study. Thirty-one cases before June 2007 were scanned with their arms beside their body (control group), 30 cases after June 2007 were scanned with their arms shifting to different imaging planes of the spine (study group), and another 30 patients who can raising their arms were taken as routine group. The images artifacts were blindly evaluated by 5-points scale (severe, less severe, moderate, minimum and no artifact) by 2 experienced CT technologists and one radiologist and compared between the three groups (X2 test). CT values and its noise of the liver with or without artifact of the three groups were measured and analyzed by one-way ANOVA test. Results: In the control group, 11 cases had severe, 15 cases had less severe, 5 cases had moderate. In the study group, 6 cases had moderate, 15 cases had minimum, 9 cases had no artifact. In the routine group, 8 cases minimum and 22 cases had no artifact. Image quality was significantly improved in the study group compared to the conventional group where X2=95.32 and P<0.01. CT value and the noise of the liver without artifact were (54.5 ± 3.0) HU and 10.7 ± 2.4 in the control group, (52.0 ± 3.5) HU and 10.7 ± 0.5 in the study group, (53.7 ± 3.1) HU and 9.9 ± 0.5 in the routine group, respectively. CT value and noise of the liver with artifact were (41.7 ± 8.4) HU and 17.9 ± 2.6 in control group, (53.1 ± 6.9) HU and 11.0 ± 0.7 in the study group, (54.1 ± 2.4) HU and 9.9 ± 0.5 in the routine group, respectively. The CT value and its noise variation with artifact were significantly higher in the control group than the study group and the control group, where F=36.352, 235.848, respectively and P<0.01. Conclusion: The image quality can be improved and the artifact can be minimized for the patients with arm-raising disability by shifting their arm position to the different imaging planes of the spine. (authors)

  13. Raising Children in an Evangelical Family Environment: Biblical Principles Applied to the Family

    Ljubinka Jambrek

    2009-01-01

    As Creator, God designed the family and determined the standards and rules for living and functioning in the family. As a basic unit of society, the family is to reflect God’s glory. God’s plan for marriage and the family has not changed, only the human approach to this institution has changed. Therefore, it is vital to re-emphasize how important it is that the family functions according to biblical standards. This article deals with raising children in an evangelical environment which assume...

  14. Renormalization flow for extreme value statistics of random variables raised to a varying power

    Using a renormalization approach, we study the asymptotic limit distribution of the maximum value in a set of independent and identically distributed random variables raised to a power qn that varies monotonically with the sample size n. Under these conditions, a non-standard class of max-stable limit distributions, which mirror the classical ones, emerges. Furthermore, a transition mechanism between the classical and the non-standard limit distributions is brought to light. If qn grows slower than a characteristic function q*n, the standard limit distributions are recovered, while if qn behaves asymptotically as ?q*n, non-standard limit distributions emerge. (paper)

  15. Bio-Economic Evaluation of the Performance of Rabbits Raised under Two Different Housing Systems

    Mobolaji-Bukola, PU.; Allison-Oguru, EA.; Berepubo, NA.; Oruwari, BM.

    2002-01-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the bio-economic performance of rabbits raised under two different housing systems: conventional hutch with cage system as control (A) and the non-conventional floor housing system (B). Thirty six adult rabbits of medium size breed category of both sexes aged 5-6 months comprising Chinchilla (20), New Zealand White (10), Dutch (6) were used in the study which lasted 24 weeks. Fifteen does and 3 bucks were each randomly but equally assigned to both housing ...

  16. Epidemiology of Eimeria infections in sheep raised extensively in a semiarid region of Brazil.

    Souza, Luiz Eduardo Barreto de; Cruz, Jurandir Ferreira da; Teixeira Neto, Milton Rezende; Albuquerque, George Rêgo; Melo, Antonio Diego Brandão; Tapia, Daniel Mario Tapia

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this study was to identify and determine the prevalence of Eimeria species affecting sheep raised extensively in a semiarid region of Brazil. Fecal samples of native sheep were collected during the rainy and dry seasons. The degree of infection was determined by counting oocysts per gram (OPG) of feces, and the morphometric method was used for species identification. Oocysts were found in all the properties assessed, in which 68.3% of the animals were infected. The prevalence of oocysts was influenced by the season and animal category (Psemiarid region. PMID:26648007

  17. Baseline hematology and clinical chemistry results from captive-raised trumpeter swans

    Olsen, G.H.; Rininger, D.L.; Ets, M.K.; Sladen, William J. L.

    2002-01-01

    Results from hematology and clinical chemistry tests are presented for healthy captive-raised Trumpeter Swans (Cygnus buccinator) to help establish baseline data. Blood samples were obtained from 14 cygnets between the ages of three to four and seven to eight months that were the subjects of a study to teach migration routes to swans. Males and females differed significantly in asparatate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase and total protein. Age categories differed significantly in hematocrit, white blood cell counts, alkaline phosphatase, aspar-rate aminotransferase, glucose, cholesterol and uric acid. There were no significant differences among age categories in values of alanine aminotransferase, calcium, triglycerides and total protein.

  18. Building America Case Study: Raised Ceiling Interior Duct System, New Smyrna, Florida (Fact Sheet)

    2014-09-01

    One of BA-PIRC's longtime Habitat for Humanity partners, S.E. Volusia CO (SEVHFH), was interested in building a home to the new Challenge Home standards. SEVHFH routinely builds ENERGY STAR V3.1 homes. The only modification to their design needed to comply with the Challenge Home criteria was the interior duct requirement. Unwilling to incur the added costs of a foam roof deck or wall heights above 8 feet to accommodate a fur-down chase SEVHFH opted to build a fur-up or raised ceiling chase.

  19. Raising students and educators awareness of radioactive materials transport through creative classroom materials and exhibits

    The public is concerned about how the shipping and handling of radioactive materials affects them and their environment. Through exhibit showings doing professional education conferences and smaller, focussed workshops, the United States Department of Energy (DOE) has found teachers and students to be an especially interested audience for hazardous and radioactive materials transportation information. DOE recognizes the importance of presenting educational opportunities to students about scientific and societal issues associated with planning for and safely transporting these types of materials. Raising students' and educators' awareness of hazardous and radioactive materials transport through creative classroom materials and exhibits may help them make informed decisions as adults about this often controversial and difficult issue

  20. An elementary construction of lowering and raising operators for the trigonometric Calogero-Sutherland model

    Garcia Fuertes, Wifredo; Lorente, Miguel; Perelomov, Askold M.

    2001-01-01

    [EN]Quantum Calogero-Sutherland model of A_n type is completely integrable. Using this fact, we give an elementary construction of lowering an raising operators for the trigonometric case. This is similar, but more complicated (due to the fact that the energy spectrum is not equidistant) than the construction for the rational case. [ES]El modelo Cuántico Calogero-Sutherland de tipo A_n es completamente integrable. Usando este hecho, damos una construcción elemental de descenso en operadores d...

  1. The significance of raised radon levels in NHS properties in Northamptonshire

    The radon levels in hospital premises in Northamptonshire were assessed following NRPB reports that levels were raised. Results indicated that levels were generally low, but above the action level of 400 Bq.m-3 in 6% of sites, and in need of immediate reduction in 1% of sites. These hot-spots can be very localised affecting an area as small as a single office. Staff in these areas could receive doses of 5 mSv or more per year, greater than the occupational exposure of radiographers, radiologists and other health workers. (author)

  2. Mama `poma´, dad `apple´: Raising a Child with Catalan in Australia.

    Victòria Gras

    2014-01-01

    The decision to speak Catalan to my daughter came naturally to me. How else would I tell a story, sing a lullaby or make her laugh but in the language I was told stories, sung lullabies to and made to laugh since I was a new-born! However, whereas the choice to speak one’s mother tongue to your children is not questioned anymore in Spain, making this same choice when you live elsewhere seems to raise a lot of eyebrows. In this article I will reflect, from my own experience, ...

  3. SCHOOL-BASED SAVINGS PROGRAMMES AS A METHOD OF RAISING FINANCIAL AWARENESS IN CHILDREN

    Joanna Lenkiewicz

    2014-01-01

    Saving money and budgeting concerns every one of us. One of the most famous ways of depositing money is the use of an account or a traditional piggy bank. Not only the last option is close to the youngest. It has long been known School-based Savings Programmes (SSP). We try to instill in the youngest ability and habit of depositing mon-ey. Bank goes out to meet the needs and continually improve the SSP. The first part of the article focuses on the notion of SSP. It was raised matter of passbo...

  4. Thermal stress analysis of pipe flange connections with raised-face gasket subjected to heat conduction

    This paper deals with thermal stress analysis of a pipe flange connection with a raised-face gasket subjected to heat conduction. In the analysis, pipe flange, hubs of the flanges and a raised-face gasket are replaced by finite hollow cylinders. When the inner surface is subjected to heat conduction due to contained fluid and the outer surface are kept at a constant temperature, temperature distribution of the connection is analyzed. Using the temperature distribution, thermoelastic displacement potential is determined. Thermal stresses and displacements are analyzed by using the thermoelastic displacement potential and axisymmetrical theory of elasticity. Experiments are performed. The analytical results are in fairly good agreement with the experimental results concerning the variation of axial bolt force and the axial strain at the hubs of pipe flange. In the numerical calculations, the effects of the ratios of Young's modulus and the gasket thickness between the flanges and the gaskets on the contact stress distribution are examined. As the results, it is seen that the thermal stress at the inner surface increases with a decrease of the ratio of Young's modulus and that it increases with a decrease of the gasket thickness

  5. Research Concerning the Economic Efficiency in Carabasa Sheep Breed Raising in Various Sized Farms

    Agatha Popescu

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper aimed to analyze the economic efficiency in two farms dealing with Carabasa Breed raising as follows:Farm1-86 sheep flock, of which 62 ewes, producing in average 146 liters milk/head/year and Farm 2-297 sheepstock, of which 255 ewes, with 140 liters/head milk yield. Economic efficiency was comparatively analyzed basedon: gross product, production cost, variable and fixed cost, gross margin, profit, profit rate, farm economic size. Theboth farms registered profit, but Farm 2, the largest one taking into account the number of sheep, recorded a highereconomic efficiency: 1.5 lambs/ewe, 22.50 kg cottage cheese/ewe, 1.17 Easter lambs/ewe, Euro 148 feedingcost/sheep, Euro 0.30/liter milk cost, Euro 233 income/ewe, Euro 61 profit/ewe, Euro 68 gross margin/ewe and a35.55% profit rate. With Euro 17,274 profit at farm level, Farm 2 was considered a commercial middle sized farm,ESU 7.19 and Farm 1 a very small farm, ESU 1.04. As a conclusion, breeders raising Carabasa Breed, an excellentbiological resource for milk and meat for Romanian sheep farming, have to increase farm size in order to go up theprofitability and competitiveness of their farms.

  6. Re-calibration of the magnetic compass in hand-raised European robins (Erithacus rubecula).

    Alert, Bianca; Michalik, Andreas; Thiele, Nadine; Bottesch, Michael; Mouritsen, Henrik

    2015-01-01

    Migratory birds can use a variety of environmental cues for orientation. A primary calibration between the celestial and magnetic compasses seems to be fundamental prior to a bird's first autumn migration. Releasing hand-raised or rescued young birds back into the wild might therefore be a problem because they might not have established a functional orientation system during their first calendar year. Here, we test whether hand-raised European robins that did not develop any functional compass before or during their first autumn migration could relearn to orient if they were exposed to natural celestial cues during the subsequent winter and spring. When tested in the geomagnetic field without access to celestial cues, these birds could orient in their species-specific spring migratory direction. In contrast, control birds that were deprived of any natural celestial cues throughout remained unable to orient. Our experiments suggest that European robins are still capable of establishing a functional orientation system after their first autumn. Although the external reference remains speculative, most likely, natural celestial cues enabled our birds to calibrate their magnetic compass. Our data suggest that avian compass systems are more flexible than previously believed and have implications for the release of hand-reared migratory birds. PMID:26388258

  7. Raising the dead without a Red Sea-Dead Sea canal? Hydro-economics and governance

    D. E. Rosenberg

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Seven decades of extractions have dramatically reduced Jordan River flows, lowered the Dead Sea level, opened sink holes, and caused other environmental problems. The fix Jordan, Israel, and the Palestinians propose would build an expensive multipurpose canal from the Red Sea to the Dead Sea that would also generate hydropower and desalinated water. This paper compares the Red-Dead project to alternatives that may also raise the Dead Sea level. Hydro-economic model results for the Jordan-Israel-Palestinian inter-tied water systems show two restoration alternatives are more economically viable than the proposed Red-Dead project. Many decentralized new supply, wastewater reuse, conveyance, conservation, and leak reduction projects and programs in each country can together increase economic benefits and reliably deliver up to 900 MCM/year to the Dead Sea. Similarly, a smaller Red-Dead project that only generates hydropower can deliver large flows to the Dead Sea when the sale price of generated electricity is sufficiently high. However, for all restoration options, net benefits fall and water scarcity rises as flows to the Dead Sea increase. This finding suggests (i each country has no individual incentive to return water to the Dead Sea, and (ii outside institutions that seek to raise the Dead must also offer countries direct incentives to deliver water to the Sea besides building the countries new infrastructure.

  8. Development of survival skills in captive-raised Siberian polecats (Mustela eversmanni) I: locating prey

    Miller, Brian; Biggins, Dean; Wemmer, Chris; Powell, Roger; Hanebury, Lou; Horn, Deborah; Vargas, Astrid

    1990-01-01

    Captive-raised mustelids appear to have a rudimentary capacity to kill prey, but the skills necessary for locating prey may be eroded during captivity. We tested the maturational component of prey-searching behavior with captive-raised Siberian polecats (Mustela eversmanni) by subjecting polecats to a simulated prairie dog colony of 6 burrows within a 200 m2 arena. Ten naive Siberian polecats at ages 2.5, 3.5, and 4.5 months (30 total) were deprived of food for 12 hours. A dead prairie dog was placed in 1 prairie dog burrow and the other 5 were empty. A single Siberian polecat was released onto the colony shortly before sunset and its movements monitored from an observation tower. Older Siberian polecats located prey significantly quicker than younger polecats, but all age groups spent a great deal of time in surface activity not directed toward a burrow. When Siberian polecats were about 10 months old, all burrows in the arena were plugged with dirt including the burrow with the prairie dog. In this winter test, Siberian polecats located the prey but still spent a great deal of time in non-burrow directed surface activity. Economical use of surface time, with a low amount of non-burrow directed behavior, would presumably reduce the risk of predation for hunting polecats.

  9. Rooks use stones to raise the water level to reach a floating worm.

    Bird, Christopher David; Emery, Nathan John

    2009-08-25

    In Aesop's fable "The Crow and the Pitcher," a thirsty crow uses stones to raise the level of water in a pitcher and quench its thirst. A number of corvids have been found to use tools in the wild, and New Caledonian crows appear to understand the functional properties of tools and solve complex physical problems via causal and analogical reasoning. The rook, another member of the corvid family that does not appear to use tools in the wild, also appears able to solve non-tool-related problems via similar reasoning. Here, we present evidence that captive rooks are also able to solve a complex problem by using tools. We presented four captive rooks with a problem analogous to Aesop's fable: raising the level of water so that a floating worm moved into reach. All four subjects solved the problem with an appreciation of precisely how many stones were needed. Three subjects also rapidly learned to use large stones over small ones, and that sawdust cannot be manipulated in the same manner as water. This behavior demonstrates a flexible ability to use tools, a finding with implications for the evolution of tool use and cognition in animals. PMID:19664926

  10. Raising adults as children? A report on milieu therapy in a psychiatric ward in Norway.

    Oeye, Christine; Bjelland, Anne Karen; Skorpen, Aina; Anderssen, Norman

    2009-03-01

    Milieu therapy is widely used as a therapeutic approach in psychiatric wards in the Nordic countries, but few studies exist that report on what practices a milieu therapy approach implies as seen from an ethnographic perspective. Therefore, there is a need to obtain insight into how milieu therapy unfolds in a psychiatric ward setting. The present ethnographic study aims to explore this in a locked-up psychiatric ward that was tied to a psychodynamic-oriented milieu therapy approach. Metaphors from traditional nuclear family life were widely used. Patients were often understood as harmed children and were taught self-management skills; the staff aimed at providing a caring atmosphere; and the patients seemed to behave, sometimes, in a childlike manner. In a Foucaultian framework, milieu therapy can be seen as a therapeutic normalization technique used to produce self-governing individuals. Milieu therapy "raises" patients in order to transform patients' odd behaviour and nonconforming lifestyles. We see this "raising children" approach as a type of intervention that nicely connects to the national policy of normalization and integration politics towards persons with psychiatric diagnoses. PMID:19291491

  11. Raising the Dead without a Red Sea-Dead Sea project? Hydro-economics and governance

    D. E. Rosenberg

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Seven decades of extractions have dramatically reduced Jordan River flows, lowered the Dead Sea level, opened sink holes, and caused other environmental problems. The fix Jordan, Israel, and the Palestinians propose would build an expensive multipurpose conveyance project from the Red Sea to the Dead Sea that would also generate hydropower and desalinate water. This paper compares the Red-Dead project to alternatives that may also raise the Dead Sea level. Hydro-economic model results for the Jordan-Israel-Palestinian inter-tied water systems show two restoration alternatives are more economically viable than the proposed Red-Dead project. Many decentralized new supply, wastewater reuse, conveyance, conservation, and leak reduction projects and programs in each country can together increase economic benefits and reliably deliver up to 900 MCM yr−1 to the Dead Sea. Similarly, a smaller Red-Dead project that only generates hydropower can deliver large flows to the Dead Sea when the sale price of generated electricity is sufficiently high. However, for all restoration options, net benefits fall and water scarcity rises as flows to the Dead Sea increase. This finding suggests (i each country has no individual incentive to return water to the Dead Sea, and (ii outside institutions that seek to raise the Dead must also offer countries direct incentives to deliver water to the Sea besides building the countries new infrastructure.

  12. Directional specificity of postural threat on anticipatory postural adjustments during lateral leg raising.

    Gendre, Manon; Yiou, Eric; Gélat, Thierry; Honeine, Jean-Louis; Deroche, Thomas

    2016-03-01

    This study explored the directional specificity of fear of falling (FoF) effects on the stabilizing function of anticipatory postural adjustments (APA). Participants (N = 71) performed a series of lateral leg raises from an elevated surface in three conditions: in the "Control condition", participants stood at the middle of the surface; in the two test conditions, participants were positioned at the lateral edge of the surface so that the shift of the whole-body centre-of-mass during APA for leg raising was directed towards the edge ("Approach condition") or was directed away from the edge ("Avoidance condition"). Results showed that the amplitude of APA was lower in the "Approach condition" than in the "Control condition" (p APA duration (p APA parameters were not present in the "Avoidance condition". Participants further self-reported a greater FoF (p APA relative to the location of the postural threat. These results support the so-called Motivational Direction Hypothesis, according to which approach and avoidance behaviours are primed by emotional state. PMID:26497990

  13. Frank-ter Haar syndrome associated with sagittal craniosynostosis and raised intracranial pressure

    Bendon Charlotte L

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Frank-ter Haar syndrome is a rare disorder associated with skeletal, cardiac, ocular and craniofacial features including hypertelorism and brachycephaly. The most common underlying genetic defect in Frank-ter Haar syndrome appears to be a mutation in the SH3PXD2B gene on chromosome 5q35.1. Craniosynostosis, or premature fusion of the calvarial sutures, has not previously been described in Frank-ter Haar syndrome. Case presentation We present a family of three affected siblings born to consanguineous parents with clinical features in keeping with a diagnosis of Frank-ter Haar syndrome. All three siblings have a novel mutation caused by the deletion of exon 13 of the SH3PXD2B gene. Two of the three siblings also have non-scaphocephalic sagittal synostosis associated with raised intracranial pressure. Conclusion The clinical features of craniosynostosis and raised intracranial pressure in this family with a confirmed diagnosis of Frank-ter Haar syndrome expand the clinical spectrum of the disease. The abnormal cranial proportions in a mouse model of the disease suggests that the association is not coincidental. The possibility of craniosynostosis should be considered in individuals with a suspected diagnosis of Frank-ter Haar syndrome.

  14. Raising Climate Finance from International Transport Sectors. Identification and Analysis of Governance Structures

    Faber, J. [CE Delft, Delft (Netherlands); Pahuja, N.; Garg, A. [The Energy and Resources Institute TERI, New Delhi (India)

    2012-03-15

    Market based instruments (MBIs) for maritime transport have the potential to reduce emissions while at the same time raising funds for climate policies in developing countries. GHG emissions from international aviation and maritime transport accounted for approximately 5% of global anthropogenic emissions in 2005 and are rising rapidly. There is a clear need to address these emissions in order not to undermine policies for mitigating land based emissions. Developing countries need financial support to carry out climate policies, both adaptation and mitigation. The UN Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) makes policies by developing countries conditional on climate finance. In the current economic and financial circumstances, there is a need for new sources of finance. The governance of such MBIs should ensure that they are neither an international tax nor require hypothecation of fiscal revenues, while they should provide new and additional finance. MBIs which are in fact an international tax would not be politically feasible, and likewise hypothecation would be opposed by many states. This report finds that an emissions trading scheme (ETS) can satisfy these criteria, provided that: (1) it transfers a share of allowances directly to developing countries in order to ensure there is no net incidence on them; developing countries could auction these allowances in order to raise revenue; (2) it transfers allowances to the Green Climate Fund to support climate policies; auctioning these allowances would provide revenues for the Fund; (3) it transfers allowances to IMO or another organisation in order to finance fuel-efficiency improvements in international transport.

  15. [Comment on “Raising the ante on the climate debate”] Wasting public money?

    Parrish, Judith Totman

    The letters written by U.S. Rep. Joe Barton and his committee (Forum, Eos, 12 July 2005, p. 262) asking for data from Michael Mann and other scientists are certainly chilling because of the time it would take to meet the requests, but Rep. Barton has every right to make such requests.Thomas Crowley asked,“At some point, one must ask why should a member of the U.S. Congress get involved in this matter which may have been raised by a Canadian?” He opines that the reason was to intimidate and foment uncertainty. The real answer is, Barton is making the request because he can and is doing what, in his mind, is his job. That the issues were raised by a Canadian is immaterial; plenty of Americans are also skeptical of global change research. Moreover, the argument that “there is more agreement than disagreement” among the various paleoclimate reconstructions would not resonate with a layperson; even laypeople know that the history of science is fraught with examples of consensuses that proved wrong.

  16. Characteristics of milk production traits of Balkan goats raised under “low-input” production systems

    Vladan Bogdanović

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available In order to analyse dairy production traits (milk yield in full lactation, milk fat content, daily milk yield and length of lactation of Balkan goats raised under “low-input” production systems, data on 440 lactation records from 118 does raised on 9 farms in south-east part of Serbia were used. General linear model, used for analysing variability of lactation length, was consisting of following fixed effects: farm, year of birth, year of production and number of lactation. Model for milk yield in full lactation, milk fat content and daily milk yield was consisting of farms, year of birth, year of production and number of lactation as fixed effects and length of lactation as covariate. The highest milk yield (392 kg and the highest milk fat content (3.89 % were achieved in III lactation. Effects of farm, year of production and number of lactation were very significant sources of variation (P<0.001 for milk yield, daily milk yield and milk fat content, while the year of birth as factor of phenotypic variation in these traits expressed no such consistency. Highly significant sources of variation (P<0.001 for the length of lactation were farm and year of production, while the length of lactation had a significant influence (P<0.001 only for total milk yield variability.

  17. Comparison of ankle plantar flexor activity between double-leg heel raise and walking.

    Fujisawa, Hiroyuki; Suzuki, Hiroto; Nishiyama, Toru; Suzuki, Makoto

    2015-05-01

    [Purpose] We aimed to evaluate the difference in the muscle activity between the double-leg heel raise (DHR) and treadmill walking. [Subjects] Thirty healthy males aged 21.5 ± 1.6?years (body mass 63.6 ± 9.3?kg, height 171.0 ± 4.5?cm) participated in the study. [Methods] Electromyograms were simultaneously recorded from both heads of the gastrocnemius and the soleus of the right side during the DHR and treadmill walking. The DHR conditions were maximum plantar flexion (MPF), 3/4 MPF, 2/4 MPF, and 1/4 MPF, and the walking speeds were 20, 40, 60, 80, and 100 m/min. [Results] The muscle activity during the DHR and walking significantly increased with increments in the height of the heel raise and walking speed, respectively. Comparison of the muscle activity at MPF with that at each walking speed revealed that the muscle activity in the soleus and gastrocnemius medial head during walking exceeded that during the DHR in less than 3.3% of cases. [Conclusion] The DHR test is useful for evaluating the ankle plantar flexor activity necessary for walking. PMID:26157255

  18. Synanthropization of the Baltic-type raised bog “Roby” (NW Poland

    Sotek Zofia

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Raised and transitional peat bogs, despite their considerable resistance to synanthropization, as a result of anthropogenic transformations are exposed to the colonisation by alien species. One of them is the peatland “Roby”, where, in the years 2007-2009 and 2014, floristic, phytosociological and soil studies were carried out in order to record the signs of ongoing synanthropization. Conducted observations and analyses indicated that the expansion of willows has taken place and at present they occupy a large part of the bog, encroaching into bog birch forest and successfully competing with Myrica gale. Progressive peat mineralisation and constructed surfaced roads within the bog, contributed to the appearance and wide distribution of synanthropic species, such as: Urtica dioica, Impatiens parviflora and Spiraea salicifolia. Raised bog communities and their characteristic species occur on a few fragments of the bog, in north-western part, where water regime is shaped mainly by precipitation and peat deposit is fairly well-preserved. At the same time, in the patches of these communities, a distinct unfavourable increase in the share of Molinia caerulea is observed.

  19. Raising the Dead without a Red Sea-Dead Sea project? Hydro-economics and governance

    Rosenberg, D. E.

    2011-04-01

    Seven decades of extractions have dramatically reduced Jordan River flows, lowered the Dead Sea level, opened sink holes, and caused other environmental problems. The fix Jordan, Israel, and the Palestinians propose would build an expensive multipurpose conveyance project from the Red Sea to the Dead Sea that would also generate hydropower and desalinate water. This paper compares the Red-Dead project to alternatives that may also raise the Dead Sea level. Hydro-economic model results for the Jordan-Israel-Palestinian inter-tied water systems show two restoration alternatives are more economically viable than the proposed Red-Dead project. Many decentralized new supply, wastewater reuse, conveyance, conservation, and leak reduction projects and programs in each country can together increase economic benefits and reliably deliver up to 900 MCM yr-1 to the Dead Sea. Similarly, a smaller Red-Dead project that only generates hydropower can deliver large flows to the Dead Sea when the sale price of generated electricity is sufficiently high. However, for all restoration options, net benefits fall and water scarcity rises as flows to the Dead Sea increase. This finding suggests (i) each country has no individual incentive to return water to the Dead Sea, and (ii) outside institutions that seek to raise the Dead must also offer countries direct incentives to deliver water to the Sea besides building the countries new infrastructure.

  20. Raising the dead without a Red Sea-Dead Sea canal? Hydro-economics and governance

    Rosenberg, D. E.

    2010-12-01

    Seven decades of extractions have dramatically reduced Jordan River flows, lowered the Dead Sea level, opened sink holes, and caused other environmental problems. The fix Jordan, Israel, and the Palestinians propose would build an expensive multipurpose canal from the Red Sea to the Dead Sea that would also generate hydropower and desalinated water. This paper compares the Red-Dead project to alternatives that may also raise the Dead Sea level. Hydro-economic model results for the Jordan-Israel-Palestinian inter-tied water systems show two restoration alternatives are more economically viable than the proposed Red-Dead project. Many decentralized new supply, wastewater reuse, conveyance, conservation, and leak reduction projects and programs in each country can together increase economic benefits and reliably deliver up to 900 MCM/year to the Dead Sea. Similarly, a smaller Red-Dead project that only generates hydropower can deliver large flows to the Dead Sea when the sale price of generated electricity is sufficiently high. However, for all restoration options, net benefits fall and water scarcity rises as flows to the Dead Sea increase. This finding suggests (i) each country has no individual incentive to return water to the Dead Sea, and (ii) outside institutions that seek to raise the Dead must also offer countries direct incentives to deliver water to the Sea besides building the countries new infrastructure.

  1. Grandparents Raising Grandchildren in the United States: Changing Family Forms, Stagnant Social Policies.

    Baker, Lindsey A; Silverstein, Merril; Putney, Norella M

    2008-01-01

    As a consequence of increased divorce rates, the proliferation of single-parent families, and patterns of economic stagnation, parents are increasingly relying on extended family to care for children. In the past few decades, a substantial increase in the number of grandparents raising grandchildren has been observed within the United States. Grandparents who raise their grandchildren are particularly vulnerable, as are the grandchildren in their care; however, U.S. policy currently presents many barriers, gaps, and unintended consequences for grandparent caregivers. In this paper, we use two theoretical paradigms 1) structural lag and 2) the political economy of aging perspective to argue that U.S. policy has not kept pace with the reality of the family and - as a result - those families who are most vulnerable often receive the least support. We propose that as family forms become more diverse a redefinition of the family to one that is less bound by residence and biology, to one based more on function, will be required. PMID:20585408

  2. Consequences of raising the height of a landfill in a water-deficient climate.

    Blight, G E

    2005-01-01

    A large-scale field experiment has been carried out at the Coastal Park landfill which serves the City of Cape Town, South Africa. The landfill is unlined, and the City Council was under pressure from the central Government to cap and close the existing landfill and to establish an extension to the landfill with a lining to prevent the escape of leachate into the ground water. Measuring cells, installed to measure the rate of leachate flow from the landfill had shown that over a period of 9 years, from 1987 to 1995, leachate flow had averaged only 2% of rainfall. It therefore appeared possible, by increasing the moisture absorption capacity of the landfill, i.e., by increasing its height, to stop the leachate flow completely. If this could be achieved, there would be no need for a lining, and the raising would considerably extend the life of the landfill. The paper describes the experiment and its results, including the effects of the raising on leachate flow, settlement, leachate quality and the potential for polluting ground water, and the landfill's water balance. PMID:15961303

  3. DETERMINATION OF ZERDAVA DOG (KAPI KOPEGI RAISED IN NORTHEAST OF TURKEY

    Orhan YILMAZ

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This is the first document on Turkish Zerdava dogs raised in northeast of Turkey. This study was carried out to define the morphologic traits of the Turkish Zerdava dogs raised in east of Turkey comparing with some other native dog breeds of Turkey. To this end, a total of 39 (19 male and 20 female dogs was analyzed using the Minitab 15 statistical software program using ANOVA and Student’s t-Test. Descriptive statistics and comparison results were for height at shoulders 51.2±0.35, height at rump 51.6±0.28, body length 56.3±0.35, heart girth circumference 50±1.43, chest width 25.6±0.22, cannon circumference 9.4±0.14, and head length 19.4±0.17 cm respectively. The overall results of the study demonstrated that Turkish Zerdava dogs had a very close resemblance to the Turkish Kangal (Karabash and Akbash Shepherd dogs related with body measurements. The Zerdava dogs reach mature body weight and size at around 18 months of age.

  4. Eight free flaps in 24 hours: a training concept for postgraduate teaching of how to raise microvascular free flaps.

    Bauer, Florian; Koerdt, Steffen; Hölzle, Frank; Mitchell, David A; Wolff, Klaus-D

    2016-01-01

    Microvascular free flaps are complex but important tools in oral and maxillofacial surgery (OMFS), and though techniques to raise flaps are challenging surgeons often have little structured training. In this study we have evaluated a structured, three-day, hands-on, practical training course on raising flaps. Five human, Thiel-embalmed cadavers were used for training in how to raise the following flaps: radial forearm, anterolateral thigh, lateral arm, fibular, latissimus dorsi, scapular, iliac crest, and rectus abdominis. The total duration of the course was 24hours over three days. All participants were asked to evaluate the design and conduct of the course, their own learning curve, and general questions about their knowledge of how to raise flaps and microsurgery. There was a significant increase in participants' assessments of how they raised all free flaps, except the lateral arm flap (4.74 (0.68) compared with 2.42 (0.81); p=0.052) before and after the course. The radial forearm flap was thought to be the most relevant in clinical practice (n=40; 75%), followed by the anterolateral thigh (n=5; 9%) and fibular (n=4; 8%) flaps. Comparisons between residents and consultants showed unsurprising differences in experience with microsurgery and self-assessment in raising particular free flaps before the course. We have shown that a structured, hands-on course using a well-established simulation model can significantly improve postgraduate surgeons' skills in raising free flaps. PMID:26628198

  5. Mechanistic studies on the lipid-raising coffee diterpenes cafestol and kahweol in monkeys, mice and man

    Roos, de, M.A.J.

    2000-01-01

    Cafestol and kahweol are lipid-raising diterpenes present in unfiltered coffee. The objective of this thesis was to study their lipid-raising action in man. Unravelling this action might lead to new insights into the regulation of serum cholesterol levels.We first studied the absorption and urinary excretion of cafestol and kahweol in eight ileostomy volunteers. About 70% of the consumed cafestol and kahweol was absorbed and thus available for raising serum lipids in humans. Only 1.2% of the ...

  6. Reduction of emissions from Brazilian cattle raising and the generation of energy: Intensification and confinement potentials

    The identification of the main sources of anthropic greenhouse gas emissions (GHG) associated with the mitigation and removal of these emissions has become an important instrument in the attenuation of the climatic changes predicted by the IPCC. The largest emission source in Brazil is forest conversion. This land use change has always had a strong relationship with the expansion of agriculture, an activity of great importance in the country, which has the largest commercial cattle herd in the planet. Following the considerable reduction in emissions from deforestation, agriculture has been since 2010 the most important source (MCTI (Ministério da Ciência, Tecnologia e Inovação), 2013. Brasília: Ministério daCiência, Tecnologia e Inovação, Brasil). Seeking to discover the possibilities of altering the emissions profile in the agricultural sector, four scenarios were developed related to how this is dealt with in the beef cattle sector, calculating the potential removal of carbon from the atmosphere through natural regeneration of biomes. The results suggest that picketing and rotation scenario has the greatest potential, with a carbon reduction of 17.7 Gt CO2eq, while the shared raising with grain legumes scenario has the lowest calculated reduction potential of 7.1 Gt CO2eq was calculated. The animal confinement scenario had an intermediary reduction potential of 8.3 Gt CO2eq. The mosaic of methods scenario, in which it is attempted to simulate the parallel adoption of the measures proposed in all other scenarios, had a reduction potential of 13.1 Gt CO2eq. In the scenarios where animal confinement occurs, the treatment of waste with biodigestion allows the generation of biogas and biofertilizers, contributing to an increase in the potential carbon reduction. - Highlights: • We identify one main source of anthropic GHG in Brazil after forest conversion (deforestation), the beef cattle raising. • Four scenarios to mitigate emissions from cattle raising (agriculture sector) are modeled. • We calculate potential removals of carbon from the atmosphere through natural regeneration of biomes for each scenario. • The results suggest that picketing and rotation has the greatest potential, with a carbon reduction of 1.8 Mt CO2eq/yr. • Biodigestion of manure allows the generation of biogas and biofertilizers, increasing carbon reduction potentials

  7. Evaluation of the performance of two strains of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis Niloticus in mixed raising systems

    Patrícia Ribeiro Neves

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the productive performance of two strains of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus in mixed raising systems. A total of 3600 fish-larvae species was used, 1800 belonging to Bouaké lineage, and 1800 to Chitralada. The experiment was carried out in three phases; Phase I in an incubator in 18 boxes, in which two treatments (Bouaké and Chitralada were tested by using nine repetitions; Phases II and III were performed in 18 cement tanks with the same treatments. In phase I, regarding the final weight and gain of weight, Chitralada strain showed the highest final weight values. In phase II, Chitralada showed the highest final weight value when compared with Bouaké, and, considering the gain of weight, Bouaké obtained the best result. In phase III, Chitralada showed better final weight results (104 days of raising, final weight, final length and gain of length/cm (152 days of raising; but, after 279 days of the cultivation, Bouaké showed a higher weight and length gain. These findings showed that Chitralada strain presented the best performance.O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o desempenho produtivo de duas linhagens de tilápia do Nilo (Oreochromis niloticus em sistemas de cultivo misto. Foram utilizados 3600 alevinos de tilápia, 1800 da linhagem Bouaké e 1800 da Chitralada. O experimento foi conduzido em três fases, a Fase I realizada em estufa em 18 caixas, nas quais foram testados dois tratamentos (Bouaké e Chitralada e nove repetições; e a Fase II e III realizadas em 18 tanques de alvenaria, com os mesmos tratamentos. Na fase I, a linhagem Chitralada apresentou os maiores valores para peso final e ganho em peso. Na fase II, a Chitralada apresentou o maior valor para peso final em relação à Bouaké, já para o ganho em peso a Bouaké obteve o melhor resultado. Na fase III, a Chitralada apresentou os melhores resultados para peso final (104 dias de cultivo; peso final, comprimento final e ganho em comprimento (152 dias de cultivo e aos 279 dias de cultivo, o ganho em peso e em comprimento foram maiores para a Bouaké. Estes resultados demonstraram que a linhagem de melhor desempenho foi a Chitralada.

  8. Characterizing the electrical properties of raised S/D junctionless thin-film transistors with a dual-gate structure

    Cheng, Ya-Chi; Chen, Hung-Bin; Su, Jun-Ji; Shao, Chi-Shen; Wang, Cheng-Ping; Chang, Chun-Yen; Wu, Yung-Chun

    2014-12-01

    This letter demonstrates a p-type raised source-and-drain (raised S/D) junctionless thin-film transistors (JL-TFTs) with a dual-gate structure. The raised S/D structure provides a high saturation current (>1 ?A/?m). The subthreshold swing (SS) is 100 mV/decade and the drain-induced barrier lowering (DIBL) is 0.8 mV/V, and the I on/ I off current ratio is over 108 A/A for L g = 1 ?m. Using a thin channel structure obtains excellent performance in the raised S/D structure. Besides the basic electrical characteristics, the dual-gate structure can also be used to adjust V th in multi- V th circuit designs. This study examines the feasibility of using JL-TFTs in future three-dimensional (3D) layer-to-layer stacked high-density device applications.

  9. Cerebrospinal fluid hypoxanthine and xanthine concentrations as indicators of metabolic damage due to raised intracranial pressure in hydrocephalic children.

    Levin, S D; Brown, J K; Harkness, R. A.

    1984-01-01

    Intracranial pressure and cerebrospinal fluid hypoxanthine and xanthine concentrations were measured in hydrocephalic children with suspected raised intracranial pressure. There was a highly significant correlation between intracranial pressure and cerebrospinal fluid hypoxanthine and xanthine levels.

  10. Grammar Consciousness-Raising Activities and Iranian EFL Learners' Attitudes toward English Language

    Farrokhlagha Heidari

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The first purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of consciousness-raising (C-R activities on learning grammatical structures by Iranian EFL learners. The second one was to investigate the effect of gender through C-R activities and tasks. Finally, this study wanted to investigate the Iranian students’ attitudes toward learning English prior to and after applying the C-R activities. An attitude questionnaire was use to investigate the participants' attitudes toward learning English before and after applying C-R activities. Data analysis indicated that using C-R activities in is significantly more effective than the traditional approaches. Regarding gender, male outperformed females. Therefore, it is recommended that other teachers consider C-R activities as useful options in teaching other aspects of language.  Based on the statistics and findings, Iranian students’ attitudes toward learning English language were not much different prior to and after applying C-R activities.

  11. Identification, rearing, and distribution of stick insects of Madeira Island: an example of raising biodiversity awareness.

    Aguiar, António M F; Pombo, Dora Aguin; Gonçalves, Ysabel M

    2014-01-01

    Two species of stick insects are currently known to be present in the Macaronesian archipelagos: Clonopsis gallica (Charpentier) (Phasmatodea: Bacillidae) on the Canary Islands and in the Azores and Carausius morosus (Sinéty) (Phasmatidae) in the Azores. Here, we provide the first reliable records of the presence and distribution of C. gallica and C. morosus on Madeira Island. Egg and adult stages are briefly described along with some notes on the life history of these species in captivity. Data on islandwide distribution are based on specimens donated by the public in response to an article published in a daily newspaper. This method of data collection raised great popular interest in stick insects. The role of newspapers as a means of communicating awareness in biodiversity issues is discussed. PMID:25373196

  12. Most frequent nematode parasites of artificially raised pheasants (Phasianus colchicus L and measures for their control

    Pavlović Ivan

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Helminthoses have an important role in the pathology of artificially raised game pheasants. During the period 1997-2002. we examined a total of 1893 pheasant poults aged from 4 to 14 weeks and 1432 adult birds at several pheasanteries in Serbia. The following nematode species were found: Syngamus trachea, Ascaridia galli, A. columbae, Heterakis gallinarum, H. isolonche Capillaria gallinae (sin. C. caudinflata, C. columbae (sin. C. obsignata and C. phasianis. The intensity of infection in total was not high, except for infection with ascaridata and gapeworms, and depended of age of the examined birds. Consisting of anthelmintic drugs mixed with meal gave the most favourable results in therapy on rhe medicated food.

  13. Economic growth to raise U.S. oil products, natural gas demand

    An accelerating economy will raise consumption of oil products and natural gas in the US this year. Contributing to demand growth will be the slump that began late last year in prices for crude oil and petroleum products. Some price recovery is likely in 1994, but there's little reason to expect a major increase. With oil production falling and demand rising, imports will have to climb again this year. OGJ projects a 2.6% increase this year following a 6.6% increase last year. Imports are expected to fill a record high 49.3% of US oil demand this year. The paper discusses energy and the economy, overall energy use, energy by source, the electrification trend, energy supplies, imports, refining operations, the growth of margins, and the energy demand of motor gasoline, jet fuel, distillate fuels, residual fuel oils, other petroleum products, and natural gas

  14. Interpreting the mineral reservation of the Stock-Raising Homestead Act: Watt v. Western Nuclear, Inc

    The Supreme Court interpreted the Stock-Raising Homestead Act (SRHA) in Watt v. Western Nuclear, Inc. as reserving common gravel deposits to the US because they are minimal in character. This ignored traditional rules of statutory construction, an adopted an all-inclusive definition of the term minerals that is limited only by fluctuating market conditions. The Court subjugated the original congressional objective of settling the West to the current policy of reserving all assets absolutely. Rather than clarifying the definition of reserved minerals, this injected additional ambiguity into the land title area in which the Court has been unwilling to upset settled expectations. Such a departure from the common use and understanding of the term and from property rights cannot be justified by either policy considerations or notions of justice and fair play

  15. Mind the gap: the distributional effects of raising the early eligibility age and full retirement age.

    Olsen, Anya

    2012-01-01

    Policymakers have proposed increases to the early eligibility age (EEA) and/or full retirement age (FRA) to address increasing life expectancy and Social Security solvency issues. This analysis uses the Social Security Administration's Modeling Income in the Near Term, version 6 (MINT6) model to compare three retirement-age increases suggested by the Social Security Advisory Board: increase the gap between the EEA and FRA by raising only the FRA, increase both the EEA and FRA to maintain a 4-year gap between them, and increase both the EEA and FRA to maintain a 5-year gap between them. Although all three options would improve system solvency by similar proportions, their effect on individual beneficiaries in the future would vary. Benefit reductions are greater under the proposals with more months between the EEA and FRA, while the option that maintains a 4-year gap results in benefit increases for some beneficiaries compared with current law. PMID:23397744

  16. Proof support for RAISE - by a Reuse Approach Based on Institutions

    Lindegaard, Morten Peter

    2004-01-01

    automation and flexibility. In order to use the Isabelle/HOL proof assistant for the RAISE method, translation from RSL to HOL is considered. The translation is based on institutions which formalize the informal notion of "a logical system". Institutions and morphisms between institutions are presented...... together with specifications over institutions and model-theoretic semantics of specifications. The concept of "light institution comorphisms" is introduced as a modification of well-known institution comorphisms, and it is proved that a light institution comorphism enables sound reuse of proof assistants...... when it has certain properties. Moreover, the concept of looser semantics of specifications is introduced as a model-theoretic description of the semantics of RSL specifications, and an equivalence result is proved. An institution for an applicative, deterministic subset of RSL, referred to as "m...

  17. Substitution between oil, gas and coal in UK industrial steam raising

    Moxnes, E.; Nesset, E.

    1985-03-15

    The purpose of the study is to gain increased understanding of fuel substitution in industrial steamraising. The process of steam raising is found to be homogenous with only minor systematic cost differences between the smaller firetube boilers and the larger watertube boilers. Thus, it has been possible to develop a simulation model to describe substitution between oil, gas and coal, based on a priori information. The model chooses the cheapest fuel alternative measured by the sum of operating costs and anualized capital costs, and it takes account of the fact that different steam producers face slightly different costs. The model captures the dynamics of substitution through explicit formulations of investments in, and depreciations of the boiler stock. Feeding the model with the historical fuel prices from 1960 to 1980 for United Kingdom, it replicated historical market shares for oil, gas and coal remarkably well. 18 drawings, 20 tables.

  18. Financial foreclosure in the case of missing the deadline for raising objections

    The administrative court at Wuerzburg, in its decision of March 25th, 1977 - No. W 122 II 74 - has rejected the suit of the community of Bergrheinfeld against the licence for the construction of the Kernkraftwerk Grafenrheinfeld, and awarded costs of the proceedings, extra-judicial costs of two parties asked to attend included, against the plaintiff. The value in litigation was put at 75,000 DM. The rejection of the suit is based on missing the deadline for raising objections according to subsection (1) of section 3 of the AtAnlV (Nuclear Installations Ordinance). The main grounds upon which the judgment is based (admissibility of the action, but no foundation for it) are given in full. (orig./HP)

  19. CATTLE BREEDING AND TERRITORY: A SURVEY ON THE MAREMMANA BREED RAISED IN TUSCANY

    Roberto FRATINI

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to highlight the importance of a cattle race native in an area of the territory of Tuscany. The Maremmana breed is a valuable breed raised in the pastures that stretch between southern Tuscany and northern Lazio. A sample of 12 farms was analyzed through direct interview, carried out at the farm. The farms surveyed implement organic farming, according to precise rules. The aspect that mostly catches in the interviews is that the only livestock activity is not sufficient for economic development of this rural area; in fact most of the farms perform multi-functional, practicing agritourism activities. In terms of remuneration of the factors of production used in animal husbandry it seems that especially farms with few animals require the integration of agricultural income with other business activities.

  20. Local flow regulation and irrigation raise global human water consumption and footprint

    Jaramillo, Fernando; Destouni, Georgia

    2015-12-01

    Flow regulation and irrigation alter local freshwater conditions, but their global effects are highly uncertain. We investigated these global effects from 1901 to 2008, using hydroclimatic observations in 100 large hydrological basins. Globally, we find consistent and dominant effects of increasing relative evapotranspiration from both activities, and decreasing temporal runoff variability from flow regulation. The evapotranspiration effect increases the long-term average human consumption of fresh water by 3563 ± 979 km3/year from 1901-1954 to 1955-2008. This increase raises a recent estimate of the current global water footprint of humanity by around 18%, to 10,688 ± 979 km3/year. The results highlight the global impact of local water-use activities and call for their relevant account in Earth system modeling.

  1. Strategic and policy issues raised by the transition from thermal to fast nuclear systems

    The renewed interest in nuclear energy triggered by concerns about global climate change and security of supply, which could lead to substantial growth in nuclear electricity generation, enhances the attractiveness of fast neutron reactors with closed fuel cycles. Moving from the current fleet of thermal neutron reactors to fast neutron systems will require many decades and extensive RD-D efforts. This book identifies and analyses key strategic and policy issues raised by such a transition, aiming at providing guidance to decision makers on the best approaches for implementing transition scenarios. The topics covered in this book will be of interest to government and nuclear industry policy makers as well as to specialists working on nuclear energy system analyses and advanced fuel cycle issues. (author)

  2. Technology Solutions Case Study: Raised Ceiling Interior Duct System, New Smyrna, Florida

    None

    2014-09-01

    Builder S.E. Volusia County Habitat for Humanity (SEVHFH) was interested in constructing a home to the new U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Zero Energy Ready Home standards. SEVHFH partners with DOE team Building America Partnership for Improved Residential Construction on Habitat for Humanity homes and routinely builds to ENERGY STAR V3.1. The only modification to the design needed to comply with the Zero Energy Ready Home criteria was the interior duct requirement. Unwilling to incur the added costs of a foam roof deck or wall heights that exceed 8 ft to accommodate a fur-down chase, SEVHFH opted to build a fur-up or raised ceiling chase. This case study describes the project.

  3. Liberating minds: Consciousness-raising as a bridge between feminism and psychology in 1970s Canada.

    Ruck, Nora

    2015-08-01

    This article examines the interrelations between psychology and feminism in the work of feminist psychologists and radical feminists in Toronto in the early 1970s. For Canadian feminist psychology as well as for second-wave activism, Toronto was a particular hotspot. It was the academic home of some of the first Canadian feminist psychologists, and was the site of a lively scene of feminists working in established women's organizations along with younger socialist and radical feminists. This article analyzes the interrelations of academic feminist psychology and feminist activism by focusing on consciousness-raising, a practice that promised to bridge tensions between the personal and the political, psychological and social liberation, everyday knowledge and institutionalized knowledge production, theory and practice, as well as the women's movement and other spheres of women's lives. PMID:26375157

  4. Raising money with tax incentives: an overview of how U.S. tax credits are marketed

    This article outlines a method for using certain U.S. income tax credits to raise investment capital. With proper structuring, these tax credits can essentially be ''sold'' to outside investors. A project which may not have sufficient income to take advantage of tax benefits, such as the 29 alternative fuel credit, may sell an interest in the project to commercial investors who can use tax credits. The investors provide cash for the project in return for the tax credits, as well as a portion of the income generated by the project. This article outlines how this type of arrangement can be structured and which tax credits are available for ''sale''. It also identifies possible sources of investment money, issues that an investor will likely consider before investing in such a project, and the potential pitfalls of such a project. (author)

  5. Molecular characterization and differentiation of five horse breeds raised in Algeria using polymorphic microsatellite markers.

    Berber, N; Gaouar, S; Leroy, G; Kdidi, S; Tabet Aouel, N; Saïdi Mehtar, N

    2014-10-01

    In this study, genetic analyses of diversity and differentiation were performed on five horse breeds raised in Algeria (Barb, Arab-Barb, Arabian, Thoroughbred and French Trotter). All microsatellite markers were highly polymorphic in all the breeds. A total of 123 alleles from 14 microsatellite loci were detected in 201 horses. The average number of alleles per locus was the highest in the Arab-Barb horses (7.86) and lowest in the thoroughbred breed (5.71), whereas the observed and expected heterozygosities per breed ranged from 0.71 (Thoroughbred) to 0.752 (Barb) and 0.71 (Thoroughbred) to 0.77 (Arab-Barb), respectively. The genetic differentiation between the breeds was significant (p horse populations and the other breeds. The Barb and Arab-Barb breeds seem to be the most genetically related and support the decision to consider the breeds as same population. PMID:24834806

  6. Dependence of UV effect on quality of light during raising of seedlings (Lactuca sativa L.)

    Greenhouse seedlings of Lactuca sativa L. show a decreased rate of photosynthesis under normal outdoor light conditions due to the effect of UV-light. In this study, the relationship between the declining rate of photosynthesis and the amount of UV in the spectrum was investigated. The determination was made in climatized gas exchange chambers under Xenon arc lamps (XBO 2500 W, Osram). The amount of UV in the spectrum was varied by the use of different surface mirrors made by aluminium evaporation. A linear relationship between the amount of UV-light in the spectrum and the rate of decrease of photosynthesis was obtained with 12 hour radiation. The decrease in photosynthesis is less when the plants are raised under UV-light lamps. (orig.)

  7. Raising the Prestige of Public Engagement within the Planetary Science Community in Europe

    Heward, A.; Fouchet, T.

    2011-07-01

    We describe the outreach programme of the Europlanet Research Infrastructure (RI), a four-year project funded by the European Union under Framework 7 and designed to maximise planetary science output in Europe. Outreach is a key activity within Europlanet RI and we have put in place a programme to build channels of communication between the planetary science community, the public and the media. One of the major challenges that we have identified is the low value that some parts of the research community place on outreach activities. We describe how we hope to change attitudes and raise the prestige of public engagement in planetary science by establishing an annual prize and a funding scheme. Both schemes are now in their second year, with the third round due to be announced at the EPSC-DPS Joint Meeting in October 2011.

  8. How high the temperature of a liquid be raised without boiling?

    Das, M; Roy, B; Roy, S C; Das, Mala

    2000-01-01

    How high the temperature of a liquid be raised beyond its boiling point without vaporizing (known as the limit of superheat) is an interesting subject of investigation. A new method of finding the limit of superheat of liquids is presented here. The superheated liquids are taken in the form of drops suspended in visco elastic gel. The nucleation is detected acoustically by a sensitive piezo-electric transducer, coupled to a multi channel scaler and the nucleation is observed as a funtion of time and with increase of temperature. The limit of superheat measured by the present method supersedes all other measurements and theoretical predictions in reaching closest to the critical temperature and warrants improved theoretical predictions.

  9. Raise and peel models of fluctuating interfaces and combinatorics of Pascal's hexagon

    Pyatov, P.

    2004-09-01

    The raise and peel model of a one-dimensional fluctuating interface (model A) is extended by considering one source (model B) or two sources (model C) at the boundaries. The Hamiltonians describing the three processes have, in the thermodynamic limit, spectra given by conformal field theory. The probabilities of the different configurations in the stationary states of the three models are not only related but have interesting combinatorial properties. We show that by extending Pascal's triangle (which gives solutions to linear relations in terms of integer numbers), to an hexagon, one obtains integer solutions of bilinear relations. These solutions not only give the weights of the various configurations in the three models but also give an insight into the connections between the probability distributions in the stationary states of the three models. Interestingly enough, Pascal's hexagon also gives solutions to a Hirota's difference equation.

  10. “ECHOES OF SILENCE, RAISING OUR VOICES”: LOCAL TRANSLATIONS OF WOMEN´S HUMAN RIGHTS

    María del Pilar Tudela Vázquez

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Women´s Human Rights are often conceived from global frameworks and, –in universalist terms- to be locally applied. This exercise of “translation” demands us to situate our analysis on those spaces where it is shaped, addressing those different discourses and social actors involved. We find a good example in the grassroots women movements, actively inserted in the political context to propose an intersectional analysis that allows us to contextualize and multiply gender experiences. This work is located in United States and carried out in spaces of creative tension, allowing us to address the dynamics that intervene in local translation of Women´s Human Rights. This study is focused on the work developed by the collective “Mujeres Unidas y Activas” through its campaign “Echoes of the Silence: Raising our Voices” as an example of local translation of Human Rights

  11. Process of Raising Awareness about Engineering Ethics and Course Methodology Suitable for It

    Abe, Takao

    It is both necessary and very significant to provide young corporate engineers and university students with opportunity to learn engineering ethics systematically. We have discussed that the awareness about engineering ethics will be brought up through the following four stages : (1) seed-stage, where no one knows the concept of engineering ethics, (2) awareness-stage, where people have some knowledge of engineering ethics, (3) instruction-stage, where people learn systematically engineering ethics, and (4) fixing-stage, where engineering-ethical consciousness has taken root. These above stages should be taken into consideration to make a curriculum of engineering ethics education. This paper also describes a few issues. For example, the degree of raising awareness cannot be evaluated so accurately through scores of fragmentary examinations.

  12. Atmospheric flux of agricultural fumigants from raised-bed, plastic-mulch crop production systems

    Chellemi, Dan O.; Ajwa, Husein A.; Sullivan, David A.

    2010-12-01

    Atmospheric emission of methyl isothiocyanate (MITC), chloropicrin (CP), 1,3-dichloropropene (1,3-D), and dimethyl disulfide (DMDS) were measured in the field under fumigant application scenarios representative of raised bed-plastic-mulched crop production systems. For three fumigation sites located in Florida, cumulative emissions of 1,3-D, MITC and CP were less than 11%, 6% and 2%, respectively. For three fumigation sites in located in Georgia, cumulative emissions of MITC and CP were film used to cover soil following application. This study demonstrated reduced atmospheric emissions of agricultural fumigants under commercial production conditions when applied using good agricultural practices including soil water contents above field capacity, uniform soil tilth in the fumigation zone and the use of metalized or virtually impermeable films to further reduce fumigant emissions. The results of this study show a need for regional flux studies due to the various interactions of soil and climate with local agricultural land management practices.

  13. Policy issues raised by intervenor requests for financial assistance in NRC proceedings

    The purpose of the report presented is to focus and develop the myriad issues raised by intervenor requests for financial assistance for the NRC's proposed rulemaking proceeding. The report analyzes and assesses the various alternatives open to the Commission, and collects relevant data and material which may be informative to those participating in and conducting the rulemaking. Three major questions are examined: (1) should the Commission, as a matter of policy choice, provide financial assistance to intervenors in NRC proceedings; (2) are there preferable alternatives to direct intervenor financial aid, such as the establishment of an office of public counsel or provision of other forms of Commission assistance; and (3) what are the legal, administrative and policy considerations involved in implementing a determination to award financial assistance to intervenors, should the Commission so decide

  14. Density profiles in the raise and peel model with and without a wall; physics and combinatorics

    We consider the raise and peel model of a one-dimensional fluctuating interface in the presence of an attractive wall. The model can also describe a pair annihilation process in disordered unquenched media with a source at one end of the system. For the stationary states, several density profiles are studied using Monte Carlo simulations. We point out a deep connection between some profiles seen in the presence of the wall and in its absence. Our results are discussed in the context of conformal invariance (c = 0 theory). We discover some unexpected values for the critical exponents, which are obtained using combinatorial methods. We have solved known (Pascal's hexagon) and new (split-hexagon) bilinear recurrence relations. The solutions of these equations are interesting in their own right since they give information on certain classes of alternating sign matrices

  15. Mama `poma´, dad `apple´: Raising a Child with Catalan in Australia.

    Victòria Gras

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The decision to speak Catalan to my daughter came naturally to me. How else would I tell a story, sing a lullaby or make her laugh but in the language I was told stories, sung lullabies to and made to laugh since I was a new-born! However, whereas the choice to speak one’s mother tongue to your children is not questioned anymore in Spain, making this same choice when you live elsewhere seems to raise a lot of eyebrows. In this article I will reflect, from my own experience, on speaking a language of Spain other than Spanish in Australia. Catalan is one of 300 community languages in Australia, and it’s spoken by a small and ageing population. Keywords: Catalan, bilingualism, Australian community languages, first language, minority language, language policy.

  16. Radioactivity studies on farm raised and wild catfish produced in Mississippi, USA

    To understand the contribution of radiation dose to human from consumption of catfish, a comparative radiological assessment study was performed on farm and river raised fish. Gamma spectroscopic analyses of catfish indicated the presence of isotopes of 40K, 226Ra, and 228Ra with activity values of 99.4 ± 14.5, 0.41 ± 0.05, and 0.89 ± 0.08 Bq kg-1 respectively in farm catfish and 101 ± 15.7, 0.47 ± 0.05, and 0.97 ± 0.050 Bq kg-1 respectively in river catfish. The measured activities in two sets of samples were statistically compared using a two-tailed t test at 95 % confidence interval and results indicated that activities of 226Ra and 228Ra were significantly different. (author)

  17. Development of decontamination technologies for Tokai Power Station's Steam Raising Units (SRU)

    Steam Raising Units (SRU) are identified as the largest metallic radioactive waste appearing from the ongoing decommissioning campaign of Tokai Power Station. Considering its low activity, it is believed that a practical way to minimize the disposal cost should be decontamination together with other contaminated metallic components. To find a reasonable and effective decontamination method for SRU, research and development efforts were made by Japan Atomic Power Company (JAPC) and Nuclear Power Engineering Corporation (NUPEC). Kawasaki Heavy Industries Ltd. (KHI), the manufacturer of SRU, took an important role in these R and D activities, applying its rich store of knowledge from experiences of maintenance, engineering abilities, and so on. Here we present the detail of these R and D activities and our own efforts. (author)

  18. Raising energy efficiency and cutting greenhouse gas emissions : an analysis of publicly funded petroleum research

    NONE

    2012-11-01

    From the preface: This brochure is based on an analysis study that ascertained that since 2004 the Research Council's PETROMAKS and DEMO 2000 programmes have allocated funding to more than 80 projects carried out by the research community and private industry relating to climate challenges. Once these projects have been concluded, they will have received a total of over half a billion kroner in public funding. There is no doubt that many of the measures recommended by these projects will have positive impacts on the environment. Many of these research findings can contribute to making processes more energy efficient or to directly reducing emissions of greenhouse gases. The brochure presents a selection of these projects. A complete list of projects under the PETROMAKS and DEMO 2000 programmes which address raising energy efficiency may be found at the end of the brochure.(eb)

  19. Antibodies raised against hemolymph of Anopheles culicifacies reduce the fecundity and malaria parasite development

    Amrita Kumari

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives: Several studies have been made to study the effect of antisera raisedagainst different tissues (hemolymh, ovary, midgut and salivary glands on the fecundity andmalaria parasite development in the different species of mosquitoes but there are no reports on theantisera raised against the hemolymph of Anopheles culicifacies, the principal malaria vector inIndia accounting for 65% of malaria cases. Hence, an attempt was made to study the same andevaluate its impact on malaria parasite development.Methods: Polyclonal and multifactorial antibodies were produced in rabbits against heterogenousmixture of hemolymph proteins. Antibodies against hemolymph proteins were screened for theirpotential to influence reproductive performance of mosquitoes. Antibody titer in rabbit serum wasdetermined by ELISA and putative candidate antigens were identified in the hemolymph of An.culicifacies by western blotting. Cross reactivity amongst various tissues vis-a-vis hemolymphprotein was also identified. In addition, a significant reduction in oocyst development was alsoobserved in An. culicifacies mosquitoes that ingested antihemolymph antibodies along withPlasmodium vivax.Results: The maximum reduction in fecundity (57% was observed during fourth week, after thelast booster and number of oocyts per infected mosquito reduced by 73.35% in the group ofmosquitoes that ingested antihemolymph antibodies along with the infected blood meal respectively.However, the ingestion of antibodies against hemolymph proteins did not have significant influenceon hatchability. Antisera raised against hemolymph proteins of An. culicifacies recognized 11polypeptides by western blotting.Interpretation & conclusion: During the present study, 11 putative candidate antigens were identifiedin the hemolymph of An. culicifacies, against which antibodies produced significantly reduced thefecundity by 57%. In addition, a significant reduction in oocyst development was also observed inAn. culicifacies that ingested antihemolymph antibodies along with P.vivax.

  20. System for automatically preventing the raising of ash from dedicated landfills

    Milutinović Predrag

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a system for automatic prevention of raising of ashes from dedicated landfills based on a simple mathematical model which has modest entry requirements for meteorological data. Such an approach is efficient enough and enables fast information retrieval, i.e. zones with different concentrations of dust in the air, enabling quick start of counter measures to reduce emissions of ashes into the air. The system hardware consists of an automatic weather station, set of meters that determine moisture of ash, set of remotely managed sprinklers, computers, microprocessor and microcontroller based elements for the local acquisition and management of the executive elements and modules for wireless data transfer. An original software application for the system management has been developed. Within the application there is a module that allows entering of all data necessary to configure the system, as well as data about sensors and sprinklers. Based on the meteorological input data, measured moisture content of the ashes, and on the basis of determined functional dependencies, special software module operates sprinklers for soaking the surfaces from which the ashes is emitted into the air, in order to eliminate these emissions. The system, based on the developed mathematical model, predicts the propagation of ashes through the air, as well as dry and wet deposition, in real-time. The system automatically stores all the data relevant to the future analyses and reporting. The system is designed and implemented as modular and open. A custom developed graphical user interface serves as Man-Machine Interface (MMI. By using the TCP/IP connection it could be easily connected with the other information systems. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR-15005: Design and development of pilot system for preventing automatic raise of ashes from dedicated dumps

  1. An awareness-raising E-learning approach for children living in a high diabetic population.

    Shaalan, Khaled; Al-Mansoori, Mona; Tawfik, Hissam

    2014-03-01

    Recent epidemiological studies have shown an increased incidence of diabetes worldwide. In United Arab Emirates (UAE), where this study on Emirati children was conducted, over 20% of the population has diabetes. With such a high incidence, there is a need to raise the awareness of the disease in order to reduce the growing number of cases and manage the disease more effectively. This research aims to identify the needs of affected children and proposes a design for an E-learning prototype that can pedagogically raise their awareness and knowledge of the disease. The use of a prototype was chosen in order to validate and refine the usability of the system, and to quickly evaluate user-interface designs without the need for an expensive working model to help refine and develop the system design. The system requirements were identified through a set of interviews with kindergarten teachers, curriculum design experts in UAE, and diabetes nutrition specialists and clinicians. The rationale behind the interview was to identify the optimal age group, describe the appropriate level of the instructional materials and activities, and propose a suitable learning approach that could facilitate and improve diabetes awareness among this age group. The prototype was evaluated by children, teachers, parents (or guardians) and nutrition specialists. We followed a three-stage software development based on a user-informed approach model for stepwise refinement that ranged from prototype to final design. The evaluation results indicate that the proposed computer-supported learning approach can generate positive learning and behavior in children while reducing the time needed to complete awareness tasks when compared to traditional methods; thus making learning more engaging and allowing children to learn at their own pace. PMID:24517457

  2. Raising healthy children: examining the impact of promoting healthy driving behavior within a social development intervention.

    Haggerty, Kevin P; Fleming, Charles B; Catalano, Richard F; Harachi, Tracy W; Abbott, Robert D

    2006-09-01

    This study evaluated the impact of two targeted family sessions focused on driving issues delivered within the context of the Raising Healthy Children project. The Raising Healthy Children project began in the fall of 1993, drawing students in the 1st or 2nd grades from 10 schools. Schools were assigned to an intervention or control condition, and the school-wide, family- and student-focused preventive intervention to address developmentally salient risk and protective factors was delivered during elementary and middle school. The family driving sessions were administered to families in the intervention condition prior to and after teenagers received their driver's license. The first session consisted of a home visit with families designed to help parents and their children improve decision-making skills concerning driving and to develop clear standards and expectations regarding driving-related behavior. A second session, at the time of licensure, was designed to help parents and teens develop a written contract that stated family expectations, a plan for monitoring compliance with these expectations, and consequences for compliance or non-compliance. Consistent with the study's group-randomized design, intervention effects were assessed with multi-level logistic regression models in which students were grouped by their original school assignment. These models assessed specific effects of the driving sessions by adjusting for control variables measured when students were in 8th grade, prior to the driving sessions. Results indicated that students in the intervention group were more likely than students in the control group to report that they had a written driving contract (p = .003, OR = 4.98), and had participated in making the driving rules in the family (p = .025, OR = 1.70). Further, students in the intervention group reported significantly fewer risky behaviors including driving under the influence of alcohol (p = .021, OR = .45) and driving with someone who had been drinking (p = .038, OR = .56). PMID:16752099

  3. Effect of airway inflation pressure on forced expiratory maneuvers from raised lung volume in infants.

    Lum, Sooky; Hoo, Ah-Fong; Stocks, Janet

    2002-02-01

    The raised lung volume technique is increasingly used to measure forced expiratory maneuvers in infants. However, there is no consensus regarding the optimal airway inflation pressure (P(inf)) required for such maneuvers, or the influence of small changes in P(inf) within and between infants. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of small differences (0.2-0.3 kPa) in P(inf) on forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expired volume in 0.5 sec (FEV(0.5)), and forced expired flow at 75% of vital capacity (FEF(75)), all derived from the raised volume rapid thoraco-abdominal compression (RVRTC) technique. Randomized paired forced expiratory maneuvers were obtained in 32 healthy infants ( 3.9-39.3 weeks old, 3.8-9.9 kg) with the safety pressure relief valve for P(inf) set to 2.7 kPa or 3.0 kPa (27 or 30 cm H(2)0). When mean (SD) P(inf) was increased by 8.4 (2.8)%, there was a significant (P < 0.01) increase in mean (SD) FVC, FEV(0.5), and FEF(75) by 5.8 (5.7)%, 6.1 (6)%, and 8.3 (16.2)%, respectively. In conclusion, relatively small differences in P(inf) will result in significant differences in FVC, FEV(0.5), and FEF(75) by RVRTC technique. Precision in setting and reporting the applied P(inf) is therefore essential, particularly if data are to be compared between centers. PMID:11802250

  4. At the Roots of Finnish Elementary Education – How Were Children Raised in the First Finnish Elementary Schools?

    Satu UUSIAUTTI; Paksuniemi, Merja; Määttä, Kaarina

    2013-01-01

    This study dissects the history of Finnish elementary education and the way children were raised during the initial phase of Finnish education in the 18th century. The development of Finnish education was studied through contemporary decrees and laws and studies of Finnish school history. The preliminary aim was to focus on the principles and practices of raising children in Finnish schools. This study focuses on (1) describing the birth, goals, and practices of Finnish elementary education a...

  5. Ideologies, struggles and contradictions: an account of mothers raising their children bilingually in Luxembourgish and English in Britain

    Kirsch, Claudine

    2012-01-01

    Researchers have studied family language planning within bilingual family contexts but there is a dearth of studies that examine language planning of multilingual parents who raise their children in one of the world’s lesser spoken languages. In this study I explore the ideologies and language planning of Luxembourgish mothers who are raising their children bilingually in Luxembourgish and English in Great Britain, where there is no Luxembourgish community to support them and where a monoling...

  6. IMMEDIATE EFFECT OF ACTIVE RELEASE TECHNIQUE VERSUS MULLIGAN BENT LEG RAISE IN SUBJECTS WITH HAMSTRING TIGHTNESS: A RANDOMIZED CLINICAL TRIAL

    Vijay Kage; Rakhi Ratnam

    2014-01-01

    Background: To study and compare the effectiveness of active release technique and mulligan bent leg raise in subjects with hamstring tightness. Methods: 40 normal healthy subjects (20 in each group) were recruited in the study under simple randomization method. Group A received single session of Active Release Technique and Group B received single session of Mulligan Bent Leg Raise technique for hamstring tightness. Popliteal angle and Sit and reach flexibility tests were measured pre i...

  7. Contribution of caffeine to the homocysteine-raising effect of coffee : a randomized controlled trial in humans

    Verhoef, P.; Pasman, W. J.; Vliet, T., van; Urgert, R; Katan, M.B.

    2002-01-01

    Background: A high plasma total homocysteine concentration is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease. Consumption of unfiltered or filtered coffee raises total homocysteine concentrations in healthy volunteers. The responsible compound, however, is unknown. Objective: The objective was to determine whether caffeine explains the homocysteine-raising effect of coffee. Design: Forty-eight subjects aged 19–65 y completed this randomized crossover study with 3 treatments, eac...

  8. The application of quality control circle in neurosurgery ICU nurses in raising compliance of the head of a bed

    Na LI

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To explore the application of quality control circle in raising compliance of the head of a bed in neurosurgery ICU nurses. Methods: The quality control circle was made up of 4 ICU nurses, determine the subject in order to improve the neurosurgery ICU nurses in raising compliance of the head of a bed, according to the QCC activity steps to formulate plans, including grasp the current situation, goal setting, through analysis, circle members develop strategy and plan implementation and review, finally compared the situation before and after neurosurgery ICU nurses raised bed activities compliance. Results: After implementation of QCC, neurosurgery ICU nurses raised bed to 30 ~ 45 degrees. After activities, circle members in the team cooperation ability, cohesion, to accept new things ability, and innovative thinking ability and to raise the understanding of the relevant knowledge of the head of a bed has improved significantly. Conclusion: The application of quality management circle activity improves the neurosurgery ICU nurses effectively raise the compliance of the head of a bed, improve the comprehensive quality of the clinical nurses.

  9. Metabolic changes of masseter muscle in experimental unilateral bite-raised rat determined by {sup 31}P-MRS

    Nishide, Naoto [Kyoto Prefectural Univ. of Medicine (Japan)

    1997-05-01

    Occlusal interference is known to alter the functional activity of masticatory muscle, but no alteration of the energy metabolism of masticatory muscle which has gone occlusal interference has been reported. The purpose of this study was to investigate the energy metabolism in rat masseter muscle during masticatory movements following unilateral bite-raising. A bite-raising splint (1 mm) was fixed on the unilateral upper molar of experimental rats, and after 2, 4 and 6 weeks, the rats were anesthetized and masticatory movements were induced by electrical stimulation applied to the masseter muscle (with a biting force of 40 g, a frequency of 5 Hz and a stimulation time of 32 min). {sup 31}P Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy of the masseter muscle were recorded during a sequence of rest, stimulation and recovery periods, and the resonance signal area ratio of PCr and Pi ((PCr)/(PCr + Pi)) and the muscle pH were determined. After 4 and 6 weeks following the bite-raising, the masseter of the bite-raised side showed a decrease in the (PCr)/(PCr + Pi) ratio compared with a control group during stimulation (p<0.05). Neither the bite-raised side masseter at 2 weeks and the contralateral side at 4 weeks showed any differences compared with the control. The muscle pH during stimulation was similar in both the control and the bite-raised groups of rats. These findings suggest that the occlusal alteration induced by unilateral bite-raising reduces the masseter energy level during mastication. (author)

  10. Metabolic changes of masseter muscle in experimental unilateral bite-raised rat determined by 31P-MRS

    Occlusal interference is known to alter the functional activity of masticatory muscle, but no alteration of the energy metabolism of masticatory muscle which has gone occlusal interference has been reported. The purpose of this study was to investigate the energy metabolism in rat masseter muscle during masticatory movements following unilateral bite-raising. A bite-raising splint (1 mm) was fixed on the unilateral upper molar of experimental rats, and after 2, 4 and 6 weeks, the rats were anesthetized and masticatory movements were induced by electrical stimulation applied to the masseter muscle (with a biting force of 40 g, a frequency of 5 Hz and a stimulation time of 32 min). 31P Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy of the masseter muscle were recorded during a sequence of rest, stimulation and recovery periods, and the resonance signal area ratio of PCr and Pi ((PCr)/(PCr + Pi)) and the muscle pH were determined. After 4 and 6 weeks following the bite-raising, the masseter of the bite-raised side showed a decrease in the (PCr)/(PCr + Pi) ratio compared with a control group during stimulation (p<0.05). Neither the bite-raised side masseter at 2 weeks and the contralateral side at 4 weeks showed any differences compared with the control. The muscle pH during stimulation was similar in both the control and the bite-raised groups of rats. These findings suggest that the occlusal alteration induced by unilateral bite-raising reduces the masseter energy level during mastication. (author)

  11. The active straight leg raising test and mobility of the pelvic joints.

    Mens, J M; Vleeming, A; Snijders, C J; Stam, H J; Ginai, A Z

    1999-01-01

    Objective signs to assess impairment in patients who are disabled by peripartum pelvic girdle pain hardly exist. The purpose of this study was to develop a clinical test to quantify and qualify disability in these patients. The study examined the relationship between impaired active straight leg raising (ASLR) and mobility of pelvic joints in patients with peripartum pelvic girdle pain, focusing on (1) the reduction of impairment of ASLR when the patient was wearing a pelvic belt, and (2) motions between the pubic bones measured by X-ray examination when the patient was standing on one leg, alternating left and right. Twenty-one non-pregnant patients with peripartum pelvic girdle pain in whom pain and impairment of ASLR were mainly located on one side were selected. ASLR was performed in the supine position, first without a pelvic belt and then with a belt. The influence of the belt on the ability to actively raise the leg was assessed by the patient. Mobility of the pelvic joints was radiographically visualized by means of the Chamberlain method. Assessment was blinded. Ability to perform ASLR was improved by a pelvic belt in 20 of the 21 patients (binomial two-tailed P = 0.0000). When the patient was standing on one leg, alternating the symptomatic side and the reference side, a significant difference between the two sides was observed with respect to the size of the radiographically visualized steps between the pubic bones (binomial two-tailed P = 0.01). The step at the symptomatic side was on average larger when the leg at that side was hanging down than when the patient was standing on the leg at that side. Impairment of ASLR correlates strongly with mobility of the pelvic joints in patients with peripartum pelvic girdle pain. The ASLR test could be a suitable instrument to quantify and qualify disability in diseases related to mobility of the pelvic joints. Further studies are needed to assess the relationship with clinical parameters, sensitivity, specificity and responsiveness in various categories of patients. In contrast with the opinion of Chamberlain, that a radiographically visualized step between the pubic bones is caused by cranial shift of the pubic bone at the side of the standing leg, it is concluded that the step is caused by caudal shift of the pubic bone at the side of the leg hanging down. The caudal shift is caused by an anterior rotation of the hip bone about a horizontal axis near the sacroiliac joint. PMID:10664304

  12. Comparison of aviary, barn and conventional cage raising of chickens on laying performance and egg quality.

    Ahammed, M; Chae, B J; Lohakare, J; Keohavong, B; Lee, M H; Lee, S J; Kim, D M; Lee, J Y; Ohh, S J

    2014-08-01

    This study intended to compare the productive performance of three different layer raising systems; conventional cage (CC), barn (BR) and aviary (AV). The AV is welfare bestowed housing that allows free locomotion for birds within the BR. The BR allows bird's free locomotion inside BR but without multilevel structures. Both pullets and cockerels were housed together in both AV and BR, but only pullets in CC. Seventeen weeks old Lohmann Brown Lite (n = 800) pullets were housed in AV during this study. The same age layer pullets were simultaneously assigned to either at CC or BR to compare egg production performance with AV. The duration of experiment was 40 weeks (from 21st to 60th week). There were no remarkable differences in egg production, hen day egg production (HDEP) and average egg weight among three rearing systems. First 20 weeks (phase-1) average HDEP (%) of AV, CC, and BR were 85.9, 88.8, 87.1 and average egg weights (g) were 57.5, 59.9, and 56.9 respectively. Those of the remaining 20 weeks (phase-2) were 87.1, 87.9, 85.5 and 64.2, 63.0 62.1, respectively. Daily feed intakes (122 g, 110 g, 125 g); feed conversion ratio (2.4, 2.1, 2.5) and daily egg mass (53.9 g, 54.4 g, 52.8 g) data from AV, CC, and BR were not influenced significantly by the respective raising systems. Daily feed intake of layers in both AV (124 g) and BR (127 g) tended to be higher than that in CC (113 g) during phase-2. Overall, exterior egg quality (dirty and cracked eggs) in both phases was superior in BR compared with AV and CC, whereas CC generated intermediate results. This study indicated that the HDEP per se in AV and BR were not significantly different from that in CC. The study implied that the facility depreciation cost for AV and cost for increased feed intake in AV compared to CC are believed to be critical to evaluate the cost effectiveness of egg production in AV. PMID:25083115

  13. Puberty and sexual maturity in Anglo-Nubian male goats raised in semi-intensive system

    Luiz Eduardo Barreto de Souza

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to characterize the sexual development in Anglo-Nubian male goats raised in semi-intensive system. Eight animals were monitored every fifteen days, from the 12th to the 44th week for age at penis detachment, live weight, scrotal circumference, seminal parameters (volume, aspect, concentration, wave motion, progressive individual motility, vigor and spermatic abnormalities and serum testosterone levels. Serum testosterone levels were determined in blood samples collected at the 20th, 28th and 38th weeks of age. Penis detachment occurred at 102.9 ± 15.4 days of age. Live weight and scrotal circumference at 20th and 44th weeks of age ranged from 25.9 ± 3.5 to 44.7 ± 4.7 kg and from 21.2 ± 1.6 cm to 26.0 ± 1.5 cm, respectively. The ejaculate volume ranged from 0.38 ± 0.05 to 0.96 ± 0.04 mL, concentration ranged from 1.33 ± 0.64 to 3.54 ± 0.14.10(9 mL-1 and the progressive individual motility varied from 48.0 ± 10.52% to 82.0 ± 3.74%, at the same age. The number of defective spermatozoa (major and minor was 32.2 ± 5.8% vs. 8.80 ± 2.9% at the 20th and the 44th week of age, respectively. Serum testosterone level was 2.70 ± 1.40 ng.mL-1 at the 20th week, 8.50 ± 4.66 ng.mL-1 at the 28th week and 2.21 ± 2.28 ng.mL-1 at the 38th week of age. Age showed a correlation with live weight, scrotal circumference, and all the qualitative parameters of semen except for volume, with all other qualitative parameters of semen, and the correlation among sperm abnormalities and the other traits was negative. Serum testosterone levels and andrological parameters of Anglo-Nubian goats raised in semi-intensive system are closely related to age. In those animals, puberty is reached at the 20th week and sexual maturity is reached at the 38th week of age.

  14. Low temperature boron and phosphorous doped SiGe for recessed and raised sources and drains

    Hartmann, J. M.; Py, M.; Barnes, J. P.; Prévitali, B.; Batude, P.; Billon, T.

    2011-07-01

    We have first of all studied the growth kinetics of boron and phosphorous doped, 20-30 nm thick Si 0.65Ge 0.35 layers, the aim being their integration in recessed and raised sources and drains. Those layers have been grown at low pressure (20 Torr) and low temperature (650 °C) with a heavily chlorinated chemistry (in order to be selective versus SiO 2 (isolation) and Si 3N 4 (sidewall spacers)). We have quantified the impact of the diborane and phosphine flow on (i) the SiGe crystalline quality and strain state, (ii) the amount of boron or phosphorous atoms incorporated in it and (iii) the SiGe:B or SiGe:P growth kinetics. As the diborane flow increases, the SiGe:B growth rate definitely increases, while the real Ge concentration (from Time-Of-Flight Secondary Ions Mass Spectrometry) is more or less steady. B atoms, being much smaller than Si or Ge, partially compensate the compressive strain in the SiGe:B layers, leading to a decrease in the apparent Ge concentration (from X-ray diffraction). Opposite trends are observed for SiGe:P. There is indeed a definite decrease in the SiGe:P growth rate together with a definite increase in both the apparent and real Ge concentration as the phosphine flow increases. The Boron atomic concentration increases linearly with the diborane flow, with however a practical limit around 3.5×10 20 cm -3 in order to stay monocrystalline. Meanwhile, the phosphorous atomic concentration saturates quite rapidly at values close to 8-9×10 19 cm -3 as the phosphine flow increases (most likely due to surface segregation). In the second part we have highlighted some of the difficulties encountered when trying to selectively grow intrinsic SiGe raised S/Ds at 650 °C on patterned, extra-thin Silicon-On-Insulator wafers and some of the solutions identified in order to obtain 2D thick films. Amongst those, we can mention the 750 °C deposition of a thin Si buffer or the in-situ high HCl partial pressure etch at 650 °C of a few nm of Si prior to SiGe Selective Epitaxial Growth (SEG), the drastic reduction of the incoming HCl flow during SiGe SEG, etc.

  15. Dietary pectin lowers sphingomyelin concentration in VLDL and raises hepatic sphingomyelinase activity in rats.

    Bladergroen, B A; Beynen, A C; Geelen, M J

    1999-03-01

    There is evidence that cholesterol and sphingomyelin metabolism are interrelated, and thus the hypothesis tested was that dietary pectin, because it can alter hepatic cholesterol metabolism, would also alter hepatic sphingomyelin metabolism. For that purpose, 4-wk-old female Wistar rats were fed a diet without or with pectin (20 g/100 g) up to 21 d. In accordance with previous work, pectin consumption caused a significant (P cholesterol levels. Pectin also significantly reduced VLDL sphingomyelin concentrations (57%), but raised the amount of sphingomyelin in the high density lipoproteins (HDL)-2 fractions (58%), so that the level of sphingomyelin in whole plasma remained unaffected. Pectin did not affect the sphingomyelin concentration in the liver. Pectin consumption did not affect the hepatic sphingomyelin synthesizing enzymes, serine palmitoyltransferase, phosphatidylcholine:ceramide phosphocholine transferase, or phosphatidylethanolamine:ceramide phosphoethanolamine transferase. In contrast, dietary pectin activated both lysosomal (28%) and plasma membrane (26%) sphingomyelinase and thus may have enhanced sphingomyelin degradation. An attempt was made to describe the effects of dietary pectin on sphingomyelin metabolism in terms of altered fluxes through liver and plasma, with whole liver and whole plasma concentrations of sphingomyelin remaining unaffected. PMID:10082766

  16. Phytochemical investigation of natural and in vitro raised Vṛddhadāruka plants

    Asha Jyoti Bharati

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Argyreia nervosa commonly known as elephant creeper (English and Vṛddhadāruka (Sanskrit is a woody climber that belongs to the family Convolvulaceae. Seeds of this plant contain hallucinogens including ergot alkaloids and a naturally occurring lysergic acid amide. Traditionally the plant is used in the treatment of gonorrhea, strangury, chronic ulcers, diabetes, anemia and cerebral disorders. The plant is also used as appetitiser, brain tonic, cardiotonic, aphrodisiac. It possesses anti-inflammatory, immunomodulatory, antibacterial, antiviral and antifungal activities. Objective: To give an account of information on in vitro regeneration and phytochemical analysis of the plant. Materials and Methods: Nodal explants were selected for in vitro regeneration. Different aerial parts viz., seeds, natural and in vitro leaf, stem and callus were dried and extracted with different solvents and were subjected to various phytochemical analyses. Results: Different concentrations of 6-benzylaminopurine showed shoot and root initiation. The study of phytochemical screening of different extracts showed the presence of bioactive substances like flavonoids, alkaloids, terpenoids, etc. Conclusion: The study will provide an efficient in vitro protocol for micropropagation as an alternative method to conserve the plant and shows the presence of some important secondary metabolites in the nature grown and in vitro raised plants which can be useful for treatment of various diseases.

  17. SCHOOL-BASED SAVINGS PROGRAMMES AS A METHOD OF RAISING FINANCIAL AWARENESS IN CHILDREN

    Joanna Lenkiewicz

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Saving money and budgeting concerns every one of us. One of the most famous ways of depositing money is the use of an account or a traditional piggy bank. Not only the last option is close to the youngest. It has long been known School-based Savings Programmes (SSP. We try to instill in the youngest ability and habit of depositing mon-ey. Bank goes out to meet the needs and continually improve the SSP. The first part of the article focuses on the notion of SSP. It was raised matter of passbook evolution into an online account, and thus describes the functions and capabilities of such an account. The article describes the operation and maintenance of accounts, SSP and its rules. At the end of the article, condensed results of a survey conducted at the school in Stare Juchy were placed. The result was to assess the awareness of the youngest in terms of saving and School-based Savings Programmes.

  18. When ethical reform became law: the constitutional concerns raised by recent legislation in Taiwan.

    Su, Yi-Chen

    2014-07-01

    In an effort at ethical reform, Taiwan recently revised the Hospice Palliative Care Law authorising family members or physicians to make surrogate decisions to discontinue life-sustaining treatment if an incompetent terminally ill patient did not express their wishes while still competent. In particular, Article 7 of the new law authorises the palliative care team, namely the physicians, to act as sole decision-makers on behalf of the incompetent terminally ill patient's best interests if no family member is available. However, the law fails to provide guidance as to what constitutes the patient's best interests or what specific procedures the treating physicians should follow, and so has raised constitutional concerns. It may be difficult to translate ethical reform into law but it is not impossible if essential requirements are carefully followed. First, there must be substantial nexus between the purpose of the statute and the measures provided under the statute. Second, advocates need to convince the public that futility or waste has amounted to a public health emergency so as to justify lower procedural requirements. Third, a remedy or compensation should be available if the surrogate decisions have not been appropriately made. Fourth,minimum procedural safeguards are necessary even though the statute is intended to reduce the procedural burdens of making surrogate decisions on behalf of incompetent patients who lack family members and did not express their wishes while still competent. PMID:24131902

  19. Hyperglycemia raises the threshold of levosimendan- but not milrinone-induced postconditioning in rat hearts

    Matsumoto Shuhei

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The authors examined whether milrinone and levosimendan could exert cardiac postconditioning effects in rats under normoglycemia and hyperglycemia, and whether the effects could be mediated by mitochondrial permeability transition pore (mPTP. Methods Wistar rats underwent 30-min coronary artery occlusion followed by 2-h reperfusion. The rats received milrinone or levosimendan just before reperfusion under normoglycemic or hyperglycemic conditions with or without atractyloside, an mPTP opener. Results Under normoglycemia, both 30 μg/kg milrinone (29 ± 12% and 10 μg/kg levosimendan (33 ± 13% reduced infarct size compared with that in the control (58 ± 7%. Under hyperglycemia, milrinone (34 ± 13% reduced infarct size at the same dose as under normoglycemia. In contrast, neither 10 nor 30 μg/kg levosimendan protected hyperglycemic hearts, and only 100 μg/kg levosimendan (32 ± 9% reduced infarct size compared with that in the hyperglycemic control (58 ± 13%. All of these cardioprotective effects under normoglycemia and hyperglycemia are abolished by atractyloside. Conclusion Milrinone and levosimendan exert postconditioning effects via inhibition of mPTP opening. Hyperglycemia raises the threshold of levosimendan-induced postconditioning, while milrinone-induced postconditioning is not influenced by hyperglycemia.

  20. Current means for raising efficiency of counteraction to counterfeit goods trafficking

    Dronova O.B.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The urgency of counteraction to counterfeit goods trafficking is shown. Annual loss due to counterfeit goods producing and trafficking reaches several billion dollars. There remains a danger of buying low-quality and counterfeit goods despite implementing new producing techniques and protective elements. Measures, taken by law enforcement agencies, state authorities and public human rights organizations have not led to systematic suppression of producing and trafficking of such goods. Creation of new information and reference resource, containing information blocks of protective symbols on goods and packages and illustrated materials comprising patterns of discovered counterfeit goods, can assist to increase public awareness and to give necessary information to law enforcement agencies. Organizations, realizing state and social protection of consumers and entrepreneurs, along with producers, rightholders’ representatives and law enforcement bodies can accept the responsibility of creating and functioning this information and reference system in the Internet. Such level of cooperation of all interested organizations will allow to raise efficiency of measures for counteraction to trafficking goods with violated consumer properties. The author proves the necessity to organize functioning of information and reference resource for a wide range of users. Operation of such resource should comply with main principles of generating any information resource, notably full scale, authenticity and relevance of information. The author proposes the algorithm of creating such system which provides cooperation of law enforcement agencies, producers and consumers for the purpose of preventing counterfeit goods trafficking and investigating committed crimes.

  1. Effects of an awareness raising campaign on intention and behavioural determinants for handwashing.

    Seimetz, E; Kumar, S; Mosler, H-J

    2016-04-01

    This article assesses the effectiveness of The Great WASH Yatra handwashing awareness raising campaign in India on changing visitors' intention to wash hands with soap after using the toilet and the underlying behavioural determinants. Interviews based on the RANAS (Risk, Attitudes, Norms, Abilities, Self-regulation) model of behaviour change were conducted with 687 visitors before and after their visit to the campaign. Data showed that a campaign visit had little effect on the intention to wash hands with soap, even when comparing visitors who had actively participated in handwashing games with those who had not. After a campaign visit, knowledge about the benefits of washing hands had increased by almost half a standard deviation. A multiple linear regression analysis revealed that when considering all behavioural determinants change scores simultaneously, they were able to explain 57% of the variance in the intention change score. These findings suggest that substantively changing behaviour requires more than improving knowledge and emphasizing the importance of washing hands. Identifying the crucial behavioural determinants for handwashing may be an important first step in planning effective large-scale promotion programmes. PMID:26936481

  2. Determination of the fascicle length of the gastrocnemius muscle during calf raise exercise using ultrasonography.

    Kudo, Shintarou; Hisada, Tomoyuki; Sato, Takanori

    2015-12-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to find a strength training protocol which maintains isometric contraction of the triceps surae during dorsal flexion of the ankle. [Subjects] The left feet of 22 young normal volunteers who did not have orthopedic injuries or lower limb pain participated in this study. [Methods] All subjects performed four sets of five repetitions of four sets calf-raise (CR) exercise at were (1) 60 bpm without a pedestal, (2) 60 bpm with a pedestal, (3) 90 bpm without a pedestal, and (4) 90 bpm with a pedestal. The fascicle length of the lateral head of the gastrocnemius and ankle angle were measured using ultrasonography and a video camera. The CR exercise was divided into two or three phases using the kinematics of the ankle. The average change in fascicle length over the five repetitions of each phase were compared. [Results] The change of the fascicle length during the hyper-dorsiflexion phase was significantly smaller than during the other two phases. [Conclusion] It is possible that eccentric CR exercises have progressed to motor learning of the isometric contraction during counter movement, and improved the release of elastic energy of the Achilles tendon during running, jumping, and other athletic activities. PMID:26834347

  3. Silicon on Raised Insulator Field Effect Diode Sori-Fed for Alleviating Scaling Problem in Fed

    Vadizadeh, Mahdi; Fathipour, Morteza; Darvish, Ghafar

    2014-12-01

    One of the main shortcomings in a field effect diode (FED) is its scaling. Use of an oxide layer in the channel is proposed to enhance the control of the gate on the channel carriers. This is the so-called silicon on raised insulator FED (SORI-FFD) structure. The Shockley-Read-Hall (SRH) mechanism is one of the main components of leakage current in FED devices. The potential induced by the gates in the OFF-state of a SORI-FFD, is larger than that induced by the gates of a regular FED. This reduces, SRH recombination rate. Hence, OFF-state characteristics of the SORI-FED device improves. We evaluate the impact of band-to-band tunneling (BTBT) on the electrical characteristics of Modified FED (M-FED).We show that for channel lengths of 35 nm and lower this device does not turn off. While, the proposed structure makes device channel length scaling possible down to 15 nm. We will also compare electrical characteristics of SORI-FED and M-FED using three metrics: gate delay time versus channel length, gate delay time versus ION/IOFF ratio and energy-delay product versus channel length. Benchmarking results show the proposed FED structure provides improvement in ION/IOFF ratio and holds promise for future logic transistor applications.

  4. Deceased Donor Organs: What Can Be Done to Raise Donation Rates Using Evidence From Malaysia?

    Rasiah, R; Manikam, R; Chandrasekaran, S K; Naghavi, N; Mubarik, S; Mustafa, R; Pushparajan, S

    2016-05-01

    Organ donation rates have continued to fall seriously short of needs worldwide, with the lowest rates recorded among developing economies. This study seeks to analyze evidence from a developing economy to explore the usefulness of social psychological theory to solve the problem. The study deployed a large survey (n = 10 412) using a convenience sampling procedure targeted at increasing the number of Malaysians registered with the Ministry of Health, Malaysia who are willing to donate organs upon death. Structural equation modeling was deployed to estimate simultaneously the relative influence of cognitive and noncognitive variables on willingness to donate deceased organs. The cognitive factors of donation perception, socioeconomic status and financial incentives, and the noncognitive factors of demography and fear showed a high statistically significant (1%) relationship with willingness to donate organs after death. While financial incentives were significant, cash rewards showed the least impact. Donation perception showed the highest impact, which shows that the development of effective pedagogic programs with simultaneous improvements to the quality of services provided by medical personnel engaged in retrieving and transplanting deceased donor organs can help raise organ donation rates. PMID:26602367

  5. Hydrogen sulfide raises cytosolic calcium in neurons through activation of L-type Ca2+ channels.

    García-Bereguiaín, Miguel Angel; Samhan-Arias, Alejandro Khalil; Martín-Romero, Francisco Javier; Gutiérrez-Merino, Carlos

    2008-01-01

    Hydrogen sulfide (H(2)S) concentration can be maintained in cell cultures within the range reported for rat brain by repetitive pulses of sodium hydrogen sulfide. Less than 2 h exposure to H(2)S concentrations within 50 and 120 microM (i.e., within the upper segment of the reported physiological range of H(2)S in rat brain), produces a large shift of the intracellular calcium homeostasis in cerebellar granule neurons (CGN) in culture, leading to a large and sustained increase of cytosolic calcium concentration. Only 1 h exposure to H(2)S concentrations within 100 and 300 microM raises intracellular calcium to the neurotoxic range, with nearly 50% cell death after 2 h. L-type Ca(2+) channels antagonists nimodipine and nifedipine block both the H(2)S-induced rise of cytosolic calcium and cell death. The N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antagonists (+)-MK-801 and DL-2-amino-5-phosphonovaleric acid afforded a nearly complete protection against H(2)S-induced CGN death and largely attenuated the rise of cytosolic calcium. Thus, H(2)S-induced rise of cytosolic calcium eventually reaches the neurotoxic cytosolic calcium range, leading to glutamate-induced excitotoxic CGN death. The authors conclude that H(2)S is a major modulator of calcium homeostasis in neurons as it induces activation of Ca(2+) entry through L-type Ca(2+) channels, and thereby of neuronal activity. PMID:17956188

  6. Symbiosis with an endobacterium increases the fitness of a mycorrhizal fungus, raising its bioenergetic potential.

    Salvioli, Alessandra; Ghignone, Stefano; Novero, Mara; Navazio, Lorella; Venice, Francesco; Bagnaresi, Paolo; Bonfante, Paola

    2016-01-01

    Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) occur in the rhizosphere and in plant tissues as obligate symbionts, having key roles in plant evolution and nutrition. AMF possess endobacteria, and genome sequencing of the endobacterium Candidatus Glomeribacter gigasporarum revealed a reduced genome and a dependence on the fungal host. To understand the effect of bacteria on fungal fitness, we used next-generation sequencing to analyse the transcriptional profile of Gigaspora margarita in the presence and in the absence of its endobacterium. Genomic data on AMF are limited; therefore, we first generated a gene catalogue for G. margarita. Transcriptome analysis revealed that the endobacterium has a stronger effect on the pre-symbiotic phase of the fungus. Coupling transcriptomics with cell biology and physiological approaches, we demonstrate that the bacterium increases the fungal sporulation success, raises the fungal bioenergetic capacity, increasing ATP production, and eliciting mechanisms to detoxify reactive oxygen species. By using TAT peptide to translocate the bioluminescent calcium reporter aequorin, we demonstrated that the line with endobacteria had a lower basal intracellular calcium concentration than the cured line. Lastly, the bacteria seem to enhance the fungal responsiveness to strigolactones, the plant molecules that AMF perceive as branching factors. Although the endobacterium exacts a nutritional cost on the AMF, endobacterial symbiosis improves the fungal ecological fitness by priming mitochondrial metabolic pathways and giving the AMF more tools to face environmental stresses. Thus, we hypothesise that, as described for the human microbiota, endobacteria may increase AMF innate immunity. PMID:26046255

  7. Increase of diesel car raises health risk in spite of recent development in engine technology.

    Leem, Jong Han; Jang, Young-Kee

    2014-01-01

    Diesel exhaust particles (DEP) contain elemental carbon, organic compounds including Polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), metals, and other trace compounds. Diesel exhaust is complex mixture of thousands of chemicals. Over forty air contaminants are recognized as toxicants, such as carcinogens. Most diesel exhaust particles have aerodynamic diameters falling within a range of 0.1 to 0.25 μm. DEP was classified as a definite human carcinogen (group 1) by the International Agency for Research on Cancer at 2012 based on recently sufficient epidemiological evidence for lung cancer. Significant decreases in DEP and other diesel exhaust constituents will not be evident immediately, and outworn diesel car having longer mileage still threatens health of people in spite of recent remarkable development in diesel engine technology. Policy change in South Korea, such as introduction of diesel taxi, may raise health risk of air pollution in metropolitan area with these limitations of diesel engine. To protect people against DEP in South Korea, progressive strategies are needed, including disallowance of diesel taxi, more strict regulation of diesel engine emission, obligatory diesel particulate filter attachment in outworn diesel car, and close monitoring about health effects of DEP. PMID:25318659

  8. Challenges of raising road maintenance funds in developing countries: An analysis of road tolling in Zimbabwe

    T. C. Mbara

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The condition of Zimbabwe's roads has been declining due to insufficient maintenance and rehabilitation. Year on year, budget allocations have compared unfavourably with funding considered adequate to maintain highway networks and conduct modest construction work. Road infrastructure shortcomings have manifested themselves in the form of high vehicle operating costs and rampant potholes, leading to a decline in road safety and a deterioration of service levels for those who use roads to deliver goods or connect to international markets. In order to try and stop this vicious cycle of decline, the Government of Zimbabwe, on 8 August 2009, introduced a new policy of road-user charges, which involved the setting-up of 22 toll gates on the trunk road network. The overall objective was to raise revenue in order to close the funding gap, blamed for declining road quality. Although alternative methods of financing road maintenance have been debated for years, a generally accepted understanding is that road users should pay costs for road provisioning. This paper assesses the implementation of a road tolling system in Zimbabwe and describes matters relating to, inter alia, implementation strategy, initial performance outcomes and sustainability.

  9. Ethical issues raised by the new orientations in ergonomics and living labs.

    Barcenilla, Javier; Tijus, Charles

    2012-01-01

    User Experience Theory (UXT) provides us with criteria for designing products and technical systems for everyday activities (playing, learning, working,…) so as to satisfy users. Living Labs (LL), are plateforms used for the design and evaluation of technical systems. As such, they constitute tools that bring to this process some constraints., However these constraints have to be articulated to the UXT. In other words, UXT should specify the place, the role and function LL should play in the design of new products, how it should contribute to satisfying UX, and how the methods and techniques should be conceived or borrowed from other disciplines. UXT also raises ethical issues: impartiality (independent, public, replicable) of research models in the context of economical constraints (dependant, private, secret prototypes) and of industrial pressure, the use of intrusive and persuasive techniques, even with the prior informed consent of participants, ergo-marketing, deontology codes, the use of specific participants, belonging of an UX innovative solution, confidentiality with ICT, and so on. Because the UX, as well as LL literature, have shown little concerns for ethical considerations, till now, we define LL-UX ethical issues as a new research topic, and we list a number of problems to be solved in order to have an ethical LL-UX methodology for open innovation. PMID:22317534

  10. Analysis of the stress raising action of flaws in laser clad deposits

    Highlights: ► Laser clad defects are 0D-pores/inclusions, 1D-clad waviness or 2D-planar defects. ► Surface pore of laser clad bar initiates fatigue cracks. ► Side edge surface pores are more critical than in-clad surface pores. ► Smaller notch radius and angle of as-laser clad surface raises stress significantly. ► Planar inner defects grow faster towards surface. - Abstract: Fatigue cracking of laser clad cylindrical and square section bars depends upon a variety of factors. This paper presents Finite Element Analysis (FEA) of the different macro stress fields generated as well as stress raisers created by laser cladding defects for four different fatigue load conditions. As important as the defect types are their locations and orientations, categorized into zero-, one- and two-dimensional defects. Pores and inclusions become critical close to surfaces. The performance of as-clad surfaces can be governed by the sharpness of surface notches and planar defects like hot cracks or lack-of-fusion (LOF) are most critical if oriented vertically, transverse to the bar axis. The combination of the macro stress field with the defect type and its position and orientation determines whether it is the most critical stress raiser. Based on calculated cases, quantitative and qualitative charts were developed as guidelines to visualize the trends of different combinations

  11. How can we raise Tc in RO1-xFxFeAs superconductors?

    By the discovery of RO1-xFxFeAs (R = lanthanide) superconductors in the beginning of 2008, it was shown for the first time that a non-cuprate superconductor can reach a superconducting transition temperature Tc above 50 K. This offers new opportunities for the development of new high temperature superconductors. However, the superconductors with the highest Tc show the most difficulties in formation of the right phase. Problems are the incorporation of fluorine and the homogeneity of the samples. A further challenge is the structural instability for rare earth elements with small ion radius (64≤Z≤71). In our studies, several opportunities to overcome these difficulties are evaluated: 1. variation of the grain size of the initial powder 2. use of slightly non-stoichiometric initial composition 3. high-pressure synthesis As a result, we raise the Tc of the material with a nominal composition GdO1-xFxFeAs from 20 up to 40 K. In a SmO0.9F0.1FeAs-compound could be observed superconductivity above 50 K after a small As-reduction at the surface of the sample. Measurements of the final composition and structure will animate the discussion about the requirements for realization of the superconducting state.

  12. Developing and disseminating a foodprint tool to raise awareness about healthy and environmentally conscious food choices

    Tine Bosschaert

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This article describes the development and dissemination of an ecological footprint tool that provides a concise and scientifically grounded summary of the environmental impact of personal food choices. Developed to be easy to use and available to consumers via online social networking platforms, the tool aims to raise awareness and to provide an impetus for behavior change. The foodprint tool communicates scientifically informed and customized practical advice on how individuals can reduce their ecological footprint (EF (or “foodprint”. The first part of the article describes the process of developing this tool, the choice of indicator, the goals, and the results. Among other aspects, the tool enables users to understand that the largest contributors to their foodprint are sources of animal protein: dairy, meat, and fish. The second part of the article describes the strategy guiding the tool’s design and implementation, which is based on a combination of contextual communication, feedback from peers, and intrinsic motivation. In this footprint tool, a focus on food patterns, interactive feedback, and social media plays a key role. The tool consists of a survey with fifteen questions about personal food choice that allow users to receive individualized feedback, including five suggestions for reducing personal foodprints. Users can also share their results through customary social media. Due to an effective outreach campaign, a total of 90,000 Dutch consumers used this tool over a period of four months, with 1% indicating that they intended to change behavior.

  13. A longitudinal study of unweaned piglets raised by smallholder farmers in the Philippines.

    More, Simon J; Lee, Jenny-Ann L M; Lañada, Eugene B; Taveros, Alberto A; Cotiw-an, Basito S

    2005-08-12

    We conducted a longitudinal study to obtain detailed baseline information about the health and productivity of unweaned piglets raised by smallholder pig raisers in the Philippines, and to identify constraints and opportunities to smallholder-piglet production. At two sites in the Philippines, we collected data about 242 litters from 173 sows in 102 herds during on-farm visits over 12-18 months. Preweaning mortality at the northern and southern sites was 17 and 9%, respectively. Of the piglet deaths at the northern site, 49% occurred within 24h of birth. Pig raisers used few of the recognised interventions known to reduce neonatal piglet mortality, although >50% of litters were given iron injections at the northern site and kept in a farrowing pen with a barrier at the southern site. Creep feeding was more common at the northern site but the nutritive value of the feeds given to piglets was low. We used repeated-measures and time-to-event analyses. Our results suggest that targeted extension (addressing, in particular, management issues relating to neonatal piglets) can contribute to increased productivity of unweaned piglets. PMID:15967246

  14. Luminescence and radiocarbon dating of raised beach sediments, Bunger Hills, East Antarctica

    Luminescence and radiocarbon dating of raised marine sediments from the Bunger Hills, East Antarctica, demonstrates that luminescence methods can be applied to such poorly bleached sediments as long as the luminescence behaviour of the sediments is understood. This is essential as the complete zeroing of the luminescence signal due to light exposure is required to allow an accurate age for the sediment accumulation. Unfortunately, independent checks on the luminescence ages are rare. In the present study, some independent age control is provided by AMS radiocarbon ages from shell obtained from and adjacent to the luminescence dated horizons, although the radiocarbon ages may suffer to some degree from variability in the marine reservoir effect. Application of the single aliquot luminescence technique to feldspar grains from the marine sediments demonstrated that the luminescence behaviour of the sediments was complex. For each sample, 18 replicate paleodose estimates were used to demonstrate whether the sediments were well bleached before deposition. Optically, well-bleached samples give younger luminescence ages, whilst poorly bleached samples often give excessively old ages compared to the associated radiocarbon-dated material. (author)

  15. Observing and simulating soil development using a chronosequence of cold raised marine terraces on Spitsbergen

    van der Meij, Marijn; de Kleijn, Christian; Temme, Arnaud; Zwolinski, Zbigniew; Rymer, Krzysztof

    2015-04-01

    The coasts of Spitsbergen are covered with raised marine beaches, developed under the isostatic rebound after the Last Glacial Maximum. This chronosequence of beaches provides a unique chance to study the speed of soil forming processes in cold and dry Arctic regions. Fieldwork was performed on gravelly marine beaches in the Ebba valley, central Spitsbergen, with ages ranging from 3.000 up to 14.000 years. The soils on 30 random selected locations were described and sampled. Results indicate several soil forming processes, which have a strong dependence on time, but also on landscape setting and vegetation presence. These processes include the accumulation of organic matter, aeolian deposition of sand and weathering and dissolution of the limestone gravel that dominates the parent material. This last process results in translocation of silt through the profile, creating silt caps on remaining limestone gravel, and when enough silt is accumulated, a Bl horizon. The carbonates from the limestone form precipitates under the gravel grains. Results support the notion that even under cold, permafrost conditions, soil formation and particularly weathering can still happen reasonably fast if some water is available. Using an early version of soilscape model LORICA, some of the pedogenic processes are simulated in order to get better insight in their dynamics and distribution in the study area. The model links geomorphic processes such as aeolian deposition, isostatic rebound and erosion to the vertical development of the soil profiles in the area.

  16. Studies on the reproductive performance of indigenous beef cattle breeds raised on-farm in Ghana

    Studies were undertaken to investigate the reproductive performance of a mixture of N'dama and West African Shorthorn (N'dama/WASH) and Sanga cattle raised under traditional management conditions on four privately owned small-holder farms. The first study involved an analysis of reproductive records and the measurement of plasma progesterone concentration to delineate the onset of various reproductive phenomena, including age at puberty and first calving, post-partum resumption of ovarian activity and other abnormal events like abortions. The second study investigated the influence of dry-season feed supplementation on reproductive performance. In study 1 the ages at first plasma progesterone rise (puberty), first mating and first calving for N'dama/WASH cattle on three farms averaged 981, 1016 and 1296 days respectively. The calving interval, calving-to-progesterone rise and calving-to-mating averaged 412, 129 and 114 days respectively. Significant differences existed among farms with Farms 1 and 2 out-performing Farm 3. The respective mean ages at first progesterone elevation, first mating and first calving for Sanga cattle (Farm 4) were 964, 990 and 1271 days while calving-to-progesterone rise, calving-to-mating and calving intervals averaged 107, 150 and 431 days. In study 2, dry-season feed supplementation generally reduced ages at puberty and first calving as well as the interval of post-partum acyclicity. (author). 18 refs, 3 figs, 9 tabs

  17. Study of the legal problems raised by the siting of nuclear power stations in artificial islands

    The creation and operation of a nuclear power station on an artificial island in French waters are governed by domestic law and are subject to two types of procedure: the first concerns erection of the artificial island and the second the control of the public authorities over creation and operation of the nuclear power station. At administrative level, the setting up of an artificial island requires that it be attached to a commune as well as permission for occupancy from the maritime authorities. Furthermore, setting up of a nuclear power station on an artificial island is subject to the licensing procedure for large nuclear installations and to delivery of the licenses required for release of gaseous and liquid radioactive effluents. Given the proximity of the high seas and eventually, the borders of other States, siting of a nuclear power station on an artificial island imposes obligations at international level. These requirements, which concern prevention of transfrontier pollution, stem from the London (1972) and Paris (1974) Conventions on marine pollution. The third party liability regime for a nuclear incident caused by an installation sited in territorial seas is that of the 1960 Paris Convention on third party liability in the nuclear field and the 1963 Brussels Supplementary Convention. Another problem likely to be raised is that of the right of innocent passage of ships near such installations

  18. Gastrointestinal nematode infections in sheep raised in Botucatu, state of São Paulo, Brazil.

    Wilmsen, Maurício Orlando; Silva, Bruna Fernanda; Bassetto, César Cristiano; Amarante, Alessandro Francisco Talamini do

    2014-01-01

    Gastrointestinal nematode infections were evaluated in sheep raised in Botucatu, state of São Paulo, Brazil between April 2008 and March 2011. Every month, two tracer lambs grazing with a flock of sheep were exposed to natural infection with gastrointestinal nematodes for 28 consecutive days. At the end of this period, the lambs were sacrificed for worm counts. Haemonchus contortus presented 100% of prevalence. The seasons exerted no significant influence on the mean intensity of H. contortus, which ranged from 315 worms in November 2010 to 2,5205 worms in January 2011. The prevalence of Trichostrongylus colubriformis was also 100%, with the lowest mean intensity (15 worms) recorded in February 2011 and the highest (9,760 worms) in October 2009. In the case of T. colubriformis, a significant correlation coefficient was found between worm counts vs. rainfall (r = -0.32; P <0.05). Three other nematodes species were found in tracer lambs, albeit in small numbers. Their prevalence and mean intensity (in parenthesis) were as follows: Oesophagostomum columbianum 28% (25.2), Cooperia curticei 7% (4.5) and Trichuris spp. 2% (1). In conclusion, the environmental conditions of the area proved to be highly favorable for the year-round transmission of H. contortus and T. colubriformis. PMID:25271455

  19. Avalanches in the raise and peel model in the presence of a wall

    We investigate a non-equilibrium one-dimensional model known as the raise and peel model describing a growing surface which grows locally and has non-local desorption. For specific values of adsorption (ua) and desorption (ud) rates, the model shows interesting features. At ua = ud, the model is described by a conformal field theory (with conformal charge c = 0) and its stationary probability can be mapped onto the ground state of the XXZ quantum chain. Moreover, for the regime ua ⩾ ud, the model shows a phase in which the avalanche distribution is scale-invariant. In this work, we study the surface dynamics by looking at avalanche distributions using a finite-sized scaling formalism and explore the effect of adding a wall to the model. The model shows the same universality for the cases with and without a wall for an odd number of tiles removed, but we find a new exponent in the presence of a wall for an even number of tiles released in an avalanche. New insights into the effect of parity on avalanche distributions are discussed and we provide a new conjecture for the probability distribution of avalanches with a wall obtained by using an exact diagonalization of small lattices and Monte Carlo simulations. (paper)

  20. Ethical Issues Raised by Epigenetic Testing for Alcohol, Tobacco, and Cannabis.

    Erwin, Cheryl

    2015-10-01

    Epigenetic testing is one of the most significant new technologies to provide insight into the behavioral and environmental factors that influence the development and reconfiguration of the human genetic code. This technology allows us to identify structural changes in the genome that occur due to exposure to a wide variety of substances including alcohol, tobacco, and cannabis. The information gained can be used to promote health but it also raises a variety of ethical, legal, and social issues. As society progresses in understanding the epigenetic mechanisms of substance use and addiction, there is an opportunity to use these use this knowledge to enable medical, behavioral, and environmental interventions to alleviate the burden of addiction. This article describes the ethical issues associated with use of epigenetic testing for alcohol, tobacco, and cannabis and the implications of this technology. A further review of the scientific basis for the relevance of epigenetics is found in the accompanying article by Philibert and Erwin in this issue. PMID:26358643

  1. Paddy yield as affected by boron application directly sown on raised bed under saline sodic soils

    A field experiment was carried out to investigate the effect of different levels of boron (0.5, I, 1.5 and 2 kg B/ha) on growth, yield and ionic concentration of rice directly sown on raised beds under saline sodic soils (ECe=5.65 dS/m, pH=8.57 and SAR=17.38) at Malik Farm, Farooqabad during 2009. Treatments were arranged using randomized complete block design (RCBD) with three replications. The crop was harvested at maturity and data on tillering, plant height, spike length, number of grains/spike, 1000-grain weight, straw and paddy yields were recorded. Tillering, number of grains/spike, 1000 - grain weight and paddy yield significantly (Ps = 0.05) increased by different levels of B. 1000 grains weight (29 g) and grain yield was the maximum (4.65 t/ha) at the application of 1.5 kg B/ha and 31% more than control treatment. Maximum plant height (141 cm) and numbers of grains/spike (203) were recorded with B application at the rate of 1 kg/ha, B concentration in grain and straw increased with increasing the rate of boron application. Positive correlation (r = 0.856) was found between B contents in grain and paddy grain yield. Economical analysis showed that maximum value cost ratio (14.9:1) this achieved with the application of 1.5 kg B/ha. (author)

  2. Dams and Displacement: Raising the Standards and Broadening the Research Agenda

    Brooke McDonald-Wilmsen

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The World Commission on Dams provided an analytical overview of the cumulative effects of years of dam development. A lack of commitment or capacity to cope with displacement or to consider the civil rights of, or risks to, displaced people led to the impoverishment and suffering of tens of millions and growing opposition to dams by affected communities worldwide. However, after the WCD, little has changed for the better in terms of resettlement policies. In fact, the standards of key agencies, like the Asian Development Bank, have been lowered and diluted compared to prior policies. Dam-induced development and displacement are stifled by a 'managerialist' approach to planning, in which solutions are sought internally and subordinated to the economics that underpins the existence of the project. The aim of successful resettlement is to prevent impoverishment and to enable displaced people to share in the project’s benefits. Within the field of dam-induced resettlement, this is a lofty goal rarely achieved. However, in other fields of resettlement, such as refugee studies and adaptation to environmental change, such a goal is regarded as a minimum standard. In this paper we seek to broaden the research agenda on dam-induced resettlement and to raise the standards of development projects that entail resettlement. We do this by importing some of the considerations and concerns from practice and research from the fields of refugee studies and adaptation to environmental change.

  3. Contribution of ?-globin cluster polymorphisms to raise fetal hemoglobin levels in normal adults.

    Jouini, Latifa; Bibi, Amina; Ouali, Faida; Hadj Fredj, Sondess; Ouennich, Fekria; Siala, Hajer; Messaoud, Taieb; Fattoum, Slaheddine

    2012-04-01

    Hereditary persistence of fetal hemoglobin (HPFH) is a group of genetically heterogeneous conditions characterized by continued expression of fetal hemoglobin (HbF) in adulthood. HPFH may be due not only to point mutations or large deletions in different regions of the cluster ? globin, but also to variations in several polymorphic sequences in this cluster. The objective of this work was to evaluate effects of polymorphic markers within cluster ? globin on HbF expression. For the purpose, we have explored in this first study of Tunisian HPFH four polymorphic regions of ? globin cluster in 68 healthy adults (34 subjects with high levels of HbF and 34 with normal HbF levels). Our results showed that the increase of HbF levels is associated with the -158 G? C ? T polymorphism, the TG(18)CG(2)CACG, TC TG(9)AG TG(2)CG(2) and TG(11)CG(4) configurations in the second intron of G? gene and the -540 ? (AT)(6)T(9) and (AT)(7)T(8) repeated sequences. Among the 34 subjects with raised levels of HbF, approximately 97% carried one or more of these six markers. This study suggests that there is a significant association between certain polymorphic configurations of the ? globin cluster and the increase of HbF levels in healthy individuals. PMID:21947948

  4. Raising New Zealand’s Terrorism Threat Level: Is Transparency Important in National Security?

    Richard Shortt

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In mid-October 2014, ten years after the New Zealand Government confirmed the establishment of a Combined Threat Assessment Group (CTAG to advise it on a range of potential threats, the prime minister announced, for the first time, the raising of New Zealand’s domestic terrorism threat level. Unfortunately, the assessment that gave rise to the threat level’s change (or a version of it was not made public. Therefore, how were New Zealanders or others expected to properly understand the environment giving rise to the threat changes, and to judge whether the assessors got the setting right. This paper argues increased public transparency is appropriate when additional security measures resulting from a change in threat perception impact citizens’ lives and cost tax-payers more money. In presenting this argument, the paper briefly describes the role of threat assessments and how threat levels are set. In the absence of a public version of New Zealand’s threat assessment giving a cohesive, concise and transparent outline of the threat environment, the paper presents publicly available information from well-informed high office holders to see if that provides alternative and suitable transparency. Finally, the paper compares New Zealand’s terrorism threat assessment transparency processes with those of four countries with similar characteristics to New Zealand to see if alternative models of public transparency are available for consideration.

  5. The Quality of Liquid Fermented Products for Alternative Use of Antibiotics for Animal Raising

    The chemical properties of liquid fermented products (LFP) as probiotics substance for alternative uses of antibiotic were studied. The LFP of 235 were sampling from markets and farmers during 2005-2006. The total count of bacteria, fungi, lactic acid bacteria (LAB), Actinomyces and coliform bacteria were conducted. Chemical analysis of LFP showed medium nitrogen (0.01- 0.55%), maximum sugar contents (0.02 - 19.40%), high lactic acid contents (0.34 - 13.01%) and low pH (2.9-5.0). LFPs were free from fecal coliform and Escherichia coil (Ec); but in LAB (1.0 - 1.25x107 cfu/ml) and high Actinomyces (1.0 - 7.5 x 106 cfu/ml). LFPs inhibited Staphylococcus aureus (Sa), Samonella typhimurium (STM), Escherichia coil (Ec) and Ec 0157 at maximum yield by using Minimal Inhibition Concentration (MIC). But Pseudomonas aeruginosa (Pa) could medium inhibited. Therefore LFP samples are suitable as probiotics for alternative use of antibiotic for animal raising.

  6. Fund-Raising Standards for Annual Giving and Campaign Reports: For Not-for-Profit Organizations Other Than Colleges, Universities, and Schools.

    Council for Advancement and Support of Education, Washington, DC.

    This book is intended to provide development officers at not-for-profit organizations with comprehensive standards and definitions for preparing fund-raising activity reports of yearly fund-raising results, as well as management and activity reporting standards for fund-raising campaigns. Section 1 presents gift-income reporting standards for use…

  7. Can Venice be raised by pumping water underground? A pilot project to help decide

    Castelletto, N.; Ferronato, M.; Gambolati, G.; Putti, M.; Teatini, P.

    2008-01-01

    Recent field evidence suggests that injecting fluids below the ground surface can induce an anthropogenic land uplift of a few tens of centimeters over a time interval that may range from a few months to a few years. At the same time, new modeling studies using a lot of realistic hydrogeological and geomechanical information from the northern Adriatic basin indicate that pumping seawater into a 600-800 m deep brackish aquifer below the Venice Lagoon might help raise the city uniformly by 25-30 cm over 10 years (a). This could provide Venice with an important innovative defence from and a substantial mitigation to the so-called "acqua alta," i.e., the increasingly frequent floods that plague the city. To test the feasibility of an actual program of anthropogenic Venice uplift, a pilot project is designed with the aim of investigating the occurrence over a limited area selected on purpose within or in the margin of the lagoon where three boreholes down to 800 m are drilled and seawater properly treated for geochemical compatibility is pumped into the selected aquifer during 3 a. Using an improved reconstruction of the geology and lithostratigraphy from a new seismic survey to be carried out in the lagoon subsurface, the pilot project plans the instrumentation of the injection wells and other boreholes for the continuous monitoring and accurate measurement of (1) pore water overpressure; (2) expansion of the injected unit by the radioactive marker technique; (3) compaction, if any, of the upper fresh water aquifer system with the aid of an extensometer; and (4) vertical and horizontal motions of land surface via spirit leveling, GPS and interferometric synthetic aperture radar. Preliminary numerical simulations show that a constant saltwater injection rate of 12 × 103 m3 s-1 from each well might provide a maximum 7 cm uplift at the center of the selected site over a 3-a time, namely, a limited amount that is nevertheless accurately measurable and should not raise concerns for the stability of the buildings and the preservation of the infrastructures in the area. A continuous control of the experiment is envisaged based on much refined hydrologic and geomechanical models properly updated and calibrated to the detailed lithostratigraphy resulting from the new seismic campaign, the ad hoc field analyses, and the current field observations of the event. The completion of the pilot project is expected to require 4 a including an initial year needed for the necessary authorizations and the operative implementation of the injection program. The planned cost is in the range of 5 MEuro/a. The present paper addresses the major issues concerned with the design of the pilot project and discusses the results from the experiment simulations with a glance at their prospective application to an actual project of anthropogenic uplift of Venice.

  8. Cerebrovascular reactivity among native-raised high altitude residents: an fMRI study

    Zhang Jiaxing

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The impact of long term residence on high altitude (HA on human brain has raised concern among researchers in recent years. This study investigated the cerebrovascular reactivity among native-born high altitude (HA residents as compared to native sea level (SL residents. The two groups were matched on the ancestral line, ages, gender ratios, and education levels. A visual cue guided maximum inspiration task with brief breath holding was performed by all the subjects while Blood-Oxygenation-Level-Dependent (BOLD functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI data were acquired from them. Results Compared to SL controls, the HA group showed generally decreased cerebrovascular reactivity and longer delay in hemodynamic response. Clusters showing significant differences in the former aspect were located at the bilateral primary motor cortex, the right somatosensory association cortex, the right thalamus and the right caudate, the bilateral precuneus, the right cingulate gyrus and the right posterior cingulate cortex, as well as the left fusiform gyrus and the right lingual cortex; clusters showing significant differences in the latter aspect were located at the precuneus, the insula, the superior frontal and temporal gyrus, the somatosensory cortex (the postcentral gyrus and the cerebellar tonsil. Inspiratory reserve volume (IRV, which is an important aspect of pulmonary function, demonstrated significant correlation with the amount of BOLD signal change in multiple brain regions, particularly at the bilateral insula among the HA group. Conclusions Native-born HA residents generally showed reduced cerebrovascular reactivity as demonstrated in the hemodynamic response during a visual cue guided maximum inspiration task conducted with BOLD-fMRI. This effect was particularly manifested among brain regions that are typically involved in cerebral modulation of respiration.

  9. Dryout power of a CANFLEX bundle string with raised bearing pads

    Dryout power data have been obtained with CANFLEX bundle strings equipped with raised bearing pads (1.7 mm and 1.8 mm height as compared to 1.4 mm in the current Mk-IV design) at Stern Laboratories. The experiment covered a wide range of steam-water flow conditions in three flow tubes simulating uncrept, and 3.3% and 5.1% crept profiles. The dryout power follows consistent parametric trends: it increases with increasing mass-flow rate, and decreases with increasing pressure, inlet-fluid temperature and channel creep. Local and boiling-length-average (BLA) critical-heat-flux (CHF) values were evaluated from the dryout-power measurements. The dryout power and BLA CHF values of the high bearing-pad bundles are higher than those of the low bearing-pad bundles at the same channel inlet flow conditions. On average, the dryout powers for bundles with 1.7 mm and 1.8 mm bearing pads are about 8% and 10%, respectively, higher than those for the bundle with 1.4 mm bearing pads. Compared to the 37-element bundle, an enhancement in dryout power is shown with CANFLEX bundles for all bearing-pad heights, at flow conditions of interest for reactor licensing. The average dryout power enhancement varies from 4% for the CANFLEX bundle with 1.4 mm bearing pads in the uncrept channel to 27% for the CANFLEX bundle with 1.8 mm bearing pads in the 5.1% crept channel. (author)

  10. Follicular development and steroid concentrations in cows with different levels of fertility raised under nutritional stress.

    Oliveira, J F C; Neves, J P; Moraes, J C F; Gonçalves, P B D; Bahr, J M; Hernandez, A G; Costa, L F S

    2002-09-16

    The aim of the present study was to characterize ovarian follicular development and steroid concentrations during postpartum and the estrous cycle of Brangus Ibagé cows (3/8 Nelore + 5/8 Aberdeen Angus) with different levels of fertility. Cows were classified as having high or low fertility according to the calving interval (CI). The average CI of the herd from which cows used in this study were selected was 404.6+/-5.44 and 711.2+/-20.89 days for the high and low fertility groups, respectively. Four cows of high fertility and five cows of low fertility had calves removed between 70 and 100 days after parturition. Ovarian activity was monitored daily by ultrasound for 16 days after calf removal. Days to emergency of the first follicular wave after calf removal, number of follicles with diameter >9 mm, growth rate of largest follicle, maximum diameter of largest follicle, length (days) and number of follicular waves were recorded. During this period, blood was collected daily for measurements of serum progesterone (P(4)) and estradiol (E(2)) concentrations. In another experiment, ovarian activity and P(4) and E(2) concentrations were examined during estrous cycle in five cows of high fertility and four cows of low fertility. Ovarian activity and steroid concentrations were assessed from the day prior to estrus to the 15th day of the estrous cycle (estrus = day 0). In postpartum cows of high fertility, the total number of follicles >5mm and the maximum diameter of the largest follicle were higher than in cows of low fertility (P 5mm, but the day effect was significant (P < 0.01). Plasma concentrations of P(4) and E(2) were similar in both groups. These data suggest that cows, from a population raised in the same environment have different fertility as a consequence of individual physiological characteristics. PMID:12220814

  11. Gonadal differentiation in frogs, Rana japonica and R. brevipoda, raised from UV irradiated eggs

    The gonadal differentiation of anurans, Rana japonica and R. brevipoda, was examined in animals raised from eggs which had been irradiated at the vegetal hemisphere with UV (9300 erg/mm2) at the 2-cell stage. In R. japonica about 70% of the larvae at stage I from the pressed and UV-irradiated eggs were germ cell free, but at a stage immediately after metamorphosis all animals had at least some germ cells, although their gonads often were extremely small and poorly differentiated. When male animals matured sexually, many of them had abnormal gonads. However, all of them were shown by artificial means to be capable of fertilization. In the nonpressed and irradiated group, no larvae were germ cell free and the animals immediately after metamorphosis showed nearly normal gonadal differentiation except for the presence of a few degenerate oocytes in the ovaries. The results in R. brevipoda were basically similar to those in R. japonica. In both species, sex ratios were determined at two stages, the first immediately after metamorphosis and the other when the animals matured, as based on gonad morphology and histology and on external sexually dimorphic characters as well. Sex ratios at these two stages in frogs from the pressed and irradiated eggs differed markedly in R. brevipoda. The ratio was normal at metamorphosis but high M/F ratios occurred when animals became mature. That sex reversal took place in this species as well as in R. japonica (in which sex-ratio deviation was not statistically significant) was supported by the sex ratios of the progenies of these supernumerary males

  12. Platelet-collagen interaction: inhibition by a monoclonal antibody raised against collagen receptor

    Chiang, T.; Jin, A.; Kang, A.

    1986-05-01

    The authors have previously reported that polyclonal antibody raised against the purified platelet collagen receptor cross reacted with glycoprotein IIb-IIIa complex of platelets. In order to study the receptor function further, the authors prepared a monoclonal antibody to the collagen receptor (65K). Platelet collagen receptor was purified as described previously by the authors. Mice were immunized by injection of purified 65K protein emulsified in complete Freund's adjuvant, and hybridomas were obtained from the fusion of spleen cells of immunized mice with myeloma cells (SP 2/0). The assay for antibody was performed with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The hybridoma cells producing specific anti-65K protein were subcloned and the subcloned cells were injected into peritoneal cavity of Pristane-Primed mice. Immunoglobulin G(IgG) was isolated from ascitic fluids by an Affigel Blue chromatography. The Fab' fragments were isolated from papain digested IgG followed by an Affigel Blue chromatography. Immunoblot experiments using the monoclonal IgG of solubilized platelet membrane proteins following NaDodSO/sub 4/-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis showed that the monoclonal IgG reacted with the antigen specifically. It did not react with glycoprotein IIb-IIIa. The isolated IgG and Fab' fragments inhibited competitively the binding of radiolabelled ..cap alpha..1(I) to washed platelets and soluble collagen- as well as fibrillar collagen-induced but not ADP-induced platelet aggregation. This indicates that collagen-induced platelet aggregation is mediated through interaction of collagen with 65K platelet receptor.

  13. Kinetic epitope mapping of monoclonal antibodies raised against the Yersinia pestis virulence factor LcrV.

    Read, Thomas; Olkhov, Rouslan V; Williamson, E Diane; Shaw, Andrew M

    2014-10-01

    Five monoclonal antibodies, mAb7.3, mAb29.3, mAb46.3, mAb12.3 and mAb36.3, raised to the LcrV virulence factor from Yersinia pestis were characterised for their Fab affinity against the purified protein and their Fc affinity to Protein A/G as a proxy for the FcγR receptor. Kinetic measurements were performed label-free in a localised particle plasmon array reader. The Fc-ProteinA/G complex first-order half-life was determined for each antibody and fell in the range of 0.8-3.8h. The Fab first-order half-lives had ranged from 3.4 to 9.2h although two antibodies, mAb12.3 and mAb36.3, showed low affinity interactions. Competitive binding studies of mixtures of the Fab-active antibodies were performed to measure the relative binding efficiency of one antibody in the presence of the other. A geometric relative positioning of the epitopes of mAb7.3, mAb29.3 and mAb46.3 was determined based on the footprint locus of the antibody and the percentage of competitive binding. The two known protective antibodies mAb7.3 and mAb29.3 showed greater interference, indicating epitopes close to one another compared to the non-protective mAb46.3 antibody. The Fab-Fc complex half-life screen and epitope mapping are potentially useful tools in the screening of therapeutic antibodies or vaccine candidates. PMID:25461137

  14. A REPOSITORY DESIGNED TO RAISE THE STUDENTS’ KNOWLEDGE AND AWARENESS ON NANOSCIENCE AND NANOTECHNOLOGY

    GABRIEL GORGHIU

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available As defined in the information technology area, a repository represents a digital collection in which data is preserved and maintained in an organized and structured manner. This comes helpful for many projects that envisage sharing specific databases, files or resources for being accessed or distributed. More, several free and open-source software solutions for designing open-access repositories are available at present, having features very similar to the systems built for document management. Trying to implement such digital collection, as extra-readings and references related to Nanoscience and Nanotechnology area, in the frame of the LLP KA3-ICT project no. 511787-LLP-1-2010-1-TR-KA3-KA3MP: “Nano-Tech Science Education”, it was set up a repository/database for being used by students, Science prospective teachers and teachers, as a part of a Virtual Lab, which represents the main project product - an experimental virtual aid created for Science education. The Lab mainly consists of experimental room, podcasting room and repository, and serves as a platform for Science lessons, as a database of teaching materials, and as a hub for science-learning-related graphic aids and recorded and illustrated appealing experiments on Nanoscience and Nanotechnology. Its repository includes articles, books, chapters, posters, videos, experiments, methodological documents which introduce in fact, actual findings and researches developed in different countries. Basically, the main role of the repository is to update the virtual lab users’ knowledge and to raise their awareness on Nanoscience and Nanotechnology. The paper presents the features of the designed repository, its main services, and specific developments. As this is an instrument under continuous updating, the paper offers also a status of its actual structure and content.

  15. Weight gain potential affects pregnancy rates in bovine embryo recipients raised under pasture conditions.

    Fernandes, Carlos Antonio de Carvalho; Palhao, Miller Pereira; Figueiredo, Ana Cristina Silva; Ribeiro, Josiane Rossi; E Silva, Fabyano Fonseca; Viana, Joao Henrique Moreira

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of differences in body weight gain after embryo transfer on the pregnancy rates of crossbred heifers used as recipients and raised under a grazing system. The study was performed during the dry (April to September) and the rainy (October to March) seasons. The embryos transferred were produced by in vitro fertilization. The body weight of each recipient was measured immediately before the embryo transfer and 23 to 25 days later, when the diagnosis of pregnancy was performed by ultrasonography. The associations among initial body weight (IBW), daily body weight gain (DWG), season, and pregnancy rate were evaluated using a logistic procedure that included the effect of the IBW, season, and linear and quadratic effects of the DWG. Altogether, there was no effect of season and pregnancy rates did not change between the dry and rainy seasons (42.3 vs. 45.8 %, respectively; P?>?0.05). However, the pregnancy rate was greater in the recipients with daily body weight gains over 250 g/day, regardless of the season. In addition, the pregnancy rate of the recipients was better (P?

  16. Serum estrogenicity and biological responses in African catfish raised in wastewater ponds in Ghana.

    Asem-Hiablie, S; Church, C D; Elliott, H A; Shappell, N W; Schoenfuss, H L; Drechsel, P; Williams, C F; Knopf, A L; Dabie, M Y

    2013-10-01

    Reuse of wastewater for aquaculture improves the efficient use of water and promotes sustainability but the potential effects of endocrine disrupting compounds including estrogens in wastewater are an emerging challenge that needs to be addressed. We examined the biological effects of wastewater-borne estrogens on African catfish (Clarias gariepinus) raised in a wastewater stabilization pond (WSP) of a functioning municipal wastewater treatment plant, a wastewater polishing pond (WWP) of a dysfunctional treatment plant, and a reference pond (RP) unimpacted by wastewater, located in Ghana. Measurements of estrogen concentrations in pond water by liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry showed that mean 17 ?-estradiol concentrations were higher in the wastewater ponds (WWP, 6.6 ng/L±2.7 ng/L; WSP, 4.9 ng/L±1.0) than the reference (RP, 3.4±1.1 ng/L). Estrone concentrations were found to be highest in the WSP (7.8 ng/L±1.7) and lowest in the WWP (2.2 ng/L±2.4) with the RP intermediate (4.7±5.0). Fish serum estrogenicity assayed by E-SCREEN was significantly higher in female vs. male catfish in the RP and WSP but not in the WWP (p?0.05). Histological examination of liver and gonad tissue showed no apparent signs of intersex or pathology in any ponds. The similarities in various measures of body indices between fish of this study and African catfish from freshwater systems suggest that aquaculture may be a suitable reuse option for treated municipal wastewater. PMID:23849063

  17. Raising the temperature of the UK heat pump market: Learning lessons from Finland

    Heat pumps play a central role in decarbonising the UK's buildings sector as part of the Committee on Climate Change's (CCC) updated abatement scenario for meeting the UK's fourth carbon budget. However, the UK has one of the least developed heat pump markets in Europe and renewable heat output from heat pumps will need to increase by a factor of 50 over the next 15 years to be in line with the scenario. Therefore, this paper explores what lessons the UK might learn from Finland to achieve this aim considering that its current level of heat pump penetration is comparable with that outlined in the CCC scenario for 2030. Despite the two countries’ characteristic differences we argue they share sufficient similarities for the UK to usefully draw some policy-based lessons from Finland including: stimulating new-build construction and renovation of existing stock; incorporating renewable heat solutions in building energy performance standards; and bringing the cost of heat pumps in-line with gas fired heating via a combination of subsidies, taxes and energy RD&D. Finally, preliminary efforts to grow the heat pump market could usefully focus on properties unconnected to the gas-grid, considering these are typically heated by relatively expensive oil or electric heating technologies. -- Highlights: •Heat pumps are expected to play a key role in meeting the UK's 4th carbon budget. •Today, heat pump deployment per capita in the UK is one of the lowest in Europe. •Finland offers some policy lessons given its high level of heat pump deployment. •Policies: raising build rates, building standards and heat pump cost-effectiveness. •Deployment efforts should focus on buildings not heated by relatively low-cost gas

  18. Utah Flooding Hazard: Raising Public Awareness through the Creation of Multidisciplinary Web-Based Maps

    Castleton, J.; Erickson, B.; Bowman, S. D.; Unger, C. D.

    2014-12-01

    The Utah Geological Survey's (UGS) Geologic Hazards Program has partnered with the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers to create geologically derived web-based flood hazard maps. Flooding in Utah communities has historically been one of the most damaging geologic hazards. The most serious floods in Utah have generally occurred in the Great Salt Lake basin, particularly in the Weber River drainage on the western slopes of the Wasatch Range, in areas of high population density. With a growing population of 2.9 million, the state of Utah is motivated to raise awareness about the potential for flooding. The process of increasing community resiliency to flooding begins with identification and characterization of flood hazards. Many small communities in areas experiencing rapid growth have not been mapped completely by the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) Flood Insurance Rate Maps (FIRM). Existing FIRM maps typically only consider drainage areas that are greater than one square mile in determining flood zones and do not incorporate geologic data, such as the presence of young, geologically active alluvial fans that indicate a high potential for debris flows and sheet flooding. Our new flood hazard mapping combines and expands on FEMA data by incorporating mapping derived from 1:24,000-scale UGS geologic maps, LiDAR data, digital elevation models, and historical aerial photography. Our flood hazard maps are intended to supplement the FIRM maps to provide local governments and the public with additional flood hazard information so they may make informed decisions, ultimately reducing the risk to life and property from flooding hazards. Flooding information must be widely available and easily accessed. One of the most effective ways to inform the public is through web-based maps. Web-based flood hazard maps will not only supply the public with the flood information they need, but also provides a platform to add additional geologic hazards to an easily accessible format.

  19. Platelet-collagen interaction: inhibition by a monoclonal antibody raised against collagen receptor

    The authors have previously reported that polyclonal antibody raised against the purified platelet collagen receptor cross reacted with glycoprotein IIb-IIIa complex of platelets. In order to study the receptor function further, the authors prepared a monoclonal antibody to the collagen receptor (65K). Platelet collagen receptor was purified as described previously by the authors. Mice were immunized by injection of purified 65K protein emulsified in complete Freund's adjuvant, and hybridomas were obtained from the fusion of spleen cells of immunized mice with myeloma cells (SP 2/0). The assay for antibody was performed with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The hybridoma cells producing specific anti-65K protein were subcloned and the subcloned cells were injected into peritoneal cavity of Pristane-Primed mice. Immunoglobulin G(IgG) was isolated from ascitic fluids by an Affigel Blue chromatography. The Fab' fragments were isolated from papain digested IgG followed by an Affigel Blue chromatography. Immunoblot experiments using the monoclonal IgG of solubilized platelet membrane proteins following NaDodSO4-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis showed that the monoclonal IgG reacted with the antigen specifically. It did not react with glycoprotein IIb-IIIa. The isolated IgG and Fab' fragments inhibited competitively the binding of radiolabelled α1(I) to washed platelets and soluble collagen- as well as fibrillar collagen-induced but not ADP-induced platelet aggregation. This indicates that collagen-induced platelet aggregation is mediated through interaction of collagen with 65K platelet receptor

  20. Fourth and Fifth Amendment issues raised by Chemical Weapons Convention inspections

    Tanzman, E.A. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Economics and Law Section

    1994-10-21

    The Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC) offers a unique challenge to the United States system of constitutional law. This discussion is about the Fourth and Fifth Amendment issues raised by the CWC and about how federal implementing legislation can allow verification inspections to take place in the United States under the Chemical Weapons Convention while remaining in compliance with the Constitution. By implementing legislation, the author means a federal statute that would be enacted separately from Senate approval of the Convention itself. Although implementing legislation is a relatively unusual accompaniment to a treaty, it will be necessary to the CWC, and the Administration has submitted a bill that was under consideration in the last Congress and presumably will be reintroduced early next year. The Fourth and Fifth Amendment problems posed by the CWC arise from the verification inspection scheme embodied in the treaty. The CWC depends heavily on on-site inspections to verify compliance with its key requirements. These include destroying all chemicals weapons stockpiles and bringing potential chemical weapons precursors under international control. The Convention contains four distinct kinds of inspections: systematic inspections of chemical weapons storage and destruction facilities, routine inspections of various declared facilities, challenge inspections, and a variant on challenge inspections in cases of alleged use of chemical weapons. All inspections are supposed to be only as intrusive as necessary to carry out the Convention. These inspections will be carried out by inspectors employed by the Organization for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons (OPCW), located in The Hague, which is responsible for enforcing the Convention. Generally, the inspected State Party is permitted to assign observers to accompany the inspectors.