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Sample records for raised antistreptolysin-o titre

  1. Evaluation of the Validity of High Serum Antistreptolysin O Titre Only, as an Indication for Tonsillectomy

    OpenAIRE

    Hembrom, R.; Roychaudhuri, B. K.; Saha, A K; Roychowdhury, A.; Ghosh, S.; Gon, S.; Mandal, K.

    2012-01-01

    Serum Antistreptolysin O (ASO) titre is raised when there is infection of any organ of the body, by Group A beta haemolytic streptococci (GABHS), Group C or Group G streptococci [1]. Increased serum ASO titre should not be the only deciding criterion for tonsillectomy if GABHS is not present in the palatine tonsils. In this study, we evaluate the rationality of performing tonsillectomy in raised serum ASO titre only, in absence of GABHS in palatine tonsil. The study was designed as a prospect...

  2. Antistreptolysin O titer in health and disease: levels and significance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alyaa Amal Kotby

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Over diagnosis of acute rheumatic fever (ARF based on a raised antistreptolysin O titer (ASOT is not uncommon in endemic areas. In this study, 660 children (aged 9.2 ±1.7 years were recruited consecutively and classified as: G1 (control group, n=200 healthy children, G2 (n=20 with ARF 1st attack, G3 (n=40 with recurrent ARF, G4 (n=100 with rheumatic heart disease (RHD on long acting penicillin (LAP, G5 (n=100 with acute follicular tonsillitis, and G6 (n=200 healthy children with history of repeated follicular tonsillitis more than three times a year. Serum ASOT was measured by latex agglutination. Upper limit of normal (ULN ASOT (80th percentile was 400 IU in G1, 200 IU in G4, and 1600 IU in G6. Significantly high levels were seen in ARF 1st attack when compared to groups 1 and 5 (P<0.001 and P<0.05, respectively. ASOT was significantly high in children over ten years of age, during winter and in those with acute rheumatic carditis. ASOT showed significant direct correlation with the number of attacks of tonsillitis (P<0.05. Egyptian children have high ULN ASOT reaching 400 IU. This has to be taken into consideration when interpreting its values in suspected ARF. A rise in ASOT is less prominent in recurrent ARF compared to 1st attack, and acute and recurrent tonsillitis. Basal levels of ASOT increase with age but the pattern of increase during infection is not age dependent

  3. Antistreptolysin O Levels in Patients with Behcet’s Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Hulya Uzkeser; Saliha Karatay; Kadir Yildirim; Ali Karakuzu; Muhammed Hamidullah Uyanik

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Behcet’s disease is a multisystem inflammatory disorder, and its etiology has not been defined clearly yet. In this study, we aimed to investigate the antistreptolysin O (ASO) levels of patients with Behcet’s disease. Materials and Methods: Thirty patients with Behcet’s disease and 30 healthy controls were enrolled in this study. We measured erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), serum C-reactive protein (CRP), and ASO levels in both groups.Results: There was no statistically signif...

  4. Is raised helicobacter pylori antibody titre enough to decide retreatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background: Helicobacter pylori infection causes a rise in its antibodies which take almost a year to come to baseline following successful eradication treatment. Checking these values in between a year may give falsely high values and many patients may thus be over treated. Aims: To serially determine Helicobacter pylori antibody titres in patients after giving them triple therapy for H. pylori eradication and see how these values drop over time. Study type, Settings and duration: Longitudinal study conducted in Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Pakistan Medical Research Council, Research Centre, Jinnah Post Graduate Medical Centre, Karachi, from May 2006 to April 2010. Subjects and Methods: Over the period of four years, 186 patients who were found positive for campylobacter like organism test during endoscopy were further tested for anti H. pylori IgG titre before being treated for H. pylori. Patients were given triple therapy comprising of Omeprazole (20 mg twice daily), Amoxicillin (1 gm twice daily) and Clarythromycin (500 mg twice daily) for a week and were followed at 1, 3, 6 and 12 months to check symptomatic relief and they were tested again for H.Pylori antibody titres. Data was collected on pre-designed proforma which included patient's demography, symptoms and diagnosis. Results: Out of 186 patients who had a positive campylobacter like organism test, 173 patients consented to participate in the study. Serology for H.Pylori was positive in 119(68%) cases. A decline in mean antibody titres was observed as 11%, 21.5%, 54.7% and 59.2% at 1, 3, 6 and 12 months respectively. Conclusions: Sensitivity of serology for diagnosing H. pylori infection is good but using these as a tool for monitoring response to treatment is doubtful. A slow drop in H.pylori antibodies was seen over 12 months and therefore, physicians are cautioned not to retreat the already treated cases till about one year post treatment. Policy message: H. pylori antibodies should be checked on regular basis to diagnose new cases but it should not be used in previously treated patients to retreat. (author)

  5. PREVALENCE OF ANTI-STREPTOLYSIN O ANTIBODIES AT BANKE REGION NEPAL

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    Salman Khan

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Serum levels of anti-streptolysin O antibodies (ASO in the routine evaluation of patients with rheumatic conditions. Prevalence of elevated serum ASO titer in patients which were coming in OPD & IPD of Nepalgunj Medical College & teaching hospital with various clinical conditions.Method: This was a retrospective cross sectional study, which was performed in the centrallaboratory of Microbiology at Nepalgunj Medical College and teaching Hospital, Banke, Nepal during the period of September 2010 to April 2012. The serum samples were tested for Antistreptolysin O (ASO antibodies by latex agglutination test.Results: Total 308 patients including 40.91% male and 50.09% female were tested for ASO serum levels.140 were positive and 168 were negative .In 140positive cases 57 were male and 83 were female. In 168 negative cases 69 were male and 99 were female.Conclusion: The prevalence of Anti-streptolysin O (ASO antibody in total cases was 45.45%.In male was 45.24% and in female was 45.60%.the highest percentage was found in age group 0-21years. The presence of elevated streptococcal antibody titers in such a population, which probably reflects a high background prevalence of streptococcal infections, should be taken into consideration when evaluating the role of the group A streptococcus in non-purulent complications ofinfections.

  6. Valores referenciales de antiestreptolisina O en estudiantes de 10 a 15 años del Municipio "Francisco Linares Alcántara": Estado Aragua, Venezuela / Antistreptolysin O reference values in students of 10 to 15 years of the Municipality "Francisco Linares Alcantara": Aragua state, Venezuela

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Clara Nancy, Gutiérrez G; Nurys Alejandra, Guzmán H; Yuccely Andreína, González M; Juan, Luis-León; Luis Manuel, Pérez-Ybarra; María Zoiret, Chacón H.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available La respuesta serológica más útil para evidenciar la infección por estreptococo beta hemolítico del grupo A,es la determinación de antiestreptolisina O (ASTO). La faringitis estreptocócica es la infección más frecuentemente causada por estos microorganismos, que puede conllevar a complicaciones no su [...] purativas como la fiebre reumática aguda y la glomerulonefritis. Dichas complicaciones pueden prevenirse mediante un diagnóstico y tratamiento oportuno. Para la determinación de ASTO en Venezuela se emplean reactivos importados cuyos valores referenciales han sido establecidos en poblaciones y latitudes diferentes a la de nuestro país; por lo que el objetivo del presente estudio es determinar los valores referenciales de ASTO en 203 estudiantes de 10 a 15 años de edad inscritos en cuatro instituciones del Municipio "Francisco Linares Alcántara", estado Aragua, mediante una investigación de tipo descriptivo de corte transversal. De cada estudiante se recolectó una muestra de sangre total para la determinación de ASTO empleando pruebas de neutralización y aglutinación. Se determinó la concordancia entre los títulos positivos de ASTO por ambos métodos; se calculó la sensibilidad, especificidad y valores predictivos positivo y negativo de la prueba de aglutinación. Los resultados refieren como valor referencial para el método de neutralización hasta 250 Unidades Todd/mL y para la técnica aglutinación hasta 400 Unidades Internacionales/mL. La concordancia fue débil entre ambas pruebas y se obtuvo una sensibilidad, especificidad, valores predictivos positivo y negativo de 100%, 60%, 24,2% y 100%, respectivamente. Se sugiere la divulgación de los resultados de este estudio en los centros de salud del municipio mencionado. Abstract in english The most useful for evidence of streptococcal infection of group A beta hemolytic serological response is the determination of antistreptolysin O (ASO). Strep throat is most common infection caused by these organisms, which can lead to non-suppurative complications such as acute rheumatic fever and [...] glomerulonephritis.These complications can be prevented by proper diagnosis and treatment. For determination of ASO in Venezuela imported reagents are used whose reference values have been established in different populations and latitudes; so the aim of this study is to determine the reference values of ASO titlesin 203 students aged 10 to 15 years old enrolled in four institutions of the Municipality "Francisco Linares Alcántara", Aragua state, through an investigation of cross-sectional descriptive.Each student a sample of whole blood was collected for determination of ASO titles using neutralization tests and agglutination.The correlation between positive ASO titles were determined by both methods, the sensitivity, specificity and positive and negative predictive values of the agglutination test was calculated.The results refer to as reference value for the method of neutralization to 250 Todd Units/mL and for technical agglutination 400 International Units/mL. The concordance was weak between the two tests and obtained sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values of 100%, 60%, 24.2% and 100%, respectively. The disclosure in the health centers in the mentioned municipality of referential values of ASO found in this study is suggested.

  7. Musique et référentialité sur les titres des disques Blue Note

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    Philippe Carrard

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Les titres qui figurent sur la pochette des disques de la marque Blue Note peuvent dénoter le contenu musical de l’album (Boogie-Woogie Classics, le connoter (Blue Hour ou fonctionner strictement comme index (Speak No Evil. Quelle que soit leur valeur précise, ces titres permettent de revisiter un problème maintes fois soulevé par les musicologues et les sémioticiens: celui de savoir si la musique « réfère », et à quoi. Dans le cas des disques Blue Note, la question se pose d’une manière particulièrement aiguë à propos de certains enregistrements des années 1960, dont les titres (It’s Time, Right Now, Let Freedom Ring, etc. peuvent référer aux structures du jazz ou à la situation des noirs dans la société américaine, qu’il s’agit tous deux de transformer dans le sens d’une liberté accrue.The titles on the jackets of the records of the label Blue Note can denote the musical content of the album (Boogie-Woogie Classics, connote it (Blue Hour, or function strictly as indexes (Speak No Evil. Whatever their exact value might be, those titles make it possible to revisit a problem frequently raised in semiotics and musicology: the problem of knowing whether music « refers », and to what exactly. The question is especially acute in the case of some of the records released by Blue Note in the1960s, whose titles (It’s Time, Right Now, Let Freedom Ring may refer to musical structures or to the situation of African-Americans in American sociey, which have both to be changed in the sense of more freedom.

  8. Prediction of antibody persistency from antibody titres to natalizumab

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Poul Erik H; Koch-Henriksen, Nils; Sellebjerg, Finn Thorup; Sørensen, Per S

    2012-01-01

    -natalizumab antibodies to predict persistency of antibodies.Patients and methods:In 525 consecutive natalizumab treated patients tested for anti-natalizumab antibodies 43 (8.2%) were antibody-positive. Thirty of the antibody-positive patients, who were tested both at three and at six months after treatment start, had...... antibody titres in blood measured using an extended ELISA method.Results:Samples from persistently positive patients (N=18) had higher titre values than samples from transiently positive patients (N=12). A cut-off value for high titre values was generated, above which patients may discontinue natalizumab...... therapy after three months. The method had a sensitivity of 0.83, a specificity of 1.00 and a diagnostic accuracy of 0.90.Conclusion:An extended ELISA method for measuring anti-natalizumab antibody titres in multiple sclerosis patients on natalizumab therapy may be used for evaluation of antibody...

  9. Prediction of antibody persistency from antibody titres to natalizumab

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Poul Erik H; Koch-Henriksen, Nils; Sellebjerg, Finn Thorup; Sørensen, Per S

    2012-01-01

    Background:In a subgroup of patients with multiple sclerosis natalizumab therapy causes generation of anti-natalizumab antibodies that may be transient or persistent. It is recommended to discontinue natalizumab therapy in persistently antibody-positive patients.Objective:To use titres of anti......-natalizumab antibodies to predict persistency of antibodies.Patients and methods:In 525 consecutive natalizumab treated patients tested for anti-natalizumab antibodies 43 (8.2%) were antibody-positive. Thirty of the antibody-positive patients, who were tested both at three and at six months after treatment start, had...... antibody titres in blood measured using an extended ELISA method.Results:Samples from persistently positive patients (N=18) had higher titre values than samples from transiently positive patients (N=12). A cut-off value for high titre values was generated, above which patients may discontinue natalizumab...

  10. Identifiabilité et activation référentielles dans les titres de presse

    OpenAIRE

    Salles Mathilde

    2014-01-01

    Après avoir soumis la théorie de l’accessibilité d’Ariel à l’épreuve des titres – de manière comparable à Kronrod & Engel (2001), mais avec des résultats, on le verra, très différents –, on soulignera, dans cette communication, l’importance des deux catégories de Chafe (1976), l’identifiabilité et l’activation, pour l’étude des expressions référentielles dans les titres de presse. Si la théorie de l’accessibilité d’Ariel (1990) se révèle intéressante pour étudier les e...

  11. Estimating viral titres in solutions with low viral loads.

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    Brownie, C; Statt, J; Bauman, P; Buczynski, G; Skjolaas, K; Lee, D; Hotta, J; Roth, N J

    2011-07-01

    An important consideration in the manufacture of products derived from animal or human sources is the virus reduction capacity of the manufacturing process as estimated using validated bench-scale models of relevant manufacturing steps. In these studies, manufacturing process intermediates are spiked with virus and processed using the bench-scale model and the resulting viral titres of input and output samples are typically determined using cell-based infectivity assays. In these assays, the Spearman-Kärber (SK) method is commonly used to estimate titres when there is one or more positive observation (i.e., the presence of any viral cytopathic effect). The SK method is most accurate when the proportion of positive observations ranges from 0.9 across dilutions but can be biased otherwise. Maximum likelihood (ML) based on a single-hit Poisson model is an alternative widely used estimation method. We compared SK with ML and found the methods to have similar properties except for situations in which the concentration of virus is low but measurable. In this case, the SK method produces upwardly biased estimates of titres. Based on our results, we recommend the use of either ML or SK at most virus concentrations; however, at low virus concentrations ML is preferred. PMID:21783380

  12. Analysis of factor VIII mediated suppression of lentiviral vector titres.

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    Radcliffe, P A; Sion, C J M; Wilkes, F J; Custard, E J; Beard, G L; Kingsman, S M; Mitrophanous, K A

    2008-02-01

    Effective gene therapy for haemophilia A necessitates a vector system that is not subject to a pre-existing immune response, has adequate coding capacity, gives long-term expression and preferably can target non-dividing cells. Vector systems based on lentiviruses such as equine infectious anaemia virus (EIAV) fulfil these criteria for the delivery of factor VIII (FVIII). We have found that B domain-deleted (BDD) FVIII protein inhibits functional viral particle production when co-expressed with the EIAV vector system. Although particle numbers (as measured by reverse transcriptase activity) are near normal, RNA genome levels are reduced and measurement of integrated copies revealed the virus is severely defective in its ability to transduce target cells. This is due to the absence of sufficient vesicular stomatitis virus glycoprotein (VSV-G) envelope on viral particles derived from cells expressing FVIII. By using an internal tissue-specific promoter, that has low activity in the producer cells, to drive expression of FVIII we have overcome this inhibitory effect allowing us to generate titres approaching those obtained with vector genomes encoding reporter genes. Furthermore, we report that codon optimization of the full-length FVIII gene increased vector titres approximately 10-fold in addition to substantially improving expression per integrated vector copy. PMID:18046428

  13. STUDY OF THE BASELINE WIDAL TITRES AMONG HEALTHY INDIVIDUALS OF RURAL POPULATION IN PUDUCHERRY

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    Jeyakumari D, Jaberlin Sneha AJ, Gopal R

    2015-01-01

    Background: Enteric fever is endemic in developing countries like India. Widal test in a single serum sample is often the only test relied upon for laboratory diagnosis. The test is considered positive if the antibody titres are higher than the cut – off value in a single test or a rising titre in paired sera. But normal baseline titres in healthy population and cutoff values have not been established in our area. So the aim of our study was to determine the base line titres of antibodies amo...

  14. Baseline Titre of Widal amongst Healthy Blood Donors in Raichur, Karnataka

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    B. V. Peerapur

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Lack of proper knowledge ofbaseline titre of Widal test can lead to over di-agnosis of typhoid fever leading to mismanage-ment of patients. Rapid semiquantitative slideWidal test has replaced conventional tube Widaltest in many laboratories, but there is paucityof scientific data regarding how far the resultsof this rapid test correlate with that of conven-tional tube Widal test. Aims and Objectives:To evaluate baseline titre of widal using quanti-tative tube Widal test, to suggest the cut-offvalue for positive Widal test in this region, andto correlate the results obtained in quantitativetube Widal test with that of rapidsemiquantitative slide Widal test. Material andMethods: Sera of 107 apparently healthy blooddonors (AHDs were subjected to quantitativetube and semiquantitative slide Widal test toknow the titre. Results: Highest titre obtainedby tube Widal test for TO was 1:160, for TH -1:320, for AH- 1:20, and for BH- 1:80. TubeWidal titres of 1:160 were seen in 4(3.7% and 10 (9.3%respectively. TH titre of 1:320 was seen in1(0.93% and no such high titre was reportedin relation to TO. Highest titre obtained bysemiquantitative slide Widal for TO was 1:320,for TH- 1:320, for AH-1:40 and for BH- 1:160.Conclusion: We recommend TO and TH titreof > 1:320 as diagnostic of typhoid fever andfor AH and BH, titres of >1:40 and >1:160should be considered diagnostic respectivelyin our region. Because of high expected falsepositivity rate of slide Widal test even at thehigher cut-off titre of 1:320, single slide Widaltest appears to have little value in the diagnosisof typhoid fever in this region.

  15. Relationship between haemagglutination inhibition titre and immunity to influenza in ferrets.

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    Wikramaratna, Paul S; Rambaut, Andrew

    2015-10-01

    Our understanding of the antigenic evolution of the human influenza virus is chiefly derived from experiments in which serum from influenza infected ferrets is tested against panels of virus isolates in the haemagglutination inhibition (HI) assay. The interpretation of these results has been much aided by the development of antigenic mapping techniques, which suppose that the antigenic distance between two different influenza viruses is directly proportional to their fold-difference in titre in this assay. Yet, antigenic distance is not necessarily the same as cross-protection, and high levels of protection have been observed in humans against strains to which they have low HI titres. However, no study has previously addressed the relationship between HI titre and cross-protection in ferrets: the standard animal model. This study fills this gap by analysing published data where pre-challenge HI titres are available for individual ferrets, and post-challenge outcomes have been recorded. Ultimately, this work confirms that it is the absolute, rather than relative, HI titre that determines the extent of immunity and that there is a threshold HI titre beyond which ferrets are completely protected from infection. Nevertheless, this titre is much higher in ferrets than has been suggested for humans. Further, we are consequently able to show that using distance between strains within an antigenic map to predict cross-protection between influenza viruses can be misleading. PMID:26342848

  16. STUDY OF THE BASELINE WIDAL TITRES AMONG HEALTHY INDIVIDUALS OF RURAL POPULATION IN PUDUCHERRY

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    Jeyakumari D, Jaberlin Sneha AJ, Gopal R

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Enteric fever is endemic in developing countries like India. Widal test in a single serum sample is often the only test relied upon for laboratory diagnosis. The test is considered positive if the antibody titres are higher than the cut – off value in a single test or a rising titre in paired sera. But normal baseline titres in healthy population and cutoff values have not been established in our area. So the aim of our study was to determine the base line titres of antibodies among apparently healthy populations and to define the significant titres of widal test. Materials and Methods: Samples were initially screened by Widal slide agglutination test and further confirmed by the Quantitative tube agglutination test. Results: Among the 500 samples from apparently healthy individuals, 260 samples were positive for agglutinins. 141 were positive for ‘O’ agglutinin and 163 were positive for ‘H’ agglutinin of Salmonella typhi. Among 141 samples, 30 showed agglutination up to 1in 20 titre, 100 up to 1in 40 and 25 (4.8% up to 1in 80. Among 163 samples, 18 showed a titre of 1 in 20, 120 showed a titre of 1 in 40 and 21(4.2% up to 1 in 80. Conclusion: When a single widal titre is used for the diagnosis of enteric fever in our locality, it will be more appropriate to change the currently used cutoff levels against S.typhi to ≥ 1 in 160 for anti-O and ‘H’ agglutinins remains the same of ≥ 1 in 160.

  17. BASELINE WIDAL TITRES AMONG APPARENTLY HEALTHY INDIVIDUALS IN HADOTI REGION, RAJASTHAN

    OpenAIRE

    Naveen; Deepak; Divya

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT: AIM AND OBJECTIVE: The interpretation of the Widal test depends upon the baseline titre among healthy individuals in a parti cular geographical area. This study was undertaken to determine the baseline Widal titre in apparently healthy individuals in, Hadoti region, Rajasthan. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Blood samples were collected from healthy blood donors (n= 200) who attended blood bank of th is institution from May 2012 to August 2012. The Widal tube...

  18. Evaluation of the baseline Widal titres in healthy blood donors of Uttarakhand

    OpenAIRE

    Garima Mittal; Pratima Gupta; Rajiv K Agarwal; Manju K Talekar; Gita Negi; Shalini Gupta

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: The interpretation of Widal test depends upon the baseline titre which is prevalent amongst healthy individuals in a particular geographical area. Aim and Objective: The aim of this study was to determine the baseline Widal titre of the apparently healthy population of a tertiary care centre of Uttarakhand. Material and Methods: Blood samples were collected from healthy blood donors (n=500) of the age group of 18-60 years, of both the sexes, who attended our blood bank from Sept...

  19. Evaluation of the baseline Widal titres in healthy blood donors of Uttarakhand

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    Garima Mittal

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The interpretation of Widal test depends upon the baseline titre which is prevalent amongst healthy individuals in a particular geographical area. Aim and Objective: The aim of this study was to determine the baseline Widal titre of the apparently healthy population of a tertiary care centre of Uttarakhand. Material and Methods: Blood samples were collected from healthy blood donors (n=500 of the age group of 18-60 years, of both the sexes, who attended our blood bank from September 2013 to November 2013 and were analyzed for the presence of Salmonella antibodies by carrying out the Widal tube agglutination test. Results: Of the 500 serum samples which were tested, 255 (51% serum samples were positive for agglutinins (≥ 1:20 and 245 were negative. The most frequently recorded titre of the reactive sera was 1:40 for the anti-O antibodies and 1:80 for the anti-H antibodies for Salmonella enterica serotype typhi and this was the baseline titre. While the baseline titre of the ‘H’ agglutinins of Salmonella enterica serotype paratyphi A was 1:20 and of paratyphi B was also1:20. Conclusions: Based on the results of our study, it has been recommended that the significant titre of 1:80 for the anti-O antibodies and of 1:160 for the anti-H antibodies may be considered as diagnostic for enteric fever in the region of Uttarakhand, India.

  20. Raising Children Again

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    ... address Submit Home > Healthy Aging > Caregiving Healthy Aging Raising children again Benefits available More information on raising children ... your area. Return to top More information on Raising children again Read more from womenshealth.gov Caregiver Stress ...

  1. BASELINE WIDAL TITRES AMONG APPARENTLY HEALTHY INDIVIDUALS IN HADOTI REGION, RAJASTHAN

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    Naveen

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: AIM AND OBJECTIVE: The interpretation of the Widal test depends upon the baseline titre among healthy individuals in a parti cular geographical area. This study was undertaken to determine the baseline Widal titre in apparently healthy individuals in, Hadoti region, Rajasthan. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Blood samples were collected from healthy blood donors (n= 200 who attended blood bank of th is institution from May 2012 to August 2012. The Widal tube agglutination test was carried out. 0.5 ml of two fold serially diluted patients’ sera (dilutions from 1:20 to 1:160 in 0.9 % normal saline was tested by adding an equal amount of antigen. RESULTS: Of the 200 serum samples which were tested, 108 ser um samples were positive for agglutinins against Salmone lla serotypes (≥ 1:20 and 92 serum samples were negative for agglutinins. Among 54 sampl es with an anti-O titer (≥ 1:20 , 39 samples had titres of 1:40. Among the 63 samples demo nstrating anti-H titres of ≥ 1:20 to salmonella serotype, 48 had a titer of 1:40. For sal monella Paratyphi A and B, anti-H titres of 1:20 were found in 3% and 1.5%, respectively, of al l samples tested. CONCLUSION: We recommended that the significant titre of the ‘H’ a gglutinin and the ‘O’ agglutinin of Salmonella Typhi is ≥ 1: 80. While the significant titre of the ‘H’ agglutinins of Salmonella Paratyphi A and Salmonella Paratyphi B is ≥ 1: 40

  2. Social interactions and antibody titres in young male chickens (Gallus domesticus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegel, H S; Latimer, J W

    1975-05-01

    The influence of social interactions on established antibody titres to a Salmonella pullorum antigen was determined in several Athens Randombred families. In two experiments, a large-bodied, aggresive family and a small-bodied, relatively non-aggressive family were placed in three social environments: (1) Four-bird control groups with no changes in membership once formed; (2) three-bird resident groups to which a new fourth bird was introduced daily; (3) the single bird that had been moved to a new group each day. The normal rate of decline in antibody titres was significantly accelerated in birds that were introduced as new members daily (group 3), but only in members of the small non-aggressive family. In a third experiment, using families relatively close in size and aggressiveness, the effects of social grouping on antibody titres were not significant. PMID:1172392

  3. Study of baseline Widal titres in a healthy adult population of Wayanad district, Kerala, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maulingkar, Saleel V; Prakash, R; Harish, P V; Salabha, B

    2015-01-01

    The Widal test is still widely used in diagnosing typhoid fever in developing countries. Often, specific chemotherapy is administered based on a single Widal test. Interpretation of a single Widal test, in turn, depends on the baseline agglutinin titres among the local population in that area. Hence, we aimed to find out the baseline titres in our area. A single blood sample was collected from hospital outpatients with non-infectious diseases, the patients being aged above 18 years and residing in Wayanad district continuously for at least 5 years. The test was performed according to the Widal test kit manufacturer's instructions and interpreted using standard guidelines. The baseline titre for Anti TO, TH, AH and BH agglutinins in our area was found to be 1:40, 1:80, 1:40 and 1:40, respectively. PMID:25234424

  4. Performance of high titre attenuated canine parvovirus vaccine in pups with maternally derived antibody.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burtonboy, S; Charlier, P; Hertoghs, J; Lobmann, M; Wiseman, A; Woods, S

    1991-04-20

    The performance of live, attenuated, homologous, canine parvovirus vaccines was studied in 140 puppies aged from four to 11 weeks. In the presence of maternally derived antibody the ability of the vaccines to elicit a serological response, as determined by the haemagglutination inhibition test and a standardised ELISA, was found to be dose (infectious titre) related. An experimental vaccine containing 10(7.0) TCID50 of virus induced seroconversion rates of 95, 89, 82 and 44 per cent in dogs with haemagglutination inhibition antibody titres of less than or equal to 8, 16, 32 and greater than 32, respectively. The standardised ELISA appeared to be better than the haemagglutination inhibition test with respect to variability and subjectivity, especially when titres were low. PMID:2053262

  5. Baseline Titre of Widal amongst Healthy Blood Donors in Raichur, Karnataka

    OpenAIRE

    B. V. Peerapur; Abdul Kaleem Bahadur

    2013-01-01

    Background: Lack of proper knowledge ofbaseline titre of Widal test can lead to over di-agnosis of typhoid fever leading to mismanage-ment of patients. Rapid semiquantitative slideWidal test has replaced conventional tube Widaltest in many laboratories, but there is paucityof scientific data regarding how far the resultsof this rapid test correlate with that of conven-tional tube Widal test. Aims and Objectives:To evaluate baseline titre of widal using quanti-tative tube Widal test, to sugges...

  6. Determination of Baseline Widal Titres Amongst Apparently Healthy Blood Donors in Ahmednagar, Maharashtra, India

    OpenAIRE

    Gunjal, Shraddha Prasad; Gunjal, Prasad Niranjan; Patil, Narendra Khandu; Vanaparthi, Nagaraju; Nalawade, Anil Vasant; Banerjee, Swati; Keshav, Kher Sudheer

    2013-01-01

    Background: Enteric fever is endemic in all parts of India. The Widal agglutination test is widely used for its diagnosis. But the interpretation of Widal test depends upon the baseline titre which is prevalent amongst healthy individuals in a particular geographical area.

  7. Enhancement of Antibody Titre and Development of Additional Red Cell Alloantibodies Following Intrauterine Transfusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubey, Anju; Sonker, Atul; Chaudhary, Rajendra

    2016-03-01

    Intrauterine blood transfusion is the mainstay of managing foetuses with severe anemia. It may however result in fetomaternal hemorrhage, which in cases of Rh isoimmunisation may increase the severity of the disease by enhancing the maternal immunological response to fetal antigens. This study was conducted to determine the frequency, specificity and origin of additional red cell antibodies which developed after IUT. The change in the titre of allo anti-D following IUT was also determined. Antibody detection and titration was done on the blood samples of all the patients before and after intrauterine blood transfusion to check for the development of additional antibody and change in the titre of existing anti-D. Severe anemia was found in 17 (58.6 %) fetuses who received a total of 42 ultrasound-guided IUTs. Development of antibodies additional to anti-D in maternal serum was seen in 5 (29.4 %) cases. The specificity of additional alloantibodies was anti-C in four cases whereas it was anti-E in one case. Four fold or greater increase in existing allo-anti D titre was seen in 6 (35.3 %) cases after IUT. Enhancement of maternal sensitisation leading to an increase in maternal antibody titre is particularly seen after the first IUT. Matching of the donor RBCs particularly for Rh antigens might prevent the induction of additional alloantibodies against these antigens. IUT as a treatment modality should be given judiciously and only when the need is inevitable. PMID:26855513

  8. Titre français

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Yanzhong

    2009-01-01

    L'objectif de ce travail était l'étude systématique de composés de type BaSn1-xMxO3-d (M= Y, Gd, Sc, In, ...) pour lesquels des propriétés de conduction protonique étaient attendues. Nous avons tout d'abord développé une méthode de synthèse originale par polymérisation d'acide acrylique qui nous a permis d'obtenir des poudres nanométriques pures, puis des céramiques denses après frittage. Nous avons ensuite étudié l'influence de la nature et de la teneur en dopant sur les propriétés structura...

  9. [Anti-hepatitis B surface antigen titres in vaccinated dentistry students at Damascus University].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srour, I H; Mashlah, A

    2012-06-01

    Dental practice carries considerable danger for acquiring bloodborne pathogens such as hepatitis B virus (HBV). Vaccination against this virus is an important approach to reducing the infection. Post-vaccination test to confirm the seroconversion is important also. Over the period 1 March-31 May 2010, we assessed the efficacy of HBV vaccination among 91 fourth-year dental students at Damascus University, who were vaccinated under the mandatory Faculty of Dentistry programme. Anti-HBsAg antibody titres were determined in the blood samples using an enzyme immunoassay to measure; > or = 10 IU/mm was considered an adequate response titer. Seven of the 91 dentistry students (7.7%) had anti-HBs antibody titre < 10 mlU/mL. The frequency of unresponsiveness was significantly higherwith smoking (P = 0.012) and alcohol consumption (P = 0.014). Anti-HBs test should be included in routine immunization services of the School of Dentistry at Damascus University. PMID:22888621

  10. Nephelometry compared with differential antibody titre in routine rheumatoid factor measurements.

    OpenAIRE

    Knight, R K; Pritchard, M H

    1982-01-01

    The comparative merits of agglutination techniques (differential agglutination titre (DAT)/latex slide test) and nephelometry for the routine measurements of IgM rheumatoid factors have been studied in this 2-part paper. The first part investigates the errors inherent in standard DAT measurements, and the second determines the rate of false positive results in an elderly nonrheumatoid population. It was found that the errors in agglutination techniques are due to differences in setting up the...

  11. Widal agglutination titre: a rapid serological diagnosis of typhoid fever in developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To study the reliability of a single Widal test and to find out the diagnostic significance of 'O' and 'H' agglutinin titre in the diagnosis of typhoid fever. Community-based case-control study conducted from Jan 2001 to June 2007. The blood samples were collected from the medical and out door department of Sir Ganga Ram Hospitals, Lahore. The diagnostic value of an acute phase single Widal agglutination test for suspected typhoid fever was evaluated in 733 consecutive patients with fever lasting 6 or more days. In 733 patients with fever 84 (11.45%) were positive for Widal test. A noteworthy rise 1/320 of H and/or O agglutinin titre was observed in 86 (11.3%) of patients with typhoid fever. In the absence of vaccination an elevated level of H and/or O agglutinin titre of 1: 320 is of diagnostic value for typhoid fever especially in our setting where a single sample of serum is relied on for the diagnosis of typhoid fever. (author)

  12. High juvenile hormone titre and abdominal activation of JH signalling may induce reproduction of termite neotenics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saiki, R; Gotoh, H; Toga, K; Miura, T; Maekawa, K

    2015-08-01

    Termite castes are a key example of polyphenism, in which reproductive division of labour is clearly seen in colonies. The reproductive castes in termites include primary and neotenic reproductives; primary reproductives found a new colony whereas neotenics succeed them in the reproductive role when the primary reproductives die or become senescent. Neotenics usually differentiate from nymphs or workers by developing functional gonads while retaining juvenile characteristics; however, the developmental mechanism during neotenic differentiation remains poorly understood. Juvenile hormone (JH) mediates a number of aspects of developmental regulation in caste differentiation in termites. In the present study we quantified JH titres in neotenic reproductives of Reticulitermes speratus, and compared these with other developmental stages. In addition, expression changes in JH signalling gene homologues (Methoprene-tolerant [Met], Krüppel-homolog1, Broad-Complex) in the head, thorax and abdomen were investigated during neotenic differentiation. Finally, we examined the function of Met in reproduction of neotenics by RNA interference (RNAi). Our results showed that the JH titres of neotenics were significantly higher than those of nymphs and workers. JH signalling genes were highly expressed in neotenic abdomens, compared with those in workers and nymphs. Met RNAi resulted in the inhibition of vitellogenin gene expression in newly moulted neotenics. These results suggest that the fertility of neotenics might be controlled by a large increase of JH titres and body-part-specific activation of JH signalling pathways. PMID:25847681

  13. The Baseline Widal Titre Among the Healthy Individuals of the Hilly Areas in the Garhwal Region of Uttarakhand, India

    OpenAIRE

    Pal, Shekhar; Prakash, Rajat; Juyal, Deepak; Sharma, Neelam; Rana, Amit; Negi, Sandeep

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: Typhoid fever is endemic in all parts of India and the Widal test is widely used for its diagnosis. In the endemic areas, the healthy people may contain antibodies which are capable of reacting upto a variable titre in the Widal test, due to a past exposure, TAB vaccination and cross reacting antigens. Therefore it varies widely from place to place and is referred to as the baseline titre of that area.

  14. A solid-phase radioimmunoassay for measurement of circulating antibody titres to wheat gliadin and its subfractions in patients with adult coeliac disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A solid-phase radioimmunoassay for the measurement of circulating antibody titres to wheat gliadin is described. Using this assay, the authors have measured antibody titres to unfractionated gliadin in normal healthy controls, in coeliac patients on a gluten-free or a normal diet, and in patients with ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease. High titres of antibodies to unfractionated gliadin were observed only in the patients with untreated coeliac disease. Antibody titres to ?, #betta#, #betta# and #betta# gliadin subfractions were measured in patients with untreated coeliac disease and compared with titres in normal controls. Patients with untreated coeliac disease had higher antibody titres to the gliadin subfractions. No specific pattern of circulating antibody titres to gliadin subfractions was observed in the untreated coeliac patients which would provide a diagnostic profile. These results suggest shared antigenicity between the gliadin subfractions. (Auth.)

  15. Solid-phase radioimmunoassay for measurement of circulating antibody titres to wheat gliadin and its subfractions in patients with adult coeliac disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ciclitira, P.J.; Ellis, H.J. (Guy' s Hospital, London (UK)); Evans, D.J. (Hammersmith Hospital, London (UK))

    1983-08-26

    A solid-phase radioimmunoassay for the measurement of circulating antibody titres to wheat gliadin is described. Using this assay, the authors have measured antibody titres to unfractionated gliadin in normal healthy controls, in coeliac patients on a gluten-free or a normal diet, and in patients with ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease. High titres of antibodies to unfractionated gliadin were observed only in the patients with untreated coeliac disease. Antibody titres to ..cap alpha.., ..beta.., ..gamma.. and ..omega.. gliadin subfractions were measured in patients with untreated coeliac disease and compared with titres in normal controls. Patients with untreated coeliac disease had higher antibody titres to the gliadin subfractions. No specific pattern of circulating antibody titres to gliadin subfractions was observed in the untreated coeliac patients which would provide a diagnostic profile. These results suggest shared antigenicity between the gliadin subfractions.

  16. Thromboembolic risk in patients with high titre anticardiolipin and multiple antiphospholipid antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neville, Carolyn; Rauch, Joyce; Kassis, Jeannine; Chang, Erika R; Joseph, Lawrence; Le Comte, Martine; Fortin, Paul R

    2003-07-01

    Asymptomatic antiphospholipid antibody (aPL) carriers with high risk for thrombosis may benefit from preventive anticoagulation. It was our objective to test whether the risk of thrombosis increases with: 1). increasing titres of anticardiolipin antibodies (aCL) after adjustment for other cardiovascular risk factors and 2). the number of aPL detected. In a cross-sectional study, blood was collected from clinics in two teaching hospitals. The study included 208 individuals suspected of having an aPL and 208 age- and sex-matched controls having blood drawn for a complete blood count. Clinical variables included history of previous arterial (ATE) or venous (VTE) thrombotic events, traditional risk factors for cardiovascular disease, and systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Laboratory variables included IgG/IgM aCL, lupus anticoagulant, and IgG/IgM anti-beta2-glycoprotein I. Mean age was 46.5 years and 83% were female. Seventy-five of the 416 participants had >or= 1 aPL, and 69 had confirmed >or= 1 ATE or VTE. Family history was positive in 48% of participants, smoking in 28%, hypertension in 16%, diabetes in 6%, and SLE in 20%. A 10-unit increase in aCL IgG titre was associated with an odds ratio (OR) [95% CI] of 1.07 [1.01-1.13] for ATE and 1.06 [1.02-1.11] for VTE. The odds of a previous thrombosis increased with each additional aPL detected: 1.5 [0.93-2.3] for ATE and 1.7 [1.1-2.5] for VTE. These results indicate that increased titres of aCL and multiple aPL were associated with an increased risk of a previous thrombotic event. PMID:12876633

  17. Impact of hepatitis B immunization among the Nicobarese tribe - antibody titres & seroprotection five years after vaccination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugunan, A. P.; Bhattacharya, Haimanti; Bhattacharya, Debdutta; Mandal, A.; Ghosal, S. R.; Rao, R. C.; Mandal, A. K.

    2014-01-01

    Background & objectives: A total of 237 Nicobarese subjects who had received hepatitis B vaccination as part of mass vaccination project during 2000-2001 were screened for anti-HBsAg titres by quantitative ELISA five years after vaccination. Methods: Anti-HBsAg antibody was estimated using quantitative ELISA. Proportion of the subjects with protective levels of antibody and geometric mean antibody titres were calculated. Results: Among the 237 study subjects, 213 had received three doses of vaccine, 17 had received two doses and seven had received one dose. The geometric mean titres of anti-HBs antibodies were 201.7, 31.9 and 23.1 mIU/ml among those who received three, two and one dose of vaccine, respectively. Among those who received three doses of vaccination, 85.9 per cent had anti-HBs antibody levels of 10 mIU/ml or more, indicating seroprotection. The difference in the seroprotection rates among those who received three doses of vaccination (85.9%) and those who received less than three doses (58.3%) was significant. Seroprotection rates one month after the first, second and third dose of vaccination were 49.1, 86.9 and 96.7 per cent, respectively. It then declined to 89 per cent by the end of the second year and to 85.5 per cent by the end of the third year, but there was no decline thereafter. Interpretation & conclusions: Seroprotection rate reached at the maximum one month after the third dose of HBV vaccine. Although about 15 per cent of the vaccinated persons lost seroprotection by the end of the third year, no further loss in seroprotection was observed between the third year and the fifth year. PMID:24820837

  18. Raising children bilingually

    OpenAIRE

    Henriette W. Langdon

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to describe the process of becoming bilingual by sharing my own experience being raised in a four-language environment and how it influenced the upbringing of my daughter in two, and subsequently three languages. The other purpose is to dispel the myth that children with language, developmental and/or intellectual impairments or those diagnosed as being on the autism spectrum cannot or should not be exposed to two languages because it is confusing, or because th...

  19. O perfil da antiestreptolisina O no diagnóstico da febre reumática aguda / Antistreptolysin O titer profile in acute rheumatic fever diagnosis

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Claudia Saad Magalhães, Machado; Katya, Ortiz; Alessandra de Lourenço Budin, Martins; Roberto Salvador, Martins; Nilton Carlos, Machado.

    2001-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: estabelecer o perfil dos títulos de ASO, mediante o diagnóstico diferencial da FRA com outras afecções que também cursam com níveis elevados de ASO. MÉTODOS: foram estudados 78 casos de FRA na apresentação e seguimento, 22 de coréia isolada, 45 de infecções orofaringeanas recorrentes (IOR) [...] e 23 de artrites idiopáticas juvenis (AIJ), com início ou reativação recente. A determinação seqüencial de ASO (UI/ml) foi realizada por ensaio nefelométrico automatizado (Behring®-Germany) nos períodos de 0-7 dias, 1-2 semanas, 2-4 semanas, 1-2 meses, 2-4 meses, 4-6 meses, 6-12 meses, 1-2 anos, 2-3 anos, 3-4 anos e 4-5 anos após o diagnóstico. RESULTADOS: os títulos de ASO na fase aguda da FRA apresentaram elevação significante até o intervalo de 2- 4 meses (p 960 UI/ml. CONCLUSÃO: esta reavaliação do perfil da ASO indicou uma resposta exuberante na fase aguda da febre reumática indicou ainda que os seus níveis séricos podem diferenciá-la de outras afecções que também cursam com níveis elevados de ASO, como as infecções orofaringeanas recorrentes ou as artrites idiopáticas juvenis em atividade. Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: to determine ASO titer profile by establishing ARF differential diagnoses of other diseases with high levels of ASO antibodies. METHODS: we investigated 78 patients with ARF at onset and follow-up, 22 with isolated chorea at onset, 45 with recurrent oropharyngeal tonsillitis, and 23 with [...] recent flare of juvenile idiopathic arthritis. We tested ASO with automated particle-enhanced immunonephelometric assay (Behring®-Germany). The ASO (IU/ml) titers were assessed at the following time intervals: 0-7 days, 1-2 weeks, 2-4 weeks, 1-2 months, 2-4 months, 4-6 months, 6-12 months, 1-2 years, 2-3 years, 3-4 years, and 4-5 years after onset of ARF. RESULTS: ASO titers in patients diagnosed with ARF had a significant increase up to the 2-4-month time interval (P

  20. O perfil da antiestreptolisina O no diagnóstico da febre reumática aguda Antistreptolysin O titer profile in acute rheumatic fever diagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Saad Magalhães Machado

    2001-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: estabelecer o perfil dos títulos de ASO, mediante o diagnóstico diferencial da FRA com outras afecções que também cursam com níveis elevados de ASO. MÉTODOS: foram estudados 78 casos de FRA na apresentação e seguimento, 22 de coréia isolada, 45 de infecções orofaringeanas recorrentes (IOR e 23 de artrites idiopáticas juvenis (AIJ, com início ou reativação recente. A determinação seqüencial de ASO (UI/ml foi realizada por ensaio nefelométrico automatizado (Behring®-Germany nos períodos de 0-7 dias, 1-2 semanas, 2-4 semanas, 1-2 meses, 2-4 meses, 4-6 meses, 6-12 meses, 1-2 anos, 2-3 anos, 3-4 anos e 4-5 anos após o diagnóstico. RESULTADOS: os títulos de ASO na fase aguda da FRA apresentaram elevação significante até o intervalo de 2- 4 meses (p 960 UI/ml. CONCLUSÃO: esta reavaliação do perfil da ASO indicou uma resposta exuberante na fase aguda da febre reumática indicou ainda que os seus níveis séricos podem diferenciá-la de outras afecções que também cursam com níveis elevados de ASO, como as infecções orofaringeanas recorrentes ou as artrites idiopáticas juvenis em atividade.OBJECTIVE: to determine ASO titer profile by establishing ARF differential diagnoses of other diseases with high levels of ASO antibodies. METHODS: we investigated 78 patients with ARF at onset and follow-up, 22 with isolated chorea at onset, 45 with recurrent oropharyngeal tonsillitis, and 23 with recent flare of juvenile idiopathic arthritis. We tested ASO with automated particle-enhanced immunonephelometric assay (Behring®-Germany. The ASO (IU/ml titers were assessed at the following time intervals: 0-7 days, 1-2 weeks, 2-4 weeks, 1-2 months, 2-4 months, 4-6 months, 6-12 months, 1-2 years, 2-3 years, 3-4 years, and 4-5 years after onset of ARF. RESULTS: ASO titers in patients diagnosed with ARF had a significant increase up to the 2-4-month time interval (P < 0.0001. Baseline levels were observed afterwards in patients under regular penicillin prophylaxis. The levels of ASO in ARF were also significantly higher than in patients with isolated chorea, recurrent oropharyngeal infections or juvenile idiopathic arthritis (P = 0.0025, when age-matched samples of these groups were compared. The test’s sensitivity was 73.3% and the specificity was 57.6%, and it was calculated taking into account the upper limit of normality at 320 IU/ml, as well as the established diagnosis of ARF. The test’s specificity and positive predictive value increased with rising or higher titers, being higher with titers above 960 UI/ml. CONCLUSION: this reappraisal of ASO profile in ARF patients indicates a remarkable response during the acute phase, and that points to the extent to which ASO levels may differentiate ARF from other diseases with high levels of ASO antibodies, as coincidental but unrelated streptococcal infection or chronic arthritis flareup.

  1. Long-term survival in trial of medium-titre Edmonston-Zagreb measles vaccine in Guinea-Bissau

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aaby, Peter; Lisse, Ida; Whittle, H; Knudsen, K; Thaarup, Jeppe; Poulsen, A; Sodemann, Morten; Jakobsen, M; Brink, L; Gansted, U

    1994-01-01

    -titre measles vaccine have found increased mortality among female recipients, we examined whether EZ medium-titre vaccine was associated with any long-term impact on mortality, suppression of T-cells, or growth. The mortality rate ratio over 5 years of follow-up was 1.12 for EZ children compared with children......A trial of protective efficacy which compared medium-titre Edmonston-Zagreb (EZ) measles vaccine (10(4.6) p.f.u.) from the age of 4 months with the standard Schwarz (SW) measles vaccine given from the age of 9 months was started in an urban community in Guinea-Bissau in 1985. Because trials of high...

  2. A study to determine significant titre-values of widal test in the diagnosis of enteric fever for a population of north Kerala, India

    OpenAIRE

    Gufran Ahmed M. Bijapur; Shamshuddin R. Kakkeri; Raysa N.P; Shaik Mohammed Usman

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: To determine the baseline Widal titres of a study population and to propose titre-values of significance in the diagnosis of enteric fever. Background: Enteric fever is endemic in the Indian subcontinent with high prevalence rates. Etiological diagnosis of the condition is problematic due to several limitations implicit in the region. Singly run Widal test is often the only means available for a workable diagnosis. A knowledge of prevalent baseline titres is essential for its inte...

  3. Raising children bilingually

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henriette W. Langdon

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to describe the process of becoming bilingual by sharing my own experience being raised in a four-language environment and how it influenced the upbringing of my daughter in two, and subsequently three languages. The other purpose is to dispel the myth that children with language, developmental and/or intellectual impairments or those diagnosed as being on the autism spectrum cannot or should not be exposed to two languages because it is confusing, or because they simply cannot handle two languages due to their disability. As a bilingual speech and language pathologist (SLP who has practiced in the United States for four decades, I have unfortunately witnessed that many teachers as well as other well-meaning professionals including psychologists, therapists and even physicians discourage these children’s parents from using their first language because it might be confusing or too difficult for the child to handle. A review of recent research on children with special needs who have a variety of language, learning and communication challenges contradicts this view. The information presented should be helpful not only to parents but also to various professionals including therapists and physicians who come into contact with children with special needs who are growing up in a bilingual environment.

  4. Is AKH titre modulated by oxidative stress in the Colorado potato beetle (CPB) leptinotarsa decemlineata fed on genetically modified potatoes?.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kodrík, Dalibor; Krishnan, Natraj; Habuštová, Oxana

    Manchester : European Society for Comparative Endocrinology, 2006. s. 87-87. [Conference of European Comparative Endocrinologists /23./. 29.08.2006-02.09.2006, Manchester] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50070508 Keywords : AKH titre Subject RIV: ED - Physiology

  5. Evaluation of TH agglutinin titres of Widal test in the diagnosis of typhoid fever.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sultana, S; Hossain, M A; Paul, S K; Kabir, M R; Yesmin, T; Maruf, M A; Siddiqui, Z R; Rahman, S M; Hoque, M R

    2014-01-01

    This prospective study was evaluated the role of TH agglutinins and reevaluate the diagnostic value of Widal test in the diagnosis of typhoid fever by identifying the S. typhi specific antibody. The study was carried out in the department of Microbiology, Mymensingh Medical College, Mymensingh between July 2010 and June 2011, including 200 individuals of different ages and sexes. Widal test and blood culture were performed for each of the cases and controls. Among 150 blood samples from the suspected cases, 23(15.3%) were culture positive for S. typhi and 67(44.7%) had high titres of ≥1:160 for 'O' or 'H' or both agglutinins. Out of 23 culture positive cases, 3(13%) had TO ≥:160, 5(21.7%) had significant TH ≥1:160. Based on the above findings, it was concluded that judicious interpretation of Widal test play an essential role in diagnosis of typhoid fever, especially in the resource poor countries like Bangladesh. PMID:24584364

  6. Rh sensitized pregnancy with high ICT titre with favourable foetal outcome: a rare case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Namrata Saxena

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Leiomyosarcoma Rhesus (Rh isoimmunization is the development of maternal IgG antibodies against fetal Rh Red Blood Cell (RBC antigens. Transplacental passage of maternal Rh antibody (IgG anti-D may result in Hemolytic Disease of the Newborn (HDN, a condition characterized by hemolysis, severe fetal anemia and generalized fetal edema (hydrops fetalis. The severity of Rh hemolytic disease may be assessed in the Immunized patient by several different means which include: past obstetric history, maternal antibody titer, ultrasonography, amniotic fluid bilirubin quantification, and percutaneous umbilical blood sampling. A past history of fetal demise, hydrops fetalis, intrauterine transfusion or neonatal exchange transfusion implies that the present pregnancy is or will be severely affected because Rh disease effects on the fetus generally recur or present progressively earlier or more severely with each successive Rh positive pregnancy. We present here a rare case of Rh sensitized pregnancy with high ICT titre who had normal fetal outcome. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2015; 4(5.000: 1574-1576

  7. Determination of specific antibodies titre to salmonella enteritidis by elisa technique in several selected flocks of laying hens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Velhner Maja

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the antibody titre to Salmonella enteritidis (SE was examined by the ELISA method in two flocks of laying hens, where during routine bacteriological investigations Salmonellae was never isolated, and in one flock where Colysepticemia was diagnosed and Salmonella isolated accidentally. In the flocks were Salmonellae were not isolated, a titre with a high level of specific antibodies to SE was discovered (15 and 45%, while the flock with accidental findings of SE was poorly positive (5%. These results point to the necessity of introducing serological monitoring to SE so that the infection of salmonella may be discovered early and the prevalence in the flock determined, and also for the purpose of applying adequate measures that could reduce the possibility of secretion of SE through eggs.

  8. Raising Awareness in Science Education for Women (RAISE-W)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faherty, Jacqueline K.; Holford, M.

    2014-01-01

    Raising Awareness in Science Education for Women (RAISE-W) is a 501c non profit corporation whose mission is to aid in increasing and retaining the number of women - especially underrepresented females - engaged in scientific teaching and research. Initiated by a Protein Chemist and an Astronomer, our ultimate goal has been to develop informational tools and create innovative outreach programs for women across all STEM fields. At present RAISE-W is recruiting women at the undergraduate, graduate, and early career stages to participate in a unique, 1-year, executive coaching program modeled after those used in the business sector.

  9. Distracted Driving Raises Crash Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... such as eating, talking on the phone, or texting—raises the risk of a crash. NIH-funded ... other object; almost 4 times more likely when texting; and 3 times more likely when eating. Experienced ...

  10. Raising Public Awareness of Mathematics

    CERN Document Server

    Behrends, Ehrhard; Rodrigues, José Francisco

    2012-01-01

    This collective book aims to encourage and inspire actions directed towards raising public awareness of the importance of mathematical sciences for our contemporary society in a cultural and historical perspective. Mathematical societies, in Europe and around the world, can find ideas, blueprints and suggestions for activities - including concerted actions with other international organizations - directed towards raising public awareness of science, technology and other fields where mathematics plays a strong role. The material is divided into four parts: * National experiences * Exhibitions /

  11. Relationship between haemagglutination-inhibiting antibody titres and clinical protection against influenza: development and application of a bayesian random-effects model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megas Françoise

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Antibodies directed against haemagglutinin, measured by the haemagglutination inhibition (HI assay are essential to protective immunity against influenza infection. An HI titre of 1:40 is generally accepted to correspond to a 50% reduction in the risk of contracting influenza in a susceptible population, but limited attempts have been made to further quantify the association between HI titre and protective efficacy. Methods We present a model, using a meta-analytical approach, that estimates the level of clinical protection against influenza at any HI titre level. Source data were derived from a systematic literature review that identified 15 studies, representing a total of 5899 adult subjects and 1304 influenza cases with interval-censored information on HI titre. The parameters of the relationship between HI titre and clinical protection were estimated using Bayesian inference with a consideration of random effects and censorship in the available information. Results A significant and positive relationship between HI titre and clinical protection against influenza was observed in all tested models. This relationship was found to be similar irrespective of the type of viral strain (A or B and the vaccination status of the individuals. Conclusion Although limitations in the data used should not be overlooked, the relationship derived in this analysis provides a means to predict the efficacy of inactivated influenza vaccines when only immunogenicity data are available. This relationship can also be useful for comparing the efficacy of different influenza vaccines based on their immunological profile.

  12. Chorea.

    OpenAIRE

    Hu, MT; Butterworth, R.; Giovannoni, G.; Church, A; Logsdail, S

    2009-01-01

    Two weeks after starting the oral contraceptive pill, a 16-year-old girl developed increasingly violent chorea and an evolving psychosis with prominent hallucinations, ideas of reference, and paranoia. An erythematous skin rash subsequently developed and Sydenham's chorea (SC) was diagnosed. Following neuroleptic medication and steroids, her chorea and psychosis subsided. This case illustrates that severe psychotic features can occur in SC. It is recommended that antistreptolysin O titres and...

  13. Raising HDL cholesterol in women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danny J Eapen

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Danny J Eapen1, Girish L Kalra1, Luay Rifai1, Christina A Eapen2, Nadya Merchant1, Bobby V Khan11Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA, USA; 2University of South Florida School of Medicine, Tampa, FL, USAAbstract: High-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C concentration is essential in the determination of coronary heart disease (CHD risk in women. This is especially true in the postmenopausal state, where lipid profiles and CHD risk mimic that of age-matched men. Thus, interventions designed to reduce CHD risk by raising HDL-C levels may have particular significance during the transition to menopause. This review discusses HDL-C-raising therapies and the role of HDL in the primary prevention of CHD in women. Lifestyle-based interventions such as dietary change, aerobic exercise regimens, and smoking cessation are initial steps that are effective in raising HDL-C, and available data suggest women respond similarly to men with these interventions. When combined with pharmacotherapy, the effects of these lifestyle alterations are further amplified. Though studies demonstrating gender-specific differences in therapy are limited, niacin continues to be the most effective agent in raising HDL-C levels, especially when used in combination with fibrate or statin therapy. Emerging treatments such as HDL mimetic therapy show much promise in further raising HDL-C levels and improving cardiovascular outcomes.Keywords: high-density lipoprotein, HDL, women, cholesterol, heart disease

  14. Raising HDL cholesterol in women

    OpenAIRE

    Eapen, Danny J.; Kalra, Girish L; Rifai, Luay; Eapen, Christina A; Merchant, Nadya; Bobby V Khan

    2010-01-01

    High-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) concentration is essential in the determination of coronary heart disease (CHD) risk in women. This is especially true in the postmenopausal state, where lipid profiles and CHD risk mimic that of age-matched men. Thus, interventions designed to reduce CHD risk by raising HDL-C levels may have particular significance during the transition to menopause. This review discusses HDL-C-raising therapies and the role of HDL in the primary prevention of CHD...

  15. A rapid assay for Hendra virus IgG antibody detection and its titre estimation using magnetic nanoparticles and phycoerythrin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yuan; Pallister, Jackie; Lapierre, Florian; Crameri, Gary; Wang, Lin-Fa; Zhu, Yonggang

    2015-09-15

    Detection of Hendra viral IgG antibody in animal sera is useful for surveillance following a virus outbreak. The commonly used enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and fluorescence-based Luminex assay typically consist of three steps and take at least several hours to complete. We have simplified the procedure to two steps in an effort to develop a rapid procedure for IgG antibody, but not IgM antibody, detection. This is achieved by conjugating the fluorescence label R-phycoerythrin directly onto the IgG binding protein Protein G. The use of magnetic nanoparticles, due to their large specific surface area, has helped reduce each of the binding steps to 20 min. As a result, the whole assay can be completed in 60 min. We also demonstrate a method to quickly estimate IgG antibody titres by assaying the sera at only two dilutions (i.e. 1:20 and 1:1000) and using the fluorescence ratio at these dilutions as an indicator of antibody titre. The results of this approach correlated well with the well-regarded serum neutralization test in virus antibody assays. This protocol reported here can be adopted in Luminex assays, fluorescence-linked immunosorbent assays and assays on microfluidics platforms for rapid antibody surveillance of Hendra and other viruses. PMID:26141730

  16. A study to determine significant titre-values of widal test in the diagnosis of enteric fever for a population of north Kerala, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gufran Ahmed M. Bijapur

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To determine the baseline Widal titres of a study population and to propose titre-values of significance in the diagnosis of enteric fever. Background: Enteric fever is endemic in the Indian subcontinent with high prevalence rates. Etiological diagnosis of the condition is problematic due to several limitations implicit in the region. Singly run Widal test is often the only means available for a workable diagnosis. A knowledge of prevalent baseline titres is essential for its interpretation. Method: We performed the standard Widal tube agglutination test on the serum samples of 250 individuals of the local population selected by using appropriate criteria of inclusion and exclusion criteria. Results: A majority (74.8% of the subjects were non-reactive. Prevalence of anti-TO antibody was highest (25.2% followed by that of anti-TH antibody (15.2%, anti-AH antibody (6.8% and anti-BH antibody (0.8%. Based on the distribution of titre values, the baseline titres determined were 40 for anti-TO and anti-TH antibodies and <20 for anti-AH and anti-BH antibodies. Any value obtained in Widal test over and above these values, i.e., ≥80 for anti-TO and anti-TH antibodies can be considered as significant. Similarly, for anti-AH and anti-BH antibodies, values of ≥20 can be considered as significant for diagnosis in an appropriate clinical setting. Conclusion: The baseline Widal titres of the local population were lower than those found in most other parts of India.

  17. High bioethanol titre from Manihot glaziovii through fed-batch simultaneous saccharification and fermentation in Automatic Gas Potential Test System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moshi, Anselm P; Crespo, Carla F; Badshah, Malik; Hosea, Kenneth M M; Mshandete, Anthony Manoni; Mattiasson, Bo

    2014-03-01

    A process for the production of high bioethanol titre was established through fed-batch and simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (FB-SSF) of wild, non-edible cassava Manihot glaziovii. FB-SSF allowed fermentation of up to 390g/L of starch-derived glucose achieving high bioethanol concentration of up to 190g/L (24% v/v) with yields of around 94% of the theoretical value. The wild cassava M. glaziovii starch is hydrolysable with a low dosage of amylolytic enzymes (0.1-0.15% v/w, Termamyl® and AMG®). The Automatic Gas Potential Test System (AMPTS) was adapted to yeast ethanol fermentation and demonstrated to be an accurate, reliable and flexible device for studying the kinetics of yeast in SSF and FB-SSF. The bioethanol derived stoichiometrically from the CO2 registered in the AMPTS software correlated positively with samples analysed by HPLC (R(2)=0.99). PMID:24534761

  18. The role of antibody affinity and titre in immunity to Schistosoma mansoni following vaccination with highly irradiated cercariae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vignali, D.A.A.; Devey, M.E.; Bickle, Q.D.; Taylor, M.G. (London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine (UK))

    1990-02-01

    Sera from rabbits and rats vaccinated with highly irradiated cercariae of Schistosoma mansoni (VRabS, VRatS) were found to be of substantially higher affinity than sera from CBA mice vaccinated four times (4 x CVMS), single sex sera (SSS) or chronic infection sera (CIS). In contrast, immunoprecipitation studies demonstrated that sera from vaccinated LA mice (LVMS) recognized {sup 125}I-labelled schistosomular surface antigens more intensely than sera from vaccinated HA mice (HVMS). However, peritoneal macrophages from HA and LA mice in the presence of HVMS, LVMS or 4 x CVMS, and naive macrophages activated in vitro with interferon-gamma (IFN-{gamma})/lipopolysaccharide (LPS) mediated comparable levels of schistosomula killing in vitro. The experiments described here provide evidence that the titre of antibody rather than its affinity may be a more critical factor in the development of optimal immunity to S. mansoni. (author).

  19. The role of antibody affinity and titre in immunity to Schistosoma mansoni following vaccination with highly irradiated cercariae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sera from rabbits and rats vaccinated with highly irradiated cercariae of Schistosoma mansoni (VRabS, VRatS) were found to be of substantially higher affinity than sera from CBA mice vaccinated four times (4 x CVMS), single sex sera (SSS) or chronic infection sera (CIS). In contrast, immunoprecipitation studies demonstrated that sera from vaccinated LA mice (LVMS) recognized 125I-labelled schistosomular surface antigens more intensely than sera from vaccinated HA mice (HVMS). However, peritoneal macrophages from HA and LA mice in the presence of HVMS, LVMS or 4 x CVMS, and naive macrophages activated in vitro with interferon-gamma (IFN-?)/lipopolysaccharide (LPS) mediated comparable levels of schistosomula killing in vitro. The experiments described here provide evidence that the titre of antibody rather than its affinity may be a more critical factor in the development of optimal immunity to S. mansoni. (author)

  20. Serum antibody titres to canine parvovirus, adenovirus and distemper virus in dogs in the UK which had not been vaccinated for at least three years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Böhm, M; Thompson, H; Weir, A; Hasted, A M; Maxwell, N S; Herrtage, M E

    2004-04-10

    Antibody titres to canine distemper (CDV), canine parvovirus (CPV) and canine adenovirus (CAV) were measured in 144 adult dogs that had not been vaccinated for between three and 15 years. Protective antibodies to CPV were present in 95 per cent of the population, to CDV in 71.5 per cent and to CAV in 82 per cent. The prevalence of protective titres did not decrease with increasing time interval from the last vaccination for any of the three diseases studied. Booster vaccination increased the dogs CAV titres. For comparative purposes, 199 puppies were sampled at the time of their first and second vaccination. In the case of CPV and CAV a significantly higher proportion of the adult dogs were protected than of the puppies immediately after they were vaccinated. Natural CPV boosting was strongly suspected because the dogs had significantly higher titres three years after their primary vaccination than two weeks after it and three unvaccinated dogs had acquired protective antibody levels uneventfully. There was no evidence of natural exposure to CDV. PMID:15119729

  1. Differences in female-male mortality after high-titre measles vaccine and association with subsequent vaccination with diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis and inactivated poliovirus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aaby, Peter; Jensen, Henrik; Samb, Badara; Cisse, Badara; Sodemann, Morten; Jakobsen, Marianne; Poulsen, Anja; Rodrigues, Amabelia; Lisse, Ida Maria; Simondon, Francois; Whittle, Hilton

    2003-01-01

    Females given high-titre measles vaccine (HTMV) have high mortality; diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis (DTP) vaccination might be associated with increased female mortality. We aimed to assess whether DTP or inactivated poliovirus (IPV) administered after HTMV was associated with increased female...

  2. Capture market share, raise prices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robbins RA

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available No abstract available. Article truncated after 150 words. Two principles in medical economics central to the Affordable Care Act (ACA were dealt blows by recently published studies. The first principle is the belief that economies of scale will result in lower prices. The theory is that larger insurers will have lower prices because they are more administratively efficient. The second principle is that provider-owned health plans, usually hospitals, will reduce premiums. The theory is that by controlling doctors over charging health plans in a fee-for-service model will lower prices. The first study published in Technology Science found that the largest insurer in each of the states served by HealthCare.gov raised their prices in 2015 by an average of over 10 per cent compared to smaller competitors in the same market (1. Those steeper price hikes for monthly premiums did not seem warranted by the level of health claims which did not significantly differ as a percentage of premiums ...

  3. 50 CFR 14.23 - Live farm-raised fish and farm-raised fish eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Exportation at Designated Ports § 14.23 Live farm-raised fish and farm-raised fish eggs. Live farm-raised fish and farm-raised fish eggs meet the definition of “bred in captivity” as stated in 50 CFR 17.3. Except... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Live farm-raised fish and farm-raised...

  4. Prion subcellular fractionation reveals infectivity spectrum, with a high titre-low PrPres level disparity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lewis Victoria

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Prion disease transmission and pathogenesis are linked to misfolded, typically protease resistant (PrPres conformers of the normal cellular prion protein (PrPC, with the former posited to be the principal constituent of the infectious 'prion'. Unexplained discrepancies observed between detectable PrPres and infectivity levels exemplify the complexity in deciphering the exact biophysical nature of prions and those host cell factors, if any, which contribute to transmission efficiency. In order to improve our understanding of these important issues, this study utilized a bioassay validated cell culture model of prion infection to investigate discordance between PrPres levels and infectivity titres at a subcellular resolution. Findings Subcellular fractions enriched in lipid rafts or endoplasmic reticulum/mitochondrial marker proteins were equally highly efficient at prion transmission, despite lipid raft fractions containing up to eight times the levels of detectable PrPres. Brain homogenate infectivity was not differentially enhanced by subcellular fraction-specific co-factors, and proteinase K pre-treatment of selected fractions modestly, but equally reduced infectivity. Only lipid raft associated infectivity was enhanced by sonication. Conclusions This study authenticates a subcellular disparity in PrPres and infectivity levels, and eliminates simultaneous divergence of prion strains as the explanation for this phenomenon. On balance, the results align best with the concept that transmission efficiency is influenced more by intrinsic characteristics of the infectious prion, rather than cellular microenvironment conditions or absolute PrPres levels.

  5. Simultaneous saccharification and fermentation of steam exploded duckweed: Improvement of the ethanol yield by increasing yeast titre.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, X; Moates, G K; Elliston, A; Wilson, D R; Coleman, M J; Waldron, K W

    2015-10-01

    This study investigated the conversion of Lemna minor biomass to bioethanol. The biomass was pre-treated by steam explosion (SE, 210°C, 10 min) and then subjected to simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) using Cellic® CTec 2 (20 U or 0.87 FPU g(-1) substrate) cellulase plus ?-glucosidase (2 U g(-1) substrate) and a yeast inoculum of 10% (v/v or 8.0×10(7) cells mL(-1)). At a substrate concentration of 1% (w/v) an ethanol yield of 80% (w/w, theoretical) was achieved. However at a substrate concentration of 20% (w/v), the ethanol yield was lowered to 18.8% (w/w, theoretical). Yields were considerably improved by increasing the yeast titre in the inoculum or preconditioning the yeast on steam exploded liquor. These approaches enhanced the ethanol yield up to 70% (w/w, theoretical) at a substrate concentration of 20% (w/v) by metabolising fermentation inhibitors. PMID:26210138

  6. Les femmes et les enfants, prisonniers politiques ou déportés à titre préventif pendant la guerre civile grecque

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina Alexopoulos

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Les conditions et stratégies de survie des milliers de femmes condamnées ou déportées de la guerre civile grecque permettent d'établir une typologie.Pendant la guerre civile grecque (1946-1949 des milliers de personnes sont emprisonnées, déportées dans des camps de concentration ou exilées dans des îles, une population hétéroclite d’hommes et de femmes, persécutés pour leurs idées, leurs origines ou même des liens de parenté avec les communistes. Dans la présente étude, nous nous intéresserons à un groupe lui-même peu homogène, les femmes et les enfants, prisonniers politiques ou déportés à titre préventif pendant le conflit. Après un bref rappel de la pratique de la déportation et une esquisse de typologie de la réclusion, nous étudierons les conditions de détention et les stratégies de survie des femmes, souvent emprisonnées avec leurs enfants, leur statut au sein des prisonniers politiques ainsi que le sens de l'engagement politique dans leur système de valeurs.During the Greek Civil War (1946-1949 thousands of persons were imprisoned, deported to concentration camps or exiled on the islands, a heteroclite population of men and women, persecuted for their ideas, their origins or even their association with the Communists. In the present study, we are interested in a not particularly homogeneous group of women and children, political prisoners or deportees who had been detained for preventive reasons during the conflict. Following a brief summary of the practice of deportation and a typological sketch of the imprisonment, we shall study the detention conditions and the survival strategies of the women, often imprisoned with their children, their status vis-à-vis the political prisoners as well as the meaning of political commitment in their value system.

  7. Effects of aflatoxin B1 and fumonisin B1 on body weight, antibody titres and histology of broiler chicks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tessari, E N C; Oliveira, C A F; Cardoso, A L S P; Ledoux, D R; Rottinghaus, G E

    2006-06-01

    1. Our objective was to evaluate the toxic effects of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) and fumonisin B1 (FB1), administered singly or in combination to broilers. 2. Feeds were prepared with concentrations equal to 0, 50 and 200 microg AFB1/kg, and/or 0, 50 and 200 mg FB1/kg, and offered to broiler chicks from 8 to 41 d of age. The experimental design was totally randomised, in a 3 x 3 factorial arrangement with 9 treatments and 12 birds per treatment. Animals were vaccinated against Newcastle disease on d 14 of life and killed at 41 d. 3. Compared with controls, all mycotoxin-treated groups at 41 d had lower body weight and weight gain, and higher relative heart weight. The relative weight of the liver increased only in birds fed diets containing 200 mg FB1, singly or in combination with AFB1. 4. At 35 d, all groups receiving mycotoxin-treated rations had reduced geometrical mean antibody titres, with birds from groups fed combinations of AFB1 and FB1/kg having even lower values, when compared to the other groups. 5. Histological changes were observed only in liver from birds fed mycotoxin-contaminated rations, and in kidneys of birds fed the diet containing 200 microg AFB1 and 200 mg FB1/kg. Main alterations included vacuolar degeneration and cell proliferation of bile ducts in the liver, and hydropic degeneration in renal tubules in the kidneys. 6. We concluded that AFB1 and FB1 in combination have primarily additive effects on body weight, liver structure and immunological response of broilers at the concentrations used. PMID:16787861

  8. Evaluation of safety and effectiveness of factor VIII treatment in haemophilia A patients with low titre inhibitors or a personal history of inhibitor. Patient Data Meta-analysis of rAFH-PFM Post-Authorization Safety Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romanov, Vadim; Marcucci, Maura; Cheng, Ji; Thabane, Lehana; Iorio, Alfonso

    2015-07-01

    There is no prospective evidence on inhibitor recurrence among haemophilia A patients with low titre inhibitors or history of inhibitors, and whether or how therapeutic choices affect the risk of recurrence. The aims of this study were to synthesise safety data in patients with moderate-severe haemophilia A and with low titre inhibitors or inhibitor history enrolled in the rAHF PFM (ADVATE) - Post-Authorization Safety Studies (ADVATE-PASS) international programme. The study was conducted in clinics participating to the ADVATE PASS programme. The patient population consisted of patients entering the studies with low titre (??5 BU) inhibitors or a positive personal history of inhibitors. Patients on Immune Tolerance Induction at study entry were excluded. Primary outcome was new or recurrent inhibitor titre >?5 BU. Secondary outcomes were any increase of inhibitor titre not reaching 5 BU; any unexplained change in treatment regimen. Primary analysis was done by two-stage random effects meta-analysis. Secondary analysis was done by a hierarchical Bayesian random effects logistic model. A total of 219 patients from seven studies were included. Of these 214 (97.7?%) patients had been previously treated for more than 50 exposure days. Two hundred ten patients had positive history for inhibitors, nine a baseline measurable titre. No patient presented a primary outcome event (95?% confidence interval [CI] 0-1.6?%). Six patients with previous history developed a low titre recurrence (overall rate 2.2, 95?%CI 0-4.8?%). When any increase of inhibitor titre or any treatment change was accounted for, overall 3.7?% (95?% CI 0?%-8.0?%) of patients experienced the outcome. In conclusion, the observed rate of events does not support the definition of this population as at high risk for inhibitor development. PMID:26017627

  9. The effect of gold sodium thiomalate and its constituent part, thiomalate, on the virus titres and the lysosomal enzyme activity in peritoneal macrophages of Swiss/A2G mice infected with the avirulent strain of Semliki Forest virus.

    OpenAIRE

    Mehta, S.; Webb, H E

    1990-01-01

    Treatment of adult mice with gold sodium thiomalate made the normally non-lethal Semliki Forest virus infection lethal. Associated with this was a significant increase in brain virus titre and a depression of peritoneal macrophage lysosomal enzyme activity. In contrast, treatment of adult mice with the constituent part, thiomalate, did not make the non-lethal Semliki Forest virus infection lethal. Brain virus titre and peritoneal macrophage lysosomal enzyme activity were comparable to the con...

  10. The Logic of the RAISE Specification Language

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    George, Chris; Haxthausen, Anne Elisabeth

    2008-01-01

    This chapter describes the logic of the RAISE Specification Language, RSL. It explains the particular logic chosen for RAISE, and motivates this choice as suitable for a wide spectrum language to be used for designs as well as initial specifications, and supporting imperative and concurrent...... specifications as well as applicative sequential ones. It also describes the logical definition of RSL, its axiomatic semantics, as well as the proof system for carrying out proofs. Finally, a case study illustrates specification and verification methods in RAISE....

  11. Asthma May Raise Risk for Abdominal Aneurysm

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 157202.html Asthma May Raise Risk for Abdominal Aneurysm Airway disease also linked to greater rupture risk ... be at an increased risk of abdominal aortic aneurysm, a new study suggests. An abdominal aortic aneurysm ...

  12. Sleep Apnea May Raise Risk of Depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 154827.html Sleep Apnea May Raise Risk of Depression Study suggests popular apnea treatment could help ease ... with sleep apnea are at increased risk for depression, but continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) therapy for ...

  13. The Logic of the RAISE Specification Language

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    George, Chris; Haxthausen, Anne Elisabeth

    This paper describes the logic of the RAISE Specification Language, RSL. It explains the particular logic chosen for RAISE, and motivates this choice as suitable for a wide spectrum language to be used for designs as well as initial specifications, and supporting imperative and concurrent...... specifications as well as applicative sequential ones. It also describes the logical definition of RSL, its axiomatic semantics, as well as the proof system for carrying out proofs....

  14. Neutralizing and cross-neutralizing antibody titres induced by bivalent and quadrivalent human papillomavirus vaccines in the target population of organized vaccination programmes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barzon, Luisa; Squarzon, Laura; Masiero, Serena; Pacenti, Monia; Marcati, Giorgia; Mantelli, Barbara; Gabrielli, Liliana; Pascucci, Maria Grazia; Lazzarotto, Tiziana; Caputo, Antonella; Palù, Giorgio

    2014-09-15

    Aim of this investigator-initiated study was to evaluate and compare the titres of neutralizing and cross-neutralizing antibodies (NAbs) induced by the bivalent (Cervarix(®)) and quadrivalent (Gardasil(®)) HPV vaccines in a cohort of girls aged 11-13 years from organized vaccination programmes. To this aim, HPV16 and HPV18 NAbs were measured by pseudovirion-based neutralization assays in serum collected at 1-6 months after the third vaccine dose in 107 girls vaccinated with Cervarix(®) and 126 vaccinated with Gardasil(®), while HPV31 and HPV45 cross-NAbs were tested in the first 50 consecutive girls of both vaccine groups. The results of this study demonstrated that all vaccinated girls developed HPV16 and HPV18 NAbs, with the exception of two Gardasil(®) vaccinees with undetectable HPV18 NAbs. Geometric mean titres (GMTs) of both HPV16 and HPV18 NAbs were significantly higher in Cervarix(®) than in Gardasil(®) vaccinees [HPV16 NAb GMT 22,136 (95% CI, 18,811-26,073) vs 5092 (4230-6151), respectively; PHPV18 NAb GMT 11,962 (9536-14,363) vs 1804 (1574-2110), respectively; PHPV31 and HPV45 were detected more frequently Cervarix(®) (HPV31 NAb positivity rates 92.7% and 36%, respectively; PGardasil(®) vaccinees (HPV45 NAb positivity rates 56% and 6%, respectively; PHPV31 and HPV45 were also significantly higher in Cervarix(®) than in Gardasil(®) vaccinees [HPV31 NAb GMT 157.2 (95% CI, 92-269) vs 13.0 (6.5-25.8), respectively; PHPV45 NAb GMT 4.7 (2.1-10.2) vs 1.3 (0.3-3.1), respectively; Pvaccinated within organized vaccination programmes, HPV vaccines drive the generation not only of NAbs to HPV vaccine types, but also of cross-NAbs. The bivalent vaccine induced significantly higher HPV16 and HPV18 NAb titres and more frequently and at higher titre HPV31 and HPV45 cross-NAbs than the quadrivalent vaccine. PMID:25045814

  15. Natural prevalence of antibody titres to GTF of S. mutans in saliva in high and low caries active children

    OpenAIRE

    Kirtaniya B; Chawla H; Tiwari A; Ganguly N; Sachdev V

    2009-01-01

    The present study was conducted to find out the role of natural immunity against dental caries. Whole stimulated saliva of various caries from active children was collected. Antigen glucosyltransferase (GTF) was prepared from Streptococcus mutans serotype C and the antibody titre was estimated using ELISA. Salivary IgG, s-IgA and total immunoglobulins (IgG + s-IgA+ IgM) concentration were assayed. The result showed an increased level of salivary IgG concentration with the increa...

  16. A novel method for the measurement of hepatitis C virus infectious titres using the IncuCyte ZOOM and its application to antiviral screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Hazel; Bartlett, Christopher; Ross-Thriepland, Douglas; Shaw, Joseph; Griffin, Stephen; Harris, Mark

    2015-06-15

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a significant human pathogen infecting 3% of the world population. An infectious molecular clone capable of replicating and releasing infectious virions in cell culture has only been available since 2005, leaving a significant knowledge gap concerning post-RNA replication events such as particle assembly, trafficking and release. Thus, a fast, efficient and accurate method of measuring infectious viral titres is highly desirable. Current methods rely upon manual counting of infected cell foci and so are both labour-intensive and susceptible to human error. Here, we report a novel protocol, which utilises the IncuCyte ZOOM instrument and related software to accurately count infected cells and extrapolation of this data to produce an infectious titre, reported as infectious units per millilitre (IU/mL). This method reduces cost, time and error in experiments. We also demonstrate that this approach is amenable to high-throughput compound screening, thereby expediting the identification of novel antivirals. PMID:25796989

  17. Consciousness-Raising, Error Correction and Proofreading

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Josephine

    2015-01-01

    The paper discusses the impact of developing a consciousness-raising approach in error correction at the sentence level to improve students' proofreading ability. Learners of English in a foreign language environment often rely on translation as a composing tool and while this may act as a scaffold and provide some support, it frequently leads to…

  18. People on the Farm: Raising Beef Cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crain, Robert L.

    This booklet provides information on raising beef cattle through profiles of two families, the Ritschards of Colorado and the Schuttes of Missouri. Through descriptions of daily life for these families, the booklet discusses the way of life on modern beef cattle farms and the problems and decisions faced by farmers. The booklet explains how…

  19. Children Seem to Know Raising: Raising and Intervention in Child Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choe, Jinsun

    2012-01-01

    English-speaking children exhibit difficulty in their comprehension of raising patterns, such as (1), in which the NP the boy is semantically linked to the VP in the embedded clause, but is syntactically realized as the subject of the matrix clause. (1) Raising pattern: [s "The boy" seems to the girl [s _ to be happy

  20. Le premier élément du patrimoine maritime de Saint-Pierre-et-Miquelon protégé au titre des monuments historiques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herveline Delhumeau

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Ymac a été classé par arrêté du 14 février 2008 au titre des monuments historiques en raison de l’intérêt ethnologique lié à sa fonction de bateau-pilote. (fig. n° 1Figure 1Ymac, ex-Radar III. Photographie après 2003. © Yannick Lafourcade.Construit en 1965 à Mavilette (Nouvelle-Ecosse, Canada par le chantier Alfred Boudreau, ce bateau traditionnel de pêche à coque en bois avait été initialement armé pour la pêche aux poissons plats par Alex Doucet, d’où son premier nom Alex D. Après avoir p...

  1. Head raising analysis and case revaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ager Gondra

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper shows that Basque relative clause construction follows the Head Raising Analysis: the CP of the relative clause is a complement to the external D and the Head of the relative clause, base-generated inside the TP, moves to the specifier position of the CP. This analysis predicts that the raised DPwill show a TP-internal Case. However, this is not the case, and the DP manifests the Case associated with the main clause. In order to address these Case inconsistencies, Precariousness Condition is proposed. This condition states that a DCase valued u-feature is precarious until it is sent to Spell-Out and therefore, the value is visible for further targeting by a c-commanding Probe.  Evidence for this multiple Agree operation comes from a DP long distance extraction.

  2. Raising Female Employment : Reflections and Policy Tools

    OpenAIRE

    Garibaldi, Pietro; Wasmer, Etienne

    2004-01-01

    While there is consensus on the need to raise the time spent in the market by European women, it is not clear how these goals should be achieved. Tax wedges, assistance in the job search process, and part-time jobs are policy instruments that are widely debated in policy circles. The paper presents a simple model of labor supply with market frictions and heterogenous home production where the effects of these policies can be coherently analyzed. We show that subsidies to labor ...

  3. Raising and resolving issues with scalar modifiers

    OpenAIRE

    Elizabeth Coppock; Thomas Brochhagen

    2013-01-01

    We argue that the superlative modifiers at least and at most quantify over a scale of answers to the current question under discussion (and in this sense, resolve issues), and that they draw attention to the individual possibilities along the scale (and in this sense, raise issues for discussion). The point of departure is a simple analysis on which at least denotes what only presupposes, and at most denotes what only contributes as its ordinary atissue content. This analysis captures the tru...

  4. Haematopoietic depletion in vaccine-induced neonatal pancytopenia depends on both the titre and specificity of alloantibody and levels of MHC I expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Charlotte R; MacHugh, Niall D; Connelley, Timothy K; Degnan, Kathryn; Morrison, W Ivan

    2015-07-01

    Bovine Neonatal Pancytopenia (BNP) is a disease of calves characterised by haematopoietic depletion, mediated by ingestion of alloantibodies in colostrum. It has been linked epidemiologically to vaccination of the dams of affected calves with a particular vaccine (Pregsure) containing a novel adjuvant. Evidence suggests that BNP-alloantibodies are directed against MHC I molecules, induced by contaminant bovine cellular material from Madin-Darby Bovine Kidney (MDBK) cells used in the vaccine's production. We aimed to investigate the specificity of BNP-alloantibody for bovine MHC I alleles, particularly those expressed by MDBK cells, and whether depletion of particular cell types is due to differential MHC I expression levels. A complement-mediated cytotoxicity assay was used to assess functional serum alloantibody titres in BNP-dams, Pregsure-vaccinated dams with healthy calves, cows vaccinated with an alternative product and unvaccinated controls. Alloantibody specificity was investigated using transfected mouse lines expressing the individual MHC I alleles identified from MDBK cells and MHC I-defined bovine leukocyte lines. All BNP-dams and 50% of Pregsure-vaccinated cows were shown to have MDBK-MHC I specific alloantibodies, which cross-reacted to varying degrees with other MHC I genotypes. MHC I expression levels on different blood cell types, assessed by flow cytometry, were found to correlate with levels of alloantibody-mediated damage in vitro and in vivo. Alloantibody-killed bone marrow cells were shown to express higher levels of MHC I than undamaged cells. The results provide evidence that MHC I-specific alloantibodies play a dominant role in the pathogenesis of BNP. Haematopoietic depletion was shown to be dependent on the titre and specificity of alloantibody produced by individual cows and the density of surface MHC I expression by different cell types. Collectively, the results support the hypothesis that MHC I molecules originating from MDBK cells used in vaccine production, coupled with a powerful adjuvant, are responsible for the generation of pathogenic alloantibodies. PMID:26055292

  5. Raising female employment : reflexions and policy tools

    OpenAIRE

    Garibaldi, Pietro; Wasmer, Etienne

    2003-01-01

    While there is consensus on the need to raise the time spent in the market by European women, it is not clear how these goals should be achieved. Tax wedges, assistance in the job search process, and part-time jobs are policy instruments that are widely debated in policy circles. The paper presents a simple model of labour supply with market frictions and heterogenous home production where the effects of these policies can be coherently analysed. We show that subsidies to labour market entry ...

  6. Management of raised intracranial pressure in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, J

    2000-10-01

    Children suffer a significant number of head injuries as a result of their high activity levels, immature developmental skills and increased head-to-body mass ratio. Primary brain injury is irreversible, but secondary insults can be limited. Central to this is the management of raised intracranial pressure (ICP). The pathophysiology of head injury can explain some of the causes of raised ICP. Monitoring of ICP is important and this is closely linked to the maintenance of an adequate cerebral perfusion pressure and the importance of normovolaemia. Other interventions that have been shown to limit rises in ICP are appropriate use of positioning, mechanical ventilation and drug therapy. Less common therapies include jugular venous bulb oxygen saturation monitoring and the use of trometamol (THAM). Most nursing interventions do not actively reduce ICP, but they are central to its management. Reducing stimuli, avoiding cluster care, manual hyperinflation and limiting routine endotracheal suction may prevent an accumulative rise in ICP. Based on this literature review, it is possible to divide these interventions into first and second tier treatments, as shown in the protocol. Much of the suggested management will occur simultaneously, but it is important to assess the child's own response to each intervention and thus tailor treatment to minimize secondary brain injury. PMID:11000606

  7. Raising children in America: Korean parents' experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, H; Dancy, B L; Lee, J

    2013-08-01

    This qualitative description study was designed to describe Korean American parents' perceptions of challenges and difficulties they encounter while raising their children in the USA. A convenience sampling of 21 parents of adolescents aged 11-14 years recruited from the Midwest Korean American community participated in the study. Data were collected using in-depth, face-to-face interviews, which took place in agreed-upon, convenient locations. All interviews were audiotaped and transcribed in Korean and the transcripts were translated into English. Qualitative content analysis revealed that the main stresses that parents encountered while raising their children in the USA were inability to advocate for children, feeling uneasy and insecure about incompatible American culture, ambivalence towards children's ethnic identities, and feeling alienated. In relation to these stresses, parents often felt inadequate, ashamed, guilty, regretful and powerless. The findings demonstrated the importance of understanding parents' feelings that are deeply embedded in the conflicted parent-child relationships and their perceptions of being parents in the USA. The present study highlights the need for and importance of providing intervention programmes for parents, particularly programmes that would empower parents, strengthen parent-child relationships and address ways to integrate two very different cultures while upholding ethnic identity and pride. PMID:22295897

  8. A heuristic sublevel stope optimizer with multiple raises

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    X, Bai; D, Marcotte; R, Simon.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available A new heuristic sublevel mining stope optimizer is presented. The optimizer seeks the best locations and lengths of a series of vertical raises that, together with the blocks linked to each raise, define a mining stope. Five design constraints - the footwall angle, the hangingwall angle, the number [...] of raises, the maximum distance of a block from a raise, and the minimum width required to move the farthest block towards the raise - allow the shape of the sub-stopes associated with each raise to be controlled. The optimization is done on the locations and lengths of raises using a genetic algorithm to efficiently sample the parameters' space. For each raise, a local network is defined in cylindrical coordinates around the raise such as to impose the design constraints. A maxflow algorithm on the local network is used to determine the optimal sub-stope for each raise. All sub-stopes are combined to define the global stope for the entire deposit. The best global stope is obtained using a genetic algorithm to find the raise parameters providing the best profit over the entire deposit. Two synthetic cases and one real deposit are used to evaluate the new algorithm and compare the results with the single-raise optimizer. The multiple raises approach leads to significantly improved economics compared with the single-raise stope optimizer, and the dilution is also substantially reduced compared to the single-raise case.

  9. Production of antibody fragment (Fab) throughout Escherichia coli fed-batch fermentation process: Changes in titre, location and form of product

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Reza, Jalalirad.

    2013-05-15

    Full Text Available Background: Recombinant proteins, including antibodies and antibody fragments, often contain disulfide bond bridges that are necessary for their folding, stability and function. Production of disulfide-bond-containing proteins in the periplasm of Escherichia coli has been very useful, due to unique [...] characteristics of the periplasm, for obtaining fully active and correctly folded products and for alleviating downstream processing. Results: In this study, fed-batch cultivation of Escherichia coli (E. coli) for production of Fab D1.3, which is an anti-hen egg white lysozyme (HEWL) antibody fragment was carried out at 37ºC, and the bacterial cells were induced by adding 0.1 mM IPTG to the culture medium. Fermentor was sampled over the course of fermentation; the bacterial cells were centrifugally separated from the culture broth and subjected to osmotic shock (with excluding HEWL) and sonication procedures. The resulting fractions were analysed for Fab using a combination of ELISA, SDS-PAGE and Western blotting and changes in product titre, location, and form was assessed throughout growth. It was shown that osmotic shock released the Fab from the periplasm very efficiently and its efficacy was 20-45% more than sonication. This study demonstrates that, at high cell density cultivation in fermentor, target product can appear inside and outside the cells, depending on the time of induction. The maximum amount of Fab (47 mg/l) in the periplasm was reached at 14 hrs cultivation (4 hrs post induction), being suitable time for cell harvest, selective periplasmic extraction and downstream capture. The Fab increasingly leaked into the culture medium, and reached its maximum culture medium titre of ~78 mg/l after 6 hrs post induction. After 16 hrs cultivation (6 hrs post induction) the amount of Fab remained constant in different locations within and outside the cells. Western blot analysis of cell fractions showed that certain amount of the Fab was also produced in the cells as insoluble form. Conclusions: In this work we showed that the production of Fab in the periplasm during high cell density cultivation of E. coli in fermentor can be challenging as the product may appear in various locations within and outside the cells. To exploit the advantages of the periplasmic expression systems for purification in downstream processing, bacterial cells should be harvested when they maintain the majority of the target protein in their periplasmic space (i.e. 4 hrs post induction).

  10. Against Raising Hope of Raising the Dead: Contra Moody and Kubler-Ross.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vicchio, Stephen J.; And Others

    1979-01-01

    Kubler-Ross and Moody have made assertions about survival after death. They argued that the subjects were not dead, but in the process of dying. An alternative explanation to this "glimpse of the afterlife" approach is offered. Other theological objections are raised to the Moody/Kubler-Ross approach. (Author)

  11. Fund-Raising While You Shop: A Look at Fund-Raising Sites on the Internet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seydel, Angela

    2000-01-01

    Explains how school fund-raising can be done over the Internet through electronic commerce. Discusses online retailers who donate percentage of sales to schools who have registered; Web sites that coordinate online retailers for schools, who also take a percentage of the sales; loss of revenue for local businesses; and marketing. (LRW)

  12. Effect of sow and piglet porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) vaccination on piglet mortality, viraemia, antibody titre and production parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraile, Lorenzo; Sibila, Marina; Nofrarías, Miquel; López-Jimenez, Rosa; Huerta, Eva; Llorens, Anna; López-Soria, Sergio; Pérez, Diego; Segalés, Joaquim

    2012-12-28

    The present study describes the effects of sow and/or piglet porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) vaccination on viraemia, antibody response and production parameters (average daily weight gain [ADWG] and mortality) of piglets from a PCV2 subclinically infected farm. Four hundred seventy-six piglets born from vaccinated (V) or non-vaccinated (NV) sows were further subdivided in a total of four groups: NV sows-NV pigs (NV-NV, n=134), NV sows-V pigs (NV-V, n=135);V sows-NV pigs (V-NV, n=104) and V sows-V pigs (V-V, n=103). A single vaccination of sows before mating was able to confer significantly higher antibody titres to their piglets at 4 weeks of age and a different PCV2 dynamics infection compared to piglets coming from NV sows. Piglet vaccination (independently of sow treatment) caused an earlier seroconversion and lower percentages of PCV2 infected pigs compared to the NV ones throughout their life. The double PCV2 vaccination strategy was able to reduce PCV2 infection but apparently caused some interference in piglet humoral response development. PCV2 vaccination was able to overcome this interference since the ADWG was improved in both groups of vaccinated piglets, independently of the sow treatment, being the highest ones obtained in the double vaccination group. PMID:22858231

  13. High antibody titres against predicted Mycoplasma surface proteins do not prevent sequestration in infected lung tissue in the course of experimental contagious bovine pleuropneumonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schieck, Elise; Liljander, Anne; Hamsten, Carl; Gicheru, Nimmo; Scacchia, Massimo; Sacchini, Flavio; Heller, Martin; Schnee, Christiane; Sterner-Kock, Anja; Hlinak, Andreas; Naessens, Jan; Poole, Jane; Persson, Anja; Jores, Joerg

    2014-08-01

    Contagious bovine pleuropneumonia (CBPP), a severe respiratory disease of cattle caused by Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides (Mmm) is endemic in many African countries due to fragmented veterinary services and the lack of an efficient vaccine and sensitive diagnostics. More efficient tools to control the disease are needed, but to develop the tools, a better understanding of host-pathogen interactions is necessary. The aim of this study was to characterize the kinetics of the humoral immune response against 65 Mmm surface antigens for an extended period in cattle that survived a primary infection with Mmm. We describe clinical and haematological outcomes, and dissect the humoral immune response over time, to specific antigens and compared the antibody responses between different pathomorphological outcomes. No antigen-specific antibodies correlating with protection were identified. Interestingly we found that animals that developed Mycoplasma-containing sequestra had significantly higher antibody levels against proteins comprising the surface proteome than the animals that cleared Mycoplasma from their lungs. Based on these data we suggest that high antibody titres might play a role in the establishment of pathomorphological changes, such as vasculitis, which should be investigated in future studies. Beneficial antibody specificities and cellular immune responses need to be identified in order to foster the development of an improved vaccine in the future. PMID:24880898

  14. 29 CFR 780.125 - Raising of poultry in general.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...Poultry § 780.125 Raising of poultry in general. (a) The term “poultry” includes domesticated fowl and game birds. Ducks and pigeons are included. Canaries...included. (b) The “raising” of poultry includes the breeding,...

  15. Raising the standards: marine pollution prevention

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morris, P. [Australian Parliament, Canberra, ACT (Australia)

    1996-12-31

    The Australian National Audit Office (ANAO) conducted an audit in 1994 on Australia`s oil spill response strategy. A series of recommendations were made, the most important of which concerned the need for effective programs to maintain equipment readiness. In this paper the comments of the review committee are summarized. It highlighted three areas: the need to introduce a more stringent form of risk analysis into the planning process; the need for an active deterrent that conveyed a message that Australia had the mechanisms to catch offenders who spill oil in Australian waters; and the need to address the issue of crew competence. The task of raising the standards requires ongoing vigilance. Vigilance to ensure improvement in crew standards, the quality of ship management, and that flag states carry out their obligations and responsibilities. There is a need for determination to sweep substandard ships from the seas, and to ensure seafarers are fairly treated. Most importantly, Australia requires a commitment to avoiding complacency in any form. (author).

  16. Raising and resolving issues with scalar modifiers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Coppock

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available We argue that the superlative modifiers at least and at most quantify over a scale of answers to the current question under discussion (and in this sense, resolve issues, and that they draw attention to the individual possibilities along the scale (and in this sense, raise issues for discussion. The point of departure is a simple analysis on which at least denotes what only presupposes, and at most denotes what only contributes as its ordinary atissue content. This analysis captures the truth conditions, focus-sensitivity, and distribution of superlative modifiers but leaves some pragmatic facts unexplained. We enrich the simple account with unrestricted inquisitive semantics in order to explain the fact that superlative modifiers give rise to ignorance implicatures while comparative modifiers like more and less do not, the fact that superlative modifiers do not give rise to scalar implicatures, and two puzzles concerning the interaction between superlative modifiers and deontic modals. We argue that this proposal provides the most empirically successful published account of superlative modifiers to date. http://dx.doi.org/10.3765/sp.6.3 BibTeX info

  17. RAISED BOGS ON THE NORTH-EAST OF EUROPE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. K. YURKOVSKAYA

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available In the Northeastern Europe 2 types of raised bogs are distinguished: coastal (Southern White Sea raised hogs and continental (Pechora-Onega raised bogs. They have been compared as to their flora, prevailing syntaxa, characteristics of their complexes, structure of mire massifs and composition of peat deposits.

  18. 29 CFR 780.125 - Raising of poultry in general.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... AGRICULTURE, PROCESSING OF AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES, AND RELATED SUBJECTS UNDER THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT General Scope of Agriculture Raising of Livestock, Bees, Fur-Bearing Animals, Or Poultry § 780.125 Raising... antithesis of “raising,” is not included. To constitute “agriculture,” slaughtering must come within...

  19. Consciousness Raising: From Revolution to Re-Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenthal, Naomi Braun

    1984-01-01

    Examines the development of consciousness raising as part of the women's liberation movement, and the transformations of consciousness raising as it moved into the group therapy movement. Considers whether consciouness raising has value for the women's movement and for individuals, as long as the political content is left out. (BH)

  20. The Campus Green: Fund Raising in Higher Education. ERIC Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brittingham, Barbara E.; Pezzullo, Thomas R.

    This digest summarizes issues raised in a research report on fund raising in higher education. The following questions are addressed: What are the changes and trends since the early days of educational fund raising? What are the implications? What is known about spending? What is known about donor behavior? What are the major ethical issues? What…

  1. Pas de titre en français

    OpenAIRE

    Muhammad, Naveed

    2013-01-01

    La réalisation des missions spatiales repose de plus en plus souvent sur la coopération entre différents engins spatiaux. Parmi les opérations de proximité, ! le rendez-vous orbital est une pratique aussi ancienne que la ! conquête spatiale, qui continue de générer de nombreux travaux de recherche. Cependant, les motivations et les objectifs des récentes missions de rendez-vous orbital ont largement évolués. En effet, les besoins d'une autonomie accrue, d'une sécurité améliorée, d'une plus gr...

  2. Pas de titre en français

    OpenAIRE

    Pandey, Amit Kumar

    2012-01-01

    Robots are no longer going to be isolated machines working in factory or merely research platforms used in controlled lab environment. Very soon, robots will be the part of our day-to-day lives. Whether it is street, o ce, home or supermarket, robots will be there to assist and serve us. For such robots to be accepted and appreciated, they should explicitly consider the presence of human in all their planning and decision making strategies, whether it is for motion, manipulation or interactio...

  3. Enti religiosi e fund raising: un binomio possibile (anzi, necessario

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Franceschi

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Contributo sottoposto a valutazioniSOMMARIO: 1. Premessa - 2. Il fund raising: inquadramento concettuale - 3. (segue Strategie, strumenti e tecniche di fund raising - 4. Il fund raising come fattore di potenziale sviluppo delle organizzazioni non profit - 5. Enti religiosi e fund raising: un binomio che necessita di essere consolidato (e potenziato - 6. Peculiarità dell’azione di fund raising degli enti religiosi - 7. Fund raising e aspetti economici e gestionali degli enti religiosi - 8. Considerazioni conclusive.Abstract:Religious organizations and fundraising: a possible combination (indeed necessary Fund-raising activities represent the principal livelihood and sources of growth and development for non-profit organisations. Fund-raising is, also, an increasingly important part of religious organizations life. Almost each of them engages in some kind of fund-raising activity, with the purpose of generating income to sustain the organization’s programs and activities. The present study analyzes the relationship between religious organizations and fund-raising activities: a correlation that always existed, but now calls for consolidation and improvement in order to allow religious organizations to achieve economic sustainability. Therefore, religious organizations should develop competency and capacity to design and implement fund-raising activities, through appropriate policies, tools and methodologies. In this perspective, the author examines all the facets of fund-raising activities related to the religious organizations sector and, more in general, the possible applications of business administration principles to the management of religious bodies (so-called “church management”.Parole chiave: enti religiosi; fund raising; sostenibilità economica; management

  4. Lowering and raising operators for some special orthogonal polynomials

    OpenAIRE

    Koornwinder, Tom H.

    2005-01-01

    This paper discusses operators lowering or raising the degree but preserving the parameters of special orthogonal polynomials. Results for one-variable classical (q-)orthogonal polynomials are surveyed. For Jacobi polynomials associated with root system BC_2 a new pair of lowering and raising operators is obtained.

  5. 29 CFR 780.126 - Contract arrangements for raising poultry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... AGRICULTURE, PROCESSING OF AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES, AND RELATED SUBJECTS UNDER THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT General Scope of Agriculture Raising of Livestock, Bees, Fur-Bearing Animals, Or Poultry § 780.126... raising of poultry on the farm are employed in “secondary” agriculture (see §§ 780.137 et seq....

  6. Parents: ABCs of Raising Safe and Healthy Kids

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... please visit this page: About CDC.gov . Family Health Share Compartir Parents: ABCs of Raising Safe and Healthy Kids Click on ... Students Families with Special Needs Kids and Teens ABCs of Raising Safe & Healthy Kids Autumn Games and Health Tips for Kids and Parents Autumn Tips to ...

  7. Neg-raising and positive polarity: The view from modals

    OpenAIRE

    Vincent Homer

    2015-01-01

    This article shows that the deontic modals must, should and supposed to are all Positive Polarity Items which can raise in order to avoid being in an anti-licensing environment; it also establishes that should has a dual nature, i.e., it is not just a PPI, but it is also a neg-raising predicate, which can achieve wide scope through a homogeneity inference, and that supposed to, also a PPI, exhibits a neg-raising behavior under certain pragmatic conditions which shed new light on the neg-raisi...

  8. Obesity Before Pregnancy Tied to Raised Risk of Newborn Death

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_156851.html Obesity Before Pregnancy Tied to Raised Risk of Newborn ... even though the researchers found that pre-pregnancy obesity was related to worse outcomes for infants, it's ...

  9. Black Women at Raised Risk of Carrying Breast Cancer Genes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Black Women at Raised Risk of Carrying Breast Cancer Genes In study of those under 50 with invasive ... More Health News on: African American Health Breast Cancer Genes and Gene Therapy Recent Health News Related MedlinePlus ...

  10. Sleep Apnea May Raise Women's Heart Risk, but Not Men's

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_155148.html Sleep Apnea May Raise Women's Heart Risk, But Not ... HealthDay News) -- The nighttime breathing disturbance known as sleep apnea can boost a woman's risk for heart ...

  11. Could IVF Raise Children's Odds for Blood Cancer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... nih.gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_157079.html Could IVF Raise Children's Odds for Blood Cancer? Study of ... HealthDay News) -- Children conceived through in vitro fertilization (IVF) might have a slightly increased risk of developing ...

  12. Children and Family Finances. The Cost of Raising a Child

    OpenAIRE

    Hayhoe, Celia Ray; Hsu, Chungwen

    2009-01-01

    There are seven main categories on which the USDA bases its calculations for raising a child: housing, food, transportation, clothing, health care, childcare, education, and miscellaneous goods and services. This is an overview of those seven categories.

  13. Childhood Cancer Treatment May Raise Adult Heart Disease Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_156504.html Childhood Cancer Treatment May Raise Adult Heart Disease Risk ... However, while the study revealed a link between childhood cancer treatment and later heart disease, it didn' ...

  14. Infants and Toddlers (Ages 0-3) - Raising Healthy Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Conditions Safety in the Home & Community Raising Healthy Teens Risk Behaviors Engaging Parents in School Health Other Resources Information for Health Care Professionals & Researchers Browse All Parent Topics Parent Videos Social Media Tools Get Email Updates To receive email updates ...

  15. Common Gene Variant May Raise Miscarriage Risk, Study Finds

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... nih.gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_155048.html Common Gene Variant May Raise Miscarriage Risk, Study Finds Associated ... 2015 (HealthDay News) -- Scientists report that a common gene variant may be linked to both early pregnancy ...

  16. Rapid Acquisition Imaging Spectrograph (RAISE) Renewal Proposal Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The optical design of RAISE is based on a new class of UV/EUV imaging spectrometers that use  only two reflections to provide quasi-stigmatic performance...

  17. Awareness raising as a component of the affected territories reviving

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Awareness raising about reviving of the contaminated territories aimed to form an appropriate impression of the affected areas and to change attitude of Belarusian population and international community towards them. (authors)

  18. Smog Raises Heart Risks in Those with Diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... html Smog Raises Heart Risks in Those With Diabetes, Study Says Long-term study showed prolonged exposure ... car exhaust -- heightens heart risks for women with diabetes, a large, new study indicates. Building on prior ...

  19. Untreated High Blood Pressure Greatly Raises Risk of 'Bleeding' Stroke

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_157337.html Untreated High Blood Pressure Greatly Raises Risk of 'Bleeding' Stroke Threat is ... 18, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- People with untreated high blood pressure face a much greater risk of a bleeding ...

  20. Blogging to raise awareness: the DrugScope experience

    OpenAIRE

    Welsh, Anne

    2005-01-01

    This article describes how the DrugScope blog has been used to highlight the organisation's collection of evidence-based alcohol and other drug (AOD) material. It discusses the fine line between information provision to raise awareness and marketing.

  1. Raised intracranial pressure following abdominal closure in a polytrauma patient

    OpenAIRE

    Hendrickson, Susan; Chacko, Liza; Wilson, Mark H

    2015-01-01

    We report a polytrauma case requiring simultaneous neurosurgery and laparotomy. Upon abdominal closure, raised intracranial pressure occurred. This illustrates the important physiological interplay between body compartments in critical care patients.

  2. Could PMS Raise Women's Risk for High Blood Pressure?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... nih.gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_155890.html Could PMS Raise Women's Risk for High Blood Pressure? Study ... for hypertension in those with moderate-to-severe premenstrual syndrome To use the sharing features on this page, ...

  3. Neg-raising and positive polarity: The view from modals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincent Homer

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This article shows that the deontic modals must, should and supposed to are all Positive Polarity Items which can raise in order to avoid being in an anti-licensing environment; it also establishes that should has a dual nature, i.e., it is not just a PPI, but it is also a neg-raising predicate, which can achieve wide scope through a homogeneity inference, and that supposed to, also a PPI, exhibits a neg-raising behavior under certain pragmatic conditions which shed new light on the neg-raising phenomenon. http://dx.doi.org/10.3765/sp.8.4 BibTeX info

  4. Pregnancy Choices: Raising the Baby, Adoption, and Abortion

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... PREGNANCY Pregnancy Choices: Raising the Baby, Adoption, and Abortion • What are my options if I find out ... is financial help available? • If I am considering abortion, what should I know about my state’s laws? • ...

  5. Fitness Could Raise Survival After First Heart Attack

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 157012.html Fitness Could Raise Survival After First Heart Attack Patients in the best shape were 40 percent ... improve a person's chances of surviving a first heart attack, a new study indicates. "We knew that fitter ...

  6. Supersensitive gastrin assay using antibodies raised against a cholecystokinin homolog

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rehfeld, Jens F; Ericsson, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Peptide hormones may occur in particularly low amounts in samples from small animals. Hence, in a rat microdialysis study conventional immunoassays were not sufficiently sensitive to measure gastrin in the dialysis samples. We therefore exploited the observation that antibodies raised against the...... obtained with the most avid conventional gastrin antibodies. The results may encourage similar approaches for other peptides using homologue-raised antibodies when supersensitivity is required....

  7. Incidence and aetiology of a raised hemidiaphragm after cardiopulmonary bypass.

    OpenAIRE

    Large, S. R.; Heywood, L J; Flower, C D; Cory-Pearce, R.; Wallwork, J.; English, T A

    1985-01-01

    A raised hemidiaphragm has been reported as an uncommon complication of cardiopulmonary bypass, possibly resulting from cold injury to the phrenic nerve. At Papworth Hospital myocardial protection during cardiac arrest relies in part on irrigation of the pericardial cavity with large volumes of Hartmann's solution at 4 degrees C. Retrospective review of the chest radiographs of 100 consecutive patients undergoing cardiopulmonary bypass showed that 31 had a raised left hemidiaphragm soon after...

  8. Reduction, fusion and raising in English and Spanish

    OpenAIRE

    Garrudo Carabias, Francisco

    1991-01-01

    The reduction of clauses, together with the fusion of structures, is a source of syntactic problems especially isomorphism and structural ambiguity both in English and Spanish. Raising and Equi-NP Deletion are the processes responsible for them. Raising operates in English more often than in Spanish and under different conditions. The syntactic complication of these phenomena for a non-native speaker and the advantage of a possible reference to similar cases, although more restricted, in Span...

  9. Bisimulatioll abstraction for selecting software compollents ill RAISE

    OpenAIRE

    Estevez, Elsa Clara; Janowski, Thomas

    1999-01-01

    Sorne questions and problems arise when working with ComponentBased Design. One of these is the abstraction needed to decide suitability of a component for the designo Bisimulation is a relation between the states of two systems expressing that we cannot distinguish between them by observation. RAISE is a formal approach to industrial software engineering based on higher-order logic. In this paper we present how to apply bisimulations to compare RAISE modules. We present concepts of strong an...

  10. A practice of advancing return shaft by raised shaft technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Advance of super-high raise has been a difficult problem in the underground construction of mines. A main return shaft of a uranium mine was advanced by raised shaft technique. The technique has advantages such as high efficience, safety and economy. Monthly shaft completion averaged 85 m, the highest was up to 120 m. Blasting efficience was above 92%. A reference is provided for similar projects. (authors)

  11. Concrete creep with multiaxial stress and at raised temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The knowledge of the creep behaviour of concrete under multiaxial stress at raised temperatures is necessary for the design and calculation of prestressed-concrete reactor pressure vessels due to the loading conditions prestressing and internal temperature. Therefore, in addition to the research programmes on the behaviour of concrete under multiaxial short-term stress at normal temperature done at the 'Institut fuer Massivbau' in the framework of the prestressed-concrete pressure vessel programme, the influences of raised temperature is experimentally tested. (orig./LH)

  12. Radiosensitivity of tissue culture raised white marigold seeds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White marigold of the (Tagetes erecta L. compositae) is an important ornamental crop suited for pot and bed plants. It suffers from the problem of low seed viability and poor seed germination. The technique of in vitro regeneration has already been standardized for production of large scale quality planting materials of white marigold. For inducing greater genetic variability, seeds collected from in vitro raised plants were included in a gamma ray induced mutation breeding programme. The main objective of the present experiment was to study the radiosensitivity of tissue culture raised seeds

  13. Raising and Lowering operators of spin-weighted spheroidal harmonics

    CERN Document Server

    Shah, Abhay G

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we generalize the spin-raising and lowering operators of spin-weighted spherical harmonics to linear-in-$\\gamma$ spin-weighted spheroidal harmonics where $\\gamma$ is an additional parameter present in the second order ordinary differential equation governing these harmonics. One can then generalize these operators to higher powers in $\\gamma$. Constructing these operators required calculating the $\\ell$-, $s$- and $m$-raising and lowering operators (and various combinations of them) of spin-weighted spherical harmonics which have been calculated and shown explicitly in this paper.

  14. Does Poor Sleep Raise Risk for Alzheimer's Disease?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... About ADEAR Does poor sleep raise risk for Alzheimer’s disease? February 29, 2016 Studies confirm what many ... prevent Alzheimer’s. Which comes first, poor sleep or Alzheimer’s? The chicken-and-egg question is whether Alzheimer’s- ...

  15. The RIF Book of Ideas: Raising Funds. No. 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smithsonian Institution, Washington, DC. National Reading is Fun-damental Program.

    Intended to help communities raise funds for Reading Is Fundamental (RIF) projects, this booklet lists ideas and examples, many volunteered and tested by RIF projects themselves. The first of the booklet's four sections offers suggestions for preparing for a fundraising effort. The next two sections contain ideas on the main avenues of…

  16. The Voices of Latino Families Raising Children with Special Needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Marie Tejero; Valle-Riestra, Diana Martinez; Arguelles, Maria Elena

    2008-01-01

    In this study we examined the perceptions of 16 Latino families regarding their views and experiences raising a child with special needs and their involvement in their child's schooling. Families talked about treating their child like a "normal child" regardless of the child's unique needs, but they also stated that their level of involvement was…

  17. Trajectories of Conflict over Raising Adolescent Children and Marital Satisfaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Ming; Donnellan, M. Brent

    2009-01-01

    The present study examined trajectories of marital satisfaction among couples with adolescent children and evaluated how changes in parents' conflict over raising adolescent children were associated with changes in marital satisfaction over 4 years. Using a prospective, longitudinal research design and controlling for family socioeconomic status,…

  18. Operating Classroom Aesthetic Reading Environment to Raise Children's Reading Motivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Mei-Ju; Cheng, Jui-Ching; Cheng, Ya-Wen

    2016-01-01

    This research aims to explore how preschool educators understand about raising children's reading motivation through operating classroom aesthetic reading environment. With one year qualitative research, sixteen 4-6 years old young were observed and interviewed. The first stage interviews were undergone with environmental guidance. After the…

  19. How to Raise Money for Kids (Public and Private).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodge, Anne Burr

    This guide for social service organizations provides basic information concerning proposal writing and grant application procedures which could be useful to anyone beginning fund raising efforts. It is organized in three sections. Section 1 covers preparation for proposal writing and components and format of a proposal. Section 2 outlines a plan…

  20. 'New Lamps for Old': Current Awareness and Profile-Raising

    OpenAIRE

    Welsh, Anne

    2006-01-01

    Over the last three years, the DrugScope ILS has streamlined its acquisitions, cataloguing and indexing processes so it has been possible to increase its current awareness services. This article illustrates how it is quick and easy to promote new material through these services, and how the services themselves have raised the profile of the ILS internally and externally.

  1. With Dwindling Resources, Colleges Recalibrate Fund-Raising Staffs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masterson, Kathryn

    2009-01-01

    After several years of aggressive hiring, some college fund-raising operations are now cutting back as both revenue and investment income fall. The regrouping could slow growth plans on many campuses at a time when the need for private support has never been greater. Often the colleges cutting employees are laying off back-office staff members and…

  2. Language Strategies To Raise Achievement in Business Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seliet, Hala; Swift, Helen

    1999-01-01

    Describes the difficulties low achieving students, many of whom are from ethnic minorities, have in dealing with the language of Business Studies in the British curriculum and suggests some strategies to raise language awareness within the discipline and increase the business vocabularies of students. (SLD)

  3. Utilized Strategies by Urban Superintendents to Raise Student Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilar-Nuno, Andrea Marie

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify the utilized strategies and practices that urban superintendents use to raise student achievement. This study examined the strategies, practices, and leadership skills that are applied by urban superintendents. Three research questions were used in this mixed-methods study. A survey instrument was used…

  4. Raising Standards through INQUIRE in Pre-Service Teacher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elster, D.; Barendziak, T.; Haskamp, F.; Kastenholz, L.

    2014-01-01

    Raising standards through inquiry-based science education (IBSE)--what are the challenges for pre-service teacher education? What do ongoing teachers and active teachers learn from each other when planning, conducting and evaluating minds-on and hands-on IBSE activities in the classroom? What do they learn "beyond" IBSE? The Bremen…

  5. Raising the Pedagogic Status of Discourse Intonation Teaching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clennell, Charles

    1997-01-01

    Presents a case for teaching the pragmatic (discourse-based) features of English intonation to foreign students of English as a Second Language. Advocates a systematic approach to teaching these functions of English intonation through a consciousness-raising methodology that uses authentic academic oral texts. (25 references) (Author/CK)

  6. Raising Cultural Awareness in the English Language Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, Jerrold

    2013-01-01

    This article discusses how teachers can incorporate cultural knowledge into English language classes, exploring elements of culture, intercultural phenomena, and high-context and low-context cultures. Activities offered by the author to raise cultural awareness include web quests, role plays, cultural observations, and culture journals.

  7. AGAINST “PURE” EPP CHECKING: EVIDENCE FROM FURTHER-RAISING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerardo Fernández-Salgueiro

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper I attempt to throw some light on the issue of whether we need to appeal to an EPP feature (EPP-F in order to account for why Tense heads demand that a specifier be created. I briefly review Boškovi?’s (2002 proposal that there is no “pure” EPP checking, and that instances of DP movement to Spec-Tense can be motivated independently of an EPP-F in Tense. I argue that there are some problems with his conclusion because of confounding factors surrounding the data that he considers. I then provide data from Spanish further-raising constructions (see Fernández-Salgueiro, 2011, which constitute a much clearer test bed for Boškovi?’s hypothesis. It turns out that the further-raising data provides stronger and less controversial empirical support for Boškovi?’s claim that the EPP-F should be eliminated from the grammar.

  8. HOW TO RAISE EQUITY CAPITAL? A CASE OF POLISH COMPANIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna B?ACH

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The strategies of raising equity capital available to the Polish companies were studied, both in the theoretical and empirical dimension. According to the law regulations three strategies of raising equity capital were distinguished and characterized: the retaining profit strategy, the strategy based on the hybrid securities and the strategy using the issue of new shares. The empirical researches were conducted based on the aggregated data illustrating the practical application of the distinguished strategies in the activity of the Polish non-financial companies in 2006 – 2009, aiming at finding changes in the strategy profile due to the impact of the global financial crisis. The achieved results can be used as a basis for further, more detail studies, also for the cross-country comparative analysis.

  9. Individual Websites: Innovation for Raising Language Awareness in Adult Learners

    OpenAIRE

    Galina Kavaliauskien?; Lilija Anusien?; Viktorija Mažeikien?

    2011-01-01

    The paper aims to demonstrate how weblogging can raise learners’ language awareness and prepare them for communication in the networked world. The research included the application of the innovative technique for written and oral communication in English classes. The exploratory study of using a variety of Information Communication Technology activities at tertiary level was conducted. Class experiences of creating weblogs for learning purposes and using them for online activities with the st...

  10. Raising awareness of specific language impairment: The RALLI Internet campaign

    OpenAIRE

    Conti-Ramsden, G; Bishop, DVM; Snowling, MJ; Clark, B.; Frazier Norbury, C

    2013-01-01

    In this editorial, we discuss what is specific language impairment (SLI) and why it is a hidden disability that few people have heard about. We describe the impact on research, policy and practice of SLI being a neglected condition. We end by providing the background and rationale of a new Internet campaign, RALLI (. www.youtube.com/rallicampaign), aimed at changing this state of affairs and raising awareness of SLI. This YouTube channel has videoclips and information about SLI in Spanish. © ...

  11. Trajectories of Conflict over Raising Adolescent Children and Marital Satisfaction

    OpenAIRE

    Cui, Ming; Donnellan, M. Brent

    2009-01-01

    The present study examined trajectories of marital satisfaction among couples with adolescent children and evaluated how changes in parents’ conflict over raising adolescent children were associated with changes in marital satisfaction over four years. Using a prospective, longitudinal research design and controlling for family socioeconomic status, dyadic growth curve analysis from a sample of 431 couples with adolescent children indicated that marital satisfaction decreased over time for pa...

  12. Current Situation of Postmenopausal Grandmothers Raising Their Grandchildren

    OpenAIRE

    Jin, Jang Yong; Kim, Tae-hee

    2015-01-01

    As the average life expectancy of women increases, the family and social roles of postmenopausal women have become more important. With the growing number of dual-income households, postmenopausal grandmothers occupy a large role in child-rearing. Postmenopausal women mainly experience social changes as a family member along with personal changes. Postmenopausal women face changes in physical and mental aspects due to drastic hormonal changes. Grandmothers sharing the burden of raising childr...

  13. Does Stock Market Development Raise Economic Growth? Evidence from Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Abu Nurudeen

    2009-01-01

    This paper investigates whether stock market development raises economic growthin Nigeria, by employing the error correction approach. The econometric results indicate thatstock market development (market capitalization-GDP ratio) increases economic growth.The recommendations therein include: removal of impediments to stock market developmentwhich include tax, legal, and regulatory barriers; development of the nation’s infrastructureto create an enabling environment for where business can str...

  14. Raising rivals' costs with environmental regulation: An intertemporal lobbying approach

    OpenAIRE

    Körber, Achim

    1995-01-01

    This paper addresses the question why a lot of firms demand stricter environmental regulation. With non-identical producers within the same industry, lobbying for tighter environmental rules turns out to be an important strategy of raising rivals' costs. Furthermore, the paper explains when the potential target firms of stricter regulation in such an intra-industrial competition engage in counter-lobbying and when they remain silent.

  15. The cholesterol-raising factor from coffee beans.

    OpenAIRE

    Urgert, R; Katan, M.B.

    1996-01-01

    Coffee beans and some types of coffee brew - not the regular types of coffee prepared with a paper filter or with soluble coffee granules - contain the diterpenes cafestol and kahweol. Cafestol and kahweol raise the serum concentration of cholesterol and triglycerides in humans, and they also appear mildly to affect the integrity of liver cells. Both effects are transient after withdrawal of the diterpenes, and it is as yet unsure whether these effects are associated. Patients at increased ri...

  16. HOMO-raising strategies in aminocatalysis, from Enamine to Tetraenamine

    OpenAIRE

    Dourado, Jorge Manuel de Carvalho Marques

    2013-01-01

    In this Master Thesis two different HOMO-raising strategies in aminocatalysis - enamine activation and tetraenamine activation were studied. For the tetraenamine activation concept, it was rationalized that the condensation between 2-(cyclohepta-1,3,5-trien 1-yl)acetate and the TMS-protected diraylprolinol ether aminocatalyst would provide the desired tetraenamine intermediate. The novelty of this concept was further explored by the studied of the [4+2]-cycloaddition between the tetraen...

  17. RAISE (Rapid Acquisition Imaging Spectrograph Experiment): Results and Instrument Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurent, Glenn T.; Hassler, Donald; DeForest, Craig; Ayres, Tom; Davis, Michael; DePontieu, Bart; Diller, Jed; Graham, Roy; Schule, Udo; Warren, Harry

    2015-04-01

    We present initial results from the successful November 2014 launch of the RAISE (Rapid Acquisition Imaging Spectrograph Experiment) sounding rocket program, including intensity maps, high-speed spectroheliograms and dopplergrams, as well as an update on instrument status. The RAISE sounding rocket payload is the fastest high-speed scanning-slit imaging spectrograph flown to date and is designed to observe the dynamics and heating of the solar chromosphere and corona on time scales as short as 100-200ms, with arcsecond spatial resolution and a velocity sensitivity of 1-2 km/s. The instrument is based on a class of UV/EUV imaging spectrometers that use only two reflections to provide quasi-stigmatic performance simultaneously over multiple wavelengths and spatial fields. The design uses an off-axis parabolic telescope mirror to form a real image of the sun on the spectrometer entrance aperture. A slit then selects a portion of the solar image, passing its light onto a near-normal incidence toroidal grating, which re-images the spectrally dispersed radiation onto two array detectors. Two full spectral passbands over the same one-dimensional spatial field are recorded simultaneously with no scanning of the detectors or grating. The two different spectral bands (1st-order 1205-1243Å and 1526-1564Å) are imaged onto two intensified Active Pixel Sensor (APS) detectors whose focal planes are individually adjusted for optimized performance. RAISE reads out the full field of both detectors at 5-10 Hz, allowing us to record over 1,500 complete spectral observations in a single 5-minute rocket flight, opening up a new domain of high time resolution spectral imaging and spectroscopy. RAISE is designed to study small-scale multithermal dynamics in active region (AR) loops, explore the strength, spectrum and location of high frequency waves in the solar atmosphere, and investigate the nature of transient brightenings in the chromospheric network.

  18. Cultural and Economic Motivation of Pig Raising Practices in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nahar, Nazmun; Uddin, Main; Gurley, Emily S; Jahangir Hossain, M; Sultana, Rebeca; Luby, Stephen P

    2015-12-01

    The interactions that pig raisers in Bangladesh have with their pigs could increase the risk of zoonotic disease transmission. Since raising pigs is a cultural taboo to Muslims, we aimed at understanding the motivation for raising pigs and resulting practices that could pose the risk of transmitting disease from pigs to humans in Bangladesh, a predominantly Muslim country. These understandings could help identify acceptable strategies to reduce the risk of disease transmission from pigs to people. To achieve this objective, we conducted 34 in-depth interviews among pig herders and backyard pig raisers in eight districts of Bangladesh. Informants explained that pig raising is an old tradition, embedded in cultural and religious beliefs and practices, the primary livelihood of pig herders, and a supplemental income of backyard pig raisers. To secure additional income, pig raisers sell feces, liver, bile, and other pig parts often used as traditional medicine. Pig raisers have limited economic ability to change the current practices that may put them at risk of exposure to diseases from their pigs. An intervention that improves their financial situation and reduces the risk of zoonotic disease may be of interest to pig raisers. PMID:26122206

  19. Raising consciousness about the nuclear threat through music

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ungerleider, J.H.

    1987-01-01

    This dissertation examines the use of music, in particular topical collaborative group song writing, as a tool for raising consciousness about the threat of nuclear war. Consciousness raising is one way to overcome the phenomenon of denial and to increase discussion and social action in response to the nuclear threat. This dissertation measures the impact of a group song writing workshop on developing critical problem-solving in adult groups; it reviews how music is applied in psychological research and clinical work, has been used historically as a tool in social-change movements in America, and is used in the contemporary field of peace education. The perspectives of several theorists who discuss the potential of music to contribute to social change are presented. It is concluded that consciousness about the nuclear threat - in terms of naming and analyzing - can be raised by working with music's potential for developing affective, expressive, and collaborative capabilities in individuals and groups. Potential applications of the group song writing workshop are in schools, with peace organizations, music groups, and in relation to other social issues.

  20. Evaluación anátomo-histopatológica de bursa, timo y bazo de pollos de carne criados sobre cama reutilizada vs. cama nueva / Anatomical and histopathological evaluation of the bursa, thymus and spleen of broiler chickens raised in new or reused litter

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Antonio, Tambini A.; Mónica, Alba C.; Rosa, Perales C; Néstor, Falcón P.

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Se evaluó el desarrollo anátomo-histopatológico de la bursa, timo y bazo de pollos de carne criados en cama nueva y cama reutilizada por cinco campañas. Se criaron 250 pollos machos de la línea Ross 308, la mitad en cama nueva y la otra mitad en cama reutilizada. Semanalmente, se determinaron los ín [...] dices morfométricos de bursa, timo y bazo, y la relación entre bursa y bazo por grupo. Los órganos linfoides fueron evaluados mediante histopatología, y los títulos de anticuerpos contra las enfermedades de Gumboro, Newcastle, Bronquitis Infecciosa, Anemia Infecciosa y Reovirus, al inicio y final de la crianza (49 días), se determinaron por la prueba de ELISA. Se encontró diferencia estadística (p Abstract in english The anatomo-histopathological development of the bursa, thymus and spleen of broiler chickens raised in new and reused litter through five campaigns was evaluated. Two hundred and fifty male chickens of the Ross 308 line were raised, half in new and half in reused litter. On a weekly basis, the morp [...] hometric indexes of bursa, thymus and spleen, and the relation bursa/spleen were recorded. The lymphoid organs were evaluated by histopathology and ELISA test was used to determine antibody titres for Gumboro, Newcastle, Infectious Bronchitis, Infectious Anemia, and Reovirus at the beginning and end of the study (49 days). Statistical difference was found (p

  1. Pathogenesis of optic disc edema in raised intracranial pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayreh, Sohan Singh

    2016-01-01

    Optic disc edema in raised intracranial pressure was first described in 1853. Ever since, there has been a plethora of controversial hypotheses to explain its pathogenesis. I have explored the subject comprehensively by doing basic, experimental and clinical studies. My objective was to investigate the fundamentals of the subject, to test the validity of the previous theories, and finally, based on all these studies, to find a logical explanation for the pathogenesis. My studies included the following issues pertinent to the pathogenesis of optic disc edema in raised intracranial pressure: the anatomy and blood supply of the optic nerve, the roles of the sheath of the optic nerve, of the centripetal flow of fluids along the optic nerve, of compression of the central retinal vein, and of acute intracranial hypertension and its associated effects. I found that, contrary to some previous claims, an acute rise of intracranial pressure was not quickly followed by production of optic disc edema. Then, in rhesus monkeys, I produced experimentally chronic intracranial hypertension by slowly increasing in size space-occupying lesions, in different parts of the brain. Those produced raised cerebrospinal fluid pressure (CSFP) and optic disc edema, identical to those seen in patients with elevated CSFP. Having achieved that, I investigated various aspects of optic disc edema by ophthalmoscopy, stereoscopic color fundus photography and fluorescein fundus angiography, and light microscopic, electron microscopic, horseradish peroxidase and axoplasmic transport studies, and evaluated the effect of opening the sheath of the optic nerve on the optic disc edema. This latter study showed that opening the sheath resulted in resolution of optic disc edema on the side of the sheath fenestration, in spite of high intracranial CSFP, proving that a rise of CSFP in the sheath was the essential pre-requisite for the development of optic disc edema. I also investigated optic disc edema with raised CSFP in patients, by evaluating optic disc and fundus changes by stereoscopic fundus photography and fluorescein fundus angiography. Based on the combined information from all the studies discussed above, it is clear that the pathogenesis of optic disc edema in raised intracranial pressure is a mechanical phenomenon. It is primarily due to a rise of CSFP in the optic nerve sheath, which produces axoplasmic flow stasis in the optic nerve fibers in the surface nerve fiber layer and prelaminar region of the optic nerve head. Axoplasmic flow stasis then results in swelling of the nerve fibers, and consequently of the optic disc. Swelling of the nerve fibers and of the optic disc secondarily compresses the fine, low-pressure venules in that region, resulting in venous stasis and fluid leakage; that leads to the accumulation of extracellular fluid. Contrary to the previous theories, the various vascular changes seen in optic disc edema are secondary and not primary. Thus, optic disc edema in raised CSFP is due to a combination of swollen nerve fibers and the accumulation of extracellular fluid. My studies also provided information about the pathogeneses of visual disturbances in raised intracranial pressure. PMID:26453995

  2. Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome and acute post-streptococcal glomerulonephritis mimicking breakthrough seizures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamille Abdool

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available We report the case of a 14-year-old boy with a past history of primary generalized seizures, who had been seizure-free for 2 years on sodium valproate and presented with generalized tonic clonic seizures suggestive of breakthrough seizures. Examination revealed hypertension, impetiginous lesions of the lower limbs, microscopic hematuria, elevated antistreptolysin O titre and low complement levels consistent with acute post-streptococcal glomerulonephritis. Cranial magnetic resonance imaging (MRI demonstrated changes consistent with posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome. Hypertension was controlled with intravenous nitroglycerin followed by oral captopril and amlodipine. Brain MRI changes returned normal within 2 weeks. The nephritis went in to remission within 2 months and after 8 months the patient has been seizure free again. Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome appeared to have neither short nor intermediate effect on seizure control in this patient. The relationship between posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome and seizures is reviewed.

  3. Raising the Awareness of Development Progress in Distributed Agile Projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sultan Alyahya

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses a computer-based holistic approach to raise the awareness of development progress in distributed agile projects. The approach analyses how the technical activities (i.e. source code versioning, unit testing, acceptance testing, integration and releasing affects development progress and provides automatic mechanisms that help co-ordinate progress change with distributed team members. The approach has been evaluated through practical scenarios and has validated these through a research prototype. The result shows that the use of the holistic approach can provide better awareness of progress to team members than the traditional approach that relies on informal communications.

  4. Tenneco raises $75 million for independents' E and P

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tenneco Gas's ventures group, Houston, has raised $75 million to invest in gas exploration and production by independent operations on the U.S. Gulf Coast. Institutional investors committed $50 million to the fund and a group of industrial investors $25 million. Tenneco the the fund will expand to accommodate additional investors through this year. This paper reports that the company's ventures group is evaluating acquisition and drilling opportunities with independents. Ventures group capital will be invested in independent exploratory, development, and producing properties

  5. Single mothers raising children with "male-positive" attitudes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doherty, William J; Craft, Shonda M

    2011-03-01

    Among the challenges facing single mothers, a particularly difficult one is how to help children develop "male-positive" attitudes in situations when the parents have broken up and children have no active relationship with the father. Despite a large academic literature on single mothering, there is strikingly little discussion on this topic. Using symbolic interactionism and family systems theory, we offer psychoeducational messages for single mothers who want to raise their children with male-positive attitudes. We also call for a new cultural conversation on an issue ignored for too long. PMID:21361924

  6. Determination of Akbash Shepherd Dog raised in Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    Y?lmaz, Orhan; Ertu?rul, Mehmet

    2012-01-01

    This study was carried out to determine the body measurements of the Turkish Akbash Shepherd Dogs raised in provinces of Afyon, Ankara, Eskisehir and Manisa by comparing with some other dog breeds of Turkey by minding factors of sex, region and age. For this purpose, a total of 59 (34 male and 25 female) dogs was included in the study and the data were statistically analysed. Descriptive statistics and comparison results for live weight 44.9±0.80 kg, and height at shoulders 75.3±0.59, height ...

  7. Raised Relief Mars Globe Brings the Red Planet Closer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    The Mars Globe 20x is the first digitally produced raised relief globe to be sold at retail establishments. The rises and dips of the Martian landscape have been multiplied by 20 to make the shapes more noticeable to human touch and sight. They make this globe, with its over 1 million elevation points, a visually stunning introduction to the planet. Spectrum 3D used the NASA digital land elevation data to aim lasers that then shaped and defined the master globe s surface. Subsequent copies were then made by creating a master globe mold. The molded copies are hand finished by workers who remove errant edges or lines that may appear on the raw globes and then paint the surfaces. The result is a globe that measures in at 18 inches in diameter, roughly 1:15,729,473 scale of the actual planet. The exaggerated raised relief is like having a 3-D digital microscope for planetary shapes. This makes the landmarks easier to learn and understand, as it provides easy visuals for orientation. People have a natural propensity for understanding 3-D shapes more easily than numbers or words. The 3-D globes appeal to both the kinetic and visual learning aspects of the brain, making it easy for people to readily memorize the landmarks and to make a mental model that they will remember for a long time.

  8. Civil engineering work to raise the level of Route Goward

    CERN Multimedia

    2013-01-01

    Civil engineering work to raise the level of Route Goward will take place during Long Shutdown 1. The work will begin on 18 March 2013 and is expected to last around 5 months.   Route Goward runs over the top of the PS tunnel and is the only access route to the inside of the ring. The layer of shielding backfill beneath this road is the thinnest anywhere on the PS ring. As the purpose of this shielding is to protect against the ionising radiation emitted by the accelerator when in operation, this road has been classified as a “supervised radiation area” according to radiation protection regulations. This classification was merely a temporary solution and, on the recommendation of the PS Radiation Working Group (PSRWG), the decision has been taken to raise the surface level permanently by around 2 m in order to increase the thickness of the shielding and thus lower the dose rate to that of a non-designated area. As the PS tunnel itself is unable to withstand the weight of t...

  9. Soil nitrogen and carbon impacts of raising chickens on pasture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryals, R.; Leach, A.; Tang, J.; Hastings, M. G.; Galloway, J. N.

    2014-12-01

    Chicken is the most consumed meat in the US, and production continues to intensify rapidly around the world. Chicken manure from confined feeding operations is typically applied in its raw form to nearby croplands, resulting in hotspots of soil nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions. Pasture-raised chicken is an alternative to industrial production and is growing in popularity with rising consumer demand for more humanely raised protein sources. In this agricultural model, manure is deposited directly onto grassland soils where it is thought to increase pools of soil carbon and nitrogen. The fate of manure nitrogen from pasture-raised chicken production remains poorly understood. We conducted a controlled, replicated experiment on a permaculture farm in Charlottesville, Virginia (Timbercreek Organics) in which small chicken coops (10 ft x 12 ft) were moved daily in a pasture. We measured manure deposition rates, soil inorganic nitrogen pools, soil moisture, and soil N2O and CO2 emissions. Measurements were made for the 28-day pasture life of three separate flocks of chickens in the spring, summer, and fall. Each flock consisted of approximately 200-300 chickens occupying three to five coops (~65 chickens/coop). Measurements were also made in paired ungrazed control plots. Manure deposition rates were similar across flocks and averaged 1.5 kgdrywt ha-1 during the spring grazing event and 4.0 kgdrywt ha-1 during the summer and fall grazing events. Manure deposition was relatively constant over the four weeks pasture-lifetime of the chickens. Compared to control plots, grazed areas exhibited higher soil N2O and CO2 fluxes. The magnitude of these fluxes diminished significantly over the four-week span. Soil gas fluxes significantly increased following rainfall events. For a given rainfall event, higher fluxes were observed from transects that were grazed more recently. Soil gaseous reactive nitrogen losses were less in this pasture system compared to cultivated field amended with raw chicken manure. These results suggest that pasture manure management may have a smaller impact on gaseous reactive nitrogen pollution.

  10. High efficacy plasma display panel with vertically raised bus electrodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors propose a high efficacy alternating current plasma display panel utilizing vertically raised multilayer bus electrodes. The cell structure was designed to provide an opposite discharge mode and low discharge current in a relatively long gap. The test panels having discharge gaps of 330, 350, and 370 ?m were fabricated and basic properties of the panel were investigated in terms of current-voltage characteristics, luminance, and luminous efficiency. The cells with proposed structure show higher luminance and lower current simultaneously. The improvement in luminous efficiency is found to be a factor of 2 compared with the conventional coplanar structure having an electrode gap of 60 ?m. Emission spectra and spatio-temporal distribution of infrared light in discharge were measured. It is shown that high luminous efficiency of proposed cell originates from high excitation efficiency, low surface loss of charged particles, and enlarged discharge volume

  11. Design of a Hybrid Propulsion System for Orbit Raising Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boman, N.; Ford, M.

    2004-10-01

    A trade off between conventional liquid apogee engines used for orbit raising applications and hybrid rocket engines (HRE) has been performed using a case study approach. Current requirements for lower cost and enhanced safety places hybrid propulsion systems in the spotlight. For evaluating and design of a hybrid rocket engine a parametric engineering code is developed, based on the combustion chamber characteristics of selected propellants. A single port cylindrical section of fuel grain is considered. Polyethylene (PE) and hydroxyl-terminated polybutadiene (HTPB) represents the fuels investigated. The engine design is optimized to minimize the propulsion system volume and mass, while keeping the system as simple as possible. It is found that the fuel grain L/D ratio boundary condition has a major impact on the overall hybrid rocket engine design.

  12. THE CHALLENGES OF RAISING REVENUES AND RESTRUCTURING SUBSIDIES IN MALAYSIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suresh Narayanan

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Malaysia has run deficit budgets in all but five years since 1970 but past deficits have been managed thanks to substantial oil revenues and high domestic savings. However, the slow growth or decline of several traditional sources of revenue and the rising subsidy bill since 2007 have given pause for reflection on the traditional approach to fiscal management. In this paper, it is argued that fiscal management must not only centre around reducing non-productive expenditures and wasteful leakages but must also confront the problem of reducing and restructuring subsidies, particularly to petrol and petroleum-related products. The global dip in petroleum process has fortuitously provided the respite needed for such an exercise and should not lull policy makersinto complacency. When the economy recovers from the currentdownswing, a solid revenue raising instrument such as the value-addedtax must be introduced in order to wean the economy away from thecurrent over reliance on petroleum-based taxes.

  13. Individual Websites: Innovation for Raising Language Awareness in Adult Learners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galina Kavaliauskien?

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper aims to demonstrate how weblogging can raise learners’ language awareness and prepare them for communication in the networked world. The research included the application of the innovative technique for written and oral communication in English classes. The exploratory study of using a variety of Information Communication Technology activities at tertiary level was conducted. Class experiences of creating weblogs for learning purposes and using them for online activities with the students who learn English for Specific Purposes are described. The methods employed for data gathering consisted of administering specially designed questionnaires, analyzing students’ responses, carrying out weblogging activities, providing feedback to learners, evaluating students’ performance in various online activities, and finally assessing the utility of weblogging. Our results show that the experience of public writing provides an important opportunity for learning English. Despite a limitation of research - the data are received from a comparatively small sample of participants - some practical implications are indicated.

  14. Ritual Purity Associated with Birth and Raising a Child

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Gancheva

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Hygiene of the body is an important element of family rites associated with the birth and raising of a child. It depends on both ?oran requirements of Islam, and rituals for acquiring new social status on a level of Islam taught within the family. The report follows this boundary between the Koranic tradition and the Islam in traditional folk customs, connected with the ritual purity in customs related to childbirth and child rearing of Bulgarian Sunni-Muslims. The main focus is on customs relating to the child and the woman in labor during the first 40 days after birth, and one of the biggest and most important celebrations in Muslim family - the circumcision ceremony of boys at the age of 6-7 years, called syunnet.

  15. Does Stock Market Development Raise Economic Growth? Evidence from Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abu Nurudeen

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates whether stock market development raises economic growthin Nigeria, by employing the error correction approach. The econometric results indicate thatstock market development (market capitalization-GDP ratio increases economic growth.The recommendations therein include: removal of impediments to stock market developmentwhich include tax, legal, and regulatory barriers; development of the nation’s infrastructureto create an enabling environment for where business can strive; employment of policies thatwill increase the productivity and efficiency of firms as well encourage them to access capitalon the stock market; enhancement of the capacity of the Nigeria Security and ExchangeCommission to facilitate the growth of the stock market, restore the confidence of stockmarket participants and safeguard the interest of shareholders by checking sharp practicesof market operators (particularly speculators.

  16. Raise the management level of EPC contracting in six aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear power construction develops rapidly today and EPC contracting for nuclear power projects, as a strategic decision of CNNC, has become a tendency. The target of engineering management can be smoothly realized or achieved by doing a good job in the following six aspects:effective communication between divisions of project department, high-degree consistency of managerial concepts for project management staff, clear objective for different divisions in the project department, presence of rules to be observed in construction management work, avoidance of human-initiated errors in the project, and clear distinction of management control concept. It is hoped that, through exchange and practice, management procedures and consciousness for EPC contracting can be further standardized and thus the level of management for EPC contracting will be raised finally. (authors)

  17. Raise the management level of EPC contracting in six aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear power construction develops rapidly today and EPC contracting for nuclear power projects, as a strategic decision of CNNC, has become a tendency. The target of engineering management can be smoothly realized or achieved by doing a good job in the following six aspects: effective communication between divisions of project department, high-degree consistency of managerial concepts for project management staff, clear objective for different divisions in the project department, presence of rules to be observed in construction management work, avoidance of human-initiated errors in the project, and clear distinction of management control concept. It is hoped that, through exchange and practice, management procedures and consciousness for EPC contracting can be further standardized and thus the level of management for EPC contracting will be raised finally. (authors)

  18. Intensional Verbs Without Type-Raising or Lexical Ambiguity

    CERN Document Server

    Dalrymple, M; Pereira, F; Saraswat, V; Dalrymple, Mary; Lamping, John; Pereira, Fernando; Saraswat, Vijay

    1994-01-01

    We present an analysis of the semantic interpretation of intensional verbs such as seek that allows them to take direct objects of either individual or quantifier type, producing both de dicto and de re readings in the quantifier case, all without needing to stipulate type-raising or quantifying-in rules. This simple account follows directly from our use of logical deduction in linear logic to express the relationship between syntactic structures and meanings. While our analysis resembles current categorial approaches in important ways, it differs from them in allowing the greater type flexibility of categorial semantics while maintaining a precise connection to syntax. As a result, we are able to provide derivations for certain readings of sentences with intensional verbs and complex direct objects that are not derivable in current purely categorial accounts of the syntax-semantics interface. The analysis forms a part of our ongoing work on semantic interpretation within the framework of Lexical-Functional G...

  19. Air flow management in raised floor data centers

    CERN Document Server

    Arghode, Vaibhav K

    2016-01-01

    The Brief discuss primarily two aspects of air flow management in raised floor data centers. Firstly, cooling air delivery through perforated tiles will be examined and influence of the tile geometry on flow field development and hot air entrainment above perforated tiles will be discussed. Secondly, the use of cold aisle containment to physically separate hot and cold regions, and minimize hot and cold air mixing will be presented. Both experimental investigations and computational efforts are discussed and development of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) based models for simulating air flow in data centers is included. In addition, metrology tools for facility scale air velocity and temperature measurement, and air flow rate measurement through perforated floor tiles and server racks are examined and the authors present thermodynamics-based models to gauge the effectiveness and importance of air flow management schemes in data centers.

  20. Raising Relational Critical Consciousness to Enhance Empathy in Clinical Hypnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas, H Luis

    2016-01-01

    Empathic involvement theory suggests that a trance-like experience occurs when a cross-relational empathic connection is achieved. The empathically-laden relational phenomenon is thought to enhance hypnosis. Empathic involvement theory suggests hypnotizables are highly empathic. By the same token, the relational empathic connection necessitates a highly empathic practitioner of hypnosis. In the United States, where values of individualism are thought to be socially embedded and internalized, practitioners of hypnosis and clients alike may be impeded by an individually oriented worldview to empathically connect with others. Raising a relational critical consciousness is promoted as a way to increase sensitivity to the marginalization of relationships, limit empathic-effort burn-out, and promote cross-relational empathic connection. PMID:26675156

  1. Steam raising unit for a thermal power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Golowanow, N.W.; Iwanow, W.A.; Mitor, W.W.; Parshin, A.A.; Sapozhnikow, F.W.; Ter-Minosian, S.M.; Schawschanidze, E.K.

    1977-12-01

    This heat exchanger can be used for a steam raising unit with forced steam circulation and output above 300MW. In principle, it contains a boiler and a closed heating flue connected to it. Part of the heating flue is made as a cooling chamber for the heated gases. The flow ducts for the heated gases are brought into close contact with the cooling chamber by curved tube walls. Each tube wall consists of wholly welded sets of tubes, whose tubes run parallel to each other. Each set of tubes is bent several times. Adjacent sets of tubes are connected at the top of these bends. This forms a rigid construction of high strength and high efficiency.

  2. Raising chickens in city backyards: the public health role.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollock, S L; Stephen, C; Skuridina, N; Kosatsky, T

    2012-06-01

    There is increasing interest in raising chickens in urban settings across North America. Current regulations on backyard chickens vary by jurisdiction due to concerns about perceived health threats. Proposed negative impacts on public health and community well-being include infectious diseases acquired through rearing practices or consumption of eggs, inappropriate waste management, interaction with pests and predators and nuisance factors such as noise and odour. Proposed benefits are derived largely from the human-animal bond and from feelings of autonomy over food selection. The importance or validity of claims of positive and negative effects cannot be supported by literature specific to the urban agriculture context. Public health practitioners might approach this issue in a manner analogous to concerns over keeping domestic pets. PMID:22083301

  3. Toward raising the higher level of radiological nursing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The role and purpose of nursing in the radiological field are discussed with essentials of radiological nursing for raising its higher level and needed fundamental education. The discussion is from the thought that, at Fukushima Nuclear Power Plant Accident (Mar. 2011), general medical staff including nurses are rather insufficient of radiological knowledge like the exposure, radiation effect and risk. In the medical radiological field, nurses are expected to play roles of arranging the circumstance for patient's ease like explanation about health effect/risk, appropriate nursing of them after radiological diagnosis, radiation protection of nurses themselves, and of environment. At such an emergency as the Accident, care for the acutely exposed victims, their decontamination and responding to patient's concern are necessary. At the later phase, also needed are nursing of victims undergoing health management done by authorities and of radiological workers concerned as well as the third item above. Therefore, fundamentals of radiological knowledge such as physics, exposure, health effects, protection, contamination, legal rules and risk communication are required in the education of nurses. Otherwise, this education can be conducted as a part of safety security and physical assessment. The Accident also gives us the importance of radiological risk communication with its victims. (T.T.)

  4. The Potential of Book Floods for Raising Literacy Levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elley, Warwick B.

    2000-07-01

    The problem of raising literacy levels in developing countries is particularly challenging when pupils have their schooling in a non-native language. One promising strategy which has been tried and evaluated in the schools of several developing countries is the Book Flood approach. This article summarises the findings of Book Flood studies in Niue, Fiji, Singapore, Sri Lanka, South Africa, Solomon Islands, and several other countries. The evidence is now strong that it is possible to double the rate of reading acquisition of Third World primary school pupils with a "Book Flood" of about 100 high-interest books, per class, and short teacher training sessions. The benefits for reading skill and enthusiasm are consistent across diverse cultures, mother tongues and age levels, and they appear to generate corresponding improvements in children's writing, listening comprehension, and related language skills. Such skills are typically found to develop very slowly under traditional textbook styles of teaching. The problems of cost per school and cultural suitability of imported books are addressed. Several countries have adopted Book Flood programmes on a national scale, and others are currently planning to do so.

  5. Amino acid geochronology of raised beaches in south west Britain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowen, D. Q.; Sykes, G. A.; Reeves (nee Henry), Alayne; Miller, G. H.; Andrews, J. T.; Brew, J. S.; Hare, P. E.

    Based on (1) the epimerization of L:isoleucine to D:alloisoleucine ( {D}/{L} ratios) in Patella vulgata, Littorina littorea, L. littoralis, L. saxatilis, Littorina species and Nucella lapillus from raised beaches in south west Britain, (2) statistical analysis of the {D}/{L} ratios, and (3) lithostratigraphic and geomorphic evaluation, three ( {D}/{L}) Stages are proposed. The {D}/{L} ratios for all the species measured are converted to a Patella vulgata standard. The three ( {D}/{L}) Stages are: (1) The Minchin Hole ( {D}/{L}) Stage, {D}/{L} ratios 0.175 ± 0.014, defined at a stratotype in Minchin Hole Cave, Gower, Wales. (2) A provisionally defined, but as yet, unamed ( {D}/{L}) Stage, because of the current unavailability of a suitable stratotype, with {D}/{L} ratios of 0.135 ± 0.014 (3) The Pennard ( {D}/{L}) Stage, {D}/{L} ratios 0.105 ± 0.016, defined at a stratotype in Minchin Hole Cave, Gower, Wales. Two geochronological models of the three high sea-level events representing the {D}/{L} Stages are constrained by uranium-series age determinations on stalagmite interbedded with marine beds in Minchin Hole and Bacon Hole Caves, Gower, Wales. A potential 'fixed point' in model evaluation is an age determination which is equivalent to Oxygen Isotope Sub-stage 5e (122 ka). The two models are:

  6. Characterization of cattle raising in Paraíba State, Northeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inácio José Clementino

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to characterize the cattle raising in Paraíba State, Northeastern Brazil. The State was divided into three cattle production regions according to its mesoregions: production region 1 (Sertão mesoregion, production region 2 (Borborema mesoregion and production region 3 (Agreste and Zona da Mata mesoregions. Overall, 689 rural properties from the three production regions were randomly selected. The variables used in the characterization were production system, farming system, type of milking, use of artificial insemination, milk cooling, number of lactating cows, daily milk production, herd size and number of bovine females > 24 months of age. It was found that most farms in Paraíba State are family or subsistence farms, predominantly mixed production, semi-intensive farming, with utilization of hand milking and natural mating, without use of milk cooling, low number of lactating cows and daily milk production. It were found differences and similarities among production regions so that it is suggested that such aspects must be taking into account in livestock development public policy planning, as well as in the implementation of disease control strategies.

  7. Raised Vaginal Fluid Fibronectin Level Indicates Premature Rupture of Membrane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amrita Bhowmik

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Premature rupture of membrane (PROM is one of the common complications of pregnancy that has major impact on fetal and neonatal outcome. It is the commonest clinical event where a normal pregnancy becomes suddenly a high-risk one for mother and fetus or neonate. Objective: The study was undertaken to investigate whether raised fibronectin level in vaginal fluid may indicate premature rupture of membrane. Materials and Methods: This cross sectional study was conducted in the department of Obstetrics and Gynecology in Sir Salimullah Medical College & Mitford Hospital, Dhaka during the period of January 2006 to December 2007. A total of 114 pregnant women with gestational age 28th week up to 40th week were included. Sixty were PROM (Group I and 54 were non-PROM (Group II subjects. Fibronectin in vaginal fluid was measured by an immunochemical reaction by nephelometer. Statistical analysis was done by SPSS version 10.0. Results: The PROM patients had significantly higher concentration of fibronectin (225.77 ± 115.18 ng/mL compared to that in non-PROM subjects (8.04 ± 16.17 ng/mL (p < 0.001. Conclusion: It can be concluded that in cases of unequivocal rupture or intactness of the membranes, the result of the fibronectin test corresponds well with the clinical situation. So fibronectin is a sensitive test for detection of amniotic fluid in the vagina.

  8. 29 CFR 780.124 - Raising of fur-bearing animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 false Raising of fur-bearing animals. 780.124 Section 780.124 Labor...Raising of Livestock, Bees, Fur-Bearing Animals, Or Poultry § 780.124 Raising of fur-bearing animals. (a) The term “fur-bearing...

  9. 76 FR 54072 - Emergency Assistance for Livestock, Honeybees, and Farm-Raised Fish Program, Livestock Indemnity...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-31

    ...Honeybees, and Farm-Raised Fish Program--10.091. Tree...Honeybees, and Farm- Raised Fish Program 0 4. Revise Sec. 760...honeybees, and farm-raised fish. * * * * * (f) * * * (1...commercial use as part of a farming operation on the day they...

  10. Potential of the Public Relations Department as a Deterrent to Fund-Raising Encroachment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Kathleen S.

    A national survey of 175 public relations managers documented fund-raising encroachment (subordination of public relations functions to fund-raising) at 23% of their charitable organizations, with variation in vulnerability among different types (e.g., the public relations function is managed by fund raising at 50% of the private colleges and…

  11. Raise Management Standards of Property Tax on Transnational Corporations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying-hui CUI

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available
    As China joined WTO, more and more foreign multinational companies will enter China. They run enterprises within the territory of China. This will inevitably play an active role in promoting the economic construction of China. But we should pay attention to some foreign multinational companies in China that often reduce the incomes of Chinese branch companies by utilizing transfer prices. Thus they achieve the goal of evading payment of duty. These make the tax revenue of Chinese Government fall sharply. So it is very important to raise management level of property tax to the multinational companies. This text explains the loss caused by the foreign businessmen using improper means to transfer prices. They import raw materials at a high price and export the products at a low price. Also the corresponding measures are made out in this paper.
    Key words: Multinational companies, Import at a high price and export at a low price, Current capital, Transfer prices
    Résumé: Avec l’adhésion de la Chine à l’OMC, de plus en plus nombreux sont les entreprises transnationales qui s’investiraient en Chine. Cela poussera inévitablement la construction économique de la Chine. Néanmoins, nons devons noter que, actuellement, des entreprises étrangères en Chine diminuent les profits des filiales chinoise en transférant les prix et atteint ainsi leur but d’éviter la taxe. De cet effet, les recettes fiscales de la Chine diminuent considérablement. Donc, il est très important d’améliorer le viveau de gestion fiscale à l’égard des entreprises transnationales. Cet article expose d’abord le déficit provoqué par les actions malhonnêtes de commerçants étrangers qui transfèrent les prix avec des moyens illégitimes pour acheter les ressources productives à haut prix et vendre les produits à bas prix, et propose ensuite des contre-mesures.
    Mots-Clés: entreprise transnationale, acheter cher et vendre moins cher, fonds liquides

  12. The nanotechnological inventions raise competitive ability of the products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VLASOV Vladimir Alexeevich

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A brief description of the nanotechnological inventions is given. The inventions in the area of nanotechnologies and nanomaterials produce a profound effect in construction, housing and communal services and adjacent economic fields as they allow us: to obtain high strength and durability of surfaces of the details, to provide different materials with hydrophil properties, to increase efficiency of transformation of light energy into electrical one etc., and in general – to raise competitive ability of the products. For example, the method of production of solar element and a unit of solar elements (RU 2532137 comprises following stages: formation of pn-transfer in semiconductor base plate, formation of passivating layer on the light-receptive surface and/or non light-receptive surface of semiconductor base plate and formation of power robbing electrodes on the light-receptive surface and non light-receptive. A film of aluminium oxide is formed as passivating layer, its thickness is up to 40 nm, and lectrode is formed by baking conductive paste under the temperature 500–900??°C for 1 second – 30 inutes with formation of sintered product. The sintered product penetrates through passivating layer setting electric contact between electrode and base plate. The formation of aluminium ide with specified thickness on the surface of base plate makes it possible to achieve good passivating characteristics and good electric contact between silica and electrode only by eans of baking conductive paste, that is standard technology. Moreover the baking stage which was necessary to get the effect of film passivation for aluminium oxide in the past now can be cancelled to decrease costs. The specialists may be also interested in the following nanotechnological inventions: reinforced flaked element made of natural or conglomerate stone and its multilayer protective coating (RU 2520193; fine organic suspension of carbon metal-containing nanostructures and the method to produce it (RU 2515858; the method of production of carbon nanomaterial (RU 2509053; the method to produce nanopowder of zinc oxide with the surface modification for the use in construction sealing materials (RU 2505379; building structures reinforcement composition (RU 2493337; nanostructured thermoelectric material (RU 2528338; conglutination composition for metal articles (RU 2526991; the method of nanosize structures formation ???????? (RU 2529458 etc.

  13. Believe-type raising-to-object and raising-to-subject verbs in English and Dutch: A contrastive investigation in diachronic construction grammar

    OpenAIRE

    Noël, D; Colleman, T

    2010-01-01

    The so-called 'raising-to-subject' pattern that verbs of the type believe can occur in is usually treated as the passive alternative for the so-called 'raising-to-object' pattern. In addition to broadening the empirical basis for the opposite claim that the English and Dutch raising-to-subject (or 'nominative and infinitive') patterns have a special functionality which is different from that of the passive construction, this paper specifically examines the stronger proposition that this has a...

  14. Seismic monitoring experiment of raise boring in 2014

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In Olkiluoto, Posiva Oy has operated a local seismic network since February 2002. The purpose of the microearthquake measurements at Olkiluoto is to improve understanding of the structure, behaviour and long term stability of the bedrock. The studies include both tectonic and excavation-induced microearthquakes. An additional task of monitoring is related to safeguarding of ONKALO. The possibility to excavate an illegal access to ONKALO has been concerned when the safeguards are discussed. Therefore all recorded explosions in the Olkiluoto area and in ONKALO are located. If a concentration of explosions is observed, the origin of that is found out. Also a concept of hidden illegal explosions, detonated at the same time as the real excavation blasts, has been examined. According to the experience gained in Olkiluoto, it can be concluded that, as long the seismic network is in operation and the results are analysed by a skilled person, it is practically impossible to do illegal undetected excavation by blasting within the Olkiluoto seismic network area. In this report a possibility of seismic monitoring of undeclared excavation done by tunnel boring machine (TBM) has been investigated. In the earlier investigations the instruments were at the ground surface and the sensors were triaxial short period (1 Hz) geophones or broadband geophones. The characteristics (frequency content, polarity and amplitude) of the continuous seismic vibration generated by TMB were studied. The onset time of the seismic signal were not distinguished. Altogether 16 new 10 kHz accelerometers were installed in boreholes inside ONKALO March 2012. The sensors comprised a new subnetwork that monitored the raise boring of two shafts done 2014, from the level -455 m to the level -290 m. The aim was to record the seismic signal generated when the drill bit hits the rock at the moment the tunnel boring begins. Altogether 113 seismic signals generated by the drill bit were located during the experiment. The location accuracy was from few meters to few tens of meters in horizontal direction. In vertical direction the location accuracy was not as good and depended strongly on the vertical distribution of recordings. When the TBM is running continuous strong vibration is generated. This is usually observed by the Posiva's permanent seismic network. This study presents a method that can be used, if the location of the TBM or tunnel cannot be verified by the documentation of construction works or by field studies. Posiva's permanent seismic network can be designed so that it takes the possible undeclared TBM into account. The sensor types used in monitoring of the ONKALO's excavation induced seismicity are also suitable for monitoring the hits of the TBM's drill bit. If necessary, the network can be tuned to operate temporarily in a more sensitive mode for that purpose. (orig.)

  15. Seismic monitoring experiment of raise boring in 2014

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saari, J.; Malm, M. [AaF-Consult Oy, Espoo (Finland)

    2015-01-15

    In Olkiluoto, Posiva Oy has operated a local seismic network since February 2002. The purpose of the microearthquake measurements at Olkiluoto is to improve understanding of the structure, behaviour and long term stability of the bedrock. The studies include both tectonic and excavation-induced microearthquakes. An additional task of monitoring is related to safeguarding of ONKALO. The possibility to excavate an illegal access to ONKALO has been concerned when the safeguards are discussed. Therefore all recorded explosions in the Olkiluoto area and in ONKALO are located. If a concentration of explosions is observed, the origin of that is found out. Also a concept of hidden illegal explosions, detonated at the same time as the real excavation blasts, has been examined. According to the experience gained in Olkiluoto, it can be concluded that, as long the seismic network is in operation and the results are analysed by a skilled person, it is practically impossible to do illegal undetected excavation by blasting within the Olkiluoto seismic network area. In this report a possibility of seismic monitoring of undeclared excavation done by tunnel boring machine (TBM) has been investigated. In the earlier investigations the instruments were at the ground surface and the sensors were triaxial short period (1 Hz) geophones or broadband geophones. The characteristics (frequency content, polarity and amplitude) of the continuous seismic vibration generated by TMB were studied. The onset time of the seismic signal were not distinguished. Altogether 16 new 10 kHz accelerometers were installed in boreholes inside ONKALO March 2012. The sensors comprised a new subnetwork that monitored the raise boring of two shafts done 2014, from the level -455 m to the level -290 m. The aim was to record the seismic signal generated when the drill bit hits the rock at the moment the tunnel boring begins. Altogether 113 seismic signals generated by the drill bit were located during the experiment. The location accuracy was from few meters to few tens of meters in horizontal direction. In vertical direction the location accuracy was not as good and depended strongly on the vertical distribution of recordings. When the TBM is running continuous strong vibration is generated. This is usually observed by the Posiva's permanent seismic network. This study presents a method that can be used, if the location of the TBM or tunnel cannot be verified by the documentation of construction works or by field studies. Posiva's permanent seismic network can be designed so that it takes the possible undeclared TBM into account. The sensor types used in monitoring of the ONKALO's excavation induced seismicity are also suitable for monitoring the hits of the TBM's drill bit. If necessary, the network can be tuned to operate temporarily in a more sensitive mode for that purpose. (orig.)

  16. Raising public awareness of nuclear science in action

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Department of Training and Consulting was created at the Soltan Institute for Nuclear Studies about 7 years ago. Its main goal consists in dissemination of knowledge of nuclear physics and its applications with special emphasis on the use of radiation in everyday life, its biological effects and the risks connected with the use of nuclear radiation. The second important goal is to counteract social radiophobia. Last but not least, is presentation of the scientific and technological achievements of the Institute. The main target groups are secondary-school teachers and their pupils who in spite of various obstacles in organisation of travels to Otwierk, are coming in mass. During last 4 years we accepted more than 20,000 visitors from all over Poland. In addition to lectures themselves and lectures with experimental demonstrations two permanent exhibitions are displayed permanently. One is called 'Nuclear Wastes: Problems, Solutions', the other one is displaying 1:10 model of nuclear power plant (VVER-440-type), both extremely useful in discussing the problems of nuclear wastes, and organisation and use of the nuclear power plants. Very specific place in the Department is quite unique Laboratory of Atomic and Nuclear Physics, dedicated to secondary schools' students although it is also used by university students and in teachers' trainings. Number of basic experiments from nuclear physics can be carried out by students, so the very basis of atomic and nuclear physics can be learnt on experimental basis. The experimental park can also be used in any professional courses on e.g. radiation protection. The need of having this type of units at the otherwise research institute is clearly seen by the systematically growing number of visitors, and their demands for educational material. One can also see some direct results: the groups who visited our centre were winning in all-Poland conquest for a project from radioactivity (organised on 100th Anniversary of Nobel Prize for Maria Skodowska-Curie), the schools - after visiting us - try to organise their own minisymposia on the radioactivity, the visitors seem to receive proper message about the real risk connected with nuclear radiation. The latter is judged by the fact that very seldom we encounter typical symptoms of radio phobia after the visit to our Department. We are strongly convinced that our work will result in an increased interest of students in physics, and may regain the popularity of nuclear physics among the students. This is necessary if the nuclear energy is going to be developed and used safely in the country. We also believe that similar educational centres, if wherever absent, should be organised in other nuclear centres in Europe and all of them should form a network in which new didactical methods would be worked out and the experience could be easily evaluated and exchanged between the network's partners. The paper presents motivation, present status, methodology and results of our more than 5-years experience in raising public awareness of nuclear problems in various social groups. (author)

  17. The "Geoparks" as a way to raise geoconservation in Kazakhstan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fishman, Ilya; Kazakova, Julia; Abdov, Nurlan

    2013-04-01

    Kazakhstan is one of the nine largest countries of the world and not only has significant mineral resources but rich geological heritage. However, to date geology is considered only as a way to search for minerals due to the established traditions. Faced with a geologist, we usually ask: "What are you looking for?". But the man with the hammer must answer the more important question - about the future of the Planet and Humanity. But it is necessary to save and to study the stone chronicle page for this. Only history of the Earth, recorded in the annals of rock sheets, gives a scientific answer on the fate of Planet and Mankind, and allows realistically assess the risk of disasters, floods, global warming, etc. During 20 years we are trying to give a push to protection and use of geological heritage of Kazakhstan. In our country this new direction gets accustomed with large labor. The spread of the world experience on geoconservation, the databases created of the geological heritage of Kazakhstan, numerous performances in the scientific press and the media has not lead to real steps to preserve and use geodiversity in our country. Today we are trying to raise the idea of geoconservation in Kazakhstan based on Geoparks. A project "Geological study of the geoparks development in Kazakhstan" is developed. 12 representative areas were selected on a background of the database that includes 500 sites of geological heritage, embracing a large variety of geological processes in all regions of Kazakhstan. On October 31st, 2012 in Astana the "Kazakh Geographical Society" held an international conference including "Geoparks" section. At the conference reports of all the regions of Kazakhstan representatives were presented, as well as European countries with extensive experience in geoconservation and geoparks creation (Portugal, Bulgaria, Turkey). The conference was supported by UNESCO. Album "Millions of years before the Silk Road", which represents the future Kazakhstan Geoparks, was published. Geoparks of Kazakhstan extremely visually represent global geological processes. Ustuyrt plateau is a part of a tectonic system Caspian-Aral-Ustyurt. The study of the plateau as part of a tectonic megasystem Caspian-Aral Ustyurt allows us to understand the nature of largest intercontinental hollow of the world (the "country-crater" by Alexander von Humboldt). As a result, the Caspian Sea is considered today as a "window into the mantle". Paleovolcanic area Shuyldak is relict of Devonian Ural Ocean World standard of volcanic structures of ancient mid-ocean type. It is an illustrative base of plate tectonics. At the Kokshetau National Park the world's largest diamond deposit is explored. 2.5 billion carats is more than in all the deposits in Yakutia. This technical microdiamonds that are not mined. The field is interesting not only for geologists, but for mass tourism too. National Park Burabaj linked to the ancient granite-metamorphic dome. For nearly a billion years (from Proterozoic to Mesozoic) metamorphic complexes and granite melts had been formed which compose the foundation of modern scenic lake and forest landscape.

  18. Prevalence of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in Organically and Naturally Raised Beef Cattle ? †

    OpenAIRE

    Reinstein, S.; Fox, J. T.; Shi, X; Alam, M. J.; Renter, D. G.; Nagaraja, T. G.

    2009-01-01

    We determined the prevalence of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in organically and naturally raised beef cattle at slaughter and compared antibiotic susceptibility profiles of the isolates to those of isolates from conventionally raised beef cattle. The prevalences of E. coli O157:H7 were 14.8 and 14.2% for organically and naturally raised cattle, respectively. No major difference in antibiotic susceptibility patterns among the isolates was observed.

  19. On the control/raising ambiguity with aspectual verbs : a structural account

    OpenAIRE

    Fukuda, Shin

    2007-01-01

    In what follows, I first briefly review Perlmutter (1968, 1970), in which it is argued that aspectual verbs are ambiguous between control and raising. I suggest that while the argument for the raising analysis is solid, the arguments supporting the control analysis of aspectual verbs are less so. As an alternative hypothesis to consider, I introduce the structural ambiguity hypothesis. In Section 3, I review three recent analyses of control and raising. Although there are important difference...

  20. Primary antiphospholipid syndrome: features of patients with raised anticardiolipin antibodies and no other disorder.

    OpenAIRE

    C. G. Mackworth-Young; Loizou, S; Walport, M. J.

    1989-01-01

    Raised levels of serum antiphospholipid antibodies have most commonly been reported in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). There remains, however, a group of patients with raised antiphospholipid antibody levels who do not have any other well defined disease, but do have clinical features associated with these raised antibodies. The clinical, haematological, and serological features of 20 such patients are reported. Antiphospholipid antibody levels were measured by a solid phase...

  1. Evolución del título de anticuerpos contra el receptor tipo M de la fosfolipasa A2 y respuesta clínica en pacientes con nefropatía membranosa idiopática tratados con tacrolimus / Evolution of antibody titre against the M-type phospholipase A2 receptor and clinical response in idiopathic membranous nephropathy patients treated with tacrolimus

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Alfons, Segarra-Medrano; Elias, Jatem-Escalante; Clara, Carnicer-Cáceres; Irene, Agraz-Pamplona; M. Teresa, Salcedo; Naiara, Valtierra; Elena, Ostos-Roldán; Karla V., Arredondo; Juliana, Jaramillo.

    Full Text Available Introducción y objetivos: Se ha descrito que el nivel de anticuerpos circulantes contra el receptor tipo M de la fosfolipasa A2 tiene correlación significativa con la actividad clínica de la enfermedad en la nefropatía membranosa idiopática (NMI). Sin embargo, la utilidad de la monitorización del tí [...] tulo de anticuerpos como predictor de respuesta clínica tras el inicio del tratamiento no ha sido formalmente analizada. En el siguiente estudio se analiza el valor predictivo de la evolución del título de anticuerpos anti-PLA2R sobre la respuesta clínica en enfermos con NMI tratados con tacrolimus. Pacientes y métodos: 36 enfermos con síndrome nefrótico secundario a NMI, con criterios de indicación de tratamiento inmunosupresor, fueron tratados con tacrolimus en monoterapia. Se determinó el nivel de anticuerpos anti-PLA2R antes del tratamiento y a los 3, 6, 9 y 12 meses tras su inicio. Se analizó el valor predictivo de la pendiente de reducción en el título de anticuerpos y de la reducción absoluta y relativa en el título de anticuerpos a los 3 y 6 meses sobre el tiempo hasta la remisión y sobre la probabilidad de remisión a los 6, 9 y 12 meses. Resultados: La reducción relativa en el título de anticuerpos anti-PLA2R fue significativamente mayor en los enfermos que presentaron remisión y precedió a la respuesta clínica. No se apreció asociación entre el título de anticuerpos previo al tratamiento con el tiempo medio de respuesta o la respuesta a los 12 meses. La pendiente de reducción en el título de anticuerpos se asoció significativamente con el tiempo hasta la evidencia de remisión. La reducción relativa en el título de anticuerpos anti-PLA2R a los 3 meses tuvo una elevada sensibilidad y especificidad para predecir la respuesta a los 6 y 9 meses, pero no a los 12 meses, mientras que la reducción relativa en el título de anticuerpos a los 6 meses tuvo una elevada sensibilidad y especificidad para predecir la respuesta a los 12 meses. Conclusión: En enfermos con NMI asociada a anticuerpos anti-PLA2R, la monitorización del título de anticuerpos tras el inicio del tratamiento es útil para estimar el período de tiempo hasta la remisión y para predecir la probabilidad de remisión a los 12 meses. Abstract in english Introduction and objectives: The level of circulating antibodies against M-type phospolipase A2 receptor has been reported as having a significant correlation with clinical activity in idiopathic membranous nephropathy. However, the usefulness of monitoring antibody titre as a predictor of clinical [...] response following the onset of treatment has not been formally analysed. The predictive value of the evolution of anti-PLA2R antibody titre on the clinical response of idiopathic membranous nephropathy patients treated with tacrolimus is analysed in the following study. Patients and method: 36 patients with nephrotic syndrome secondary to idiopathic membranous nephropathy with immunosuppressive treatment indication criteria were treated with tacrolimus in monotherapy. The level of anti-PLA2R antibodies was determined before treatment and at 3, 6, 9 and 12 months after the onset of treatment. The study analysed the predictive value of the reduction in antibody titre and the relative and absolute reduction in antibody titre at 3 and 6 months over the period until remission and on the probability of remission at 6, 9 and 12 months. Results: The relative reduction in the anti-PLA2R antibody titre was significantly greater in those patients with remission and it preceded the clinical response. No association was observed between the antibody titre prior to treatment and the mean response time or the response at 12 months. Reduction in antibody titre is significantly associated with the time until signs of remission. Relative reduction in anti-PLA2R antibody titre at 3 months had a high sensitivity and specificity to predict the response at 6 and 9 months, but not at 12 months; however the relative reduction in the antibody titre at 6 months had a hig

  2. [Being raised by lesbian parents or in a single-parent family is no risk factor for problem behavior, however being raised as an adopted child is].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verhulst, F C; Versluis-den Bieman, H O; Balmus, N C

    1997-03-01

    Modern reproductive techniques and alternative family structures (with single or homosexual parents and adoption situations) raise questions about the consequences for the growing children involved. Genetic links appear to be less important for the functioning of a family than a strong wish for parenthood; parents who have become parents only through great efforts display a better quality of parenthood than average natural parents. Characteristics of the parent/parents, such as paedagogic qualities, and the quality of the parent-child relationship appear more important than the type of family. Published results of research reveal no reason why lesbian families should be judged differently from heterosexual ones as family types for the raising of children. The main negative factor for the functioning of the child growing up in a single-parent family is the marriage conflicts that have led to the single-parent situation; being raised by a single parent in itself has no adverse effect. Raising adopted children from other countries makes far greater demands on the adoptive parents than parents of biological children have to meet. The raising of a foreign adopted child by a single parent entails additional risks for the child's development. Data on the development of children in alternative family structures frequently concern exceptionally competent parents, which may have biased the findings. PMID:9173300

  3. Factors Associated with the Empowerment of Japanese Families Raising a Child with Developmental Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakimizu, Rie; Fujioka, Hiroshi; Yoneyama, Akira; Iejima, Atsushi; Miyamoto, Shinya

    2011-01-01

    We identified factors associated with the empowerment of Japanese families using the Family Empowerment Scale (FES) to contribute to the improvement of empowerment in Japanese families raising a child with developmental disorders (DDs). The study was conducted in 350 caregivers who raised children aged 4-18 years with DDs in urban and suburban…

  4. Raising the Achievement of White Working Class Pupils: Good Practice in Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Kirstin; Demie, Feyisa

    2015-01-01

    This research identifies strategies that schools have used to raise achievement among white working class pupils in multiracial schools. The methodological approach comprises case studies of schools and focus group interviews to ascertain the views of teachers, parents and children about strategies that worked to raise achievement. The study…

  5. Teaching Effective Hand Raising to Children with Autism during Group Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charania, Shaireen M.; LeBlanc, Linda A.; Sabanathan, Narmatha; Ktaech, Inas A.; Carr, James E.; Gunby, Kristin

    2010-01-01

    We taught 3 children with autism to raise a hand or keep both hands down depending on their status (e.g., having heard a target word, possessing a specific item) using modeling, prompting, and reinforcement. All 3 children acquired accurate hand-raising skills in response to progressively more difficult discrimination tasks during group…

  6. Beleaguered "Pygmalion": A History of the Controversy over Claims That Teacher Expectancy Raises Intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spitz, Herman H.

    1999-01-01

    Reviews the claim, endorsed by many psychologists and educators, that raising teachers' expectations of their students' potential will raise student intelligence. Reviews the original study by R. Rosenthal and L. Jacobsen (1968) and the controversy that followed and discusses the consequences for educational policy and practice. (SLD)

  7. Does Teacher Testing Raise Teacher Quality? Evidence from State Certification Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angrist, Joshua D.; Guryan, Jonathan

    2008-01-01

    The education reform movement includes efforts to raise teacher quality through stricter certification and licensing provisions. Most US states now require public school teachers to pass a standardized test such as the Praxis. Although any barrier to entry is likely to raise wages in the affected occupation, the theoretical effects of such…

  8. Recession Tempers the Usual Optimism in College Fund-Raising Offices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masterson, Kathryn

    2009-01-01

    After years of growth and predictions that fund raising for higher education would escape the brunt of the economic crash, the recession has started to affect colleges' efforts to raise money, according to a survey by "The Chronicle" and Moody's Investors Service. Predictions are that 2009 may be an even tougher year for fund raisers, with…

  9. Raise the Standard: A Practical Handbook for Raising Ethnic Minority and Bilingual Pupils' Achievement Based on Successful Policy and Practice in Cities across the European Community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Phil, Comp.

    This handbook has been produced by member cities of the Developing Intercultural Education through Cooperation between European Cities (DIECEC) Network as an overview and synthesis of actions that have been successful in raising the academic achievement of ethnic minority and bilingual students. This practical guide is a synthesis of proven…

  10. Raising Generation Tech Preparing Your Children for a Media-Fueled World

    CERN Document Server

    Taylor, Jim

    2012-01-01

    Today's children are being raised as 'digital natives' in a world dominated by popular culture and technology. TV shows, computers, video games, social networking sites, advertisements, and cell phones too often have an unnecessarily strong-and negative? influence on children.  But pulling the plug just isn't an option in a world where being connected is essential for success. In Raising Generation Tech,  noted parenting and new-media expert Dr. Jim Taylor explores how popular culture and technology shape children's lives. The essential message from Raising Generation Tech is that excessive

  11. Taiwan's plan to dispose of nuclear waste in North Korea stirs protests, raises questions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As the furor raised by the Taiwan endash North Korea deal illustrates, the technical issues of nuclear waste disposal are inseparable from the social and political concerns.copyright 1997 American Institute of Physics

  12. California gull chicks raised near colony edges have elevated stress levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herring, Garth; Ackerman, Joshua T.

    2011-01-01

    Coloniality in nesting birds represents an important life history strategy for maximizing reproductive success. Birds nesting near the edge of colonies tend to have lower reproductive success than individuals nesting near colony centers, and offspring of edge-nesting parents may be impaired relative to those of central-nesting parents. We used fecal corticosterone metabolites in California gull chicks (Larus californicus) to examine whether colony size or location within the colony influenced a chick's physiological condition. We found that chicks being raised near colony edges had higher fecal corticosterone metabolite concentrations than chicks raised near colony centers, but that colony size (ranging from 150 to 11,554 nests) had no influence on fecal corticosterone levels. Fecal corticosterone metabolite concentrations also increased with chick age. Our results suggest that similarly aged California gull chicks raised near colony edges may be more physiologically stressed, as indicated by corticosterone metabolites, than chicks raised near colony centers.

  13. Report of geophysical raising of the amethyst and agate in two quarries in Artigas district Uruguay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In a geophysical raising of amethyst and agate was studied the possibility to apply a better suitable geophysical method. The conclusion was that the electromagnetic VLF method was suitable to identify the zones.

  14. 29 CFR 780.124 - Raising of fur-bearing animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... AGRICULTURE, PROCESSING OF AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES, AND RELATED SUBJECTS UNDER THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT General Scope of Agriculture Raising of Livestock, Bees, Fur-Bearing Animals, Or Poultry § 780.124...

  15. Sources of Saturated Fat, Stearic Acid, & Cholesterol Raising Fat among the US Population, 2005–06

    Science.gov (United States)

    The purpose of this research was to identify the contributions of specific foods to intake of saturated fat, stearic acid, and "cholesterol raising fat" (defined as saturated fat minus stearic acid) in the US population age 2 years and older.

  16. Raising the level of radioresistance of cultivated plants seeds by using natural antioxidant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Investigations showed possibility of raising radioresistance and viability (Liupinus angustifolius, Hordeum vulgare, Triticum aestivum) seeds by using natural antioxidant (aqueous solution of extraction of Urtica Dioica) which inhibit lipid peroxidation and protein protection

  17. Application of raise-boring technique to ventilation engineering of a uranium mine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The world-wide development status, application conditions and advantages of raise-boring construction technique are briefly introduced. Two air shafts (above 300 m depth) and a air inclined shaft (84 m depth) were advanced by raise-boring technique in a mine of Fuzhou Jin'an Uranium Corporation. These shafts form the ventilating system of the mine. Ventilation effect was obviously improved and the good economic benefits were obtained. (authors)

  18. Review and recommendations on management of refractory raised intracranial pressure in aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage

    OpenAIRE

    Mak CH; Lu YY; Wong GK

    2013-01-01

    Calvin Hoi Kwan Mak, Yeow Yuen Lu, George Kwok Chu Wong Department of Surgery, Prince of Wales Hospital, Shatin, Hong Kong Abstract: Intracranial hypertension is commonly encountered in poor-grade aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage patients. Refractory raised intracranial pressure is associated with poor prognosis. The management of raised intracranial pressure is commonly referenced to experiences in traumatic brain injury. However, pathophysiologically, aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage is...

  19. The social context of kentish raising: issues in old english sociolinguistics

    OpenAIRE

    Graeme Trousdale

    2005-01-01

    This article considers issues in Old English sociolinguistics, in relation to specific changes affecting the low front vowels in ninth-century Kentish, as manifest in spelling variation in charters of the time. This change is referred to as Kentish Raising (Hogg 1988). It is suggested that variationist sociolinguistics is not an appropriate framework within which to explain Kentish Raising, since the nature of the data is such that a variationist approach is untenable. A reconstruction of the...

  20. Parent and family impact of raising a child with perinatal stroke

    OpenAIRE

    Bemister, Taryn B.; Brooks, Brian L.; Dyck, Richard H.; Kirton, Adam

    2014-01-01

    Background Perinatal stroke is a leading cause of early brain injury, cerebral palsy, and lifelong neurological morbidity. No study to date has examined the impact of raising a child with perinatal stroke on parents and families. However, a large breadth of research suggests that parents, especially mothers, may be at increased risk for psychological concerns. The primary aim of this study was to examine the impact of raising a child with perinatal stroke on mothers’ wellbeing. A secondary ai...

  1. TEACHING EFFECTIVE HAND RAISING TO CHILDREN WITH AUTISM DURING GROUP INSTRUCTION

    OpenAIRE

    Charania, Shaireen M; LeBlanc, Linda A; Sabanathan, Narmatha; Ktaech, Inas A; Carr, James E; Gunby, Kristin

    2010-01-01

    We taught 3 children with autism to raise a hand or keep both hands down depending on their status (e.g., having heard a target word, possessing a specific item) using modeling, prompting, and reinforcement. All 3 children acquired accurate hand-raising skills in response to progressively more difficult discrimination tasks during group instruction. The implications for preparing children for general education settings are discussed.

  2. A Study of College English Writing Classes through Consciousness-raising

    OpenAIRE

    Runjiang Xu; Qi Pan

    2011-01-01

    By consciousness-raising we mean the deliberate attempt to draw the learner’s attention specifically to the formal properties of the target language. It focuses its attention on teaching process and students’ activeness, so it can be well applied to teaching of college English writing. This study indicates that consciousness-raising provides a guideline for improving teaching of college English writing and plays a significant role in enhancing students’ writing ability.

  3. Does Teacher Testing Raise Teacher Quality? : Evidence from State Certification Requirements

    OpenAIRE

    Angrist, Joshua D; Guryan, Jonathan

    2005-01-01

    The education reform movement includes efforts to raise teacher quality through stricter certification and licensing provisions. Most US states now require public school teachers to pass a standardized test such as the Praxis. Although any barrier to entry is likely to raise wages in the affected occupation, the theoretical effects of such requirements on teacher quality are ambiguous. Teacher testing places a floor on whatever skills are measured by the required test, but testing is also cos...

  4. Competition between Sphagnum mosses in European raised bogs : the effect of a changing climate

    OpenAIRE

    Robroek, B.J.M.

    2007-01-01

    Sphagnum mosses are key-stone species in European raised bogs, and as such play an important role in the functioning of the ecosystem and its response to environmental change. Within Sphagnum, species may vary widely in their characteristics, making the identity of the dominant Sphagnum species an important factor explaining ecosystem response. We conducted several glasshouse and field studies, aimed at investigating how the main Sphagnum species in European raised bog respond to changes in c...

  5. Status of tuberculosis in bovine animals raised by tuberculosis infected patients in Western Chitwan, Nepal

    OpenAIRE

    Dhakal IP; Pandey KR; Subedi S; Sadaula A; KC G; Dhakal S; Pandey G

    2012-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Bovine tuberculosis (bTB) is an important public health concern worldwide. This study was conducted to determine the status of bTB in animals raised by tuberculosis patients in Western Chitwan, Nepal.MATERIALS AND METHODS: This cross-sectional study was conducted from August, 2011 to January, 2012. A total of 100 bovines (cattle and buffalo) raised in 60 farms of tuberculosis patients were tested with single intradermal tuberculin test considering various animal factors. Well de...

  6. Evidence of streptococcal origin of acute non-necrotising cellulitis: a serological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karppelin, M; Siljander, T; Haapala, A-M; Aittoniemi, J; Huttunen, R; Kere, J; Vuopio, J; Syrjänen, J

    2015-04-01

    Bacteriological diagnosis is rarely achieved in acute cellulitis. Beta-haemolytic streptococci and Staphylococcus aureus are considered the main pathogens. The role of the latter is, however, unclear in cases of non-suppurative cellulitis. We conducted a serological study to investigate the bacterial aetiology of acute non-necrotising cellulitis. Anti-streptolysin O (ASO), anti-deoxyribonuclease B (ADN) and anti-staphylolysin (ASTA) titres were measured from acute and convalescent phase sera of 77 patients hospitalised because of acute bacterial non-necrotising cellulitis and from the serum samples of 89 control subjects matched for age and sex. Antibiotic treatment decisions were also reviewed. Streptococcal serology was positive in 53 (69%) of the 77 cases. Furthermore, ten cases without serological evidence of streptococcal infection were successfully treated with penicillin. Positive ASO and ADN titres were detected in ten (11%) and three (3%) of the 89 controls, respectively, and ASTA was elevated in three patients and 11 controls. Our findings suggest that acute non-necrotising cellulitis without pus formation is mostly of streptococcal origin and that penicillin can be used as the first-line therapy for most patients. PMID:25403372

  7. How different modes of child delivery influence abdominal muscle activities in the active straight leg raise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Yu-Jeong; Hyung, Eun-Ju; Yang, Kyung-Hye; Lee, Hyun-Ok

    2014-08-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to examine the activities of the abdominal muscles of women who had experienced vaginal delivery in comparison with those who had experienced Cesarean childbirth. [Subjects and Methods] A total of 14 subjects (7 vaginal delivery, 7 Cesarean section) performed an active straight leg raise to 20?cm above the ground, and we measured the activities of the internal oblique abdominal muscle, the external oblique abdominal muscle, and the rectus abdominal muscle on both sides using electromyography. The effort required to raise the leg was scored on a Likert scale. Then, the subjects conducted maximum isometric contraction for hip joint flexion with the leg raised at 20?cm, and maximum torque and abdominal muscle activities were measured using electromyography. [Results] During the active straight leg raise, abdominal muscle activities were higher in the Cesarean section subjects. The Likert scale did not show a significant difference. The activities of the abdominal muscles and the maximum torque of the hip joint flexion at maximum isometric contraction were higher in the vaginal delivery subjects. [Conclusion] The abdominal muscles of Cesarean section subjects showed greater recruitment for maintaining pelvic stability during the active straight leg raising, but were relatively weaker when powerful force was required. Therefore, we consider that more abdominal muscle training is necessary for maintaining pelvic stability of Cesarean section subjects. PMID:25202194

  8. Raising the topic of weight in general practice: perspectives of GPs and primary care nurses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackburn, Maxine; Stathi, Afroditi; Keogh, Edmund; Eccleston, Christopher

    2015-01-01

    Objective To explore general practitioners’ (GPs) and primary care nurses’ perceived barriers to raising the topic of weight in general practice. Design A qualitative study using the Theoretical Domains Framework (TDF). 34 semistructured interviews were conducted to explore views, opinions and experiences of initiating a discussion about weight. Content and thematic analyses were used to analyse the interview transcripts. Setting General practices located in one primary care trust in the South West of England. Participants 17 GPs and 17 nurses aged between 32 and 66?years. The modal age range for GPs was 30–39?years and for nurses, 40–49?years. Results Barriers were synthesised into three main themes: (1) limited understanding about obesity care, (2) concern about negative consequences, and (3) having time and resources to raise a sensitive topic. Most barriers were related to raising the topic in more routine settings, rather than when dealing with an associated medical condition. GPs were particularly worried about damaging their relationship with patients and emphasised the need to follow their patient's agenda. Conclusions Uncertainty about obesity, concerns about alienating patients and feeling unable to raise the topic within the constraints of a 10?min consultation, is adding to the reluctance of GPs and nurses to broach the topic of weight. Addressing these concerns through training or by providing evidence of effective interventions that are feasible to deliver within consultations may lead to greater practitioner engagement and willingness to raise the topic. PMID:26254471

  9. The Study of Money; What We Know and What We Need to Know about College Fund Raising.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pezzullo, Thomas R.; Brittingham, Barbara E.

    1990-01-01

    Scientific research on development in higher education is limited and fragmented. Fund-raising research has provided information on whether a winning football team helps raise outside support, donor behavior, how much institutions spend on fund raising, major ethical issues fund raisers face, etc. (MLW)

  10. THE SOCIAL CONTEXT OF KENTISH RAISING: ISSUES IN OLD ENGLISH SOCIOLINGUISTICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graeme Trousdale

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available This article considers issues in Old English sociolinguistics, in relation to specific changes affecting the low front vowels in ninth-century Kentish, as manifest in spelling variation in charters of the time. This change is referred to as Kentish Raising (Hogg 1988. It is suggested that variationist sociolinguistics is not an appropriate framework within which to explain Kentish Raising, since the nature of the data is such that a variationist approach is untenable. A reconstruction of the social, political and cultural situation in ninth-century Kent is provided, which examines Mercian influence in the period, and suggests that a Mercian-driven change from above (Second Fronting cannot be the source of Kentish Raising. Finally, it is proposed that recent work in genetic anthropology, which seeks to discover more about the nature and extent of the continental migrations, may be useful in understanding the social context in which the varieties of Old English existed and developed.

  11. The Contribution of Io-Raised Tides to Europa's Diurnally-Varying Surface Stresses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhoden, Alyssa Rose; Hurford, Terry A,; Manga, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Europa's icy surface records a rich history of geologic activity, Several features appear to be tectonic in origin and may have formed in response to Europa's daily-varying tidal stress [I]. Strike-slip faults and arcuate features called cycloids have both been linked to the patterns of stress change caused by eccentricity and obliquity [2J[3]. In fact, as Europa's obliquity has not been directly measured, observed tectonic patterns arc currently the best indicators of a theoretically supported [4] non-negligible obliquity. The diurnal tidal stress due to eccentricity is calculated by subtracting the average (or static) tidal shape of Europa generated by Jupiter's gravitational field from the instantaneous shape, which varies as Europa moves through its eccentric orbit [5]. In other words, it is the change of shape away from average that generates tidal stress. One might expect tidal contributions from the other large moons of Jupiter to be negligible given their size and the height of the tides they raise on Europa versus Jupiter's mass and the height of the tide it raises on Europa, However, what matters for tidally-induced stress is not how large the lo-raised bulge is compared to the Jupiter-raised bulge but rather the differences bet\\Veen the instantaneous and static bulges in each case. For example, when Europa is at apocenter, Jupiter raises a tide 30m lower than its static tide. At the same time, 10 raises a tide about 0.5m higher than its static tide. Hence, the change in Io's tidal distortion is about 2% of the change in the Jovian distortion when Europa is at apocenter

  12. GRAMMATICAL SYLLABUS AND EFL TEXTBOOKS: THE NEED FOR CONSCIOUSNESS-RAISING ACTIVITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sasan Baleghizadeh

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the role of the grammatical syllabus in EFL settings is examined. To this end, the grammatical syllabus and its shortcomings are first explored. It is then argued that the grammatical syllabus is perhaps the best channel through which grammar instruction can take shape, and hence the importance of grammar instruction is discussed. Finally, the concept of consciousness-raising activities is introduced and it is suggested that the explicit presentation of grammar in traditional EFL textbooks still used in certain settings be replaced by consciousness-raising activities.

  13. CT changes in children with drained hydrocephalus and intermittently raised intracranial pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seven children with drained hydrocephalus are described who showed increasingly severe and frequent episodes of intermittently raised intracranial pressure. CT examinations during symptom-free intervals, or after conservative treatment, showed collapsed slit-like ventricles. Examination during attacks of raised pressure showed relative dilatation of the ventricles as compared with earlier examinations. Children with ventricular shunts of long duration may develop a shunt-dependent syndrome; CT may show normal or narrow ventricles and this does not exclude the possibility of a rise of intracranial pressure. These findings may help in making the diagnosis by means of CT without any further invasive procedure. (orig.)

  14. Detecting tissue deterioration after brain injury: regional blood flow level versus capacity to raise blood flow

    OpenAIRE

    Feuerstein, Delphine; Takagaki, Masatoshi; Gramer, Markus; Manning, Andrew; Endepols, Heike; Vollmar, Stefan; YOSHIMINE, TOSHIKI; Strong, Antony J; Graf, Rudolf; Backes, Heiko

    2014-01-01

    Regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) is spatially and temporally adjusted to local energy needs. This coupling involves dilation of vessels both at the site of metabolite exchange and upstream of the activated region. Deficits in upstream blood supply limit the ‘capacity to raise rCBF' in response to functional activation and therefore compromise brain function. We here demonstrate in rats that the ‘capacity to raise rCBF' can be determined from real-time measurements of rCBF using laser speck...

  15. An Educational Trial about Creative Robot Making with the Aim of Raising Students? Motivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsutsumi, Hirotaka; Fukuda, Katsumi

    In recent years, the necessity for education which helps to raise students? motivation toward engineering has become acutely recognized. In response to this need, the Mechanical Engineering Department of Tokyo National College of Technology has been striving to increase its focus on education that nurtures creativity. This paper describes an educational trial which focuses on creative robot making. In particular, some educational innovations and their effects are presented. Based on favorable responses from students, this educational trial would seem to indicate that the methods employed have a positive effect on raising student motivation.

  16. Raising of a heavy semi-circular vault on a rigid centering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parshin, D A, E-mail: parshin@ipmnet.r [Ishlinsky Institute for Problems in Mechanics, Russian Academy of Sciences, Vernadsky Ave. 101 bldg 1, Moscow, 119526 (Russian Federation)

    2009-08-01

    The modelling of a process of a semi-circular vault raising on a rigid cylindrical centering is conducted. Within the bounds of accreted solids mechanics the evolution of the vault stress-strain state under gravity action during the raising and after its completion is investigated. The vault material is described with defining relationships for elastic or aging viscoelastic materials. The formulation of the non-classical quasi-static initial-boundary accretion problem is given. Its analytical solution in series and quadratures is built. An effective method of calculation of residual stresses in the finished vault after supporting centering removing is offered.

  17. Raising of a heavy semi-circular vault on a rigid centering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The modelling of a process of a semi-circular vault raising on a rigid cylindrical centering is conducted. Within the bounds of accreted solids mechanics the evolution of the vault stress-strain state under gravity action during the raising and after its completion is investigated. The vault material is described with defining relationships for elastic or aging viscoelastic materials. The formulation of the non-classical quasi-static initial-boundary accretion problem is given. Its analytical solution in series and quadratures is built. An effective method of calculation of residual stresses in the finished vault after supporting centering removing is offered.

  18. Obtaining raised density connections by thermosonic microwelding in 3D integrated microcircuits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lanin V. L.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The authors consider the processes of obtaining raised density microwelded connections in 3D-integrated microcircuits by the thermosonic microwelding. The processes include the use of the raised frequencies of ultrasound, application of the microinstrument with a thinning of the working end and precision devices for ball formation, which provide reproducibility of connections quality. At a small step of contact pads, the use of a wire of small diameter (not more than 25 µm is necessary for devices with a multilevel arrangement of leads and chess arrangement of contact pads on the chip, providing the maximum length of the formed crosspieces does not exceed 4—5 mm.

  19. Ecology and hydrology of pristine and cutover lowland raised bogs: relationships and implications for restoration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labadz, Jillian; Hart, Roger; Robbins, Jane; Butcher, David; Topliss, David

    2013-04-01

    This paper will examine relationships in vegetation communities and hydrological conditions on areas of lowland raised bog in north west England, comparing damaged and relatively intact sites on two adjacent bogs in Cumbria. Walton Moss is a relatively pristine site whilst and Bolton Fell Moss has a small nature reserve area with remnant vegetation which is surrounded by commercial peat cutting. The intended outcome is to provide a mechanism to inform management decisions, with a view to assisting in the long-term protection and rehabilitation of lowland raised bogs.

  20. Dermatomyositis presenting with symptomatic dermographism and raised troponin T: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahim Kartini F

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Dermatomyositis is an important inflammation of skin and muscles. Generalised itch is frequent in the condition; however, symptomatic dermographism has not previously been reported as a presenting feature. Case presentation A 32-year-old Caucasian Scottish woman was diagnosed with dermatomyositis after initial presentation with symptomatic dermographism. No underlying neoplasm was found and her condition was successfully treated with systemic corticosteroids and high-dose human immunoglobulin infusions. At presentation, her troponin T and creatine phosphokinase enzymes were highly raised. Conclusion Symptomatic dermographism may be a presenting feature of dermatomyositis. Dermatomyositis is one of many conditions that can result in a raised troponin T.

  1. A study on a systematic method for evaluating values of raised concerns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this study is to develop a methodology that can externalise potential concerns and evaluate the values of the concerns raised in corporations. By implementing this methodology into corporate governance, it is expected to improve the work environment and enhance the capability for the corporate governance through supporting the internal autonomic purification. This study comprises of: case studies of past wrongdoings in corporations such as JCO and Tokyo Electric Power Company (TEPCO); identifying the viewpoints for evaluating values of raised concerns; developing a model to evaluate the values. (author)

  2. DETERMINATION OF ZERDAVA DOG (KAPI KOPEGI) RAISED IN NORTHEAST OF TURKEY

    OpenAIRE

    Yilmaz, Orhan; Ertugrul, Mehmet

    2012-01-01

    This is the first document on Turkish Zerdava dogs raised in northeast of Turkey. This study was carried out to define the morphologic traits of the Turkish Zerdava dogs raised in east of Turkey comparing with some other native dog breeds of Turkey. To this end, a total of 39 (19 male and 20 female) dogs was analyzed using the Minitab 15 statistical software program using ANOVA and Student’s t-Test. Descriptive statistics and comparison results were for height at shoulders 51.2±0.35, height a...

  3. Swimming kinematics and respiratory behaviour of Xenopus laevis larvae raised in altered gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fejtek, M.; Souza, K.; Neff, A.; Wassersug, R.

    1998-01-01

    We examined the respiratory behaviours and swimming kinematics of Xenopus laevis tadpoles hatched in microgravity (Space Shuttle), simulated microgravity (clinostat) and hypergravity (3 g centrifuge). All observations were made in the normal 1 g environment. Previous research has shown that X. laevis raised in microgravity exhibit abnormalities in their lungs and vestibular system upon return to 1 g. The tadpoles raised in true microgravity exhibited a significantly lower tailbeat frequency than onboard 1 g centrifuge controls on the day of landing (day0), but this behaviour normalized within 9 days. The two groups did not differ significantly in buccal pumping rates. Altered buoyancy in the space-flight microgravity tadpoles was indicated by an increased swimming angle on the day after landing (day1). Tadpoles raised in simulated microgravity differed to a greater extent in swimming behaviours from their 1 g controls. The tadpoles raised in hypergravity showed no substantive effects on the development of swimming or respiratory behaviours, except swimming angle. Together, these results show that microgravity has a transient effect on the development of locomotion in X. laevis tadpoles, most notably on swimming angle, indicative of stunted lung development. On the basis of the behaviours we studied, there is no indication of neuromuscular retardation in amphibians associated with embryogenesis in microgravity.

  4. A biological mechanism for Bayesian feature selection: Weight decay and raising the LASSO.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connor, Patrick; Hollensen, Paul; Krigolson, Olav; Trappenberg, Thomas

    2015-07-01

    Biological systems are capable of learning that certain stimuli are valuable while ignoring the many that are not, and thus perform feature selection. In machine learning, one effective feature selection approach is the least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (LASSO) form of regularization, which is equivalent to assuming a Laplacian prior distribution on the parameters. We review how such Bayesian priors can be implemented in gradient descent as a form of weight decay, which is a biologically plausible mechanism for Bayesian feature selection. In particular, we describe a new prior that offsets or "raises" the Laplacian prior distribution. We evaluate this alongside the Gaussian and Cauchy priors in gradient descent using a generic regression task where there are few relevant and many irrelevant features. We find that raising the Laplacian leads to less prediction error because it is a better model of the underlying distribution. We also consider two biologically relevant online learning tasks, one synthetic and one modeled after the perceptual expertise task of Krigolson et al. (2009). Here, raising the Laplacian prior avoids the fast erosion of relevant parameters over the period following training because it only allows small weights to decay. This better matches the limited loss of association seen between days in the human data of the perceptual expertise task. Raising the Laplacian prior thus results in a biologically plausible form of Bayesian feature selection that is effective in biologically relevant contexts. PMID:25897512

  5. Using the Implicit Association Test as an Unconsciousness Raising Tool in Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casad, Bettina J.; Flores, Abdiel J.; Didway, Jessica D.

    2013-01-01

    People are reluctant to admit they harbor implicit biases. Students (N = 68) from four social psychology courses completed an assignment designed to raise awareness about implicit biases. After completing an Implicit Association Test (IAT), students answered six essay questions, read two articles on the IAT, and answered five additional essay…

  6. Raising the Bar for Hispanic Serving Institutions: An Analysis of College Completion and Success Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contreras, Frances; Contreras, Gilbert J.

    2015-01-01

    Hispanic serving institutions (HSIs) in California have the potential to play a key role in raising Latino college completion rates. However, while HSIs provide access to higher education for Latinos, student success, persistence, and completion rates remain low. This study utilized the Integrated Postsecondary Education Data System and the…

  7. Results of a Test and Win Contest to Raise Radon Awareness in Urban and Rural Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, Ellen J.; Rayens, Mary Kay; Kercsmar, Sarah E.; Robertson, Heather; Adkins, Sarah M.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Radon is a leading cause of lung cancer, but few test their homes to determine radon levels. Purpose: The study assessed feasibility and success of a Test and Win Contest to promote radon testing in rural and urban communities. Methods: The prospective, quasi-experimental study tested a novel contest to raise radon awareness. Paid and…

  8. Raising Bilingual Children: A Qualitative Study of Parental Attitudes, Beliefs, and Intended Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Michael; Shetgiri, Rashmi; Barina, Alexis; Tillitski, John; Flores, Glenn

    2015-01-01

    We examined parental preferences in raising Spanish/English bilingual children. We identified factors influencing their decisions, and the strategies used to promote bilingualism. Focus groups were conducted with Spanish-primary-language parents of children 3 to 7 years old. These groups were audiotaped and transcribed. Three reviewers…

  9. Math, Science, and Web-Based Activities to Raise Awareness about Nutrition and Obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuercher, Deborah K.

    2011-01-01

    The incidence of child obesity in the United States is increasing at an alarming rate. This article provides information about nutrition, obesity, and related health conditions and suggests some classroom activities to raise awareness about these issues and empower students to live healthier, more active lives. A list of recommended health-related…

  10. Differential equations for multiple orthogonal polynomials with respect to classical weights: raising and lowering operators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We obtain a lowering operator for multiple orthogonal polynomials having orthogonality conditions with respect to r element of N classical weights. These multiple orthogonal polynomials are generalizations of the classical orthogonal polynomials. Combining the lowering operator with the raising operators, which have been obtained earlier in the literature, we then also obtain a linear differential equation of order r + 1

  11. Raising the Bar on Faculty Productivity: Realigning Performance Standards to Enhance Quality Trajectories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardré, Patricia L.

    2014-01-01

    Many universities have observed needs and shared goals that include increasing faculty members' research productivity (in quantity or quality). Strategies for raising faculty performance include revising standards and supporting valued outcomes with rewards and incentives. One college at a research-extensive university received institutional…

  12. Challenges and Opportunities for Vocational Education and Training in the Light of Raising the Participation Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acquah, Daniel K.; Huddleston, Prue

    2014-01-01

    By 2015, all young people must participate in some form of education and training until they are aged 18. This review discusses the challenges and opportunities involved if vocational education and training is to contribute to this raising of the participation age. We argue that as well as ensuring that young people who have made a full-time…

  13. Reduced Blood Flow to Back of Brain Raises Recurrent Stroke Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 156339.html Reduced Blood Flow to Back of Brain Raises Recurrent Stroke Risk: Study Procedure to open blocked arteries may ... normal blood flow to the back of their brains had a 96 percent stroke-free survival rate at 12 months. People with ...

  14. Consciousness Raising and Noticing through Focus on Form: Grammar Task Performance versus Formal Instruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fotos, Sandra S.

    1993-01-01

    Research is presented that investigates the amount of learner noticing produced by two types of grammar consciousness-raising treatments: teacher-fronted grammar lessons and interactive, grammar problem-solving tasks. Results indicate that task performance is as effective as formal instruction in promoting noticing. (Contains 33 references.)…

  15. Integrating Grammar Instruction and Communicative Language Use through Grammar Consciousness-Raising Tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fotos, Sandra S.

    1994-01-01

    A study of three grammar consciousness-raising tasks dealing with word order among Japanese university students showed that the tasks successfully promoted both proficiency gains and second-language negotiated interaction in participants. Negotiation quantity was determined by the combination of task features present rather than the nature of the…

  16. African American Grandchildren Raised in Grandparent-Headed Families: An Exploratory Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelch-Oliver, Karia

    2011-01-01

    There has been an increase in grandparents raising their grandchildren due to parental absence. This family structure has affected urban, single, low-income African Americans at a higher rate than any other racial group. Research on grandchildren reared in grandparent-headed families (GHF) states these children are at risk of significant…

  17. Investigation of Raising Burden of Children with Autism, Physical Disability and Mental Disability in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Nina; Yang, Li; Yu, Yang; Hou, Jiaxun; Li, Jia; Li, Yuanyuan; Liu, Hairong; Zhang, Ying; Jiao, Zhengang

    2011-01-01

    The family economic burden of raising autistic children, physical disabled children and mental disabled children were evaluated in China. 227 parents of children with autism, children with physical disability, children with mental disability and normal children were interviewed for children's costs, family income and economic assistance, etc. The…

  18. Strengths Classification of Social Relationships among Cybermothers Raising Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeman, Laura Dreuth; Swanke, Jayme; Doktor, Judy

    2011-01-01

    Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) and their families are different. Parents often surf the Internet in search of supportive solutions to the unique challenges they face. One source of insight for parents raising children with ASD comes from blog writers and the parents who surf the net to read their blogs, or cyberparents. The study…

  19. How Parents Cope with Raising Children with Developmental Disorders: A Phenomenological Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLurkin, Carol

    2012-01-01

    A qualitative narrative transcendental-phenomenological study was conducted to explore the lived experiences and coping strategies of parents in California raising children with development disorders (DDs). Twenty parents of children with Prader-Willi syndrome, attention deficit hyperactive disorder, or autism spectrum disorder were interviewed to…

  20. Effects of the ACT Raising Safe Kids Parenting Program on Children's Externalizing Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knox, Michele; Burkhart, Kimberly; Howe, Tasha

    2011-01-01

    Eighty-seven parents and primary caregivers of children aged 10 years or younger participated in a study examining the effects of the ACT Raising Safe Kids program on children's behavior. It was hypothesized that children of caregivers who complete ACT-RSK would demonstrate reduced behavior problems compared to children of caregivers in a…

  1. Material Hardship in U.S. Families Raising Children with Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parish, Susan L.; Rose, Roderick A.; Grinstein-Weiss, Michal; Richman, Erica L.; Andrews, Megan E.

    2008-01-01

    Researchers analyzed the 2002 wave of the National Survey of America's Families, conducted by the Urban Institute and Child Trends, and examined material hardship in families raising children with disabilities. Measures of hardship included food insecurity, housing instability, health care access, and telephone disconnection. The research…

  2. Raising Bilingual Children: A Qualitative Study of Parental Attitudes, Beliefs, and Intended Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Michael; Shetgiri, Rashmi; Barina, Alexis; Tillitski, John; Flores, Glenn

    2015-01-01

    We examined parental preferences in raising Spanish/English bilingual children. We identified factors influencing their decisions, and the strategies used to promote bilingualism. Focus groups were conducted with Spanish-primary-language parents of children 3 to 7 years old. These groups were audiotaped and transcribed. Three reviewers…

  3. Caregiver Burden and Social Support among Mothers Raising Children with Developmental Disabilities in South Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Heykyung; Lee, Eun-Kyoung Othelia

    2009-01-01

    This study examines caregiver burden and social supports perceived by mothers raising children with developmental disabilities in South Korea. Mothers residing in the metropolitan areas of Seoul (n = 181) responded to the mail survey with a 56.6% response rate. Respondents expressed a high level of overall burden, particularly in financial…

  4. Raising Children in Chinese Immigrant Families: Evidence from the Research Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Karen

    2006-01-01

    Children of Chinese culture are raised differently from children of other cultural groups. There is research evidence which contends that, regardless of where they live, the child-rearing practices within Chinese immigrant families are still influenced by Chinese traditional culture. Some studies also point out that Chinese immigrant parents…

  5. Disentangling Ethnic and Contextual Influences among Parents Raising Youth in High-Risk Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinderhughes, Ellen E.; Hurley, Sean

    2008-01-01

    This article reports on analyses examining contextual influences on parenting with an ethnically and geographically diverse sample of parents (predominantly mothers) raising 387 children (49% ethnic minority; 51% male) in high-risk communities. Parents and children were followed longitudinally from first through tenth grades. Contextual influences…

  6. A Coordinated Approach to Raising the Socio-Economic Status of Latinos in California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Elias, Ed.; Puddefoot, Ginny, Ed.; Gandara, Patricia, Ed.

    This report presents a collection of papers that focuses on a coordinated approach to raising the socioeconomic status of Hispanic Americans living in California. After presenting "The Need for a Coordinated Approach," the papers are: "Preschool Access" (Theresa Garcia, Sandra Gutierrez, and Giovanna Stark); "K-12 Performance" (Patricia de Cos,…

  7. Ruled by Hetero-Norms? Raising Some Moral Questions for Teachers in South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhana, Deevia

    2014-01-01

    Thirty-eight countries in Africa regard homosexuality as punishable by law with South Africa remaining a standout country advancing constitutional equality on the basis of sexual orientation. In the context of homophobic violence, however, concerns have been raised about schools' potential to improve the educational, moral and social outcomes…

  8. The British Conservative Government and the Raising of the School Leaving Age, 1959-1964

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCulloch, Gary; Cowan, Steven; Woodin, Tom

    2012-01-01

    This paper establishes and explains the important role of the Conservative Government of 1959-1964 in supporting the raising of the school leaving age in Britain from the age of 15 to 16. This was a significant and high-profile national issue that generated much educational, social and political debate around conflicting priorities during this…

  9. Murder-suicide involving BC doctor raises troubling questions about euthanasia.

    OpenAIRE

    Wilson, V.

    1995-01-01

    The deaths last September of a British Columbia physician and his wife have raised troubling questions about euthanasia and Alzheimer's disease. Police described the deaths of Dr. Tom Powell and his wife Dr. Lorraine Miles, a retired dentist, as a murder-suicide. Friends of the couple wonder if more lenient laws concerning euthanasia and assisted suicide might have saved Miles' life.

  10. The Impact of Development Office Structure on Fund-Raising Efficiency for Research and Doctoral Institutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grunig, Stephen D.

    1995-01-01

    Based on survey data from 70 universities, this study concludes that differences in the organizational structure of development offices have no significant effect on fund-raising efficiency. However, because decentralized offices may be able to expand their activities more rapidly than centralized programs, decentralization may facilitate overall…

  11. Raising Literacy Levels Using Digital Learning: A Design-Based Approach in New Zealand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jesson, Rebecca; McNaughton, Stuart; Wilson, Aaron

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports on a design-based intervention in urban primary and secondary schools serving culturally diverse students from low socio-economic status (SES) communities. The intervention capitalises on a partially implemented programme in seven schools which use digital devices (netbooks) and applications to raise literacy levels. Learning…

  12. Investigation of Raising Burden of Children with Autism, Physical Disability and Mental Disability in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Nina; Yang, Li; Yu, Yang; Hou, Jiaxun; Li, Jia; Li, Yuanyuan; Liu, Hairong; Zhang, Ying; Jiao, Zhengang

    2011-01-01

    The family economic burden of raising autistic children, physical disabled children and mental disabled children were evaluated in China. 227 parents of children with autism, children with physical disability, children with mental disability and normal children were interviewed for children's costs, family income and economic assistance, etc. The…

  13. Basque Relative Clauses: Head Raising, Case and Micro-Variation within Bizkaiera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gondra, Ager

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation establishes the syntactic representation and derivation of relative clause (RC) constructions in Bizkaiera Basque. Using native speaker introspection, grammaticality judgment under direct elicitation and formal experiments, I show that Bizkaiera follows the Head raising strategy in RC construction. Evidence for this comes from…

  14. A Hands-On Activity to Raise Awareness about Healthy Sun Exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    João Fonseca, Maria; Costa, Patrício; Lencastre, Leonor; Tavares, Fernando

    2015-01-01

    Excessive exposure to solar ultraviolet (UV) radiation causes sunburn and has been consistently associated with increased susceptibility to melanoma and skin ageing. Acknowledging the need to promote healthy sun exposure habits, numerous educational initiatives have been developed to raise public awareness towards this issue. However, studies…

  15. "The Lesbian and Gay Parenting Handbook: Creating and Raising Our Families," by April Martin. Book Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallon, Gerald P.

    1997-01-01

    Found the book a thoughtful, articulate, well-written, and informative work that powerfully challenges traditional thinking about the suitability of gays and lesbians to raise children. Successfully completes the goal of writing a book for and about both lesbian mothers and gay fathers, as well as serving as a valuable resource to child welfare…

  16. Marital Relationship in Greek Families: Raising a Child with a Severe Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsibidaki, Assimina

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: The target of the study is to examine important aspects of the marital relationship: marital satisfaction, spouse's representation of the marital relationship, roles and boundaries in families raising a child with a severe disability. Also, this study compares families with a child with a severe disability to those with children…

  17. Students' Borrowing Quintuples in Decade, Raising the Spectre of a "Debtor Generation."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evangelauf, Jean

    1987-01-01

    The rapid and substantial rise in college student indebtedness has raised concern about young people's ability to repay loans and the impact on the national economy, the borrowers' economic well-being, equality of access to higher education, and even the educational process itself. (MSE)

  18. Raising production of pretonic mid vowels in Ouro Branco-MG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melina Rezende Dias

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the results of a research about the raising production of the pretonic mid vowels, this was carried out at the city of Ouro Branco, Minas Gerais State, Brazil. For this study, we selected eight stratified informants distributed by gender (male and female and age (young and adults. Based on the Theory of Variation and Change, we analyzed the following linguistic factors: vowel of the stressed syllable, vowel between the vowel of the variable and the stressed one, manner of articulation of the preceding segment, place of articulation of the preceding segment, manner of articulation of the next segment and place of articulation of the next segment. We establish that in the city of Ouro Branco occurs vowel harmony triggered by the following high vowel, both for the raising of /e/, and for the raising of /o/. We conclude that for the raising of /o/, occurs also the process of vowel reduction. We also observed that there are lexical restrictions.

  19. An Efficient In vitro Hardening Technique of Tissue Culture Raised Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.R. Deb

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Micropropagation has been extensively used for the rapid multiplication of many plants species. However, its wider use is restricted often by the high percentage of plant loss or damaged when transferred to ex vitro condition. To acclimatize the micropropagated plants, different workers have employed different approach toward successful establishment of in vitro raised plants under ex vitro condition. In the present study, a successful attempt has been made to acclimatize the tissue culture raised plants which is cost effective compare to other existing hardening technique. Tissue culture raised orchid seedlings were acclimatized and hardened in vitro by using 1/10th liquid MS basal medium subsequently replaced by tap water with chips of charcoal, bricks and decayed wood as an alternate substratum. The newly formed roots under this condition firmly attached to the charcoal chips with the passage of time, similar to velamenous root attach to the trunk of a tree. Charcoal and moss substratum was more suitable than bricks for epiphytic species and decayed woods for terrestrial. The researchers report the novel and efficient one step hardening technique for tissue culture raised orchid seedlings which will reduce the production cost.

  20. Reply to the criticism raised by Pennington on our pipi-Production Amplitudes

    OpenAIRE

    Ishida, Muneyuki; Ishida, Shin; Ishida, Taku

    1998-01-01

    A recent criticism raised by M.R.Pennington on our pipi-production amplitudes seems to be due to his misunderstanding on our description, and is not right. Essential point of the relation between our scattering and production amplitudes is, in connection to the unitarity and the final state interaction theorem, briefly explained.

  1. A Relational Frame Training Intervention to Raise Intelligence Quotients: A Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassidy, Sarah; Roche, Bryan; Hayes, Steven C.

    2011-01-01

    The current research consisted of 2 studies designed to test the effectiveness of automated multiple-exemplar relational training in raising children's general intellectual skills. In Study 1, 4 participants were exposed to multiple exemplar training in stimulus equivalence and the relational frames of SAME, OPPOSITE, MORE THAN, and LESS THAN…

  2. Mothers Raising Children with Sickle Cell Disease at the Intersection of Race, Gender, and Illness Stigma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnes, David P. R.; Antle, Beverley J.; Williams, Charmaine C.; Cook, Lisa

    2008-01-01

    This qualitative study used the long interview method with Canadian mothers of African and Caribbean descent to understand the underresearched experience of raising a child with sickle cell disease (SCD). Mothers' realities were explored through three levels of social organization: daily caregiver coping (micro level); community views of SCD, such…

  3. Raising a Child with Intellectual Disabilities in Ethiopia: What Do Parents Say?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weldeab, Chernet Tekle; Opdal, Liv Randi

    2007-01-01

    Parental experiences in raising children with intellectual disability in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia are described. Using a qualitative research approach, interviews from eleven families formed a rich contextual data base, in addition to informal observations, informal conversations, discussions with key informants, and document review. Findings show…

  4. Raising the Bar: Engaging Staff and Students in a Culture of Participation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowalski, Sue

    2012-01-01

    To thrive, a successful school library program needs active participation from all members of its community. As an instructional leader, the school librarian must be the one to raise the bar, not just informing other educators about resources and services, but empowering all adults to become engaged in the school library program. For example,…

  5. Educational Fund Raising: Principles and Practice. American Council on Education Series on Higher Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worth, Michael J., Ed.

    This volume offers 36 papers on higher education fundraising. Major topics treated are the development function, foundations of fund raising, annual giving, major gifts, campaigns, corporate and foundation support, special constituencies, managing development programs, special considerations for institutions, and special considerations for the…

  6. An assessment of behavioral syndromes in rangeland-raised beef cattle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Individuals in most animal groups exhibit consistent behavioural differences across situations or over time known as behavioural syndromes. We conducted a study with a herd of young rangeland-raised cows to determine whether animals exhibited consistent differences in foraging behaviours across cont...

  7. "The Silence Itself Is Enough of a Statement": The Day of Silence and LGBTQ Awareness Raising

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woolley, Susan W.

    2012-01-01

    This ethnographic study of a high school gay-straight alliance club examines unintended consequences of silence during the Day of Silence, a day of action aimed at addressing anti-LGBTQ bias in schools. While this strategy calls for students to engage in intentional silences to raise awareness of anti-LGBTQ bias, it does not necessarily lead…

  8. The Role of Online Communication in Raising Awareness of Bilingual Identity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marley, Dawn

    2013-01-01

    Children of binational couples are often raised in the community of one of the parents and, thus, have limited exposure to the language of the other parent. This study focuses on a British/Moroccan family in the UK, where English is the dominant home language and Moroccan Arabic is the "other" language. Analysis of "live"…

  9. Losing Control in the Nonprofit Sector: An Examination of Fund-Raising Encroachment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Kathleen S.

    To build theory, a study (the third stage in a program of research) examined encroachment by fund raising on public relations in the nonprofit sector. Two sets of in-depth interviews were conducted with 19 public relations managers in nonprofit organizations in Maryland and Louisiana. The organizations represented in the purposive sample fell into…

  10. Preparing FCS Professionals: Using Simulations to Raise Awareness and Change Stereotypes, Prejudice, and Discrimination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heiden, Kathleen; Harpel, Tammy

    2013-01-01

    Many universities offer courses in multiculturalism to broaden students' perspectives, but are the courses effective? This article explores the effects of using simulations to raise awareness and challenge students' perspectives of stereotypes, prejudice, and discrimination. The results of three simulation activities are presented. Three…

  11. Evaluation of Preparatory Measures for Coping with Anxiety Raised by Media Coverage of Terrorism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slone, Michelle; Shoshani, Anat

    2006-01-01

    This study examines effects of television broadcasts of terrorism on viewers' anxiety and raises suggestions for 2 intervention strategies to moderate elevated anxiety. Participants were 120 young Israeli adults randomly allocated to a terrorism or a nonterrorism television broadcast and assigned to 1 of 3 intervention conditions prior to…

  12. A Review on Some Parameters of Environment in Youth Intensive Raising of Japanese Quail

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucian Ioni??

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to review the state-of-art of scientific research on some environmentalparameters recommended by the literature in the intensive raising of young quails. As a result ofthe research it can be said that the temperature in the raising area of the young Japanese quailvaries between 35 º - 37.8 º C in the first week of life, after which it decreases by 3-4 ° C / week.The relative humidity in the shelter of young quails in the first week of raising must bemaintained at 80% (made with trays of water; then it should decrease at the value of 70%. Lightregime recommended for intensive young quails raising can be 24 hours light per day to 42 daysor can choose a program of light of 24 hours a day during the first 7 days of life, after which itcan be reducde up to 16 hours a day until the age of 42 days. Light intensity should be between20 lux and 45 lux for the first 7 days of life of the youth, then can be reduced by 20 to 5 lux untilthe age of 41 days. Density per area unit in the house is of 150 chicken / sqm (for ground riasing,reaching the age of 6 weeks at a density of 100 chicks / sqm or 250 chicken / sqm cage (in thecase of youth raising in batteries The number of chickens decreases to 250 for 1.5 sqm of cagearea in the second week of life and 250 chicken for 2 sqm cage area in the third week.

  13. Device for inspection and/or repair of a pipe of a steam raising unit of a nuclear power station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eddy current sensors are introduced into the pipe from the steam raising unit chamber. The two-part device on the supporting pillar is used to support the sensors and to position them, and so is an arm connected to it via a clutch. It is accommodated inside the steam raising chamber, but can be operated remotely from outside the steam raising chamber. This reduces the radiation loading of the operating staff. (DG)

  14. Custodial grandparents raising grandchildren: lack of legal relationship is a barrier for services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Etten, Deborah; Gautam, Ramraj

    2012-06-01

    In the United States, the majority of custodial grandparents are raising their grandchildren without a legal relationship. The lack of a legal relationship (i.e., foster care, custody, adoption) is a barrier for obtaining services and has resulted in limited access to information and public services, inadequate financial assistance, and difficulty providing medical and educational consent. This situation arises not only as a consequence of eligibility criteria, but also because children being raised by custodial grandparents remain outside the child welfare system. Federal and state policies were not designed for this population; subsequently, the majority of grandparent caregivers remain without access to services and support. In this article, perceptions of custodial grandparents concerning family obligations and the child welfare system as a barrier to pursuing a legal relationship are reviewed. Challenges with existing financial and health services, educational needs of grandparents and providers, and suggestions for policy changes are presented. PMID:22587642

  15. Device for testing and/or repair of steam raising unit pipes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The device is introduced into the chamber of a steam raising unit. A pillar extends from the pipe floor to the floor. In order to hold the device, a tensile element with a spreader finger projects into a pipe of the pipe floor. So that the tensile element will be easily accessible during faults and will reduce the probability of the spreader finger sheath jamming, the tensile element and the pillar are connected by coupling, which can be undone outside the steam raising unit. The sheath formed by separate clamping jaws is guided by support elements at its ends. The support element moves the sheath to its unstressed position during the release movement of the spreader finger push rod. The device is mainly used in nuclear powerstations. (orig./HP)

  16. Monitoring and performance analysis of AGR boilers during commissioning and power raising

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The installed boiler plant, for two 1300 MW AGR stations, is comprehensively instrumented for boiler control, performance assessment and component monitoring to ensure the integrity and safe operation of the plant during normal and faulty operating conditions. Plant instrumentation and computer systems installed at site for vibration analysis during the engineering runs and data acquisition during the power raising stage have been described. The results, from early rig investigations and the vibration testing during the unfueled engineering runs, indicate that the behaviour of the plant within the practical range of operating conditions is free from vibration problems. Also the analysis of the steady state thermal and hydrodynamic behaviour of the boiler plant during the power raising phase confirms the methods and computer models used for the boiler design. (author)

  17. Raising medium-sized livestock and hepatitis risk: A national study in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Holly Herawati

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Latar belakang: Sanitasi lingkungan, termasuk kandang pemeliharaan ternak sedang, berpengaruh terhadap penyebaran penyakit hepatitis A dan E. Tujuan penelitian ini menilai lokasi kandang pemeliharaan ternak sedang berkaitan dengan risiko gejala hepatitis di beberapa propinsi dengan prevalensi hepatitis tinggi di Indonesia. Metode: Data berasal dari sebagian hasil Riset Kesehatan Dasar (Riskesdas tahun 2007 di Indonesia. Untuk penilaian ini, data yang dipakai berasal dari 12 propinsi dengan prevalensi tinggi (0,6% hepatitis di Indonesia, dan dipilih hanya subjek yang tidak memelihara ternak serta hanya yang memelihara ternak sedang. Subjek hepatitis adalah responden yang pada saat wawancara mengatakan pernah mempunyai gejala hepatitis atau pernah di diagnosis menderita hepatitis oleh dokter atau paramedik dalam kurun waktu 12 bulan terakhir. Hasil: Dari 141.291 subjek, 1.257 (0,8% menderita hepatitis. Pada umumnya yang memelihara ternak sedang berisiko 86% lebih banyak terkena hepatitis dibandingkan dengan yang tidak memelihara  ternak [rasio odds suaian (ORa=1,86; 95% interval kepercayaan (CI=1,61-2,09]. Risiko tertinggi (2 kali lipat terkena hepatitis terjadi di antara subjek yang mengandangkan ternak sedang di dalam rumah (ORa=1,98; 95% CI=1,47-2,66, sedangkan risiko terkecil (38% lebih besar terkena hepatitis terjadi di antara yang mengandangkan ternak sedangnya di luar luar rumah dibandingkan dengan tidak memelihara ternak sedang (ORa=1,38; 95% CI=1,14-1,67 dibandingkan dengan tidak memelihara ternak. Kesimpulan: Kandang di luar rumah untuk meliharaan ternak sedang yang paling kecil menyebabkan risiko hepatitis. (Health Science Indones 2011;2:14-20   Abstract Background: Environmental sanitation, among others raising medium-sized livestock, affect the spread of hepatitis A and E. This paper presents an assessment of relation between place of raising medium-sized livestock and risk of hepatitis in high prevalence endemic hepatitis provinces in Indonesia. Methods: This paper used a part data of the Basic Health Survey (Riskesdas 2007 in 33 provinces in Indonesia. For this assessment samples consisted of those who had as well as did not have medium-sized livestock in twelve provinces with Hepatitis prevalence above national average. Hepatitis subject was those who ever diagnosed hepatitis by health workers (physician or paramedic or ever had symptoms of hepatitis in the last 12 months. Results: Of 141,291subjectts, 1,257 (0.8% subjects ever had hepatitis. In general, subjects who had raising medium-sized livestock had 83% more hepatitis risk compared to who did not have raising medium-sized livestock [adjusted odds ratio (ORa= 1.83; 95% confidence interval (CI= 1.61-2.09]. The highest risk (almost 2-fold to be hepatitis occurred among who had corral inside the house for raising medium-sized livestock (ORa=1.98; 95% CI=1.47-2.66, and the least risk (38% more risk to be hepatitis occurred among who had corral outside the house for raising medium-sized livestock (ORa=1.38; 95% CI=1.14-1.67 compared with who did not have raising medium-sized livestock. Conclusion: The least risk to be hepatitis occurred among who had corral outside the house among whom raising medium-sized livestock. (Health Science Indones 2011;2:14-20

  18. Original Education with Lectures for Creation of Products to Raise Ability for Solving a Problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawaguchi, Kiyoshi; Hasegawa, Kiyoshi; Kuroda, Shigeyasu; Masugata, Katsumi

    The important abilities for which the young engineers are required are creativity, ability for solving a problem and presentation ability. However, the education curriculum for creation of products in the present university has the contents that the students in each group only make a product, so that they can not learn how to raise above-mentioned three abilities. In the faculty of engineering, University of Toyama, a new subject “creative engineering exercise” opened to all courses and grades students has started in 2004. The authors reexamined the subject, and then the improved new subject “creative engineering exercise” that can meet the requirements from society has started in 2005. The feature of this new subject is that the lectures are adopted in the subject in order to learn how to raise above-mentioned creativity, ability for solving a problem and presentation ability. This paper described how to learn ability for solving a problem.

  19. Raising argument strength using negative evidence: A constraint on models of induction

    OpenAIRE

    Heussen, Daniel; Voorspoels, Wouter; Verheyen, Steven; Storms, Gerrit; Hampton, James A

    2011-01-01

    Both intuitively and according to similarity-based theories of induction, relevant evidence raises argument strength when it is positive and lowers it when it is negative. Three experiments test the hypothesis that argument strength can actually increase when negative evidence is introduced. Two kinds of argument were compared through forced choice or sequential evaluation: single positive arguments (e.g., Shostakovich’s music causes alpha waves in the brain, therefore Bach’s music causes alp...

  20. What Meaning does Raising a Child with Autism have for Parents? A Qualitative Exploration

    OpenAIRE

    Jardine, Kirsten Marie

    2008-01-01

    Introduction: Children with autism experience difficulties in social interaction and communication which are often manifested behaviourally. The nature of these difficulties means that the task of parenting is often challenging. This study therefore aims to explore which aspects of raising a child with autism are most meaningful for parents. It will also investigate what, if any, are the positive aspects related to the experience of having a child with autism. Method: A q...

  1. International Technology Mergers & Acquisitions and Raising the Competitiveness of China Equipment Manufacturing Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Xiuling Liu; Li Cai; Huiping Tan

    2012-01-01

    Developing and strengthening the competitiveness of the equipment manufacturing industry is that needs solving the weighty problem. China equipment manufacturing enterprises could acquire the core technique with international tech-nology mergers & acquisitions. This is an important strategy that could facilitate raising innovation capital and R&D level of the enterprise by a wide margin. This paper analyses the problems of China equipment manufacturing industry, advantages of internat...

  2. How high the temperature of a liquid be raised without boiling?

    OpenAIRE

    Das, Mala; Chatterjee, B. K.; Roy, B; Roy, S. C.

    2000-01-01

    How high the temperature of a liquid be raised beyond its boiling point without vaporizing (known as the limit of superheat) is an interesting subject of investigation. A new method of finding the limit of superheat of liquids is presented here. The superheated liquids are taken in the form of drops suspended in visco elastic gel. The nucleation is detected acoustically by a sensitive piezo-electric transducer, coupled to a multi channel scaler and the nucleation is observed...

  3. Specific Language Impairment (SLI: The Internet Ralli Campaign to Raise Awareness of SLI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Conti-Ramsden Gina

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available In this short article, we discuss what is specific language impairment (SLI and why it is a hidden disability that few people have heard about. We describe the impact on research, policy and practice of SLI being a neglected condition. We end by providing the background and rationale of a new internet campaign, RALLI (www.youtube.com/rallicampaign, aimed at changing this state of affairs and raising awareness of SLI.

  4. Active methodologies as strategies in nursing teaching: Raising awareness towards healthy habits

    OpenAIRE

    Luciara Fabiane Sebold; Silvana Silveira Kempfer

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To identify how the use of active methodology may influence healthy habits in nursing students. Method: A qualitative Assistential Convergent Research, undertaken with 43 students of the Nursing Graduation Course, at a Federal University in Southern Brazil. Data were collected with a semi-structured tool, from May to July 2008. Data were organized into categories and analysed according to scientific publications in the area. Results: Three study categories raised from the study: Ch...

  5. Identifying Identity : Using Second Life in the Teaching of Sociolinguistics for the Raising of Gender Awareness

    OpenAIRE

    Deutschmann, Mats; Steinvall, Anders

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents further innovative use of virtual worlds under the pilot stages of ASSIS (A Second Step in Second Life), a project funded by Umeå University. One of the aims of the project is to make use of the affordances offered by Second Life in order to raise sociolinguistic language awareness among teacher trainees and other students studying courses in sociolinguistics. Several experiments were conducted where creative use of the avatar in combination with so-called “voice morphing”...

  6. How Different Modes of Child Delivery Influence Abdominal Muscle Activities in the Active Straight Leg Raise

    OpenAIRE

    Kwon, Yu-Jeong; Hyung, Eun-Ju; Yang, Kyung-Hye; Lee, Hyun-Ok

    2014-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to examine the activities of the abdominal muscles of women who had experienced vaginal delivery in comparison with those who had experienced Cesarean childbirth. [Subjects and Methods] A total of 14 subjects (7 vaginal delivery, 7 Cesarean section) performed an active straight leg raise to 20?cm above the ground, and we measured the activities of the internal oblique abdominal muscle, the external oblique abdominal muscle, and the rectus...

  7. Learning Verbs that Lack Argument Structure : The case of raising verbs

    OpenAIRE

    Becker, Misha

    2004-01-01

    "In this paper, I address the question of how language learners come to distinguish the class of ‘raising’ predicates from other kinds of predicates. The class of raising predicates is a small class, containing verbs such as seem, appear, tend and a few others. What distinguishes these predicates from other main verbs is that while they share the morphosyntactic properties of main verbs (for example, they take regular verbal inflection, they follow negation, they do not invert in questions), ...

  8. Raising Awareness of Grey Literature in an Academic Community Using the Cognitive Behavioral Theory

    OpenAIRE

    Lin, Yongtao (University of Calgary); Vaska, Marcus (University of Calgary); GreyNet, Grey Literature Network Service

    2009-01-01

    Cognitive skill training, part of cognitive behavior management, is based on the cognitive behavioral theory. The principle that thinking controls behavior has been widely used by educators to develop methods to improve the performance of students, while clinicians provide multifaceted health promotion and psychological counseling programs. The plan of our educational project is to raise awareness among students, faculty members, and researchers of material not produced via standard commercia...

  9. The processing of raising and nominal control: an eye-tracking study

    OpenAIRE

    Sturt, Patrick; Kwon, Nayoung

    2015-01-01

    According to some views of sentence processing, the memory retrieval processes involved in dependency formation may differ as a function of the type of dependency involved. For example, using closely matched materials in a single experiment, Dillon et al. (2013) found evidence for retrieval interference in subject-verb agreement, but not in reflexive-antecedent agreement. We report four eye-tracking experiments that examine examine reflexive-antecedent dependencies, combined with raising (e.g...

  10. An Efficient In vitro Hardening Technique of Tissue Culture Raised Plants

    OpenAIRE

    C.R. Deb; T. Imchen

    2010-01-01

    Micropropagation has been extensively used for the rapid multiplication of many plants species. However, its wider use is restricted often by the high percentage of plant loss or damaged when transferred to ex vitro condition. To acclimatize the micropropagated plants, different workers have employed different approach toward successful establishment of in vitro raised plants under ex vitro condition. In the present study, a successful attempt has been made to acclimatize the tissue culture r...

  11. Enhanced Rate of Multiplication of Tissue Cultured Raised Banana (MUSA) Plants in the Field

    OpenAIRE

    Aish Muhammad; Iqbal Hussain; Muhammad Faheem Akbar; Hamid Rashid

    2003-01-01

    Multiplication rate of banana plants c.v. Basrai in the field was studied. The results showed that plants raised through culture produced 7.45 suckers plant-1 after 14 months of planting. On the other hand, number of suckers produced by banana plants propagated conventionally were 4015 in the same period of time. The results indicated that tissue culture plants produced 44% more suckers. This enhanced rate of multiplication may overcome the limited sucker production in the field.

  12. THE INTERACTION OF EXTRAPOSITION FROM DP AND RIGHT NODE RAISING IN ENGLISH AND SPANISH

    OpenAIRE

    Alves, M

    2015-01-01

    This paper explores the interaction of two operations that have been traditionally analyzed as involving rightward movement: extraposition from dp (ex) and Right Node Raising (rnr)1. The two operations are illustrated in (1) and (2), respectively. In the two sets of data the low hyphen indicates the positions in which the sentence-final constituent is interpreted. In what follows, it will also be shown that Spanish and English display the same patterns in this particular area of g...

  13. Some problems raised by siting of nuclear power station on the sea coast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siting of nuclear power station on the sea coast, besides usual, raises additional problems, different from those when the power station is inland. In this paper, the most important among these problems are pointed out, as well as some of their solutions. This applies, primarily, to several of high power nuclear station cooling layout. In our general approach to that problem, the role of siting in general safety, economy and bio-ecology are particularly considered. (author)

  14. The New Ways to Raise Capital: An Exploratory Study of Crowdfunding

    OpenAIRE

    Matteo Rossi

    2014-01-01

    Purpose – Paper aims is to describe, analyze and to increase the knowledge of the emerging crowdfunding phenomenon. This can be defined as the practice of funding a project or venture by raising a lot of small quantities of money from a huge number of people. Even though the number of academic studies has been increasing, the coverage of the population is relatively weak and not well understood by entrepreneurs and individual investors.Design/Methodology/Findings - The research can be classif...

  15. Steam raising unit heated by the coolant gas of a nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The steam raising unit consists of a bundle of straight pipes, which includes a superheater, an evaporator and a preheater part. Hot helium enters the superheater in the upper area. The lower part of the bundle of straight pipes is separated off by a plate, where the individual pipes in this space free of coolant gas are made as compensation pipes. The stresses on the individual pipes at the feedwater inlet are considerably reduced in this way. (DG)

  16. Raising the dead without a Red Sea-Dead Sea canal? Hydro-economics and governance

    OpenAIRE

    Rosenberg, D. E.

    2010-01-01

    Seven decades of extractions have dramatically reduced Jordan River flows, lowered the Dead Sea level, opened sink holes, and caused other environmental problems. The fix Jordan, Israel, and the Palestinians propose would build an expensive multipurpose canal from the Red Sea to the Dead Sea that would also generate hydropower and desalinated water. This paper compares the Red-Dead project to alternatives that may also raise the Dead Sea l...

  17. Raising the Dead without a Red Sea-Dead Sea project? Hydro-economics and governance

    OpenAIRE

    Rosenberg, D. E.

    2011-01-01

    Seven decades of extractions have dramatically reduced Jordan River flows, lowered the Dead Sea level, opened sink holes, and caused other environmental problems. The fix Jordan, Israel, and the Palestinians propose would build an expensive multipurpose conveyance project from the Red Sea to the Dead Sea that would also generate hydropower and desalinate water. This paper compares the Red-Dead project to alternatives that may also raise the Dead Sea level. Hydro-economic model results for the...

  18. Grammar Consciousness-Raising Activities and Iranian EFL Learners' Attitudes toward English Language

    OpenAIRE

    Farrokhlagha Heidari; Nurullah Mansourzadeh

    2014-01-01

    The first purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of consciousness-raising (C-R) activities on learning grammatical structures by Iranian EFL learners. The second one was to investigate the effect of gender through C-R activities and tasks. Finally, this study wanted to investigate the Iranian students’ attitudes toward learning English prior to and after applying the C-R activities. An attitude questionnaire was use to investigate the participants' attitudes toward learning Engli...

  19. Bivariate raising and lowering differential operators for eigenfunctions of a 2D Fourier transform

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We define a two-dimensional (2D) Fourier transform that self-reproduces a one-parameter family of bivariate Hermite functions; these are eigenfunctions of a Hamiltonian differential operator of second order, whose exponential is that transform. We find explicit forms of the bivariate raising and lowering partial differential operators of first degree for the eigenfunctions of this 2D Fourier transform. (paper)

  20. Structural evaluation of WIPP disposal room raised to clay seam G

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An error was discovered in the ALGEBBRA script used to calculate the disturbed rock zone around the disposal room and the shear failure zone in the anhydrite layers in the original version. To correct the error, a memorandum of correction was submitted according to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Quality Assurance program. The recommended course of action was to correct the error, to repeat the post-process, and to rewrite Section 7.4, 7.5, 8, and Appendix B in the original report. The sections and appendix revised by the post-process using the corrected ALGEBRA scripts are provided in this revision. The original report summarizes a series of structural calculations that examine effects of raising the WIPP repository horizon from the original design level upward 2.43 meters. Calculations were then repeated for grid changes appropriate for the new horizon raised to Clay Seam G. Results are presented in three main areas: (1) Disposal room porosity, (2) Disturbed rock zone characteristics, and (3) Anhydrite marker bed failure. No change to the porosity surface for the compliance re-certification application is necessary to account for raising the repository horizon, because the new porosity surface is essentially identical. The disturbed rock zone evolution and devolution are charted in terms of a stress invariant criterion over the regulatory period. This model shows that the propagation of the DRZ into the surrounding rock salt does not penetrate through MB 139 in the case of both the original horizon and the raised room. Damaged salt would be expected to heal in nominally 150 years. The shear failure does not occur in either the upper or lower anhydrite layers at the moment of excavation, but appears above and below the middle of the pillar one day after the excavation. The damaged anhydrite is not expected to heal as the salt in the DRZ is expected to

  1. Building a Wetland Management Game for Awareness Raising and Negotiation Support

    OpenAIRE

    Milhau, F.

    2010-01-01

    Wetlands are ecosystems of great importance as they host specific fauna and flora and provide multiple ecosystem services. Nevertheless, in many cases, their uncontrolled use for human activities put a threat on their integrity. The role-playing game Wet-WAG has been developed by Cemagref, in the framework of the European project WETwin, to raise awareness of stakeholders and support negotiations about small wetland management. The game is applied to the Ga-Mampa wetland in South Africa. T...

  2. The cholesterol-raising factor from boiled coffee does not pass a paper filter.

    OpenAIRE

    Dusseldorp, M., van; Katan, M.B.; Vliet, T., van; Demacker, P.N.M.; Stalenhoef, A. F. H.

    1991-01-01

    Previous studies have indicated that consumption of boiled coffee raises total and low density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, whereas drip-filtered coffee does not. We have tested the effect on serum lipids of consumed coffee that was first boiled and then filtered through commercial paper coffee filters. Sixty-four healthy volunteers consumed six cups per day of this boiled and filtered coffee for 17 days. Then, they were randomly divided into three groups, which, for the next 79 days, recei...

  3. Raising Students' Awareness of Cross-Cultural Contrastive Rhetoric Via an E-Learning Course

    OpenAIRE

    Jinghui Wang; Minjie Xing; Kenneth Spencer

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated the potential impact of e-learning on raising overseas students' cultural awareness and explored the possibility of creating an interactive learning environment for them to improve their English academic writing. The study was based on a comparison of Chinese and English rhetoric in academic writing, including a comparison of Chinese students' writings in Chinese with native English speakers' writings in English and Chinese students' writings in English with the help o...

  4. Impact of Consciousness-Raising Activities on Young English Language Learners’ Grammar Performance

    OpenAIRE

    Hamidreza Fatemipour; Shiva Hemmati

    2015-01-01

    Grammar Consciousness-Raising (GCR) is an approach to teaching of grammar which learners instead of being taught the given rules, experience language data. The data challenge them to rethink, restructure their existing mental grammar and construct an explicit rule to describe the grammatical feature which the data illustrate (Ellis, 2002). And also GCR approach encourages learners to pay attention to language form (Richards & Smidth, 2002). The present study aimed to consider the effectiv...

  5. Your Genes, Your Choices: Exploring the Issues Raised by Genetic Research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baker, C.

    1999-05-31

    Your Genes, Your Choices provides accurate information about the ethical, legal, and social implications of the Human Genome Project and genetic research in an easy-to-read style and format. Each chapter in the book begins with a brief vignette, which introduces an issue within a human story, and raises a question for the reader to think about as the basic science and information are presented in the rest of the chapter.

  6. The Machinery for Raising Capital by Companies through Debt Finances in Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Kunle Aina

    2011-01-01

    This study aimed at examining critically the legal machinery for creating debenture by companies, rights of the debentures holders and methods of enforcement of the debenture in Nigeria. The machinery for raising capital through debenture is not well articulated in the Companies and Allied Matters Act (CAMA) 1990. The position of the law on the rights and duties of the parties to a floating charge is inadequate and reforms are urgently required as current edition of the law allows for fraud o...

  7. Topics raised by the summary report of the first review meeting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document presents the fulfilling of the Brazilian obligations under the Convention on Nuclear Safety. The Chapter 7 of the document contains topics raised by the summary report of the first review meeting. The chapter covers status and position of the regulatory body, collective doses, effluents release trends, adoption of the ICRP 60 and basic safety standards, regulatory strategy, quality assurance, monitoring safety management, international cooperation, probabilistic safety assessment and safety improvement programmes

  8. Gender Identity and Gender Role in DSD Patients Raised as Females: A Preliminary Outcome Study

    OpenAIRE

    Ercan, Oya; Kutlug, Seyhan; Uysal, Omer; Alikasifoglu, Mujgan; Inceoglu, Derya

    2013-01-01

    Gender identity and gender role are expected to be consistent with gender assignment for optimal DSD management outcome. To our knowledge, our study is the first to attempt evaluation of gender related outcomes in Turkish DSD patients. After receiving institutional ethical board approval and subject (or parent) informed consent, subjects with DSD raised as girls (22 patients 46 XX DSD, 11 patients 46 XY DSD) answered 566 questions of the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI) ques...

  9. Raising Citizens: Parenting Education Classes and Somali Mothers’ Experiences of Childrearing in Canada

    OpenAIRE

    Melissa Fellin

    2015-01-01

    Mothers are viewed as the people who are raising future citizens of Canada; therefore, their parenting practices are being targeted for intervention by civic organizations funded by the state. In this article, I argue that modernity narratives and neoliberalism approaches to mothering inform parenting education classes for Somali refugee women to Canada. Thus, Somali women are often seen as victims. Stereotyped identities conceal their social and historical agency. This research draws on 15 i...

  10. Me, Myself and My Brain Implant: Deep Brain Stimulation Raises Questions of Personal Authenticity and Alienation

    OpenAIRE

    Kraemer, Felicitas

    2011-01-01

    In this article, I explore select case studies of Parkinson patients treated with deep brain stimulation (DBS) in light of the notions of alienation and authenticity. While the literature on DBS has so far neglected the issues of authenticity and alienation, I argue that interpreting these cases in terms of these concepts raises new issues for not only the philosophical discussion of neuro-ethics of DBS, but also for the psychological and medical approach to patients under DBS. In particular,...

  11. Manipulation of Rumen Fermentation with Organic Acids Supplementation in Ruminants Raised in the Tropics

    OpenAIRE

    Sittisak Khampa; Metha Wanapat

    2007-01-01

    Locals feed resources are prime importance for ruminants raised in the tropic particularly low-quality roughages and agricultural crop-residues. Manipulating rumen fermentation through treatment of roughage, concentrate and strategic supplementation with organic acids could improve rumen efficiency by maintaining higher pH, optimum ammonia-nitrogen (NH3-N), thus reducing methane (CH4) and increasing microbial protein synthesis and essential volatile fatty acid (VFAs), for enhancing rum...

  12. The cost-effectiveness of raising the legal smoking age in California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Sajjad

    2005-01-01

    Given evidence that most smokers start smoking before the age of 18 and that smokers who start earlier in life are less likely to quit, policies that reduce or delay initiation could have a large impact on public health. Raising the legal minimum purchase age of cigarettes to 21 may be an effective way for states to reduce youth smoking by making it harder for teens to buy cigarettes from stores and by reducing the number of legal buyers they encounter in their normal social circles. To inform the ongoing debate over this policy option in California, this study provides an evaluation of the cost-effectiveness of raising the state's legal smoking age to 21. Costs and benefits were estimated from a societal perspective using a dynamic computer simulation model that simulates changes to the California population in age, composition, and smoking behavior over time. Secondary data for model parameters were obtained from publicly available sources. Population health impacts were estimated in terms of smoking prevalence and the change in cumulative quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) to the California population over a 50-year period. Economic impacts were measured in monetary terms for medical cost savings, cost of law enforcement, and cost of checking identification. Compared to a status quo simulation, raising the smoking age to 21 would result in a drop in teen (ages 14-17) smoking prevalence from 13.3% to 2.4% (82% reduction). The policy would generate no net costs, in fact saving the state and its inhabitants a total of $24 billion over the next 50 years with a gain of 1.47 million QALYs compared to status quo. This research should prove useful to California's policy makers as they contemplate legislation to raise the state's legal smoking age. PMID:15951460

  13. Structural evaluation of WIPP disposal room raised to Clay Seam G.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Byoung Yoon (Sandia National Laboratories, Carlsbad, NM); Holland, John F. (Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM)

    2007-09-01

    An error was discovered in the ALGEBBRA script used to calculate the disturbed rock zone around the disposal room and the shear failure zone in the anhydrite layers in the original version. To correct the error, a memorandum of correction was submitted according to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Quality Assurance program. The recommended course of action was to correct the error, to repeat the post-process, and to rewrite Section 7.4, 7.5, 8, and Appendix B in the original report. The sections and appendix revised by the post-process using the corrected ALGEBRA scripts are provided in this revision. The original report summarizes a series of structural calculations that examine effects of raising the WIPP repository horizon from the original design level upward 2.43 meters. Calculations were then repeated for grid changes appropriate for the new horizon raised to Clay Seam G. Results are presented in three main areas: (1) Disposal room porosity, (2) Disturbed rock zone characteristics, and (3) Anhydrite marker bed failure. No change to the porosity surface for the compliance re-certification application is necessary to account for raising the repository horizon, because the new porosity surface is essentially identical. The disturbed rock zone evolution and devolution are charted in terms of a stress invariant criterion over the regulatory period. This model shows that the propagation of the DRZ into the surrounding rock salt does not penetrate through MB 139 in the case of both the original horizon and the raised room. Damaged salt would be expected to heal in nominally 150 years. The shear failure does not occur in either the upper or lower anhydrite layers at the moment of excavation, but appears above and below the middle of the pillar one day after the excavation. The damaged anhydrite is not expected to heal as the salt in the DRZ is expected to.

  14. Developing and disseminating a foodprint tool to raise awareness about healthy and environmentally conscious food choices

    OpenAIRE

    Tine Bosschaert; Corné van Dooren

    2013-01-01

    This article describes the development and dissemination of an ecological footprint tool that provides a concise and scientifically grounded summary of the environmental impact of personal food choices. Developed to be easy to use and available to consumers via online social networking platforms, the tool aims to raise awareness and to provide an impetus for behavior change. The foodprint tool communicates scientifically informed and customized practical advice on how individuals can reduce t...

  15. The influence of facing direction on the haptic identification of two-dimensional raised pictures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scocchia, Lisa; Stucchi, Natale; Loomis, Jack M

    2009-01-01

    It has been hypothesized (Lederman et al, 1990 Perception & Psychophysics 47 54-64) that sighted people adopt a visual translation process when attempting to identify 2-D raised images by touch they employ a visual image as a mediator between haptic sensory information and the object representation. If this hypothesis is correct, the performance in identifying pictures by touch (with eyes closed) ought to be better when the head is facing the picture than when facing in a very different direction. In this study, thirty-six blindfolded participants were required to identify raised pictures of common objects with their head facing either in the same direction as the raised picture or in an orthogonal direction. Identification performance was measured in terms of accuracy and response latencies. Overall, participants were more accurate and faster when their heads faced in the same direction as the picture. This finding is discussed in terms of spatial congruency between haptic representations of pictures and visual (or spatial) imagery created during exploration of haptic pictures. PMID:19522327

  16. Detecting tissue deterioration after brain injury: regional blood flow level versus capacity to raise blood flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feuerstein, Delphine; Takagaki, Masatoshi; Gramer, Markus; Manning, Andrew; Endepols, Heike; Vollmar, Stefan; Yoshimine, Toshiki; Strong, Antony J; Graf, Rudolf; Backes, Heiko

    2014-07-01

    Regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) is spatially and temporally adjusted to local energy needs. This coupling involves dilation of vessels both at the site of metabolite exchange and upstream of the activated region. Deficits in upstream blood supply limit the 'capacity to raise rCBF' in response to functional activation and therefore compromise brain function. We here demonstrate in rats that the 'capacity to raise rCBF' can be determined from real-time measurements of rCBF using laser speckle imaging during an energy challenge induced by cortical spreading depolarizations (CSDs). Cortical spreading depolarizations (CSDs) occur with high incidence in stroke and various other brain injuries and cause large metabolic changes. Various conditions of cerebral perfusion were induced, either by modifying microvascular tone, or by altering upstream blood supply independently. The increase in rCBF per unit of time in response to CSD was linearly correlated to the upstream blood supply. In an experimental model of stroke, we found that this marker of the capacity to raise rCBF which, in pathologic tissue may be additionally limited by impaired vasoactive signaling, was a better indicator of the functional status of cerebral tissue than local rCBF levels. PMID:24690942

  17. Structural evaluation of WIPP disposal room raised to Clay Seam G

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report summarizes a series of structural calculations that examine effects of raising the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant repository horizon from the original design level upward 2.43 meters. These calculations allow evaluation of various features incorporated in conceptual models used for performance assessment. Material presented in this report supports the regulatory compliance re-certification, and therefore begins by replicating the calculations used in the initial compliance certification application. Calculations are then repeated for grid changes appropriate for the new horizon raised to Clay Seam G. Results are presented in three main areas: 1. Disposal room porosity, 2. Disturbed rock zone characteristics, and 3. Anhydrite marker bed failure. No change to the porosity surface for the compliance re-certification application is necessary to account for raising the repository horizon, because the new porosity surface is essentially identical. The disturbed rock zone evolution and devolution are charted in terms of a stress invariant criterion over the regulatory period. This model shows that the damage zone does not extend upward to MB 138, but does reach MB 139 below the repository. Damaged salt would be expected to heal in nominally 100 years. The anhydrite marker beds sustain states of stress that promote failure and substantial marker bed deformation into the room assures fractured anhydrite will sustain in the proximity of the disposal rooms

  18. Measuring Metacognition and Reaction Time: Further Findings on the Performances of General Education, Low-Achieving, and Institutionally Raised Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Hilawani, Yasser A.; Abdullah, Ahmad A.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to use the picture format to examine in depth the metacognitive performances and reaction time in general education, low-achieving, and institutionally raised students. Results revealed that institutionally raised students, unlike low-achieving students, took significantly the longest reaction time to finish the test…

  19. Where Are We With HDL Raising and Inhibition of Cholesteryl Ester Transfer for Heart Disease Risk Reduction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purpose: To review recent research in the area of high density lipoprotein (HDL) raising and coronary heart disease (CHD) risk reduction. Recent Findings: It is known that a decreased HDL cholesterol is an important CHD risk factor, and that raising HDL cholesterol has been associated with CHD risk...

  20. A Web-Based Fact Sheet Series for Grandparents Raising Grandchildren and the Professionals Who Serve Them

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brintnall-Peterson, Mary; Poehlmann, Julie; Morgan, Kari; Shlafer, Rebecca

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: To develop and evaluate a series of web-based fact sheets for grandparents raising grandchildren. The fact sheets focus on child development issues that grandparents may face when raising their grandchildren. Design and Methods: The fact sheets were developed using research on attachment theory, child development, and the needs of…

  1. Effects of different raising systems on colour and quality characteristics of turkish pekin duck meats

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    E., Lacin; M.I., Aksu; M., Macit; A., Yildiz; M., Karaoglu; N., Esenbuga; M.A., Yoruk.

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available The current trial was conducted to determine the influence of different raising systems on the meat quality properties of male Turkish Pekin ducks. Ninety male ducklings were randomly allocated to three experimental groups: an animal-fish integrated farming group (IG), a non-animal-fish integrated f [...] arming group (NIG) and a poultry house group (PHG). All ducklings were fed a starter diet from weeks 2 to 6 and a finisher diet from weeks 6 to 10. Feed and water were offered ad libitum. At the end of the trial all ducks were slaughtered and the carcasses were stored at 3 °C for 24 hours, after which L*, a* and b* values of the carcass skins were measured. After standard dissection of carcasses, pectoralis muscles were obtained on which pH, colour (L*, a*, b*, C and H), total aerobic mesophilic, total aerobic psychrotrophic, lactic acid bacteria, Micrococcus/Staphylococcus, yeast-mould and Enterobacteriaceae counts were determined. The different raising systems of the ducks had significant effects on the pH, total aerobic mesophilic, Enterobacteriaceae, and L* and b* values of the pectoralis muscle. The lowest pH, total aerobic mesophilic and Enterobacteriaceae counts were found in the PHG group. The lowest L* values for the pectoralis muscle were found in the IG group while the highest a* value was recorded in the IG group. Significant differences in skin colour were observed between the experimental groups. For all production groups, all microbial counts were found to be within acceptable ranges. However, pH, total aerobic mesophilic and Enterobacteriaceae results were found to be lower in the PHG group than in the other groups. Different raising systems were thus found to affect the meat and skin colour of ducks, which may influence the preference of consumers.

  2. Effect of ultraviolet rays upon the productivity and adaptive possibilities of sows raised under industrial conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two experiments, aimed at establishing the effect of treatment with UV-rays on productivity of sows, the growth rate of pigs up to weaning, their adaptive reactions, and the micro-climate on the premises were carried out with 60 sows, divided into two groups: group i (controls) raised on premises without treatment with UV-rays, and group ii (experimental) raised on premises under treatment with UV-rays. Both nursing sows and piglets until their weaning were raised under industrial conditions. Type PRK-2 mercury lamp of 120 V, 3.75 A, and 375 W was used as a source of UV-rays. Each animal was exposed to irradiation daily for a period of 2 min. The live weight of sows, prolificacy, live weight of pigs at weaning and number of culled pigs during the sucking period, were checked. The adaptive reactions of sows and pigs were examined by ACT-hormon testing. Before treatment and 3 h after treatment with this hormone leucocyte, eosinophile and erythrocyte count and the haemoglobin, Ca, blood sugar, total protein, albumin and globulin in the blood were checked. The temperature, moisture, velocity of movement and gas composition of air were measured prior to blood sampling. Under the conditions existing in industrial pig-breeding complexes ensuring complete feeding of animals UV-treatment did not produce essential effects on the productivity of sows and the growth rate of pigs as well as on the adaptive reactions of animals and the micro-climate on the premises

  3. Growth curve of locally adapted pantaneiro cows raised under natural conditions

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Eleonora Araújo, Barbosa; Andréa Alves do, Egito; Urbano Gomes Pinto de, Abreu; Raquel Soares, Juliano; Joseane Padilha da, Silva; Arthur da Silva, Mariante; Alexandre Floriani, Ramos.

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to use morphometric and ultrasound evaluations to estimate the growth curve of the Pantaneiro cattle breed, raised in its natural habitat, aiming at the re-insertion of this breed in production systems. One hundred and three females, aging from months to 11 years, and [...] raised on native pastures, were evaluated. The animals belonged to the Conservation Nucleus of Embrapa Pantanal, located in the Pantanal of Mato Grosso do Sul (Brazil). Weight, thoracic perimeter (TP), body length (BL), rump height (RH), height at withers (HW), hip height (HH), depth (DP), distance between the ilia (DI) (cm) and rib-eye area (REA) were measured. To relate the measurements with the age of the animals, the univariate regression model was used, assigning the variable response to gamma distribution. The Pearson correlation between variables was also estimated. The inflection point of the growth curve was 37 months for HH; between 38 and 39 months for TP and HW; between 40 and 41 months for DI, HH and DP; and 45 months for BL. The REA results could not fit in a statistical model. The majority of the variables presented a correlation above 60% among themselves, except for REA × Age, of 15.81%; REA × HW, of 34.44%; HH × Age, of 46.19; HH × DI, of 58.07%; REA × HH, of 24.57%; and REA × TP, of 39.9%. The cows showed maturity age at 40 months, which may have occurred because they were raised in natural farming conditions. In Pantaneiro cows reared in extensive systems only on natural pastures, the use of ultrasound is not effective to estimate the curve of muscular development, perhaps because this breed was not selected for weight gain.

  4. Bio-Economic Evaluation of the Performance of Rabbits Raised under Two Different Housing Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mobolaji-Bukola, PU.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to evaluate the bio-economic performance of rabbits raised under two different housing systems: conventional hutch with cage system as control (A and the non-conventional floor housing system (B. Thirty six adult rabbits of medium size breed category of both sexes aged 5-6 months comprising Chinchilla (20, New Zealand White (10, Dutch (6 were used in the study which lasted 24 weeks. Fifteen does and 3 bucks were each randomly but equally assigned to both housing systems. Data on individual and group treatments were analysed with a one-way analysis of variance and students' ttest, employed in testing differences between the means. A benefit-cost analysis was used to evaluate the relative cost effectiveness of each housing option. Results obtained showed that rabbits raised on floor performed better (6 kittens < 0.05 biologically than those reared in hutched (3 kittens. For example, significant final weights (1.9 kg and weight gains (0.4 kg were observed in rabbits reared on floor as against those in hutch 1.6 kg and 0.09 kg. From an economic viewpoint, rabbits raised on floor contributed higher positive income (N 58.2 per unit of meat produced than rabbits reared in hutch or cage. Rate of return on investment in the former was estimated at about 50%. The floor housing system which is the cheaper, more productive and cost-effective is therefore recommended for farmers who are lacking the fundamental factors of production namely land and particularly capital as observed in the study location or environment.

  5. Does Raising the Early Retirement Age Increase Employment of Older Workers?*

    OpenAIRE

    Staubli, Stefan; Zweimüller, Josef

    2013-01-01

    Two pension reforms in Austria increased the early retirement age (ERA) from 60 to 62 for men and from 55 to 58.25 for women. We find that raising the ERA increased employment by 9.75 percentage points among affected men and by 11 percentage points among affected women. The reforms had large spillover effects on the unemployment insurance program but negligible effects on disability insurance claims. Specifically, unemployment increased by 12.5 percentage points among men and by 11.8 percenta...

  6. Raising the Profile of Today’s Greek Children’s Literature

    OpenAIRE

    Yiannis S. Papadatos; Dimitris Politis

    2012-01-01

    The main scope of this article is to raise a concise profile of today’s Greek Literature for Children, which has been shaped during last years. After a short report on the reasons that contributed to the configuration of such a profile, some representative books written for children are presented, divided into three categories according to their main theme. There is also a reference to the various genres of literature address children as well as to the translations into Greek, to the illustra...

  7. Children are costly, but raising them may pay : The economic approach to fertility

    OpenAIRE

    Martin Werding

    2014-01-01

    Objective: This article provides a non-technical introduction to analyses of fertility which are based on a rational-choice paradigm and which acknowledge that raising children may have a strong impact on the well-being of parents that can be described in terms of costs and benefits. It surveys different types of economic fertility models which can be used to address a variety of research questions, and it also discusses some basic strengths and weaknesses of applying economic analyses in thi...

  8. Study of problems raised by the production of electronic preamplifier by thin layer evaporation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This research thesis reports the study of the different methods of manufacturing electronic assemblies by deposition of various thin layers in order to reduce dimensions and weight of such assemblies. Thin layers have been prepared by vacuum evaporation. During this preparation, the author identified the problems raised by this miniaturisation technique. The most important ones have been solved and it was then possible to produce by this method charge preamplifiers aimed at the detection of nuclear particles. The author envisages the production of capacitors with such a technique based on thin layers

  9. Technique improvement of thoracoabdominal CT scan for patients with arm-raising disability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To explore a new scanning technique to reduce and avoid image artifacts of thoracoabdominal CT and improve image quality for patients who cannot raise their arms. Methods: Sixty-one patients with arm-raising disability between March 2004 and May 2009 were enrolled in the study. Thirty-one cases before June 2007 were scanned with their arms beside their body (control group), 30 cases after June 2007 were scanned with their arms shifting to different imaging planes of the spine (study group), and another 30 patients who can raising their arms were taken as routine group. The images artifacts were blindly evaluated by 5-points scale (severe, less severe, moderate, minimum and no artifact) by 2 experienced CT technologists and one radiologist and compared between the three groups (X2 test). CT values and its noise of the liver with or without artifact of the three groups were measured and analyzed by one-way ANOVA test. Results: In the control group, 11 cases had severe, 15 cases had less severe, 5 cases had moderate. In the study group, 6 cases had moderate, 15 cases had minimum, 9 cases had no artifact. In the routine group, 8 cases minimum and 22 cases had no artifact. Image quality was significantly improved in the study group compared to the conventional group where X2=95.32 and P<0.01. CT value and the noise of the liver without artifact were (54.5 ± 3.0) HU and 10.7 ± 2.4 in the control group, (52.0 ± 3.5) HU and 10.7 ± 0.5 in the study group, (53.7 ± 3.1) HU and 9.9 ± 0.5 in the routine group, respectively. CT value and noise of the liver with artifact were (41.7 ± 8.4) HU and 17.9 ± 2.6 in control group, (53.1 ± 6.9) HU and 11.0 ± 0.7 in the study group, (54.1 ± 2.4) HU and 9.9 ± 0.5 in the routine group, respectively. The CT value and its noise variation with artifact were significantly higher in the control group than the study group and the control group, where F=36.352, 235.848, respectively and P<0.01. Conclusion: The image quality can be improved and the artifact can be minimized for the patients with arm-raising disability by shifting their arm position to the different imaging planes of the spine. (authors)

  10. Building America Case Study: Raised Ceiling Interior Duct System, New Smyrna, Florida (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2014-09-01

    One of BA-PIRC's longtime Habitat for Humanity partners, S.E. Volusia CO (SEVHFH), was interested in building a home to the new Challenge Home standards. SEVHFH routinely builds ENERGY STAR V3.1 homes. The only modification to their design needed to comply with the Challenge Home criteria was the interior duct requirement. Unwilling to incur the added costs of a foam roof deck or wall heights above 8 feet to accommodate a fur-down chase SEVHFH opted to build a fur-up or raised ceiling chase.

  11. Mama `poma´, dad `apple´: Raising a Child with Catalan in Australia.

    OpenAIRE

    Victòria Gras

    2014-01-01

    The decision to speak Catalan to my daughter came naturally to me. How else would I tell a story, sing a lullaby or make her laugh but in the language I was told stories, sung lullabies to and made to laugh since I was a new-born! However, whereas the choice to speak one’s mother tongue to your children is not questioned anymore in Spain, making this same choice when you live elsewhere seems to raise a lot of eyebrows. In this article I will reflect, from my own experience, ...

  12. Renormalization flow for extreme value statistics of random variables raised to a varying power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Using a renormalization approach, we study the asymptotic limit distribution of the maximum value in a set of independent and identically distributed random variables raised to a power qn that varies monotonically with the sample size n. Under these conditions, a non-standard class of max-stable limit distributions, which mirror the classical ones, emerges. Furthermore, a transition mechanism between the classical and the non-standard limit distributions is brought to light. If qn grows slower than a characteristic function q*n, the standard limit distributions are recovered, while if qn behaves asymptotically as ?q*n, non-standard limit distributions emerge. (paper)

  13. Baseline hematology and clinical chemistry results from captive-raised trumpeter swans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, G.H.; Rininger, D.L.; Ets, M.K.; Sladen, William J. L.

    2002-01-01

    Results from hematology and clinical chemistry tests are presented for healthy captive-raised Trumpeter Swans (Cygnus buccinator) to help establish baseline data. Blood samples were obtained from 14 cygnets between the ages of three to four and seven to eight months that were the subjects of a study to teach migration routes to swans. Males and females differed significantly in asparatate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase and total protein. Age categories differed significantly in hematocrit, white blood cell counts, alkaline phosphatase, aspar-rate aminotransferase, glucose, cholesterol and uric acid. There were no significant differences among age categories in values of alanine aminotransferase, calcium, triglycerides and total protein.

  14. An elementary construction of lowering and raising operators for the trigonometric Calogero-Sutherland model

    OpenAIRE

    Garcia Fuertes, Wifredo; Lorente, Miguel; Perelomov, Askold M.

    2001-01-01

    [EN]Quantum Calogero-Sutherland model of A_n type is completely integrable. Using this fact, we give an elementary construction of lowering an raising operators for the trigonometric case. This is similar, but more complicated (due to the fact that the energy spectrum is not equidistant) than the construction for the rational case. [ES]El modelo Cuántico Calogero-Sutherland de tipo A_n es completamente integrable. Usando este hecho, damos una construcción elemental de descenso en operadores d...

  15. Raising students and educators awareness of radioactive materials transport through creative classroom materials and exhibits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The public is concerned about how the shipping and handling of radioactive materials affects them and their environment. Through exhibit showings doing professional education conferences and smaller, focussed workshops, the United States Department of Energy (DOE) has found teachers and students to be an especially interested audience for hazardous and radioactive materials transportation information. DOE recognizes the importance of presenting educational opportunities to students about scientific and societal issues associated with planning for and safely transporting these types of materials. Raising students' and educators' awareness of hazardous and radioactive materials transport through creative classroom materials and exhibits may help them make informed decisions as adults about this often controversial and difficult issue

  16. The Double Passive in Swedish : A case of creating raising verbs in the Scandinavian languages.

    OpenAIRE

    Söderberg, Benny

    2013-01-01

    The primary aim of this thesis is to map the syntactic and semantic nature, and the frequency of the Double Passive in Swedish. The results showed that the Double Passive is a control construction where the internal argument (OBJ) of the embedded verb is raised to subject of the s-passive matrix verb, and the verb of the infinitival complement co-occurs as an s-passive infinitive. In the thesis Lexical functional grammar (LFG) is used as a model for semantic and syntactic analysis. The analys...

  17. Bio-Economic Evaluation of the Performance of Rabbits Raised under Two Different Housing Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Mobolaji-Bukola, PU.; Allison-Oguru, EA.; Berepubo, NA.; Oruwari, BM.

    2002-01-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the bio-economic performance of rabbits raised under two different housing systems: conventional hutch with cage system as control (A) and the non-conventional floor housing system (B). Thirty six adult rabbits of medium size breed category of both sexes aged 5-6 months comprising Chinchilla (20), New Zealand White (10), Dutch (6) were used in the study which lasted 24 weeks. Fifteen does and 3 bucks were each randomly but equally assigned to both housing ...

  18. Grandparents Raising Grandchildren in the United States: Changing Family Forms, Stagnant Social Policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Lindsey A; Silverstein, Merril; Putney, Norella M

    2008-01-01

    As a consequence of increased divorce rates, the proliferation of single-parent families, and patterns of economic stagnation, parents are increasingly relying on extended family to care for children. In the past few decades, a substantial increase in the number of grandparents raising grandchildren has been observed within the United States. Grandparents who raise their grandchildren are particularly vulnerable, as are the grandchildren in their care; however, U.S. policy currently presents many barriers, gaps, and unintended consequences for grandparent caregivers. In this paper, we use two theoretical paradigms 1) structural lag and 2) the political economy of aging perspective to argue that U.S. policy has not kept pace with the reality of the family and - as a result - those families who are most vulnerable often receive the least support. We propose that as family forms become more diverse a redefinition of the family to one that is less bound by residence and biology, to one based more on function, will be required. PMID:20585408

  19. Raising Climate Finance from International Transport Sectors. Identification and Analysis of Governance Structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faber, J. [CE Delft, Delft (Netherlands); Pahuja, N.; Garg, A. [The Energy and Resources Institute TERI, New Delhi (India)

    2012-03-15

    Market based instruments (MBIs) for maritime transport have the potential to reduce emissions while at the same time raising funds for climate policies in developing countries. GHG emissions from international aviation and maritime transport accounted for approximately 5% of global anthropogenic emissions in 2005 and are rising rapidly. There is a clear need to address these emissions in order not to undermine policies for mitigating land based emissions. Developing countries need financial support to carry out climate policies, both adaptation and mitigation. The UN Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) makes policies by developing countries conditional on climate finance. In the current economic and financial circumstances, there is a need for new sources of finance. The governance of such MBIs should ensure that they are neither an international tax nor require hypothecation of fiscal revenues, while they should provide new and additional finance. MBIs which are in fact an international tax would not be politically feasible, and likewise hypothecation would be opposed by many states. This report finds that an emissions trading scheme (ETS) can satisfy these criteria, provided that: (1) it transfers a share of allowances directly to developing countries in order to ensure there is no net incidence on them; developing countries could auction these allowances in order to raise revenue; (2) it transfers allowances to the Green Climate Fund to support climate policies; auctioning these allowances would provide revenues for the Fund; (3) it transfers allowances to IMO or another organisation in order to finance fuel-efficiency improvements in international transport.

  20. Synanthropization of the Baltic-type raised bog “Roby” (NW Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sotek Zofia

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Raised and transitional peat bogs, despite their considerable resistance to synanthropization, as a result of anthropogenic transformations are exposed to the colonisation by alien species. One of them is the peatland “Roby”, where, in the years 2007-2009 and 2014, floristic, phytosociological and soil studies were carried out in order to record the signs of ongoing synanthropization. Conducted observations and analyses indicated that the expansion of willows has taken place and at present they occupy a large part of the bog, encroaching into bog birch forest and successfully competing with Myrica gale. Progressive peat mineralisation and constructed surfaced roads within the bog, contributed to the appearance and wide distribution of synanthropic species, such as: Urtica dioica, Impatiens parviflora and Spiraea salicifolia. Raised bog communities and their characteristic species occur on a few fragments of the bog, in north-western part, where water regime is shaped mainly by precipitation and peat deposit is fairly well-preserved. At the same time, in the patches of these communities, a distinct unfavourable increase in the share of Molinia caerulea is observed.

  1. Thermal stress analysis of pipe flange connections with raised-face gasket subjected to heat conduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper deals with thermal stress analysis of a pipe flange connection with a raised-face gasket subjected to heat conduction. In the analysis, pipe flange, hubs of the flanges and a raised-face gasket are replaced by finite hollow cylinders. When the inner surface is subjected to heat conduction due to contained fluid and the outer surface are kept at a constant temperature, temperature distribution of the connection is analyzed. Using the temperature distribution, thermoelastic displacement potential is determined. Thermal stresses and displacements are analyzed by using the thermoelastic displacement potential and axisymmetrical theory of elasticity. Experiments are performed. The analytical results are in fairly good agreement with the experimental results concerning the variation of axial bolt force and the axial strain at the hubs of pipe flange. In the numerical calculations, the effects of the ratios of Young's modulus and the gasket thickness between the flanges and the gaskets on the contact stress distribution are examined. As the results, it is seen that the thermal stress at the inner surface increases with a decrease of the ratio of Young's modulus and that it increases with a decrease of the gasket thickness

  2. Development of survival skills in captive-raised Siberian polecats (Mustela eversmanni) I: locating prey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Brian; Biggins, Dean; Wemmer, Chris; Powell, Roger; Hanebury, Lou; Horn, Deborah; Vargas, Astrid

    1990-01-01

    Captive-raised mustelids appear to have a rudimentary capacity to kill prey, but the skills necessary for locating prey may be eroded during captivity. We tested the maturational component of prey-searching behavior with captive-raised Siberian polecats (Mustela eversmanni) by subjecting polecats to a simulated prairie dog colony of 6 burrows within a 200 m2 arena. Ten naive Siberian polecats at ages 2.5, 3.5, and 4.5 months (30 total) were deprived of food for 12 hours. A dead prairie dog was placed in 1 prairie dog burrow and the other 5 were empty. A single Siberian polecat was released onto the colony shortly before sunset and its movements monitored from an observation tower. Older Siberian polecats located prey significantly quicker than younger polecats, but all age groups spent a great deal of time in surface activity not directed toward a burrow. When Siberian polecats were about 10 months old, all burrows in the arena were plugged with dirt including the burrow with the prairie dog. In this winter test, Siberian polecats located the prey but still spent a great deal of time in non-burrow directed surface activity. Economical use of surface time, with a low amount of non-burrow directed behavior, would presumably reduce the risk of predation for hunting polecats.

  3. Objections raised by the Land government relating to nuclear licensing procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The president of the Bavarian Landtag rejected a motion brought in by a parliamentary party, demanding that the Landtag request the Bavarian government..'' to file objections, in matters of the current plan approval procedure for the Schacht Konrad waste repository''. The motion was rejected referring to paragraph 62, sub-section 4 of the GeschOLT, stating the scope of competence of the Bavarian Free State. The Bavarian Constitutional Court decided in this matter as follows: Anyone has the right to raise objections in a plan approval procedure according to paragraph 9 b, sub-section 1 Atomic Energy Act. There is no mandatory restriction of this right to cases involving a personal interest. Land governments thus are equally entitled to raise objections against the licensing of a radwaste with the Ministry of the Environment of Lower Saxony pository. The remotion brought in therefore aims at activities within the legally permitted scope of action in accordance with the Atomic Energy Act. (orig./HSCH)

  4. Parents' leisure: the impact of raising a child with Down syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wayne, Deborah O'Mullan; Krishnagiri, Sheama

    2005-01-01

    A healthy and productive life depends upon the balance between work, leisure, and activities of daily living. Gaining or regaining that balance is a core concept within occupational therapy. Raising a child with special needs is one factor that challenges parents in achieving a balance. The purpose of this research was to describe factors that affect the leisure occupations of these parents. A qualitative approach was used in which in-depth interviews and the adapted Barth Time Construction were administered to four married couples that were raising children with Down syndrome who were between seven and nine years of age. Data was examined through content analysis. Results indicated that the parents of children with Down syndrome had limitations in time available for leisure, changes in types of leisure engaged in, and an increase in planning for leisure activities. Despite overall satisfaction with the manner in which they allocated their time, parents frequently noted the potential benefits of incorporating more leisure into their daily lives. Limitations of the study include type and size of sample. PMID:16398205

  5. Status of tuberculosis in bovine animals raised by tuberculosis infected patients in Western Chitwan, Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dhakal IP

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Bovine tuberculosis (bTB is an important public health concern worldwide. This study was conducted to determine the status of bTB in animals raised by tuberculosis patients in Western Chitwan, Nepal.MATERIALS AND METHODS: This cross-sectional study was conducted from August, 2011 to January, 2012. A total of 100 bovines (cattle and buffalo raised in 60 farms of tuberculosis patients were tested with single intradermal tuberculin test considering various animal factors. Well designed questionnaire survey was taken with 70 tuberculosis patients of same 60 families focusing knowledge, awareness and various practices related to bovine tuberculosis.RESULTS: Overall 15% bovines were positive for tuberculosis (13.6% cattle and 15.4% buffaloes. Age of animal was significantly associated with tuberculosis (p<0.05 while sex and species were not. 24% tuberculosis patients had raw milk consuming habit while very few of them (9% were aware of zoonotic aspect of bovine tuberculosis.CONCLUSIONS: There is high chance of tuberculosis transmission form animals to humans or vice versa. Further detailed study is needed in large scale with stronger intersectoral collaboration of medical and veterinary health sector to determine the scale of problem and find out prevention and control strategies against zoonotic tuberculosis.

  6. DETERMINATION OF ZERDAVA DOG (KAPI KOPEGI RAISED IN NORTHEAST OF TURKEY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orhan YILMAZ

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This is the first document on Turkish Zerdava dogs raised in northeast of Turkey. This study was carried out to define the morphologic traits of the Turkish Zerdava dogs raised in east of Turkey comparing with some other native dog breeds of Turkey. To this end, a total of 39 (19 male and 20 female dogs was analyzed using the Minitab 15 statistical software program using ANOVA and Student’s t-Test. Descriptive statistics and comparison results were for height at shoulders 51.2±0.35, height at rump 51.6±0.28, body length 56.3±0.35, heart girth circumference 50±1.43, chest width 25.6±0.22, cannon circumference 9.4±0.14, and head length 19.4±0.17 cm respectively. The overall results of the study demonstrated that Turkish Zerdava dogs had a very close resemblance to the Turkish Kangal (Karabash and Akbash Shepherd dogs related with body measurements. The Zerdava dogs reach mature body weight and size at around 18 months of age.

  7. Research Concerning the Economic Efficiency in Carabasa Sheep Breed Raising in Various Sized Farms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agatha Popescu

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper aimed to analyze the economic efficiency in two farms dealing with Carabasa Breed raising as follows:Farm1-86 sheep flock, of which 62 ewes, producing in average 146 liters milk/head/year and Farm 2-297 sheepstock, of which 255 ewes, with 140 liters/head milk yield. Economic efficiency was comparatively analyzed basedon: gross product, production cost, variable and fixed cost, gross margin, profit, profit rate, farm economic size. Theboth farms registered profit, but Farm 2, the largest one taking into account the number of sheep, recorded a highereconomic efficiency: 1.5 lambs/ewe, 22.50 kg cottage cheese/ewe, 1.17 Easter lambs/ewe, Euro 148 feedingcost/sheep, Euro 0.30/liter milk cost, Euro 233 income/ewe, Euro 61 profit/ewe, Euro 68 gross margin/ewe and a35.55% profit rate. With Euro 17,274 profit at farm level, Farm 2 was considered a commercial middle sized farm,ESU 7.19 and Farm 1 a very small farm, ESU 1.04. As a conclusion, breeders raising Carabasa Breed, an excellentbiological resource for milk and meat for Romanian sheep farming, have to increase farm size in order to go up theprofitability and competitiveness of their farms.

  8. Raising the Dead without a Red Sea-Dead Sea project? Hydro-economics and governance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. E. Rosenberg

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Seven decades of extractions have dramatically reduced Jordan River flows, lowered the Dead Sea level, opened sink holes, and caused other environmental problems. The fix Jordan, Israel, and the Palestinians propose would build an expensive multipurpose conveyance project from the Red Sea to the Dead Sea that would also generate hydropower and desalinate water. This paper compares the Red-Dead project to alternatives that may also raise the Dead Sea level. Hydro-economic model results for the Jordan-Israel-Palestinian inter-tied water systems show two restoration alternatives are more economically viable than the proposed Red-Dead project. Many decentralized new supply, wastewater reuse, conveyance, conservation, and leak reduction projects and programs in each country can together increase economic benefits and reliably deliver up to 900 MCM yr?1 to the Dead Sea. Similarly, a smaller Red-Dead project that only generates hydropower can deliver large flows to the Dead Sea when the sale price of generated electricity is sufficiently high. However, for all restoration options, net benefits fall and water scarcity rises as flows to the Dead Sea increase. This finding suggests (i each country has no individual incentive to return water to the Dead Sea, and (ii outside institutions that seek to raise the Dead must also offer countries direct incentives to deliver water to the Sea besides building the countries new infrastructure.

  9. Raising the dead without a Red Sea-Dead Sea canal? Hydro-economics and governance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. E. Rosenberg

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Seven decades of extractions have dramatically reduced Jordan River flows, lowered the Dead Sea level, opened sink holes, and caused other environmental problems. The fix Jordan, Israel, and the Palestinians propose would build an expensive multipurpose canal from the Red Sea to the Dead Sea that would also generate hydropower and desalinated water. This paper compares the Red-Dead project to alternatives that may also raise the Dead Sea level. Hydro-economic model results for the Jordan-Israel-Palestinian inter-tied water systems show two restoration alternatives are more economically viable than the proposed Red-Dead project. Many decentralized new supply, wastewater reuse, conveyance, conservation, and leak reduction projects and programs in each country can together increase economic benefits and reliably deliver up to 900 MCM/year to the Dead Sea. Similarly, a smaller Red-Dead project that only generates hydropower can deliver large flows to the Dead Sea when the sale price of generated electricity is sufficiently high. However, for all restoration options, net benefits fall and water scarcity rises as flows to the Dead Sea increase. This finding suggests (i each country has no individual incentive to return water to the Dead Sea, and (ii outside institutions that seek to raise the Dead must also offer countries direct incentives to deliver water to the Sea besides building the countries new infrastructure.

  10. [Comment on “Raising the ante on the climate debate”] Wasting public money?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parrish, Judith Totman

    The letters written by U.S. Rep. Joe Barton and his committee (Forum, Eos, 12 July 2005, p. 262) asking for data from Michael Mann and other scientists are certainly chilling because of the time it would take to meet the requests, but Rep. Barton has every right to make such requests.Thomas Crowley asked,“At some point, one must ask why should a member of the U.S. Congress get involved in this matter which may have been raised by a Canadian?” He opines that the reason was to intimidate and foment uncertainty. The real answer is, Barton is making the request because he can and is doing what, in his mind, is his job. That the issues were raised by a Canadian is immaterial; plenty of Americans are also skeptical of global change research. Moreover, the argument that “there is more agreement than disagreement” among the various paleoclimate reconstructions would not resonate with a layperson; even laypeople know that the history of science is fraught with examples of consensuses that proved wrong.

  11. Frank-ter Haar syndrome associated with sagittal craniosynostosis and raised intracranial pressure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bendon Charlotte L

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Frank-ter Haar syndrome is a rare disorder associated with skeletal, cardiac, ocular and craniofacial features including hypertelorism and brachycephaly. The most common underlying genetic defect in Frank-ter Haar syndrome appears to be a mutation in the SH3PXD2B gene on chromosome 5q35.1. Craniosynostosis, or premature fusion of the calvarial sutures, has not previously been described in Frank-ter Haar syndrome. Case presentation We present a family of three affected siblings born to consanguineous parents with clinical features in keeping with a diagnosis of Frank-ter Haar syndrome. All three siblings have a novel mutation caused by the deletion of exon 13 of the SH3PXD2B gene. Two of the three siblings also have non-scaphocephalic sagittal synostosis associated with raised intracranial pressure. Conclusion The clinical features of craniosynostosis and raised intracranial pressure in this family with a confirmed diagnosis of Frank-ter Haar syndrome expand the clinical spectrum of the disease. The abnormal cranial proportions in a mouse model of the disease suggests that the association is not coincidental. The possibility of craniosynostosis should be considered in individuals with a suspected diagnosis of Frank-ter Haar syndrome.

  12. Re-calibration of the magnetic compass in hand-raised European robins (Erithacus rubecula).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alert, Bianca; Michalik, Andreas; Thiele, Nadine; Bottesch, Michael; Mouritsen, Henrik

    2015-01-01

    Migratory birds can use a variety of environmental cues for orientation. A primary calibration between the celestial and magnetic compasses seems to be fundamental prior to a bird's first autumn migration. Releasing hand-raised or rescued young birds back into the wild might therefore be a problem because they might not have established a functional orientation system during their first calendar year. Here, we test whether hand-raised European robins that did not develop any functional compass before or during their first autumn migration could relearn to orient if they were exposed to natural celestial cues during the subsequent winter and spring. When tested in the geomagnetic field without access to celestial cues, these birds could orient in their species-specific spring migratory direction. In contrast, control birds that were deprived of any natural celestial cues throughout remained unable to orient. Our experiments suggest that European robins are still capable of establishing a functional orientation system after their first autumn. Although the external reference remains speculative, most likely, natural celestial cues enabled our birds to calibrate their magnetic compass. Our data suggest that avian compass systems are more flexible than previously believed and have implications for the release of hand-reared migratory birds. PMID:26388258

  13. Comparison of ankle plantar flexor activity between double-leg heel raise and walking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujisawa, Hiroyuki; Suzuki, Hiroto; Nishiyama, Toru; Suzuki, Makoto

    2015-05-01

    [Purpose] We aimed to evaluate the difference in the muscle activity between the double-leg heel raise (DHR) and treadmill walking. [Subjects] Thirty healthy males aged 21.5 ± 1.6?years (body mass 63.6 ± 9.3?kg, height 171.0 ± 4.5?cm) participated in the study. [Methods] Electromyograms were simultaneously recorded from both heads of the gastrocnemius and the soleus of the right side during the DHR and treadmill walking. The DHR conditions were maximum plantar flexion (MPF), 3/4 MPF, 2/4 MPF, and 1/4 MPF, and the walking speeds were 20, 40, 60, 80, and 100 m/min. [Results] The muscle activity during the DHR and walking significantly increased with increments in the height of the heel raise and walking speed, respectively. Comparison of the muscle activity at MPF with that at each walking speed revealed that the muscle activity in the soleus and gastrocnemius medial head during walking exceeded that during the DHR in less than 3.3% of cases. [Conclusion] The DHR test is useful for evaluating the ankle plantar flexor activity necessary for walking. PMID:26157255

  14. Eight free flaps in 24 hours: a training concept for postgraduate teaching of how to raise microvascular free flaps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Florian; Koerdt, Steffen; Hölzle, Frank; Mitchell, David A; Wolff, Klaus-D

    2016-01-01

    Microvascular free flaps are complex but important tools in oral and maxillofacial surgery (OMFS), and though techniques to raise flaps are challenging surgeons often have little structured training. In this study we have evaluated a structured, three-day, hands-on, practical training course on raising flaps. Five human, Thiel-embalmed cadavers were used for training in how to raise the following flaps: radial forearm, anterolateral thigh, lateral arm, fibular, latissimus dorsi, scapular, iliac crest, and rectus abdominis. The total duration of the course was 24hours over three days. All participants were asked to evaluate the design and conduct of the course, their own learning curve, and general questions about their knowledge of how to raise flaps and microsurgery. There was a significant increase in participants' assessments of how they raised all free flaps, except the lateral arm flap (4.74 (0.68) compared with 2.42 (0.81); p=0.052) before and after the course. The radial forearm flap was thought to be the most relevant in clinical practice (n=40; 75%), followed by the anterolateral thigh (n=5; 9%) and fibular (n=4; 8%) flaps. Comparisons between residents and consultants showed unsurprising differences in experience with microsurgery and self-assessment in raising particular free flaps before the course. We have shown that a structured, hands-on course using a well-established simulation model can significantly improve postgraduate surgeons' skills in raising free flaps. PMID:26628198

  15. WIDAL TITRES AMONG CHILDREN IN A TERTIARY CARE HOSPITAL

    OpenAIRE

    Poornima; Radhana

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the titers of antibodies against O, H, AH & BH antigens of S.typhi & S. paratypi by Widal test over a 1 year study period among children in a tertiary level hospital. METHODS: This observational study was conducted in the Pediatric wards of a tertiary hospital at Bangalore, Karnataka from 1st January 2013 to December 31st 2013. Children who presented with a history of fever of =/> 7 days were included in the study. These children underwent a...

  16. WIDAL TITRES AMONG CHILDREN IN A TERTIARY CARE HOSPITAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poornima

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To determine the titers of antibodies against O, H, AH & BH antigens of S.typhi & S. paratypi by Widal test over a 1 year study period among children in a tertiary level hospital. METHODS: This observational study was conducted in the Pediatric wards of a tertiary hospital at Bangalore, Karnataka from 1st January 2013 to December 31st 2013. Children who presented with a history of fever of =/> 7 days were included in the study. These children underwent a Widal test to rule out typhoid fever. A total of 1197 such patients were included in the study. Children with antibody titers more than 1:160 were considered to have enteric fever. RESULTS: Out of the 1197 children, 515 were females & 682 were males. Among females in the age group of /=1:160. Similarly, 5.97%, 6.9% & 7.41% of males in the age group of /=1:160.The titers were similar among the males & the females in all the 3 age groups that were studied. CONCLUSION: The level of antibody titers may vary with time. The highest level of Widal titers of 1:320 against both O & H antigen were found in 3.08%, 2.22% & 1.67% of females in the age group of <2yrs, 2-5 years & 5-18 yrs. Similarly, 1.49%, 3.45% & 1.4% of males in the age group of <2yrs, 2-5 years & 5-18 years had the highest level of titers of 1: 320 against both antigens . Thus there has been an increase in the level of baseline titers against Salmonella species, which needs to be considered while interpreting the results of Widal test for the diagnosis of enteric fever.

  17. Reduction of emissions from Brazilian cattle raising and the generation of energy: Intensification and confinement potentials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The identification of the main sources of anthropic greenhouse gas emissions (GHG) associated with the mitigation and removal of these emissions has become an important instrument in the attenuation of the climatic changes predicted by the IPCC. The largest emission source in Brazil is forest conversion. This land use change has always had a strong relationship with the expansion of agriculture, an activity of great importance in the country, which has the largest commercial cattle herd in the planet. Following the considerable reduction in emissions from deforestation, agriculture has been since 2010 the most important source (MCTI (Ministério da Ciência, Tecnologia e Inovação), 2013. Brasília: Ministério daCiência, Tecnologia e Inovação, Brasil). Seeking to discover the possibilities of altering the emissions profile in the agricultural sector, four scenarios were developed related to how this is dealt with in the beef cattle sector, calculating the potential removal of carbon from the atmosphere through natural regeneration of biomes. The results suggest that picketing and rotation scenario has the greatest potential, with a carbon reduction of 17.7 Gt CO2eq, while the shared raising with grain legumes scenario has the lowest calculated reduction potential of 7.1 Gt CO2eq was calculated. The animal confinement scenario had an intermediary reduction potential of 8.3 Gt CO2eq. The mosaic of methods scenario, in which it is attempted to simulate the parallel adoption of the measures proposed in all other scenarios, had a reduction potential of 13.1 Gt CO2eq. In the scenarios where animal confinement occurs, the treatment of waste with biodigestion allows the generation of biogas and biofertilizers, contributing to an increase in the potential carbon reduction. - Highlights: • We identify one main source of anthropic GHG in Brazil after forest conversion (deforestation), the beef cattle raising. • Four scenarios to mitigate emissions from cattle raising (agriculture sector) are modeled. • We calculate potential removals of carbon from the atmosphere through natural regeneration of biomes for each scenario. • The results suggest that picketing and rotation has the greatest potential, with a carbon reduction of 1.8 Mt CO2eq/yr. • Biodigestion of manure allows the generation of biogas and biofertilizers, increasing carbon reduction potentials

  18. Evaluation of the performance of two strains of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis Niloticus) in mixed raising systems

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Patrícia Ribeiro, Neves; Ricardo Pereira, Ribeiro; Lauro, Vargas; Maria Raquel Marçal, Natali; Káttia Regina, Maehana; Nilton Garcia, Marengoni.

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o desempenho produtivo de duas linhagens de tilápia do Nilo (Oreochromis niloticus) em sistemas de cultivo misto. Foram utilizados 3600 alevinos de tilápia, 1800 da linhagem Bouaké e 1800 da Chitralada. O experimento foi conduzido em três fases, a Fase I realiza [...] da em estufa em 18 caixas, nas quais foram testados dois tratamentos (Bouaké e Chitralada) e nove repetições; e a Fase II e III realizadas em 18 tanques de alvenaria, com os mesmos tratamentos. Na fase I, a linhagem Chitralada apresentou os maiores valores para peso final e ganho em peso. Na fase II, a Chitralada apresentou o maior valor para peso final em relação à Bouaké, já para o ganho em peso a Bouaké obteve o melhor resultado. Na fase III, a Chitralada apresentou os melhores resultados para peso final (104 dias de cultivo); peso final, comprimento final e ganho em comprimento (152 dias de cultivo) e aos 279 dias de cultivo, o ganho em peso e em comprimento foram maiores para a Bouaké. Estes resultados demonstraram que a linhagem de melhor desempenho foi a Chitralada. Abstract in english The aim of this study was to evaluate the productive performance of two strains of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) in mixed raising systems. A total of 3600 fish-larvae species was used, 1800 belonging to Bouaké lineage, and 1800 to Chitralada. The experiment was carried out in three phases; Ph [...] ase I in an incubator in 18 boxes, in which two treatments (Bouaké and Chitralada) were tested by using nine repetitions; Phases II and III were performed in 18 cement tanks with the same treatments. In phase I, regarding the final weight and gain of weight, Chitralada strain showed the highest final weight values. In phase II, Chitralada showed the highest final weight value when compared with Bouaké, and, considering the gain of weight, Bouaké obtained the best result. In phase III, Chitralada showed better final weight results (104 days of raising), final weight, final length and gain of length/cm (152 days of raising); but, after 279 days of the cultivation, Bouaké showed a higher weight and length gain. These findings showed that Chitralada strain presented the best performance.

  19. Cerebrospinal fluid hypoxanthine and xanthine concentrations as indicators of metabolic damage due to raised intracranial pressure in hydrocephalic children.

    OpenAIRE

    Levin, S D; Brown, J.K.; Harkness, R A

    1984-01-01

    Intracranial pressure and cerebrospinal fluid hypoxanthine and xanthine concentrations were measured in hydrocephalic children with suspected raised intracranial pressure. There was a highly significant correlation between intracranial pressure and cerebrospinal fluid hypoxanthine and xanthine levels.

  20. Characterizing the electrical properties of raised S/D junctionless thin-film transistors with a dual-gate structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Ya-Chi; Chen, Hung-Bin; Su, Jun-Ji; Shao, Chi-Shen; Wang, Cheng-Ping; Chang, Chun-Yen; Wu, Yung-Chun

    2014-12-01

    This letter demonstrates a p-type raised source-and-drain (raised S/D) junctionless thin-film transistors (JL-TFTs) with a dual-gate structure. The raised S/D structure provides a high saturation current (>1 ?A/?m). The subthreshold swing (SS) is 100 mV/decade and the drain-induced barrier lowering (DIBL) is 0.8 mV/V, and the I on/ I off current ratio is over 108 A/A for L g = 1 ?m. Using a thin channel structure obtains excellent performance in the raised S/D structure. Besides the basic electrical characteristics, the dual-gate structure can also be used to adjust V th in multi- V th circuit designs. This study examines the feasibility of using JL-TFTs in future three-dimensional (3D) layer-to-layer stacked high-density device applications.

  1. Cinta Senese and Large White x Cinta Senese raised on woodland pasture: in vita and slaughter performances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Sirtori

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The Cinta Senese (CS is a local Italian swine breed raised in free-range system and frequently employed a crossing with Large White (LW, but the density of rearing on woodland pastures is little know...

  2. IMMEDIATE EFFECT OF ACTIVE RELEASE TECHNIQUE VERSUS MULLIGAN BENT LEG RAISE IN SUBJECTS WITH HAMSTRING TIGHTNESS: A RANDOMIZED CLINICAL TRIAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijay Kage

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: To study and compare the effectiveness of active release technique and mulligan bent leg raise in subjects with hamstring tightness. Methods: 40 normal healthy subjects (20 in each group were recruited in the study under simple randomization method. Group A received single session of Active Release Technique and Group B received single session of Mulligan Bent Leg Raise technique for hamstring tightness. Popliteal angle and Sit and reach flexibility tests were measured pre intervention and post intervention. Data was analyzed using t-test. Results: The group treated with Active release technique showed significant improvement in Popliteal angle (P<0.001 and sit and reach flexibility test (P<0.001 as compared to Mulligan bent leg raise technique. Results showed the significance difference within the groups post intervention. Conclusion: A single session of Active release technique is better as compared to Mulligan bent leg raise technique to improve hamstring flexibility and range of motion.

  3. Sub-replacement fertility in national populations: Can it be raised?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demeny, Paul

    2015-01-01

    This paper comments on the four main functions demographers perform: fact-finding, analysis, prediction, and policymaking. Successes in the first two of these are counterbalanced by weakness in predictive ability. The focus of the comments, however, is on policy. Demographers were influential in promoting efforts to lower very high fertility but are ineffectual in proposing policies that could reverse the tendency of fertility to sink well below replacement levels. The paper argues for a break from exclusive reliance on the standard measures of modern welfare states intended to raise fertility and urges exploration of radically new approaches. Two promising innovations are briefly outlined: one would give the right to vote to all citizens regardless of age, the voting right of minors being exercised by parental proxy, and another that would reform state-administered pension schemes by arranging a direct transfer of working children's mandatory contributions to social security funds to their retired parents. PMID:25912919

  4. Raise and peel models of fluctuating interfaces and combinatorics of Pascal's hexagon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyatov, P.

    2004-09-01

    The raise and peel model of a one-dimensional fluctuating interface (model A) is extended by considering one source (model B) or two sources (model C) at the boundaries. The Hamiltonians describing the three processes have, in the thermodynamic limit, spectra given by conformal field theory. The probabilities of the different configurations in the stationary states of the three models are not only related but have interesting combinatorial properties. We show that by extending Pascal's triangle (which gives solutions to linear relations in terms of integer numbers), to an hexagon, one obtains integer solutions of bilinear relations. These solutions not only give the weights of the various configurations in the three models but also give an insight into the connections between the probability distributions in the stationary states of the three models. Interestingly enough, Pascal's hexagon also gives solutions to a Hirota's difference equation.

  5. Liberating minds: Consciousness-raising as a bridge between feminism and psychology in 1970s Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruck, Nora

    2015-08-01

    This article examines the interrelations between psychology and feminism in the work of feminist psychologists and radical feminists in Toronto in the early 1970s. For Canadian feminist psychology as well as for second-wave activism, Toronto was a particular hotspot. It was the academic home of some of the first Canadian feminist psychologists, and was the site of a lively scene of feminists working in established women's organizations along with younger socialist and radical feminists. This article analyzes the interrelations of academic feminist psychology and feminist activism by focusing on consciousness-raising, a practice that promised to bridge tensions between the personal and the political, psychological and social liberation, everyday knowledge and institutionalized knowledge production, theory and practice, as well as the women's movement and other spheres of women's lives. PMID:26375157

  6. Transfer of jacking up anchor for steam raising unit in Tokai Power Station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tokai power station was closed down in March 1998 and is being decommissioned. Removal works of steam raising unit (four units of heat exchangers) by jacking down method of construction started from August 2010 with decommissioning data accumulated. 'Tear 2' of heat exchanger shell was removed by April 2012 and transfer work of jacking up anchor firstly attached at 'tear 7' of heat exchanger shell was performed with newly installed anchor by welding and annealing at top head shell of heat exchanger outside controlled areas so as to avoid possible interference with support hoist of remote-operated primary cutting equipment with further removal work of heat exchanger. Jack system on the roof floor of heat exchanger area of reactor building was horizontally moved toward the center of heat exchanger and its strands were connected to new anchor. (T. Tanaka)

  7. Financial foreclosure in the case of missing the deadline for raising objections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The administrative court at Wuerzburg, in its decision of March 25th, 1977 - No. W 122 II 74 - has rejected the suit of the community of Bergrheinfeld against the licence for the construction of the Kernkraftwerk Grafenrheinfeld, and awarded costs of the proceedings, extra-judicial costs of two parties asked to attend included, against the plaintiff. The value in litigation was put at 75,000 DM. The rejection of the suit is based on missing the deadline for raising objections according to subsection (1) of section 3 of the AtAnlV (Nuclear Installations Ordinance). The main grounds upon which the judgment is based (admissibility of the action, but no foundation for it) are given in full. (orig./HP)

  8. Atmospheric flux of agricultural fumigants from raised-bed, plastic-mulch crop production systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chellemi, Dan O.; Ajwa, Husein A.; Sullivan, David A.

    2010-12-01

    Atmospheric emission of methyl isothiocyanate (MITC), chloropicrin (CP), 1,3-dichloropropene (1,3-D), and dimethyl disulfide (DMDS) were measured in the field under fumigant application scenarios representative of raised bed-plastic-mulched crop production systems. For three fumigation sites located in Florida, cumulative emissions of 1,3-D, MITC and CP were less than 11%, 6% and 2%, respectively. For three fumigation sites in located in Georgia, cumulative emissions of MITC and CP were film used to cover soil following application. This study demonstrated reduced atmospheric emissions of agricultural fumigants under commercial production conditions when applied using good agricultural practices including soil water contents above field capacity, uniform soil tilth in the fumigation zone and the use of metalized or virtually impermeable films to further reduce fumigant emissions. The results of this study show a need for regional flux studies due to the various interactions of soil and climate with local agricultural land management practices.

  9. Development of decontamination technologies for Tokai Power Station's Steam Raising Units (SRU)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steam Raising Units (SRU) are identified as the largest metallic radioactive waste appearing from the ongoing decommissioning campaign of Tokai Power Station. Considering its low activity, it is believed that a practical way to minimize the disposal cost should be decontamination together with other contaminated metallic components. To find a reasonable and effective decontamination method for SRU, research and development efforts were made by Japan Atomic Power Company (JAPC) and Nuclear Power Engineering Corporation (NUPEC). Kawasaki Heavy Industries Ltd. (KHI), the manufacturer of SRU, took an important role in these R and D activities, applying its rich store of knowledge from experiences of maintenance, engineering abilities, and so on. Here we present the detail of these R and D activities and our own efforts. (author)

  10. The Machinery for Raising Capital by Companies through Debt Finances in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kunle Aina

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed at examining critically the legal machinery for creating debenture by companies, rights of the debentures holders and methods of enforcement of the debenture in Nigeria. The machinery for raising capital through debenture is not well articulated in the Companies and Allied Matters Act (CAMA 1990. The position of the law on the rights and duties of the parties to a floating charge is inadequate and reforms are urgently required as current edition of the law allows for fraud on unwary parties. This study’s submission was that the law be reviewed in such a way that many loopholes like the ninety day rule in Nigeria is changed, either reduced or changed to one of immediate notification of such transaction to the commission, to ensure some level of certainty in this area of the law.

  11. Raising awareness of amphibian Chytridiomycosis will not alienate ecotourists visiting Madagascar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wollenberg, Katharina C; Jenkins, Richard K B; Randrianavelona, Roma; Ralisata, Mahefa; Rampilamanana, Roseline; Ramanandraibe, Andrianirina; Ravoahangimalala, Olga Ramilijaona; Vences, Miguel

    2010-06-01

    Chytridiomycosis (Bd) is contributing to amphibian extinctions worldwide but has so far not been detected in Madagascar. The high likelihood for Bd to spread to the island and efface this amphibian diversity and endemism hotspot requires respective conservation policies to be developed. Bd could be introduced by the large number of tourists that visit protected areas; therefore, increasing awareness among tourists and encouraging them to participate in safety measures should be a priority conservation action. However, concerns have been raised that tourists would not be able to distinguish between an amphibian disease harmless to humans and emerging diseases that would imply a danger for human health, invoking a negative image of Madagascar as an ecotourism destination. We evaluated whether informing tourists about this infectious animal disease would cause health scare and diminish trip satisfaction. Based on 659 respondents we found that most ecotourists favored to be informed about Bd and were proactive about participating in prevention measures, refuting previous concerns. PMID:20517634

  12. Hackathon as a way to raise awareness and foster innovation for stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Li Min; Johnson, Sharon

    2015-12-01

    The 'Time is Brain" concept has been a major focus in the World Stroke Awareness Campaign. Objective We describe our experience with a Hackathon (junction of hack+marathon), a 24 hour event of innovation- and technology-based project development, focused around detecting stroke. Method The Hackathon was held during a Brazilian Student's union (BRASA) congress involving students from engineering and other technological disciplines. Results Four teamscompleted the 24-hour challenge; two teams opted the stroke challenge. One team proposed improving detection using a mobile sensor Fit-Bit combined with a smart-phone to contact emergency dispatch. The other team developed a game, in which kids would play a role as a neurologist; to diagnosis stroke with objective to increase awareness. Conclusion Hackathons can focus attention on innovation and improvement opportunities to support the World Stroke Campaign, as well as other campaigns to raise awareness for other health or social problems. PMID:26677120

  13. Mama `poma´, dad `apple´: Raising a Child with Catalan in Australia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victòria Gras

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The decision to speak Catalan to my daughter came naturally to me. How else would I tell a story, sing a lullaby or make her laugh but in the language I was told stories, sung lullabies to and made to laugh since I was a new-born! However, whereas the choice to speak one’s mother tongue to your children is not questioned anymore in Spain, making this same choice when you live elsewhere seems to raise a lot of eyebrows. In this article I will reflect, from my own experience, on speaking a language of Spain other than Spanish in Australia. Catalan is one of 300 community languages in Australia, and it’s spoken by a small and ageing population. Keywords: Catalan, bilingualism, Australian community languages, first language, minority language, language policy.

  14. Molecular characterization and differentiation of five horse breeds raised in Algeria using polymorphic microsatellite markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berber, N; Gaouar, S; Leroy, G; Kdidi, S; Tabet Aouel, N; Saïdi Mehtar, N

    2014-10-01

    In this study, genetic analyses of diversity and differentiation were performed on five horse breeds raised in Algeria (Barb, Arab-Barb, Arabian, Thoroughbred and French Trotter). All microsatellite markers were highly polymorphic in all the breeds. A total of 123 alleles from 14 microsatellite loci were detected in 201 horses. The average number of alleles per locus was the highest in the Arab-Barb horses (7.86) and lowest in the thoroughbred breed (5.71), whereas the observed and expected heterozygosities per breed ranged from 0.71 (Thoroughbred) to 0.752 (Barb) and 0.71 (Thoroughbred) to 0.77 (Arab-Barb), respectively. The genetic differentiation between the breeds was significant (p horse populations and the other breeds. The Barb and Arab-Barb breeds seem to be the most genetically related and support the decision to consider the breeds as same population. PMID:24834806

  15. Raising money with tax incentives: an overview of how U.S. tax credits are marketed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article outlines a method for using certain U.S. income tax credits to raise investment capital. With proper structuring, these tax credits can essentially be ''sold'' to outside investors. A project which may not have sufficient income to take advantage of tax benefits, such as the 29 alternative fuel credit, may sell an interest in the project to commercial investors who can use tax credits. The investors provide cash for the project in return for the tax credits, as well as a portion of the income generated by the project. This article outlines how this type of arrangement can be structured and which tax credits are available for ''sale''. It also identifies possible sources of investment money, issues that an investor will likely consider before investing in such a project, and the potential pitfalls of such a project. (author)

  16. CATTLE BREEDING AND TERRITORY: A SURVEY ON THE MAREMMANA BREED RAISED IN TUSCANY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto FRATINI

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to highlight the importance of a cattle race native in an area of the territory of Tuscany. The Maremmana breed is a valuable breed raised in the pastures that stretch between southern Tuscany and northern Lazio. A sample of 12 farms was analyzed through direct interview, carried out at the farm. The farms surveyed implement organic farming, according to precise rules. The aspect that mostly catches in the interviews is that the only livestock activity is not sufficient for economic development of this rural area; in fact most of the farms perform multi-functional, practicing agritourism activities. In terms of remuneration of the factors of production used in animal husbandry it seems that especially farms with few animals require the integration of agricultural income with other business activities.

  17. Most frequent nematode parasites of artificially raised pheasants (Phasianus colchicus L and measures for their control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavlović Ivan

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Helminthoses have an important role in the pathology of artificially raised game pheasants. During the period 1997-2002. we examined a total of 1893 pheasant poults aged from 4 to 14 weeks and 1432 adult birds at several pheasanteries in Serbia. The following nematode species were found: Syngamus trachea, Ascaridia galli, A. columbae, Heterakis gallinarum, H. isolonche Capillaria gallinae (sin. C. caudinflata, C. columbae (sin. C. obsignata and C. phasianis. The intensity of infection in total was not high, except for infection with ascaridata and gapeworms, and depended of age of the examined birds. Consisting of anthelmintic drugs mixed with meal gave the most favourable results in therapy on rhe medicated food.

  18. Grammar Consciousness-Raising Activities and Iranian EFL Learners' Attitudes toward English Language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farrokhlagha Heidari

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The first purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of consciousness-raising (C-R activities on learning grammatical structures by Iranian EFL learners. The second one was to investigate the effect of gender through C-R activities and tasks. Finally, this study wanted to investigate the Iranian students’ attitudes toward learning English prior to and after applying the C-R activities. An attitude questionnaire was use to investigate the participants' attitudes toward learning English before and after applying C-R activities. Data analysis indicated that using C-R activities in is significantly more effective than the traditional approaches. Regarding gender, male outperformed females. Therefore, it is recommended that other teachers consider C-R activities as useful options in teaching other aspects of language.  Based on the statistics and findings, Iranian students’ attitudes toward learning English language were not much different prior to and after applying C-R activities.

  19. Raising energy efficiency and cutting greenhouse gas emissions : an analysis of publicly funded petroleum research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-11-01

    From the preface: This brochure is based on an analysis study that ascertained that since 2004 the Research Council's PETROMAKS and DEMO 2000 programmes have allocated funding to more than 80 projects carried out by the research community and private industry relating to climate challenges. Once these projects have been concluded, they will have received a total of over half a billion kroner in public funding. There is no doubt that many of the measures recommended by these projects will have positive impacts on the environment. Many of these research findings can contribute to making processes more energy efficient or to directly reducing emissions of greenhouse gases. The brochure presents a selection of these projects. A complete list of projects under the PETROMAKS and DEMO 2000 programmes which address raising energy efficiency may be found at the end of the brochure.(eb)

  20. Process of Raising Awareness about Engineering Ethics and Course Methodology Suitable for It

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abe, Takao

    It is both necessary and very significant to provide young corporate engineers and university students with opportunity to learn engineering ethics systematically. We have discussed that the awareness about engineering ethics will be brought up through the following four stages : (1) seed-stage, where no one knows the concept of engineering ethics, (2) awareness-stage, where people have some knowledge of engineering ethics, (3) instruction-stage, where people learn systematically engineering ethics, and (4) fixing-stage, where engineering-ethical consciousness has taken root. These above stages should be taken into consideration to make a curriculum of engineering ethics education. This paper also describes a few issues. For example, the degree of raising awareness cannot be evaluated so accurately through scores of fragmentary examinations.

  1. Raising the Prestige of Public Engagement within the Planetary Science Community in Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heward, A.; Fouchet, T.

    2011-07-01

    We describe the outreach programme of the Europlanet Research Infrastructure (RI), a four-year project funded by the European Union under Framework 7 and designed to maximise planetary science output in Europe. Outreach is a key activity within Europlanet RI and we have put in place a programme to build channels of communication between the planetary science community, the public and the media. One of the major challenges that we have identified is the low value that some parts of the research community place on outreach activities. We describe how we hope to change attitudes and raise the prestige of public engagement in planetary science by establishing an annual prize and a funding scheme. Both schemes are now in their second year, with the third round due to be announced at the EPSC-DPS Joint Meeting in October 2011.

  2. Dependence of UV effect on quality of light during raising of seedlings (Lactuca sativa L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greenhouse seedlings of Lactuca sativa L. show a decreased rate of photosynthesis under normal outdoor light conditions due to the effect of UV-light. In this study, the relationship between the declining rate of photosynthesis and the amount of UV in the spectrum was investigated. The determination was made in climatized gas exchange chambers under Xenon arc lamps (XBO 2500 W, Osram). The amount of UV in the spectrum was varied by the use of different surface mirrors made by aluminium evaporation. A linear relationship between the amount of UV-light in the spectrum and the rate of decrease of photosynthesis was obtained with 12 hour radiation. The decrease in photosynthesis is less when the plants are raised under UV-light lamps. (orig.)

  3. Technology Solutions Case Study: Raised Ceiling Interior Duct System, New Smyrna, Florida

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2014-09-01

    Builder S.E. Volusia County Habitat for Humanity (SEVHFH) was interested in constructing a home to the new U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Zero Energy Ready Home standards. SEVHFH partners with DOE team Building America Partnership for Improved Residential Construction on Habitat for Humanity homes and routinely builds to ENERGY STAR V3.1. The only modification to the design needed to comply with the Zero Energy Ready Home criteria was the interior duct requirement. Unwilling to incur the added costs of a foam roof deck or wall heights that exceed 8 ft to accommodate a fur-down chase, SEVHFH opted to build a fur-up or raised ceiling chase. This case study describes the project.

  4. Identification, rearing, and distribution of stick insects of Madeira Island: an example of raising biodiversity awareness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguiar, António M F; Pombo, Dora Aguin; Gonçalves, Ysabel M

    2014-01-01

    Two species of stick insects are currently known to be present in the Macaronesian archipelagos: Clonopsis gallica (Charpentier) (Phasmatodea: Bacillidae) on the Canary Islands and in the Azores and Carausius morosus (Sinéty) (Phasmatidae) in the Azores. Here, we provide the first reliable records of the presence and distribution of C. gallica and C. morosus on Madeira Island. Egg and adult stages are briefly described along with some notes on the life history of these species in captivity. Data on islandwide distribution are based on specimens donated by the public in response to an article published in a daily newspaper. This method of data collection raised great popular interest in stick insects. The role of newspapers as a means of communicating awareness in biodiversity issues is discussed. PMID:25373196

  5. How high the temperature of a liquid be raised without boiling?

    CERN Document Server

    Das, M; Roy, B; Roy, S C; Das, Mala

    2000-01-01

    How high the temperature of a liquid be raised beyond its boiling point without vaporizing (known as the limit of superheat) is an interesting subject of investigation. A new method of finding the limit of superheat of liquids is presented here. The superheated liquids are taken in the form of drops suspended in visco elastic gel. The nucleation is detected acoustically by a sensitive piezo-electric transducer, coupled to a multi channel scaler and the nucleation is observed as a funtion of time and with increase of temperature. The limit of superheat measured by the present method supersedes all other measurements and theoretical predictions in reaching closest to the critical temperature and warrants improved theoretical predictions.

  6. Effect of airway inflation pressure on forced expiratory maneuvers from raised lung volume in infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lum, Sooky; Hoo, Ah-Fong; Stocks, Janet

    2002-02-01

    The raised lung volume technique is increasingly used to measure forced expiratory maneuvers in infants. However, there is no consensus regarding the optimal airway inflation pressure (P(inf)) required for such maneuvers, or the influence of small changes in P(inf) within and between infants. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of small differences (0.2-0.3 kPa) in P(inf) on forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expired volume in 0.5 sec (FEV(0.5)), and forced expired flow at 75% of vital capacity (FEF(75)), all derived from the raised volume rapid thoraco-abdominal compression (RVRTC) technique. Randomized paired forced expiratory maneuvers were obtained in 32 healthy infants ( 3.9-39.3 weeks old, 3.8-9.9 kg) with the safety pressure relief valve for P(inf) set to 2.7 kPa or 3.0 kPa (27 or 30 cm H(2)0). When mean (SD) P(inf) was increased by 8.4 (2.8)%, there was a significant (P < 0.01) increase in mean (SD) FVC, FEV(0.5), and FEF(75) by 5.8 (5.7)%, 6.1 (6)%, and 8.3 (16.2)%, respectively. In conclusion, relatively small differences in P(inf) will result in significant differences in FVC, FEV(0.5), and FEF(75) by RVRTC technique. Precision in setting and reporting the applied P(inf) is therefore essential, particularly if data are to be compared between centers. PMID:11802250

  7. System for automatically preventing the raising of ash from dedicated landfills

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milutinovi? Predrag

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a system for automatic prevention of raising of ashes from dedicated landfills based on a simple mathematical model which has modest entry requirements for meteorological data. Such an approach is efficient enough and enables fast information retrieval, i.e. zones with different concentrations of dust in the air, enabling quick start of counter measures to reduce emissions of ashes into the air. The system hardware consists of an automatic weather station, set of meters that determine moisture of ash, set of remotely managed sprinklers, computers, microprocessor and microcontroller based elements for the local acquisition and management of the executive elements and modules for wireless data transfer. An original software application for the system management has been developed. Within the application there is a module that allows entering of all data necessary to configure the system, as well as data about sensors and sprinklers. Based on the meteorological input data, measured moisture content of the ashes, and on the basis of determined functional dependencies, special software module operates sprinklers for soaking the surfaces from which the ashes is emitted into the air, in order to eliminate these emissions. The system, based on the developed mathematical model, predicts the propagation of ashes through the air, as well as dry and wet deposition, in real-time. The system automatically stores all the data relevant to the future analyses and reporting. The system is designed and implemented as modular and open. A custom developed graphical user interface serves as Man-Machine Interface (MMI. By using the TCP/IP connection it could be easily connected with the other information systems. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR-15005: Design and development of pilot system for preventing automatic raise of ashes from dedicated dumps

  8. An awareness-raising E-learning approach for children living in a high diabetic population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaalan, Khaled; Al-Mansoori, Mona; Tawfik, Hissam

    2014-03-01

    Recent epidemiological studies have shown an increased incidence of diabetes worldwide. In United Arab Emirates (UAE), where this study on Emirati children was conducted, over 20% of the population has diabetes. With such a high incidence, there is a need to raise the awareness of the disease in order to reduce the growing number of cases and manage the disease more effectively. This research aims to identify the needs of affected children and proposes a design for an E-learning prototype that can pedagogically raise their awareness and knowledge of the disease. The use of a prototype was chosen in order to validate and refine the usability of the system, and to quickly evaluate user-interface designs without the need for an expensive working model to help refine and develop the system design. The system requirements were identified through a set of interviews with kindergarten teachers, curriculum design experts in UAE, and diabetes nutrition specialists and clinicians. The rationale behind the interview was to identify the optimal age group, describe the appropriate level of the instructional materials and activities, and propose a suitable learning approach that could facilitate and improve diabetes awareness among this age group. The prototype was evaluated by children, teachers, parents (or guardians) and nutrition specialists. We followed a three-stage software development based on a user-informed approach model for stepwise refinement that ranged from prototype to final design. The evaluation results indicate that the proposed computer-supported learning approach can generate positive learning and behavior in children while reducing the time needed to complete awareness tasks when compared to traditional methods; thus making learning more engaging and allowing children to learn at their own pace. PMID:24517457

  9. Antibodies raised against hemolymph of Anopheles culicifacies reduce the fecundity and malaria parasite development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amrita Kumari

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives: Several studies have been made to study the effect of antisera raisedagainst different tissues (hemolymh, ovary, midgut and salivary glands on the fecundity andmalaria parasite development in the different species of mosquitoes but there are no reports on theantisera raised against the hemolymph of Anopheles culicifacies, the principal malaria vector inIndia accounting for 65% of malaria cases. Hence, an attempt was made to study the same andevaluate its impact on malaria parasite development.Methods: Polyclonal and multifactorial antibodies were produced in rabbits against heterogenousmixture of hemolymph proteins. Antibodies against hemolymph proteins were screened for theirpotential to influence reproductive performance of mosquitoes. Antibody titer in rabbit serum wasdetermined by ELISA and putative candidate antigens were identified in the hemolymph of An.culicifacies by western blotting. Cross reactivity amongst various tissues vis-a-vis hemolymphprotein was also identified. In addition, a significant reduction in oocyst development was alsoobserved in An. culicifacies mosquitoes that ingested antihemolymph antibodies along withPlasmodium vivax.Results: The maximum reduction in fecundity (57% was observed during fourth week, after thelast booster and number of oocyts per infected mosquito reduced by 73.35% in the group ofmosquitoes that ingested antihemolymph antibodies along with the infected blood meal respectively.However, the ingestion of antibodies against hemolymph proteins did not have significant influenceon hatchability. Antisera raised against hemolymph proteins of An. culicifacies recognized 11polypeptides by western blotting.Interpretation & conclusion: During the present study, 11 putative candidate antigens were identifiedin the hemolymph of An. culicifacies, against which antibodies produced significantly reduced thefecundity by 57%. In addition, a significant reduction in oocyst development was also observed inAn. culicifacies that ingested antihemolymph antibodies along with P.vivax.

  10. At the Roots of Finnish Elementary Education – How Were Children Raised in the First Finnish Elementary Schools?

    OpenAIRE

    Satu UUSIAUTTI; Paksuniemi, Merja; Määttä, Kaarina

    2013-01-01

    This study dissects the history of Finnish elementary education and the way children were raised during the initial phase of Finnish education in the 18th century. The development of Finnish education was studied through contemporary decrees and laws and studies of Finnish school history. The preliminary aim was to focus on the principles and practices of raising children in Finnish schools. This study focuses on (1) describing the birth, goals, and practices of Finnish elementary education a...

  11. Ideologies, struggles and contradictions: an account of mothers raising their children bilingually in Luxembourgish and English in Britain

    OpenAIRE

    Kirsch, Claudine

    2012-01-01

    Researchers have studied family language planning within bilingual family contexts but there is a dearth of studies that examine language planning of multilingual parents who raise their children in one of the world’s lesser spoken languages. In this study I explore the ideologies and language planning of Luxembourgish mothers who are raising their children bilingually in Luxembourgish and English in Great Britain, where there is no Luxembourgish community to support them and where a monoling...

  12. Contribution of caffeine to the homocysteine-raising effect of coffee : a randomized controlled trial in humans

    OpenAIRE

    Verhoef, P.; Pasman, W.J.; Vliet, T.; Urgert, R; Katan, M.B.

    2002-01-01

    Background: A high plasma total homocysteine concentration is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease. Consumption of unfiltered or filtered coffee raises total homocysteine concentrations in healthy volunteers. The responsible compound, however, is unknown. Objective: The objective was to determine whether caffeine explains the homocysteine-raising effect of coffee. Design: Forty-eight subjects aged 19–65 y completed this randomized crossover study with 3 treatments, eac...

  13. Peripheral and gastrointestinal immune systems of healthy cattle raised outdoors at pasture or indoors on a concentrate-based ration

    OpenAIRE

    Reilly Petrina; Englishby Tanya; Campion Deirdre P; Black Alistair D; Earley Bernadette; Moloney Aidan P; Monahan Frank J; Lejeune Alexandre; O'Doherty John; Sweeney Torres

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Despite an increasing preference of consumers for beef produced from more extensive pasture-based production systems and potential human health benefits from the consumption of such beef, data regarding the health status of animals raised on pasture are limited. The objective of this study was to characterise specific aspects of the bovine peripheral and the gastrointestinal muscosal immune systems of cattle raised on an outdoor pasture system in comparison to animals rais...

  14. IMMEDIATE EFFECT OF ACTIVE RELEASE TECHNIQUE VERSUS MULLIGAN BENT LEG RAISE IN SUBJECTS WITH HAMSTRING TIGHTNESS: A RANDOMIZED CLINICAL TRIAL

    OpenAIRE

    Vijay Kage; Rakhi Ratnam

    2014-01-01

    Background: To study and compare the effectiveness of active release technique and mulligan bent leg raise in subjects with hamstring tightness. Methods: 40 normal healthy subjects (20 in each group) were recruited in the study under simple randomization method. Group A received single session of Active Release Technique and Group B received single session of Mulligan Bent Leg Raise technique for hamstring tightness. Popliteal angle and Sit and reach flexibility tests were measured pre i...

  15. The application of quality control circle in neurosurgery ICU nurses in raising compliance of the head of a bed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Na LI

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To explore the application of quality control circle in raising compliance of the head of a bed in neurosurgery ICU nurses. Methods: The quality control circle was made up of 4 ICU nurses, determine the subject in order to improve the neurosurgery ICU nurses in raising compliance of the head of a bed, according to the QCC activity steps to formulate plans, including grasp the current situation, goal setting, through analysis, circle members develop strategy and plan implementation and review, finally compared the situation before and after neurosurgery ICU nurses raised bed activities compliance. Results: After implementation of QCC, neurosurgery ICU nurses raised bed to 30 ~ 45 degrees. After activities, circle members in the team cooperation ability, cohesion, to accept new things ability, and innovative thinking ability and to raise the understanding of the relevant knowledge of the head of a bed has improved significantly. Conclusion: The application of quality management circle activity improves the neurosurgery ICU nurses effectively raise the compliance of the head of a bed, improve the comprehensive quality of the clinical nurses.

  16. Metabolic changes of masseter muscle in experimental unilateral bite-raised rat determined by 31P-MRS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Occlusal interference is known to alter the functional activity of masticatory muscle, but no alteration of the energy metabolism of masticatory muscle which has gone occlusal interference has been reported. The purpose of this study was to investigate the energy metabolism in rat masseter muscle during masticatory movements following unilateral bite-raising. A bite-raising splint (1 mm) was fixed on the unilateral upper molar of experimental rats, and after 2, 4 and 6 weeks, the rats were anesthetized and masticatory movements were induced by electrical stimulation applied to the masseter muscle (with a biting force of 40 g, a frequency of 5 Hz and a stimulation time of 32 min). 31P Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy of the masseter muscle were recorded during a sequence of rest, stimulation and recovery periods, and the resonance signal area ratio of PCr and Pi ((PCr)/(PCr + Pi)) and the muscle pH were determined. After 4 and 6 weeks following the bite-raising, the masseter of the bite-raised side showed a decrease in the (PCr)/(PCr + Pi) ratio compared with a control group during stimulation (p<0.05). Neither the bite-raised side masseter at 2 weeks and the contralateral side at 4 weeks showed any differences compared with the control. The muscle pH during stimulation was similar in both the control and the bite-raised groups of rats. These findings suggest that the occlusal alteration induced by unilateral bite-raising reduces the masseter energy level during mastication. (author)

  17. Metabolic changes of masseter muscle in experimental unilateral bite-raised rat determined by {sup 31}P-MRS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nishide, Naoto [Kyoto Prefectural Univ. of Medicine (Japan)

    1997-05-01

    Occlusal interference is known to alter the functional activity of masticatory muscle, but no alteration of the energy metabolism of masticatory muscle which has gone occlusal interference has been reported. The purpose of this study was to investigate the energy metabolism in rat masseter muscle during masticatory movements following unilateral bite-raising. A bite-raising splint (1 mm) was fixed on the unilateral upper molar of experimental rats, and after 2, 4 and 6 weeks, the rats were anesthetized and masticatory movements were induced by electrical stimulation applied to the masseter muscle (with a biting force of 40 g, a frequency of 5 Hz and a stimulation time of 32 min). {sup 31}P Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy of the masseter muscle were recorded during a sequence of rest, stimulation and recovery periods, and the resonance signal area ratio of PCr and Pi ((PCr)/(PCr + Pi)) and the muscle pH were determined. After 4 and 6 weeks following the bite-raising, the masseter of the bite-raised side showed a decrease in the (PCr)/(PCr + Pi) ratio compared with a control group during stimulation (p<0.05). Neither the bite-raised side masseter at 2 weeks and the contralateral side at 4 weeks showed any differences compared with the control. The muscle pH during stimulation was similar in both the control and the bite-raised groups of rats. These findings suggest that the occlusal alteration induced by unilateral bite-raising reduces the masseter energy level during mastication. (author)

  18. Puberty and sexual maturity in Anglo-Nubian male goats raised in semi-intensive system

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Luiz Eduardo Barreto de, Souza; Jurandir Ferreira da, Cruz; Milton Rezende, Teixeira Neto; Rita de Cássia Santos, Nunes; Maria Helena Coelho, Cruz.

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to characterize the sexual development in Anglo-Nubian male goats raised in semi-intensive system. Eight animals were monitored every fifteen days, from the 12th to the 44th week for age at penis detachment, live weight, scrotal circumference, seminal parameters (volu [...] me, aspect, concentration, wave motion, progressive individual motility, vigor and spermatic abnormalities) and serum testosterone levels. Serum testosterone levels were determined in blood samples collected at the 20th, 28th and 38th weeks of age. Penis detachment occurred at 102.9 ± 15.4 days of age. Live weight and scrotal circumference at 20th and 44th weeks of age ranged from 25.9 ± 3.5 to 44.7 ± 4.7 kg and from 21.2 ± 1.6 cm to 26.0 ± 1.5 cm, respectively. The ejaculate volume ranged from 0.38 ± 0.05 to 0.96 ± 0.04 mL, concentration ranged from 1.33 ± 0.64 to 3.54 ± 0.14.10(9) mL-1 and the progressive individual motility varied from 48.0 ± 10.52% to 82.0 ± 3.74%, at the same age. The number of defective spermatozoa (major and minor) was 32.2 ± 5.8% vs. 8.80 ± 2.9% at the 20th and the 44th week of age, respectively. Serum testosterone level was 2.70 ± 1.40 ng.mL-1 at the 20th week, 8.50 ± 4.66 ng.mL-1 at the 28th week and 2.21 ± 2.28 ng.mL-1 at the 38th week of age. Age showed a correlation with live weight, scrotal circumference, and all the qualitative parameters of semen except for volume, with all other qualitative parameters of semen, and the correlation among sperm abnormalities and the other traits was negative. Serum testosterone levels and andrological parameters of Anglo-Nubian goats raised in semi-intensive system are closely related to age. In those animals, puberty is reached at the 20th week and sexual maturity is reached at the 38th week of age.

  19. Low temperature boron and phosphorous doped SiGe for recessed and raised sources and drains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartmann, J. M.; Py, M.; Barnes, J. P.; Prévitali, B.; Batude, P.; Billon, T.

    2011-07-01

    We have first of all studied the growth kinetics of boron and phosphorous doped, 20-30 nm thick Si 0.65Ge 0.35 layers, the aim being their integration in recessed and raised sources and drains. Those layers have been grown at low pressure (20 Torr) and low temperature (650 °C) with a heavily chlorinated chemistry (in order to be selective versus SiO 2 (isolation) and Si 3N 4 (sidewall spacers)). We have quantified the impact of the diborane and phosphine flow on (i) the SiGe crystalline quality and strain state, (ii) the amount of boron or phosphorous atoms incorporated in it and (iii) the SiGe:B or SiGe:P growth kinetics. As the diborane flow increases, the SiGe:B growth rate definitely increases, while the real Ge concentration (from Time-Of-Flight Secondary Ions Mass Spectrometry) is more or less steady. B atoms, being much smaller than Si or Ge, partially compensate the compressive strain in the SiGe:B layers, leading to a decrease in the apparent Ge concentration (from X-ray diffraction). Opposite trends are observed for SiGe:P. There is indeed a definite decrease in the SiGe:P growth rate together with a definite increase in both the apparent and real Ge concentration as the phosphine flow increases. The Boron atomic concentration increases linearly with the diborane flow, with however a practical limit around 3.5×10 20 cm -3 in order to stay monocrystalline. Meanwhile, the phosphorous atomic concentration saturates quite rapidly at values close to 8-9×10 19 cm -3 as the phosphine flow increases (most likely due to surface segregation). In the second part we have highlighted some of the difficulties encountered when trying to selectively grow intrinsic SiGe raised S/Ds at 650 °C on patterned, extra-thin Silicon-On-Insulator wafers and some of the solutions identified in order to obtain 2D thick films. Amongst those, we can mention the 750 °C deposition of a thin Si buffer or the in-situ high HCl partial pressure etch at 650 °C of a few nm of Si prior to SiGe Selective Epitaxial Growth (SEG), the drastic reduction of the incoming HCl flow during SiGe SEG, etc.

  20. Observing and simulating soil development using a chronosequence of cold raised marine terraces on Spitsbergen

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Meij, Marijn; de Kleijn, Christian; Temme, Arnaud; Zwolinski, Zbigniew; Rymer, Krzysztof

    2015-04-01

    The coasts of Spitsbergen are covered with raised marine beaches, developed under the isostatic rebound after the Last Glacial Maximum. This chronosequence of beaches provides a unique chance to study the speed of soil forming processes in cold and dry Arctic regions. Fieldwork was performed on gravelly marine beaches in the Ebba valley, central Spitsbergen, with ages ranging from 3.000 up to 14.000 years. The soils on 30 random selected locations were described and sampled. Results indicate several soil forming processes, which have a strong dependence on time, but also on landscape setting and vegetation presence. These processes include the accumulation of organic matter, aeolian deposition of sand and weathering and dissolution of the limestone gravel that dominates the parent material. This last process results in translocation of silt through the profile, creating silt caps on remaining limestone gravel, and when enough silt is accumulated, a Bl horizon. The carbonates from the limestone form precipitates under the gravel grains. Results support the notion that even under cold, permafrost conditions, soil formation and particularly weathering can still happen reasonably fast if some water is available. Using an early version of soilscape model LORICA, some of the pedogenic processes are simulated in order to get better insight in their dynamics and distribution in the study area. The model links geomorphic processes such as aeolian deposition, isostatic rebound and erosion to the vertical development of the soil profiles in the area.

  1. Ethical issues raised by the new orientations in ergonomics and living labs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barcenilla, Javier; Tijus, Charles

    2012-01-01

    User Experience Theory (UXT) provides us with criteria for designing products and technical systems for everyday activities (playing, learning, working,…) so as to satisfy users. Living Labs (LL), are plateforms used for the design and evaluation of technical systems. As such, they constitute tools that bring to this process some constraints., However these constraints have to be articulated to the UXT. In other words, UXT should specify the place, the role and function LL should play in the design of new products, how it should contribute to satisfying UX, and how the methods and techniques should be conceived or borrowed from other disciplines. UXT also raises ethical issues: impartiality (independent, public, replicable) of research models in the context of economical constraints (dependant, private, secret prototypes) and of industrial pressure, the use of intrusive and persuasive techniques, even with the prior informed consent of participants, ergo-marketing, deontology codes, the use of specific participants, belonging of an UX innovative solution, confidentiality with ICT, and so on. Because the UX, as well as LL literature, have shown little concerns for ethical considerations, till now, we define LL-UX ethical issues as a new research topic, and we list a number of problems to be solved in order to have an ethical LL-UX methodology for open innovation. PMID:22317534

  2. Raising New Zealand’s Terrorism Threat Level: Is Transparency Important in National Security?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Shortt

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In mid-October 2014, ten years after the New Zealand Government confirmed the establishment of a Combined Threat Assessment Group (CTAG to advise it on a range of potential threats, the prime minister announced, for the first time, the raising of New Zealand’s domestic terrorism threat level. Unfortunately, the assessment that gave rise to the threat level’s change (or a version of it was not made public. Therefore, how were New Zealanders or others expected to properly understand the environment giving rise to the threat changes, and to judge whether the assessors got the setting right. This paper argues increased public transparency is appropriate when additional security measures resulting from a change in threat perception impact citizens’ lives and cost tax-payers more money. In presenting this argument, the paper briefly describes the role of threat assessments and how threat levels are set. In the absence of a public version of New Zealand’s threat assessment giving a cohesive, concise and transparent outline of the threat environment, the paper presents publicly available information from well-informed high office holders to see if that provides alternative and suitable transparency. Finally, the paper compares New Zealand’s terrorism threat assessment transparency processes with those of four countries with similar characteristics to New Zealand to see if alternative models of public transparency are available for consideration.

  3. Rope NDT as means to raise safety of crane and elevator use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steel rope NDT by magnetic flaw detectors is usual for mine hoist inspection through the world. But it is no ordinary by crane and especially by elevator inspection. However, magnetic NDT statistic data of 60 crane and 227 elevator ropes in use shows that about 23% of crane and 9% of elevator ropes should be discarded in accordance with actual discarding criterion in Russia. Russian State Rules for crane safe exploitation require the magnetic NDT while periodically inspection. But not all the inspecting companies meet it in Russia, contenting themselves by visual inspection only. This is not objective and does not provide rope inner faults detection. That is a reason of rope break rather high percentage in general statistics of crane accidents and damages. Investigation of accidents with crane ropes in Moscow region in 2001 shows that they would de prevented by the magnetic NDT fulfilled timely. The elevator rope NDT problem is not so sharp but attention should de attracted to it to raise safety of elevators. (author)

  4. Hyperglycemia raises the threshold of levosimendan- but not milrinone-induced postconditioning in rat hearts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matsumoto Shuhei

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The authors examined whether milrinone and levosimendan could exert cardiac postconditioning effects in rats under normoglycemia and hyperglycemia, and whether the effects could be mediated by mitochondrial permeability transition pore (mPTP. Methods Wistar rats underwent 30-min coronary artery occlusion followed by 2-h reperfusion. The rats received milrinone or levosimendan just before reperfusion under normoglycemic or hyperglycemic conditions with or without atractyloside, an mPTP opener. Results Under normoglycemia, both 30 ?g/kg milrinone (29 ± 12% and 10 ?g/kg levosimendan (33 ± 13% reduced infarct size compared with that in the control (58 ± 7%. Under hyperglycemia, milrinone (34 ± 13% reduced infarct size at the same dose as under normoglycemia. In contrast, neither 10 nor 30 ?g/kg levosimendan protected hyperglycemic hearts, and only 100 ?g/kg levosimendan (32 ± 9% reduced infarct size compared with that in the hyperglycemic control (58 ± 13%. All of these cardioprotective effects under normoglycemia and hyperglycemia are abolished by atractyloside. Conclusion Milrinone and levosimendan exert postconditioning effects via inhibition of mPTP opening. Hyperglycemia raises the threshold of levosimendan-induced postconditioning, while milrinone-induced postconditioning is not influenced by hyperglycemia.

  5. Root Raised Cosine (RRC) Filters and Pulse Shaping in Communication Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cubukcu, Erkin

    2012-01-01

    This presentation briefly discusses application of the Root Raised Cosine (RRC) pulse shaping in the space telecommunication. Use of the RRC filtering (i.e., pulse shaping) is adopted in commercial communications, such as cellular technology, and used extensively. However, its use in space communication is still relatively new. This will possibly change as the crowding of the frequency spectrum used in the space communication becomes a problem. The two conflicting requirements in telecommunication are the demand for high data rates per channel (or user) and need for more channels, i.e., more users. Theoretically as the channel bandwidth is increased to provide higher data rates the number of channels allocated in a fixed spectrum must be reduced. Tackling these two conflicting requirements at the same time led to the development of the RRC filters. More channels with wider bandwidth might be tightly packed in the frequency spectrum achieving the desired goals. A link model with the RRC filters has been developed and simulated. Using 90% power Bandwidth (BW) measurement definition showed that the RRC filtering might improve spectrum efficiency by more than 75%. Furthermore using the matching RRC filters both in the transmitter and receiver provides the improved Bit Error Rate (BER) performance. In this presentation the theory of three related concepts, namely pulse shaping, Inter Symbol Interference (ISI), and Bandwidth (BW) will be touched upon. Additionally the concept of the RRC filtering and some facts about the RRC filters will be presented

  6. Avalanches in the raise and peel model in the presence of a wall

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We investigate a non-equilibrium one-dimensional model known as the raise and peel model describing a growing surface which grows locally and has non-local desorption. For specific values of adsorption (ua) and desorption (ud) rates, the model shows interesting features. At ua = ud, the model is described by a conformal field theory (with conformal charge c = 0) and its stationary probability can be mapped onto the ground state of the XXZ quantum chain. Moreover, for the regime ua ? ud, the model shows a phase in which the avalanche distribution is scale-invariant. In this work, we study the surface dynamics by looking at avalanche distributions using a finite-sized scaling formalism and explore the effect of adding a wall to the model. The model shows the same universality for the cases with and without a wall for an odd number of tiles removed, but we find a new exponent in the presence of a wall for an even number of tiles released in an avalanche. New insights into the effect of parity on avalanche distributions are discussed and we provide a new conjecture for the probability distribution of avalanches with a wall obtained by using an exact diagonalization of small lattices and Monte Carlo simulations. (paper)

  7. Does Raising the Early Retirement Age Increase Employment of Older Workers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staubli, Stefan; Zweimüller, Josef

    2013-12-01

    Two pension reforms in Austria increased the early retirement age (ERA) from 60 to 62 for men and from 55 to 58.25 for women. We find that raising the ERA increased employment by 9.75 percentage points among affected men and by 11 percentage points among affected women. The reforms had large spillover effects on the unemployment insurance program but negligible effects on disability insurance claims. Specifically, unemployment increased by 12.5 percentage points among men and by 11.8 percentage points among women. The employment response was largest among high-wage and healthy workers, while low-wage and less healthy workers either continued to retire early via disability benefits or bridged the gap to the ERA via unemployment benefits. Taking spillover effects and additional tax revenues into account, we find that for a typical birth-year cohort a one year increase in the ERA resulted in a reduction of net government expenditures of 107 million euros for men and of 122 million euros for women. PMID:24319299

  8. Analysis of the stress raising action of flaws in laser clad deposits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ? Laser clad defects are 0D-pores/inclusions, 1D-clad waviness or 2D-planar defects. ? Surface pore of laser clad bar initiates fatigue cracks. ? Side edge surface pores are more critical than in-clad surface pores. ? Smaller notch radius and angle of as-laser clad surface raises stress significantly. ? Planar inner defects grow faster towards surface. - Abstract: Fatigue cracking of laser clad cylindrical and square section bars depends upon a variety of factors. This paper presents Finite Element Analysis (FEA) of the different macro stress fields generated as well as stress raisers created by laser cladding defects for four different fatigue load conditions. As important as the defect types are their locations and orientations, categorized into zero-, one- and two-dimensional defects. Pores and inclusions become critical close to surfaces. The performance of as-clad surfaces can be governed by the sharpness of surface notches and planar defects like hot cracks or lack-of-fusion (LOF) are most critical if oriented vertically, transverse to the bar axis. The combination of the macro stress field with the defect type and its position and orientation determines whether it is the most critical stress raiser. Based on calculated cases, quantitative and qualitative charts were developed as guidelines to visualize the trends of different combinations

  9. The Quality of Liquid Fermented Products for Alternative Use of Antibiotics for Animal Raising

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The chemical properties of liquid fermented products (LFP) as probiotics substance for alternative uses of antibiotic were studied. The LFP of 235 were sampling from markets and farmers during 2005-2006. The total count of bacteria, fungi, lactic acid bacteria (LAB), Actinomyces and coliform bacteria were conducted. Chemical analysis of LFP showed medium nitrogen (0.01- 0.55%), maximum sugar contents (0.02 - 19.40%), high lactic acid contents (0.34 - 13.01%) and low pH (2.9-5.0). LFPs were free from fecal coliform and Escherichia coil (Ec); but in LAB (1.0 - 1.25x107 cfu/ml) and high Actinomyces (1.0 - 7.5 x 106 cfu/ml). LFPs inhibited Staphylococcus aureus (Sa), Samonella typhimurium (STM), Escherichia coil (Ec) and Ec 0157 at maximum yield by using Minimal Inhibition Concentration (MIC). But Pseudomonas aeruginosa (Pa) could medium inhibited. Therefore LFP samples are suitable as probiotics for alternative use of antibiotic for animal raising.

  10. When ethical reform became law: the constitutional concerns raised by recent legislation in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Yi-Chen

    2014-07-01

    In an effort at ethical reform, Taiwan recently revised the Hospice Palliative Care Law authorising family members or physicians to make surrogate decisions to discontinue life-sustaining treatment if an incompetent terminally ill patient did not express their wishes while still competent. In particular, Article 7 of the new law authorises the palliative care team, namely the physicians, to act as sole decision-makers on behalf of the incompetent terminally ill patient's best interests if no family member is available. However, the law fails to provide guidance as to what constitutes the patient's best interests or what specific procedures the treating physicians should follow, and so has raised constitutional concerns. It may be difficult to translate ethical reform into law but it is not impossible if essential requirements are carefully followed. First, there must be substantial nexus between the purpose of the statute and the measures provided under the statute. Second, advocates need to convince the public that futility or waste has amounted to a public health emergency so as to justify lower procedural requirements. Third, a remedy or compensation should be available if the surrogate decisions have not been appropriately made. Fourth,minimum procedural safeguards are necessary even though the statute is intended to reduce the procedural burdens of making surrogate decisions on behalf of incompetent patients who lack family members and did not express their wishes while still competent. PMID:24131902

  11. How can we raise Tc in RO1-xFxFeAs superconductors?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    By the discovery of RO1-xFxFeAs (R = lanthanide) superconductors in the beginning of 2008, it was shown for the first time that a non-cuprate superconductor can reach a superconducting transition temperature Tc above 50 K. This offers new opportunities for the development of new high temperature superconductors. However, the superconductors with the highest Tc show the most difficulties in formation of the right phase. Problems are the incorporation of fluorine and the homogeneity of the samples. A further challenge is the structural instability for rare earth elements with small ion radius (64?Z?71). In our studies, several opportunities to overcome these difficulties are evaluated: 1. variation of the grain size of the initial powder 2. use of slightly non-stoichiometric initial composition 3. high-pressure synthesis As a result, we raise the Tc of the material with a nominal composition GdO1-xFxFeAs from 20 up to 40 K. In a SmO0.9F0.1FeAs-compound could be observed superconductivity above 50 K after a small As-reduction at the surface of the sample. Measurements of the final composition and structure will animate the discussion about the requirements for realization of the superconducting state.

  12. Study of the legal problems raised by the siting of nuclear power stations in artificial islands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The creation and operation of a nuclear power station on an artificial island in French waters are governed by domestic law and are subject to two types of procedure: the first concerns erection of the artificial island and the second the control of the public authorities over creation and operation of the nuclear power station. At administrative level, the setting up of an artificial island requires that it be attached to a commune as well as permission for occupancy from the maritime authorities. Furthermore, setting up of a nuclear power station on an artificial island is subject to the licensing procedure for large nuclear installations and to delivery of the licenses required for release of gaseous and liquid radioactive effluents. Given the proximity of the high seas and eventually, the borders of other States, siting of a nuclear power station on an artificial island imposes obligations at international level. These requirements, which concern prevention of transfrontier pollution, stem from the London (1972) and Paris (1974) Conventions on marine pollution. The third party liability regime for a nuclear incident caused by an installation sited in territorial seas is that of the 1960 Paris Convention on third party liability in the nuclear field and the 1963 Brussels Supplementary Convention. Another problem likely to be raised is that of the right of innocent passage of ships near such installations

  13. Luminescence and radiocarbon dating of raised beach sediments, Bunger Hills, East Antarctica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luminescence and radiocarbon dating of raised marine sediments from the Bunger Hills, East Antarctica, demonstrates that luminescence methods can be applied to such poorly bleached sediments as long as the luminescence behaviour of the sediments is understood. This is essential as the complete zeroing of the luminescence signal due to light exposure is required to allow an accurate age for the sediment accumulation. Unfortunately, independent checks on the luminescence ages are rare. In the present study, some independent age control is provided by AMS radiocarbon ages from shell obtained from and adjacent to the luminescence dated horizons, although the radiocarbon ages may suffer to some degree from variability in the marine reservoir effect. Application of the single aliquot luminescence technique to feldspar grains from the marine sediments demonstrated that the luminescence behaviour of the sediments was complex. For each sample, 18 replicate paleodose estimates were used to demonstrate whether the sediments were well bleached before deposition. Optically, well-bleached samples give younger luminescence ages, whilst poorly bleached samples often give excessively old ages compared to the associated radiocarbon-dated material. (author)

  14. Symbiosis with an endobacterium increases the fitness of a mycorrhizal fungus, raising its bioenergetic potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvioli, Alessandra; Ghignone, Stefano; Novero, Mara; Navazio, Lorella; Venice, Francesco; Bagnaresi, Paolo; Bonfante, Paola

    2016-01-01

    Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) occur in the rhizosphere and in plant tissues as obligate symbionts, having key roles in plant evolution and nutrition. AMF possess endobacteria, and genome sequencing of the endobacterium Candidatus Glomeribacter gigasporarum revealed a reduced genome and a dependence on the fungal host. To understand the effect of bacteria on fungal fitness, we used next-generation sequencing to analyse the transcriptional profile of Gigaspora margarita in the presence and in the absence of its endobacterium. Genomic data on AMF are limited; therefore, we first generated a gene catalogue for G. margarita. Transcriptome analysis revealed that the endobacterium has a stronger effect on the pre-symbiotic phase of the fungus. Coupling transcriptomics with cell biology and physiological approaches, we demonstrate that the bacterium increases the fungal sporulation success, raises the fungal bioenergetic capacity, increasing ATP production, and eliciting mechanisms to detoxify reactive oxygen species. By using TAT peptide to translocate the bioluminescent calcium reporter aequorin, we demonstrated that the line with endobacteria had a lower basal intracellular calcium concentration than the cured line. Lastly, the bacteria seem to enhance the fungal responsiveness to strigolactones, the plant molecules that AMF perceive as branching factors. Although the endobacterium exacts a nutritional cost on the AMF, endobacterial symbiosis improves the fungal ecological fitness by priming mitochondrial metabolic pathways and giving the AMF more tools to face environmental stresses. Thus, we hypothesise that, as described for the human microbiota, endobacteria may increase AMF innate immunity. PMID:26046255

  15. A longitudinal study of unweaned piglets raised by smallholder farmers in the Philippines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    More, Simon J; Lee, Jenny-Ann L M; Lañada, Eugene B; Taveros, Alberto A; Cotiw-an, Basito S

    2005-08-12

    We conducted a longitudinal study to obtain detailed baseline information about the health and productivity of unweaned piglets raised by smallholder pig raisers in the Philippines, and to identify constraints and opportunities to smallholder-piglet production. At two sites in the Philippines, we collected data about 242 litters from 173 sows in 102 herds during on-farm visits over 12-18 months. Preweaning mortality at the northern and southern sites was 17 and 9%, respectively. Of the piglet deaths at the northern site, 49% occurred within 24h of birth. Pig raisers used few of the recognised interventions known to reduce neonatal piglet mortality, although >50% of litters were given iron injections at the northern site and kept in a farrowing pen with a barrier at the southern site. Creep feeding was more common at the northern site but the nutritive value of the feeds given to piglets was low. We used repeated-measures and time-to-event analyses. Our results suggest that targeted extension (addressing, in particular, management issues relating to neonatal piglets) can contribute to increased productivity of unweaned piglets. PMID:15967246

  16. Raising Students' Awareness of Cross-Cultural Contrastive Rhetoric Via an E-Learning Course

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinghui Wang

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the potential impact of e-learning on raising overseas students' cultural awareness and explored the possibility of creating an interactive learning environment for them to improve their English academic writing. The study was based on a comparison of Chinese and English rhetoric in academic writing, including a comparison of Chinese students' writings in Chinese with native English speakers' writings in English and Chinese students' writings in English with the help of an e-course and Chinese students' writings in English without the help of an e-course. Five features of contrastive rhetoric were used as criteria for the comparison. The experimental results show that the group using the e-course was successful in learning about defined aspects of English rhetoric in academic writing, reaching a level of performance that equalled that of native English speakers. Data analysis also revealed that e-learning resources helped students to compare rhetorical styles across cultures and that the interactive learning environment was effective in improving overseas students' English academic writing.

  17. Contribution of ?-globin cluster polymorphisms to raise fetal hemoglobin levels in normal adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jouini, Latifa; Bibi, Amina; Ouali, Faida; Hadj Fredj, Sondess; Ouennich, Fekria; Siala, Hajer; Messaoud, Taieb; Fattoum, Slaheddine

    2012-04-01

    Hereditary persistence of fetal hemoglobin (HPFH) is a group of genetically heterogeneous conditions characterized by continued expression of fetal hemoglobin (HbF) in adulthood. HPFH may be due not only to point mutations or large deletions in different regions of the cluster ? globin, but also to variations in several polymorphic sequences in this cluster. The objective of this work was to evaluate effects of polymorphic markers within cluster ? globin on HbF expression. For the purpose, we have explored in this first study of Tunisian HPFH four polymorphic regions of ? globin cluster in 68 healthy adults (34 subjects with high levels of HbF and 34 with normal HbF levels). Our results showed that the increase of HbF levels is associated with the -158 G? C ? T polymorphism, the TG(18)CG(2)CACG, TC TG(9)AG TG(2)CG(2) and TG(11)CG(4) configurations in the second intron of G? gene and the -540 ? (AT)(6)T(9) and (AT)(7)T(8) repeated sequences. Among the 34 subjects with raised levels of HbF, approximately 97% carried one or more of these six markers. This study suggests that there is a significant association between certain polymorphic configurations of the ? globin cluster and the increase of HbF levels in healthy individuals. PMID:21947948

  18. Gastrointestinal nematode infections in sheep raised in Botucatu, state of São Paulo, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilmsen, Maurício Orlando; Silva, Bruna Fernanda; Bassetto, César Cristiano; Amarante, Alessandro Francisco Talamini do

    2014-01-01

    Gastrointestinal nematode infections were evaluated in sheep raised in Botucatu, state of São Paulo, Brazil between April 2008 and March 2011. Every month, two tracer lambs grazing with a flock of sheep were exposed to natural infection with gastrointestinal nematodes for 28 consecutive days. At the end of this period, the lambs were sacrificed for worm counts. Haemonchus contortus presented 100% of prevalence. The seasons exerted no significant influence on the mean intensity of H. contortus, which ranged from 315 worms in November 2010 to 2,5205 worms in January 2011. The prevalence of Trichostrongylus colubriformis was also 100%, with the lowest mean intensity (15 worms) recorded in February 2011 and the highest (9,760 worms) in October 2009. In the case of T. colubriformis, a significant correlation coefficient was found between worm counts vs. rainfall (r = -0.32; P <0.05). Three other nematodes species were found in tracer lambs, albeit in small numbers. Their prevalence and mean intensity (in parenthesis) were as follows: Oesophagostomum columbianum 28% (25.2), Cooperia curticei 7% (4.5) and Trichuris spp. 2% (1). In conclusion, the environmental conditions of the area proved to be highly favorable for the year-round transmission of H. contortus and T. colubriformis. PMID:25271455

  19. Increase of diesel car raises health risk in spite of recent development in engine technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leem, Jong Han; Jang, Young-Kee

    2014-01-01

    Diesel exhaust particles (DEP) contain elemental carbon, organic compounds including Polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), metals, and other trace compounds. Diesel exhaust is complex mixture of thousands of chemicals. Over forty air contaminants are recognized as toxicants, such as carcinogens. Most diesel exhaust particles have aerodynamic diameters falling within a range of 0.1 to 0.25 ?m. DEP was classified as a definite human carcinogen (group 1) by the International Agency for Research on Cancer at 2012 based on recently sufficient epidemiological evidence for lung cancer. Significant decreases in DEP and other diesel exhaust constituents will not be evident immediately, and outworn diesel car having longer mileage still threatens health of people in spite of recent remarkable development in diesel engine technology. Policy change in South Korea, such as introduction of diesel taxi, may raise health risk of air pollution in metropolitan area with these limitations of diesel engine. To protect people against DEP in South Korea, progressive strategies are needed, including disallowance of diesel taxi, more strict regulation of diesel engine emission, obligatory diesel particulate filter attachment in outworn diesel car, and close monitoring about health effects of DEP. PMID:25318659

  20. Ethical Issues Raised by Epigenetic Testing for Alcohol, Tobacco, and Cannabis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erwin, Cheryl

    2015-10-01

    Epigenetic testing is one of the most significant new technologies to provide insight into the behavioral and environmental factors that influence the development and reconfiguration of the human genetic code. This technology allows us to identify structural changes in the genome that occur due to exposure to a wide variety of substances including alcohol, tobacco, and cannabis. The information gained can be used to promote health but it also raises a variety of ethical, legal, and social issues. As society progresses in understanding the epigenetic mechanisms of substance use and addiction, there is an opportunity to use these use this knowledge to enable medical, behavioral, and environmental interventions to alleviate the burden of addiction. This article describes the ethical issues associated with use of epigenetic testing for alcohol, tobacco, and cannabis and the implications of this technology. A further review of the scientific basis for the relevance of epigenetics is found in the accompanying article by Philibert and Erwin in this issue. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:26358643

  1. Current means for raising efficiency of counteraction to counterfeit goods trafficking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dronova O.B.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The urgency of counteraction to counterfeit goods trafficking is shown. Annual loss due to counterfeit goods producing and trafficking reaches several billion dollars. There remains a danger of buying low-quality and counterfeit goods despite implementing new producing techniques and protective elements. Measures, taken by law enforcement agencies, state authorities and public human rights organizations have not led to systematic suppression of producing and trafficking of such goods. Creation of new information and reference resource, containing information blocks of protective symbols on goods and packages and illustrated materials comprising patterns of discovered counterfeit goods, can assist to increase public awareness and to give necessary information to law enforcement agencies. Organizations, realizing state and social protection of consumers and entrepreneurs, along with producers, rightholders’ representatives and law enforcement bodies can accept the responsibility of creating and functioning this information and reference system in the Internet. Such level of cooperation of all interested organizations will allow to raise efficiency of measures for counteraction to trafficking goods with violated consumer properties. The author proves the necessity to organize functioning of information and reference resource for a wide range of users. Operation of such resource should comply with main principles of generating any information resource, notably full scale, authenticity and relevance of information. The author proposes the algorithm of creating such system which provides cooperation of law enforcement agencies, producers and consumers for the purpose of preventing counterfeit goods trafficking and investigating committed crimes.

  2. Increase of diesel car raises health risk in spite of recent development in engine technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leem, Jong Han; Jang, Young-Kee

    2014-01-01

    Diesel exhaust particles (DEP) contain elemental carbon, organic compounds including Polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), metals, and other trace compounds. Diesel exhaust is complex mixture of thousands of chemicals. Over forty air contaminants are recognized as toxicants, such as carcinogens. Most diesel exhaust particles have aerodynamic diameters falling within a range of 0.1 to 0.25 ?m. DEP was classified as a definite human carcinogen (group 1) by the International Agency for Research on Cancer at 2012 based on recently sufficient epidemiological evidence for lung cancer. Significant decreases in DEP and other diesel exhaust constituents will not be evident immediately, and outworn diesel car having longer mileage still threatens health of people in spite of recent remarkable development in diesel engine technology. Policy change in South Korea, such as introduction of diesel taxi, may raise health risk of air pollution in metropolitan area with these limitations of diesel engine. To protect people against DEP in South Korea, progressive strategies are needed, including disallowance of diesel taxi, more strict regulation of diesel engine emission, obligatory diesel particulate filter attachment in outworn diesel car, and close monitoring about health effects of DEP. PMID:25318659

  3. Dams and displacement: Raising the standards and broadening the research agenda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brooke McDonald-Wilmsen

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The World Commission on Dams provided an analytical overview of the cumulative effects of years of dam development. A lack of commitment or capacity to cope with displacement or to consider the civil rights of, or risks to, displaced people led to the impoverishment and suffering of tens of millions and growing opposition to dams by affected communities worldwide. However, after the WCD, little has changed for the better in terms of resettlement policies. In fact, the standards of key agencies, like the Asian Development Bank, have been lowered and diluted compared to prior policies. Dam-induced development and displacement are stifled by a 'managerialist' approach to planning, in which solutions are sought internally and subordinated to the economics that underpins the existence of the project. The aim of successful resettlement is to prevent impoverishment and to enable displaced people to share in the project’s benefits. Within the field of dam-induced resettlement, this is a lofty goal rarely achieved. However, in other fields of resettlement, such as refugee studies and adaptation to environmental change, such a goal is regarded as a minimum standard. In this paper we seek to broaden the research agenda on dam-induced resettlement and to raise the standards of development projects that entail resettlement. We do this by importing some of the considerations and concerns from practice and research from the fields of refugee studies and adaptation to environmental change.

  4. SCHOOL-BASED SAVINGS PROGRAMMES AS A METHOD OF RAISING FINANCIAL AWARENESS IN CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Lenkiewicz

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Saving money and budgeting concerns every one of us. One of the most famous ways of depositing money is the use of an account or a traditional piggy bank. Not only the last option is close to the youngest. It has long been known School-based Savings Programmes (SSP. We try to instill in the youngest ability and habit of depositing mon-ey. Bank goes out to meet the needs and continually improve the SSP. The first part of the article focuses on the notion of SSP. It was raised matter of passbook evolution into an online account, and thus describes the functions and capabilities of such an account. The article describes the operation and maintenance of accounts, SSP and its rules. At the end of the article, condensed results of a survey conducted at the school in Stare Juchy were placed. The result was to assess the awareness of the youngest in terms of saving and School-based Savings Programmes.

  5. Dams and Displacement: Raising the Standards and Broadening the Research Agenda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brooke McDonald-Wilmsen

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The World Commission on Dams provided an analytical overview of the cumulative effects of years of dam development. A lack of commitment or capacity to cope with displacement or to consider the civil rights of, or risks to, displaced people led to the impoverishment and suffering of tens of millions and growing opposition to dams by affected communities worldwide. However, after the WCD, little has changed for the better in terms of resettlement policies. In fact, the standards of key agencies, like the Asian Development Bank, have been lowered and diluted compared to prior policies. Dam-induced development and displacement are stifled by a 'managerialist' approach to planning, in which solutions are sought internally and subordinated to the economics that underpins the existence of the project. The aim of successful resettlement is to prevent impoverishment and to enable displaced people to share in the project’s benefits. Within the field of dam-induced resettlement, this is a lofty goal rarely achieved. However, in other fields of resettlement, such as refugee studies and adaptation to environmental change, such a goal is regarded as a minimum standard. In this paper we seek to broaden the research agenda on dam-induced resettlement and to raise the standards of development projects that entail resettlement. We do this by importing some of the considerations and concerns from practice and research from the fields of refugee studies and adaptation to environmental change.

  6. Studies on the reproductive performance of indigenous beef cattle breeds raised on-farm in Ghana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Studies were undertaken to investigate the reproductive performance of a mixture of N'dama and West African Shorthorn (N'dama/WASH) and Sanga cattle raised under traditional management conditions on four privately owned small-holder farms. The first study involved an analysis of reproductive records and the measurement of plasma progesterone concentration to delineate the onset of various reproductive phenomena, including age at puberty and first calving, post-partum resumption of ovarian activity and other abnormal events like abortions. The second study investigated the influence of dry-season feed supplementation on reproductive performance. In study 1 the ages at first plasma progesterone rise (puberty), first mating and first calving for N'dama/WASH cattle on three farms averaged 981, 1016 and 1296 days respectively. The calving interval, calving-to-progesterone rise and calving-to-mating averaged 412, 129 and 114 days respectively. Significant differences existed among farms with Farms 1 and 2 out-performing Farm 3. The respective mean ages at first progesterone elevation, first mating and first calving for Sanga cattle (Farm 4) were 964, 990 and 1271 days while calving-to-progesterone rise, calving-to-mating and calving intervals averaged 107, 150 and 431 days. In study 2, dry-season feed supplementation generally reduced ages at puberty and first calving as well as the interval of post-partum acyclicity. (author). 18 refs, 3 figs, 9 tabs

  7. Developing and disseminating a foodprint tool to raise awareness about healthy and environmentally conscious food choices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tine Bosschaert

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This article describes the development and dissemination of an ecological footprint tool that provides a concise and scientifically grounded summary of the environmental impact of personal food choices. Developed to be easy to use and available to consumers via online social networking platforms, the tool aims to raise awareness and to provide an impetus for behavior change. The foodprint tool communicates scientifically informed and customized practical advice on how individuals can reduce their ecological footprint (EF (or “foodprint”. The first part of the article describes the process of developing this tool, the choice of indicator, the goals, and the results. Among other aspects, the tool enables users to understand that the largest contributors to their foodprint are sources of animal protein: dairy, meat, and fish. The second part of the article describes the strategy guiding the tool’s design and implementation, which is based on a combination of contextual communication, feedback from peers, and intrinsic motivation. In this footprint tool, a focus on food patterns, interactive feedback, and social media plays a key role. The tool consists of a survey with fifteen questions about personal food choice that allow users to receive individualized feedback, including five suggestions for reducing personal foodprints. Users can also share their results through customary social media. Due to an effective outreach campaign, a total of 90,000 Dutch consumers used this tool over a period of four months, with 1% indicating that they intended to change behavior.

  8. STUDY ABOUT CORPORAL INDICATORS IN JUVENILE OF RUSSIAN STURGEON (ACIPENSER GÜELDENSTAEDTI RAISED IN RECIRCULATING SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z.T. SZELEI

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Studies were conducted on a population of Russian sturgeon (Acipenser gu?eldenstaedti age between 132-175 days, raised in recirculation system. Based on body weight, the population was divided into two categories: 50-100 g and 100-150 g. On the 42 individuals were performed determinations of weight, length, width, height and circumference. It was also determined the number of shields which comprise the five lines of shields, which are endowed with Russian sturgeons. On the basis of weighing and measurements taken have resulted following body indices: the index of profile (height, the index of thickness (width spinal, the fattening index (Fulton index, quality index and the index of fleshiness. At the lot of Russian sturgeons with average body weight of 127.55 ± 3.75 g, body length is 76.27% of total body length, head length is 20.11% of the total length of the body, caudal peduncle length measured 16.39% of total body length and length of snout reaches 45.56% of head length. Index of profile (height has highlighted that juvenile Russian sturgeon has an elongated body and a straight back.

  9. Peripheral and gastrointestinal immune systems of healthy cattle raised outdoors at pasture or indoors on a concentrate-based ration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reilly Petrina

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite an increasing preference of consumers for beef produced from more extensive pasture-based production systems and potential human health benefits from the consumption of such beef, data regarding the health status of animals raised on pasture are limited. The objective of this study was to characterise specific aspects of the bovine peripheral and the gastrointestinal muscosal immune systems of cattle raised on an outdoor pasture system in comparison to animals raised on a conventional intensive indoor concentrate-based system. Results A number of in vitro functional tests of immune cells suggested subtle differences between the animals on the outdoor versus indoor production systems. There was a decrease in the number of neutrophils and monocytes engaged in phagocytosis in outdoor cattle (P P P P P P P Conclusion Despite distinctly contrasting production systems, only subtle differences were identified in the peripheral immune parameters measured between cattle raised at pasture in comparison to animals raised on a conventional intensive indoor concentrate-based production system.

  10. Effect of heifer-raising practices on E. coli antimicrobial resistance and Salmonella prevalence in heifer raisers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, R V; Siler, J D; Cummings, K J; Davis, M A; Warnick, L D

    2015-11-01

    Although cattle movement and commingling play an important role in the inter-herd transmission of pathogens, little is known about the effect of commingling of heifers at raising operations. The objective of this study was to compare the resistance of E. coli and prevalence of Salmonella from pooled faecal pats of heifers raised off-farm at multi-source raisers (MULTI) that raised heifers from at least two farms compared with on-farm raisers (HOME), with heifers from only that farm. MULTI faecal pat samples were collected from pens with animals that had arrived at the farm within the previous 2 months (AP) and from animals that would be departing the heifer raiser in 2-3 months (DP). Corresponding age sampling was conducted at HOME raisers. Odds of ampicillin resistance were 3·0 times greater in E. coli collected from MULTI compared to HOME raisers. E. coli from AP pens had significantly (P < 0·05) higher odds of resistance to ampicillin, neomycin, streptomycin, and tetracycline compared to DP pens. Salmonella recovery was not significantly different between heifer-raising systems (P = 0·3). Heifer-raising system did not have a major overall impact on selection of resistant E. coli, which was strongly affected by the age of the animals sampled. PMID:25904042

  11. Serum estrogenicity and biological responses in African catfish raised in wastewater ponds in Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asem-Hiablie, S; Church, C D; Elliott, H A; Shappell, N W; Schoenfuss, H L; Drechsel, P; Williams, C F; Knopf, A L; Dabie, M Y

    2013-10-01

    Reuse of wastewater for aquaculture improves the efficient use of water and promotes sustainability but the potential effects of endocrine disrupting compounds including estrogens in wastewater are an emerging challenge that needs to be addressed. We examined the biological effects of wastewater-borne estrogens on African catfish (Clarias gariepinus) raised in a wastewater stabilization pond (WSP) of a functioning municipal wastewater treatment plant, a wastewater polishing pond (WWP) of a dysfunctional treatment plant, and a reference pond (RP) unimpacted by wastewater, located in Ghana. Measurements of estrogen concentrations in pond water by liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry showed that mean 17 ?-estradiol concentrations were higher in the wastewater ponds (WWP, 6.6 ng/L±2.7 ng/L; WSP, 4.9 ng/L±1.0) than the reference (RP, 3.4±1.1 ng/L). Estrone concentrations were found to be highest in the WSP (7.8 ng/L±1.7) and lowest in the WWP (2.2 ng/L±2.4) with the RP intermediate (4.7±5.0). Fish serum estrogenicity assayed by E-SCREEN was significantly higher in female vs. male catfish in the RP and WSP but not in the WWP (p?0.05). Histological examination of liver and gonad tissue showed no apparent signs of intersex or pathology in any ponds. The similarities in various measures of body indices between fish of this study and African catfish from freshwater systems suggest that aquaculture may be a suitable reuse option for treated municipal wastewater. PMID:23849063

  12. Raising the temperature of the UK heat pump market: Learning lessons from Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heat pumps play a central role in decarbonising the UK's buildings sector as part of the Committee on Climate Change's (CCC) updated abatement scenario for meeting the UK's fourth carbon budget. However, the UK has one of the least developed heat pump markets in Europe and renewable heat output from heat pumps will need to increase by a factor of 50 over the next 15 years to be in line with the scenario. Therefore, this paper explores what lessons the UK might learn from Finland to achieve this aim considering that its current level of heat pump penetration is comparable with that outlined in the CCC scenario for 2030. Despite the two countries’ characteristic differences we argue they share sufficient similarities for the UK to usefully draw some policy-based lessons from Finland including: stimulating new-build construction and renovation of existing stock; incorporating renewable heat solutions in building energy performance standards; and bringing the cost of heat pumps in-line with gas fired heating via a combination of subsidies, taxes and energy RD&D. Finally, preliminary efforts to grow the heat pump market could usefully focus on properties unconnected to the gas-grid, considering these are typically heated by relatively expensive oil or electric heating technologies. -- Highlights: •Heat pumps are expected to play a key role in meeting the UK's 4th carbon budget. •Today, heat pump deployment per capita in the UK is one of the lowest in Europe. •Finland offers some policy lessons given its high level of heat pump deployment. •Policies: raising build rates, building standards and heat pump cost-effectiveness. •Deployment efforts should focus on buildings not heated by relatively low-cost gas

  13. Gonadal differentiation in frogs, Rana japonica and R. brevipoda, raised from UV irradiated eggs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The gonadal differentiation of anurans, Rana japonica and R. brevipoda, was examined in animals raised from eggs which had been irradiated at the vegetal hemisphere with UV (9300 erg/mm2) at the 2-cell stage. In R. japonica about 70% of the larvae at stage I from the pressed and UV-irradiated eggs were germ cell free, but at a stage immediately after metamorphosis all animals had at least some germ cells, although their gonads often were extremely small and poorly differentiated. When male animals matured sexually, many of them had abnormal gonads. However, all of them were shown by artificial means to be capable of fertilization. In the nonpressed and irradiated group, no larvae were germ cell free and the animals immediately after metamorphosis showed nearly normal gonadal differentiation except for the presence of a few degenerate oocytes in the ovaries. The results in R. brevipoda were basically similar to those in R. japonica. In both species, sex ratios were determined at two stages, the first immediately after metamorphosis and the other when the animals matured, as based on gonad morphology and histology and on external sexually dimorphic characters as well. Sex ratios at these two stages in frogs from the pressed and irradiated eggs differed markedly in R. brevipoda. The ratio was normal at metamorphosis but high M/F ratios occurred when animals became mature. That sex reversal took place in this species as well as in R. japonica (in which sex-ratio deviation was not statistically significant) was supported by the sex ratios of the progenies of these supernumerary males

  14. Dryout power of a CANFLEX bundle string with raised bearing pads

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leung, L.K.H.; Dimmick, G.R.; Bullock, D.E.; Inch, W.W.R. [Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd., Chalk River, Ontario (Canada); Jun, J.S.; Suk, H.C. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Yusong-ku, Taejon City (Korea, Republic of)

    2001-07-01

    Dryout power data have been obtained with CANFLEX bundle strings equipped with raised bearing pads (1.7 mm and 1.8 mm height as compared to 1.4 mm in the current Mk-IV design) at Stern Laboratories. The experiment covered a wide range of steam-water flow conditions in three flow tubes simulating uncrept, and 3.3% and 5.1% crept profiles. The dryout power follows consistent parametric trends: it increases with increasing mass-flow rate, and decreases with increasing pressure, inlet-fluid temperature and channel creep. Local and boiling-length-average (BLA) critical-heat-flux (CHF) values were evaluated from the dryout-power measurements. The dryout power and BLA CHF values of the high bearing-pad bundles are higher than those of the low bearing-pad bundles at the same channel inlet flow conditions. On average, the dryout powers for bundles with 1.7 mm and 1.8 mm bearing pads are about 8% and 10%, respectively, higher than those for the bundle with 1.4 mm bearing pads. Compared to the 37-element bundle, an enhancement in dryout power is shown with CANFLEX bundles for all bearing-pad heights, at flow conditions of interest for reactor licensing. The average dryout power enhancement varies from 4% for the CANFLEX bundle with 1.4 mm bearing pads in the uncrept channel to 27% for the CANFLEX bundle with 1.8 mm bearing pads in the 5.1% crept channel. (author)

  15. Raised activity of L-type calcium channels renders neurons prone to form paroxysmal depolarization shifts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubi, Lena; Schandl, Ulla; Lagler, Michael; Geier, Petra; Spies, Daniel; Gupta, Kuheli Das; Boehm, Stefan; Kubista, Helmut

    2013-09-01

    Neuronal L-type voltage-gated calcium channels (LTCCs) are involved in several physiological functions, but increased activity of LTCCs has been linked to pathology. Due to the coupling of LTCC-mediated Ca(2+) influx to Ca(2+)-dependent conductances, such as KCa or non-specific cation channels, LTCCs act as important regulators of neuronal excitability. Augmentation of after-hyperpolarizations may be one mechanism that shows how elevated LTCC activity can lead to neurological malfunctions. However, little is known about other impacts on electrical discharge activity. We used pharmacological up-regulation of LTCCs to address this issue on primary rat hippocampal neurons. Potentiation of LTCCs with Bay K8644 enhanced excitatory postsynaptic potentials to various degrees and eventually resulted in paroxysmal depolarization shifts (PDS). Under conditions of disturbed Ca(2+) homeostasis, PDS were evoked frequently upon LTCC potentiation. Exposing the neurons to oxidative stress using hydrogen peroxide also induced LTCC-dependent PDS. Hence, raising LTCC activity had unidirectional effects on brief electrical signals and increased the likeliness of epileptiform events. However, long-lasting seizure-like activity induced by various pharmacological means was affected by Bay K8644 in a bimodal manner, with increases in one group of neurons and decreases in another group. In each group, isradipine exerted the opposite effect. This suggests that therapeutic reduction in LTCC activity may have little beneficial or even adverse effects on long-lasting abnormal discharge activities. However, our data identify enhanced activity of LTCCs as one precipitating cause of PDS. Because evidence is continuously accumulating that PDS represent important elements in neuropathogenesis, LTCCs may provide valuable targets for neuroprophylactic therapy. PMID:23695859

  16. Potential litigation in agricultural and cattle raising activities/ Litígios potenciais na atividade agropecuária

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Ralisch

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available This review discusses the different nature of potential litigation in agricultural and cattle raising activities, which are segmented into rural workers and rural employers. It analyzes lawsuits pending in the Labor Court, as well as in the Common Pleas Court, within the scope of State and Federal Civil Court rules. The objective of this analysis is to promote a better understanding of these legal problems among professionals in the area of Agronomy, who have, traditionally, little information on them. A detailed description of the each litigation, as well as of the pertinent legislation, are provided, to give rise to discussions and reflections on these problems, which are part of these professionals’ everyday life. Litigation involving companies and rural properties, with emphasis on technical inspections carried out and on the type of professional involved will be analyzed, together with the nature of the knowledge necessary for their interdisciplinary education.A presente revisão versa sobre as diferentes naturezas de litígios potenciais na atividade agropecuária, e se encontra segmentada por agrupamentos de empregados e empregadores rurais. Discute as ações judiciais ajuizadas tanto na Justiça Trabalhista como Justiça Comum, entendida no âmbito da Justiça Cível, nas esferas estadual ou federal. Visa oferecer contribuições aos profissionais de agronomia, tradicionalmente pouco familiarizados, possibilitando a melhor compreensão de suas ocorrências. Descrevem-se detalhadamente as características de cada uma das ocorrências, bem como as legislações pertinentes, para que possam ser despertadas as discussões e reflexões sobre a problemática, presente no dia a dia. Serão analisados, também, os litígios atingíveis sobre os empreendimentos e nas propriedades rurais, com a ênfase na realização das perícias técnicas, do tipo de profissional que é direcionado, bem como a natureza dos conhecimentos para a sua formação interdisciplinar.

  17. Utah Flooding Hazard: Raising Public Awareness through the Creation of Multidisciplinary Web-Based Maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castleton, J.; Erickson, B.; Bowman, S. D.; Unger, C. D.

    2014-12-01

    The Utah Geological Survey's (UGS) Geologic Hazards Program has partnered with the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers to create geologically derived web-based flood hazard maps. Flooding in Utah communities has historically been one of the most damaging geologic hazards. The most serious floods in Utah have generally occurred in the Great Salt Lake basin, particularly in the Weber River drainage on the western slopes of the Wasatch Range, in areas of high population density. With a growing population of 2.9 million, the state of Utah is motivated to raise awareness about the potential for flooding. The process of increasing community resiliency to flooding begins with identification and characterization of flood hazards. Many small communities in areas experiencing rapid growth have not been mapped completely by the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) Flood Insurance Rate Maps (FIRM). Existing FIRM maps typically only consider drainage areas that are greater than one square mile in determining flood zones and do not incorporate geologic data, such as the presence of young, geologically active alluvial fans that indicate a high potential for debris flows and sheet flooding. Our new flood hazard mapping combines and expands on FEMA data by incorporating mapping derived from 1:24,000-scale UGS geologic maps, LiDAR data, digital elevation models, and historical aerial photography. Our flood hazard maps are intended to supplement the FIRM maps to provide local governments and the public with additional flood hazard information so they may make informed decisions, ultimately reducing the risk to life and property from flooding hazards. Flooding information must be widely available and easily accessed. One of the most effective ways to inform the public is through web-based maps. Web-based flood hazard maps will not only supply the public with the flood information they need, but also provides a platform to add additional geologic hazards to an easily accessible format.

  18. RUMINAL CONDITION BETWEEN MADURA CATTLE AND ONGOLE CROSSBRED CATTLE RAISED UNDER INTENSIVE FEEDING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Umar

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Each four young bulls of Madura cattle and Ongole Crossbred (OC cattle were used to study the efficiency of ruminal fermentation by comparing the proportion of Volatile Fatty Acid (VFA of these two breeds which were raised under intensive feeding. All the cattle were in about 1.5 years-old with an average body weight of 147.75 ± 14.57 kg and 167 ± 22.57 kg, for Madura and OC cattle, respectively. They were fed Napier grass (Pennisetum purpureum hay, and concentrate feeding consists of pollard, soybean meal and rice bran for 10 weeks. Parameters measured were concentration of VFA at 0, 3 and 6 h post-feeding and pH. The concentration of VFA in both Madura and OC cattle was peaked at 3 h post-feeding, being 136.1 mmol and 158.9 mmol, respectively, and then were decreased at 6 h post-feeding at a level of 58.1 and 98.2 mmol, respectively. The proportion of acetic acid in Madura and OC cattle were 53.33% and 52.0% of total VFA, respectively, while the proportion of propionic acid and butyric acid were 28.80% and 17.87% for Madura cattle, and 30.71% and 17.28% for OC cattle, respectively. In addition, the Acetic/Propionic ratios were 1.85 and 1.69 for Madura and OC cattle, respectively. Rumen pH conditions of both cattle breeds tended to be basic, i.e. Madura cattle was ranged at 8.0-8.4, while the PO cattle was ranged at 7.6-8.4. In conclusion, both cattle breeds (Madura and OC cattle have a similar efficiency to utilize the feeds in the rumen.

  19. Platelet-collagen interaction: inhibition by a monoclonal antibody raised against collagen receptor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors have previously reported that polyclonal antibody raised against the purified platelet collagen receptor cross reacted with glycoprotein IIb-IIIa complex of platelets. In order to study the receptor function further, the authors prepared a monoclonal antibody to the collagen receptor (65K). Platelet collagen receptor was purified as described previously by the authors. Mice were immunized by injection of purified 65K protein emulsified in complete Freund's adjuvant, and hybridomas were obtained from the fusion of spleen cells of immunized mice with myeloma cells (SP 2/0). The assay for antibody was performed with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The hybridoma cells producing specific anti-65K protein were subcloned and the subcloned cells were injected into peritoneal cavity of Pristane-Primed mice. Immunoglobulin G(IgG) was isolated from ascitic fluids by an Affigel Blue chromatography. The Fab' fragments were isolated from papain digested IgG followed by an Affigel Blue chromatography. Immunoblot experiments using the monoclonal IgG of solubilized platelet membrane proteins following NaDodSO4-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis showed that the monoclonal IgG reacted with the antigen specifically. It did not react with glycoprotein IIb-IIIa. The isolated IgG and Fab' fragments inhibited competitively the binding of radiolabelled ?1(I) to washed platelets and soluble collagen- as well as fibrillar collagen-induced but not ADP-induced platelet aggregation. This indicates that collagen-induced platelet aggregation is mediated through interaction of collagen with 65K platelet receptor

  20. Evaluation of the specificity of antibodies raised against cannabinoid receptor type 2 in the mouse retina

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cécyre, Bruno; Thomas, Sébastien

    2014-01-01

    Cannabinoid receptors (CB1R and CB2R) are among the most abundant G protein-coupled receptors in the central nervous system. The endocannabinoid system is an attractive therapeutic target for immune system modulation and peripheral pain management. While CB1R is distributed in the nervous system, CB2R has traditionally been associated to the immune system. This dogma is currently a subject of debate since the discovery of CB2R expression in neurons using antibody-based methods. The localization of CB2R in the central nervous system (CNS) could have a significant impact on drug development because it would mean that in addition to its effects on the peripheral pain pathway, CB2R could also mediate some central effects of cannabinoids. In an attempt to clarify the debate over CB2R expression in the CNS, we tested several commercially or academically produced CB2R antibodies using Western blot and immunohistochemistry on retinal tissue obtained from wild-type mice and mice lacking CB2R (cnr2 (-/-) ). One of the antibodies tested exhibited a valuable specificity as it marked a single band near the predicted molecular weight in Western blot and produced no staining in cnr2 (-/-) mice retina sections. The other antibodies tested detected multiple bands in Western blot and labeled unidentified proteins when used with their immunizing peptide or on cnr2 (-/-) retinal sections. We conclude that many commonly used antibodies raised against CB2R are not specific for use in immunohistochemistry, at least in the context of the mouse retina. Moreover, some of them tested presented significant lot-to-lot variability. Hence, caution should be used when interpreting prior and future studies using CB2R antibodies.

  1. Courses for "Soil Practitioner" and other measures for raising soil awareness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartl, Wilfried

    2014-05-01

    Today, unfortunately, little use is made of the findings of rhizosphere research in practice. Therefore the author, together with the organic farmers` associations Distelverein and Bio Austria, developed the education programme "Soil Practitioner" for organic farmers. The 9-days` course focuses on the topics nutrient dynamics in soil, plant-root interactions, soil management, humus management and practical evaluation of soil functions. A second series of courses developed by Bio Forschung Austria aims at improving organic matter management on farm level. In order to enable the farmers to estimate if the humus content of their fields is increasing or decreasing, they are familiarized with the humus balancing method. In a second step, humus balances of farmers' fields are calculated and the results are discussed together. Another activity to raise soil awareness is the "Mobile Soil Laboratory", which is presented at various events. The soil functions are demonstrated to the public using special exhibits, which illustrate for example infiltration rate in soils with and without earthworms, or water holding capacity of soils with and without earthworms or erosion intensity on soil blocks from adjacent plots which had been cultivated with different crop rotations. The habitat function of soil is illustrated with portable rhizotrons, which show the ability of plants to root surprisingly deep and to penetrate compacted soil layers. Another exhibit shows a habitat preference test between differently fertilized soils with earthworms as indicator organisms. In the "Mobile Soil Laboratory", visitors are also invited to watch live soil animals through the binocular microscope. They are supplied with information on the soil animals` habitat and behaviour and on how agriculture benefits from biologically active soil. And last but not least, the "Root Demonstration Arena" at our institute features a 3-m-deep excavation lined with large viewing windows into the soil profile, where visitors can observe the root growth of different plants.

  2. Weight gain potential affects pregnancy rates in bovine embryo recipients raised under pasture conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Carlos Antonio de Carvalho; Palhao, Miller Pereira; Figueiredo, Ana Cristina Silva; Ribeiro, Josiane Rossi; E Silva, Fabyano Fonseca; Viana, Joao Henrique Moreira

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of differences in body weight gain after embryo transfer on the pregnancy rates of crossbred heifers used as recipients and raised under a grazing system. The study was performed during the dry (April to September) and the rainy (October to March) seasons. The embryos transferred were produced by in vitro fertilization. The body weight of each recipient was measured immediately before the embryo transfer and 23 to 25 days later, when the diagnosis of pregnancy was performed by ultrasonography. The associations among initial body weight (IBW), daily body weight gain (DWG), season, and pregnancy rate were evaluated using a logistic procedure that included the effect of the IBW, season, and linear and quadratic effects of the DWG. Altogether, there was no effect of season and pregnancy rates did not change between the dry and rainy seasons (42.3 vs. 45.8 %, respectively; P?>?0.05). However, the pregnancy rate was greater in the recipients with daily body weight gains over 250 g/day, regardless of the season. In addition, the pregnancy rate of the recipients was better (P?

  3. Dryout power of a CANFLEX bundle string with raised bearing pads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dryout power data have been obtained with CANFLEX bundle strings equipped with raised bearing pads (1.7 mm and 1.8 mm height as compared to 1.4 mm in the current Mk-IV design) at Stern Laboratories. The experiment covered a wide range of steam-water flow conditions in three flow tubes simulating uncrept, and 3.3% and 5.1% crept profiles. The dryout power follows consistent parametric trends: it increases with increasing mass-flow rate, and decreases with increasing pressure, inlet-fluid temperature and channel creep. Local and boiling-length-average (BLA) critical-heat-flux (CHF) values were evaluated from the dryout-power measurements. The dryout power and BLA CHF values of the high bearing-pad bundles are higher than those of the low bearing-pad bundles at the same channel inlet flow conditions. On average, the dryout powers for bundles with 1.7 mm and 1.8 mm bearing pads are about 8% and 10%, respectively, higher than those for the bundle with 1.4 mm bearing pads. Compared to the 37-element bundle, an enhancement in dryout power is shown with CANFLEX bundles for all bearing-pad heights, at flow conditions of interest for reactor licensing. The average dryout power enhancement varies from 4% for the CANFLEX bundle with 1.4 mm bearing pads in the uncrept channel to 27% for the CANFLEX bundle with 1.8 mm bearing pads in the 5.1% crept channel. (author)

  4. A REAPPRAISAL OF MAPUCHE TEXTILE PRODUCTION AND SHEEP RAISING DURING THE NINETEENTH CENTURY

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    MANUEL, LLORCA-JAÑA.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo trata sobre la crianza de ovejas y la producción de lana de los mapuche durante gran parte del siglo XIX, y sobre la percepción que los compradores tenían de los productos lanares. Basado en reportes consulares británicos y diarios de viajeros, escritos después de la Independencia de C [...] hile, el artículo entrega nueva y consistente información que sostiene que la producción textil mapuche era de alta calidad y muy importante para toda la economía; que el comercio mapuche de lanas era comparable al europeo antes del año 1850; y que la industria lanar mapuche era, por cierto, más desarrollada que la existente en Chile, principal mercado de las exportaciones mapuche. También muestra que esta superioridad sobre la industria lanar chilena incluía la producción de materias primas para la producción textil, principalmente, lana sin procesar. Abstract in english This paper is about Mapuche sheep raising and woollens production during the first three quarters of the nineteenth century, as well as about the perception customers had of Mapuche wool manufactures. Based on the British consular reports and travellers' diaries written after Chile gained independen [...] ce, this article provides new and stronger evidence to support the case that Mapuche textile production was of high-quality and very important for their entire economy; that the Mapuche woollens trade was comparable to European industries before the 1850s; and that the Mapuche wool industry was certainly more developed than the one existing in Chile, the main market for Mapuche exports. This article also shows that this superiority over the Chilean woollens industry included the production of the main raw material used to produce woollens, namely raw wool.

  5. Fourth and Fifth Amendment issues raised by Chemical Weapons Convention inspections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanzman, E.A. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Economics and Law Section

    1994-10-21

    The Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC) offers a unique challenge to the United States system of constitutional law. This discussion is about the Fourth and Fifth Amendment issues raised by the CWC and about how federal implementing legislation can allow verification inspections to take place in the United States under the Chemical Weapons Convention while remaining in compliance with the Constitution. By implementing legislation, the author means a federal statute that would be enacted separately from Senate approval of the Convention itself. Although implementing legislation is a relatively unusual accompaniment to a treaty, it will be necessary to the CWC, and the Administration has submitted a bill that was under consideration in the last Congress and presumably will be reintroduced early next year. The Fourth and Fifth Amendment problems posed by the CWC arise from the verification inspection scheme embodied in the treaty. The CWC depends heavily on on-site inspections to verify compliance with its key requirements. These include destroying all chemicals weapons stockpiles and bringing potential chemical weapons precursors under international control. The Convention contains four distinct kinds of inspections: systematic inspections of chemical weapons storage and destruction facilities, routine inspections of various declared facilities, challenge inspections, and a variant on challenge inspections in cases of alleged use of chemical weapons. All inspections are supposed to be only as intrusive as necessary to carry out the Convention. These inspections will be carried out by inspectors employed by the Organization for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons (OPCW), located in The Hague, which is responsible for enforcing the Convention. Generally, the inspected State Party is permitted to assign observers to accompany the inspectors.

  6. A REPOSITORY DESIGNED TO RAISE THE STUDENTS’ KNOWLEDGE AND AWARENESS ON NANOSCIENCE AND NANOTECHNOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GABRIEL GORGHIU

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available As defined in the information technology area, a repository represents a digital collection in which data is preserved and maintained in an organized and structured manner. This comes helpful for many projects that envisage sharing specific databases, files or resources for being accessed or distributed. More, several free and open-source software solutions for designing open-access repositories are available at present, having features very similar to the systems built for document management. Trying to implement such digital collection, as extra-readings and references related to Nanoscience and Nanotechnology area, in the frame of the LLP KA3-ICT project no. 511787-LLP-1-2010-1-TR-KA3-KA3MP: “Nano-Tech Science Education”, it was set up a repository/database for being used by students, Science prospective teachers and teachers, as a part of a Virtual Lab, which represents the main project product - an experimental virtual aid created for Science education. The Lab mainly consists of experimental room, podcasting room and repository, and serves as a platform for Science lessons, as a database of teaching materials, and as a hub for science-learning-related graphic aids and recorded and illustrated appealing experiments on Nanoscience and Nanotechnology. Its repository includes articles, books, chapters, posters, videos, experiments, methodological documents which introduce in fact, actual findings and researches developed in different countries. Basically, the main role of the repository is to update the virtual lab users’ knowledge and to raise their awareness on Nanoscience and Nanotechnology. The paper presents the features of the designed repository, its main services, and specific developments. As this is an instrument under continuous updating, the paper offers also a status of its actual structure and content.

  7. Molecular characterization and antimicrobial susceptibility of Clostridium difficile isolated from rabbits raised for meat production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drigo, Ilenia; Mazzolini, Elena; Bacchin, Cosetta; Tonon, Elena; Puiatti, Cinzia; Bano, Luca; Spigaglia, Patrizia; Barbanti, Fabrizio; Agnoletti, Fabrizio

    2015-12-31

    Clostridium difficile is an important cause of enteric disease in humans and animals. Recent studies demonstrated a genetic overlap between C. difficile isolated from animals and humans suggesting animals as possible reservoir for human pathogenic strains. This study was a preliminary investigation on the occurrence of C. difficile in rabbits raised in industrial holdings for food production and aimed to characterise isolates and estimate their antimicrobial susceptibility. C. difficile isolates were characterized by toxin profiles, toxinotyping and PCR-ribotyping. The MICs of six antibiotics were determined using E-test. Between 2007 and 2013, 285 industrial holdings (representing 40% of the national census) submitted rabbits to our laboratory for diagnostic purposes, among these holdings, groups of three to five post-weaned rabbits were sampled once by convenience. 1279 samples of caecal content were collected. The overall isolation rate of C. difficile from the enteric specimen was 3% (38/1279), with no difference among animals affected or not by enteric disorders. Among isolates 66% (25/38) were toxigenic. Sixteen different PCR-ribotypes (RTs) were identified. Among the toxigenic strains RT-014/020, RT-078 and RT-012 were found in at least three rabbit holdings. According to the ECOFF threshold, 82% (31/38) C. difficile isolates displayed a reduced susceptibility to at least one and 18% (7/38) to three tested antimicrobials. Rabbits are colonized by heterogeneous C. difficile ribotypes many of which are commonly isolated in humans. One third of isolates displayed a reduced susceptibility to MTZ, the first choice antimicrobial for human CDI treatment. According to our findings rabbits are a potential source of C. difficile for humans. PMID:26507420

  8. Cerebrovascular reactivity among native-raised high altitude residents: an fMRI study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Jiaxing

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The impact of long term residence on high altitude (HA on human brain has raised concern among researchers in recent years. This study investigated the cerebrovascular reactivity among native-born high altitude (HA residents as compared to native sea level (SL residents. The two groups were matched on the ancestral line, ages, gender ratios, and education levels. A visual cue guided maximum inspiration task with brief breath holding was performed by all the subjects while Blood-Oxygenation-Level-Dependent (BOLD functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI data were acquired from them. Results Compared to SL controls, the HA group showed generally decreased cerebrovascular reactivity and longer delay in hemodynamic response. Clusters showing significant differences in the former aspect were located at the bilateral primary motor cortex, the right somatosensory association cortex, the right thalamus and the right caudate, the bilateral precuneus, the right cingulate gyrus and the right posterior cingulate cortex, as well as the left fusiform gyrus and the right lingual cortex; clusters showing significant differences in the latter aspect were located at the precuneus, the insula, the superior frontal and temporal gyrus, the somatosensory cortex (the postcentral gyrus and the cerebellar tonsil. Inspiratory reserve volume (IRV, which is an important aspect of pulmonary function, demonstrated significant correlation with the amount of BOLD signal change in multiple brain regions, particularly at the bilateral insula among the HA group. Conclusions Native-born HA residents generally showed reduced cerebrovascular reactivity as demonstrated in the hemodynamic response during a visual cue guided maximum inspiration task conducted with BOLD-fMRI. This effect was particularly manifested among brain regions that are typically involved in cerebral modulation of respiration.

  9. In Romania, exposure to Toxoplasma gondii occurs twice as often in swine raised for familial consumption as in hunted wild boar, but occurs rarely if ever among fattening pigs raised in confinement

    Science.gov (United States)

    A wide range of swine husbandry practices prevail in Romania: pork for human consumption is derived from hunting wild boar, from household rearing of small numbers of backyard pigs, and from indoor, industrial production of swine raised in confinement indoors. Romania thus represents an instructive ...

  10. Raising Students' Awareness of Cross-Cultural Contrastive Rhetoric in English Writing via an E-Learning Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Minjie; Wang, Jinghui; Spencer, Kenneth

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated the potential impact of e-learning on raising overseas students' cultural awareness and explored the possibility of creating an interactive learning environment for them to improve their English academic writing. The study was based on a comparison of Chinese and English rhetoric in academic writing, including a comparison…

  11. Compromised metamorphosis and thyroid hormone changes in wood frogs (Lithobates sylvaticus) raised on reclaimed wetlands on the Athabasca oil sands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hersikorn, Blair D., E-mail: blair.hersikorn@usask.c [Toxicology Centre, University of Saskatchewan, 44 Campus Drive, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, S7N 5B3 (Canada); Smits, Judit E.G., E-mail: judit.smits@ucalgary.c [Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Calgary, 3280 Hospital Drive NW, Calgary, Alberta, T2N 4Z6 (Canada)

    2011-02-15

    The wet landscape approach to oil sands tailings reclamation in the Athabasca Oil Sands region involves creating wetlands from fluid tailings in mined-out pits. We measured time to metamorphosis, thyroid hormone status, and detoxification enzyme (EROD) induction in Wood frog (Lithobates sylvaticus) tadpoles raised on reclaimed oil sands wetlands of different ages [young ({<=}7 yr) vs. old (>7 yr)] and compared data with tadpoles raised on reference (control) wetlands. Metamorphosis was delayed or never occurred in tadpoles raised in young tailings; those exposed to older tailings developed similarly to those in reference wetlands. Thyroid hormone disruption likely played an important role in the metamorphosis delay as the T3:T4 ratio was lowest in tadpoles raised in young, tailings-affected wetlands. Our findings suggest tailings wetlands become less toxic with age, and that these amphibians will be able to complete their life cycle in tailing wetlands that have sufficiently detoxified with age. - This work provides guidance for reclamation of oil sands tailings and shows the usefulness of frogs and caging studies in environmental toxicology.

  12. Compromised metamorphosis and thyroid hormone changes in wood frogs (Lithobates sylvaticus) raised on reclaimed wetlands on the Athabasca oil sands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The wet landscape approach to oil sands tailings reclamation in the Athabasca Oil Sands region involves creating wetlands from fluid tailings in mined-out pits. We measured time to metamorphosis, thyroid hormone status, and detoxification enzyme (EROD) induction in Wood frog (Lithobates sylvaticus) tadpoles raised on reclaimed oil sands wetlands of different ages [young (?7 yr) vs. old (>7 yr)] and compared data with tadpoles raised on reference (control) wetlands. Metamorphosis was delayed or never occurred in tadpoles raised in young tailings; those exposed to older tailings developed similarly to those in reference wetlands. Thyroid hormone disruption likely played an important role in the metamorphosis delay as the T3:T4 ratio was lowest in tadpoles raised in young, tailings-affected wetlands. Our findings suggest tailings wetlands become less toxic with age, and that these amphibians will be able to complete their life cycle in tailing wetlands that have sufficiently detoxified with age. - This work provides guidance for reclamation of oil sands tailings and shows the usefulness of frogs and caging studies in environmental toxicology.

  13. ACT against Violence Parents Raising Safe Kids Program: Effects on Maltreatment-Related Parenting Behaviors and Beliefs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knox, Michele S.; Burkhart, Kimberly; Hunter, Kimberly E.

    2011-01-01

    The ACT Against Violence Parents Raising Safe Kids program (ACT-PRSK) is an interactive violence prevention program developed by the American Psychological Association for parents of young children. The program teaches and supports parents in the areas of child development, roots and consequences of violence, anger management for adults and…

  14. Ideologies, Struggles and Contradictions: An Account of Mothers Raising Their Children Bilingually in Luxembourgish and English in Great Britain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirsch, Claudine

    2012-01-01

    Researchers have studied family language planning within bilingual family contexts but there is a dearth of studies that examine language planning of multilingual parents who raise their children in one of the world's lesser spoken languages. In this study I explore the ideologies and language planning of Luxembourgish mothers who are raising…

  15. The Children Should Lead Us: Diane Ehrensaft's "Gender Born, Gender Made--Raising Healthy Gender-Nonconforming Children"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beemyn, Genny

    2013-01-01

    This article reviews Diane Ehrensaft's "Gender Born, Gender Made: Raising Healthy Gender-Nonconforming Children", a thoughtful and practical guide that can help parents, other family members, and therapists better understand and support children and youth whom the author refers to as "gender creative." Ehrensaft's work is at the forefront of a…

  16. At the Roots of Finnish Elementary Education--How Were Children Raised in the First Finnish Elementary Schools?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uusiautti, Satu; Paksuniemi, Merja; Määttä, Kaarina

    2013-01-01

    This study dissects the history of Finnish elementary education and the way children were raised during the initial phase of Finnish education in the 18th century. The development of Finnish education was studied through contemporary decrees and laws and studies of Finnish school history. The preliminary aim was to focus on the principles and…

  17. Family Functioning in Asian Families Raising Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders: The Role of Capabilities and Positive Meanings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, J.; Ooh, J.; Magiati, I.

    2014-01-01

    Background: There has been increasing interest in exploring the factors contributing to successful adaptation and family functioning in ethnically and culturally diverse families who raise children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD), in order to inform more appropriate strength-based family support services. This pilot study used the Family…

  18. S.E.E. Program Parents' Manual: How to Raise a Child with Epilepsy Part Three: Coping with Guilt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mittan, Robert J.

    2005-01-01

    In this final article in the series of 3 on "Raising a Child with Epilepsy, Coping with Guilt," readers will discover how culture attacks the emotional well being of parents of children who have epilepsy. Guilt, like fear and stigma, unconsciously influences childrearing decisions for the worse. However, in the case of guilt, most of the damage…

  19. Community Group Involvement in a Fund Raising Project for a University Library: Examples from "A Trial for the Books".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finley, Mary M.

    This paper describes a unique library fund raiser at California State University (Northridge). "A Trial for the Books" was a dog agility trial held on April 26-27, 1996 as a benefit for the university's Oviatt Library. The event was hosted by West Valley DogSports, a community group. The event raised approximately $2,500 for the library's…

  20. 25 CFR 900.25 - What if only a portion of a proposal raises one of the five declination criteria?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What if only a portion of a proposal raises one of the five declination criteria? 900.25 Section 900.25 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE... SELF-DETERMINATION AND EDUCATION ASSISTANCE ACT Declination Procedures § 900.25 What if only a...

  1. The Effect of the SCAMPER Technique in Raising Awareness Regarding the Collection and Utilization of Solid Waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çelikler, Dilek; Harman, Gonca

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effect of the SCAMPER technique in raising awareness among science students regarding the collection and utilization of solid waste. The participants included a total of 65 third-year students. According to the study results, the science students described schools and visual media as their main source of…

  2. Engaging Undergraduates in the New York City S-SAFE Internship Program: An Impetus to Raise Geoscience Awareness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blake, Reginald A.; Liou-Mark, Janet; Blackburn, Noel; Chan, Christopher; Yuen-Lau, Laura

    2015-01-01

    To engender and raise awareness to the geosciences, a geoscience research project and a corresponding geoscience internship program were designed around plume dispersion dynamics within and above the New York City subway system. Federal, regional, and local agencies partnered with undergraduate students from minority-serving institutions to…

  3. The Children Should Lead Us: Diane Ehrensaft's "Gender Born, Gender Made--Raising Healthy Gender-Nonconforming Children"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beemyn, Genny

    2013-01-01

    This article reviews Diane Ehrensaft's "Gender Born, Gender Made: Raising Healthy Gender-Nonconforming Children", a thoughtful and practical guide that can help parents, other family members, and therapists better understand and support children and youth whom the author refers to as "gender creative." Ehrensaft's work is at the forefront of a…

  4. Cinta Senese and Large White x Cinta Senese raised on pasture in wood: sample join composition and meat quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Franci

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available During recent years animal welfare has received considerable attention in Europe. To satisfy the demand for better ethics and health regarding pigs, it has become popular to raise pigs outdoors. In Mediterranean area free-ranged system is carried out with indigenous breed. In Italy Cinta Senese is one of the main autochthonous breed...

  5. Empowering Grandparents Raising Grandchildren: A Training Manual for Group Leaders. Springer Series on Life Styles and Issues in Aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Carole B.

    Noting that grandparents in the parenting role are often overwhelmed by the problems of their children, grandchildren, and the social milieu in which they live, this manual presents a 14-session workshop series designed to empower grandparents who are raising their grandchildren alone. Designed to complement "To Grandmother's House We Go and…

  6. INHIBITION OF IN VITRO FERTILIZATION IN THE HAMSTER BY ANTIBODIES RAISED AGAINST THE RAT SPERM PROTEIN SP22

    Science.gov (United States)

    INHIBITION OF IN VITRO FERTILIZATION IN THE HAMSTER BY ANTIBODIES RAISED AGAINST THE RAT SPERM PROTEIN SP22. SC Jeffay*, SD Perreault, KL Bobseine*, JE Welch*, GR Klinefelter, US EPA, Research Triangle Park, NC. SP22, a rat sperm membrane protein that is highly-correlated w...

  7. Do They Really Need to Raise Their Hands? Challenging a Traditional Social Norm in a Second Grade Mathematics Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixon, Juli K.; Egendoerfer, Lisa A.; Clements, Taylar

    2009-01-01

    In an attempt to examine dialogue within a second grade classroom, students were encouraged to participate in whole-class mathematics discussions without raising their hands before speaking. Beneficial social and sociomathematical norms developed in place of this traditional social norm. Effects of this change on the dialogue and written…

  8. Family Functioning in Asian Families Raising Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders: The Role of Capabilities and Positive Meanings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, J.; Ooh, J.; Magiati, I.

    2014-01-01

    Background: There has been increasing interest in exploring the factors contributing to successful adaptation and family functioning in ethnically and culturally diverse families who raise children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD), in order to inform more appropriate strength-based family support services. This pilot study used the Family…

  9. Systemic granuloma observed in Atlantic salmon Salmo salar raised to market size in a freshwater recirculation aquaculture system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Systemic granuloma was observed in sampled adult Atlantic salmon Salmo salar raised to harvest size in a freshwater recirculation aquaculture system. The prevalence of this condition was estimated at 10-20% of the population, with affected individuals grossly demonstrating pathology in varying degre...

  10. COMPARISON OF MORPHOLOGICAL AND REPRODUCTIVE PROPERTIES OF LIPPIZANER MARES IN STUD FARM RAISING AND ON FAMILY FARMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomo Rastija

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper aimed at determination of defferences in morphological and reproductive properties of Lippizaner breed blood mares raised in stud farm ?akovo and on family farms. Results of morphological properties investigation indicate better development of investigated body measures of a stud farm mares, except chest width that was more pronounced in family farm mares. Significant differences were determined with withers height (cattle tape, back height and cannon bone circumference whereas differences of withers height (stick, small of the back height, chest depth and chest width were highly significant. As for reproductive properties stud farm raising mares were older at first fertilization and first foaling compared to the family farm mares. Statistically very significant differences in pregnancy duration were determined only at 5-12 pregnancy of stud farm raising mares. First, second, fourth and 5-12 service period lasted longer in stud farm raising mares whereas longer duration of the second and third service period was determined with family farm mares.

  11. Pizza Parties, Pep Rallies, and Practice Tests: Strategies Used by High School Principals to Raise Percent Proficient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollingworth, Liz; Dude, David J.; Shepherd, Julie K.

    2010-01-01

    This study explores ways high school principals are responding to the demands of education reform to raise student test scores on achievement tests used for accountability purposes. Anecdotal evidence suggests administrators have instituted pizza parties and pep rallies to motivate students to do their best and practice tests to prepare students…

  12. Seven steps to raise world security. Op-Ed, published in the Finanical Times

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In recent years, three phenomena have radically altered the security landscape. They are the emergence of a nuclear black market, the determined efforts by more countries to acquire technology to produce the fissile material usable in nuclear weapons and the clear desire of terrorists to acquire weapons of mass destruction. The IAEA has been trying to solve these new problems with existing tools. But for every step forward, we have exposed vulnerabilities in the system. The system itself - the regime that implements non-proliferation treaty needs reinforcement. Some of the necessary remedies can be taken in New York at the Meeting to be held in May, but only if governments are ready to act. With seven straightforward steps, and without amending the treaty, this conference could reach a milestone in strengthening world security. The first step: put a five-year hold on additional facilities for uranium enrichment and plutonium separation. Second, speed up existing efforts, led by the US global threat reduction initiative and others, to modify the research reactors worldwide operating with highly enriched uranium - particularly those with metal fuel that could be readily employed as bomb material. Third, raise the bar for inspection standards by establishing the 'additional protocol' as the norm for verifying compliance with the NPT. Fourth, call on the United Nations Security Council to act swiftly and decisively in the case of any country that withdraws from the NPT, in terms of the threat the withdrawal poses to international peace and security. Fifth, urge states to act on the Security Council's recent resolution 1540, to pursue and prosecute any illicit trading in nuclear material and technology. Sixth, call on the five nuclear weapon states party to the NPT to accelerate implementation of their 'unequivocal commitment' to nuclear disarmament, building on efforts such as the 2002 Moscow treaty between Russia and the US. Last, acknowledge the volatility of longstanding tensions that give rise to proliferation, in regions such as the Middle East and the Korean peninsula, and take action to resolve existing security problems and, where needed, provide security assurances. None of these steps will work in isolation. Each requires a concession from someone. But with leadership from all sides, this package of proposals will create gains for everyone. This opportunity will come again - in 2010. But given current trends, the international community cannot afford to wait another five years

  13. Grammatical consciousness-raising: a problem-solving, process-focused approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wendy R. Kilfoil

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available How can we address the teaching of English as a second language in South African secondary schools given what we know about the nature of language acquisition, learners' lack of exposure to mother tongue English speakers and their widely divergent language experience at primary school/eve!? This paper argues that grammatical consciousness-raising should be the basis of the secondary school syllabus. Current syllabuses do not adequately consider language acquisition processes. Although their aims are defined as 'communicative: syllabuses continue to focus on what language should be taught, with the result that they remain essentially lists of structures and functions. Syllabuses should be completely redesigned to develop a coherent process-focused, problemsolving approach to second language teaching. At the moment there is a distinct reluctance to make any definitive pronouncements about the place of language instruction in the classroom. This has a detrimental effect on both teachers and learners. The only way to cope with the developing language needs of the learner in the secondary school is through a more conscious study of how language is used in natural discourse. A more deliberate language control on the part of the learner will enhance the efficacy of extensive listening, speaking, reading and writing activities designed to supply input which is a necessary but not sufficient criterion for acquisition at this leveL Hoe kan ons die onderrig van Engels as 'n tweede taal in Suid-Afrikaanse sekondere skole aanspreek, gegee ons kennis van die aard van taalverwerwing, die leerders se gebrek aan blootstelling aan Engels-moederlaalsprekers en hul uiteenlopende taalondervinding op laerskoolvlak? Hierdie arlikel voer aan dat grammatikale bewustheidsopskerping die basis van die sekondere skoolleerplan behoorl te wees. Huidige leerplanne neem nie taalverwerwingsprosesse voldoende in ag nie. Alhoewel hulle doelstellings as kommunikatief beskryf word, fokus leerplanne steeds op wafter taalinhoude onderrig moet word. Gevolglik bly leerplanne hoofsaaklik lyste van strukture en funksies. Leerplanne behoorl heeltemal herontwerp te word om 'n samehangende proses-gefokusde, probleemoplossingsbenadering tot tweede taalonderrig te ontwikkel. Tans is daar 'n duidelike onwilligheid om enige definitiewe uitspraak te !ewer oor die plek van taalonderrig in die klaskamer. Dit het 'n nadelige uitwerking op onderwysers en ook die leerders. Die enigste manier waarop die ontwikkelende taalbehoeftes van die sekondere skoolleerling geakkommodeer kan word, is deur 'n meer bewuste studie te maak van hoe taal in 'n natuurlike diskoers gebruik word. 'n Meer doelbewuste taalbeheer aan die kant van die leerder sal die doeltreffendheid van ekstensiewe luister-, praat-, lees- en skryfaktiwiteite bevorder. Hierdie aktiwiteite verskaf die nodige taalinsette, maar is op sigself onvoldoende om taalverwerwing op hierdie vlak te verseker.

  14. Ovarian changes during the reproductive cycle of the Tupinambis merianae lizard raised in a temperate environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manes, Mario E.

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available El ciclo reproductor de hembras de Tupinambis merianae criadas en ambiente templado consiste de tres fases gonadales: previtelogénica, vitelogénica y postovulatoria o lútea. Durante la fase previtelogénica, que ocupa gran parte del verano, el otoño e invierno, los ovarios son pequeños, pesan menos de 4 g y contienen solamente folículos no vitelogénicos, los cuales se desarrollan lentamente a partir de los nidos germinales, alcanzando unos 5 mm de diámetro. Debido a una maduración gonadal asincrónica entre ambos sexos, las cópulas acontecen cuando los ovarios son aún previtelogénicos. Luego sobreviene una corta e intensa vitelogénesis, durante la cual los folículos crecen uniformemente incrementando unas 6 veces su diámetro (cerca de 30 mm, mientras que la masa ovárica total alcanza unos 400 g. El proceso culmina entre los 15 y 20 días, con una ovulación generalizada y la subsiguiente oviposición. Como consecuencia, los ovarios postovulatorios aparecen reducidos a unos 5 g, con una superficie casi enteramente cubierta de cicatrices foliculares, las cuales pronto desarrollan cuerpos lúteos. La detención del ciclo ovárico, con atresia folicular previtelogénica masiva, como resultado del aislamiento de las hembras, permite concluir sobre la existencia de estímulos sexuales promotores de la vitelogénesis. The reproductive cycle of Tupinambis merianae females raised in a temperate environment consists of three gonadal phases: previtellogenic, vitellogenic and postovulatory or luteal phases. During the previtellogenic phase, which takes great part of the summer, autumn and winter, the ovaries are small, weigh less than 4 g, and contain only nonvitellogenic follicles, which develop slowly from germinal beds, until they are almost 5 mm diameter. Due to an asynchronous gonadal maturation in both sexes, matings occur when ovaries are still previtellogenic. Then comes a short and intense vitellogenesis, during which follicles grow steadily increasing around 6 times their diameter (close to 30 mm, while the total ovarian mass reaches almost 400 g. The process culminates between the 15th and 20th day, with a widespread ovulation and a subsequent oviposition. As a consequence, postovulatory ovaries appear reduced to 5 g approximately, with a surface almost entirely covered with follicular scars, which soon developed luteal bodies. Blockade of the ovarian cycle, with a massive previtellogenic follicular atresia, as a result of females isolation leads to conclude on the existence of sexual stimuli promoting vitellogenesis.

  15. Microsatellite based genetic diversity and relationships among ten Creole and commercial cattle breeds raised in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Almeida Leonardo D

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Brazil holds the largest commercial cattle populations worldwide. Local cattle breeds can be classified according to their origin, as exotic or Creole. Exotic breeds imported in the last 100 years, both zebuine and taurine, currently make up the bulk of the intensively managed populations. Locally adapted Creole breeds, originated from cattle introduced by the European conquerors derive from natural selection and events of breed admixture. While historical knowledge exists on the Brazilian Creole breeds very little is known on their genetic composition. The objective of this study was to assess the levels of genetic diversity, phylogenetic relationships and patterns of taurine/zebuine admixture among ten cattle breeds raised in Brazil. Results Significant reduction of heterozygosity exists due both to within-population inbreeding and to breed differentiation in both subspecies (taurine and zebuine. For taurine breeds the number of markers that contribute to breed differentiation is larger than for zebuine. A consistently similar number of alleles was seen in both subspecies for all microsatellites. Four Creole breeds were the most genetically diverse followed by the zebuine breeds, the two specialized taurine breeds and the Creole Caracu. Pairwise genetic differentiation were all significant indicating that all breeds can be considered as genetically independent entities. A STRUCTURE based diagram indicated introgression of indicine genes in the local Creole breeds and suggested that occasional Creole introgression can be detected in some Zebuine animals. Conclusion This study reports on a comprehensive study of the genetic structure and diversity of cattle breeds in Brazil. A significant amount of genetic variation is maintained in the local cattle populations. The genetic data show that Brazilian Creole breeds constitute an important and diverse reservoir of genetic diversity for bovine breeding and conservation. The genetic data was able to shed light on a number of issues related to the local breeds origin and structure. The Brazilian Creole breeds are all important and viable targets for conservation for they display peculiar traits both phenotypic and of cultural and historical nature that deserve conservation efforts.

  16. Data-Driven Learning and Awareness-Raising: An Effective Tandem to Improve Grammar in Written Composition?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Luisa Pérez Cañado

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available The present paper, framed within the ECTS scheme currently being piloted at the University of Jaén, reports on a study carried out in the second semester of the academic year 2004-5 with English Philology freshmen at this University. One of its aims, described in an initial section of the paper, was to determine whether the use of Computer Assisted Language Learning (CALL, and Data-Driven Learning (DDL, could help raise awareness of and thus remediate the grammar weaknesses of such pupils under four categories (articles, verb tenses, verbal complementation, and prepositions. The procedure, outlined subsequently, involved using DDL to raise awareness of the main grammar mistakes in these headings, which had been previously identified in first year students’ production through the use of an UCLEE-error-tagged written learner corpus. Two one-hour seminars were employed weekly, each one with a group of 40 students, to raise awareness of these mistakes with the help of web-based resources. Four were the steps undertaken: initial attempts on the part of the students to identify the mistakes in the seven headings; a session provided by the authors on CALL as a means to raise awareness of, identify, and solve written mistakes; use of these electronic resources to contrast their initial error identification; and explicit correction of the mistakes in each category. The results and implications, discussed in a final section, highlight that DDL and awareness-raising – albeit in some categories more than in others – indeed constitute an effective tandem when it comes to improving grammatical aspects in written composition at University level.

  17. Techno-economic optimization of level and raise spacing in Bushveld Complex platinum reef conventional breast mining

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    C., Musingwini.

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The Bushveld Complex is economically significant and strategically important to South Africa, thus it is imperative that optimal extraction of platinum group metal (PGM) resources on the Bushveld Complex is achieved. Optimal extraction broadly requires that the maximum amount of ore is extracted by [...] excavating and hauling the minimum amount of waste in the shortest possible time, at the least cost, and in the safest and most environmentally acceptable manner. In open-pit mine planning this entails among other things, minimizing the waste stripping ratio, whereas in underground mine planning it includes minimizing the metres of waste development. In conventional mining, the main development that is in waste or partly in waste and defines the mining grid pattern, includes levels and raises. It was prudent to consider optimizing level and raise spacing in conventional mining because the method is a prevalent mining method on the Bushveld Complex accounting for nearly 70% of platinum production. The techno-economic optimization of level and raise spacing is characteristically a multi-criteria decision analysis (MCDA) optimization process and should therefore be analysed using MCDA techniques. The analytic hierarchy process (AHP) was the most appropriate MCDA technique for this research study. By using an orebody code named OB1 based on real geological data that was typical of Bushveld Complex platinum reef deposits, the derived optimal range of vertical level spacing was 30 m-50 m, and the optimal range of raise spacing was 180 m-220 m. The research methodology used in this study and the results obtained were received positively by the South African platinum mining industry because for the first time in several decades, a holistic methodology and practically acceptable solution had been developed for the controversial debate of optimizing level and raise spacing for conventional mining.

  18. Soils on raised marine terraces in the Metaponto area, S Italy: not a simple chronosequence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauer, Daniela; Al-Sharif, Riyad; Wagner, Stephen; Scarciglia, Fabio; Deffontaines, Benoît; Benvenuti, Marco; Carnicelli, Stefano; Brückner, Helmut

    2015-04-01

    A sequence of Middle and Late Pleistocene raised marine terraces stretches along the Gulf of Taranto, S Italy, for more than 65 km from Rocca Imperiale, Calabria, in the SW to Taranto, Apulia, in the NE, in an approximately 25 km wide belt. The terraces formed as a result of the interplay between sea-level fluctuations and regional tectonic uplift over a time-span of ca. 780 ka. They were selected for establishing a soil chronosequence, in order to analyse rates of soil-forming processes in the central Mediterranean region. Indeed, several general trends of soil formation with terrace age were identified. For example, soil thickness and Fed/Fet ratios increase, while the weathering ratio (Ca+Mg+K+Na)/Al decreases with assumed terrace age. These changes could be best described by power functions (R2 = 0.88 for soil thickness, R2 = 0.87 for Fed/Fet, and R2 = 0.96 for (Ca+Mg+K+Na)/Al). However, closer examination revealed that the soils did not simply form in the marine gravel bodies but in various kinds of sediments. The development of the landscape along the Gulf of Taranto turned out to be much more complex than previously expected. Sediment-soil successions exposed in several gravel quarries reveal that each terrace, after its original formation, was exposed to changing conditions in terms of climate, vegetation, level of erosion base (related to sea-level oscillations and/or tectonics), and other environmental factors during the Pleistocene and Holocene periods. As a result, it was subject to (i) further geomorphological and sedimentological evolution, including incision, denudation, deposition of alluvial sediments, and accumulation of colluvial deposits, in parts due to natural processes and in parts due to human activity; (ii) various directions and rates of soil development, corresponding to changing environmental conditions during glacial and interglacial periods. In some cases, there is evidence for a period of soil formation in the marine deposits prior to the deposition of the alluvial sediments. For example, a several metres thick marine gravel body, overlain by a layer of alluvial sandy-loamy sediments, is exposed in a gravel quarry on terrace T2 (assumed to have accumulated during MIS 5c). The boundary between the two sediment packages is very sharp and wavy, indicating a period of incision into the gravel body prior to the deposition of the alluvial sediments. Based on these observations, the following chronological sequence of events is assumed for this site: 1) accumulation of the gravel body in a delta environment during MIS 5c; 2) period of soil formation during late MIS 5c, after the surface of the gravel body had fallen dry; 3) incision of creeks, cutting channels into the gravel body as sea level dropped during MIS 5b; 4) sea-level rise during MIS 5a, not reaching the same level as during MIS 5c due to progressing regional uplift in the meantime; wave action of the MIS 5a sea removed part of the MIS 5c gravel body and cut a cliff into it, thus shaping the seaward edge of terrace T2; 5) accumulation of alluvial deposits in the previously incised channels and on top of the erosional gravel-body surface during MIS 5a because of the raised erosion base level; 6) incorporation of sandy sediments from the near-by MIS 5a beach, possibly with some contribution from temporarily dry beds of the nearby torrential rivers, into the alluvial deposits. Similarly complex sediment successions can be observed in several exposures. In addition, in some locations up to several metres of loess-like sediments are exposed. They probably accumulated during glacial periods, being blown out from the wide, temporarily dry river beds and from the exposed shelf. These observations led to a more differentiated reconstruction of the evolution of the landscape and soils in the Metaponto area.

  19. Water saving in chufa cultivation using flat raised beds and drip irrigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascual-Seva, N.; San Bautista, A.; López-Galarza, S.; Maroto, J. V.; Pascual, B.

    2012-04-01

    Chufa (Cyperus esculentus L. var. sativus), also known as tiger nut, is a typical crop in the Region of Valencia (Spain). Its tubers are used to produce a beverage called horchata. Chufa has been cultivated traditionally in ridges and furrow irrigated. Currently, the quality of water used is acceptable, there are no limitations on supply, and water is not expensive; therefore, large amounts of water are used. The European Water Framework Directive 2000/60 is based on the precautionary principle, considering preventive action for measures to be taken; thus, water use is an issue to improve. Moreover, drought periods are becoming more frequent and extended, and water is being diverted to other uses. In this two year study (2007-2008), we analysed how yield and irrigation water use efficiency (IWUE) are affected by two cultivation factors: planting strategy and irrigation system. Three planting strategies were analysed: ridges (R) and flat raised beds, with two (B2) and three (B3) plant rows along them, while two irrigation systems were compared, furrow (FI) and drip irrigation (DI). Within the beds, the effect of the position of the plant row was considered, differing among plants grown in the north (n), central (c), and south (s) rows. Distances between ridge and bed axes were 60, 80 and 120 cm for R, B2 and B3, respectively. Irrigation was based on the Volumetric Soil Water Content (VSWC), which was continuously monitored with capacitance sensors (ECH2O EC-5 in FI and multidepth capacitance sensors C-Probe in DI). Each irrigation session started when the VSWC in R dropped to 60% and 80% of field capacity in FI and DI, respectively. Each DI session lasted 60 min in 2007; while in 2008 the installation was automated, stopping each session when the sum of the VSWC at 10, 20, and 30 cm soil depth reached its corresponding field capacity value. With both irrigation systems, beds were irrigated simultaneously with ridges and with the same irrigation duration. Plants from the different plant rows were sampled periodically and later fractionated into leaves, roots, and tubers, to examine the evolution of the different plant organs. The results showed that there were no differences among planting strategies in 2007; however, in 2008, R produced lower yields than the two types of beds. The interaction between the experimental years and the irrigation strategy did affect the yield significantly, obtaining higher yields with DI than with FI, which led to higher yields in 2007 than in 2008. Regarding the IWUE, DI gave the highest values, especially in 2008. Ridges led to the highest IWUE with DI, and the lowest IWUE with FI. When comparing the different planting lines, the highest yield was obtained in the southern row. It can be concluded that modifications to the planting strategy and the irrigation system within the traditional cultivation practices of the chufa crop would increase IWUE and lead to major water savings.

  20. Education and Raising Awareness of Seismic Risk in the Black Sea Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florin Balan, Stefan; Alcaz, Vasile; Trifonova, Petya; Uker, Nalan; Tataru, Dragos

    2014-05-01

    The Project "Black Sea Earthquake Safety Net(work)" ESNET has the intention to educate and raise awareness of seismic risk in the Black Sea Basin in four countries: Moldova, Romania, Bulgaria and Turkey. The project is financed through "The Black Sea Basin Joint Operational Programme", an EU operational programmes under European Neighborhood & Partnership Instrument (ENPI). The programme is financed by ENPI. The participation of Turkey is financed by Instrument for Pre-accession Assistance. It is implemented during the period 2007 - 2013. The project wants to contribute to the prevention of natural disasters generated by earthquakes in Black Sea Basin by developing a joint monitoring and intervention concept. All the countries involved in the project have their own studies, strategies, prevention and intervention systems in case of earthquakes, but until now there has not been an integrated approach so far in the Black Sea Basin. Given the cross-border character of seismic activity, it is necessary to have a cross-border approach on prevention, monitoring and intervention in case of earthquakes. Main objectives : 1. The assessment of the disaster potential, with accent on the seismic risk degree and the earthquakes effects in the intervention area. For achieving the main objective is to have an accurate and up-to-date assessment of the potential of disasters provoked by earthquakes in the project area/regions. This assessment will be carried out at national level and will be used in designing the common concept/approach for dealing with earthquakes at regional level, thus ensuring the cross-border character of the objective. 2.To develop an integrated seismic monitoring and intervention concept. This integrated concept, built on the basis of the previous objective, will have a cross-border relevance and is at the core of the action. The monitoring and intervention in case of earthquakes will be coordinated among the participating countries based on this, thus a more effective and efficient approach being ensured. 3. To increase the capacity of local institutions emergency intervention units for joint response activities in case of disasters. By involving the local emergency units and public administration in the project activities, especially in trainings, conferences and consultations, a better cooperation at cross-border level will be achieved. Step by step, the respective bodies will increase the cooperation and will benefit from each others expertise. Target groups : Research institutions and universities; Emergency intervention units; Local public authorities; NGOs. Final beneficiaries of the project: the population in the regions of the project. The project has a high educational perspective through its: a)training activities and b)training tools applied in the process. A) the training of 20 people from the emergency units from each country (80 in total) by experts in risk management. B) The Seismic Safety Web Portal of the project presenting all activities, maps and materials posted by members of the network agreement and not only. Also for changing expertise, opinions and long distance conferences is available a special software communication tool. An educational book is printed in 3 languages to be distributed in partner countries with main results.