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Evaluation of the validity of high serum antistreptolysin o titre only, as an indication for tonsillectomy.  

Science.gov (United States)

Serum Antistreptolysin O (ASO) titre is raised when there is infection of any organ of the body, by Group A beta haemolytic streptococci (GABHS), Group C or Group G streptococci [1]. Increased serum ASO titre should not be the only deciding criterion for tonsillectomy if GABHS is not present in the palatine tonsils. In this study, we evaluate the rationality of performing tonsillectomy in raised serum ASO titre only, in absence of GABHS in palatine tonsil. The study was designed as a prospective cohort study in which the main out come measure is to find out: The main outcome measure is to find out whether only the raised serum ASO titre is to be considered to perform tonsillectomy or not. Fifty consecutive patients (both children and adults) clinically diagnosed to have chronic tonsillitis were included in this prospective cohort study. Throat swab culture, tonsilar core tissue culture and Serum ASO titre tests were performed in all the patients. The results showed that out of the 50 patients 45 had raised ASO titre and 5 patients had normal ASO titre. GABHS was found in 5 cases (10 %) in throat swab culture and 8 cases (16 %) in FNA of tonsil core culture. The sensitivity of throat swab culture as compared to FNA Tonsil core culture was 62.5 % and positive predictive value was 100 %. The sensitivity of ASO titre as compared to core culture was 100 % and positive predictive value was 17.8 %. Specificity was only 12 %. From the results of this study, it is evident that FNA culture of the tonsil core is a valid and a reliable test for the diagnosis of bacterial micro flora in recurrent tonsillitis. One should perform throat swab culture and FNA culture from tonsil core along with ASO titre before doing tonsillectomy in absence of any other indications. Identifying GABHS in the tonsil by FNA test and/or in the throat swab culture along with high serum ASO titre may be one of the ideal indications for tonsillectomy. PMID:25032106

Hembrom, R; Roychaudhuri, B K; Saha, A K; Roychowdhury, A; Ghosh, S; Gon, S; Mandal, K

2014-09-01

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Various rheumatic syndromes in adult patients associated with high antistreptolysin O titres and their differential diagnosis with rheumatic fever.  

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OBJECTIVES--The purpose of this study was to analyse retrospectively adult patients with acute joint or muscle symptoms and a high antistreptolysin O (ASO) titre to find out which syndromes of clinical arthritis are associated with serological evidence of streptococcal infection. METHODS--Seventy six adult patients with an acute arthritis syndrome or an exacerbation in their chronic rheumatic disease and simultaneously a high ASO titre (> or = 500 Todd units) were examined in two time periods...

1993-01-01

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Antistreptolysin O titer in health and disease: levels and significance  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Over diagnosis of acute rheumatic fever (ARF based on a raised antistreptolysin O titer (ASOT is not uncommon in endemic areas. In this study, 660 children (aged 9.2 ±1.7 years were recruited consecutively and classified as: G1 (control group, n=200 healthy children, G2 (n=20 with ARF 1st attack, G3 (n=40 with recurrent ARF, G4 (n=100 with rheumatic heart disease (RHD on long acting penicillin (LAP, G5 (n=100 with acute follicular tonsillitis, and G6 (n=200 healthy children with history of repeated follicular tonsillitis more than three times a year. Serum ASOT was measured by latex agglutination. Upper limit of normal (ULN ASOT (80th percentile was 400 IU in G1, 200 IU in G4, and 1600 IU in G6. Significantly high levels were seen in ARF 1st attack when compared to groups 1 and 5 (P<0.001 and P<0.05, respectively. ASOT was significantly high in children over ten years of age, during winter and in those with acute rheumatic carditis. ASOT showed significant direct correlation with the number of attacks of tonsillitis (P<0.05. Egyptian children have high ULN ASOT reaching 400 IU. This has to be taken into consideration when interpreting its values in suspected ARF. A rise in ASOT is less prominent in recurrent ARF compared to 1st attack, and acute and recurrent tonsillitis. Basal levels of ASOT increase with age but the pattern of increase during infection is not age dependent

Sahar Ezz El Arab

2012-01-01

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The clinical-diagnostic role of antistreptolysin O antibodies.  

Science.gov (United States)

The antistreptolysin O antibody (ASLO) test is often requested in a clinical setting with limited evidence for its usefulness. For this reason, the diagnostic scenario in which ASLO plays an evidence-based role and the analytical performance of the test are critically appraised, taking into account the clinical need and the direct medical cost. Little or no scientific evidence was found for the use of ASLO in patients with pharyngitis, post-streptococcal glomerulonephritis and in adults with rheumatoid arthritis. The clinical relevance of ASLO is restricted to paediatrics, where it contributes to fulfil the diagnosis of acute rheumatic fever (ARF) as per Jones criteria. The standardization of current automated ASLO-latex assays is limited. Attention should be paid to inaccurate reference values and many circumstances causing false positive and false negative results. Because of a low prevalence of ARF in the Western world, a high negative predictive value is obtained for the ASLO test (> 99%). In clinical practice, the result of the test is not urgent. To reduce overconsumption, the clinical laboratory should drive the request behaviour of physicians by a strategic lay-out of the application form. The health insurance/government also contributed by introducing a diagnostic rule for reimbursement. PMID:22338301

Geerts, I; De Vos, N; Frans, J; Mewis, A

2011-01-01

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Antistreptolysin O Levels in Patients with Behcet’s Disease  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Objective: Behcet’s disease is a multisystem inflammatory disorder, and its etiology has not been defined clearly yet. In this study, we aimed to investigate the antistreptolysin O (ASO levels of patients with Behcet’s disease. Materials and Methods: Thirty patients with Behcet’s disease and 30 healthy controls were enrolled in this study. We measured erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR, serum C-reactive protein (CRP, and ASO levels in both groups.Results: There was no statistically significant difference between the two groups with respect to demographic data (p>0.05. The ASO levels of the patients and the controls were 288.4±145.7 and 170.6±142.4 ng/ml, respectively. In the patients with Behcet’s disease, ASO (p<0.01 and ESR (p<0.05 values were significantly higher than in the healthy controls. There was no other significant difference in serum CRP levels between the patients and the controls. We could not find any correlation among ASO, CRP, and ESR values. Conclusion: Our results suggest that serum ASO levels may increase in patients with Behcet’s disease. Further studies are needed in order to define the relationship between ASO levels and inflammation status in Behcet’s disease.

Hulya Uzkeser

2011-12-01

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Homogeneous liposome lysis assay for determination of anti-streptolysin O antibody titer in serum.  

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We developed a liposome lysis assay for determining anti-streptolysin O antibodies (ASO) in human sera involving the use of carboxyfluorescein-entrapped multilamellar liposomes. This assay system was based on the inhibition of streptolysin O-induced liposome lysis by ASO. Briefly, after incubation of a given amount of streptolysin O with ASO for 30 min at 37 degrees C, carboxyfluorescein-entrapped liposomes composed of egg yolk phosphatidylcholine and cholesterol in a molar ratio of 1:1 were ...

Umeda, M.; Tomita, T.; Shibata, H.; Seki, M.; Yasuda, T.

1988-01-01

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Determination of anti-streptolysin O antibody titer by a new passive agglutination method using sensitized toraysphere particles.  

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We developed a new method for determining the anti-streptolysin O (ASO) titer on the basis of a passive agglutination reaction. This new method uses Toraysphere particles sensitized with streptolysin O. This method was used to measure the ASO titer in 130 serum samples (from 31 patients with post-streptococcal glomerulonephritis, 26 patients with group A streptococcal pharyngitis, 5 patients with scarlet fever, 29 patients with non-group A streptococcal pharyngitis, 20 healthy children, and 1...

Kodama, T.; Ichiyama, S.; Morishita, Y.; Fukatsu, T.; Shimokata, K.; Nakashima, N.

1997-01-01

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Evaluation of prophylactic penicillin administration in children with joint complaints andhigh serum anti-streptolysin O titers  

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Objective: Eligibility criteria for the diagnosis of acuterheumatic fever and the reasons for the administration ofprophylactic penicillin were investigated in patients admittedwith complaints of joint and high anti-streptolysin O(ASO) titers.Materials and methods: From the hospital reports, 240patients those ASO titers were higher than 300 Todd unitand aged between 6-16 years were included to the study.The presence of swelling /redness /limitation of movementand number of affected joints, du...

2013-01-01

9

Evaluation of prophylactic penicillin administration in children with joint complaints andhigh serum anti-streptolysin O titers  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Objective: Eligibility criteria for the diagnosis of acuterheumatic fever and the reasons for the administration ofprophylactic penicillin were investigated in patients admittedwith complaints of joint and high anti-streptolysin O(ASO titers.Materials and methods: From the hospital reports, 240patients those ASO titers were higher than 300 Todd unitand aged between 6-16 years were included to the study.The presence of swelling /redness /limitation of movementand number of affected joints, duration of complaints,presence of fever, prophylactic penicillin administration,response to therapy and repetition were asked. Eligibilityfor Jones criteria for the diagnosis of acute rheumaticfever was investigated.Results: Arthritis was present in 39 (16.25% patientsand 31 (79.5% of these patients were given penicillinprophylaxis. The number of patients with joint pain was201 (83.75% and 109 (54.2% of them were given prophylacticpenicillin administration.Conclusion: In this study, we found high penicillin administrationrate without real indication. Acute rheumaticfever diagnosis in children should be carefully based onJones criteria suggested by WHO and AHA and should beavoided from unnecessary prophylaxis.Key words: joint pain, acute rheumatic fever, penicillin rophylaxis.

Ay?enur Paç K?saarslan

2013-03-01

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ASO: Antistreptolysin O titer  

Science.gov (United States)

... through http://emedicine.medscape.com . Accessed January 2014. Delgado, J. and Fisher, M. (Updated 2013 September). Streptococcal ... through http://emedicine.medscape.com . Accessed January 2010. Delgado, J. et. al. (Updated 2009 November). Streptococcal Disease, ...

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Determinação de anti-estreptolisina "O" e proteína C reativa entre escolares do município de Laranjal, PR Determination of antistreptolysin "O" and C-reactive protein among school children of Laranjal, PR  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Para a determinação de anti-estreptolisina "O" e proteína C reativa, no município de Laranjal-PR, foram analisados soros de 411 escolares, entre 5 a 16 anos. Para anti-estreptolisina "O", 13,6% tiveram títulos elevados e 5,1% foram reativos para proteína C reativa. Não foram observadas diferenças em relação ao sexo e faixa etária.For antistreptolysin "O" and C-reactive protein determination, carried out in Laranjal-PR, we analyzed the serum of 411 school children aged from 5 to 16. For antistreptolysin O, 13.6% had elevated titers and 5.1% were reactive for C-reative protein. No differences related to age or sex were observed.

Luiz Euribel Prestes-Carneiro

2005-02-01

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Post-streptococcal glomerulonephritis in Hong Kong.  

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Of 74 paediatric inpatients with acute glomerulonephritis, 58 (78%) had a raised (greater than 1/200) antistreptolysin O titre. Serum C3 concentration was low in 73, but returned to normal within six weeks. Streptococcal infection remains the commonest cause of acute nephritis in children in Hong Kong, possibly due to overcrowded living conditions.

Leung, D. T.; Tseng, R. Y.; Go, S. H.; French, G. L.; Lam, C. W.

1987-01-01

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Prediction of antibody persistency from antibody titres to natalizumab  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Background:In a subgroup of patients with multiple sclerosis natalizumab therapy causes generation of anti-natalizumab antibodies that may be transient or persistent. It is recommended to discontinue natalizumab therapy in persistently antibody-positive patients.Objective:To use titres of anti-natalizumab antibodies to predict persistency of antibodies.Patients and methods:In 525 consecutive natalizumab treated patients tested for anti-natalizumab antibodies 43 (8.2%) were antibody-positive. Thirty of the antibody-positive patients, who were tested both at three and at six months after treatment start, had antibody titres in blood measured using an extended ELISA method.Results:Samples from persistently positive patients (N=18) had higher titre values than samples from transiently positive patients (N=12). A cut-off value for high titre values was generated, above which patients may discontinue natalizumab therapy after three months. The method had a sensitivity of 0.83, a specificity of 1.00 and a diagnosticaccuracy of 0.90.Conclusion:An extended ELISA method for measuring anti-natalizumab antibody titres in multiple sclerosis patients on natalizumab therapy may be used for evaluation of antibody persistence. A test at three months may identify patients with high titres, who should discontinue natalizumab therapy, and patients with transient low-titre antibodies, who may continue natalizumab therapy despite development of antibodies.

Jensen, Poul Erik H; Koch-Henriksen, Nils

2012-01-01

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Panda Raising  

Science.gov (United States)

This year has seen a record number of panda babies in zoos around the world, including precocious Tai Shan at the National Zoo in Washington, DC. Assistant curator Lisa Stevens is on the team that cares for Tai. She says his birth has been a good opportunity for the zoo to showcase its style of panda-raising which is to step back and let the mother do the work.

Science Update (AAAS;)

2005-12-08

15

Lymphoma associated bone marrow necrosis with raised anticardiolipin antibody.  

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A case of high grade B cell lymphoma presented with bone marrow necrosis, followed by development of extensive marrow fibrosis, the evolution of which was documented by serial magnetic resonance imaging and bone marrow trephine histology. A markedly raised anticardiolipin antibody titre at diagnosis suggests that lymphoma associated antiphospholipid syndrome may have contributed to the aetiology of the bone marrow necrosis.

Murphy, P. T.; Sivakumaran, M.; Casey, M. C.; Liddicoat, A.; Wood, J. K.

1998-01-01

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Lymphoma associated bone marrow necrosis with raised anticardiolipin antibody.  

Science.gov (United States)

A case of high grade B cell lymphoma presented with bone marrow necrosis, followed by development of extensive marrow fibrosis, the evolution of which was documented by serial magnetic resonance imaging and bone marrow trephine histology. A markedly raised anticardiolipin antibody titre at diagnosis suggests that lymphoma associated antiphospholipid syndrome may have contributed to the aetiology of the bone marrow necrosis. Images

Murphy, P T; Sivakumaran, M; Casey, M C; Liddicoat, A; Wood, J K

1998-01-01

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Chronic bronchitis. IV--Antibody titres to bacterial antigens during acute exacerbations.  

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In 49 patients of chronic bronchitis with acute exacerbation, serum antibody titres were estimated against the respective pathogen isolated and cultured from sputum of individual patients. Antibody titres to Klebsiella and Staphylococcus coagulase positive organisms were found in 28 and 25 patients respectively. Paired serum samples from 21 patients showed rising antibody titres in 17 of them, whereas the antibody titres fell in the remaining 4 patients. Notably, only 2 patients demonstrated ...

1989-01-01

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Chronic bronchitis. IV--Antibody titres to bacterial antigens during acute exacerbations.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In 49 patients of chronic bronchitis with acute exacerbation, serum antibody titres were estimated against the respective pathogen isolated and cultured from sputum of individual patients. Antibody titres to Klebsiella and Staphylococcus coagulase positive organisms were found in 28 and 25 patients respectively. Paired serum samples from 21 patients showed rising antibody titres in 17 of them, whereas the antibody titres fell in the remaining 4 patients. Notably, only 2 patients demonstrated a four fold rise or fall in the antibody titres. The significance of these findings is discussed.

Dalvi S

1989-01-01

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Characteristics of in-vitro phenotypes of glutamic acid decarboxylase 65 autoantibodies in high-titre individuals  

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Previous studies have indicated phenotypical differences in glutamic acid decarboxylase 65 autoantibodies (GADA) found in type 1 diabetes (T1D) patients, individuals at risk of developing T1D and stiff-person syndrome (SPS) patients. In a Phase II trial using aluminium-formulated GAD65 (GAD-alum) as an immunomodulator in T1D, several patients responded with high GADA titres after treatment, raising concerns as to whether GAD-alum could induce GADA with SPS-associated phenotypes. This study ai...

Che?ramy, Mikael; Hampe, Christiane S.; Ludvigsson, Johnny; Casas, Rosaura

2013-01-01

20

Diagnostic potential of antibody titres against Candida cell wall ?-glucan in Kawasaki disease.  

Science.gov (United States)

Kawasaki disease (KD) is an acute vasculitis syndrome of unknown aetiology in children. The administration of Candida cell wall antigens induced KD-like coronary vasculitis in mice. However, the responses of KD patients to Candida cell wall antigen are unknown. In this study, we examined the response of KD patients to ?-glucan (BG), one of the major fungal cell wall antigens, by measuring the anti-BG titre. In KD patients, the anti-C.?albicans cell wall BG titre was higher than that in normal children. The anti-BG titre was also higher in KD patients compared to children who served as control subjects. The efficacy of intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) therapy in KD is well established. We categorized the KD patients into three groups according to the therapeutic efficacy of intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) and compared the anti-BG titre among these groups. Anti-BG titres were similar in the control group and the non-responsive group. In the fully responsive group, the anti-BG titre showed higher values than those in the normal children. This study demonstrated clinically that KD patients have high antibody titres to Candida cell wall BG, and suggested the involvement of Candida cell wall BG in the pathogenesis of KD. The relationship between IVIG therapy and anti-BG titre was also shown. These results provide valuable insights into the therapy and diagnosis of KD. PMID:24635107

Ishibashi, K; Fukazawa, R; Miura, N N; Adachi, Y; Ogawa, S; Ohno, N

2014-07-01

 
 
 
 
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Differences in natural antibody titres comparing free-ranging guanacos (Lama guanicoe) and capybaras (Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris).  

Science.gov (United States)

Natural antibodies are an important component of innate humoral immunity but have not been investigated to any great extent in wild mammals. In the current study, serum natural antibody titres were measured by hemagglutination assay for two South American herbivores, the guanaco (Lama guanicoe) and the capybara (Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris). Results indicated that capybaras had antibody titres on average more than four times higher than guanacos (median titres 1:256 and 1:4, respectively), suggesting differences in investment in constitutive humoral immunity between the two species. PMID:24321369

Racca, Andrea L; Eberhardt, Ayelen T; Moreno, Pablo G; Baldi, Cecilia; Beldomenico, Pablo M

2014-02-01

22

The value of serum TPHA titres in selecting patients for lumbar puncture.  

Science.gov (United States)

Between January 1981 and December 1989, 258 patients with positive syphilis serology underwent lumbar puncture. Nine patients had long-standing neurosyphilis and had lumbar punctures performed during the course of their follow-up. Of the remaining 249 only 12 demonstrated the presence of TPHA in the CSF. The serum TPHA titre for eight of these 12 patients, and seven of the nine (two having no titre reported) known neurosyphilis patients at the time of original diagnosis, was 1 in 5120 or more. The four remaining newly found CSF positive patients had serum TPHA titres of 1 in 2560. We suggest that a serum TPHA titre of 1 in 2560 or greater should be considered as a criterion when selecting patients for lumbar puncture, especially when there are no clinical signs or symptoms. PMID:1916775

De Silva, Y; Walzman, M; Shahmanesh, M

1991-02-01

23

Thyroxine, methimazole, and thyroid microsomal autoantibody titres in hypothyroid Hashimoto's thyroiditis.  

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Ten hypothyroid patients with Hashimoto's thyroiditis were treated with methimazole 30 mg in addition to thyroxine 0.15 mg daily. Another 10 hypothyroid patients with Hashimoto's thyroiditis were given thyroxine 0.15 mg alone. After 22 weeks of treatment significant decreases in thyroid microsomal autoantibody titres were observed in both groups (p less than 0.01). There was no difference in the mean change in titre between the two groups. When the patients treated with methimazole were subse...

1985-01-01

24

Observations of dye test (DT) titres to Toxoplasma in a non-breeding flock of sheep.  

Science.gov (United States)

In this study nine sheep and one goat were tested by the Sabin Feldman dye test for the presence of antibodies to Toxoplasma spp over a period of 12 months. No significant signs of a seasonal variation in dye test titres of infected animals could be demonstrated. The possible source of infection of two sheep, exhibiting a sudden rise in antibody titre during the course of the observations is discussed. PMID:601989

Owen, D; Chessum, B S

1977-11-12

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Inverse relation of serum Helicobacter pylori antibody titres and extent of intestinal metaplasia.  

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AIMS: To clarify the relation between the serum titre of anti-Helicobacter pylori (H pylori) antibody and the extent of intestinal metaplasia of the gastric mucosa. METHODS: The serum anti-H pylori IgG titres of 95 asymptomatic individuals (mean age 65 years) undergoing an annual health examination were measured and compared with the extent of intestinal metaplasia (absent, moderate, or extensive), determined by examination of multiple endoscopic mucosal biopsy specimens. Serum pepsinogen I (...

Osawa, H.; Inoue, F.; Yoshida, Y.

1996-01-01

26

Prognostic value of antibody titre to heat-shock protein 65 on cardiovascular events.  

Science.gov (United States)

Accumulating evidence suggests that the immune system is involved in atherogenesis, such as the correlation of the antibody titre to heat shock protein (hsp) with atherosclerotic lesions in the carotid and coronary arteries. Because the prognostic value of the hsp antibody titre for future cardiovascular events has not been evaluated until now, we performed a follow-up study on 195 subjects without a history of established cardiovascular risk factors (e.g. hypercholesterolaemia, diabetes, smoking), recruited for hsp antibody titre determination in 1995. Cardiovascular events were defined as unstable angina with the need for hospitalisation, myocardial infarction, re-vascularisation (PTCA, bypass), stroke and cardiovascular death. Among 79 men with coronary artery disease defined by coronary angiography, hsp antibody titres were significantly higher in those with future cardiovascular events (467.0 +/- 56.3) than in patients without further events (351.0 +/- 23.3; p < 0.049). Because anti-hsp-antibody titres might be of prognostic value for coronary artery disease, patients with an increased hsp antibody titre should obtain intensive management of classical risk factors. PMID:11326141

Hoppichler, F; Koch, T; Dzien, A; Gschwandtner, G; Lechleitner, M

2000-01-01

27

Characteristics of in-vitro phenotypes of glutamic acid decarboxylase 65 autoantibodies in high-titre individuals.  

Science.gov (United States)

Previous studies have indicated phenotypical differences in glutamic acid decarboxylase 65 autoantibodies (GADA) found in type 1 diabetes (T1D) patients, individuals at risk of developing T1D and stiff-person syndrome (SPS) patients. In a Phase II trial using aluminium-formulated GAD(65) (GAD-alum) as an immunomodulator in T1D, several patients responded with high GADA titres after treatment, raising concerns as to whether GAD-alum could induce GADA with SPS-associated phenotypes. This study aimed to analyse GADA levels, immunoglobulin (Ig)G1-4 subclass frequencies, b78- and b96·11-defined epitope distribution and GAD(65) enzyme activity in sera from four cohorts with very high GADA titres: T1D patients (n?=?7), GAD-alum-treated T1D patients (n?=?9), T1D high-risk individuals (n?=?6) and SPS patients (n?=?12). SPS patients showed significantly higher GADA levels and inhibited the in-vitro GAD(65) enzyme activity more strongly compared to the other groups. A higher binding frequency to the b78-defined epitope was found in the SPS group compared to T1D and GAD-alum individuals, whereas no differences were detected for the b96·11-defined epitope. GADA IgG1-4 subclass levels did not differ between the groups, but SPS patients had higher IgG2 and lower IgG4 distribution more frequently. In conclusion, the in-vitro GADA phenotypes from SPS patients differed from the T1D- and high-risk groups, and GAD-alum treatment did not induce SPS-associated phenotypes. However, occasional overlap between the groups exists, and caution is indicated when drawing conclusions to health or disease status. PMID:23379430

Chéramy, M; Hampe, C S; Ludvigsson, J; Casas, R

2013-03-01

28

Raising and Transparency.  

Science.gov (United States)

An account of the phenomena that transformational syntax handled by means of "raising" is formulated in the context of cognitive grammar. Raising is analyzed as a special case of the metonymy that relational expressions exhibit in regard to their choice of overtly coded arguments. The transparency of these constructions is explained. (83…

Langacker, Ronald W.

1995-01-01

29

The value of serum TPHA titres in selecting patients for lumbar puncture.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Between January 1981 and December 1989, 258 patients with positive syphilis serology underwent lumbar puncture. Nine patients had long-standing neurosyphilis and had lumbar punctures performed during the course of their follow-up. Of the remaining 249 only 12 demonstrated the presence of TPHA in the CSF. The serum TPHA titre for eight of these 12 patients, and seven of the nine (two having no titre reported) known neurosyphilis patients at the time of original diagnosis, was 1 in 5120 or more...

Silva, Y.; Walzman, M.; Shahmanesh, M.

1991-01-01

30

Raising Your Garden MEA  

Science.gov (United States)

Raising Your Garden MEA provides students with a real world engineering problem in which they must work as a team to design a procedure to select the best material for building raised garden beds. The main focus of this MEA is to recognize the importance of choosing the correct material for building a raised garden bed, what information is needed before starting a gardening project, and to consider the environmental and economic impact the garden will have on the school. Students will conduct individual and team investigations in order to arrive at a scientifically sound solution to the problem.

2012-12-15

31

Raising the Titanic.  

Science.gov (United States)

Described is an activity in which groups of students investigate engineering principles by writing a feasibility study to raise the luxury liner, Titanic. The problem statement and directions, and suggestions for problem solutions are included. (CW)

Baker, Romona

1990-01-01

32

Arity Raising in Manticore  

Science.gov (United States)

Compilers for polymorphic languages are required to treat values in programs in an abstract and generic way at the source level. The challenges of optimizing the boxing of raw values, flattening of argument tuples, and raising the arity of functions that handle complex structures to reduce memory usage are old ones, but take on newfound import with processors that have twice as many registers. We present a novel strategy that uses both control-flow and type information to provide an arity raising implementation addressing these problems. This strategy is conservative - no matter the execution path, the transformed program will not perform extra operations.

Bergstrom, Lars; Reppy, John

33

Raising Responsible Teenagers.  

Science.gov (United States)

Some parents raise children without knowing anything about child development and are thus bewildered about how to deal with difficult behavior. This books addresses three important areas of parenting--child development, parenting style, and discipline--and tries to help parents gain the self-control needed to become competent adults. Chapters 1,…

Myers, Bob

34

Streptokinase neutralisation titres up to 866 days after intravenous streptokinase for acute myocardial infarction.  

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OBJECTIVE--To follow the change in streptokinase neutralisation titres in a group of patients after treatment with streptokinase for acute myocardial infarction. DESIGN--Venous blood samples suitable for analysis were obtained up to 866 days after treatment with 1.5 million units of streptokinase in 189 patients. The ability of the patient's plasma to inhibit lysis of a thrombin clot by streptokinase was assessed. SETTING--A coronary care unit in a district general hospital. PATIENTS--A retro...

Patel, S.; Jalihal, S.; Dutka, D. P.; Morris, G. K.

1993-01-01

35

Widal agglutination titre: a rapid serological diagnosis of typhoid fever in developing countries  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

To study the reliability of a single Widal test and to find out the diagnostic significance of 'O' and 'H' agglutinin titre in the diagnosis of typhoid fever. Community-based case-control study conducted from Jan 2001 to June 2007. The blood samples were collected from the medical and out door department of Sir Ganga Ram Hospitals, Lahore. The diagnostic value of an acute phase single Widal agglutination test for suspected typhoid fever was evaluated in 733 consecutive patients with fever lasting 6 or more days. In 733 patients with fever 84 (11.45%) were positive for Widal test. A noteworthy rise 1/320 of H and/or O agglutinin titre was observed in 86 (11.3%) of patients with typhoid fever. In the absence of vaccination an elevated level of H and/or O agglutinin titre of 1: 320 is of diagnostic value for typhoid fever especially in our setting where a single sample of serum is relied on for the diagnosis of typhoid fever. (author)

2009-01-01

36

Single-layer centrifugation reduces equine arteritis virus titre in the semen of shedding stallions.  

Science.gov (United States)

Several countries have adopted strategies for preventing and/or controlling equine viral arteritis based on vaccination and restricting the breeding activities of carrier stallions. However, in some cases, carrier stallions are only identified after they have transmitted virus to a mare. Therefore, a mechanism for separating virus from spermatozoa in the semen of carrier stallions would facilitate control measures for preventing disease transmission. In this study, the use of several modifications of single-layer centrifugation (SLC, SLC with an inner tube and double SLC) through Androcoll-E, a species-specific colloid were evaluated for their ability to separate spermatozoa from virus in ejaculates from carrier stallions. The three types of SLC significantly reduced the virus titre in fresh semen at 0 h and in stored semen at 24 h (p straightness, linearity, wobble and beat cross-frequency) were not significantly affected by the processing. Although virus titres were reduced in the SLC samples, significant levels of infectivity still remained, especially in stallions shedding large amounts of virus. It remains to be determined whether SLC-processed sperm samples from stallions shedding low virus titres retain sufficient equine arteritis virus to cause infection in mares through artificial insemination. PMID:23190015

Morrell, J M; Timoney, P; Klein, C; Shuck, K; Campos, J; Troedsson, M

2013-08-01

37

Is It Suitable to Diagnose Acute Rheumatic Fever with Anti-Streptolysin O?  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In clinical practice, Anti-streptolizin O (ASO levels are used for diagnosis of Acute Rheumatic Fever (ARF. We investigated to evaluate the accuracy of using ASO in patients with a murmur in physical examination, in patients with a suspicious ARF history and sometimes only in routine examination. When we evaluate 52 patients' data, high ASO levels was not associated with nor valve structures, neither ARF history. Therefore, we showed that using ASO of levels only is an incorrect application for diagnosis of ARF in clinical practice.

Ç. Emre Ça?l?yan

2011-08-01

38

Is It Suitable to Diagnose Acute Rheumatic Fever with Anti-Streptolysin O?  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In clinical practice, Anti-streptolizin O (ASO) levels are used for diagnosis of Acute Rheumatic Fever (ARF). We investigated to evaluate the accuracy of using ASO in patients with a murmur in physical examination, in patients with a suspicious ARF history and sometimes only in routine examination. When we evaluate 52 patients' data, high ASO levels was not associated with nor valve structures, neither ARF history. Therefore, we showed that using ASO of levels only is an incorrect application...

2011-01-01

39

Impact of hepatitis B immunization among the Nicobarese tribe - antibody titres & seroprotection five years after vaccination  

Science.gov (United States)

Background & objectives: A total of 237 Nicobarese subjects who had received hepatitis B vaccination as part of mass vaccination project during 2000-2001 were screened for anti-HBsAg titres by quantitative ELISA five years after vaccination. Methods: Anti-HBsAg antibody was estimated using quantitative ELISA. Proportion of the subjects with protective levels of antibody and geometric mean antibody titres were calculated. Results: Among the 237 study subjects, 213 had received three doses of vaccine, 17 had received two doses and seven had received one dose. The geometric mean titres of anti-HBs antibodies were 201.7, 31.9 and 23.1 mIU/ml among those who received three, two and one dose of vaccine, respectively. Among those who received three doses of vaccination, 85.9 per cent had anti-HBs antibody levels of 10 mIU/ml or more, indicating seroprotection. The difference in the seroprotection rates among those who received three doses of vaccination (85.9%) and those who received less than three doses (58.3%) was significant. Seroprotection rates one month after the first, second and third dose of vaccination were 49.1, 86.9 and 96.7 per cent, respectively. It then declined to 89 per cent by the end of the second year and to 85.5 per cent by the end of the third year, but there was no decline thereafter. Interpretation & conclusions: Seroprotection rate reached at the maximum one month after the third dose of HBV vaccine. Although about 15 per cent of the vaccinated persons lost seroprotection by the end of the third year, no further loss in seroprotection was observed between the third year and the fifth year.

Sugunan, A. P.; Bhattacharya, Haimanti; Bhattacharya, Debdutta; Mandal, A.; Ghosal, S. R.; Rao, R. C.; Mandal, A. K.

2014-01-01

40

Production of high titre disabled infectious single cycle (DISC) HSV from a microcarrier culture  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Disabled Infectious Single Cycle (DISC) HSV-2 has been cultured in the complimentary cell line CR2 to provide high titre bulk material suitable for the purification of the virus as a live viral vaccine. CR2 cells are cultured on the microcarrier Cytodex-1 at 5 g l-1 in small scale (1 l) and larger scale (15 l) reactors. The cells are infected at an MOI of 0.01 pfu cell-1 and the culture harvested 60–72 h later. The infected cells are removed from the microcarriers by the addition of a hypot...

Zecchini, T. A.; Smith, R. J.

1999-01-01

 
 
 
 
41

Multiple raise round blasting technique  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Multiple Raise Round Blasting Technique (MRRBT) is a safe, efficient, cost effective method of blasting that will use existing mine personnel. The MRRBT, developed from the conventional drop raise method style of blasting, can be used for most raise mining applications. Current results using MRRBT indicate no upper limit for the maximum length that a raise can be blasted. To date, only small diameter holes have been used with MRRBT; undoubtedly larger diameter holes will be used with this procedure in the future. The drill pattern and hole size are typically determined by local conditions. The cost per foot/meter should be substantially lower using MRRBT, as opposed to raise bore machines and/or conventional raise miners. Drilling, loading and blasting multiple rounds in one operation is possible with MRRBT, which makes it a cost effective method of mining. MRRBT blasts, in sequence, each round before the next round starts, until the entire length of the drilled raise is blasted. Rounds are loaded individually, including the non-explosive decking and a delay system in between rounds. The process of sequentially blasting the complete raise at one time provides a significant safety benefit, as the miner does not have to re-enter the raise. Where conventional raise mining techniques are employed there is a safety risk to the worker; MRRBT is a considerably safer and more efficient process than current conventional raise mining methods.

McGregor, D.J. [Universal Blasting, Black Creek, British Columbia (Canada)

1994-12-31

42

What can symbiont titres tell us about co-evolution of Wolbachia and their host?  

Science.gov (United States)

There is a long-standing prediction that associations with vertically transmitted symbionts evolve towards maximisation of host reproductive success, eventually leading to mutualist symbiosis and coadaptation. Under this scenario, the regulation of symbiont titres in host tissues would be expected to be greater when partners have coevolved for a long time than when they have recently met. Wolbachia pipientis, a common vertically transmitted symbiont of invertebrates, often has the capacity to spread through the host population without being beneficial to the hosts, by means of reducing the hatch rate in crosses between uninfected females and infected males. This manipulation, namely cytoplasmic incompatibility (CI), may exert strong selection on the accuracy of infection transmission from mother to offspring, and therefore, on regulation of symbiont titres in the ova. Here, we examined the symbiont density dynamics in gonads of Drosophila simulans infected with the wMa strain of Wolbachia, known to cause mild CI and likely to be the oldest Wolbachia infection known to this fly species. Further, we compared these results with those obtained for the more recent association between D. simulans and the potent CI-inducer wHa (Correa and Ballard, 2012). We aimed to determine if the regulation of Wolbachia density in fly gonads is greater in the older association, as would be predicted solely by gradual coadaptation, or if the selection exerted by CI on reproductive fitness could also play a role, therefore showing tighter regulation on flies with the stronger CI-inducing strain. We observed that Wolbachia density in gonads of wMa infected flies changed with laboratory adaptation and were disturbed by environmental challenges, which contrasted with the stability of ovarian wHa density to the same treatments. Our observations are in line with the prediction that selection on reproductive fitness influences the evolution symbiont density regulation in Drosophila, and may provide insights into the evolutionary processes involved in the maintenance or loss of Wolbachia. PMID:24594301

Correa, C Carolina; Ballard, J William O

2014-05-01

43

EFFECT OF VARIOUS STABILIZERS ON TITRE OF LYOPHILIZED LIVE-ATTENUATED PESTE DES PETITS RUMINANTS (PPR VACCINE  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Lyophilization stabilizes the biological materials by using two overlapping drying procedure i.e. primary drying by sublimation of the ice crystal from frozen material and secondary drying or desorption by evaporation of the free water adsorbed into the dried product. Three different stabilizers i.e. lactalbumin hydrolysate-sucrose, Weybridge medium and lactalbumin hydrolysate-manitol were used to lyophilize the Peste des petits ruminants (PPR vaccine. Titre of live-attenuated PPR cell culture experimental vaccine was studied after lyophilization which revealed that PPR vaccine lyophilized with Weybridge medium was more stable and maintained the virus titre longer than rest of stabilizers used in the study.

M. ASIM, A. RASHID AND A. H. CHAUDHARY

2008-12-01

44

4.OA Comparing Money Raised  

Science.gov (United States)

This is a task from the Illustrative Mathematics website that is one part of a complete illustration of the standard to which it is aligned. Each task has at least one solution and some commentary that addresses important asects of the task and its potential use. Here are the first few lines of the commentary for this task: Helen raised \\$12 for the food bank last year and she raised 6 times as much money this year. How much money did she raise this year? Sandra raised \\$1...

45

Raising Awareness in Science Education for Women (RAISE-W)  

Science.gov (United States)

Raising Awareness in Science Education for Women (RAISE-W) is a 501c non profit corporation whose mission is to aid in increasing and retaining the number of women - especially underrepresented females - engaged in scientific teaching and research. Initiated by a Protein Chemist and an Astronomer, our ultimate goal has been to develop informational tools and create innovative outreach programs for women across all STEM fields. At present RAISE-W is recruiting women at the undergraduate, graduate, and early career stages to participate in a unique, 1-year, executive coaching program modeled after those used in the business sector.

Faherty, Jacqueline K.; Holford, M.

2014-01-01

46

Is AKH titre modulated by oxidative stress in the Colorado potato beetle (CPB) leptinotarsa decemlineata fed on genetically modified potatoes?.  

Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

. Manchester : European Society for Comparative Endocrinology, 2006. s. 87-87.[Conference of European Comparative Endocrinologists /23./. 29.08.2006-02.09.2006, Manchester]Výzkumný zám?r: CEZ:AV0Z50070508Klí?ová slova: AKH titreKód oboru RIV: ED - Fyziologie

Kodrík, Dalibor; Krishnan, Natraj; Habuštová, Oxana

47

Evaluation of TH agglutinin titres of Widal test in the diagnosis of typhoid fever.  

Science.gov (United States)

This prospective study was evaluated the role of TH agglutinins and reevaluate the diagnostic value of Widal test in the diagnosis of typhoid fever by identifying the S. typhi specific antibody. The study was carried out in the department of Microbiology, Mymensingh Medical College, Mymensingh between July 2010 and June 2011, including 200 individuals of different ages and sexes. Widal test and blood culture were performed for each of the cases and controls. Among 150 blood samples from the suspected cases, 23(15.3%) were culture positive for S. typhi and 67(44.7%) had high titres of ?1:160 for 'O' or 'H' or both agglutinins. Out of 23 culture positive cases, 3(13%) had TO ?:160, 5(21.7%) had significant TH ?1:160. Based on the above findings, it was concluded that judicious interpretation of Widal test play an essential role in diagnosis of typhoid fever, especially in the resource poor countries like Bangladesh. PMID:24584364

Sultana, S; Hossain, M A; Paul, S K; Kabir, M R; Yesmin, T; Maruf, M A; Siddiqui, Z R; Rahman, S M; Hoque, M R

2014-01-01

48

Raising HDL cholesterol in women  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Danny J Eapen1, Girish L Kalra1, Luay Rifai1, Christina A Eapen2, Nadya Merchant1, Bobby V Khan11Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA, USA; 2University of South Florida School of Medicine, Tampa, FL, USAAbstract: High-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C concentration is essential in the determination of coronary heart disease (CHD risk in women. This is especially true in the postmenopausal state, where lipid profiles and CHD risk mimic that of age-matched men. Thus, interventions designed to reduce CHD risk by raising HDL-C levels may have particular significance during the transition to menopause. This review discusses HDL-C-raising therapies and the role of HDL in the primary prevention of CHD in women. Lifestyle-based interventions such as dietary change, aerobic exercise regimens, and smoking cessation are initial steps that are effective in raising HDL-C, and available data suggest women respond similarly to men with these interventions. When combined with pharmacotherapy, the effects of these lifestyle alterations are further amplified. Though studies demonstrating gender-specific differences in therapy are limited, niacin continues to be the most effective agent in raising HDL-C levels, especially when used in combination with fibrate or statin therapy. Emerging treatments such as HDL mimetic therapy show much promise in further raising HDL-C levels and improving cardiovascular outcomes.Keywords: high-density lipoprotein, HDL, women, cholesterol, heart disease

Danny J Eapen

2009-11-01

49

EFFECT OF VARIOUS STABILIZERS ON TITRE OF LYOPHILIZED LIVE-ATTENUATED PESTE DES PETITS RUMINANTS (PPR) VACCINE  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Lyophilization stabilizes the biological materials by using two overlapping drying procedure i.e. primary drying by sublimation of the ice crystal from frozen material and secondary drying or desorption by evaporation of the free water adsorbed into the dried product. Three different stabilizers i.e. lactalbumin hydrolysate-sucrose, Weybridge medium and lactalbumin hydrolysate-manitol were used to lyophilize the Peste des petits ruminants (PPR) vaccine. Titre of live-attenuated PPR cell cultu...

2008-01-01

50

Fed to Raise Interest Rates  

Science.gov (United States)

As expected, the Federal Reserve voted to raise interest rates 0.25 percent, the fifth rate raise since June. The interest rate boost is expected to help keep inflation in check during this record period (108 months) of economic expansion. Technology companies have continued to signal healthy economic growth, and unemployment rates remain low. Despite drastic price hikes in gasoline and heating oil prices, consumers are still spending. This worries economists who watched consumers pay little heed to the last four interest rate increases. The quarter point interest rate increase will average out to an extra $1 a month on consumers's credit cards, which in this period of prosperity, will not curb consumers's spending.

Missner, Emily D.

51

Relationship between haemagglutination-inhibiting antibody titres and clinical protection against influenza: development and application of a bayesian random-effects model  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Antibodies directed against haemagglutinin, measured by the haemagglutination inhibition (HI assay are essential to protective immunity against influenza infection. An HI titre of 1:40 is generally accepted to correspond to a 50% reduction in the risk of contracting influenza in a susceptible population, but limited attempts have been made to further quantify the association between HI titre and protective efficacy. Methods We present a model, using a meta-analytical approach, that estimates the level of clinical protection against influenza at any HI titre level. Source data were derived from a systematic literature review that identified 15 studies, representing a total of 5899 adult subjects and 1304 influenza cases with interval-censored information on HI titre. The parameters of the relationship between HI titre and clinical protection were estimated using Bayesian inference with a consideration of random effects and censorship in the available information. Results A significant and positive relationship between HI titre and clinical protection against influenza was observed in all tested models. This relationship was found to be similar irrespective of the type of viral strain (A or B and the vaccination status of the individuals. Conclusion Although limitations in the data used should not be overlooked, the relationship derived in this analysis provides a means to predict the efficacy of inactivated influenza vaccines when only immunogenicity data are available. This relationship can also be useful for comparing the efficacy of different influenza vaccines based on their immunological profile.

Megas Françoise

2010-03-01

52

Le premier élément du patrimoine maritime de Saint-Pierre-et-Miquelon protégé au titre des monuments historiques  

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Full Text Available Ymac a été classé par arrêté du 14 février 2008 au titre des monuments historiques en raison de l’intérêt ethnologique lié à sa fonction de bateau-pilote. (fig. n° 1Figure 1Ymac, ex-Radar III. Photographie après 2003. © Yannick Lafourcade.Construit en 1965 à Mavilette (Nouvelle-Ecosse, Canada par le chantier Alfred Boudreau, ce bateau traditionnel de pêche à coque en bois avait été initialement armé pour la pêche aux poissons plats par Alex Doucet, d’où son premier nom Alex D. Après avoir p...

Herveline Delhumeau

2009-05-01

53

O perfil da antiestreptolisina O no diagnóstico da febre reumática aguda Antistreptolysin O titer profile in acute rheumatic fever diagnosis  

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Full Text Available OBJETIVO: estabelecer o perfil dos títulos de ASO, mediante o diagnóstico diferencial da FRA com outras afecções que também cursam com níveis elevados de ASO. MÉTODOS: foram estudados 78 casos de FRA na apresentação e seguimento, 22 de coréia isolada, 45 de infecções orofaringeanas recorrentes (IOR e 23 de artrites idiopáticas juvenis (AIJ, com início ou reativação recente. A determinação seqüencial de ASO (UI/ml foi realizada por ensaio nefelométrico automatizado (Behring®-Germany nos períodos de 0-7 dias, 1-2 semanas, 2-4 semanas, 1-2 meses, 2-4 meses, 4-6 meses, 6-12 meses, 1-2 anos, 2-3 anos, 3-4 anos e 4-5 anos após o diagnóstico. RESULTADOS: os títulos de ASO na fase aguda da FRA apresentaram elevação significante até o intervalo de 2- 4 meses (p 960 UI/ml. CONCLUSÃO: esta reavaliação do perfil da ASO indicou uma resposta exuberante na fase aguda da febre reumática indicou ainda que os seus níveis séricos podem diferenciá-la de outras afecções que também cursam com níveis elevados de ASO, como as infecções orofaringeanas recorrentes ou as artrites idiopáticas juvenis em atividade.OBJECTIVE: to determine ASO titer profile by establishing ARF differential diagnoses of other diseases with high levels of ASO antibodies. METHODS: we investigated 78 patients with ARF at onset and follow-up, 22 with isolated chorea at onset, 45 with recurrent oropharyngeal tonsillitis, and 23 with recent flare of juvenile idiopathic arthritis. We tested ASO with automated particle-enhanced immunonephelometric assay (Behring®-Germany. The ASO (IU/ml titers were assessed at the following time intervals: 0-7 days, 1-2 weeks, 2-4 weeks, 1-2 months, 2-4 months, 4-6 months, 6-12 months, 1-2 years, 2-3 years, 3-4 years, and 4-5 years after onset of ARF. RESULTS: ASO titers in patients diagnosed with ARF had a significant increase up to the 2-4-month time interval (P < 0.0001. Baseline levels were observed afterwards in patients under regular penicillin prophylaxis. The levels of ASO in ARF were also significantly higher than in patients with isolated chorea, recurrent oropharyngeal infections or juvenile idiopathic arthritis (P = 0.0025, when age-matched samples of these groups were compared. The test’s sensitivity was 73.3% and the specificity was 57.6%, and it was calculated taking into account the upper limit of normality at 320 IU/ml, as well as the established diagnosis of ARF. The test’s specificity and positive predictive value increased with rising or higher titers, being higher with titers above 960 UI/ml. CONCLUSION: this reappraisal of ASO profile in ARF patients indicates a remarkable response during the acute phase, and that points to the extent to which ASO levels may differentiate ARF from other diseases with high levels of ASO antibodies, as coincidental but unrelated streptococcal infection or chronic arthritis flareup.

Claudia Saad Magalhães Machado

2001-04-01

54

Effect of Corn or Sorghum in Combination with Soybean Meal or Mungbean as Feed Ingredients on the Serum Antibody Titres to NDV Vaccine in Broiler Chickens  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A research was carried out to study the effect of feed types in the diet based on corn or sorghum in combination with soybean meal or broken green beans on titre antibody to NDV vaccine of broilers. Three hundreds day old chicks broilers with initial body weight of 46.35 ± 4.66 grams were randomly assigned into four treatment groups i.e. T1 (diet based on corn and soybean meal, T2 (diet based on corn and green-bean, T3 (diet based on sorghum and soybean meal, T4 (diet based on sorghum and green-bean. Isoenergy and isoprotein diet and water were given ad libitum. NDV vaccines were given via eyedrop on day 4 and intramuscularly on day 21. Serum antibody titres were measured on day 38, 42 and 48 by Haemaglutination Inhibition Test and expressed as Geometric Mean Titre (log2. Antibody titre to NDV vaccine was already detectable on day 38 and the value was highest in T4, reaching 5.2 and lowest in T3 i.e. 3.6 (P < 0.05. On day 42 the titre of all groups were increased reaching a value of greater than 5.0 (protective except in T3 which remains lower than 5.0 (not protected. On day 48 the highest titre was reached in T2 (6.4, while T3 remained low below 5 (4.2. These results showed that the types of feed ingredients in the diet can influence antibody titre against NDV vaccination.

Retno Murwani

2008-01-01

55

On Level-Raising Congruences  

CERN Document Server

A work of Sorensen is rewritten here to include nontrivial types at the infinite places. This extends results of K. Ribet and R. Taylor on level-raising for algebraic modular forms on D^{\\times}, where D is a definite quaternion algebra over a totally real field F. This is done for any automorphic representations \\pi of an arbitrary reductive group G over F which is compact at infinity. It is not assumed that \\pi_\\infty is trivial. If \\lambda is a finite place of \\bar{\\Q}, and w is a place where \\pi_w is unramified and \\pi_w is congruent to the trivial representation mod \\lambda, then under some mild additional assumptions (relaxing requirements on the relation between w and \\ell which appear in previous works) the existence of a \\tilde{\\pi} congruent to \\pi mod \\lambda such that \\tilde{\\pi}_w has more parahoric fixed vectors than \\pi_w, is proven. In the case where G_w has semisimple rank one, results of Clozel, Bellaiche and Graftieaux according to which \\tilde{\\pi}_w is Steinberg, are sharpened. To provide...

Flicker, Yuval Z

2008-01-01

56

High bioethanol titre from Manihot glaziovii through fed-batch simultaneous saccharification and fermentation in Automatic Gas Potential Test System.  

Science.gov (United States)

A process for the production of high bioethanol titre was established through fed-batch and simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (FB-SSF) of wild, non-edible cassava Manihot glaziovii. FB-SSF allowed fermentation of up to 390g/L of starch-derived glucose achieving high bioethanol concentration of up to 190g/L (24% v/v) with yields of around 94% of the theoretical value. The wild cassava M. glaziovii starch is hydrolysable with a low dosage of amylolytic enzymes (0.1-0.15% v/w, Termamyl® and AMG®). The Automatic Gas Potential Test System (AMPTS) was adapted to yeast ethanol fermentation and demonstrated to be an accurate, reliable and flexible device for studying the kinetics of yeast in SSF and FB-SSF. The bioethanol derived stoichiometrically from the CO2 registered in the AMPTS software correlated positively with samples analysed by HPLC (R(2)=0.99). PMID:24534761

Moshi, Anselm P; Crespo, Carla F; Badshah, Malik; Hosea, Kenneth M M; Mshandete, Anthony Manoni; Mattiasson, Bo

2014-03-01

57

Occurrence of relapsing polychondritis with a rising cANCA titre in a cANCA-positive systemic and cerebral vasculitis patient.  

Science.gov (United States)

Relapsing polychondritis (RP) is a relatively rare disorder, with a high death rate that affects cartilaginous structures. RP can be either primary or secondary as part of autoimmune syndromes. We present a case of RP in a 49-year-old man suffering from cytoplasmic antineurophil cytoplasmic antibodies (cANCA) positive vasculitis, admitted to our hospital with red swollen left ear and painful sternoclavicular joint and larynx. The patient was in remission from the vasculitis but manifested a high cANCA titre indicating vasculitis activity. With his high cANCA titre vasculitis, full manifestation of RP concomitantly occurred. After a successful cortisone treatment for RP, the patient received cyclophosphamide treatment for his vasculitis that resulted in a decrease in cANCA titre and full remission of his RP symptoms. PMID:23417970

Mattiassich, Georg; Egger, Markus; Semlitsch, Georg; Rainer, Franz

2013-01-01

58

A study to determine significant titre-values of widal test in the diagnosis of enteric fever for a population of north Kerala, India  

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Full Text Available Objectives: To determine the baseline Widal titres of a study population and to propose titre-values of significance in the diagnosis of enteric fever. Background: Enteric fever is endemic in the Indian subcontinent with high prevalence rates. Etiological diagnosis of the condition is problematic due to several limitations implicit in the region. Singly run Widal test is often the only means available for a workable diagnosis. A knowledge of prevalent baseline titres is essential for its interpretation. Method: We performed the standard Widal tube agglutination test on the serum samples of 250 individuals of the local population selected by using appropriate criteria of inclusion and exclusion criteria. Results: A majority (74.8% of the subjects were non-reactive. Prevalence of anti-TO antibody was highest (25.2% followed by that of anti-TH antibody (15.2%, anti-AH antibody (6.8% and anti-BH antibody (0.8%. Based on the distribution of titre values, the baseline titres determined were 40 for anti-TO and anti-TH antibodies and <20 for anti-AH and anti-BH antibodies. Any value obtained in Widal test over and above these values, i.e., ?80 for anti-TO and anti-TH antibodies can be considered as significant. Similarly, for anti-AH and anti-BH antibodies, values of ?20 can be considered as significant for diagnosis in an appropriate clinical setting. Conclusion: The baseline Widal titres of the local population were lower than those found in most other parts of India.

Gufran Ahmed M. Bijapur

2014-01-01

59

Titre de la présentation  

découverts bancaires (2) Dettes comprenant les emprunts bancaires, crédits-bails, crédits hypothécaires, emprunts obligataires et ...Placementsprivés(1) 12,0% Emprunts corporate et crédit-bail 39,0% 2,5% 3,1% ...Emprunts corporate et crédit-bail 83,3% Crédits hypothécaires13,7% Emprunts corporate et crédit-bail

60

Les femmes et les enfants, prisonniers politiques ou déportés à titre préventif pendant la guerre civile grecque  

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Full Text Available Les conditions et stratégies de survie des milliers de femmes condamnées ou déportées de la guerre civile grecque permettent d'établir une typologie.Pendant la guerre civile grecque (1946-1949 des milliers de personnes sont emprisonnées, déportées dans des camps de concentration ou exilées dans des îles, une population hétéroclite d’hommes et de femmes, persécutés pour leurs idées, leurs origines ou même des liens de parenté avec les communistes. Dans la présente étude, nous nous intéresserons à un groupe lui-même peu homogène, les femmes et les enfants, prisonniers politiques ou déportés à titre préventif pendant le conflit. Après un bref rappel de la pratique de la déportation et une esquisse de typologie de la réclusion, nous étudierons les conditions de détention et les stratégies de survie des femmes, souvent emprisonnées avec leurs enfants, leur statut au sein des prisonniers politiques ainsi que le sens de l'engagement politique dans leur système de valeurs.During the Greek Civil War (1946-1949 thousands of persons were imprisoned, deported to concentration camps or exiled on the islands, a heteroclite population of men and women, persecuted for their ideas, their origins or even their association with the Communists. In the present study, we are interested in a not particularly homogeneous group of women and children, political prisoners or deportees who had been detained for preventive reasons during the conflict. Following a brief summary of the practice of deportation and a typological sketch of the imprisonment, we shall study the detention conditions and the survival strategies of the women, often imprisoned with their children, their status vis-à-vis the political prisoners as well as the meaning of political commitment in their value system.

Christina Alexopoulos

2011-12-01

 
 
 
 
61

Sleep Apnea Might Raise Pneumonia Risk  

Science.gov (United States)

... page, please enable JavaScript. Sleep Apnea Might Raise Pneumonia Risk: Study Disrupted nighttime breathing makes getting fluid ... Dallas Monday, March 3, 2014 Related MedlinePlus Pages Pneumonia Sleep Apnea MONDAY, March 3, 2014 (HealthDay News) -- ...

62

Raised intracranial pressure not detected by ultrasound.  

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Two patients with raised intracranial pressure responding to ventriculoperitoneal shunting are described in whom ultrasound failed to show dilated ventricles. The importance of not equating absence of ventricular dilatation with normal pressure and ventricular dilatation with high pressure is emphasised.

1985-01-01

63

Obesity May Raise Risk of COPD  

Science.gov (United States)

... please enable JavaScript. Obesity May Raise Risk of COPD Study found those with largest waist sizes more ... 2014) Monday, July 7, 2014 Related MedlinePlus Pages COPD Obesity Smoking MONDAY, July 7, 2014 (HealthDay News) -- ...

64

X-ray sensititvity of embryonated Capillaria hepatica eggs and serum-GLDH activities and antibody titres in Mastomys natalensis infected with untreated or irradiated eggs  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

X-ray irradiation of embryonated Capillaria hepatica eggs using 0.5, 1, or 2 Krd resulted in a progressive decrease of egg production of the female nematodes which had developed from irradiated first stage larvae in Mastomys natalensis. Egg production did not occur after irradiation with 3, 4, 5, 10, 30, 50, or 70 Krd. The capacity of the parasites to invade the liver was not influenced. Infection of M. natalensis using unirradiated eggs was followed by an increase of serum-GLDH-activities between days 6 and 8 post infection reaching maximum values in this period of infection. Furthermore high values have been determined after the beginning of patency. Increased activity persisted up to the end of the experiment on day 36 post infection. After infection with eggs which had received 2.2 or 5 Krd the increase of serum-GLDH-activities was decreased and occurred later in the course of infection using 5 Krd irradiated eggs. Antibodies could be demonstrated as early as one week after infection with unirradiated eggs. Employing the indirect haemagglutination test, using an aqueous extract from non-embryonated eggs as antigen, maximum titres occurred at the beginning of patency. After a nearly plateau-like course titres began to drop about 7 weeks p.i., i.e. about the end of egg production by the female worms, but antibodies were still detectable 17 weeks p.i. (end of the observation period). After infection with eggs which had received 2.2 or 5 Krd antibody development was delayed. Maximum titres were somewhat (2.2 Krd) or markedly (5 Krd) lower. Thereafter titres dropped to values comparable to those of uninfected M. natalensis. The results are compared with published reports on the pathohistology of capillariasis.

Zahner, H.; Schmidt, H.; Laemmler, G.; Geyer, E.

1981-01-01

65

Effects of a Velogenic Newcastle Disease Virus on Packed Cell Volume, Total Protein and Hemagglutination Inhibition Antibody Titres of Vaccinated Shikabrown Cocks  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Fifty 20 week old Shikabrown cocks consisting of 22 red Shikabrown and 28 white Shikabrown cocks were purchased from the National Animal Production Research Institute, Shika and used for this study. Twenty-five of the cocks made up of 12 red and 13 white cocks selected on basis of weight were infected with 2 ml of 106.0 EID5.0 of a Velogenic Kudu 113 strain of Newcastle disease virus intranasally and orally. The remaining twenty-five cocks made up of 14 red and 11 white served as control. Blood samples were taken from the wing veins of both infected and control cocks and centrifuged in a Hermle Z364 centrifuge at 251.6 g for packed cell volume, total protein and Newcastle disease antibody titres. There was no significant difference in the packed cell volume of the control and infected red Shikabrown cocks. Similarly there was no significant difference in the packed cell volume of the control and infected white Shikabrown cocks, although the infected cocks had slightly lower values. Total protein did not show any significant difference between the control and infected red cocks and between the control and infected white cocks. The antibody titres of the control red and white cocks were significantly (p<0.05 lower than those of the infected red and white cocks. This finding showed that the challenged red and white cocks had high antibody titres and a slight drop in packed cell volume. The mean antibody titres of 1.9 ±0.7 to 4.6 ±0.4 log2 provided protection to the Shikabrown cocks against the velogenic Newcastle disease virus since none of the challenged cocks died. This study suggests that in an endemic environment like Zaria, poultry farmers keeping Shikabrown chickens should vaccinate them against Newcastle disease. Challenging the red and white Shikabrown cocks with the velogenic Newcastle disease virus increased their protection against the Newcastle disease.

J.S. Rwuaan

2009-01-01

66

Pragmatics, Awareness Raising, and the Cooperative Principle  

Science.gov (United States)

In recent years, pedagogical pragmatics has sought to improve the effectiveness with which learners express and interpret meaning, through awareness-raising activities that draw on authentic materials and break away from simplistic explanations of form-function correspondences. By and large, these efforts have been informed by an inductive…

Murray, Neil

2010-01-01

67

Parents Matter: Tips for Raising Teenagers.  

Science.gov (United States)

It is easy for parents to feel that they have lost their influence over their children once children reach adolescence. Several organizations with different focuses but with the same goal of helping parents raise their teenagers banded together to develop this publication. Their message is that parents can do many things to foster their children's…

Campaign for Tobacco-Free Kids, Washington, DC.

68

People on the Farm: Raising Beef Cattle.  

Science.gov (United States)

This booklet provides information on raising beef cattle through profiles of two families, the Ritschards of Colorado and the Schuttes of Missouri. Through descriptions of daily life for these families, the booklet discusses the way of life on modern beef cattle farms and the problems and decisions faced by farmers. The booklet explains how…

Crain, Robert L.

69

Romanian restrictive relatives: A head raising analysis?  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The paper investigates the syntax of restrictive relative clauses from a mainly descriptive viewpoint. It offers a critical view of the head raising analysis (Kayne 1994 and shows that no conclusive evidence supports the application of this analysis to Romanian. I suggest that a different theoretical approach, provided by the Matching Analysis (Chomsky 1965, Sauerland 1998, might instead account for the empirical facts I will bring to attention. However, I leave for future research the details concerning its implementation.

Anca Sevcenco

2010-01-01

70

Malaria infection by sporozoite challenge induces high functional antibody titres against blood stage antigens after a DNA prime, poxvirus boost vaccination strategy in Rhesus macaques  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background A DNA prime, poxvirus (COPAK boost vaccination regime with four antigens, i.e. a combination of two Plasmodium knowlesi sporozoite (csp/ssp2 and two blood stage (ama1/msp142 genes, leads to self-limited parasitaemia in 60% of rhesus monkeys and survival from an otherwise lethal infection with P. knowlesi. In the present study, the role of the blood stage antigens in protection was studied in depth, focusing on antibody formation against the blood stage antigens and the functionality thereof. Methods Rhesus macaques were immunized with the four-component vaccine and subsequently challenged i.v. with 100 P. knowlesi sporozoites. During immunization and challenge, antibody titres against the two blood stage antigens were determined, as well as the in vitro growth inhibition capacity of those antibodies. Antigen reversal experiments were performed to determine the relative contribution of antibodies against each of the two blood stage antigens to the inhibition. Results After vaccination, PkAMA1 and PkMSP119 antibody titres in vaccinated animals were low, which was reflected in low levels of inhibition by these antibodies as determined by in vitro inhibition assays. Interestingly, after sporozoite challenge antibody titres against blood stage antigens were boosted over 30-fold in both protected and not protected animals. The in vitro inhibition levels increased to high levels (median inhibitions of 59% and 56% at 6 mg/mL total IgG, respectively. As growth inhibition levels were not significantly different between protected and not protected animals, the ability to control infection appeared cannot be explained by GIA levels. Judged by in vitro antigen reversal growth inhibition assays, over 85% of the inhibitory activity of these antibodies was directed against PkAMA1. Conclusions This is the first report that demonstrates that a DNA prime/poxvirus boost vaccination regimen induces low levels of malaria parasite growth inhibitory antibodies, which are boosted to high levels upon challenge. No association could, however, be established between the levels of inhibitory capacity in vitro and protection, either after vaccination or after challenge.

Thomas Alan W

2011-02-01

71

Raising the extended technicolor scale through supersymmetry  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We point out that by making the Extended Technicolor Models supersymmetric with the supersymmetry breaking scale #betta#sub(S) approx.= O (10_4"-_5 GeV), the Extended Technicolor scale #betta#sub(ETC) can be raised to 10_5"-_7 GeV thus avoiding the dangerous flavor changing neutral currents. Due to the presence of dimension-five operators involving scalar superpartners of techni-fermions the fermion mass formula becomes msub(f) approx.= r#betta#sub(TC)_3/#betta#sub(ETC)_2 with the enhancement factor rapprox.=#betta#sub(S)/#betta#sub(TC)approx.=10_2"-_3. Acceptable fermions masses can thus be obtained in spite of a large ETC scale. Other features of Supersymmetric Extended Technicolor are discussed. (orig.)

1983-02-10

72

Raising the standards: marine pollution prevention  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Australian National Audit Office (ANAO) conducted an audit in 1994 on Australia`s oil spill response strategy. A series of recommendations were made, the most important of which concerned the need for effective programs to maintain equipment readiness. In this paper the comments of the review committee are summarized. It highlighted three areas: the need to introduce a more stringent form of risk analysis into the planning process; the need for an active deterrent that conveyed a message that Australia had the mechanisms to catch offenders who spill oil in Australian waters; and the need to address the issue of crew competence. The task of raising the standards requires ongoing vigilance. Vigilance to ensure improvement in crew standards, the quality of ship management, and that flag states carry out their obligations and responsibilities. There is a need for determination to sweep substandard ships from the seas, and to ensure seafarers are fairly treated. Most importantly, Australia requires a commitment to avoiding complacency in any form. (author).

Morris, P. [Australian Parliament, Canberra, ACT (Australia)

1996-12-31

73

Controversy on high density lipoprotein raising therapy.  

Science.gov (United States)

Decreased high density lipoproteins (HDL) plasma levels are a recognized independent risk factor for atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. Attempts were therefore initiated to pharmacologically raise plasma HDL cholesterol, and the most impressive increase was obtained by inhibiting cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) by means of the synthetic compound torcetrapib. Clinical trials were however disappointing, as torcetrapib increased mortality and did not reduce the progression of atherosclerosis. According to some view, it was claimed that CETP inhibition is unfavourable and that development of this class of compounds should be abandoned. Controversy nevertheless stimulated research on HDL structure, heterogeneity and functions which are not limited to reverse cholesterol transport and exert antioxidant and antiinflammatory actions. It could also be demonstrated that the deleterious effects of torcetrapib are compound specific, including its tight binding to CETP on HDL particles, thereby blocking both neutral lipids and phospholipid transfer from HDL to other lipoproteins, and would also exert an off-target effect by increasing plasma sodium and decreasing potasium concentrations (an aldosterone-like effect). As the structure of CETP was elucidated, it became possible to design CETP inhibitors that lack such off-target toxicity and may successfully slow the progression of atherosclerosis. Noteworthy, mice and rats naturally lacking CETP are resistant to diet induced atherosclerosis, while rabbits with high CETP levels are very susceptible. Families with deficient activity and exceptional longevity had also been reported. PMID:21428174

Cucuianu, M; Bruda?c?, Ioana

2010-01-01

74

29 CFR 780.123 - Raising of bees.  

Science.gov (United States)

...2009-07-01 2009-07-01 false Raising of bees. 780.123 Section 780.123 Labor...of Agriculture Raising of Livestock, Bees, Fur-Bearing Animals, Or Poultry § 780.123 Raising of bees. The term âraising of * * *...

2009-07-01

75

Titres of juvenile hormone I, II and III in Spodoptera littoralis (Noctuidae) from the egg to the pupal moult and their modification by the egg-larval parasitoid Chelonus inanitus (Braconidae).  

Science.gov (United States)

Physico-chemical analysis of juvenile hormones (JHs) of Spodoptera littoralis revealed highest quantities in the second half of embryonic development and in newly hatched 1st instar larvae. At these stages, mostly JH II, JH I and little JH III were found, while in later stages only JH II and JH III were found. Titres fluctuated in a similar manner in all larval instars, being lowest during the moults. In last (=6th) instar larvae, JHs disappeared in the late feeding-digging stage and again increased in the early prepupal stage. Parasitisation with Chelonus inanitus, a solitary egg-larval parasitoid which induces in its host the precocious onset of metamorphosis in the 5th instar, did not alter JH homologue composition but led to a disappearance of JHs in the 5th instar. Implantation of a parasitoid larva into early 5th instar larvae containing polydnavirus/venom caused a drop in the JH titre which indicates that the parasitoid larva plays an important role in the manipulation of the host's JH titre. In the parasitoid larva, only JH III was found; titres were highest in the 2nd larval instar, a stage when the host is in the 5th instar and contains almost no JHs. Thus, JHs of the parasitoid and the host fluctuate in an independent manner. PMID:12770366

Steiner, B; Pfister-Wilhelm, R; Grossniklaus-Bürgin, C; Rembold, H; Treiblmayr, K; Lanzrein, B

1999-04-01

76

Production of antibody fragment (Fab) throughout Escherichia coli fed-batch fermentation process: Changes in titre, location and form of product  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: English Abstract in english Background: Recombinant proteins, including antibodies and antibody fragments, often contain disulfide bond bridges that are necessary for their folding, stability and function. Production of disulfide-bond-containing proteins in the periplasm of Escherichia coli has been very useful, due to unique [...] characteristics of the periplasm, for obtaining fully active and correctly folded products and for alleviating downstream processing. Results: In this study, fed-batch cultivation of Escherichia coli (E. coli) for production of Fab D1.3, which is an anti-hen egg white lysozyme (HEWL) antibody fragment was carried out at 37ºC, and the bacterial cells were induced by adding 0.1 mM IPTG to the culture medium. Fermentor was sampled over the course of fermentation; the bacterial cells were centrifugally separated from the culture broth and subjected to osmotic shock (with excluding HEWL) and sonication procedures. The resulting fractions were analysed for Fab using a combination of ELISA, SDS-PAGE and Western blotting and changes in product titre, location, and form was assessed throughout growth. It was shown that osmotic shock released the Fab from the periplasm very efficiently and its efficacy was 20-45% more than sonication. This study demonstrates that, at high cell density cultivation in fermentor, target product can appear inside and outside the cells, depending on the time of induction. The maximum amount of Fab (47 mg/l) in the periplasm was reached at 14 hrs cultivation (4 hrs post induction), being suitable time for cell harvest, selective periplasmic extraction and downstream capture. The Fab increasingly leaked into the culture medium, and reached its maximum culture medium titre of ~78 mg/l after 6 hrs post induction. After 16 hrs cultivation (6 hrs post induction) the amount of Fab remained constant in different locations within and outside the cells. Western blot analysis of cell fractions showed that certain amount of the Fab was also produced in the cells as insoluble form. Conclusions: In this work we showed that the production of Fab in the periplasm during high cell density cultivation of E. coli in fermentor can be challenging as the product may appear in various locations within and outside the cells. To exploit the advantages of the periplasmic expression systems for purification in downstream processing, bacterial cells should be harvested when they maintain the majority of the target protein in their periplasmic space (i.e. 4 hrs post induction).

Reza, Jalalirad.

2013-05-15

77

High antibody titres against predicted Mycoplasma surface proteins do not prevent sequestration in infected lung tissue in the course of experimental contagious bovine pleuropneumonia.  

Science.gov (United States)

Contagious bovine pleuropneumonia (CBPP), a severe respiratory disease of cattle caused by Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides (Mmm) is endemic in many African countries due to fragmented veterinary services and the lack of an efficient vaccine and sensitive diagnostics. More efficient tools to control the disease are needed, but to develop the tools, a better understanding of host-pathogen interactions is necessary. The aim of this study was to characterize the kinetics of the humoral immune response against 65 Mmm surface antigens for an extended period in cattle that survived a primary infection with Mmm. We describe clinical and haematological outcomes, and dissect the humoral immune response over time, to specific antigens and compared the antibody responses between different pathomorphological outcomes. No antigen-specific antibodies correlating with protection were identified. Interestingly we found that animals that developed Mycoplasma-containing sequestra had significantly higher antibody levels against proteins comprising the surface proteome than the animals that cleared Mycoplasma from their lungs. Based on these data we suggest that high antibody titres might play a role in the establishment of pathomorphological changes, such as vasculitis, which should be investigated in future studies. Beneficial antibody specificities and cellular immune responses need to be identified in order to foster the development of an improved vaccine in the future. PMID:24880898

Schieck, Elise; Liljander, Anne; Hamsten, Carl; Gicheru, Nimmo; Scacchia, Massimo; Sacchini, Flavio; Heller, Martin; Schnee, Christiane; Sterner-Kock, Anja; Hlinak, Andreas; Naessens, Jan; Poole, Jane; Persson, Anja; Jores, Joerg

2014-08-01

78

Enti religiosi e fund raising: un binomio possibile (anzi, necessario  

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Full Text Available Contributo sottoposto a valutazioniSOMMARIO: 1. Premessa - 2. Il fund raising: inquadramento concettuale - 3. (segue Strategie, strumenti e tecniche di fund raising - 4. Il fund raising come fattore di potenziale sviluppo delle organizzazioni non profit - 5. Enti religiosi e fund raising: un binomio che necessita di essere consolidato (e potenziato - 6. Peculiarità dell’azione di fund raising degli enti religiosi - 7. Fund raising e aspetti economici e gestionali degli enti religiosi - 8. Considerazioni conclusive.Abstract:Religious organizations and fundraising: a possible combination (indeed necessary Fund-raising activities represent the principal livelihood and sources of growth and development for non-profit organisations. Fund-raising is, also, an increasingly important part of religious organizations life. Almost each of them engages in some kind of fund-raising activity, with the purpose of generating income to sustain the organization’s programs and activities. The present study analyzes the relationship between religious organizations and fund-raising activities: a correlation that always existed, but now calls for consolidation and improvement in order to allow religious organizations to achieve economic sustainability. Therefore, religious organizations should develop competency and capacity to design and implement fund-raising activities, through appropriate policies, tools and methodologies. In this perspective, the author examines all the facets of fund-raising activities related to the religious organizations sector and, more in general, the possible applications of business administration principles to the management of religious bodies (so-called “church management”.Parole chiave: enti religiosi; fund raising; sostenibilità economica; management

Fabio Franceschi

2012-11-01

79

Some remarks on right node raising in Romanian  

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Full Text Available Coordinate clauses with a common constituent in final position give rise to an interesting construction (Mary likes, but John hates cats, in which the constituent at the right edge of the first conjunct is missing. This phenomenon, known in the literature as Right Node Raising, has been analyzed either as an instance of movement or as an instance of ellipsis in the first conjunct. Starting from Hartmann (2000, Abels (2004 and Ha (2006, who argue in favour of an in-situ analysis of Right Node Raising, we focus on the licensing conditions on Right Node Raising in Romanian. The paper is organized in two sections. First we outline the deletion/ellipsis analyses of Right Node Raising constructions in English. Then we present empirical data related to the pre-Right Node Raising elements, the types of right-peripheral constituents that can be elided and the contexts which allow or block Right Node Raising in Romanian.

Camelia Bejan

2008-01-01

80

Staple pits and bunkers fashioned by raise-boring  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Raise boring is a large diameter boring method developed in North America in the early 1950s. Since the mid 1960s it has found increasing favour in German mining though in competition with conventional large-diameter boring. Specifications of the equipment used are given, and the advantages of raise boring discussed. Experience of raise boring in coal mines and potash mines by Thyssen Schactbau GmbH is presented. 14 references.

Grossekemper, H.J.; Tonscheidt, H.W.

1986-04-10

 
 
 
 
81

Raising with long boreholes in Uranium Mines, Hamr  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The technology is described of raising with long boreholes which was used in uranium mines for breaking 15 raises to the end of 1983. Also described is the method of computing the needed charge. The described technology has the following advantages as compared with usual driving methods: 1. it secures greater work safety, 2. it allows driving atypical profiles, 3. smooth breaking secures good stability and longer life of raises, 4. allows higher productivity, 5. reduces capital costs.

Kubista, A.; Svoboda, M.; Mohyla, Z. (Uranove Doly, Straz pod Ralskem (Czechoslovakia))

1984-06-01

82

Toutes les publications par titre  

... A rigorous process ensued to establish a well-designed subsidy scheme: the Affordable Medicines Facility - malaria (AMFm). This policy ...brief draws lessons from the process of establishing the AMFm and provides recommendations for policy-makers on the elements of good subsidy design, including ...

83

To Raise or Not to Raise: the Case of Finnish Restrictive Relative Clauses  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Relative clause constructions have received very little attention in Finnish grammars. The purpose of this paper is to provide some tools for distinguishing between restrictive and appositive relatives in Finnish, and to discuss the advantages and disadvantages of the “standard” and raising analyses of restrictive relatives in that language. It shows that both lines of analysis are problematic for the analysis of a highly inflectional language like Finnish. The paper also contains a brief account of relative clause extraposition constructions: it points out problems in Kayne’s (1994 and Bianchi’s (1999 analysis of such data, and proposes instead that extraposition constructions, just like possessive constructions, contain a D head selecting another DP as its complement.

Satu Manninen

2003-01-01

84

Production of high titre antibody response against Russell's viper venom in mice immunized with ethanolic extract of fruits of Piper longum L. (Piperaceae) and piperine.  

Science.gov (United States)

Piper longum L. fruits have been traditionally used against snakebites in north-eastern and southern region of India. The aim of the study was to assess the production of antibody response against Russell's viper venom in mice after prophylactic immunization with ethanolic extract of fruits of Piper longum L. and piperine. The mice sera were tested for the presence of antibodies against Russell's viper venom by in vitro lethality neutralization assay and in vivo lethality neutralization assay. Polyvalent anti-snake venom serum (antivenom) manufactured by Haffkine Bio-Pharmaceutical Corporation Ltd. was used as standard. Further confirmation of presence of antibodies against the venom in sera of mice immunized with PLE and piperine was done using indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and double immunodiffusion test. Treatment with PLE-treated mice serum and piperine-treated mice serum was found to inhibit the lethal action of venom both in the in vitro lethality neutralization assay and in vivo lethality neutralization assay. ELISA testing indicated that there were significantly high (ppiperine treated mice serum and the venom antigens. In double immunodiffusion test, a white band was observed between the two wells of antigen and antibodies for both the PLE-treated and piperine-treated mice serum. Thus it can be concluded that immunization with ethanolic extract of fruits of Piper longum and piperine produced a high titre antibody response against Russell's viper venom in mice. The antibodies against PLE and piperine could be useful in antivenom therapy of Russell's viper bites. PLE and piperine may also have a potential interest in view of the development of antivenom formulations used as antidote against snake bites. PMID:24060214

Shenoy, P A; Nipate, S S; Sonpetkar, J M; Salvi, N C; Waghmare, A B; Chaudhari, P D

2014-01-15

85

Schizophrenia May Raise Dementia Risk in Older Adults  

Science.gov (United States)

... sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Schizophrenia May Raise Dementia Risk in Older Adults Researchers ... Friday, May 30, 2014 Related MedlinePlus Pages Dementia Schizophrenia Seniors' Health FRIDAY, May 30, 2014 (HealthDay News) -- ...

86

Smoking, Drinking Combo Raises Odds for Esophageal Cancer  

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... sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Smoking, Drinking Combo Raises Odds for Esophageal Cancer Study ... 25, 2014 Related MedlinePlus Pages Alcohol Esophageal Cancer Smoking FRIDAY, April 25, 2014 (HealthDay News) -- People who ...

87

Staple pits and bunkers fashioned by raise-boring  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Raise-boring, in which the drive unit is set up at the head of the boring project, is the world leader among the rod-type large borehole methods. The use of conventional large diameter boring and raise-boring in the Germany mining industry is compared, together with specifications of both types of machines. Advantages of raise-boring include: more accurate directional pilot boreholes; boreholes of great length; final diameters up to 2.4 m easily achieved; and an acceptable and clean workplace for the boring team. Operation of the HG 250 Raise-Boring machine is considered. The boring of the first borehole with shaft-like diameter is described.

Grossekemper, H.J.; Tonscheidt, H.W.

1987-01-01

88

Infants and Toddlers (Ages 0-3) - Raising Healthy Children  

Science.gov (United States)

... Address What's this? Submit What's this? Submit Button Infants & Toddlers (Ages 0-3) - Raising Healthy Children Share ... Developmental Milestones Fruits & Vegetables Hand Washing Hearing Screening Infant & Toddler Health Maternal and Infant Health Newborn Screening ...

89

Repeat Drug Overdoses Raise Risk for Hospitalization, Ventilator Care  

Science.gov (United States)

... JavaScript. Repeat Drug Overdoses Raise Risk for Hospitalization, Ventilator Care Risk rises with multiple ER visits, researchers ... are more likely to be put on a ventilator and to be hospitalized, a new study finds. ...

90

Insomnia May Raise Stroke Risk, Especially for Younger Adults  

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... sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Insomnia May Raise Stroke Risk, Especially for Younger Adults ... 2014) Thursday, April 3, 2014 Related MedlinePlus Pages Insomnia Stroke THURSDAY, April 3, 2014 (HealthDay News) -- People ...

91

Sleep Apnea Linked to Raised Stroke Risk in Women, Too  

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... features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Sleep Apnea Linked to Raised Stroke Risk in Women, Too ... Tuesday, May 20, 2014 Related MedlinePlus Pages Sleep Apnea Stroke Women's Health TUESDAY, May 20, 2014 (HealthDay ...

92

Delaying Measles-Related Vaccines May Raise Seizure Risk  

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... features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Delaying Measles-Related Vaccines May Raise Seizure Risk: Study Researchers ... said. The vaccines in question are the combination measles-mumps-rubella and the newer combo immunization for ...

93

Sleep Apnea Linked to Raised Risk of Death in Pregnancy  

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... sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Sleep Apnea Linked to Raised Risk of Death in ... 2014 Related MedlinePlus Pages Health Problems in Pregnancy Sleep Apnea TUESDAY, May 6, 2014 (HealthDay News) -- The ...

94

Morphometrics of Corneal Growth in Chicks Raised in Constant Light  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In this study we wish to augment our understanding of the direct effect of environment on corneal growth and morphology. To understand how corneal development of chicks raised in constant light differs from that of “normal” eyes exposed to cyclic periods of light and dark, white Leghorn chicks were raised under either constant light (approx. 700 lux at cage top) or in 12 hours light/12 hours dark conditions for up to 12 weeks after hatching. To determine whether corneal expansion is unifo...

Wahl, Christina; Li, Tong; Choden, Tsering; Howland, Howard

2009-01-01

95

Been there, done that? Consciousness raising, critical theory and nurses.  

Science.gov (United States)

The concept of consciousness raising has become somewhat tired and jaded in nursing literature. Indeed the notion of consciousness raising and its associated catchcry of 'making the personal political', is almost so hackneyed as to be somewhat unfashionable and clichéd in the 1990s. This is due, at least in part, to the fact that consciousness raising emanated from the women's movement of the 1960s and was originally directed at linking the personal and the political, but in nursing emphasis has often been given to the personal with little recourse to the political. It is thus timely and important to draw on insights afforded by critical perspectives and synthesize them anew with the tenets of consciousness raising in order to make explicit the power relations and structural oppression implicit in the nursing context. If consciousness raising, and the making of the personal political, are combined with the theoretical insights provided by critical theorists such as Faoucault (1977, 1980), it is possible to re-orient and re-energise the somewhat trite and worn catchcry of the personal as political. PMID:8000209

Cheek, J; Rudge, T

1994-06-01

96

Comparison of techniques used to develop a slot raise  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The use of Slot Raises has been common for many years. This presentation will compare various methods of developing these Slot Raises and introduce two new ones. The author begins with a short discussion on the mining method, and its variations, where Slot Raises are used. This mining method is called Vertical Crater Retreat or VCR which is a blasting method based on spherical charge technology. The main premise is that a column of explosives, no longer than six times its diameter, behaves as a spherical charge on detonation. If the center of a spherical charge is located in a blasthole (drilled perpendicular to an open face), at a critical distance from the open face, its detonation will cause its face to crater around the blasthole. By drilling an appropriate patter of blastholes, the crater blasts in each will overlap. This allows an open face (stope back) to be advanced vertically as a complete mining block

1996-02-04

97

Radiosensitivity of tissue culture raised white marigold seeds  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

White marigold of the (Tagetes erecta L. compositae) is an important ornamental crop suited for pot and bed plants. It suffers from the problem of low seed viability and poor seed germination. The technique of in vitro regeneration has already been standardized for production of large scale quality planting materials of white marigold. For inducing greater genetic variability, seeds collected from in vitro raised plants were included in a gamma ray induced mutation breeding programme. The main objective of the present experiment was to study the radiosensitivity of tissue culture raised seeds

2002-01-01

98

Industrial users urge FERC to raise gas price ceilings  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Process Gas Consumers Group, fearing escalating prices after 1985, is urging the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) to raise price ceilings that will offer incentives for exploration and incentives for reasonable pipeline purchasing practices, but critics see this as backdoor decontrol. FERC has already begun a study to raise wellhead prices two thirds, but it will take months for a final ruling and subsequent court challenges. This is an official request for proceedings to deal with anticipated gas market problems and the disruptions caused by partial decontrol. The consumers stipulate that their request also includes consumer protection. (DCK)

Betts, M.

1982-03-15

99

T lymphocyte subpopulations diverge in commercially raised chickens  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

To evaluate immunocompetence in commercially raised chickens, we immunophenotyped Dekalb Delta and H&N White Leghorn (WLH) hybrids, 20 chickens in each of 3 age groups (9 wk [juvenile], 25 wk [young adult], and 79 or 80 wk [adult]), for circulating CD3+, CD4+, CD8+, TCR1+, TCR2+, and TCR3+ lymphocytes. The proportion of CD3+ T cells, including CD4+ and CD8+ subsets, was increased in the hybrids as compared with published values for laboratory-raised outbred WLH chickens. The proportion of the...

2006-01-01

100

Pitch-raising surgery in male-to-female transsexuals.  

Science.gov (United States)

Several surgical methods for pitch raising have been described such as cricothyroid approximation, anterior commissure advancement, scarification, and injection of triamcinolone into the vocal folds. These procedures have different disadvantages and risks. A new method for pitch raising via endolaryngeal shortening of the vocal folds is presented. Long-term results of the first 10 patients are presented. In 1 person, who smoked immediately after surgery, coughed, and did not observe voice rest, there was a dehiscent suture. In 9 transsexuals after surgery the voice range was reduced for the lower frequencies, and a permanent 9.2-semitone increase of the mean, spontaneous fundamental frequency was obtained. PMID:10442755

Gross, M

1999-06-01

 
 
 
 
101

Management of raised intracranial pressure and hyperosmolar therapy.  

Science.gov (United States)

The management of raised intracranial pressure is undergoing rapid change. The choice of medical treatments to reduce intracranial pressure varies between institutions and regions of the world. The mainstay of therapy, however, continues to be the infusion of a hyperosmolar solution to achieve an osmotic gradient to force the exit of water from the brain. This review introduces the basic concepts of raised intracranial pressure, summarises several recent studies that have challenged dogma in the field, and provides practical advice on hyperosmolar treatment, based on personal experience and a critical reading of the literature. PMID:24481284

Ropper, Allan H

2014-06-01

102

Grandparents Raising Grandchildren: A Resource Guide for Professionals.  

Science.gov (United States)

This guide is designed to supply information to professionals who work with grandparents. A panel of grandparents and professionals met during a 1-day retreat to review parenting information. The manual describes the situation of grandparents raising their grandchildren, provides a guide to materials addressing some grandparents' parenting needs,…

Williams, Griselda R.; Murphy, Vivian L.; Sheriff, Christine; Millspaugh, John; Mertensmeyer, Carol

103

Raising Young Children While Working: The American Family in Crisis.  

Science.gov (United States)

This policy brief examines the problems of parents who raise young children while working. Discussion contrasts family support systems in the United States with those of other western, industrialized nations, and indicates reasons for the intensification of U.S. family support problems over the last decade. Concluding discussion analyzes present…

Lally, J. Ronald; Amsler, Mary

104

Trajectories of Conflict over Raising Adolescent Children and Marital Satisfaction  

Science.gov (United States)

The present study examined trajectories of marital satisfaction among couples with adolescent children and evaluated how changes in parents' conflict over raising adolescent children were associated with changes in marital satisfaction over 4 years. Using a prospective, longitudinal research design and controlling for family socioeconomic status,…

Cui, Ming; Donnellan, M. Brent

2009-01-01

105

Raise boring to full shaft diameter now possible  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Thyssen Schachtbau have used HG 250 raise borers to bore 500 m holes 3.6 m in diameter in Carboniferous strata and 5 m in rock salt strata. Lining methods suitable for use with this boring technique are described. A cement colloid coating can be used to line or stabilize the borehole. (In German)

Grossekemper, H.J.; Tonscheidt, H.W.

1980-10-09

106

Cognate Awareness--Raising in Late Childhood: Teachable and Useful  

Science.gov (United States)

This study is part of a larger investigation of the usefulness of instruction designed to raise cross-linguistic awareness in young Francophone learners of English in Quebec. In the research reported here, the focus is on cognates. Since previous research shows that learners typically fail to recognise many helpful similarities between words in a…

White, Joanna L.; Horst, Marlise

2012-01-01

107

The RIF Book of Ideas: Raising Funds. No. 2.  

Science.gov (United States)

Intended to help communities raise funds for Reading Is Fundamental (RIF) projects, this booklet lists ideas and examples, many volunteered and tested by RIF projects themselves. The first of the booklet's four sections offers suggestions for preparing for a fundraising effort. The next two sections contain ideas on the main avenues of…

Smithsonian Institution, Washington, DC. National Reading is Fun-damental Program.

108

Influenza Virus Infection in Guinea Pigs Raised as Livestock, Ecuador  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

To determine whether guinea pigs are infected with influenza virus in nature, we conducted a serologic study in domestic guinea pigs in Ecuador. Detection of antibodies against influenza A and B raises the question about the role of guinea pigs in the ecology and epidemiology of influenza virus in the region.

2012-01-01

109

Caregiving Behaviors which Predict Adjustment of Children Raised by Grandparents.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study explored the appropriateness of kinship care placements by examining the adjustment of 46 children, most of whom were Caucasian, in their grandparents' care. Members of support groups for grandparents who are raising grandchildren were solicited for participation in the study. All participants were the primary caregivers of at least one…

Jones, Michael R.; Hansen, Carl

110

Consciousness-Raising and Practice in ELT Coursebooks  

Science.gov (United States)

Most general ELT coursebooks currently include grammar tasks, suggesting a common view in ELT that learners benefit from form-focused tasks to improve their L2 accuracy. To investigate the nature of such tasks, we developed a framework of consciousness-raising and practice task types, applied it to nine contemporary ELT coursebooks, and thus…

Nitta, Ryo; Gardner, Sheena

2005-01-01

111

Raising Emotionally Intelligent Teenagers: Parenting with Love, Laughter, and Limits.  

Science.gov (United States)

Based on the formula of love, laughter, limits, and linkages, this book presents practical, parent-tested ways parents can help their adolescent children become emotionally intelligent. The book is presented in three parts. Part 1 concerns parent preparation for raising an emotionally intelligent teenager, discusses the importance of parenting by…

Elias, Maurice J.; Tobias, Steven E.; Friedlander, Brian S.

112

Raised Risk of Heart Trouble Seen in Celiac Disease Patients  

Science.gov (United States)

... JavaScript. Raised Risk of Heart Trouble Seen in Celiac Disease Patients Researchers suggest inflammation caused by the digestive ... Preidt Monday, March 31, 2014 Related MedlinePlus Pages Celiac Disease Heart Diseases SATURDAY, March 29, 2014 (HealthDay News) -- ...

113

Congenital hypothyroidism with hereditary, raised thyroxine binding globulin.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A boy with congenital hypothyroidism and hereditary raised thyroxine binding globulin is described. This hitherto unreported combination resulted in under treatment of the thyroid deficiency until serum thyroid stimulating hormone measurement became routinely available. Inadequate L-thyroxine replacement treatment between 2 and 7 years of age caused retarded bone maturation, poor growth velocity, and probably added to his educational difficulties.

Archer, L. N.; O Malley, B. P.; Swift, P. G.

1985-01-01

114

Control of methane by ventilation of shafts during raise drilling  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A discussion is given of controlling methane by the simultaneous use of air compressors and a vacuum pump or blower fans in the raise drilling of a coal mine. The simultaneous use of air compressors and a vacuum pump requires the use of a blooie seal installation around the drill stem on the surface to prevent air leakage into the pump. 9 refs.

Maksimovic, S.D.

1981-11-01

115

Influenza virus infection in guinea pigs raised as livestock, Ecuador.  

Science.gov (United States)

To determine whether guinea pigs are infected with influenza virus in nature, we conducted a serologic study in domestic guinea pigs in Ecuador. Detection of antibodies against influenza A and B raises the question about the role of guinea pigs in the ecology and epidemiology of influenza virus in the region. PMID:22710350

Leyva-Grado, Victor H; Mubareka, Samira; Krammer, Florian; Cárdenas, Washington B; Palese, Peter

2012-07-01

116

7 CFR 760.204 - Eligible livestock, honeybees, and farm-raised fish.  

Science.gov (United States)

...2012-01-01 false Eligible livestock, honeybees, and farm-raised fish. 760...Emergency Assistance for Livestock, Honeybees, and Farm-Raised Fish Program § 760.204 Eligible livestock, honeybees, and farm-raised fish....

2012-01-01

117

76 FR 54072 - Emergency Assistance for Livestock, Honeybees, and Farm-Raised Fish Program, Livestock Indemnity...  

Science.gov (United States)

...Emergency Assistance for Livestock, Honeybees, and Farm-Raised Fish Program, Livestock...Emergency Assistance for Livestock, Honeybees, and Farm-Raised Fish Program (ELAP...to be eligible losses of livestock, honeybee, crops, and farm-raised fish...

2011-08-31

118

Port facilities/prefabricated self-raising docks  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Delong Corp.'s self-raising technique was used by G.E.M.-Hersent in installing a wharf and by Promet Offshore Priv. Ltd., a Singapore shipyard, in constructing prefabricated boarding platforms and an additional 150 x 30 m wharf; both projects were carried out under a 1976 contract to extend the Mina Sulman jetty in Bahrein. Promet's platforms and wharf were constructed as two prefabricated steel sections, which were then towed and assembled in Bahrein. The delivery times and production costs were reduced to a minimum by installing a complete assembly line, which produced one dock per month, in the Singapore shipyard. Once the basic components were prefabricated and assembled, compressors were used during the self-raising phase. A similar operation was carried out for the construction of a 180 x 30 m dock in one piece for the port of Dammam, Saudi Arabia.

1978-09-07

119

HOW TO RAISE EQUITY CAPITAL? A CASE OF POLISH COMPANIES  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The strategies of raising equity capital available to the Polish companies were studied, both in the theoretical and empirical dimension. According to the law regulations three strategies of raising equity capital were distinguished and characterized: the retaining profit strategy, the strategy based on the hybrid securities and the strategy using the issue of new shares. The empirical researches were conducted based on the aggregated data illustrating the practical application of the distinguished strategies in the activity of the Polish non-financial companies in 2006 – 2009, aiming at finding changes in the strategy profile due to the impact of the global financial crisis. The achieved results can be used as a basis for further, more detail studies, also for the cross-country comparative analysis.

Joanna B?ACH

2011-01-01

120

Raising the conductivity of crystalline polymer electrolytes by aliovalent doping.  

Science.gov (United States)

Polymer electrolytes, salts dissolved in solid polymers, hold the key to realizing all solid-state devices such as rechargeable lithium batteries, electrochromic displays, or SMART windows. For 25 years conductivity was believed to be confined to amorphous polymer electrolytes, all crystalline polymer electrolytes were thought to be insulators. However, recent results have demonstrated conductivity in crystalline polymer electrolytes, although the levels at room temperature are too low for application. Here we show, for the first time, that it is possible to raise significantly the level of ionic conductivity by aliovalent doping. The conductivity may be raised by 1.5 orders of magnitude if the SbF6- ion in the crystalline conductor poly(ethylene oxide)6:LiSbF6 is replaced by less than 5 mol % SiF6(2-), thus introducing additional, mobile, Li+ ions into the structure to maintain electroneutrality. PMID:16366585

Zhang, Chuhong; Staunton, Edward; Andreev, Yuri G; Bruce, Peter G

2005-12-28

 
 
 
 
121

Study of the kinetics of antibodies titres against viral pathogens and detection of rotavirus and parainfluenza 3 infections in captive crias of guanacos (Lama guanicoe).  

Science.gov (United States)

A longitudinal study was conducted to investigate the presence of antibodies (Ab) to Rotavirus (RV), Parainfluenza-3 virus (PI-3), Bovine Herpesvirus-1 (BoHV-1), Bovine Viral Diarrhoea virus (BVDV-1) and Bluetongue virus (BTV) in eleven guanaco's crias (chulengos) relocated from Rio Negro to Buenos Aires Province (Argentina) and reared in captivity for a year in an experimental field. Serum samples were collected periodically to detect the evidence of viral infections. Faecal samples were collected to investigate RV shedding. We detected the evidence of Ab to RV from the beginning of the experience, suggesting the presence of maternal Ab against the virus. RV infection was detected in seven of the eleven chulengos, by seroconversion (4), virus shedding in stools (1) or both (2). In all cases, the RV strain was typed as [P1]G8, the same G/P type combination detected in captive chulengos with acute diarrhoea sampled in Rio Negro, in 2001. In contrast, we could not detect antibodies against PI-3, BoHV-1, BVDV or BT in any of initial samples. No Abs against BoHV-1, BVDV or BTV were detected in the chulengos throughout the study. However, all the chulengos became asymptomatically seropositive to PI-3 by the 7 month after arrival. This study suggest that wild-born guanacos raised in captivity can be relatively susceptible to common livestock viral infections, such as RV and PI-3, which are easily spread among chulengos. PMID:21062425

Marcoppido, G; Olivera, V; Bok, K; Parreño, V

2011-02-01

122

Raising salinity tolerant rice: recent progress and future perspectives  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

With the rapid growth in population consuming rice as staple food and the deteriorating soil and water quality around the globe, there is an urgent need to understand the response of this important crop towards these environmental abuses. With the ultimate goal to raise rice plant with better suitability towards rapidly changing environmental inputs, intensive efforts are on worldwide employing physiological, biochemical and molecular tools to perform this task. In this regard, efforts of pla...

Singh, Anil K.; Ansari, Mohammad W.; Pareek, Ashwani; Singla-pareek, Sneh L.

2008-01-01

123

Soil information in support of policy making and awareness raising  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Soils play an important role in defining sustainable land-use options when facing major global environmental challenges such as food security, climate change, fresh water scarcity and biodiversity loss. Facing these problems, the 2006 EU Thematic Strategy for Soil Protection (TSSP), provides an important focal point for soil research and awareness raising. Unfortunately, the TSSP has not yet been followed up with a legally binding Framework Directive mainly because of political barriers. Two ...

Bouma, J.; Broll, G.; Crane, T. A.; Dewitte, O.; Gardi, C.; Schulte, R. P. O.; Towers, W.

2012-01-01

124

Raising and Lowering Operators for Askey-Wilson Polynomials  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this paper we describe two pairs of raising/lowering operators for Askey-Wilson polynomials, which result from constructions involving very different techniques. The first technique is quite elementary, and depends only on the ''classical'' properties of these polynomials, viz. the q-difference equation and the three term recurrence. The second technique is less elementary, and involves the one-variable version of the double affine Hecke algebra.

Siddhartha Sahi

2007-01-01

125

Trajectories of Conflict over Raising Adolescent Children and Marital Satisfaction  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The present study examined trajectories of marital satisfaction among couples with adolescent children and evaluated how changes in parents’ conflict over raising adolescent children were associated with changes in marital satisfaction over four years. Using a prospective, longitudinal research design and controlling for family socioeconomic status, dyadic growth curve analysis from a sample of 431 couples with adolescent children indicated that marital satisfaction decreased over time for ...

Cui, Ming; Donnellan, M. Brent

2009-01-01

126

Raise boring to full shaft diameter now possible  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

On the basis of initial experience gained by Saarbergwerke and basic research carried out by Bergbau-Forschung GmbH, Thyssen Schachtbau GmbH have introduced raise boring into all sectors of the Federal German mining industry - hard coal, ore, potash and rock salt. When the capacity limit of the first generation of machines proved to be a borehole diameter range of 2 to 3 m and a borehole length of 300 to 400 m, a new and significantly more powerful generation of machines was brought in. Thyssen Schachtbau have now used these HG 250 machines to bore holes 500 m deep first to a diameter of 3.6 m, in carboniferous strata, and then to a diameter of 5.0 m, in rock of salt strata. Raise boring has thus graduated to full shaft diameter in Europe. Shaft lining methods suitable for use with this technique of boring are also described. The raise borehole drilled at Emil Mayrisch colliery, the first in a European deep mine to reach a diameter of 3.6 m, features a further innovation in the form of glass fibre reinforced concrete panels manufactured by Thyssen Great Britain Ltd. and backfilled with fine concrete. In conjunction with Technisches Buero Jonasson, Thyssen Schachtbau has developed and implemented in deep mines a method - named after the two companies - of coating the sides of the borehole with cement colloid. This method serves both to line large diameter boreholes and, where necessary, to pre-stabilize raise boreholes with diameters of or approaching shaft size.

Grossekemper, J.; Tonscheidt, H.W. (Thyssen Schachtbau G.m.b.H., Muelheim an der Ruhr (Germany, F.R.). Bereich Vertikale Ausrichtung)

1980-10-01

127

Medical management of raised intracranial pressure after severe birth asphyxia.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The effects of dexamethasone and 20% mannitol infusion in reducing raised intracranial pressure were assessed in severely asphyxiated newborn infants. Intracranial pressure was measured continuously by a percutaneously placed subarachnoid catheter, and cerebral perfusion pressure was calculated from this and blood pressure data. Dexamethasone treatment, assessed in seven infants, produced an overall fall in intracranial pressure which was sustained for at least six hours, but this was coincid...

1985-01-01

128

The treatment of raised intracranial pressure following aneurysm surgery.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The effect of intravenous mannitol infusion and withdrawal of cerebrospinal fluid on the intracranial pressure and clinical state was studied in 26 patients with raised intracranial pressure after direct surgery for ruptured aneurysm. Each method decreased the mean intracranial pressure by about 60% of the pre-treatment level. The maximal decrease following mannitol occurred after 60-90 minutes and generally lasted between three and four hours. The effects of mannitol did not decrease when re...

1980-01-01

129

Raising rivals' fixed (labor) costs: The Deutsche Post case  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We analyze the bargaining problem of an incumbent firm and a union when the wage contract becomes generally binding. Our main application relates to competition among operators of mail delivery networks. We describe the Deutsche Post case which highlights the raising rivals' costs incentive and its consequences resulting from labor laws that make collective agreements generally binding. We show that minimum wages implemented by means of extension regulation are an effective deterrence instrum...

Heitzler, Sven; Wey, Christian

2010-01-01

130

Can passive leg raising be used to guide fluid administration?  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Predicting fluid responsiveness has become a topic of major interest. Measurements of intravascular pressures and volumes often fail to predict the response to fluids, even though very low values are usually associated with a positive response to fluids. Dynamic indices reflecting respiratory-induced variations in stroke volume have been developed; however, these cannot be used in patients with arrhythmia or with spontaneous respiratory movements. The passive leg raising (PLR) test has been s...

2006-01-01

131

The cholesterol-raising factor from coffee beans.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Coffee beans and some types of coffee brew - not the regular types of coffee prepared with a paper filter or with soluble coffee granules - contain the diterpenes cafestol and kahweol. Cafestol and kahweol raise the serum concentration of cholesterol and triglycerides in humans, and they also appear mildly to affect the integrity of liver cells. Both effects are transient after withdrawal of the diterpenes, and it is as yet unsure whether these effects are associated. Patients at increased ri...

1996-01-01

132

The cholesterol-raising factor from coffee beans.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Coffee beans and some types of coffee brew-not the regular types of coffee prepared with a paper filter or with soluble coffee granules-contain the diterpenes cafestol and kahweol. Cafestol and kahweol raise the serum concentration of cholesterol and triglycerides in humans, and they also appear mildly to affect the integrity of liver cells. Both effects are transient after withdrawal of the diterpenes, and it is as yet unsure whether these effects are associated. Patients at increased risk o...

1996-01-01

133

Resilience in families raising children with disabilities and behavior problems.  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of this study was to investigate the resilience displayed by families raising children with disabilities and behavior problems. The question is why do some families do well when others, exposed to similar stressors, struggle to keep their family life running? A stratified (by child age group) random sample of 538 families raising children with disabilities in Alberta, Canada took part. Participants completed the Family Life Survey, which incorporated measures of child behavior problems, social-ecological resources and family-level 'outcomes'. Families raising children with disabilities and behavior problems 'do well' under conditions of high social support and low financial hardship. In contrast, families with low levels of social support and high levels of financial hardship typically struggle, even when the number or intensity of child behavior problems is low. The study findings are consistent with the view that 'resilience' has more to do with the availability and accessibility of culturally relevant resources than with intrinsic, individual or family factors. With respect to family-level outcomes, strengthening social relationships and ameliorating financial hardship may be more important than behavior modification. PMID:24491480

McConnell, David; Savage, Amber; Breitkreuz, Rhonda

2014-04-01

134

Properties and structure of raised bog peat humic acids  

Science.gov (United States)

Humic substances form most of the organic components of soil, peat and natural waters, and their structure and properties differ very much depending on their source. The aims of this study are to characterize humic acids (HAs) from raised bog peat, to evaluate the homogeneity of peat HAs within peat profiles, and to study peat humification impact on properties of HAs. A major impact on the structure of peat HAs have lignin-free raised bog biota (dominantly represented by bryophytes of different origin). On diagenesis scale, peat HAs have an intermediate position between the living organic matter and coal organic matter, and their structure is formed in a process in which more labile structures (carbohydrates, amino acids, etc.) are destroyed, while thermodynamically more stable aromatic and polyaromatic structures emerge as a result of abiotic synthesis. However, in comparison with soil, aquatic and other HAs, aromaticity of peat HAs is much lower. Comparatively, the raised bog peat HAs are at the beginning of the transformation process of living organic matter. Concentrations of carboxyl and phenolic hydroxyl groups change depending on the peat age and decomposition degree from where HAs have been isolated, and carboxylic acidity of peat HAs increases with peat depth and humification degree.

Klavins, Maris; Purmalis, Oskars

2013-10-01

135

Issues Raised in Relation to Radioactive Waste Management  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Nirex has undertaken various consultations with different stakeholders to identify their issues and concerns about radioactive waste management in general and specific aspects of Nirex's work. This paper will outline what dialogue techniques Nirex has undertaken and the issues and concerns that people have raised during the events. It will outline some of the work that Nirex is undertaking to address stakeholders' issues and concerns. Nirex has used a variety of dialogue techniques co-ordinated under the Nirex Involvement Programme to engage with stakeholders about the work we undertake. We are now trying to address the issues, concerns, scenarios and questions raised in our work programme. Key lessons that we have learned in undertaking the dialogues include: The importance of appropriate facilitation and organisation of meetings; The need for a clear purpose for meetings; Being flexible to the needs of the attendees and the issues they raise; Providing feedback to those who participate and following up issues. Through engaging with the public Nirex has learned that: Radioactive waste is not an everyday concern for people; The public can, will and want to engage with the issue of radioactive waste management. This includes engaging with the ethical debate. To facilitate this Nirex and others need to: Provide information in a neutral form outlining the pros and cons and including various people's opinions; Use proactive techniques to allow access and space for people to discuss the issues; Demonstrate how people's opinions have been taken into account. People understand the issues very differently to the way institutions understand them. There is a need for institutions to learn to understand public concerns and the ways in which the public understand issues, as well as for the public to understand the institutional positions better. We are using these insights to develop our future work in this area

2003-10-01

136

Some remarks on right node raising in Romanian  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Coordinate clauses with a common constituent in final position give rise to an interesting construction (Mary likes, but John hates cats), in which the constituent at the right edge of the first conjunct is missing. This phenomenon, known in the literature as Right Node Raising, has been analyzed either as an instance of movement or as an instance of ellipsis in the first conjunct. Starting from Hartmann (2000), Abels (2004) and Ha (2006), who argue in favour of an in-situ analysis of Right N...

2008-01-01

137

A new approach to raising social security's earliest eligibility age  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

While Social Securityfs Normal Retirement Age (NRA) is increasing to 67, the Earliest Eligibility Age (EEA) remains at 62. Similar plans to increase the EEA raise concerns that they would create excessive hardship on workers who are worn]out or in bad health. One simple rule to increase the EEA is to tie an increase to the number of quarters of covered earnings. Such a provision would allow those with long work lives.presumably the less educated and lower paid.to quit earlier. We provide evid...

2008-01-01

138

Technological characteristics of rabbit meat with raised n-3 PUFA  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The dietary use of linseed in animal feeding has been proposed by many authors as a vegetable way (in alternative to fish oil or fish meal to raise meat PUFA and mainly ?- linolenic acid (C18:3 n-3 (Bernardini et al., 1999; Mattews et al., 2000; Riley et al., 2000; Rey et al., 2001. However, increasing amounts of PUFA could impair the technological characteristics of the meat for further processing (Enser, 1999. Main problems are concerned with lipid stability and meat colour changes over time which are related with both the out coming of rancid flavour and detrimental effects on the appearance of packaged further processed meat products...

C. Cavani

2011-03-01

139

Social partners divided over government plan to raise retirement age  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The social partners have given a divided response to the Dutch cabinet’s plans to raise the retirement age – first to 66 years in 2020 and then to 67 years in 2025. This also applies to the age at which company pension schemes will be paid out. The trade unions argue that poorly paid workers who carry out heavy tasks will be unjustly burdened by these measures. Employer representatives, on the other hand, are satisfied with the proposed cutbacks on company pension schemes.

Gru?nell, M.

2009-01-01

140

Tetrameres grusi (Nemotoda: Tetrameridae) from foster-raised whooping cranes  

Science.gov (United States)

A juvenile whooping crane (Grus americana) that had been raised by greater sandhill crane (Grus canadensis tabida) foster parents was attacked and killed by a golden eagle (Aquila chrysaetos) southwest of Rangely, Colorado (Windingstad et al., 1981, Auk 98:393-394). Since 1975, whooping crane eggs have been placed in the nests of sandhill cranes in an effort to increase the population of this endangered species. This bird was hatched at Grays Lake National Wildlife Refuge in Idaho and was attacked while migrating to wintering grounds in New Mexico. The bird was sent to the National Wildlife Health Laboratory for a detailed necropsy.

Tuggle, B. N.

1983-01-01

 
 
 
 
141

School District Interests and Challenges Buying Chicken Raised without Antibiotics  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The overuse of antibiotics in animal agriculture is recognized as contributing to human antibiotic resistance. With large meat purchases, particularly chicken, school districts have an opportunity to leverage their buying power to engage with this issue. However, few school food service professionals have done so and little is known about their awareness, attitudes, or experiences. This research surveyed 36 school districts affiliated with School Food FOCUS, which works on procurement reform with many of the largest school districts in the country. Questions were designed to solicit familiarity with the issue of antibiotic use in poultry production, attitudes, and extent of relevant action taken. Motivations and barriers for purchasing poultry raised with minimal, safe and sustainable use of antibiotics as well as fresh (raw poultry, which has been found to be an affordable way to menu antibiotic-free chicken, were assessed. Results revealed that this issue is important to respondents but difficult to address due to more immediate concerns. Barriers are experienced with purchasing both chicken raised without antibiotics and preparing fresh chicken. Product cost was perceived as a particularly high barrier. Responding to concerns of parents and the community was a top motivation.

Kathryn J. A. Colasanti

2013-09-01

142

An Effective Method for Information Security Awareness Raising Initiatives  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Increasingly, all kinds of organizations and institutions are adopting the E-business model to conduct theiractivities and provide E-Services for their customers. In the process, whether they know it or not, thoseorganizations are also opening themselves up to the risk of information security breaches. Thereforeprotecting an organization’s ICT infrastructure, IT systems, and Data is a vital issue that is oftenunderestimated. Research has shown that one of the most significant threats to information security comesnot from external attack but rather from the system's users, because they are familiar with theinfrastructure and have access to its resources, but may be unaware of the risks. Moreover, using onlytechnological solutions to protect an organization’s assets is not enough; there is a need to consider thehuman factor by raising users’ security awareness. Our contribution to this problem is to propose anInformation Security Awareness Program that aims at raising and maintaining the level of users’ securityawareness. This paper puts forward a general model for an information security awareness program anddescribes how it could be incorporated into an organization’s website through the process of developmentlife cycle.

AliMaqousi

2013-05-01

143

[Raising of fur-bearing animals and animal welfare].  

Science.gov (United States)

The Ministry of Agriculture has drafted a prescription for raising animals for fur production. It contains high standards of knowledge about raising, feeding and care for those animals. Included is combined interest and negotiation between farmers and the organisations for the protection of animals. Some facts of ethology need clarification soon. Special: the social deprive of Minks; the bath taking possibility for the Mink; the requirement of space for the Mink; the collar plate on Chinchillas; the water requirement of swamp Beavers; the size of group and dense occupation of Foxes. All recommendations, directions and prescriptions up to now are patchwork. In certain cases must the advisor and the farmer be in position to recognize deficiencies in care and management and be able to stop it if necessary. In this connection they must observe behaviour of tail biting, skin tearing and consumption of new born, disturbances in mating behaviour as well as in upbringing. They must also look for stereotyped movements and the expressions of pain and anxiety. The Council of Europe gave also a draft of recommendations concerning fur animals and in this paper is also attached the importance to farmers diagnosis of disturbed behaviour. PMID:2351052

Grauvogl, A

1990-04-01

144

Raised Relief Mars Globe Brings the Red Planet Closer  

Science.gov (United States)

The Mars Globe 20x is the first digitally produced raised relief globe to be sold at retail establishments. The rises and dips of the Martian landscape have been multiplied by 20 to make the shapes more noticeable to human touch and sight. They make this globe, with its over 1 million elevation points, a visually stunning introduction to the planet. Spectrum 3D used the NASA digital land elevation data to aim lasers that then shaped and defined the master globe s surface. Subsequent copies were then made by creating a master globe mold. The molded copies are hand finished by workers who remove errant edges or lines that may appear on the raw globes and then paint the surfaces. The result is a globe that measures in at 18 inches in diameter, roughly 1:15,729,473 scale of the actual planet. The exaggerated raised relief is like having a 3-D digital microscope for planetary shapes. This makes the landmarks easier to learn and understand, as it provides easy visuals for orientation. People have a natural propensity for understanding 3-D shapes more easily than numbers or words. The 3-D globes appeal to both the kinetic and visual learning aspects of the brain, making it easy for people to readily memorize the landmarks and to make a mental model that they will remember for a long time.

2006-01-01

145

Civil engineering work to raise the level of Route Goward  

CERN Multimedia

Civil engineering work to raise the level of Route Goward will take place during Long Shutdown 1. The work will begin on 18 March 2013 and is expected to last around 5 months.   Route Goward runs over the top of the PS tunnel and is the only access route to the inside of the ring. The layer of shielding backfill beneath this road is the thinnest anywhere on the PS ring. As the purpose of this shielding is to protect against the ionising radiation emitted by the accelerator when in operation, this road has been classified as a “supervised radiation area” according to radiation protection regulations. This classification was merely a temporary solution and, on the recommendation of the PS Radiation Working Group (PSRWG), the decision has been taken to raise the surface level permanently by around 2 m in order to increase the thickness of the shielding and thus lower the dose rate to that of a non-designated area. As the PS tunnel itself is unable to withstand the weight of t...

2013-01-01

146

Evaluación anátomo-histopatológica de bursa, timo y bazo de pollos de carne criados sobre cama reutilizada vs. cama nueva / Anatomical and histopathological evaluation of the bursa, thymus and spleen of broiler chickens raised in new or reused litter  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Peru | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Se evaluó el desarrollo anátomo-histopatológico de la bursa, timo y bazo de pollos de carne criados en cama nueva y cama reutilizada por cinco campañas. Se criaron 250 pollos machos de la línea Ross 308, la mitad en cama nueva y la otra mitad en cama reutilizada. Semanalmente, se determinaron los ín [...] dices morfométricos de bursa, timo y bazo, y la relación entre bursa y bazo por grupo. Los órganos linfoides fueron evaluados mediante histopatología, y los títulos de anticuerpos contra las enfermedades de Gumboro, Newcastle, Bronquitis Infecciosa, Anemia Infecciosa y Reovirus, al inicio y final de la crianza (49 días), se determinaron por la prueba de ELISA. Se encontró diferencia estadística (p Abstract in english The anatomo-histopathological development of the bursa, thymus and spleen of broiler chickens raised in new and reused litter through five campaigns was evaluated. Two hundred and fifty male chickens of the Ross 308 line were raised, half in new and half in reused litter. On a weekly basis, the morp [...] hometric indexes of bursa, thymus and spleen, and the relation bursa/spleen were recorded. The lymphoid organs were evaluated by histopathology and ELISA test was used to determine antibody titres for Gumboro, Newcastle, Infectious Bronchitis, Infectious Anemia, and Reovirus at the beginning and end of the study (49 days). Statistical difference was found (p

Antonio, Tambini A.; Mónica, Alba C.; Rosa, Perales C; Néstor, Falcón P.

147

Does Stock Market Development Raise Economic Growth? Evidence from Nigeria  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper investigates whether stock market development raises economic growthin Nigeria, by employing the error correction approach. The econometric results indicate thatstock market development (market capitalization-GDP ratio increases economic growth.The recommendations therein include: removal of impediments to stock market developmentwhich include tax, legal, and regulatory barriers; development of the nation’s infrastructureto create an enabling environment for where business can strive; employment of policies thatwill increase the productivity and efficiency of firms as well encourage them to access capitalon the stock market; enhancement of the capacity of the Nigeria Security and ExchangeCommission to facilitate the growth of the stock market, restore the confidence of stockmarket participants and safeguard the interest of shareholders by checking sharp practicesof market operators (particularly speculators.

Abu Nurudeen

2009-12-01

148

Design of a Hybrid Propulsion System for Orbit Raising Applications  

Science.gov (United States)

A trade off between conventional liquid apogee engines used for orbit raising applications and hybrid rocket engines (HRE) has been performed using a case study approach. Current requirements for lower cost and enhanced safety places hybrid propulsion systems in the spotlight. For evaluating and design of a hybrid rocket engine a parametric engineering code is developed, based on the combustion chamber characteristics of selected propellants. A single port cylindrical section of fuel grain is considered. Polyethylene (PE) and hydroxyl-terminated polybutadiene (HTPB) represents the fuels investigated. The engine design is optimized to minimize the propulsion system volume and mass, while keeping the system as simple as possible. It is found that the fuel grain L/D ratio boundary condition has a major impact on the overall hybrid rocket engine design.

Boman, N.; Ford, M.

2004-10-01

149

Ways of raising labor productivity in borehole drilling  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Labor reserves in drilling boreholes with manual perforators have been practically exhausted. Using high-power perforators on manipulators does not sharply raise labor productivity due to the substantial amount of time spent on secondary operations, while absence of or partial automation does not allow one person to use several machines. Carriages with a high degree of automation of all processes must be created. Requirements are worked out which an automated carriage must meet. The scheme and description are given for an automated device for borehole drilling. Using it enables a 3-4 fold rise in labor productivity for drilling, a change in the nature of the driller's work and elimination of the effect of his experience on work quality.

Kazakov, A.N.; Kazakov, N.I.; Voronenko, V.K.

1981-01-01

150

THE CHALLENGES OF RAISING REVENUES AND RESTRUCTURING SUBSIDIES IN MALAYSIA  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Malaysia has run deficit budgets in all but five years since 1970 but past deficits have been managed thanks to substantial oil revenues and high domestic savings. However, the slow growth or decline of several traditional sources of revenue and the rising subsidy bill since 2007 have given pause for reflection on the traditional approach to fiscal management. In this paper, it is argued that fiscal management must not only centre around reducing non-productive expenditures and wasteful leakages but must also confront the problem of reducing and restructuring subsidies, particularly to petrol and petroleum-related products. The global dip in petroleum process has fortuitously provided the respite needed for such an exercise and should not lull policy makersinto complacency. When the economy recovers from the currentdownswing, a solid revenue raising instrument such as the value-addedtax must be introduced in order to wean the economy away from thecurrent over reliance on petroleum-based taxes.

Suresh Narayanan

2007-01-01

151

How can arms control raise the nuclear threshold in Europe  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper discusses the potential contribution of arms control to raising the nuclear threshold in Europe, the general approach taken is that there are already a number of good ideas on this subject, that some of them may bring some modest progress in the next several years, and that the political process in the countries of the Western coalition is likely to promote even more serious action within the decade. Despite a great deal of contrary evidence, it may be that the East-West military confrontation in Europe has already passed a watershed and, however imperceptibly and confusedly, is gradually running down. Something even more fundamental than the role of nuclear weapons in defence and deterrence may be involved

1988-01-01

152

To ESCO business raising; ESCO jigyo ikusei he  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

It leans the Ministry of International Trade and Industry and resources energy out of raising of the ESCO (energy, service, company) business which it is watching as a new business in the saving energy field. It popularizes the same time work that a latent domestic market is seen with making saving energy of the building such as a building and a factory accelerate toward prevention of global warming very much with 2475000 hundreds yen, and works for the economic activation. The model case that a saving energy consulting technique and saving energy become guidelines on the way of evaluating it is built through the subsidy system `the saving energy improvement business of the pill` that it was founded from this year, and it is the policy that an impetus is given to the diffusion promotion of the ESC0 business by general purpose`s introducing this information to the public. (translated by NEDO)

NONE

1998-12-01

153

Raising NP Lower Bounds to Parallel NP Lower Bounds  

CERN Document Server

A decade ago, a beautiful paper by Wagner developed a ``toolkit'' that in certain cases allows one to prove problems hard for parallel access to NP. However, the problems his toolkit applies to most directly are not overly natural. During the past year, problems that previously were known only to be NP-hard or coNP-hard have been shown to be hard even for the class of sets solvable via parallel access to NP. Many of these problems are longstanding and extremely natural, such as the Minimum Equivalent Expression problem (which was the original motivation for creating the polynomial hierarchy), the problem of determining the winner in the election system introduced by Lewis Carroll in 1876, and the problem of determining on which inputs heuristic algorithms perform well. In the present article, we survey this recent progress in raising lower bounds.

Hemaspaandra, E; Rothe, J; Hemaspaandra, Edith; Hemaspaandra, Lane A.; Rothe, Joerg

1997-01-01

154

It Takes a Library to Raise a Community  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Ontario Library Service-North is publishing a series of community development tools for public libraries, beginning with the Crime Prevention and Personal Safety for Your Library and Community tool kit that was e-published on the OLS-North website in 2004. This article introduces library boards and staff to community building principles and practices, and the language of community developers. The role of the library in community and capacity building is discussed, as was introduced at the Ontario Library Association Super Conference 2007 session and as described in the tool kit, It Takes a Library to Raise a Community: A Community Development Activities Tool Kit for Public Libraries. The tool kit is about to be released to libraries.

Marjatta Asu

2007-11-01

155

Raising the 3-d blocks production efficiency using expert evaluation  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The method of expert evaluation is used in the cases when there is lack of efficient formalized methods for choosing necessary measures for solving production or scientific problems. In construction industry the field of application of expert evaluation method is quite wide. In the article the method of expert evaluation is described, the data on the peculiarities of producing three-dimensional utility blocks on hypso-cement-trass concretes on the Khoroshevsky Concrete Products Plant DSK-1 is presented. The authors present pall results and expert evaluations on ten-point scale. Expert opinions were processed using mathematical statistics method. The results of statistical indicators calculation is presented and optimal ways of raising the production efficiency for three-dimensional utility blocks are chosen basing on them.

Efimenko Anatoliy Zakharovich

2014-05-01

156

Object technology: raising the standards for healthcare information systems.  

Science.gov (United States)

Netscape and the public Internet have accelerated the acceptance of many different open "Internet standards". Through wide acceptance of its browser, Netscape gave a boost to the Java programming language helping it become truly platform independent. Objects written in Java are ideal building blocks for application components. CORBA gives such objects the ability to communicate and operate over networks. Applications built with these distributed objects become the services in an Internet-wide healthcare framework. The convergence of object technologies has raised the standards for modern healthcare information systems. To illustrate the relationship among such technologies, this paper presents an architecture for a Universal Healthcare Information System (UHIS) in terms of its web, Java and CORBA components. PMID:10384450

Pollard, D L; Hammond, W E

1998-01-01

157

Raised Plasma Aldosterone and Natriuretic Peptides in Atrial Fibrillation.  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: During atrial fibrillation (AF), the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) may be activated. In this study, our aim was to evaluate at a long-term follow-up visit the levels of plasma aldosterone and natriuretic peptides as markers of neurohormonal remodeling in patients with earlier, documented AF in relation to present heart rhythm, clinical data, and the left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF). We hypothesized that increased levels of aldosterone and natriuretic peptides were significantly associated with present AF as markers of RAAS activation during the arrhythmia. METHODS: We studied 158 patients with earlier ECG-documented AF followed by restored sinus rhythm (SR) attending a follow-up visit 2.6 years (mean) after primary inclusion. RESULTS: At follow-up, 93 patients had SR. Heart rhythm at follow-up visit (SR/AF), plasma aldosterone, plasma N-terminal pro Brain Natriuretic Peptide (Nt-proBNP), plasma N-terminal pro Atrial Natriuretic Peptide (Nt-proANP), LVEF, medication, and clinical characteristics were recorded. Standard linear multiple regression analysis including age, sex, weight, hypertension, congestive heart failure, ischemic heart disease, present AF at follow-up, total duration of AF disease, ongoing medication, and the LVEF as explanatory variables showed that only ongoing treatment with diuretics was significantly associated (likelihood ratio test, p = 0.0057) with a raised log-transformed plasma aldosterone, although present AF at follow-up was related to a high aldosterone level (p = 0.09). For the natriuretic peptides, present AF at follow-up (p < 0.0001), age (p < 0.0001), female gender (p = 0.0047), ischemic heart disease (p = 0.0154), and ongoing treatment with sotalol (p = 0.0003) were all independently associated with high log-transformed plasma Nt-proANP. Likewise, present AF at follow-up (p = 0.0008) as well as age (p < 0.0001) were associated with high log-transformed plasma Nt-proBNP. CONCLUSIONS: In patients with earlier AF, AF at long-term follow-up visit was independently associated with raised levels of Nt-proANP and Nt-proBNP and to some extent with plasma aldosterone indicating neurohormonal activation during arrhythmia. Copyright 2007 S. Karger AG, Basel.

Dixen, U; Søby-Rasmussen, C

2006-01-01

158

Raised plasma aldosterone and natriuretic peptides in atrial fibrillation  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: During atrial fibrillation (AF), the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) may be activated. In this study, our aim was to evaluate at a long-term follow-up visit the levels of plasma aldosterone and natriuretic peptides as markers of neurohormonal remodeling in patients with earlier, documented AF in relation to present heart rhythm, clinical data, and the left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF). We hypothesized that increased levels of aldosterone and natriuretic peptides were significantly associated with present AF as markers of RAAS activation during the arrhythmia. METHODS: We studied 158 patients with earlier ECG-documented AF followed by restored sinus rhythm (SR) attending a follow-up visit 2.6 years (mean) after primary inclusion. RESULTS: At follow-up, 93 patients had SR. Heart rhythm at follow-up visit (SR/AF), plasma aldosterone, plasma N-terminal pro Brain Natriuretic Peptide (Nt-proBNP), plasma N-terminal pro Atrial Natriuretic Peptide (Nt-proANP), LVEF, medication,and clinical characteristics were recorded. Standard linear multiple regression analysis including age, sex, weight, hypertension, congestive heart failure, ischemic heart disease, present AF at follow-up, total duration of AF disease, ongoing medication, and the LVEF as explanatory variables showed that only ongoing treatment with diuretics was significantly associated (likelihood ratio test, p = 0.0057) with a raised log-transformed plasma aldosterone, although present AF at follow-up was related to a high aldosterone level (p = 0.09). For the natriuretic peptides, present AF at follow-up (p < 0.0001), age (p < 0.0001), female gender (p = 0.0047), ischemic heart disease (p = 0.0154), and ongoing treatment with sotalol (p = 0.0003) were all independently associated with high log-transformed plasma Nt-proANP. Likewise, present AF at follow-up (p = 0.0008) as well as age (p < 0.0001) were associated with high log-transformed plasma Nt-proBNP. CONCLUSIONS: In patients with earlier AF, AF at long-term follow-upvisit was independently associated with raised levels of Nt-proANP and Nt-proBNP and to some extent with plasma aldosterone indicating neurohormonal activation during arrhythmia. Copyright 2007 S. Karger AG, Basel.

Dixen, U; Ravn, L

2007-01-01

159

Raised plasma aldosterone and natriuretic peptides in atrial fibrillation.  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: During atrial fibrillation (AF), the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) may be activated. In this study, our aim was to evaluate at a long-term follow-up visit the levels of plasma aldosterone and natriuretic peptides as markers of neurohormonal remodeling in patients with earlier, documented AF in relation to present heart rhythm, clinical data, and the left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF). We hypothesized that increased levels of aldosterone and natriuretic peptides were significantly associated with present AF as markers of RAAS activation during the arrhythmia. METHODS: We studied 158 patients with earlier ECG-documented AF followed by restored sinus rhythm (SR) attending a follow-up visit 2.6 years (mean) after primary inclusion. RESULTS: At follow-up, 93 patients had SR. Heart rhythm at follow-up visit (SR/AF), plasma aldosterone, plasma N-terminal pro Brain Natriuretic Peptide (Nt-proBNP), plasma N-terminal pro Atrial Natriuretic Peptide (Nt-proANP), LVEF, medication, and clinical characteristics were recorded. Standard linear multiple regression analysis including age, sex, weight, hypertension, congestive heart failure, ischemic heart disease, present AF at follow-up, total duration of AF disease, ongoing medication, and the LVEF as explanatory variables showed that only ongoing treatment with diuretics was significantly associated (likelihood ratio test, p = 0.0057) with a raised log-transformed plasma aldosterone, although present AF at follow-up was related to a high aldosterone level (p = 0.09). For the natriuretic peptides, present AF at follow-up (p < 0.0001), age (p < 0.0001), female gender (p = 0.0047), ischemic heart disease (p = 0.0154), and ongoing treatment with sotalol (p = 0.0003) were all independently associated with high log-transformed plasma Nt-proANP. Likewise, present AF at follow-up (p = 0.0008) as well as age (p < 0.0001) were associated with high log-transformed plasma Nt-proBNP. CONCLUSIONS: In patients with earlier AF, AF at long-term follow-up visit was independently associated with raised levels of Nt-proANP and Nt-proBNP and to some extent with plasma aldosterone indicating neurohormonal activation during arrhythmia. Copyright 2007 S. Karger AG, Basel.

Dixen, U; Ravn, L

2007-01-01

160

7 CFR 760.204 - Eligible livestock, honeybees, and farm-raised fish.  

Science.gov (United States)

...of Agriculture (Continued) FARM SERVICE AGENCY, DEPARTMENT...for Livestock, Honeybees, and Farm-Raised Fish Program § 760...Eligible livestock, honeybees, and farm-raised fish. (a) To...FSA; (2) Yaks; (3) Ostriches; (4) All beef and...

2010-01-01

 
 
 
 
161

Microsoft Word - Lowland_Raised_Bog_Web_Version_April03.doc  

Northern Ireland Habitat Action Plan Lowland Raised Bog Final Draft – April 2003 1. Current status 1.1 Biological status 1.1.1 Lowland raised bogs are peatland ecosystems, which develop primarily in lowland areas ...

162

Leptospirosis control on an intensive raising pig farm  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Leptospirosis is an infective disease which represents serious health and economic problems in pig raising. The disease is caused by bacteria from genus Leptospira interrogans, which has over 250 serotypes and is isolated from most animal species and also from humans in almost every country in the world. In farm conditions the disease is seldom manifested as a clinically apparent illness. More often is manifested as reduced conception rate increased abortion rate and increased birth of dead and non-vital piglets. The leptospirosis control and eradication program was made for a state owned farm with a capacity of about 1500 sows and over 30000 fattened animals per year. The farm had an on going endemic leptospirosis infection and subsequent progressive economic losses. We detected 29,80% seropositive sows and gilts in which serotypes pomona and icterhaemorrhagiae were isolated. Serologic examination of blood was performed again after program implementation, and no positive animals were found, while production and economic results were improved. The control of leptospirosis and the eradication program for a five-year period were based on detailed quantification of economics losses. Using cost-benefit analysis the necessary inputs and planned outputs were defined, and program evolution was made on the basis of net present value and benefit/cost ratio.

Teši? M.

2005-01-01

163

NEW POSSIBILITIES OF RAISING RABBIT YOUNG BY ALTERNATIVE NURSING METHODS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In the first experiment 360 Pannon White kits from 45 litters were divided into 3 groups. The kits in group SS were suckled once a day during the first 35 days of life (traditional method of nursing. Group DD was raised by 2 does and the kits were suckled both in the morning and in the evening until 35 days of age. The kits of the 3rd group (D0 were suckled twice a day for 23 days, after which they were weaned. Rabbits which were suckled twice a day consumed 89 % more milk until 23 days of age than those of the SS kits. In the second experiment authors used different management systems, to investigate the possibilities of “double-suckling”. Both nulliparous as multiparous does were treated to induce pseudopregnancy (by means of GnRH. They were used as second doe and suckled the kits in the afternoon. Pseudopregnant does produced milk (nulliparous does less than does which had previously produced litters, but in conditions of controlled suckling they were not willing to suckle the young. In a third experiment, does (n=44 were inseminated 11 days after kindling. Weaning was performed at the age of 21 days and does could systematically serve as second mother for the litters born at the same day. The “additional” does that nursed the young in the afternoon produced 65 % of the milk quantity produced by the natural mother between days 0 and 21.

Tünde Gyarmati

2000-06-01

164

Wilson disease in septuagenarian siblings: Raising the bar for diagnosis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Wilson Disease (WD) usually presents in the first decades of life, although rare patients have a later presentation. We report the clinical features, diagnostic evaluation, and outcome with treatment of two septuagenarian siblings evaluated as part of a research trial for treatment of neurological WD. The index case was a 72-year-old woman who suffered progressive neurological disability, then developed sub-fulminant liver failure. Her sibling was a 70-year-old man with minimal neurological symptoms and a mild depressive disorder. His liver biopsy revealed only steatosis and minimal fibrosis and an elevated hepatic copper content (671 mug/g dry weight liver). Molecular studies demonstrated compound heterozygosity for disease specific ATP7B mutations E1064A and H1069Q in both patients. Both individuals were treated with trientine and Zn followed by Zn maintenance therapy. Over the last 5 years, the clinical course stabilized and improved, although the index case recently died from bronchopneumonia. In conclusion, advanced age and different clinical presentations of these two subjects with identical ATP7B mutations raises the question of the degree of penetrance for these and other ATP7B mutations. Environmental and extragenic factors are pivotal determinants of disease phenotype. We suggest that WD must be considered at all ages in patients with hepatic disease, neurological disease, or psychiatric symptoms. PMID:15723329

Ala, Aftab; Borjigin, Jimo; Rochwarger, Arnold; Schilsky, Michael

2005-03-01

165

Parental Stress in Raising a Child with Disabilities in India  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available  Purpose: To determine the parenting stress and its determinants among parents of children with disabling conditions in India.Methods: The Parenting Stress Index – short form and a few open ended questions were administered to a convenience sample of sixty-six patient families in July, 2009 in the cities of New Delhi and Faridabad regions of Northern India through six non- governmental organizations (NGOs that serve children with disabling conditions. Results: Female sex of the child was associated with higher stress related to failure of the child to meet parent’s expectations and to satisfy the parents in their parenting role. Parents engaged in more lucrative and prestigious occupations had more stress than parents engaged in less prestigious and lucrative occupations irrespective of their income. Many parents reported receiving little support from their extended families in taking care of their child. Religion was found to be a common coping resource used by the parents.Conclusion and Implications: Higher parenting stress in parents of girls raises the possibility of abuse and neglect. Little support from informal family resources underscores the need for developing formal resources for supporting the parents. The specific resources of parenting stress among parents of different socioeconomic status should be explored in future studies so that appropriate interventions can be planned.doi 10.5463/DCID.v23i2.119

Naveen Mehrotra

2012-08-01

166

Raised Vaginal Fluid Fibronectin Level Indicates Premature Rupture of Membrane  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background: Premature rupture of membrane (PROM is one of the common complications of pregnancy that has major impact on fetal and neonatal outcome. It is the commonest clinical event where a normal pregnancy becomes suddenly a high-risk one for mother and fetus or neonate. Objective: The study was undertaken to investigate whether raised fibronectin level in vaginal fluid may indicate premature rupture of membrane. Materials and Methods: This cross sectional study was conducted in the department of Obstetrics and Gynecology in Sir Salimullah Medical College & Mitford Hospital, Dhaka during the period of January 2006 to December 2007. A total of 114 pregnant women with gestational age 28th week up to 40th week were included. Sixty were PROM (Group I and 54 were non-PROM (Group II subjects. Fibronectin in vaginal fluid was measured by an immunochemical reaction by nephelometer. Statistical analysis was done by SPSS version 10.0. Results: The PROM patients had significantly higher concentration of fibronectin (225.77 ± 115.18 ng/mL compared to that in non-PROM subjects (8.04 ± 16.17 ng/mL (p < 0.001. Conclusion: It can be concluded that in cases of unequivocal rupture or intactness of the membranes, the result of the fibronectin test corresponds well with the clinical situation. So fibronectin is a sensitive test for detection of amniotic fluid in the vagina.

Amrita Bhowmik

2012-07-01

167

Application of microemulsions for raising petroleum yield of strata  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

One of the potential techniques for raising petroleum yield is use of microemulsions. Tests were carried out at 1 horizon of the Mishovdag formation to determine viability of this concept; the utilized mixture consisted of collected-industrial water (78), kerosene (20), separol (1.95) and polyacrylamide (0.05%). Mixing of components in a turbulent flow regimen resulted in a stable microemulsion not only in a static, but in a dynamic state as well. Experiments were done on a layer model 120 and diam. 3.6 cm, with a permeability of 1.1 Darcy. The porous media was sand of I horizon, saturated with Mishovdag petroleum. To approximate actual conditions, the oil was displaced with the industrial water until water saturation upon exit of the bed model reached 60%, after which a microemulsion slug was created. Results show that injection of microemulsions into beds where there has been water activity, will assure displacement of additional quantities of oil, and increase the yield by 15%.

Mekhti-zade, R.N.; Safiyev, A.I.; Tairyan, Kh.S.

1979-01-01

168

Reply to Rouder (2014): good frequentist properties raise confidence.  

Science.gov (United States)

Established psychological results have been called into question by demonstrations that statistical significance is easy to achieve, even in the absence of an effect. One often-warned-against practice, choosing when to stop the experiment on the basis of the results, is guaranteed to produce significant results. In response to these demonstrations, Bayes factors have been proposed as an antidote to this practice, because they are invariant with respect to how an experiment was stopped. Should researchers only care about the resulting Bayes factor, without concern for how it was produced? Yu, Sprenger, Thomas, and Dougherty (2014) and Sanborn and Hills (2014) demonstrated that Bayes factors are sometimes strongly influenced by the stopping rules used. However, Rouder (2014) has provided a compelling demonstration that despite this influence, the evidence supplied by Bayes factors remains correct. Here we address why the ability to influence Bayes factors should still matter to researchers, despite the correctness of the evidence. We argue that good frequentist properties mean that results will more often agree with researchers' statistical intuitions, and good frequentist properties control the number of studies that will later be refuted. Both help raise confidence in psychological results. PMID:24614967

Sanborn, Adam N; Hills, Thomas T; Dougherty, Michael R; Thomas, Rick P; Yu, Erica C; Sprenger, Amber M

2014-04-01

169

Raising Awareness in Society on Space at Bosscha Observatory  

Science.gov (United States)

S.D. Wiramihardja C. Kunjaya M. Raharto T. Hidayat Bosscha Observatory Department of Astronomy Institut Teknologi Bandung Beside main tasks in researches and teaching astronomy we at the Bosscha Observatory are obliged to bring astronomy to the society by giving public lectures to people in an organized program. Due to miscellanious education backgrounds of those visiting Bosscha Observatory observing assistants advanced year students are involved in the activities as well. The program mainly consists of popular astronomical lectures using slide or computer display with question-answer session and inspection to the main Zeiss 60cm-double refractor telescope. In dry season in the period of April-September a session to observe stars planets and moon with smaller telescopes is offered to the visitors two nights (no later than 8 pm) in a month. This session helps the visitors accomodating their curiosity how stars planets and moon may look like through the telescope. This is one of the ways to apply scientific approach to understand nature. Hopefully in the long run this program can raise an awareness of the community about space and will enhance their appreciation to science especially astronomy which is usually put in the low priority in developing countries like Indonesia

Wiramihardja, Suhardja D.

170

Raise Management Standards of Property Tax on Transnational Corporations  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available
As China joined WTO, more and more foreign multinational companies will enter China. They run enterprises within the territory of China. This will inevitably play an active role in promoting the economic construction of China. But we should pay attention to some foreign multinational companies in China that often reduce the incomes of Chinese branch companies by utilizing transfer prices. Thus they achieve the goal of evading payment of duty. These make the tax revenue of Chinese Government fall sharply. So it is very important to raise management level of property tax to the multinational companies. This text explains the loss caused by the foreign businessmen using improper means to transfer prices. They import raw materials at a high price and export the products at a low price. Also the corresponding measures are made out in this paper.
Key words: Multinational companies, Import at a high price and export at a low price, Current capital, Transfer prices
Résumé: Avec l’adhésion de la Chine à l’OMC, de plus en plus nombreux sont les entreprises transnationales qui s’investiraient en Chine. Cela poussera inévitablement la construction économique de la Chine. Néanmoins, nons devons noter que, actuellement, des entreprises étrangères en Chine diminuent les profits des filiales chinoise en transférant les prix et atteint ainsi leur but d’éviter la taxe. De cet effet, les recettes fiscales de la Chine diminuent considérablement. Donc, il est très important d’améliorer le viveau de gestion fiscale à l’égard des entreprises transnationales. Cet article expose d’abord le déficit provoqué par les actions malhonnêtes de commerçants étrangers qui transfèrent les prix avec des moyens illégitimes pour acheter les ressources productives à haut prix et vendre les produits à bas prix, et propose ensuite des contre-mesures.
Mots-Clés: entreprise transnationale, acheter cher et vendre moins cher, fonds liquides

Ying-hui CUI

2006-12-01

171

137Cs in a raised bog in central Sweden  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The vertical distribution of 137Cs activity in peat soil profiles and 137Cs activity concentration in plants of various species was studied in samples collected at two sites on a raised bog in central Sweden. One site (open bog) was in an area with no trees and only a few sparsely growing plant species, while the other (low pine) was less than 100 m from the open bog site and had slowly growing Scots pine, a field layer dominated by some ericaceous plants and ground well-covered by plants. The plant samples were collected in 2004-2007 and were compared with samples collected in 1989 from the same open bog and low pine sites. Ground deposition of 137Cs in 2005 was similar at both sites, 23 000 Bq m-2. In the open bog peat profile it seems to be an upward transport of caesium since a clear peak of 137Cs activity was found in the uppermost 1-4 cm of Sphagnum layers, whereas at the low pine site 137Cs was mainly found in deeper (10-12 cm) layers. The migration rate was 0.57 cm yr-1 at the open bog site and the migration centre of 137Cs was at a depth of 10.7, while the rate at the low pine site was 0.78 cm yr-1 and the migration centre was at 14.9 cm. Heather (Calluna vulgaris) was the plant species with the highest 137Cs activity concentrations at both sites, 43.5 k Bq-1 DM in 1989 decreasing to 20.4 in 2004-2007 on open bog and 22.3 k Bq kg-1 DM in 1989 decreasing to 11.2 k Bq-1 DM by the period 2004-2007 on the low pine site. 137Cs transfer factors in plants varied between 0.88 and 1.35 on the open bog and between 0.48 and 0.69 m2 kg-1 DM at the low pine site.

2009-07-01

172

Raising public awareness of nuclear science in action  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text: Department of Training and Consulting was created at the Soltan Institute for Nuclear Studies about 7 years ago. Its main goal consists in dissemination of knowledge of nuclear physics and its applications with special emphasis on the use of radiation in everyday life, its biological effects and the risks connected with the use of nuclear radiation. The second important goal is to counteract social radiophobia. Last but not least, is presentation of the scientific and technological achievements of the Institute. The main target groups are secondary-school teachers and their pupils who in spite of various obstacles in organisation of travels to Otwierk, are coming in mass. During last 4 years we accepted more than 20,000 visitors from all over Poland. In addition to lectures themselves and lectures with experimental demonstrations two permanent exhibitions are displayed permanently. One is called 'Nuclear Wastes: Problems, Solutions', the other one is displaying 1:10 model of nuclear power plant (VVER-440-type), both extremely useful in discussing the problems of nuclear wastes, and organisation and use of the nuclear power plants. Very specific place in the Department is quite unique Laboratory of Atomic and Nuclear Physics, dedicated to secondary schools' students although it is also used by university students and in teachers' trainings. Number of basic experiments from nuclear physics can be carried out by students, so the very basis of atomic and nuclear physics can be learnt on experimental basis. The experimental park can also be used in any professional courses on e.g. radiation protection. The need of having this type of units at the otherwise research institute is clearly seen by the systematically growing number of visitors, and their demands for educational material. One can also see some direct results: the groups who visited our centre were winning in all-Poland conquest for a project from radioactivity (organised on 100th Anniversary of Nobel Prize for Maria Skodowska-Curie), the schools - after visiting us - try to organise their own minisymposia on the radioactivity, the visitors seem to receive proper message about the real risk connected with nuclear radiation. The latter is judged by the fact that very seldom we encounter typical symptoms of radio phobia after the visit to our Department. We are strongly convinced that our work will result in an increased interest of students in physics, and may regain the popularity of nuclear physics among the students. This is necessary if the nuclear energy is going to be developed and used safely in the country. We also believe that similar educational centres, if wherever absent, should be organised in other nuclear centres in Europe and all of them should form a network in which new didactical methods would be worked out and the experience could be easily evaluated and exchanged between the network's partners. The paper presents motivation, present status, methodology and results of our more than 5-years experience in raising public awareness of nuclear problems in various social groups. (author)

2004-09-07

173

76 FR 38267 - The Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration's 2011-2016 Strategic Plan: Raising the Safety Bar  

Science.gov (United States)

...Carrier Safety Administration's 2011-2016 Strategic Plan: Raising the Safety Bar...Motor Carrier Safety Administration 2011-2016 Strategic Plan: Raising the Safety Bar...Motor Carrier Safety Administration 2011-2016 Strategic Plan: Raising the Safety...

2011-06-29

174

The lichen flora of Zadovskoye raised bog in the Slavsk district of the Kaliningrad region  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This article provides a historical overview of studies into the lichen flora of raised bogs of the Kaliningrad region. A list of the lichens of the Zadovskoye raised bog (Slavsk district, Kaliningrad region as well as a taxonomic analysis and data on the ecology of lichens are presented. A schematic map of the occurrence of lichens on Zadovskoe bog is given. The article contains a comparative table of the lichen flora of raised bogs in the Kaliningrad region.

Mol K.

2014-02-01

175

Chinese Food Safety: A Case Study of Pig-Raising Industry  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper introduces the Shuanghui scandal, which is affected Chinese food safety to some extend. On that base, the causes of the food safety problems in pig-raising industry in China are explained. Finally, some suggestion was presented to improve the safety in china.
Keywords: Food safety; Pig-raising industry; Chinese agricultural

Chen, Minghong; He, Ge

2012-01-01

176

Foundation Boards and Fund-Raising Teams: A Win for Higher Education  

Science.gov (United States)

Why is the foundation board's involvement in fund raising important? Because successful fund raising requires a team effort, and volunteer leaders are essential members of the team. Board members should set the pace through their own giving, and they should be actively engaged in the identification, cultivation, and solicitation of others. The…

Worth, Michael J.

2011-01-01

177

Review and recommendations on management of refractory raised intracranial pressure in aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Calvin Hoi Kwan Mak, Yeow Yuen Lu, George Kwok Chu Wong Department of Surgery, Prince of Wales Hospital, Shatin, Hong Kong Abstract: Intracranial hypertension is commonly encountered in poor-grade aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage patients. Refractory raised intracranial pressure is associated with poor prognosis. The management of raised intracranial pressure is commonly referenced to experiences in traumatic brain injury. However, pathophysiologically, aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage is different from traumatic brain injury. Currently, there is a paucity of consensus on the management of refractory raised intracranial pressure in spontaneous subarachnoid hemorrhage. We discuss in this paper the role of hyperosmolar agents, hypothermia, barbiturates, and decompressive craniectomy in managing raised intracranial pressure refractory to first-line treatment, in which preliminary data supported the use of hypertonic saline and secondary decompressive craniectomy. Future clinical trials should be carried out to delineate better their roles in management of raised intracranial pressure in aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage patients. Keywords: aneurysm, intracranial pressure, intracranial hypertension, subarachnoid hemorrhage

Mak CH

2013-07-01

178

Pelvic mass associated with raised CA 125 for benign condition: a case report  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract Background Raised CA 125 with associated pelvic mass is highly suggestive of ovarian malignancy, but there are various other benign conditions that can be associated with pelvic mass and a raised CA 125. Case presentation We present a case of 19 year old, Caucasian British woman who presented initially with sudden onset right sided iliac fossa pain and on imaging was found to have 9.8 × 4.5 cm complex cystic mass in right adnexa with a raised CA 125 of...

Asher Viren; Hammond Robert; Duncan Tim J

2010-01-01

179

Titulação de aloanticorpos anti-a e anti-b em gatos domésticos sem raça definida em Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil Anti-a and anti-b alloantibodies titres in non-pedigree domestic cats in Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A probabilidade de ocorrência de reação transfusional em um felino depende da prevalência local dos tipos sanguíneos felinos e dos títulos de aloanticorpos. A determinação dos títulos de aloanticorpos auxilia na estimativa do risco e da severidade de reação transfusional, após transfusão não compatível, em uma população de gatos. O objetivo deste trabalho foi determinar a titulação de aloanticorpos e o risco de possível reação transfusional, em felinos domésticos sem raça definida, da cidade de Porto Alegre. Foram selecionados aleatoriamente 100 gatos clinicamente saudáveis, sem raça definida e sem parentesco entre si e sem histórico de transfusão prévia. Amostras de sangue foram coletadas da veia jugular e a titulação de aloanticorpos foi determinada no soro de gatos com tipo sanguíneo previamente definido. O risco estimado foi calculado de acordo com estudos prévios. No presente trabalho, 82,5 e 100% dos gatos do tipo A e B, respectivamente, apresentaram titulação variada de aloanticorpos. Com base nos títulos encontrados, verificou-se que uma transfusão de sangue, do tipo A ou AB, em gatos do tipo B apresenta risco de 33,3% de reação aguda severa e de 66,7% de reação aguda leve, nos receptores felinos. A transfusão de sangue do tipo AB ou B em gatos do tipo A apresenta risco de reação aguda severa em 1,0%; reação aguda leve em 37,1% e destruição prematura dos eritrócitos em 44,3% dos receptores felinos.The probability of occurrence of a transfusion reaction in a cat depends on the local prevalence of feline blood types and alloantibody titres. Determination of alloantibody titres assists in estimating the risk and the severity of transfusion reactions following an unmatched transfusion in a cat population. The objective of this study was to determine alloantibody titres and the risk of a possible transfusion reaction in non-pedigree domestic cats in Porto Alegre , Brazil. One hundred clinically healthy non-pedigree and non-related cats with no history of previous transfusion were randomly selected. Blood samples were collected from the jugular vein and the alloantibody titres were determined by tube serial dilution of the serum from cats with known blood types, the estimated risk was calculated according previous studies. In the present study, 82.5% and 100% of types A and B cats, respectively, showed varied alloantibodies titres. Based on the titres found in the present study, the risk of an acute severe reaction is 33.3% and an acute mild reaction is 66.7% in a type B cat transfused with blood type A or AB. In type A cats transfused with blood type AB or B, the risk of an acute severe reaction is 1.0%, an acute mild reaction is 37.1% and premature red cell destruction is 44.3%.

Luciana de Almeida Lacerda

2011-02-01

180

Titulação de aloanticorpos anti-a e anti-b em gatos domésticos sem raça definida em Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil / Anti-a and anti-b alloantibodies titres in non-pedigree domestic cats in Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese A probabilidade de ocorrência de reação transfusional em um felino depende da prevalência local dos tipos sanguíneos felinos e dos títulos de aloanticorpos. A determinação dos títulos de aloanticorpos auxilia na estimativa do risco e da severidade de reação transfusional, após transfusão não compatí [...] vel, em uma população de gatos. O objetivo deste trabalho foi determinar a titulação de aloanticorpos e o risco de possível reação transfusional, em felinos domésticos sem raça definida, da cidade de Porto Alegre. Foram selecionados aleatoriamente 100 gatos clinicamente saudáveis, sem raça definida e sem parentesco entre si e sem histórico de transfusão prévia. Amostras de sangue foram coletadas da veia jugular e a titulação de aloanticorpos foi determinada no soro de gatos com tipo sanguíneo previamente definido. O risco estimado foi calculado de acordo com estudos prévios. No presente trabalho, 82,5 e 100% dos gatos do tipo A e B, respectivamente, apresentaram titulação variada de aloanticorpos. Com base nos títulos encontrados, verificou-se que uma transfusão de sangue, do tipo A ou AB, em gatos do tipo B apresenta risco de 33,3% de reação aguda severa e de 66,7% de reação aguda leve, nos receptores felinos. A transfusão de sangue do tipo AB ou B em gatos do tipo A apresenta risco de reação aguda severa em 1,0%; reação aguda leve em 37,1% e destruição prematura dos eritrócitos em 44,3% dos receptores felinos. Abstract in english The probability of occurrence of a transfusion reaction in a cat depends on the local prevalence of feline blood types and alloantibody titres. Determination of alloantibody titres assists in estimating the risk and the severity of transfusion reactions following an unmatched transfusion in a cat po [...] pulation. The objective of this study was to determine alloantibody titres and the risk of a possible transfusion reaction in non-pedigree domestic cats in Porto Alegre , Brazil. One hundred clinically healthy non-pedigree and non-related cats with no history of previous transfusion were randomly selected. Blood samples were collected from the jugular vein and the alloantibody titres were determined by tube serial dilution of the serum from cats with known blood types, the estimated risk was calculated according previous studies. In the present study, 82.5% and 100% of types A and B cats, respectively, showed varied alloantibodies titres. Based on the titres found in the present study, the risk of an acute severe reaction is 33.3% and an acute mild reaction is 66.7% in a type B cat transfused with blood type A or AB. In type A cats transfused with blood type AB or B, the risk of an acute severe reaction is 1.0%, an acute mild reaction is 37.1% and premature red cell destruction is 44.3%.

Lacerda, Luciana de Almeida; Oliveira, Simone Tostes de; Stein, Gisele Guiomara; Guerra, Tatiana Amaral; Gonzáles, Félix.

 
 
 
 
181

Hot Dogs, Salami May Raise Men's Heart Failure Risk, Study Suggests  

Science.gov (United States)

... features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Hot Dogs, Salami May Raise Men's Heart Failure Risk, Study ... be a safer bet heart-wise than hot dogs and salami, a new study suggests. Men who ...

182

Singing the national anthem at major league baseball stadiums raises awareness of ALS.  

Science.gov (United States)

Mark Reiman, diagnosed with Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS), is raising awareness of the disease, better known as Lou Gehrig's disease, by singing the national anthem at all the major league baseball stadiums in the U.S. PMID:10186395

Herreria, J

1998-01-01

183

Sources of Saturated Fat, Stearic Acid, & Cholesterol Raising Fat among the US Population, 2005–06  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of this research was to identify the contributions of specific foods to intake of saturated fat, stearic acid, and "cholesterol raising fat" (defined as saturated fat minus stearic acid) in the US population age 2 years and older.

184

Can Fire Retardants Raise Risk of Children Born with Lower IQs?  

Science.gov (United States)

... on this page, please enable JavaScript. Can Fire Retardants Raise Risk of Children Born With Lower IQs? ... of some scientists that hazardous levels of fire retardants in furniture and other products may harm children ...

185

Responding to the Challenge of Raising Enrollment - An Arkansas Success Story  

Science.gov (United States)

This plenary presentation by Gay Stewart was given at the Spin-up workshop at The University of Texas at Austin. It provides an overview of the University of Arkansas' experiences with raising enrollment.

Stewart, Gay; Stewart, John

2012-06-15

186

A President's Guide to Fund-Raising Success: Relationships Are Key.  

Science.gov (United States)

Stresses the importance of the relationship between the institution's president and its advancement vice president for successful college fund raising. Suggests that a successful external relations program requires expertise, loyalty, and reciprocity in this working relationship. (DB)

Bornstein, Rita

2000-01-01

187

Falsely raised TSH levels due to human anti?mouse antibody interfering with thyrotropin assay  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The case of a 39?year?old woman who was referred for weight gain and amenorrhoea is reported. Laboratory evaluation showed high levels of thyroid?stimulating hormone (TSH). The patient was started on increasing doses of levothyroxine for subclinical hypothyroidism. TSH remained persistently raised and the patient became thyrotoxic. Evaluation at another laboratory showed normal levels of TSH, raising the possibility of interfering substances. TSH levels were normalised with the addition...

Krishnan, S. G. S.; Pathalapati, R.; Kaplan, L.

2006-01-01

188

The revenue raising capabilities of a VAT system in developing countries  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The paper attempts to elaborate on the revenue-raising capabilities (economic efficiency and viability) of a value-added tax (VAT) system, particularly in developing countries. The analysis concentrates on the effect of a VAT on tax revenues raised, and the main objective is to determine whether a VAT system generates greater benefits than previously-utilised sales taxes, i.e. pre-existing sales taxes (PEST). Using a panel data regression analysis, our results indicate that while all countrie...

Azaria, N. T.; Robinson, Zurika; Robinson, Z. Clausen

2005-01-01

189

On the feasibility of raising the density and the extension of atomic ensembles in laser cooling  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The ways of raising the limiting density of cooled atoms and the extension of the volume occupied by them are considered. These include raising the laser beam intensity above the saturation intensity of the working transition, the use of a noncollinear geometry of the laser beam and the atomic medium, and coherent cooling by sequences of counterpropagating ?-pulses. (laser applications and other topics in quantum electronics)

2000-11-30

190

Mangla Dam Raising Project (Pakistan): General Review and Socio-Spatial Impact Assessment  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In this research paper, different aspects of Mangla dam raising project have been reviewed. The raising project like the construction of the dam brought with it dislocation of a large number of people as one major city and three towns in the state of Azad Jammu and Kashmir have been affected (partially inundated). The affected population of these areas has been offered a generous compensation package by the government and various development projects have been launched for rehabilitation and ...

Kayani, Saheeb-ahmed

2012-01-01

191

Review and recommendations on management of refractory raised intracranial pressure in aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Calvin Hoi Kwan Mak, Yeow Yuen Lu, George Kwok Chu Wong Department of Surgery, Prince of Wales Hospital, Shatin, Hong Kong Abstract: Intracranial hypertension is commonly encountered in poor-grade aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage patients. Refractory raised intracranial pressure is associated with poor prognosis. The management of raised intracranial pressure is commonly referenced to experiences in traumatic brain injury. However, pathophysiologically, aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage is...

2013-01-01

192

The effect of emotional intelligence awareness-raising activities on L2 motivation  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This article reports a study investigating the effect of emotional intelligence (EI) awareness-raising on Iranian university students’ overall as well as variable-specific L2 motivation. The 136 participants (107 males, 29 females) were divided into a control group and an experimental group, both of which completed the same motivation questionnaire at the beginning and end of the study, with the latter receiving EI awareness-raising in seven sessions over a seven-week period....

Barzegar, Reza; Sadr, Sajjad Aref

2013-01-01

193

Business models for media firms :does competition matter for how they raise revenue?  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The purpose of this article is to analyze how competitive forces may influence the way media firms like TV channels raise revenue. A media firm can either be financed by advertising revenue, by direct payment from the viewers (or the readers, if we consider newspapers), or by both. We show that the scope for raising revenues from consumer payment is constrained by other media firms offering close substitutes. This implies that the less differentiated the media firms content, the larger is the...

Kind, Hans Jarle; Nilssen, Tore; Sørgard, Lars

2009-01-01

194

A Study of College English Writing Classes through Consciousness-raising  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available By consciousness-raising we mean the deliberate attempt to draw the learner’s attention specifically to the formal properties of the target language. It focuses its attention on teaching process and students’ activeness, so it can be well applied to teaching of college English writing. This study indicates that consciousness-raising provides a guideline for improving teaching of college English writing and plays a significant role in enhancing students’ writing ability.

Qi Pan

2011-03-01

195

Comparison of Performance Metrics for QPSK and OQPSK Transmission Using Root Raised Cosine and Raised Cosine Pulse shaping Filters for Applications in Mobile Communication  

CERN Document Server

Quadrature Phase Shift Keying (QPSK) and Offset Quadrature Phase Shift Keying (OQPSK) are two well accepted modulation techniques used in Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA) system. The Pulse Shaping Filters play an important role in digital transmission. The type of Pulse Shaping Filter used, and its behavior would influence the performance of the communication system. This in turn, would have an effect on the performance of the Mobile Communication system, in which the digital communication technique has been employed. In this paper we have presented comparative study of some performance parameters or performance metrics of a digital communication system like, Error Vector Magnitude (EVM), Magnitude Error, Phase Error and Bandwidth Efficiency for a QPSK transmission system. Root Raised Cosine (RRC) and Raised Cosine (RC) Pulse shaping filters have been used for comparison. The measurement results serve as a guideline to the system designer to select the proper pulse shaping filter with the appropriate valu...

Chattopadhyay, Sudipta

2009-01-01

196

Potential limitations for potato yields in raised soil field systems near Lake Titicaca  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available During the last two decades, various non-governmental organizations have strongly encouraged Bolivian farmers in the Altiplano region near Lake Titicaca to resume the ancestral agricultural practice of constructing raised fields. In addition to improved drainage and possibilities this practice affords for sub-irrigation, advocated benefits of this system traditionally include frost mitigation and high crop yields. Until recently, reliable data to assess the extent of these benefits were unfortunately lacking. In this context, field experiments on raised fields were designed and carried out at two locations in the Bolivian Altiplano to obtain reliable potato yield and temperature data. Observed yields ranged from 2.73 to 10.80 t ha-1 at the first site, where salinity caused significant yield variability (R² = 0.79. At the second site, yields per raised platform varied between 8.25 and 33.45 t ha-1. However, comparable yields were obtained in flat control plots in spite of a mid-season frost, and the minimum temperatures differed only by 1ºC in the conventional plots relative to the raised fields. These results suggest that, under the experimental conditions, the potential benefits of raised fields in terms of frost mitigation or increased yields might only be observable in exceptionally bad years, when extreme frosts wipe out entire potato crops on conventional fields. Nevertheless, it is argued that in spite of these marginally supportive observations, raised-field agriculture may still be a viable option for farmers to consider if the water-filled channels between the raised fields are managed for fish and fertilizer production.

Lozada Diego Sánchez de

2006-01-01

197

Raised fields in the Llanos de Moxos, Bolivia - description and analysis of their morphology  

Science.gov (United States)

The disturbance of Pre Columbian populations on Amazonian ecosystems is being actively debated. The traditional view of amazon being an untouched landscape because of its poor soils and harsh climate has been challenged and the extreme opposite idea of highly modified landscapes with complex societies is growing. Recent research has led to new impulses and issues requesting about the agricultural strategies people developed to survive in this climate. The Llanos de Moxos, situated in the Bolivian Lowlands in south-eastern Amazonia is one important region which was densely altered and where a great variety of earthworks can be found. One of the most impressive earth works are the raised fields, which are earth platforms for cultivation of differing shape and dimension that are elevated above the landscapes natural surface. In contrast to the "terra preta" formation where artefacts and amendments like charcoal and kitchen waste have been clearly identified, raised fields have shown to be artefact poor and studies up till now couldn't find any evidence of additional amendments which could have improved soil quality in the long term. As a result the function and productivity of raised fields is still not well understood and is being actively discussed. Detailed investigations on raised fields located in the indigenous community of Bermeo, in the vicinity of San Ignacio de Moxos provides data showing a novel explanation of the Pre-Columbian management of raised fields, and a chronological sequence of their utilization and abandonment. OSL dating has shown that the raised fields had been in use since as early as 600 AD. Comparison of Geochemistry with a reference profile, away from raised fields, showed that there is no evidence for manure amendments deriving from kitchen waste or animal residues suggesting a rather extensive use of those fields. Complementary the description of intern morphology and laboratory analysis of this raised fields, combined with radiocarbon dating of charcoal, points towards separate periods of management and use, indicating temporarily cultivation similar to shifting cultivation. This finding supports the idea that the construction of raised fields in the llanos de Moxos could have resulted from the need to extend the cultivation ground by draining land which is flooded during the rainy season.

Rodrigues, Leonor; Lombardo, Umberto; Veit, Heinz

2014-05-01

198

The water balance as an approach to assessing groundwater dependency in raised bog wetlands  

Science.gov (United States)

The management of raised bogs, as active peat-forming ecosystems, requires an understanding of the relationships between regional hydrology and wetland ecohydrological processes. Marginal drainage, body to the regional groundwater table is in the order of 40 mm/ year. The downward seepage rate in Clara is > 100 mm/ year. A reduction in pore water pressure, due to drainage of the regional groundwater table, has disturbed the structure of the peat substratum and induced water loss from peat storage, resulting in the ecohydrological modification of the bog surface. Numerical modelling of a simulated raised groundwater table reduces the leakage rate to between 30 and 50 mm/ year. The significance is that the hydraulic gradient of the regional groundwater table is an important environmental supporting condition in raised bog ecosystems, implying indirect groundwater dependence.

Regan, Shane

2014-05-01

199

Dermatomyositis presenting with symptomatic dermographism and raised troponin T: a case report  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Dermatomyositis is an important inflammation of skin and muscles. Generalised itch is frequent in the condition; however, symptomatic dermographism has not previously been reported as a presenting feature. Case presentation A 32-year-old Caucasian Scottish woman was diagnosed with dermatomyositis after initial presentation with symptomatic dermographism. No underlying neoplasm was found and her condition was successfully treated with systemic corticosteroids and high-dose human immunoglobulin infusions. At presentation, her troponin T and creatine phosphokinase enzymes were highly raised. Conclusion Symptomatic dermographism may be a presenting feature of dermatomyositis. Dermatomyositis is one of many conditions that can result in a raised troponin T.

Rahim Kartini F

2009-07-01

200

Effect of Seedling Raising Method and Fertilizer Combination on the Yield of Late Boro Rice  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The seedlings raised in polythene covering of seed bed were reported to produce the highest plant attributes in boro rice. Recommended NPK fertilizer+Ash+Cowdung produced the highest grain yield (5.98 t ha-1 and also showed better performance in plant height, bearing tillers hill-1, panicle length, sterile spikelets panicle-1 and straw yield than other treatments. The treatment combination of seedlings raised in polythene cover of seed bed and recommended NPK+Ash+Cowdung produced the highest grain yield.

M.K. Begum

2002-01-01

 
 
 
 
201

CT changes in children with drained hydrocephalus and intermittently raised intracranial pressure  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Seven children with drained hydrocephalus are described who showed increasingly severe and frequent episodes of intermittently raised intracranial pressure. CT examinations during symptom-free intervals, or after conservative treatment, showed collapsed slit-like ventricles. Examination during attacks of raised pressure showed relative dilatation of the ventricles as compared with earlier examinations. Children with ventricular shunts of long duration may develop a shunt-dependent syndrome; CT may show normal or narrow ventricles and this does not exclude the possibility of a rise of intracranial pressure. These findings may help in making the diagnosis by means of CT without any further invasive procedure.

Schmidt, H.; Korinthenberg, R.; Erlemann, R.; Lengerke, H.J. von

1987-10-01

202

CT changes in children with drained hydrocephalus and intermittently raised intracranial pressure  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Seven children with drained hydrocephalus are described who showed increasingly severe and frequent episodes of intermittently raised intracranial pressure. CT examinations during symptom-free intervals, or after conservative treatment, showed collapsed slit-like ventricles. Examination during attacks of raised pressure showed relative dilatation of the ventricles as compared with earlier examinations. Children with ventricular shunts of long duration may develop a shunt-dependent syndrome; CT may show normal or narrow ventricles and this does not exclude the possibility of a rise of intracranial pressure. These findings may help in making the diagnosis by means of CT without any further invasive procedure. (orig.)

1987-01-01

203

Hypersensitivity to glucocorticoids in patients with raised ICP : report of two cases.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Corticosteroids are widely used in patients with raised intracranial pressure associated with cerebral neoplasms, cerebral vascular malformations, cerebral ischaemia and benign intracranial hypertension. In general clinical practice, anti-allergic, anti-inflammatory and immuno-suppressive properties of corticosteroids are commonly utilised in the management of allergic and immunological diseases. However in exceptionally rare circumstances, steroids may be the cause of hypersensitive reactions. Authors report two patients with raised intracranial pressure who developed steroid hypersensitivity. A review of the relevant literature is discussed.

Sharma R

2001-10-01

204

MEPs join forces to raise EU state aid limit on regional airports | EurActiv  

...MEPs join forces to raise EU state aid limit on regional airports | EurActiv The spokesman of an EU parliamentary group opposed to ...European executive’s new rules on subsidies calls for higher thresholds for regional airports but green campaigners disagree entirely and back what they call “balanced” ... climate-environment,competition,sustainability,transport,airports,regional aid,State aid EU news & policy debates- across languages - en fr Click here for ...News MEPs join forces to raise EU state aid limit on regional airports [fr] -A + A Published 11 February 2014 ...

205

Math, Science, and Web-Based Activities to Raise Awareness about Nutrition and Obesity  

Science.gov (United States)

The incidence of child obesity in the United States is increasing at an alarming rate. This article provides information about nutrition, obesity, and related health conditions and suggests some classroom activities to raise awareness about these issues and empower students to live healthier, more active lives. A list of recommended health-related…

Zuercher, Deborah K.

2011-01-01

206

Steam raising vessel for nuclear power stations, particularly for pressurised water reactors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An improvement is proposed of the detachable flange connection of the plate which connects and seals the pipe bundle in the steam raising unit of a p.w.r. type reactors, so that sealing shall be maintained even during temperature cycling. The flange connection is made with tapped bolts. (UWI) 891 HP/UWI 892 MKO

1979-01-01

207

Grandparents Raising Their Grandchildren: Tensions, Service Needs and Involvement with Child Welfare Agencies  

Science.gov (United States)

This qualitative study focuses on 22 grandparents who were raising their grandchildren and involved with child welfare agencies. We explored the tensions experienced by these grandparents, ways that child welfare agencies alleviate these tensions, and factors preventing grandparents from utilizing services. Tensions were grouped into 4 categories:…

Gladstone, James W.; Brown, Ralph A.; Fitzgerald, Kerri-Ann J.

2009-01-01

208

A Relational Frame Training Intervention to Raise Intelligence Quotients: A Pilot Study  

Science.gov (United States)

The current research consisted of 2 studies designed to test the effectiveness of automated multiple-exemplar relational training in raising children's general intellectual skills. In Study 1, 4 participants were exposed to multiple exemplar training in stimulus equivalence and the relational frames of SAME, OPPOSITE, MORE THAN, and LESS THAN…

Cassidy, Sarah; Roche, Bryan; Hayes, Steven C.

2011-01-01

209

Contradictions and Predictions: Two Sources of Uncertainty that Raise the Cognitive Interest of Readers  

Science.gov (United States)

Cognitive interest is a motivation to acquire information that is caused by a cognitive and emotional state of uncertainty about the meaning of a text. It can, therefore, be expected to increase if a text raises an issue in readers' mind without resolving it. In support of this expectation, the results of 3 experiments show that the readers'…

Campion, Nicolas; Martins, Daniel; Wilhelm, Alice

2009-01-01

210

Marital Relationship in Greek Families: Raising a Child with a Severe Disability  

Science.gov (United States)

Introduction: The target of the study is to examine important aspects of the marital relationship: marital satisfaction, spouse's representation of the marital relationship, roles and boundaries in families raising a child with a severe disability. Also, this study compares families with a child with a severe disability to those with children…

Tsibidaki, Assimina

2013-01-01

211

Process and device for the protection of steam-raising units, particularly of nuclear reactors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

To protect the housing against corrosion by chemical conditioning of the feedwater, the redox potential of the feedwater and the corrosion potential of at least one pipe of the pipe bundle is continuously determined during operation of the steam raising unit. With potentials indicating the danger of corrosion, the quality of the secondary water can be improved by suitable measures. (orig./HP)

1985-02-13

212

Radiomutant lines of soybeans with raised protein content in the grain  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Mutant lines differing in their habit of the initial cultivars were produced by gamma irradiation of air dry soybean seeds of cvs Merit, Portich, Beeson and Zora. Among them mutant lines were selected with raised protein content in the grain, improved earliness and higher yield. Some of the lines obtained were suitable for direct testing or for strating material in hybridization

1986-01-01

213

Thinking with Your Hands: Speech-Gesture Activity during an L2 Awareness-Raising Task  

Science.gov (United States)

This article reports on a study of second language (L2) French learners' self-generated use of gesture to think through and resolve a metalinguistic awareness-raising task during small-group work with an expert mediator. Although the use of gesture in L2 communication and pedagogy has recently received increasing attention, little research has…

van Compernolle, Remi A.; Williams, Lawrence

2011-01-01

214

An Instructional Exercise in Cost-Raising Strategies, and Perfect Complements Production  

Science.gov (United States)

The author presents an account of the 1993 contract negotiations between the United Auto Workers (UAW) and Ford Motor Company to assist students in developing facility with perfect complements production and cost functions and cost-raising strategies. The author seeks an answer to why the UAW targeted Ford for contract negotiations to establish a…

Weisman, Dennis L.

2007-01-01

215

Raising Awareness of the Generic Structure and Linguistic Features of Essay Introductions.  

Science.gov (United States)

Teaching materials for university-level second language learners were created with the aim of raising the learners' awareness of the rhetorical organization and salient linguistic features of essays. The teaching method relied heavily on explicit instruction and essential metalanguage. Concludes that explicit genre-based instruction with the…

Henry, Alex; Roseberry, Robert L.

1999-01-01

216

Presence and characterization of Campylobacter jejuni in organically raised chickens in Quebec  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The objective of this study was to estimate the presence of the important foodborne pathogen Campylobacter jejuni in organically raised chickens in the province of Quebec. The recovered isolates were further characterized for their antimicrobial resistance profile, autoagglutination property and chemotaxis. Antimicrobial resistance was evaluated using agar dilution for: tetracycline, erythromycin, chloramphenicol, ciprofloxacin, gentamicin, nalidixic acid, clindamycin, ampicillin, azithromyci...

2011-01-01

217

Awareness-Raising in the TEFL Phonology Classroom: Student Voices and Sociocultural and Psychological Considerations  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper reports on two phases of a study of a group of advanced TEFL (teachers-of-English-as-a-foreign-language) students. To raise their awareness of the importance of discourse intonation while they were receiving teacher training, this study focuses on examining their sociocultural and psychological inclinations in the choice of phonological…

Zhang, Lawrence Jun

2004-01-01

218

137Cs deposition in peat profiles on a raised bog in central Sweden  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Distribution of 137Cs depositions within peat profiles in open bog and nearby (low pine) sites in raised bog are shown and discussed. A possible involvement of Sphagnum moss in radionuclide binding and retention in such nutrient poor ecosystem is suggested. (au)

2009-06-01

219

Raising Awareness about Water Issues: The Role of Water Symbolism and Proverbs  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Sustainable water management is one of the global grand challenges of our time. Tackling this challenge through corrective actions would require the participation of the general public, a public with sound awareness of the challenge and commitment. One such awareness raising intervention could be through the use of water symbolism and proverbs, targeted to particular society. Water ha...

Joško Sindik; Yoseph Negusse Araya

2013-01-01

220

The Impact of Development Office Structure on Fund-Raising Efficiency for Research and Doctoral Institutions.  

Science.gov (United States)

Based on survey data from 70 universities, this study concludes that differences in the organizational structure of development offices have no significant effect on fund-raising efficiency. However, because decentralized offices may be able to expand their activities more rapidly than centralized programs, decentralization may facilitate overall…

Grunig, Stephen D.

1995-01-01

 
 
 
 
221

Løfter torsketeinene opp av havbunnen :Raising cod pots off the sea bottom  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

For coastal fishing, fish pots have often been viewed as a potential alternative to gillnets and longlines. In order to keep the pots out of the reach of king crabs, a new pot has been developed which is raised slightly above the sea bottom.

Furevik, Dag M.

2010-01-01

222

Idiopathic obstructive eosinophilic enteritis with raised IgE: response to oral disodium cromoglycate  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A 65-year-old man with a 20-year history of recurrent abdominal pain and vomiting was found to have eosinophilic enteritis affecting the muscularis layer of the distal ileum. Tests for malabsorption were negative. The IgE was raised but there was no evidence of an allergic predisposition. The symptoms, eosinophilia, and radiological abnormality responded to oral disodium cromoglycate.

Gilinsky, N. H.; Kottler, R. E.

1982-01-01

223

Pelvic mass associated with raised CA 125 for benign condition: a case report  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Raised CA 125 with associated pelvic mass is highly suggestive of ovarian malignancy, but there are various other benign conditions that can be associated with pelvic mass and a raised CA 125. Case presentation We present a case of 19 year old, Caucasian British woman who presented initially with sudden onset right sided iliac fossa pain and on imaging was found to have 9.8 × 4.5 cm complex cystic mass in right adnexa with a raised CA 125 of 657, which was initially thought to be highly suspicious of cancer but was subsequently found to be due to pelvic inflammatory disease on histology. Conclusion This case highlights the fact that though a pelvic mass with raised CA 125 is highly suggestive of malignancy, pelvic inflammatory disease should always be considered as a differential diagnosis especially in a young patient and a thorough sexual history and screening for pelvic infection should always be carried out in these patients.

Asher Viren

2010-04-01

224

Response to Key Issues Raised in the Post-14 Mathematics Inquiry  

Science.gov (United States)

This article is a detailed response to the issues raised by the Post-14 Mathematics Inquiry in the UK. It aims to debate some of the central issues in mathematics teaching in the UK, including recruitment and retention of mathematics teachers, the curriculum content, national assessment, teaching resources (including ICT) and national strategies…

Burghes, David; Hindle, Mike

2004-01-01

225

Murder-suicide involving BC doctor raises troubling questions about euthanasia.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The deaths last September of a British Columbia physician and his wife have raised troubling questions about euthanasia and Alzheimer's disease. Police described the deaths of Dr. Tom Powell and his wife Dr. Lorraine Miles, a retired dentist, as a murder-suicide. Friends of the couple wonder if more lenient laws concerning euthanasia and assisted suicide might have saved Miles' life.

1995-01-01

226

Clinical questions raised by clinicians at the point of care: a systematic review.  

Science.gov (United States)

IMPORTANCE In making decisions about patient care, clinicians raise questions and are unable to pursue or find answers to most of them. Unanswered questions may lead to suboptimal patient care decisions. OBJECTIVE To systematically review studies that examined the questions clinicians raise in the context of patient care decision making. DATA SOURCES MEDLINE (from 1966), CINAHL (from 1982), and Scopus (from 1947), all through May 26, 2011. STUDY SELECTION Studies that examined questions raised and observed by clinicians (physicians, medical residents, physician assistants, nurse practitioners, nurses, dentists, and care managers) in the context of patient care were independently screened and abstracted by 2 investigators. Of 21?710 citations, 72 met the selection criteria. DATA EXTRACTION AND SYNTHESIS Question frequency was estimated by pooling data from studies with similar methods. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES Frequency of questions raised, pursued, and answered and questions by type according to a taxonomy of clinical questions. Thematic analysis of barriers to information seeking and the effects of information seeking on decision making. RESULTS In 11 studies, 7012 questions were elicited through short interviews with clinicians after each patient visit. The mean frequency of questions raised was 0.57 (95% CI, 0.38-0.77) per patient seen, and clinicians pursued 51% (36%-66%) of questions and found answers to 78% (67%-88%) of those they pursued. Overall, 34% of questions concerned drug treatment, and 24% concerned potential causes of a symptom, physical finding, or diagnostic test finding. Clinicians' lack of time and doubt that a useful answer exists were the main barriers to information seeking. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE Clinicians frequently raise questions about patient care in their practice. Although they are effective at finding answers to questions they pursue, roughly half of the questions are never pursued. This picture has been fairly stable over time despite the broad availability of online evidence resources that can answer these questions. Technology-based solutions should enable clinicians to track their questions and provide just-in-time access to high-quality evidence in the context of patient care decision making. Opportunities for improvement include the recent adoption of electronic health record systems and maintenance of certification requirements. PMID:24663331

Del Fiol, Guilherme; Workman, T Elizabeth; Gorman, Paul N

2014-05-01

227

Could Zinc Whiskers Be Impacting Your Electronic Systems? Raise Your Awareness. Revision D  

Science.gov (United States)

During the past several decades electrical short circuits induced by "Zinc Whiskers" have been cited as the root cause of failure for various electronic systems (e.g., apnea monitors, telecom switches). These tiny filaments of zinc that may grow from some zinc-coated items (especially those coated by electroplating processes) have the potential to induce electrical shorts in exposed circuitry. Through this article, the authors describe a particular failure scenario attributed to zinc whiskers that has affected many facilities (including some NASA facilities) that utilized zinc-coated raised "access" floor tiles and support structures. Zinc whiskers that may be growing beneath your raised floor have the potential to wreak havoc on electronic systems operating above the floor.

Sampson, Michael; Brusse, Jay

2003-01-01

228

Expanding raise face headings by means of AM-50 heading machines  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Development is discussed of a working face in a seam with dip angles to 15 degrees. The working face is situated along the seam strike. Conventional chambers for assembling powered supports and other face equipment are driven by drilling and blasting. Use of the AM-50 heading machines for this purpose was successfully tested in the Makoszowy mine. The 3.5 m wide and 5-15 m long chamber was enlarged by the AM-50 to the raise. Its width was increased to 6.0 m. Schemes for heading machine movement, cooperation of the AM-50 with materials handling equipment and installation of supports as well as strata control methods are discussed. Effects of heading machine use for raise drivage on drivage efficiency and cost are evaluated.

Owczarek, T.; Postolski, E.; Dziura, I.; Malik, S.

1986-09-01

229

Northern British Columbian Aboriginal mothers: raising adolescents with fetal alcohol spectrum disorder.  

Science.gov (United States)

This interpretive ethnographic study describes the experiences of northern British Columbian Aboriginal mothers raising adolescents with fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD) and provides an understanding of how the mothers interpreted and responded to their adolescents' FASD. The all-encompassing theoretical perspectives of postcolonialism provided the conceptual guide for this study. This ontological stance facilitates discourse on the social and historical context of this research focused on northern British Columbian Aboriginal mothers. Using semistructured interviews and participant observation, eight participants were interviewed three times over a period of several months. Data were analyzed using an interpretive analysis to generate an overarching cultural theme, Mothering from the Margins. The theme conveyed how study participants understood FASD and how they were raising their adolescents within the social and historical context unique to postcolonial societies. PMID:22802305

Johnston, Suzanne; Boyle, Joyceen S

2013-01-01

230

Raising The Educational Standards Through Enhancing Children’s Thinking: Impl?cations For Teacher Education  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this study, the main aim is to raise a fundamental question of whether there is any possible way of raising the educational standards in order to meet the demands of society. In this respect, firstly, the changing function of education and the significance of teaching children how to think and learn will be emphasised, and the importance of science education in children’s learning processes and the gradual improvement of science education will be examined. Secondly, in the light of learning theories, the changing notion of the learning process will be indicated, and the cognitive acceleration intervention programme of the CASE (Cognitive Acceleration through Science Education project will be examined briefly. The necessity of instruction and intervention will be emphasised. Then, the programme and the findings of CASE will be debated. Finally, some suggestions for teacher education will be made.

Yasemin GÖDEK

2005-12-01

231

Raising Awareness of Grey Literature in an Academic Community Using the Cognitive Behavioral Theory  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Cognitive skill training, part of cognitive behavior management, is based on the cognitive behavioral theory. The principle that thinking controls behavior has been widely used by educators to develop methods to improve the performance of students, while clinicians provide multifaceted health promotion and psychological counseling programs. The plan of our educational project is to raise awareness among students, faculty members, and researchers of material not produced via standard commercia...

Lin, Yongtao; Vaska, Marcus; Greynet, Grey Literature Network Service

2009-01-01

232

Identifying Identity : Using Second Life in the Teaching of Sociolinguistics for the Raising of Gender Awareness  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper presents further innovative use of virtual worlds under the pilot stages of ASSIS (A Second Step in Second Life), a project funded by Umeå University. One of the aims of the project is to make use of the affordances offered by Second Life in order to raise sociolinguistic language awareness among teacher trainees and other students studying courses in sociolinguistics. Several experiments were conducted where creative use of the avatar in combination with so-called “voice morphi...

Deutschmann, Mats; Steinvall, Anders

2012-01-01

233

Source of raised serum estrogens in male rats with portal bypass.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We sought to establish the mechanism for the raised serum estrogen levels that occur in male rats with portal hypertension and resultant portal bypass. Using the portal vein ligated (PVL) rat model, we evaluated plasma steroid hormone concentrations, metabolic clearance rate (MCR) of estradiol, and hepatic metabolism of androstenedione to estrogens and other products. In contrast to serum testosterone levels that were reduced, serum androstenedione levels were normal in the PVL rat. Estradiol...

Farrell, G. C.; Koltai, A.; Murray, M.

1988-01-01

234

Murder-suicide involving BC doctor raises troubling questions about euthanasia.  

Science.gov (United States)

The deaths last September of a British Columbia physician and his wife have raised troubling questions about euthanasia and Alzheimer's disease. Police described the deaths of Dr. Tom Powell and his wife Dr. Lorraine Miles, a retired dentist, as a murder-suicide. Friends of the couple wonder if more lenient laws concerning euthanasia and assisted suicide might have saved Miles' life. Images p1856-a

Wilson, V

1995-01-01

235

Raising the Dead without a Red Sea-Dead Sea project? Hydro-economics and governance  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Seven decades of extractions have dramatically reduced Jordan River flows, lowered the Dead Sea level, opened sink holes, and caused other environmental problems. The fix Jordan, Israel, and the Palestinians propose would build an expensive multipurpose conveyance project from the Red Sea to the Dead Sea that would also generate hydropower and desalinate water. This paper compares the Red-Dead project to alternatives that may also raise the Dead Sea level. Hydro-economic model results for the...

Rosenberg, D. E.

2011-01-01

236

Raising the dead without a Red Sea-Dead Sea canal? Hydro-economics and governance  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Seven decades of extractions have dramatically reduced Jordan River flows, lowered the Dead Sea level, opened sink holes, and caused other environmental problems. The fix Jordan, Israel, and the Palestinians propose would build an expensive multipurpose canal from the Red Sea to the Dead Sea that would also generate hydropower and desalinated water. This paper compares the Red-Dead project to alternatives that may also raise the Dead Sea level. Hydro-economic model results for the Jord...

Rosenberg, D. E.

2010-01-01

237

Genetic diversity of a large set of horse breeds raised in France assessed by microsatellite polymorphism  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The genetic diversity and structure of horses raised in France were investigated using 11 microsatellite markers and 1679 animals belonging to 34 breeds. Between-breed differences explained about ten per cent of the total genetic diversity (Fst = 0.099). Values of expected heterozygosity ranged from 0.43 to 0.79 depending on the breed. According to genetic relationships, multivariate and structure analyses, breeds could be classified into four genetic differentiated groups: warm-blooded, drau...

Leroy, Gre?goire; Calle?de, Lucille; Verrier, Etienne; Me?riaux, Jean-claude; Ricard, Anne; Danchin-burge, Coralie; Rognon, Xavier

2009-01-01

238

What Meaning does Raising a Child with Autism have for Parents? A Qualitative Exploration  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Introduction: Children with autism experience difficulties in social interaction and communication which are often manifested behaviourally. The nature of these difficulties means that the task of parenting is often challenging. This study therefore aims to explore which aspects of raising a child with autism are most meaningful for parents. It will also investigate what, if any, are the positive aspects related to the experience of having a child with autism. Method: A q...

Jardine, Kirsten Marie

2008-01-01

239

Costly revenue-raising and the case for favoring import-competing industries  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A standard finding in the political economy of trade policy literature is that we should expect export-oriented industries to attract more assistance than import-competing industries. In reality, however, trade policy is heavily biased toward supporting import industries. This paper shows within a standard protection for sale framework, how the costliness of raising revenue via taxation may make export subsidies less desirable and import tariffs more desirable. The model is then estimated and...

Matschke, Xenia

2005-01-01

240

Ethical and legal issues raised by cord blood banking - the challenges of the new bioeconomy.  

Science.gov (United States)

• Cord blood banking raises ethical and legal issues which highlight the need for careful regulatory approaches to the emerging bioeconomy. • Consent processes for both private and public banking should be inclusive and representative of the different familial interests in the cord blood. • Property law is a potentially useful way of understanding the mechanisms for donation to both public and private banks. • Increasing tensions between public and private models of banking may require the adoption of hybrid forms of banking. PMID:23984790

Stewart, Cameron L; Aparicio, Lorena C; Kerridge, Ian H

2013-08-19

 
 
 
 
241

Development of a tractor-drawn implement for digging and forming raised beds. Final technical report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The purpose of this grant was to build, test, and develop a tractor-drawn and -powered machine capable of tilling the land and forming raised beds suitable for the French intensive method of growing crops. By starting with a reliable used tractor-drawn tiller and adding off-the-shelf and custom-made components, a machine was developed that satisfactorily meets the proposed objectives.

Meyer, E.W.

1982-01-01

242

Passive leg raising can predict fluid responsiveness in patients placed on venovenous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

ABSTRACT: INTRODUCTION: In ICUs, fluid administration is frequently used to treat hypovolaemia. Because volume expansion (VE) can worsen acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and volume overload must be avoided, predictive indicators of fluid responsiveness are needed. The purpose of this study was to determine whether passive leg raising (PLR) can be used to predict fluid responsiveness in patients with ARDS treated with venovenous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO). METHODS: We...

2011-01-01

243

Structural evaluation of WIPP disposal room raised to Clay Seam G.  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

An error was discovered in the ALGEBBRA script used to calculate the disturbed rock zone around the disposal room and the shear failure zone in the anhydrite layers in the original version. To correct the error, a memorandum of correction was submitted according to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Quality Assurance program. The recommended course of action was to correct the error, to repeat the post-process, and to rewrite Section 7.4, 7.5, 8, and Appendix B in the original report. The sections and appendix revised by the post-process using the corrected ALGEBRA scripts are provided in this revision. The original report summarizes a series of structural calculations that examine effects of raising the WIPP repository horizon from the original design level upward 2.43 meters. Calculations were then repeated for grid changes appropriate for the new horizon raised to Clay Seam G. Results are presented in three main areas: (1) Disposal room porosity, (2) Disturbed rock zone characteristics, and (3) Anhydrite marker bed failure. No change to the porosity surface for the compliance re-certification application is necessary to account for raising the repository horizon, because the new porosity surface is essentially identical. The disturbed rock zone evolution and devolution are charted in terms of a stress invariant criterion over the regulatory period. This model shows that the propagation of the DRZ into the surrounding rock salt does not penetrate through MB 139 in the case of both the original horizon and the raised room. Damaged salt would be expected to heal in nominally 150 years. The shear failure does not occur in either the upper or lower anhydrite layers at the moment of excavation, but appears above and below the middle of the pillar one day after the excavation. The damaged anhydrite is not expected to heal as the salt in the DRZ is expected to.

Park, Byoung Yoon (Sandia National Laboratories, Carlsbad, NM); Holland, John F. (Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM)

2007-09-01

244

Raised bed technology for wheat crop in irrigated areas of punjab, pakistan  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The present paper analyzes the determinants of adoption of raised bed planting of wheat in irrigated areas of Punjab, Pakistan. Wheat is an important staple food of Pakistan. It contributes 13 % to the value added in agriculture and 2.6 % to the GDP. The agrarian economy of Pakistan is continuously under stress due to the low yield of almost all the crops and constrained with many problem. One of the most important issues of agriculture is water shortage which is increasing day by day and is a major challenge now a days. Therefore, water saving becomes the utmost need of the hour. The national research system is now putting their focus and efforts to manage the precious water through various modern/latest water saving models to draw some solid method of irrigation with less wastage. Raised bed planting method is also one of the modern methods of planting crop with significant water saving. The study was planned and conducted by the Social Sciences Research Institute, Faisalabad in 2011-12 to assess the determinants of the adoption of the raised bed technology for wheat crop in irrigated Punjab, Pakistan. The study was conducted at three sites of the districts Faisalabad and Toba Tek Singh where the Water Management Research Institute, University of Faisalabad promoted the raised bed technology for wheat crop. A sample of 63 farmers was interviewed in detail to understand the whole system and the factors contributing to the adoption of the technology. The study revealed that adopters typically have a more favorable resource base and tend to variously outperform non-adopters. More access to education and other social indicators increases the chances to adopt new technologies by the farming community. However, the small farmers can also be benefited with the technology with proper education regarding the technology in the area with good social mobilization for the conservation of scarce and valuable farm resources. (author)

2013-01-01

245

On a relativistic model for baryons with a scalar raising potential  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Bogolinbov model for baryons permits to include the relativistic effect in a first approximation when quarks as Dirac particles interacting among themselves through a central potential are considered. Further, based on gauge theories and the results of charmonium model, it is assumed that the potential and raising. It is shown that for several processes involving baryons, the results obtained by taking relativistic effects into account are better than the non-relativistic ones

1978-01-01

246

The cholesterol-raising factor from boiled coffee does not pass a paper filter.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Previous studies have indicated that consumption of boiled coffee raises total and low density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, whereas drip-filtered coffee does not. We have tested the effect on serum lipids of consumed coffee that was first boiled and then filtered through commercial paper coffee filters. Sixty-four healthy volunteers consumed six cups per day of this boiled and filtered coffee for 17 days. Then, they were randomly divided into three groups, which, for the next 79 days, recei...

Dusseldorp, M.; Katan, M. B.; Vliet, T.; Demacker, P. N. M.; Stalenhoef, A. F. H.

1991-01-01

247

Mother and Soldier: Raising a Child with a Disability in a Low-Income Military Family  

Science.gov (United States)

This article presents the results of a study of six low-income women, each of whom is raising a child with a suspected or diagnosed disability while also serving as an active member of the armed forces. Their experiences as they attempt to strike a balance between the highly demanding work role of the military and their role as a mother of a child…

Taylor, Nancy E.; Wall, Shavaun M.; Liebow, Harriet; Sabatino, Christine A.; Timberlake, Elizabeth M.; Farber, Michaela Z.

2005-01-01

248

An Efficient In vitro Hardening Technique of Tissue Culture Raised Plants  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Micropropagation has been extensively used for the rapid multiplication of many plants species. However, its wider use is restricted often by the high percentage of plant loss or damaged when transferred to ex vitro condition. To acclimatize the micropropagated plants, different workers have employed different approach toward successful establishment of in vitro raised plants under ex vitro condition. In the present study, a successful attempt has been made to acclimatize...

Deb, C. R.; Imchen, T.

2010-01-01

249

Enhanced Rate of Multiplication of Tissue Cultured Raised Banana (MUSA) Plants in the Field  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Multiplication rate of banana plants c.v. Basrai in the field was studied. The results showed that plants raised through culture produced 7.45 suckers plant-1 after 14 months of planting. On the other hand, number of suckers produced by banana plants propagated conventionally were 4015 in the same period of time. The results indicated that tissue culture plants produced 44% more suckers. This enhanced rate of multiplication may overcome the limited sucker production in the field.

Aish Muhammad; Iqbal Hussain; Muhammad Faheem Akbar; Hamid Rashid

2003-01-01

250

Structural evaluation of WIPP disposal room raised to Clay Seam G.  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report summarizes a series of structural calculations that examine effects of raising the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant repository horizon from the original design level upward 2.43 meters. These calculations allow evaluation of various features incorporated in conceptual models used for performance assessment. Material presented in this report supports the regulatory compliance re-certification, and therefore begins by replicating the calculations used in the initial compliance certification application. Calculations are then repeated for grid changes appropriate for the new horizon raised to Clay Seam G. Results are presented in three main areas: 1. Disposal room porosity, 2. Disturbed rock zone characteristics, and 3. Anhydrite marker bed failure. No change to the porosity surface for the compliance re-certification application is necessary to account for raising the repository horizon, because the new porosity surface is essentially identical. The disturbed rock zone evolution and devolution are charted in terms of a stress invariant criterion over the regulatory period. This model shows that the damage zone does not extend upward to MB 138, but does reach MB 139 below the repository. Damaged salt would be expected to heal in nominally 100 years. The anhydrite marker beds sustain states of stress that promote failure and substantial marker bed deformation into the room assures fractured anhydrite will sustain in the proximity of the disposal rooms.

Park, Byoung Yoon; Holland, John F.

2004-01-01

251

The effects of monocular refractive blur on gait parameters when negotiating a raised surface.  

Science.gov (United States)

Falls in the elderly are a major cause of mortality and morbidity. Elderly people with visual impairment have been found to be at increased risk of falling, with poor visual acuity in one eye causing greater risk than poor binocular visual acuity. The present study investigated whether monocular refractive blur, at a level typically used for monovision correction, would significantly reduce stereoacuity and consequently affect gait parameters when negotiating a raised surface. Fourteen healthy subjects (25.8 +/- 5.6 years) walked up to and on to a raised surface, under four visual conditions; binocular, +2DS blur over their non-dominant eye, +2DS blur over their dominant eye and with their dominant eye occluded. Analysis focussed on foot positioning and toe clearance parameters. Monocular blur had no effect on binocular acuity, but caused a small decline in binocular contrast sensitivity and a large decline in stereoacuity (p monovision correction significantly reduced stereoacuity and consequently the ability to accurately perceive the height and position of a raised surface placed within the travel path. These findings may help explain why elderly individuals with poor visual acuity in one eye have been found to have an increased risk of falling. PMID:18339044

Vale, Anna; Scally, Andy; Buckley, John G; Elliott, David B

2008-03-01

252

Detecting tissue deterioration after brain injury: regional blood flow level versus capacity to raise blood flow.  

Science.gov (United States)

Regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) is spatially and temporally adjusted to local energy needs. This coupling involves dilation of vessels both at the site of metabolite exchange and upstream of the activated region. Deficits in upstream blood supply limit the 'capacity to raise rCBF' in response to functional activation and therefore compromise brain function. We here demonstrate in rats that the 'capacity to raise rCBF' can be determined from real-time measurements of rCBF using laser speckle imaging during an energy challenge induced by cortical spreading depolarizations (CSDs). Cortical spreading depolarizations (CSDs) occur with high incidence in stroke and various other brain injuries and cause large metabolic changes. Various conditions of cerebral perfusion were induced, either by modifying microvascular tone, or by altering upstream blood supply independently. The increase in rCBF per unit of time in response to CSD was linearly correlated to the upstream blood supply. In an experimental model of stroke, we found that this marker of the capacity to raise rCBF which, in pathologic tissue may be additionally limited by impaired vasoactive signaling, was a better indicator of the functional status of cerebral tissue than local rCBF levels. PMID:24690942

Feuerstein, Delphine; Takagaki, Masatoshi; Gramer, Markus; Manning, Andrew; Endepols, Heike; Vollmar, Stefan; Yoshimine, Toshiki; Strong, Antony J; Graf, Rudolf; Backes, Heiko

2014-07-01

253

The apolipoprotein E polymorphism and the cholesterol-raising effect of coffee  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background The response of serum cholesterol to diet may be affected by the apolipoprotein E (APOE ?2/?3/?4 polymorphism, which also is a significant predictor of variation in the risk of coronary heart disease (CHD and CHD death. Here, we test the hypothesis that the APOE polymorphism may modulate the cholesterol-raising effect of coffee. Objective We determined the effect of a coffee abstention period and a daily intake of 600 mL coffee on serum cholesterol and triglycerides with respect to the APOE polymorphism. Design 121 healthy, non-smoking men (22% and women (78% aged 29–65 years, took part in a study with four intervention periods: 1 and 3 a coffee free period of three weeks, 2 and 4 600 mL coffee/day for four weeks. Results APOE ?2 positive individuals had significantly lower total cholesterol concentration at baseline (4.68 mmol/L and 5.28 mmol/L, respectively, p = 0.01, but the cholesterol-raising effect of coffee was not influenced significantly by APOE allele carrier status. Conclusions The APOE ? 2 allele is associated with lower serum cholesterol concentration. However, the APOE polymorphism does not seem to influence the cholesterol-raising effect of coffee.

Rymo Lars

2004-11-01

254

25 CFR 1000.194 - When must BIA raise the issue of limitation or reduction of services, contracts, or funding?  

Science.gov (United States)

...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false When must BIA raise the issue of limitation or reduction...EDUCATION ACT Limitation and/or Reduction of BIA Services, Contracts, and Funds § 1000.194 When must BIA raise the issue of limitation or...

2010-04-01

255

Ideologies, Struggles and Contradictions: An Account of Mothers Raising Their Children Bilingually in Luxembourgish and English in Great Britain  

Science.gov (United States)

Researchers have studied family language planning within bilingual family contexts but there is a dearth of studies that examine language planning of multilingual parents who raise their children in one of the world's lesser spoken languages. In this study I explore the ideologies and language planning of Luxembourgish mothers who are raising

Kirsch, Claudine

2012-01-01

256

Role of hypertonic saline and mannitol in the management of raised intracranial pressure in children: A randomized comparative study  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Objective : To compare the efficacy and side effects of 3% hypertonic saline and mannitol in the management of raised intracranial pressure in children. Design : Prospective randomized study. Setting : Pediatric intensive care unit (PICU) in a tertiary care hospital. Subject : 200 patients with raised intracranial pressure. Materials and Methods : Patients were randomized into two statistically comparable groups; Group A (n = 98) was treated with mann...

Upadhyay Piyush; Tripathi V; Singh R; Sachan D

2010-01-01

257

Raised white cell count in renal colic: Is there a role for antibiotics?  

Science.gov (United States)

Aims: To determine the use of antibiotics in patients with renal colic and an elevated white cell count (WCC) in the absence of other features of infection. Materials and Methods: A retrospective audit of patients presenting to an emergency department with renal colic caused by a solitary ureteric stone over a 6 month period. Statistical Analysis Used: Student's t-test. Results: Fifty patients met the inclusion criteria for this study. In 42 patients (84%) the urinalysis showed hematuria only and all urine culture results were negative for microbial growth. The mean WCC was 11.5 × 109 (4-22.1) and was raised in 34 patients (80.9%). The mean neutrophil count was 8.75 × 109/L (2.3-18.6) and C-reactive protein (CRP) 15.9 (1-192). Antibiotics were commenced in 34 patients (80.9%) based solely on the raised WCC. In eight patients (16%) there were leucocytes and/or nitrites on urinalysis and all urine cultures were positive for growth (coliforms in five, streptococcus in two and candida in one specimen). The mean WCC was 10.5 × 109/L (7.7-16.5) and was raised in four patients. The mean neutrophil count was 8.4 × 109/L (4.9-15.2) and CRP 40.79 (3-86). One patient had pyrexia. All eight patients were commenced on antibiotics based on the WCC and/or urinalysis result. Conclusions: Over three-quarters of the patients (80.9%) in this study who presented with renal colic were unjustifiably commenced on antibiotics based solely on an elevated WCC. Antibiotic use in renal colic should be reserved for when there are features of sepsis or the urinalysis is positive. Further work is required to determine the significance of the observed results and the threshold for starting antibiotics.

Alleemudder, Adam; Tai, Xin-You; Goyal, Anuj; Pati, Jhumur

2014-01-01

258

Bio-Economic Evaluation of the Performance of Rabbits Raised under Two Different Housing Systems  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study was conducted to evaluate the bio-economic performance of rabbits raised under two different housing systems: conventional hutch with cage system as control (A and the non-conventional floor housing system (B. Thirty six adult rabbits of medium size breed category of both sexes aged 5-6 months comprising Chinchilla (20, New Zealand White (10, Dutch (6 were used in the study which lasted 24 weeks. Fifteen does and 3 bucks were each randomly but equally assigned to both housing systems. Data on individual and group treatments were analysed with a one-way analysis of variance and students' ttest, employed in testing differences between the means. A benefit-cost analysis was used to evaluate the relative cost effectiveness of each housing option. Results obtained showed that rabbits raised on floor performed better (6 kittens < 0.05 biologically than those reared in hutched (3 kittens. For example, significant final weights (1.9 kg and weight gains (0.4 kg were observed in rabbits reared on floor as against those in hutch 1.6 kg and 0.09 kg. From an economic viewpoint, rabbits raised on floor contributed higher positive income (N 58.2 per unit of meat produced than rabbits reared in hutch or cage. Rate of return on investment in the former was estimated at about 50%. The floor housing system which is the cheaper, more productive and cost-effective is therefore recommended for farmers who are lacking the fundamental factors of production namely land and particularly capital as observed in the study location or environment.

Mobolaji-Bukola, PU.

2002-01-01

259

Effect of HDL-Raising Drugs on Cardiovascular Outcomes: A Systematic Review and Meta-Regression  

Science.gov (United States)

Background Substantial residual cardiovascular risk remains after optimal LDL lowering in patients of established coronary artery disease. A number of therapeutic agents that raise HDL-C have been tested in clinical trials to cover this risk. However, the results of clinical trials are conflicting. Objectives To determine whether raising HDL-C with pharmacologic therapies translates into beneficial cardiovascular outcomes and to find out if this change was proportional to the percentage change in HDL levels. Methods Electronic and printed sources were searched up to August, 2013 for randomised controlled trials (RCTs) using at least one of the HDL raising therapies for secondary prevention of adverse cardiovascular events over optimal LDL levels. Data from eligible studies were pooled for the following outcomes: all cause mortality, cardiovascular disease mortality, hospitalization for unstable angina, non-fatal myocardial infarction, coronary revascularization and ischemic stroke. Mantel Haensnzel fixed effect model was used preferentially. Meta-regression was done to see the correlation of change in HDL levels and cardiovascular outcomes. Pooled odds ratios with 95% confidence interval (CI) were calculated. Results A total of 12 RCTs including 26,858 patients with follow up period ranging from 1 year to 6.2 years were included in the analysis. Pooled analysis showed no significant difference in all-cause mortality between the treatment and control group (Pooled OR 1.07; 95% CI 0.98–1.16, p?=?0.15). No significant difference was found between the groups for any of the secondary outcomes. Similarly no correlation was seen between percentage change in HDL and adverse cardiovascular outcomes on meta-regression analysis. Conclusion Increasing HDL levels via pharmacological manipulation beyond optimal lipid lowering therapy for secondary prevention is not beneficial.

Shafiq, Nusrat; Reddy, Srinivas; Kaur, Harpreet; Chadha, Neelima; Malhotra, Samir

2014-01-01

260

Device for emergency cooling of steam raising plant of a nuclear power station  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The steam blown off is condensed and the condensate obtained is taken back via a closed circuit as feed water for the steam raising unit. The blow off line projects into the water and gas space, which contains bundles of heat exchanger pipes. To increase the thermal syphon effect, the end of the blow off line is made as a steam distribution nozzle, with an angle of 90"0 and having 15000, 5mm diameter nozzle openings. This provides an effective nozzle cross section of about 0.3 sq. metres. (DG)

1979-01-01

 
 
 
 
261

A scheme of raising beam blow-UP(BBU) threshold current of constant impedance structure  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper presents a scheme of design in constant impedance structure that raises the BBU threshold current but doesn't degrade the performances of the structure. Two holes opened on disks in certain position of the structure can stop EH_1_1 wave that brings about BBU but have little effects on TM_0_1 wave that accelerate electrons. Their function is equivalent to divide the whole structure into n segments (n is usually 2-4 depending on the length of the structure), so that BBU threshold current roughly increases by the same factor of n

1985-01-01

262

Investigation of monoclonal antibodies raised to human ovarian carcinoma cell lines  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Monoclonal antibodies (MAb) were generated to multidrug resistant (MDR) and sensitive variants of the ovarian carcinoma cell line OAW42 which over-express the M D R associated protem LRP/MVP MAb 3/B6 was raised to the intrinsically resistant variant OAW42-SR Immunofluorescence and immunocytochemical analysis indicated that the antigen detected by MAb 3/B6 was expressed primarily on the external surface of the plasma membrane but was also found to be expressed in the cytoplasm of a series of h...

Blacoe-masterson, Allan

1998-01-01

263

Raising learner awareness of progress towards UK-SPEC learning outcomes  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper introduces UK-SpecIAL, developed to help engineering students better understand how their modules relate to each other and to the engineering professions towards which they are working, and to raise their awareness of their progress towards UK-SPEC learning outcomes. Our example is for electronic, electrical and computer engineering, but could be extended for other engineering subjects. Log data indicates that learners use the information provided about their general progress across modules and questionnaire responses suggest students consider UK-SpecIAL to be a useful support for their independent learning.

Susan Bull

2010-07-01

264

Mama `poma´, dad `apple´: Raising a Child with Catalan in Australia  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The decision to speak Catalan to my daughter came naturally to me. Howelse would I tell a story, sing a lullaby or make her laugh but in thelanguage I was told stories, sung lullabies to and made to laugh since I wasa new-born! However, whereas the choice to speak one’s mother tongue toyour children is not questioned anymore in Spain, making this same choicewhen you live elsewhere seems to raise a lot of eyebrows. In this article Iwill reflect, from my own experience, on speaking a language...

2007-01-01

265

Comparison of free range broiler chicken strains raised in confined or semi-confined systems  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The present study was carried out to compare the growth curve, performance and carcass yield of two broiler strains, Paraíso Pedrês (PP) and ISA Label (ISA), raised in confined or semi-confined systems. It was used a completely randomized design with five replicates, consisting of 20 and 29 birds in semi-confined and confined systems, respectively. Semi-confined birds had free access to pasture at 28 days of age. Performance data were recorded weekly by building growth curves as well as cal...

Al, Santos; Nk, Sakomura; Er, Freitas; Cms, Fortes; Envm, Carrilho

2005-01-01

266

Raising the Profile of Today’s Greek Children’s Literature  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The main scope of this article is to raise a concise profile of today’s Greek Literature for Children, which has been shaped during last years. After a short report on the reasons that contributed to the configuration of such a profile, some representative books written for children are presented, divided into three categories according to their main theme. There is also a reference to the various genres of literature address children as well as to the translations into Greek, to the ill...

Papadatos, Yiannis S.; Dimitris Politis

2012-01-01

267

Diurnal and seasonal variation of carbon dioxide exchange from a former true raised bog.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Carbon dioxide exchange was measured, using the eddy covariance technique, during a one and a half year period in 1994 and 1995. The measurements took place over a former true raised bog, characterized by a shallow peat layer and a vegetation dominated by Molinia caerulea. The growing season extended from May until late October, with a maximum LAI in August of 1.7. The carbon balance shows a net release of 97 g C m-2 y-1 (265 kg C ha-1 y-1) from the peat bog ecosystem to the atmosphere. Durin...

Nieveen, J. P.; Jacobs, C. M. J.; Jacobs, A. F. G.

1998-01-01

268

Behaviour of carbon dioxide and water vapour flux densities from a disturbed raised peat bog  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Measurements of carbon dioxide and water vapour flux densities were carried out for a disturbed raised peat bog in the north of the Netherlands during an 18 month continuous experiment. Tussock grass (sp. Molinea caerulae) mainly dominated the vegetation of the bog area. The maximum leaf area index (LAI) of the vegetation reached a numerical value of about 1.7 in mid-August. When the LAI is large enough (LAI > 0.2), a mean net uptake of carbon dioxide is observed with a clear daily pattern. ...

Nieveen, J. P.; Jacobs, A. F. G.

2002-01-01

269

A Generalization of Level-Raising Congruences for Algebraic Modular Forms  

CERN Document Server

In this paper we prove a general theorem about congruences between automorphic forms on a reductive group G which is compact at infinity modulo the center. If the rank is one, this essentially reduces to Ribet's level-raising theorem. We then specialize to the higher rank case where G is an inner form of GSp(4). Here we get congruences with automorphic forms having a generic local component. In particular, a Saito-Kurokawa form is congruent to a form which is not of Saito-Kurokawa type. We get similar results for U(3) at split primes.

Sorensen, C M

2005-01-01

270

Business models for media firms :does competition matter for how they raise revenue?  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The purpose of this article is to analyze how competitive forces may influence how media firms like TV channels raise revenue. A media firm can either be financed by advertising revenue, by direct payment from the viewers (or the readers, if we consider newspapers), or by both. It is shown that the less differentiated the media firms’ content, the larger is the fraction of their revenue that comes from advertising. If the number of media firms increases, on the other hand, direct payment fr...

Kind, Hans Jarle; Nilssen, Tore; Sørgard, Lars

2008-01-01

271

Nuclear development strategic and policy issues raised by the transition from thermal to fast nuclear systems  

CERN Multimedia

The renewed interest in nuclear energy triggered by concerns about global climate change and security of supply could lead to substantial growth in nuclear electricity generation and expanded interest in fast neutron reactors with closed fuel cycles. Moving from the current fleet of thermal neutron reactors to fast neutron systems will require many decades and extensive RD&D efforts. This book identifies and analyses key strategic and policy issues raised by such a transition, and provides guidance to decision makers on the best approaches for implementing transition scenarios.

2009-01-01

272

European bank stress test results raise doubts, hopes | EurActiv  

...European bank stress test results raise doubts, hopes | EurActiv The European Banking Authority (EBA), which conducted the stress ... test, said after the market close on Friday (15 July) that eight banks failed the exercise, with a total capital ... euro-finance,transport,bank capital,bank crisis,European Banking Authority,stress tests EU news & policy debates- across languages - en fr Click ...Finland finally punches above its weight News | Italy’s Renzi to pass first test in parliament News | Greens present ‘Green New Deal’ at ...

273

Bio-Economic Evaluation of the Performance of Rabbits Raised under Two Different Housing Systems  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This study was conducted to evaluate the bio-economic performance of rabbits raised under two different housing systems: conventional hutch with cage system as control (A) and the non-conventional floor housing system (B). Thirty six adult rabbits of medium size breed category of both sexes aged 5-6 months comprising Chinchilla (20), New Zealand White (10), Dutch (6) were used in the study which lasted 24 weeks. Fifteen does and 3 bucks were each randomly but equally assigned to both housing ...

Mobolaji-bukola, Pu; Allison-oguru, Ea; Berepubo, Na; Oruwari, Bm

2002-01-01

274

Ochratoxin A in dried figs, raisings, apricots, dates on Iranian retail market  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Ochratoxin A (OTA is among the most important mycotoxins, and the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC classifies it as possibly carcinogenic to humans (group 2B. A total of 121 samples of dried fruits from the central zone of Iran were analyzed for OTA by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA technique. The recovery percentages of OTA in spiked dried fruit samples at concentrations of 5, 10 and 20 ng/g were found to be 84.9%, 89.3% and 90.4% as mean, respectively. OTA was found in 20.7% of the analyzed samples by average concentration of 6.7 ± 3.9 ng/g. The incidence rates of OTA contamination in dried fig, raising, apricots, and date samples were 10.4%, 44.7%, 6.7% and 10.0%, respectively. The concentrations of OTA in 7.9% of contaminated dried raising samples and 2.1% of dried fig samples were higher than maximum tolerance limit accepted by European Union (10 ng/g. This value reflects that the analyzed samples have a minimal contribution to toxicological risk. To our best knowledge, the present study is the first report of the presence of OTA by ELISA in dried fruit samples in Iran.  

Ebrahim Rahimi

2013-12-01

275

Characteristics of milk production traits of Balkan goats raised under “low-input” production systems  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In order to analyse dairy production traits (milk yield in full lactation, milk fat content, daily milk yield and length of lactation of Balkan goats raised under “low-input” production systems, data on 440 lactation records from 118 does raised on 9 farms in south-east part of Serbia were used. General linear model, used for analysing variability of lactation length, was consisting of following fixed effects: farm, year of birth, year of production and number of lactation. Model for milk yield in full lactation, milk fat content and daily milk yield was consisting of farms, year of birth, year of production and number of lactation as fixed effects and length of lactation as covariate. The highest milk yield (392 kg and the highest milk fat content (3.89 % were achieved in III lactation. Effects of farm, year of production and number of lactation were very significant sources of variation (P<0.001 for milk yield, daily milk yield and milk fat content, while the year of birth as factor of phenotypic variation in these traits expressed no such consistency. Highly significant sources of variation (P<0.001 for the length of lactation were farm and year of production, while the length of lactation had a significant influence (P<0.001 only for total milk yield variability.

Vladan Bogdanovi?

2010-03-01

276

Raising the Dead without a Red Sea-Dead Sea project? Hydro-economics and governance  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Seven decades of extractions have dramatically reduced Jordan River flows, lowered the Dead Sea level, opened sink holes, and caused other environmental problems. The fix Jordan, Israel, and the Palestinians propose would build an expensive multipurpose conveyance project from the Red Sea to the Dead Sea that would also generate hydropower and desalinate water. This paper compares the Red-Dead project to alternatives that may also raise the Dead Sea level. Hydro-economic model results for the Jordan-Israel-Palestinian inter-tied water systems show two restoration alternatives are more economically viable than the proposed Red-Dead project. Many decentralized new supply, wastewater reuse, conveyance, conservation, and leak reduction projects and programs in each country can together increase economic benefits and reliably deliver up to 900 MCM yr?1 to the Dead Sea. Similarly, a smaller Red-Dead project that only generates hydropower can deliver large flows to the Dead Sea when the sale price of generated electricity is sufficiently high. However, for all restoration options, net benefits fall and water scarcity rises as flows to the Dead Sea increase. This finding suggests (i each country has no individual incentive to return water to the Dead Sea, and (ii outside institutions that seek to raise the Dead must also offer countries direct incentives to deliver water to the Sea besides building the countries new infrastructure.

D. E. Rosenberg

2011-04-01

277

Raising the dead without a Red Sea-Dead Sea canal? Hydro-economics and governance  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Seven decades of extractions have dramatically reduced Jordan River flows, lowered the Dead Sea level, opened sink holes, and caused other environmental problems. The fix Jordan, Israel, and the Palestinians propose would build an expensive multipurpose canal from the Red Sea to the Dead Sea that would also generate hydropower and desalinated water. This paper compares the Red-Dead project to alternatives that may also raise the Dead Sea level. Hydro-economic model results for the Jordan-Israel-Palestinian inter-tied water systems show two restoration alternatives are more economically viable than the proposed Red-Dead project. Many decentralized new supply, wastewater reuse, conveyance, conservation, and leak reduction projects and programs in each country can together increase economic benefits and reliably deliver up to 900 MCM/year to the Dead Sea. Similarly, a smaller Red-Dead project that only generates hydropower can deliver large flows to the Dead Sea when the sale price of generated electricity is sufficiently high. However, for all restoration options, net benefits fall and water scarcity rises as flows to the Dead Sea increase. This finding suggests (i each country has no individual incentive to return water to the Dead Sea, and (ii outside institutions that seek to raise the Dead must also offer countries direct incentives to deliver water to the Sea besides building the countries new infrastructure.

D. E. Rosenberg

2010-12-01

278

Increasing Public Participation through Awareness Raising Activities: A Case Study in Trao Reef Marine Reserve, Vietnam  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In the last few decades, community-based management has evolved to become an effective approach in managing natural resources and solving environmental problems around the world. In this approach, stakeholder participation is considered as a very important factor contributing to the success or failure of the management effort. To promote and enhance stakeholder participation, awareness raising activities could be conducted in various innovative forms. This is clearly illustrated in the case of Trao Reef, a locally-managed marine reserve in central Vietnam. The paper reviews the management approach applied to Trao Reef, focusing on analysis of stakeholder participation. The high level of environmental awareness of the local community contributed to the successful outcome of the project. Many communication activities and awareness raising campaigns were organized within the community to get them involved in all steps of the management process. The project enhanced the marine resources and ecosystem health, and helped to build a more sustainable livelihood and living lifestyle for the local community. Trao Reef has become a role model for effective environmental management that harmonizes the socio-economic benefits of the local community and nature conservation.

Hang Thi Minh Tran

2012-10-01

279

Blocked ventriculoperitoneal shunt causing raised intracranial pressure diagnosed by prominent sinus pericranii.  

Science.gov (United States)

We present a 3.5-year-old male infant who had been treated at 3 weeks of age with a ventriculoperitoneal (VP) shunt for intraventricular haemorrhage with resultant hydrocephalus. Since his initial treatment he had normal developmental milestones. On this occasion he presented with difficulty in walking, vomiting and irritability. His mother was concerned this was due to his shunt malfunctioning. It had not required revision since insertion as a neonate. He was initially managed at a peripheral hospital without neurosurgical services for 4 weeks as an outpatient. The major clinical concern was a gradually enlarging lesion confined to the top of his head consistent with a vascular malformation. Investigations were focused towards this, with an initial diagnosis made of a cerebral arteriovenous malformation (AVM) with involvement of scalp vessels. His initial head CT scan did not show enlarged ventricles and the shunt was clinically assessed as functioning satisfactorily. The patient's condition worsened and he was referred with a diagnosis of scalp AVM for neurosurgical attention. After neurosurgical review a clinical diagnosis of raised intracranial pressure (ICP) due to shunt malfunction was made. This was supported by a CT scan that showed an enlarging ventricular system. After revision of the shunt there was complete resolution of the pulsatile scalp swelling with clinical recovery of the child. To our knowledge this is the first reported incidence of a blocked VP shunt causing raised ICP presenting with a localised extracranial pulsatile venous dilation consistent with a "true" sinus pericranii. PMID:19796951

Mahindu, A J M; Guazzo, E G

2009-12-01

280

Parents' leisure: the impact of raising a child with Down syndrome.  

Science.gov (United States)

A healthy and productive life depends upon the balance between work, leisure, and activities of daily living. Gaining or regaining that balance is a core concept within occupational therapy. Raising a child with special needs is one factor that challenges parents in achieving a balance. The purpose of this research was to describe factors that affect the leisure occupations of these parents. A qualitative approach was used in which in-depth interviews and the adapted Barth Time Construction were administered to four married couples that were raising children with Down syndrome who were between seven and nine years of age. Data was examined through content analysis. Results indicated that the parents of children with Down syndrome had limitations in time available for leisure, changes in types of leisure engaged in, and an increase in planning for leisure activities. Despite overall satisfaction with the manner in which they allocated their time, parents frequently noted the potential benefits of incorporating more leisure into their daily lives. Limitations of the study include type and size of sample. PMID:16398205

Wayne, Deborah O'Mullan; Krishnagiri, Sheama

2005-01-01

 
 
 
 
281

Equipment for inspection and carrying out repairs, if required, for tube bundles of steam raising units  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The equipment solves the problem of being able to inspect and possibly to repair U-tubes of a vertical steam raising unit standing on a tube floor, without draining the primary medium and bringing the test equipment and tools into the inside of the boiler first. This is achieved by leaving a considerable part of the equipment permanently in the hemispherical space under the tube floor and operating it from the outside, on the other side of the concrete shielding. An inspection tube is threaded in turn horizontally through a concrete shield, a tube duct in the heat insulation of the steam raising unit, and through a hole in the hemispherical space under the tube floor into this space. The end of an angle tube can be moved axially from outside the concrete shield and can be rotated in a semicircle above the tube axis. By interposing a, for example, 12 part distributor with 12 short, differently bent tubes 12 adjacent tubes opening into the tube floor can be controlled and tested, by axial movement of the angle tube together with the distributor, e.g. 4 x 12 other U tubes. A turbulent flow sensor, for example, can be introduced through the angle tube and distributor. In the non-operational condition the equipment is moved into a recess via a supporting angle and stopped there. (ORU)

1976-01-01

282

Frank-ter Haar syndrome associated with sagittal craniosynostosis and raised intracranial pressure  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Frank-ter Haar syndrome is a rare disorder associated with skeletal, cardiac, ocular and craniofacial features including hypertelorism and brachycephaly. The most common underlying genetic defect in Frank-ter Haar syndrome appears to be a mutation in the SH3PXD2B gene on chromosome 5q35.1. Craniosynostosis, or premature fusion of the calvarial sutures, has not previously been described in Frank-ter Haar syndrome. Case presentation We present a family of three affected siblings born to consanguineous parents with clinical features in keeping with a diagnosis of Frank-ter Haar syndrome. All three siblings have a novel mutation caused by the deletion of exon 13 of the SH3PXD2B gene. Two of the three siblings also have non-scaphocephalic sagittal synostosis associated with raised intracranial pressure. Conclusion The clinical features of craniosynostosis and raised intracranial pressure in this family with a confirmed diagnosis of Frank-ter Haar syndrome expand the clinical spectrum of the disease. The abnormal cranial proportions in a mouse model of the disease suggests that the association is not coincidental. The possibility of craniosynostosis should be considered in individuals with a suspected diagnosis of Frank-ter Haar syndrome.

Bendon Charlotte L

2012-11-01

283

Objections raised by the Land government relating to nuclear licensing procedures  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The president of the Bavarian Landtag rejected a motion brought in by a parliamentary party, demanding that the Landtag request the Bavarian government..'' to file objections, in matters of the current plan approval procedure for the Schacht Konrad waste repository''. The motion was rejected referring to paragraph 62, sub-section 4 of the GeschOLT, stating the scope of competence of the Bavarian Free State. The Bavarian Constitutional Court decided in this matter as follows: Anyone has the right to raise objections in a plan approval procedure according to paragraph 9 b, sub-section 1 Atomic Energy Act. There is no mandatory restriction of this right to cases involving a personal interest. Land governments thus are equally entitled to raise objections against the licensing of a radwaste with the Ministry of the Environment of Lower Saxony pository. The remotion brought in therefore aims at activities within the legally permitted scope of action in accordance with the Atomic Energy Act. (orig./HSCH)

1993-09-01

284

Thermal stress analysis of pipe flange connections with raised-face gasket subjected to heat conduction  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper deals with thermal stress analysis of a pipe flange connection with a raised-face gasket subjected to heat conduction. In the analysis, pipe flange, hubs of the flanges and a raised-face gasket are replaced by finite hollow cylinders. When the inner surface is subjected to heat conduction due to contained fluid and the outer surface are kept at a constant temperature, temperature distribution of the connection is analyzed. Using the temperature distribution, thermoelastic displacement potential is determined. Thermal stresses and displacements are analyzed by using the thermoelastic displacement potential and axisymmetrical theory of elasticity. Experiments are performed. The analytical results are in fairly good agreement with the experimental results concerning the variation of axial bolt force and the axial strain at the hubs of pipe flange. In the numerical calculations, the effects of the ratios of Young's modulus and the gasket thickness between the flanges and the gaskets on the contact stress distribution are examined. As the results, it is seen that the thermal stress at the inner surface increases with a decrease of the ratio of Young's modulus and that it increases with a decrease of the gasket thickness

1996-07-21

285

Raised Middle-Finger: Electrocortical Correlates of Social Conditioning with Nonverbal Affective Gestures  

Science.gov (United States)

Humans form impressions of others by associating persons (faces) with negative or positive social outcomes. This learning process has been referred to as social conditioning. In everyday life, affective nonverbal gestures may constitute important social signals cueing threat or safety, which therefore may support aforementioned learning processes. In conventional aversive conditioning, studies using electroencephalography to investigate visuocortical processing of visual stimuli paired with danger cues such as aversive noise have demonstrated facilitated processing and enhanced sensory gain in visual cortex. The present study aimed at extending this line of research to the field of social conditioning by pairing neutral face stimuli with affective nonverbal gestures. To this end, electro-cortical processing of faces serving as different conditioned stimuli was investigated in a differential social conditioning paradigm. Behavioral ratings and visually evoked steady-state potentials (ssVEP) were recorded in twenty healthy human participants, who underwent a differential conditioning procedure in which three neutral faces were paired with pictures of negative (raised middle finger), neutral (pointing), or positive (thumbs-up) gestures. As expected, faces associated with the aversive hand gesture (raised middle finger) elicited larger ssVEP amplitudes during conditioning. Moreover, theses faces were rated as to be more arousing and unpleasant. These results suggest that cortical engagement in response to faces aversively conditioned with nonverbal gestures is facilitated in order to establish persistent vigilance for social threat-related cues. This form of social conditioning allows to establish a predictive relationship between social stimuli and motivationally relevant outcomes.

Wieser, Matthias J.; Flaisch, Tobias; Pauli, Paul

2014-01-01

286

Evaluation of the performance of two strains of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis Niloticus in mixed raising systems  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the productive performance of two strains of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus in mixed raising systems. A total of 3600 fish-larvae species was used, 1800 belonging to Bouaké lineage, and 1800 to Chitralada. The experiment was carried out in three phases; Phase I in an incubator in 18 boxes, in which two treatments (Bouaké and Chitralada were tested by using nine repetitions; Phases II and III were performed in 18 cement tanks with the same treatments. In phase I, regarding the final weight and gain of weight, Chitralada strain showed the highest final weight values. In phase II, Chitralada showed the highest final weight value when compared with Bouaké, and, considering the gain of weight, Bouaké obtained the best result. In phase III, Chitralada showed better final weight results (104 days of raising, final weight, final length and gain of length/cm (152 days of raising; but, after 279 days of the cultivation, Bouaké showed a higher weight and length gain. These findings showed that Chitralada strain presented the best performance.O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o desempenho produtivo de duas linhagens de tilápia do Nilo (Oreochromis niloticus em sistemas de cultivo misto. Foram utilizados 3600 alevinos de tilápia, 1800 da linhagem Bouaké e 1800 da Chitralada. O experimento foi conduzido em três fases, a Fase I realizada em estufa em 18 caixas, nas quais foram testados dois tratamentos (Bouaké e Chitralada e nove repetições; e a Fase II e III realizadas em 18 tanques de alvenaria, com os mesmos tratamentos. Na fase I, a linhagem Chitralada apresentou os maiores valores para peso final e ganho em peso. Na fase II, a Chitralada apresentou o maior valor para peso final em relação à Bouaké, já para o ganho em peso a Bouaké obteve o melhor resultado. Na fase III, a Chitralada apresentou os melhores resultados para peso final (104 dias de cultivo; peso final, comprimento final e ganho em comprimento (152 dias de cultivo e aos 279 dias de cultivo, o ganho em peso e em comprimento foram maiores para a Bouaké. Estes resultados demonstraram que a linhagem de melhor desempenho foi a Chitralada.

Patrícia Ribeiro Neves

2008-06-01

287

Raised Intraocular Pressure as a Potential Risk Factor for Visual Loss in Leber Hereditary Optic Neuropathy  

Science.gov (United States)

Leber Hereditary Optic Neuropathy (LHON) is an important cause of inherited mitochondrial blindness among young adults. The majority of patients carry one of three mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) point mutations: m.3460G>A, m.11778G>A and m.14484T>C, all of which affect critical complex I subunits of the mitochondrial respiratory chain. LHON is characterised by marked incomplete penetrance, clearly implying that the mtDNA mutation is insufficient on its own to trigger retinal ganglion cell dysfunction and visual loss. In this case series of three affected patients harbouring the m.11778G>A mutation, we provide evidence suggesting that raised intraocular pressure could be a risk factor triggering visual loss in at-risk LHON carriers.

Thouin, Anais; Griffiths, Philip G.; Hudson, Gavin; Chinnery, Patrick F.; Yu-Wai-Man, Patrick

2013-01-01

288

Raised intraocular pressure as a potential risk factor for visual loss in Leber Hereditary Optic Neuropathy.  

Science.gov (United States)

Leber Hereditary Optic Neuropathy (LHON) is an important cause of inherited mitochondrial blindness among young adults. The majority of patients carry one of three mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) point mutations: m.3460G>A, m.11778G>A and m.14484T>C, all of which affect critical complex I subunits of the mitochondrial respiratory chain. LHON is characterised by marked incomplete penetrance, clearly implying that the mtDNA mutation is insufficient on its own to trigger retinal ganglion cell dysfunction and visual loss. In this case series of three affected patients harbouring the m.11778G>A mutation, we provide evidence suggesting that raised intraocular pressure could be a risk factor triggering visual loss in at-risk LHON carriers. PMID:23667621

Thouin, Anais; Griffiths, Philip G; Hudson, Gavin; Chinnery, Patrick F; Yu-Wai-Man, Patrick

2013-01-01

289

Renormalization flow for extreme value statistics of random variables raised to a varying power  

CERN Multimedia

Using a renormalization approach, we study the asymptotic limit distribution of the maximum value in a set of independent and identically distributed random variables raised to a power q(n) that varies monotonically with the sample size n. Under these conditions, a non-standard class of max-stable limit distributions, which mirror the classical ones, emerges. Furthermore a transition mechanism between the classical and the non-standard limit distributions is brought to light. If q(n) grows slower than a characteristic function q*(n), the standard limit distributions are recovered, while if q(n) behaves asymptotically as k.q*(n), non-standard limit distributions emerge.

Angeletti, Florian; Abry, Patrice

2011-01-01

290

Genetic diversity of a large set of horse breeds raised in France assessed by microsatellite polymorphism  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract The genetic diversity and structure of horses raised in France were investigated using 11 microsatellite markers and 1679 animals belonging to 34 breeds. Between-breed differences explained about ten per cent of the total genetic diversity (Fst = 0.099. Values of expected heterozygosity ranged from 0.43 to 0.79 depending on the breed. According to genetic relationships, multivariate and structure analyses, breeds could be classified into four genetic differentiated groups: warm-blooded, draught, Nordic and pony breeds. Using complementary maximisation of diversity and aggregate diversity approaches, we conclude that particular efforts should be made to conserve five local breeds, namely the Boulonnais, Landais, Merens, Poitevin and Pottok breeds.

Mériaux Jean-Claude

2009-01-01

291

Raising energy efficiency and cutting greenhouse gas emissions : an analysis of publicly funded petroleum research  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

From the preface: This brochure is based on an analysis study that ascertained that since 2004 the Research Council's PETROMAKS and DEMO 2000 programmes have allocated funding to more than 80 projects carried out by the research community and private industry relating to climate challenges. Once these projects have been concluded, they will have received a total of over half a billion kroner in public funding. There is no doubt that many of the measures recommended by these projects will have positive impacts on the environment. Many of these research findings can contribute to making processes more energy efficient or to directly reducing emissions of greenhouse gases. The brochure presents a selection of these projects. A complete list of projects under the PETROMAKS and DEMO 2000 programmes which address raising energy efficiency may be found at the end of the brochure.(eb)

NONE

2012-11-01

292

Imaging of bone tumors using a monoclonal antibody raised against human osteosarcoma  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The radiolabeled monoclonal antibody 791T/36 raised against a human osteosarcoma was injected into 20 patients with known or suspected bone tumors. Gamma camera images were acquired at 48 or 72 hours after injection, and assessed for antibody localization. Positive images were obtained in all five osteosarcomas and four other primary malignant sarcomas. Two of the four other primary bone tumors gave positive images. Three patients with trauma had negative images as did one patient with Paget's disease. Two patients with suppurative disease gave positive images. The antibody localized in the majority of malignant sarcomas tested. In one tumor where tissue was available, a tumor:non-tumor ratio of 2.8:1 was measured. Repeat imaging was performed in five patients. Immunoscintigraphy using the monoclonal antibody 791T/36 has shown tumor localization in patients with bone and soft tissue sarcomas.

Armitage, N.C.; Perkins, A.C.; Pimm, M.V.; Wastie, M.; Hopkins, J.S.; Dowling, F.; Baldwin, R.W.; Hardcastle, J.D.

1986-07-01

293

Imaging of bone tumors using a monoclonal antibody raised against human osteosarcoma  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The radiolabeled monoclonal antibody 791T/36 raised against a human osteosarcoma was injected into 20 patients with known or suspected bone tumors. Gamma camera images were acquired at 48 or 72 hours after injection, and assessed for antibody localization. Positive images were obtained in all five osteosarcomas and four other primary malignant sarcomas. Two of the four other primary bone tumors gave positive images. Three patients with trauma had negative images as did one patient with Paget's disease. Two patients with suppurative disease gave positive images. The antibody localized in the majority of malignant sarcomas tested. In one tumor where tissue was available, a tumor:non-tumor ratio of 2.8:1 was measured. Repeat imaging was performed in five patients. Immunoscintigraphy using the monoclonal antibody 791T/36 has shown tumor localization in patients with bone and soft tissue sarcomas

1986-07-01

294

Raised concentrations of plasma atrial natriuretic peptides in cardiac transplant recipients.  

Science.gov (United States)

Plasma atrial natriuretic peptide concentrations were measured by radioimmunoassay six to 77 weeks after operation in eight cardiac transplant recipients with no appreciable evidence of cardiac failure or rejection and in eight control subjects matched for age, sex, race, and blood pressure. Plasma atrial natriuretic peptide concentrations were significantly higher in the cardiac transplant recipients (mean 19.4 (SE 3.9) ng/l) than in the controls (7.3 (1.2) ng/l p less than 0.01). The mechanisms underlying these raised values were not clear. These findings suggest that the transplanted atria may secrete atrial peptides and also that innervation is not obligatory for secretion of atrial natriuretic peptides to occur. Before this can be confirmed, however, it remains to be established what the relative contribution of donor and recipient atrial tissue is to the secretion of these peptides.

Singer, D R; Buckley, M G; Macgregor, G A; Khaghani, A; Banner, N R; Yacoub, M H

1986-01-01

295

Mind the gap: the distributional effects of raising the early eligibility age and full retirement age.  

Science.gov (United States)

Policymakers have proposed increases to the early eligibility age (EEA) and/or full retirement age (FRA) to address increasing life expectancy and Social Security solvency issues. This analysis uses the Social Security Administration's Modeling Income in the Near Term, version 6 (MINT6) model to compare three retirement-age increases suggested by the Social Security Advisory Board: increase the gap between the EEA and FRA by raising only the FRA, increase both the EEA and FRA to maintain a 4-year gap between them, and increase both the EEA and FRA to maintain a 5-year gap between them. Although all three options would improve system solvency by similar proportions, their effect on individual beneficiaries in the future would vary. Benefit reductions are greater under the proposals with more months between the EEA and FRA, while the option that maintains a 4-year gap results in benefit increases for some beneficiaries compared with current law. PMID:23397744

Olsen, Anya

2012-01-01

296

Raising money with tax incentives: an overview of how U.S. tax credits are marketed  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This article outlines a method for using certain U.S. income tax credits to raise investment capital. With proper structuring, these tax credits can essentially be ''sold'' to outside investors. A project which may not have sufficient income to take advantage of tax benefits, such as the 29 alternative fuel credit, may sell an interest in the project to commercial investors who can use tax credits. The investors provide cash for the project in return for the tax credits, as well as a portion of the income generated by the project. This article outlines how this type of arrangement can be structured and which tax credits are available for ''sale''. It also identifies possible sources of investment money, issues that an investor will likely consider before investing in such a project, and the potential pitfalls of such a project. (author)

1997-01-01

297

A case of renal oxalosis in a 3-month-old cat raised under controlled conditions.  

Science.gov (United States)

The kidneys of a 3-month-old female cat were examined. The cat which had been raised under controlled conditions with no history of any poisoning showed progressive weight loss with increases in blood BUN and creatinine concentrations. At necropsy, both kidneys were firm in consistency with formation of focal scars. Histopathologically, widespread deposition of crystals was observed in the renal tubules (in both dilated lumina and degenerative epithelia) accompanying mild interstitial fibrosis with lymphocyte infiltration. The crystals were colorless or basophilic on the hematoxilin and eosin-stained section and could be visualized with polarized light as doubly fractile crystals. The crystals were identified as calcium oxalate crystals by histochemical examinations using von Kossa stain and alizarin red S stain under different conditions and by ultrastructural examination. Judging from the above-mentioned findings, the present renal lesion detected in an infant cat was diagnosed as renal oxalosis which was suspected to be hereditary in nature. PMID:22067080

Suzuki, Takayuki; Uetsuka, Koji; Doi, Kunio; Nunoya, Tetsuo

2012-03-01

298

Characterization of mouse mammary tumour specific cell surface antigens with rabbit antisera raised against such cells  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Several categories of newly expressed cell surface antigens may be detected in RNA tumour virus transformed cells, such as viral structural proteins, embryonic or fetal antigens and non-virion, virus-associated tumour specific cell surface antigens (TCSAs). It is possible that the mammary tumour-bearing mouse is immunologically tolerant to particular TCSAs. Such antigens would not be detected in the homologous system. To examine this possibility the authors raised sera in rabbits against MuMTV-induced mouse mammary tumour cells. The sera were tested in a humoral cytotoxicity assay and in a membrane immunofluorescence assay against mouse mammary tumour cells and against control cells. Sera were subsequently subjected to different absorption procedures. (Auth.)

299

Interpreting the mineral reservation of the Stock-Raising Homestead Act: Watt v. Western Nuclear, Inc  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Supreme Court interpreted the Stock-Raising Homestead Act (SRHA) in Watt v. Western Nuclear, Inc. as reserving common gravel deposits to the US because they are minimal in character. This ignored traditional rules of statutory construction, an adopted an all-inclusive definition of the term minerals that is limited only by fluctuating market conditions. The Court subjugated the original congressional objective of settling the West to the current policy of reserving all assets absolutely. Rather than clarifying the definition of reserved minerals, this injected additional ambiguity into the land title area in which the Court has been unwilling to upset settled expectations. Such a departure from the common use and understanding of the term and from property rights cannot be justified by either policy considerations or notions of justice and fair play

1985-01-01

300

Mama `poma´, dad `apple´: Raising a Child with Catalan in Australia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The decision to speak Catalan to my daughter came naturally to me. Howelse would I tell a story, sing a lullaby or make her laugh but in thelanguage I was told stories, sung lullabies to and made to laugh since I wasa new-born! However, whereas the choice to speak one’s mother tongue toyour children is not questioned anymore in Spain, making this same choicewhen you live elsewhere seems to raise a lot of eyebrows. In this article Iwill reflect, from my own experience, on speaking a language of Spainother than Spanish in Australia. Catalan is one of 300 communitylanguages in Australia, and it’s spoken by a small and ageing population.

Victòria Gras

2007-01-01

 
 
 
 
301

Cerebrospinal fluid hypoxanthine and xanthine concentrations as indicators of metabolic damage due to raised intracranial pressure in hydrocephalic children.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Intracranial pressure and cerebrospinal fluid hypoxanthine and xanthine concentrations were measured in hydrocephalic children with suspected raised intracranial pressure. There was a highly significant correlation between intracranial pressure and cerebrospinal fluid hypoxanthine and xanthine levels.

1984-01-01

302

Faculty Pay Up 5.9 Pct. to $35,470; Best Raise in 15 Years, AAUP Says.  

Science.gov (United States)

While faculty salaries rose more overall, there are continuing signs of salary compression, with lower-ranking faculty getting larger raises than higher-ranking faculty, and faculty continue to lose purchasing power. (MSE)

Heller, Scott

1987-01-01

303

[Maria Goeppert-Mayer Award to Taiwan-born and raised American physicist Michele Ma Chung-pei  

CERN Multimedia

"The American Physical Society conferred the prestigious Maria Goeppert-Mayer Award to Taiwan-born and raised American physicist Michele Ma Chung-pei recently in recognition of her important contributions to theoretical astrophysics" (1 page).

2003-01-01

304

Importance of the horse and financial impact of equine trypanosomiasis on cattle raising in Venezuela.  

Science.gov (United States)

In Venezuela, horses are indispensable for extensive cattle raising, and extensive cattle raising prevails in all regions. This determines the numerical relationship between horses and cattle (r?=?0.93) to be relatively constant nationwide. At regional level, the average extension of cattle ranches varies greatly. However, in relation to the area covered by pastures, the numbers of horses (r?=?0.95) and cattle (r?=?0.93) are relatively uniform nationwide. Water buffalo occupy small fractions of the territory; therefore, their numbers are related to the area of pastures less strongly (r?=?0.56). There is no information on the numerical relationship between the numbers of horses and water buffalo. In the Llanos region of the country, equine trypanosomiasis is responsible for a high mortality in horses, causing considerable financial losses to cattle ranches. So far, such losses have not been assessed. For this region, in 2008, it can be calculated that: (1) with no treatment, losses owing to horse mortality caused by this hemoparasitosis would have amounted to US$7,486,000; (2) the diagnosis and treatment of affected horses would have required an investment of US$805,000; and (3) in terms of horses saved, this investment would have resulted in benefit of US$6,232,000. Therefore, for every monetary unit invested, there would be a benefit 7.75 times greater, this ratio being applicable to any year and all regions of the country. It follows that the profitability of investing in the diagnosis and treatment of equine trypanosomiasis is guaranteed. PMID:23666515

Moreno, S Andrea; Concepción, Juan Luis; Nava, Mayerly; Molinari, Jesús

2013-11-01

305

Mutagenic Potential and Nutritive Quality of Turnip Plants Raised over Chromium Amended Soils  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Use of waste water for irrigation has lead to an increase in the chromium content of agricultural soils in many areas and the plants grown over these soils are known to accumulate this heavy metal in their parts, thus paving way for its entry into the food chain. The present study aims at assessment of mutagenicity of turnip plants raised over soils amended with chromium as well as to study the effect of this heavy metal in soil on various biochemical constituents of this important food crop. Turnip plants were raised from seeds in pots filled with soils amended with chromium. Potassium dichromate was used as the source of chromium and final concentrations taken in pots were 1, 10, 50 and 100 ?gCr g-1 dry weight of the soil. The plants were uprooted on reaching edible stage and evaluated for their food quality. The chromium uptake by plants were found to increase with the chromium added to the soil and this was observed to have an adverse effect on the vitamin A, C and fibre content, the content of total soluble proteins and the carbohydrates was however, observed to be higher in roots of plants from chromium amended soils as compared to the control plants. The mutagenic potential of the water extracts of roots of turnip plants was tested using Ames assay on TA98 and TA100 strains of Salmonella typhimurium (Loeffler, 1892 with some modifications. The number of revertant colonies formed in spots containing test extracts bore a direct relationship with the chromium in the soil as well as that accumulated by the plants. The present study thus showed that the turnip plants harvested from chromium rich soils showed a decrease in the contents of vitamins and fibre and there is also possibility of such crops being mutagenic to the consumer.

M.I.S. Saggoo

2010-01-01

306

System for automatically preventing the raising of ash from dedicated landfills  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The paper presents a system for automatic prevention of raising of ashes from dedicated landfills based on a simple mathematical model which has modest entry requirements for meteorological data. Such an approach is efficient enough and enables fast information retrieval, i.e. zones with different concentrations of dust in the air, enabling quick start of counter measures to reduce emissions of ashes into the air. The system hardware consists of an automatic weather station, set of meters that determine moisture of ash, set of remotely managed sprinklers, computers, microprocessor and microcontroller based elements for the local acquisition and management of the executive elements and modules for wireless data transfer. An original software application for the system management has been developed. Within the application there is a module that allows entering of all data necessary to configure the system, as well as data about sensors and sprinklers. Based on the meteorological input data, measured moisture content of the ashes, and on the basis of determined functional dependencies, special software module operates sprinklers for soaking the surfaces from which the ashes is emitted into the air, in order to eliminate these emissions. The system, based on the developed mathematical model, predicts the propagation of ashes through the air, as well as dry and wet deposition, in real-time. The system automatically stores all the data relevant to the future analyses and reporting. The system is designed and implemented as modular and open. A custom developed graphical user interface serves as Man-Machine Interface (MMI. By using the TCP/IP connection it could be easily connected with the other information systems. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR-15005: Design and development of pilot system for preventing automatic raise of ashes from dedicated dumps

Milutinovi? Predrag

2012-01-01

307

Sweet Potato and Cassava Can Modify Cholesterol Profile in Humans with Moderately Raised Serum Cholesterol Levels  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Sweet potato (kamote and cassava are good sources of dietary fiber and resistant starch and are staple foods in the Philippines. The objective of the study is to determine changes in glucose and lipid profile after consumption of sweet potato and cassava in humans with moderately raised serum glucose and lipid profile. Sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas, Super Taiwan variety, and cassava (Manihot esculenta were used as test foods while white bread was used as the control food. Fifty-nine apparently healthy human adults were fed with the test foods for 90 days and grouped into three: Control, Sweet potato and Cassava. After an overnight fast, 10 mL blood samples were taken from the study participants for total cholesterol, HDL-C, LDL-C, triglycerides, glucose and hemoglobin A1C measurements. Height/weight and percent fat mass were also determined. The groups given sweet potato and cassava significantly increased HDL-C (P 0.05. There was a significant decrease in LDL-C in the cassava group (P 0.05. The group given slice bread significantly increased serum triglycerides (P 0.05. No significant results were observed with regards to BMI, percent fat, glucose, HbA1C, and total cholesterol. In conclusion, sweet potato and cassava increased HDL-C and decreased LDL-C in humans with moderately raised serum glucose and cholesterol levels. Sustainable intake of sweet potato and cassava may be promising in the prevention for risk of cardiovascular diseases as well as obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus.

Theressa F. Aviles

2013-05-01

308

Reproducibility and variability of dynamic cerebral autoregulation during passive cyclic leg raising.  

Science.gov (United States)

Dynamic cerebral autoregulation (dCA) estimates require mean arterial blood pressure (MABP) fluctuations of sufficient amplitude. Current methods to induce fluctuations are not easily implemented or require patient cooperation. In search of an alternative method, we evaluated if MABP fluctuations could be increased by passive cyclic leg raising (LR) and tested if reproducibility and variability of dCA parameters could be improved. Middle cerebral artery cerebral blood flow velocity (CBFV), MABP and end tidal CO2 (PetCO2) were obtained at rest and during LR at 0.1Hz in 16 healthy subjects. The MABP-CBFV phase difference and gain were determined at 0.1Hz and in the low frequency (LF) range (0.06-0.14Hz). In addition the autoregulation index (ARI) was calculated. The LR maneuver increased the power of MABP fluctuations at 0.1Hz and across the LF range. Despite a clear correlation between both phase and gain reproducibility and MABP variability in the rest condition, only the reproducibility of gain increased significantly with the maneuver. During the maneuver patients were breathing faster and more irregularly, accompanied by increased PetCO2 fluctuations and increased coherence between PetCO2 and CBFV. Multiple regression analysis showed that these concomitant changes were negatively correlated with the MABP-CBFV phase difference at 0.1Hz Variability was not reduced by LR for any of the dCA parameters. The clinical utility of cyclic passive leg raising is limited because of the concomitant changes in PetCO2. This limits reproducibility of the most important dCA parameters. Future research on reproducibility and variability of dCA parameters should incorporate PetCO2 variability or find methods to keep PetCO2 levels constant. PMID:24176834

Elting, J W; Aries, M J H; van der Hoeven, J H; Vroomen, P C A J; Maurits, N M

2014-05-01

309

Analysis of Cattle Raising and Institutional Perspectives Regarding Collective Action in the El Ocote Biosphere Reserve, Chiapas, Mexico  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The objective of this study was to analyze the perceptions of representatives of government agencies and educational institutions regarding problems related to cattle raising in the El Ocote Biosphere Reserve. Through a structural analysis, we identified and prioritized problems which due to their joint relevance, require immediate attention in order to elaborate inter-institutional plans of action which would contribute to the sustainability of cattle raising systems in natural protected are...

Gomez-castro, H.; Guevara-hernandez, F.; Hernandez-lopez, M. H.; Nahed-toral, J.; Rodriguez-larramendi, L.; Pinto-ruiz, R.

2012-01-01

310

Manipulator for inspection and possibly repair of heat exchanger tubes, particularly for steam raising units for nuclear reactors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The manipulator penetrates the shielding wall and the steam raising unit housing with a guide tube, and has a mouthpiece on its free end. Turbulence measuring probes, cleaning stoppers, opening stoppers etc., can be introduced into the steam raising unit at the mouthpiece. A flexible guide hose runs through the guide tube, which is connected to the movable hose for the measuring or repair equipment. (DG)

1981-01-01

311

Should governments in Europe be more aggressive in pushing for gender equality to raise fertility? The second "NO"  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper argues against the suggestion that governments should push for gender equality more aggressively in order to raise fertility. The paper presents a threefold "no" to this proposal. It takes issue with the goal of raising fertility, arguing that the claims that fertility must be increased are based on myths. It rejects a more aggressive pursuit of gender equality for demographic purposes, maintaining that this method preserves inequality. It warns against using gender equalit...

Gerda Neyer

2011-01-01

312

Parent and family impact of raising a child with perinatal stroke  

Science.gov (United States)

Background Perinatal stroke is a leading cause of early brain injury, cerebral palsy, and lifelong neurological morbidity. No study to date has examined the impact of raising a child with perinatal stroke on parents and families. However, a large breadth of research suggests that parents, especially mothers, may be at increased risk for psychological concerns. The primary aim of this study was to examine the impact of raising a child with perinatal stroke on mothers’ wellbeing. A secondary aim was to examine how caring for a child with perinatal stroke differentially affects mothers and fathers. Methods In Study I, a matched case-control design was used to compare the wellbeing of mothers of children with perinatal stroke and mothers of children with typical development. In Study II, a matched case-control design was used to compare mother-father dyads. Participants completed validated measures of anxiety and depression, stress, quality of life and family functioning, marital satisfaction, and marital distress. Parents of children with perinatal stroke also completed a recently validated measure of the psychosocial impact of perinatal stroke including guilt and blame outcomes. Disease severity was categorized by parents, validated by the Pediatric Stroke Outcome Measure (PSOM), and compared across the above outcomes in Study I. Results A total of 112 mothers participated in Study I (n?=?56 per group; mean child age?=?7.42 years), and 56 parents participated in Study II (n?=?28 per group; mean child age?=?8.25 years). In Study I, parent assessment of disease severity was correlated with PSOM scores (??=?0.75, p?

2014-01-01

313

Metabolic changes of masseter muscle in experimental unilateral bite-raised rat determined by 31P-MRS  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Occlusal interference is known to alter the functional activity of masticatory muscle, but no alteration of the energy metabolism of masticatory muscle which has gone occlusal interference has been reported. The purpose of this study was to investigate the energy metabolism in rat masseter muscle during masticatory movements following unilateral bite-raising. A bite-raising splint (1 mm) was fixed on the unilateral upper molar of experimental rats, and after 2, 4 and 6 weeks, the rats were anesthetized and masticatory movements were induced by electrical stimulation applied to the masseter muscle (with a biting force of 40 g, a frequency of 5 Hz and a stimulation time of 32 min). 31P Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy of the masseter muscle were recorded during a sequence of rest, stimulation and recovery periods, and the resonance signal area ratio of PCr and Pi ((PCr)/(PCr + Pi)) and the muscle pH were determined. After 4 and 6 weeks following the bite-raising, the masseter of the bite-raised side showed a decrease in the (PCr)/(PCr + Pi) ratio compared with a control group during stimulation (p<0.05). Neither the bite-raised side masseter at 2 weeks and the contralateral side at 4 weeks showed any differences compared with the control. The muscle pH during stimulation was similar in both the control and the bite-raised groups of rats. These findings suggest that the occlusal alteration induced by unilateral bite-raising reduces the masseter energy level during mastication. (author)

1997-05-01

314

Developing and disseminating a foodprint tool to raise awareness about healthy and environmentally conscious food choices  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This article describes the development and dissemination of an ecological footprint tool that provides a concise and scientifically grounded summary of the environmental impact of personal food choices. Developed to be easy to use and available to consumers via online social networking platforms, the tool aims to raise awareness and to provide an impetus for behavior change. The foodprint tool communicates scientifically informed and customized practical advice on how individuals can reduce their ecological footprint (EF (or “foodprint”. The first part of the article describes the process of developing this tool, the choice of indicator, the goals, and the results. Among other aspects, the tool enables users to understand that the largest contributors to their foodprint are sources of animal protein: dairy, meat, and fish. The second part of the article describes the strategy guiding the tool’s design and implementation, which is based on a combination of contextual communication, feedback from peers, and intrinsic motivation. In this footprint tool, a focus on food patterns, interactive feedback, and social media plays a key role. The tool consists of a survey with fifteen questions about personal food choice that allow users to receive individualized feedback, including five suggestions for reducing personal foodprints. Users can also share their results through customary social media. Due to an effective outreach campaign, a total of 90,000 Dutch consumers used this tool over a period of four months, with 1% indicating that they intended to change behavior.

Tine Bosschaert

2013-09-01

315

Growth patterns and reproductive strategies in the lizard, Calotes versicolor raised in captivity  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The paper describes the growth patterns and breeding strategies in the lizard, Calotes versicolor in captivity. The lizards were raised in laboratory from hatching. It was observed that these lizards attain sexual maturity at 7.42 ± 0.5 months of age. Growth rate in males is always higher than in females and sexual size dimorphism in C. versicolor is due to the difference in growth rate between the sexes. The study revealed that some females reproduce in the first year at smaller body size (snout-vent length-SVL ~ 8 cm with small clutch size while some skip reproduction in the first year, grow larger (SVL ~11.5 cm and reproduce in second year with larger clutch size, yet others reproduce in first year, skip reproduction in second year and reproduce in the third year and some skip reproduction in the first 2 years of life and reproduce in third year attaining larger body size (SVL >13.6 cm with greater clutch size. Thus, females exhibit different strategies of trade-off between growth and reproduction. In addition, the study showed that C. versicolor may lay as many as 3 clutches of eggs in a breeding season. Thus, the study provides information on growth, age at sexual maturity, relationship between growth and reproduction and reproductive strategies exhibited by the lizard in captivity.

S.K. Saidapur

2010-12-01

316

The Quality of Liquid Fermented Products for Alternative Use of Antibiotics for Animal Raising  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The chemical properties of liquid fermented products (LFP) as probiotics substance for alternative uses of antibiotic were studied. The LFP of 235 were sampling from markets and farmers during 2005-2006. The total count of bacteria, fungi, lactic acid bacteria (LAB), Actinomyces and coliform bacteria were conducted. Chemical analysis of LFP showed medium nitrogen (0.01- 0.55%), maximum sugar contents (0.02 - 19.40%), high lactic acid contents (0.34 - 13.01%) and low pH (2.9-5.0). LFPs were free from fecal coliform and Escherichia coil (Ec); but in LAB (1.0 - 1.25x107 cfu/ml) and high Actinomyces (1.0 - 7.5 x 106 cfu/ml). LFPs inhibited Staphylococcus aureus (Sa), Samonella typhimurium (STM), Escherichia coil (Ec) and Ec 0157 at maximum yield by using Minimal Inhibition Concentration (MIC). But Pseudomonas aeruginosa (Pa) could medium inhibited. Therefore LFP samples are suitable as probiotics for alternative use of antibiotic for animal raising.

2006-09-28

317

Avalanches in the raise and peel model in the presence of a wall  

Science.gov (United States)

We investigate a non-equilibrium one-dimensional model known as the raise and peel model describing a growing surface which grows locally and has non-local desorption. For specific values of adsorption (ua) and desorption (ud) rates, the model shows interesting features. At ua = ud, the model is described by a conformal field theory (with conformal charge c = 0) and its stationary probability can be mapped onto the ground state of the XXZ quantum chain. Moreover, for the regime ua ? ud, the model shows a phase in which the avalanche distribution is scale-invariant. In this work, we study the surface dynamics by looking at avalanche distributions using a finite-sized scaling formalism and explore the effect of adding a wall to the model. The model shows the same universality for the cases with and without a wall for an odd number of tiles removed, but we find a new exponent in the presence of a wall for an even number of tiles released in an avalanche. New insights into the effect of parity on avalanche distributions are discussed and we provide a new conjecture for the probability distribution of avalanches with a wall obtained by using an exact diagonalization of small lattices and Monte Carlo simulations.

Antillon, Edwin; Wehefritz-Kaufmann, Birgit; Kais, Sabre

2013-07-01

318

Luminescence and radiocarbon dating of raised beach sediments, Bunger Hills, East Antarctica  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Luminescence and radiocarbon dating of raised marine sediments from the Bunger Hills, East Antarctica, demonstrates that luminescence methods can be applied to such poorly bleached sediments as long as the luminescence behaviour of the sediments is understood. This is essential as the complete zeroing of the luminescence signal due to light exposure is required to allow an accurate age for the sediment accumulation. Unfortunately, independent checks on the luminescence ages are rare. In the present study, some independent age control is provided by AMS radiocarbon ages from shell obtained from and adjacent to the luminescence dated horizons, although the radiocarbon ages may suffer to some degree from variability in the marine reservoir effect. Application of the single aliquot luminescence technique to feldspar grains from the marine sediments demonstrated that the luminescence behaviour of the sediments was complex. For each sample, 18 replicate paleodose estimates were used to demonstrate whether the sediments were well bleached before deposition. Optically, well-bleached samples give younger luminescence ages, whilst poorly bleached samples often give excessively old ages compared to the associated radiocarbon-dated material. (author)

1999-07-05

319

Raising the Higgs Mass in Supersymmetry with t-t' Mixing  

CERN Document Server

In this article we propose a new strategy to address the Little Hierarchy problem. We show that the addition of a fourth generation with vector-like quarks to the minimal supersymmetric standard model (MSSM) can raise the predicted value of the physical Higgs mass by mixing with the top sector. The mixing requires a larger top quark Yukawa coupling (by up to $\\sim 6 %$) to produce the same top mass. Since loop corrections to $m_h$ go as $y_{top}^4$, this will in turn increase the predicted value of the physical Higgs mass, a point not previously emphasized in the literature. In the presence of mixing, for A-terms and soft masses around 900 GeV, a Higgs mass of 125 GeV can be generated while retaining perturbativity of the gauge couplings, evading constraints from electroweak precision measurements (EWPM) and recent LHC searches, and pushing the Landau pole for the top Yukawa above the GUT scale. Soft masses can be as low as 800 GeV in parts of parameter space with a Landau pole at $\\sim 10^{10}$ GeV. However,...

Faroughy, C

2014-01-01

320

The Radial Velocity Signature of Tides Raised in Stars Hosting Exoplanets  

CERN Document Server

Close-in, massive exoplanets raise significant tides in their stellar hosts. We compute the radial velocity (RV) signal due to this fluid motion in the equilibrium tide approximation. The predicted radial velocities in the observed sample of exoplanets exceed 1 m/s for 17 systems, with the largest predicted signal being ~30 m/s for WASP-18 b. Tidally-induced RV's are thus detectable with present methods. Both tidal fluid flow and the epicyclic motion of a slightly eccentric orbit produce an RV signal at twice the orbital frequency. If care is not taken, the tidally induced RV may, in some cases, be confused with a finite orbital eccentricity. Indeed, WASP-18 b is reported to have an eccentric orbit with small e=0.009 and pericenter longitude \\omega=-\\pi/2. Whereas such a close alignment of the orbit and line of sight to the observer requires fine tuning, this phase in the RV signal is naturally explained by the tidal velocity signature of an e=0 orbit. Additionally, the equilibrium tide estimate for the ampli...

Arras, Phil; Quataert, Eliot; Weinberg, Nevin N

2011-01-01

 
 
 
 
321

Ethical issues raised by the new orientations in ergonomics and living labs.  

Science.gov (United States)

User Experience Theory (UXT) provides us with criteria for designing products and technical systems for everyday activities (playing, learning, working,…) so as to satisfy users. Living Labs (LL), are plateforms used for the design and evaluation of technical systems. As such, they constitute tools that bring to this process some constraints., However these constraints have to be articulated to the UXT. In other words, UXT should specify the place, the role and function LL should play in the design of new products, how it should contribute to satisfying UX, and how the methods and techniques should be conceived or borrowed from other disciplines. UXT also raises ethical issues: impartiality (independent, public, replicable) of research models in the context of economical constraints (dependant, private, secret prototypes) and of industrial pressure, the use of intrusive and persuasive techniques, even with the prior informed consent of participants, ergo-marketing, deontology codes, the use of specific participants, belonging of an UX innovative solution, confidentiality with ICT, and so on. Because the UX, as well as LL literature, have shown little concerns for ethical considerations, till now, we define LL-UX ethical issues as a new research topic, and we list a number of problems to be solved in order to have an ethical LL-UX methodology for open innovation. PMID:22317534

Barcenilla, Javier; Tijus, Charles

2012-01-01

322

Compressor raises mains gas supply pressure for co-gen turbine  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

An advanced, modular natural gas compressor station was recently supplied by Ecoair, of Wolfratshausen, Germany, a subsidiary of MAN GHH, for an industrial cogeneration plant at Konstanz on the German-Swiss border. Given that nominal gas pressure is usually well below the turbine manufacturer's specified inlet pressure, as well as being subject to wide daily and seasonal fluctuations, it is usually necessary to equip the cogeneration plant with a dedicated, electrically driven gas compressor to raise gas pressure to the specified combustor inlet level. At Konstanz, this function is fulfilled by a type MS 80E - 7/13-G-W-CR compressor module from Ecoair. The Konstanz industrial cogeneration plant is based on a Solar Centaur H industrial gas turbine coupled to a Leroy Somer generator via a Flender-Graffenstaden 10:1 reduction gear. The generator delivers 3.8 MW of electrical power at a frequency of 50 Hz and tension of 10,500 volts. The Centaur gas turbine has an exhaust gas temperature of around 520[degree]C and waste heat is used to produce up to 10 t/h of steam at 200[degree]C and 12 bar pressure in a 22 t/h waste-heat boiler supplied by Omnical mGmbH of Dietzhoelztal, Germany. 3 figs.

1994-04-01

323

Raising efficiency and lowering maintenance requirements with the example of reconstructing coke oven units  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This artiicle describes the general overhaul of coking ovens at the coking plant of the Schwarze Pumpe Gas-works, where brown coal high-temperature coke is produced in 9 coke oven units. During the overhaul the utility value of the oven is improved beyond its original state. This is achieved by raising the efficiency and lowering maintenance requirements. Five ovens have been reconstructed to date. The resulting increase in coke production improved with each overhaul and reached 52.5% in the most recently overhauled oven. Twenty one positions in maintenance could be economized. Certain parts of coke ovens can only be kept in an operating condition with increased maintenance expenditure, e.g. crude gas tapping and collecting main, coke delivery chute, flue gas channels, briquet pipes connecting the dryer with the oven, and steel parts of the bunker and drying constructions. Examples of improvements in these parts which were carried out and which led to longer service lives of the parts are described. (In German)

Osburg, W.; Wandke, E.

1980-03-01

324

Radionuclides in raised bogs: a case study of Bór za Lasem.  

Science.gov (United States)

Bór za Lasem is a raised bog in the Orawsko-Nowotarska Valley (southern Poland). About half of the Bór za Lasem area has been exploited while the rest is undisturbed. Peat samples from both parts of the bog were analysed. Measurements of 137Cs, 134Cs, 239,240Pu, 238Pu, 40K, 228Ra, and 226Ra activity concentrations in all samples were performed. Comparison of the results of radiocaesium and plutonium activity concentrations reveals the highest activity concentrations of radionuclides in the undisturbed part of the peat-bog area. The radiocaesium content decreased with depth, whereas the plutonium concentration had a maximum value at a depth of 15-20 cm. The lowest activity concentrations were found in the exploited part of the bog. Potassium and radium isotopes were detected only in shallow openings within the heavily exploited part of the bog, which might suggest partial mixing of the peat with the mineral sub-soil. The growth rate of the top layer of the undisturbed part of the bog obtained from plutonium distribution was estimated as approximately 0.5 cm per year. PMID:11432272

Boro?, K J; Mietelski, J W; Lipka, K; Gaca, P; Jasi?ska, M

2001-06-01

325

Contribution of ?-globin cluster polymorphisms to raise fetal hemoglobin levels in normal adults.  

Science.gov (United States)

Hereditary persistence of fetal hemoglobin (HPFH) is a group of genetically heterogeneous conditions characterized by continued expression of fetal hemoglobin (HbF) in adulthood. HPFH may be due not only to point mutations or large deletions in different regions of the cluster ? globin, but also to variations in several polymorphic sequences in this cluster. The objective of this work was to evaluate effects of polymorphic markers within cluster ? globin on HbF expression. For the purpose, we have explored in this first study of Tunisian HPFH four polymorphic regions of ? globin cluster in 68 healthy adults (34 subjects with high levels of HbF and 34 with normal HbF levels). Our results showed that the increase of HbF levels is associated with the -158 G? C ? T polymorphism, the TG(18)CG(2)CACG, TC TG(9)AG TG(2)CG(2) and TG(11)CG(4) configurations in the second intron of G? gene and the -540 ? (AT)(6)T(9) and (AT)(7)T(8) repeated sequences. Among the 34 subjects with raised levels of HbF, approximately 97% carried one or more of these six markers. This study suggests that there is a significant association between certain polymorphic configurations of the ? globin cluster and the increase of HbF levels in healthy individuals. PMID:21947948

Jouini, Latifa; Bibi, Amina; Ouali, Faida; Hadj Fredj, Sondess; Ouennich, Fekria; Siala, Hajer; Messaoud, Taieb; Fattoum, Slaheddine

2012-04-01

326

Rope NDT as means to raise safety of crane and elevator use  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Steel rope NDT by magnetic flaw detectors is usual for mine hoist inspection through the world. But it is no ordinary by crane and especially by elevator inspection. However, magnetic NDT statistic data of 60 crane and 227 elevator ropes in use shows that about 23% of crane and 9% of elevator ropes should be discarded in accordance with actual discarding criterion in Russia. Russian State Rules for crane safe exploitation require the magnetic NDT while periodically inspection. But not all the inspecting companies meet it in Russia, contenting themselves by visual inspection only. This is not objective and does not provide rope inner faults detection. That is a reason of rope break rather high percentage in general statistics of crane accidents and damages. Investigation of accidents with crane ropes in Moscow region in 2001 shows that they would de prevented by the magnetic NDT fulfilled timely. The elevator rope NDT problem is not so sharp but attention should de attracted to it to raise safety of elevators. (author)

2006-01-01

327

Root Raised Cosine (RRC) Filters and Pulse Shaping in Communication Systems  

Science.gov (United States)

This presentation briefly discusses application of the Root Raised Cosine (RRC) pulse shaping in the space telecommunication. Use of the RRC filtering (i.e., pulse shaping) is adopted in commercial communications, such as cellular technology, and used extensively. However, its use in space communication is still relatively new. This will possibly change as the crowding of the frequency spectrum used in the space communication becomes a problem. The two conflicting requirements in telecommunication are the demand for high data rates per channel (or user) and need for more channels, i.e., more users. Theoretically as the channel bandwidth is increased to provide higher data rates the number of channels allocated in a fixed spectrum must be reduced. Tackling these two conflicting requirements at the same time led to the development of the RRC filters. More channels with wider bandwidth might be tightly packed in the frequency spectrum achieving the desired goals. A link model with the RRC filters has been developed and simulated. Using 90% power Bandwidth (BW) measurement definition showed that the RRC filtering might improve spectrum efficiency by more than 75%. Furthermore using the matching RRC filters both in the transmitter and receiver provides the improved Bit Error Rate (BER) performance. In this presentation the theory of three related concepts, namely pulse shaping, Inter Symbol Interference (ISI), and Bandwidth (BW) will be touched upon. Additionally the concept of the RRC filtering and some facts about the RRC filters will be presented

Cubukcu, Erkin

2012-01-01

328

Rope NDT as means to raise safety of crane and elevator use  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Steel rope NDT by magnetic flaw detectors is usual for mine hoist inspection through the world. But it is no ordinary by crane and especially by elevator inspection. However, magnetic NDT statistic data of 60 crane and 227 elevator ropes in use shows that about 23% of crane and 9% of elevator ropes should be discarded in accordance with actual discarding criterion in Russia. Russian State Rules for crane safe exploitation require the magnetic NDT while periodically inspection. But not all the inspecting companies meet it in Russia, contenting themselves by visual inspection only. This is not objective and does not provide rope inner faults detection. That is a reason of rope break rather high percentage in general statistics of crane accidents and damages. Investigation of accidents with crane ropes in Moscow region in 2001 shows that they would de prevented by the magnetic NDT fulfilled timely. The elevator rope NDT problem is not so sharp but attention should de attracted to it to raise safety of elevators. (author)

Kotelnikov, V. [Gosgortechnadzor, Moscow (Russian Federation); Sukhorukov, V. [Intron Plus, Ltd., Moscow (Russian Federation)

2006-03-15

329

The New Ways to Raise Capital: An Exploratory Study of Crowdfunding  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Purpose – Paper aims is to describe, analyze and to increase the knowledge of the emerging crowdfunding phenomenon. This can be defined as the practice of funding a project or venture by raising a lot of small quantities of money from a huge number of people. Even though the number of academic studies has been increasing, the coverage of the population is relatively weak and not well understood by entrepreneurs and individual investors.Design/Methodology/Findings - The research can be classified as an exploratory research. It focuses on how the crowdfunding works. The research addresses the following research questions: What is crodwfunding? Which are the main characteristics of this phenomenon? Wihic are the principal strengths and the main weaknesses of crowdfunding? The findings expose purposes, characteristics, roles and tasks, and investment size of crowd-funding activity.Practical implications - The findings have implications for service managers interested in managing crowd-funding initiatives and to improve the activity of the consumers.Originality/value - The paper analyses a new emergent phenomenon. It aims to define the user/costuemr’s role from co-creation to investment.

Matteo Rossi

2014-04-01

330

Student exchange for nursing students: Does it raise cultural awareness'? A descriptive, qualitative study.  

Science.gov (United States)

With free movement for citizens within the European Union and with distant parts of our globe becoming more accessible, cultural awareness and cultural competence are becoming important skills for nurses. Internationalisation and raising awareness of other cultural contexts are essential elements in Swedish higher education, thus explaining the variety of student exchange programmes that are available. The aim of this study was to explore Swedish nursing students' perceptions of student exchange and their experiences. Data were collected through group interviews and then analysed following the principles of content analysis. Our analysis resulted in three categories: Preparing to go abroad, Reasons for going abroad and From expectation to experience. Cultural aspects and cultural awareness were emphasised as strong motivational factors, both personal and professional, behind participation in student exchange programmes. Information was also highlighted as a crucial means of reaching potential students as well as the power of knowledge through personal experience. This study highlights the importance of student exchange in expanding the individual student's personal and professional horizons. It also stresses the importance of including a transcultural nursing element in nursing curricula. PMID:24406034

Bohman, Doris M; Borglin, Gunilla

2014-05-01

331

Behaviour of carbon dioxide and water vapour flux densities from a disturbed raised peat bog  

Science.gov (United States)

Measurements of carbon dioxide and water vapour flux densities were carried out for a disturbed raised peat bog in the north of the Netherlands during an 18 month continuous experiment. Tussock grass (sp. Molinea caerulae) mainly dominated the vegetation of the bog area. The maximum leaf area index (LAI) of the vegetation reached a numerical value of about 1.7 in mid-August.When the LAI is large enough (LAI > 0.2), a mean net uptake of carbon dioxide is observed with a clear daily pattern. The total evapotranspiration consists of a soil, an open water, and a plant transpiration part. When the LAI is large enough (LAI > 0.2), plant transpiration dominates the total evapotranspiration. The mean daily transpiration pattern, however, is not similar to the carbon dioxide uptake pattern.During the summer months, the daytime carbon dioxide uptake shows a single early morning maximum value followed by a decline in uptake during the rest of the day. The evapotranspiration, however, follows more or less the incoming short-wave radiation pattern. Effects of the vapour pressure deficit are suggested as a possible cause of this discrepancy.

Nieveen, Joost P.; Jacobs, Adrie F. G.

2002-10-01

332

Dams and displacement: Raising the standards and broadening the research agenda  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The World Commission on Dams provided an analytical overview of the cumulative effects of years of dam development. A lack of commitment or capacity to cope with displacement or to consider the civil rights of, or risks to, displaced people led to the impoverishment and suffering of tens of millions and growing opposition to dams by affected communities worldwide. However, after the WCD, little has changed for the better in terms of resettlement policies. In fact, the standards of key agencies, like the Asian Development Bank, have been lowered and diluted compared to prior policies. Dam-induced development and displacement are stifled by a 'managerialist' approach to planning, in which solutions are sought internally and subordinated to the economics that underpins the existence of the project. The aim of successful resettlement is to prevent impoverishment and to enable displaced people to share in the project’s benefits. Within the field of dam-induced resettlement, this is a lofty goal rarely achieved. However, in other fields of resettlement, such as refugee studies and adaptation to environmental change, such a goal is regarded as a minimum standard. In this paper we seek to broaden the research agenda on dam-induced resettlement and to raise the standards of development projects that entail resettlement. We do this by importing some of the considerations and concerns from practice and research from the fields of refugee studies and adaptation to environmental change.

Brooke McDonald-Wilmsen

2010-06-01

333

Avalanches in the raise and peel model in the presence of a wall  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We investigate a non-equilibrium one-dimensional model known as the raise and peel model describing a growing surface which grows locally and has non-local desorption. For specific values of adsorption (ua) and desorption (ud) rates, the model shows interesting features. At ua = ud, the model is described by a conformal field theory (with conformal charge c = 0) and its stationary probability can be mapped onto the ground state of the XXZ quantum chain. Moreover, for the regime ua ? ud, the model shows a phase in which the avalanche distribution is scale-invariant. In this work, we study the surface dynamics by looking at avalanche distributions using a finite-sized scaling formalism and explore the effect of adding a wall to the model. The model shows the same universality for the cases with and without a wall for an odd number of tiles removed, but we find a new exponent in the presence of a wall for an even number of tiles released in an avalanche. New insights into the effect of parity on avalanche distributions are discussed and we provide a new conjecture for the probability distribution of avalanches with a wall obtained by using an exact diagonalization of small lattices and Monte Carlo simulations. (paper)

2013-07-05

334

Comparison of free range broiler chicken strains raised in confined or semi-confined systems  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english The present study was carried out to compare the growth curve, performance and carcass yield of two broiler strains, Paraíso Pedrês (PP) and ISA Label (ISA), raised in confined or semi-confined systems. It was used a completely randomized design with five replicates, consisting of 20 and 29 birds in [...] semi-confined and confined systems, respectively. Semi-confined birds had free access to pasture at 28 days of age. Performance data were recorded weekly by building growth curves as well as calculating the growth rate. After reaching the recommended body weight (2.5 kg), male birds were slaughtered for physicochemical analysis of carcass, parts and organs. Semi-confined PP and ISA birds showed higher growth potential, higher weight gain, lower feed intake and better feed-to-gain ratio than confined birds. No interactions were observed for carcass yield and meat quality characteristics. Males presented higher yields of feet, drumstick, thigh, drumstick + thigh, and heart, while females presented higher breast and abdominal fat yield. Breast meat from ISA Label birds was more yellowish than from PP, whereas less soft meat was observed in semi-confined birds.

Santos, AL; Sakomura, NK; Freitas, ER; Fortes, CMS; Carrilho, ENVM.

335

Sustainable capacity building among immigrant communities: the raising sexually healthy children program in Canada.  

Science.gov (United States)

The Raising Sexually Healthy Children (RSHC) program is a peer-to-peer leadership training program for immigrant parents in Toronto, Canada. It was established in 1998 with the goal of promoting family sex education and parent-child communication. This evaluative study examined the developmental processes and outcomes of the RSHC program to identify the strengths, challenges and insights that can be used to improve the program. It employed a multi-case study approach to compare the RSHC programs delivered in the Chinese, Portuguese and Tamil communities. Data collection methods included focus groups, individual interviews and document analysis. The cross-case analysis identified both common and unique capacity building processes and outcomes in the three communities. In this paper, we report factors that have enhanced and hindered sustainable capacity building at the individual, group/organizational and community levels, and the strategies used by these communities to address challenges common to immigrant families. We will discuss the ecological and synergetic, but time-consuming processes of capacity building, which contributed to the sustainability of RSHC as an empowering health promotion program for immigrant communities. We conclude the paper by noting the implications of using a capacity building approach to promote family health in ethno-racial-linguistic minority communities. PMID:23740257

Narushima, Miya; Wong, Josephine Pui-Hing; Li, Anda; Sutdhibhasilp, Noulmook

2014-03-01

336

Studies on the reproductive performance of indigenous beef cattle breeds raised on-farm in Ghana  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Studies were undertaken to investigate the reproductive performance of a mixture of N'dama and West African Shorthorn (N'dama/WASH) and Sanga cattle raised under traditional management conditions on four privately owned small-holder farms. The first study involved an analysis of reproductive records and the measurement of plasma progesterone concentration to delineate the onset of various reproductive phenomena, including age at puberty and first calving, post-partum resumption of ovarian activity and other abnormal events like abortions. The second study investigated the influence of dry-season feed supplementation on reproductive performance. In study 1 the ages at first plasma progesterone rise (puberty), first mating and first calving for N'dama/WASH cattle on three farms averaged 981, 1016 and 1296 days respectively. The calving interval, calving-to-progesterone rise and calving-to-mating averaged 412, 129 and 114 days respectively. Significant differences existed among farms with Farms 1 and 2 out-performing Farm 3. The respective mean ages at first progesterone elevation, first mating and first calving for Sanga cattle (Farm 4) were 964, 990 and 1271 days while calving-to-progesterone rise, calving-to-mating and calving intervals averaged 107, 150 and 431 days. In study 2, dry-season feed supplementation generally reduced ages at puberty and first calving as well as the interval of post-partum acyclicity. (author). 18 refs, 3 figs, 9 tabs

1993-06-01

337

Parametrization of organic nitrogen mineralization models in soil treated with swine raising wastewater  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Little is known about the mineralization dynamic of organic nitrogen contained in swine manure, so models need to be adjusted for its prediction. The objective of the present study was to parameterize and assess models of organic nitrogen mineralization in soil treated with swine raising wastewater (SRW at different temperatures and water contents. Samples of 57.3 cm3 of dystrophic Red-Yellow Latosol were mixed with SRW at the application dose of 400 kg ha-1 nitrogen, placed in plastic cups and incubated at four different temperatures (15, 20, 25 and 35°C and water contents corresponding to tensions of 10, 30, 200 and 1500 kPa. Samples were removed from the incubated soil after 3, 6, 12, 24, 48 and 96 days to quantify the ammonium and nitrate concentrations. The parameters of the soil organic nitrogen mineralization models were determined from the organic nitrogen mineralization values obtained over the different incubation periods. The value of the potentially mineralizable nitrogen (N0 in soil with application of SRW was superior that of the soil without application of SRW. The mineralization constant (k in soil with application of SRW was always superior that of the soil without application of SRW. There was a tendency for the simple exponential model to underestimate the values of the mineralized nitrogen concentration. In most of the situations the potential model was more efficient than the simple exponential model to predict the mineralization of the organic nitrogen.

Demétrius David da Silva

2010-08-01

338

Paddy yield as affected by boron application directly sown on raised bed under saline sodic soils  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A field experiment was carried out to investigate the effect of different levels of boron (0.5, I, 1.5 and 2 kg B/ha) on growth, yield and ionic concentration of rice directly sown on raised beds under saline sodic soils (ECe=5.65 dS/m, pH=8.57 and SAR=17.38) at Malik Farm, Farooqabad during 2009. Treatments were arranged using randomized complete block design (RCBD) with three replications. The crop was harvested at maturity and data on tillering, plant height, spike length, number of grains/spike, 1000-grain weight, straw and paddy yields were recorded. Tillering, number of grains/spike, 1000 - grain weight and paddy yield significantly (Ps = 0.05) increased by different levels of B. 1000 grains weight (29 g) and grain yield was the maximum (4.65 t/ha) at the application of 1.5 kg B/ha and 31% more than control treatment. Maximum plant height (141 cm) and numbers of grains/spike (203) were recorded with B application at the rate of 1 kg/ha, B concentration in grain and straw increased with increasing the rate of boron application. Positive correlation (r = 0.856) was found between B contents in grain and paddy grain yield. Economical analysis showed that maximum value cost ratio (14.9:1) this achieved with the application of 1.5 kg B/ha. (author)

2012-01-01

339

Raised serum TSH in morbid-obese and non-obese patients: effect on the circulating lipid profile.  

Science.gov (United States)

Morbid obesity is associated with a high rate of raised serum TSH associated with normal free thyroid hormones. The body repercussions of this thyroid abnormality, suggesting subclinical hypothyroidism, are still debated. In particular, it is unclear whether the raised serum TSH of obesity results in changes of circulating lipids typically observed in hypothyroidism. Aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of a raised serum TSH on the lipid profile in morbid-obese and non-obese patients. Serum TSH, FT4, FT3, Tg-Ab, TPO-Ab and lipids were measured in 55 morbid-obese (BMI > 40 kg/m(2)) and 55 non-obese (BMI FT3, morbid-obese patients displayed significantly lower mean levels of total cholesterol (200.8 ± 35.6 vs. 226.9 ± 41.4 mg/dl, p < 0.001) and a significantly lower prevalence of hypercholesterolemia (50.9 vs. 72.7 %, p < 0.01) when compared with non-obese patients. Morbid-obese patients also had lower mean serum HDL cholesterol and higher serum triglycerides. The impact of a raised serum TSH on the lipid profile differs in morbid-obese compared to non-obese patients, suggesting that obese patients might not be truly hypothyroid. Measuring total cholesterol could be a helpful tool for deciding whether a morbid-obese patient with a raised serum TSH should be given levothyroxine treatment. PMID:23526236

Rotondi, Mario; Leporati, Paola; Rizza, Maria Ileana; Clerici, Alessandra; Groppelli, Gloria; Pallavicini, Cristina; La Manna, Antonella; Fonte, Rodolfo; Magri, Flavia; Biondi, Bernadette; Chiovato, Luca

2014-02-01

340

Sustained raised intracranial pressure implicated only by pattern reversal visual evoked potentials after cranial vault expansion surgery.  

Science.gov (United States)

Craniosynostosis, the premature fusion of cranial sutures, may be associated with raised intracranial pressure (ICP) with or without a reduced intracranial volume. Regardless of the aetiology, raised ICP may result in optic neuropathy, the timely detection of which can prevent further visual deterioration. Raised ICP is usually treated with craniofacial surgery such as cranial vault expansion. In this case study, we recorded serial pattern reversal visual evoked potentials (pVEPs) and obtained digital optic disc images before and after cranial vault expansion surgery. The amplitude of the pVEPs continued to decrease after cranial vault expansion surgery, prompting further neuroimaging that implicated a blocked ventriculo-peritoneal shunt. Only after shunt revision did the pVEP amplitude increase. Throughout the monitoring period, there was no change in the appearance of either the right or left optic disk, nor a consistent change in visual acuity. PMID:12845197

Liasis, Alki; Thompson, Dorothy A; Hayward, Richard; Nischal, Ken K

2003-07-01

 
 
 
 
341

Platelet-collagen interaction: inhibition by a monoclonal antibody raised against collagen receptor  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The authors have previously reported that polyclonal antibody raised against the purified platelet collagen receptor cross reacted with glycoprotein IIb-IIIa complex of platelets. In order to study the receptor function further, the authors prepared a monoclonal antibody to the collagen receptor (65K). Platelet collagen receptor was purified as described previously by the authors. Mice were immunized by injection of purified 65K protein emulsified in complete Freund's adjuvant, and hybridomas were obtained from the fusion of spleen cells of immunized mice with myeloma cells (SP 2/0). The assay for antibody was performed with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The hybridoma cells producing specific anti-65K protein were subcloned and the subcloned cells were injected into peritoneal cavity of Pristane-Primed mice. Immunoglobulin G(IgG) was isolated from ascitic fluids by an Affigel Blue chromatography. The Fab' fragments were isolated from papain digested IgG followed by an Affigel Blue chromatography. Immunoblot experiments using the monoclonal IgG of solubilized platelet membrane proteins following NaDodSO_4-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis showed that the monoclonal IgG reacted with the antigen specifically. It did not react with glycoprotein IIb-IIIa. The isolated IgG and Fab' fragments inhibited competitively the binding of radiolabelled ?1(I) to washed platelets and soluble collagen- as well as fibrillar collagen-induced but not ADP-induced platelet aggregation. This indicates that collagen-induced platelet aggregation is mediated through interaction of collagen with 65K platelet receptor

1986-05-01

342

Prolific sands - geologic riddle yields openings for raising productivity with improved technology  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Geological characteristics of the Hibernia sandstones were described. Two formations, the Hibernia formation at 3,700 metres, and the Avalon formation at 2,400 metres are prominent. The Hibernia sands are considered superior. Officially, 615 million barrels have been cited as the recoverable reserves from the entire field, 515 million from the Hibernia and just 100 million from the Avalon. However, Mobil Oil, the senior partner in the project, raised the estimate to at least 750 million barrels, as a result of improving technology, including extended-reach and horizontal drilling. Indeed, the original oil in place is estimated at three billion barrels total, i. e. current technology is only expected to extract little more than 25 per cent of the total. The Hibernia sands were laid down before movements of the earth`s crust generated today`s geological structure, giving the formation relative uniformity. The sands are dominated by stacked, multi-storied fluvials at cretaceous basil. By contrast, the Avalon sands were laid down during movements of the crust that generated complicated underground faults. The reservoir lacks the consistency of Hibernia; depths, thickness and porosity vary considerably. The two pools do not lie on top of each other. The Avalon lies to the southwest of the best Hibernia deposit. So, although the first wells penetrated the Avalon, the first true Avalon well is not scheduled until 1999, with first oil in 2000. Hibernia crude is between 32 and 34 degrees API and has a sulphur content between 0.4 and 0.6 per cent. It is expected to trade a dollar or two below West Texas Intermediate crude.

Harvie, W.

1997-12-01

343

Enhancement of oscillatory activity in the endopiriform nucleus of rats raised under abnormal oral conditions.  

Science.gov (United States)

Endopiriform nucleus (EPN) is located deep to the piriform cortex, and has neural connections with not only neighboring sensory areas but also subcortical areas where emotional and nociceptive information is processed. Well-balanced oral condition might play an important role in stability of brain activities. When the oral condition is impaired, several areas in the brain might be affected. In the present study, we investigated whether abnormal conditions of oral region influence neural activities in the EPN. Orthodontic appliance that generates continuous force and chronic pain-related stress was fixed to maxillary incisors of rats, and raised. Field potential recordings were made from the EPN of brain slices. We previously reported that the EPN has an ability to generate membrane potential oscillation. In the present study, we have applied the same methods to assess activities of neuron clusters in the EPN. In the case of normal rats, stable field potential oscillations were induced in the EPN by application of low-frequency electrical stimulation under the medium with caffeine. In the case of rats with the orthodontic appliance, stable field potential oscillations were also induced, but both duration of oscillatory activities and wavelet number were increased. The enhanced oscillations were depressed by blockade of NMDA receptors. Thus, impairment of oral health under application of continuous orthodontic force and chronic pain-related stress enhanced neural activities in the EPN, in which up-regulation of NMDA receptors may be concerned. These findings suggest that the EPN might be involved in information processing with regard to abnormal conditions of oral region. PMID:24406147

Yoshimura, Hiroshi; Hasumoto-Honjo, Miho; Sugai, Tokio; Segami, Natsuki; Kato, Nobuo

2014-02-21

344

A REAPPRAISAL OF MAPUCHE TEXTILE PRODUCTION AND SHEEP RAISING DURING THE NINETEENTH CENTURY  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: English Abstract in spanish Este artículo trata sobre la crianza de ovejas y la producción de lana de los mapuche durante gran parte del siglo XIX, y sobre la percepción que los compradores tenían de los productos lanares. Basado en reportes consulares británicos y diarios de viajeros, escritos después de la Independencia de C [...] hile, el artículo entrega nueva y consistente información que sostiene que la producción textil mapuche era de alta calidad y muy importante para toda la economía; que el comercio mapuche de lanas era comparable al europeo antes del año 1850; y que la industria lanar mapuche era, por cierto, más desarrollada que la existente en Chile, principal mercado de las exportaciones mapuche. También muestra que esta superioridad sobre la industria lanar chilena incluía la producción de materias primas para la producción textil, principalmente, lana sin procesar. Abstract in english This paper is about Mapuche sheep raising and woollens production during the first three quarters of the nineteenth century, as well as about the perception customers had of Mapuche wool manufactures. Based on the British consular reports and travellers' diaries written after Chile gained independen [...] ce, this article provides new and stronger evidence to support the case that Mapuche textile production was of high-quality and very important for their entire economy; that the Mapuche woollens trade was comparable to European industries before the 1850s; and that the Mapuche wool industry was certainly more developed than the one existing in Chile, the main market for Mapuche exports. This article also shows that this superiority over the Chilean woollens industry included the production of the main raw material used to produce woollens, namely raw wool.

MANUEL, LLORCA-JAÑA.

345

Dark Skies Ahead? Activities to Raise Awareness during the International Year of Astronomy  

Science.gov (United States)

"Dark Skies as a Universal Resource” is one of 7 themes targeted for the International Year of Astronomy in 2009. The theme's goal is to raise public awareness of the impact of artificial lighting on local environments and the ongoing loss of a dark night sky as a natural resource for much of the world's population. To reach this goal, activities are being developed which highlight dark skies preservation issues 1) through new technology (e.g., programs at planetaria, blogging, podcasting); 2) at events such as star parties and observatory open houses; 3) in arts, entertainment and storytelling (e.g., art competitions, documentaries, lectures, native American traditions); 4) through unaided-eye and digital-meter star count programs involving citizen-scientists; and 5) by relating them to public health, economic issues, ecological consequences, energy conservation, safety and security. A centerpiece of the Dark Skies theme is the unaided-eye and digital-meter versions of the GLOBE at Night program. The unaided-eye version directs citizen-scientists on how to observe and record the brightness of the night sky by matching its appearance toward the constellation of Orion with one of 7 stellar maps of different limiting magnitudes. For the "digital” version, low-cost meters are used by citizen-scientists to measure the integrated sky brightness. Data sets and maps of both versions are supplied on-line for further capstone activities. In the presentation, we will outline the activities being developed as well as plans for funding, implementation, marketing and the connections to the global cornerstone IYA project, "Dark Skies Awareness".

Walker, Constance E.; Isbell, D.; Pompea, S.

2007-12-01

346

Raising voices: How sixth graders construct authority and knowledge in argumentative essays  

Science.gov (United States)

This qualitative classroom-based study documents one teacher-researcher's response to the "voice" debate in composition studies and to the opposing views expressed by Elbow and Bartholomae. The author uses Bakhtin's principle of dialogism, Hymes's theory of communicative competence, as well as Ivanic's discussion of discoursally constructed identities to reconceptualize voice and to redesign writing instruction in her sixth grade classroom. This study shows how students, by redefining and then acting on that voice pedagogy in terms that made sense to them, shaped the author's understanding of what counts as "voiced" writing in non-narrative discourse. Based on a grounded-theory analysis of the twenty-six sixth graders' argumentative essays in science, the author explains voice, not as a property of writers or of texts, but as a process of "knowing together"---a collaborative, but not entirely congenial, exercise of establishing one's authority by talking with, against, and through other voices on the issue. As the results of this study show, the students' "I-Ness" or authorial presence within their texts, was born in a nexus of relationships with "rivals," "allies" and "readers." Given their teacher's injunctions to project confidence and authority in argumentative writing, the students assumed fairly adversarial stances toward these conversational partners throughout their essays. Exaggerating the terms for voiced writing built into the curriculum, the sixth graders produced essays that read more like caricatures than examples of argumentation. Their displays of rhetorical bravado and intellectual aggressiveness, however offsetting to the reader, still enabled these sixth graders to composed voiced essays. This study raises doubts about the value of urging students to sound like their "true selves" or to adopt the formal registers of academe. Students, it seems clear, stand to gain by experimenting with a range of textual identities. The author suggests that voice, as a dialogic process, involves a struggle for meaning---in concert, but also very much in conflict with---other speakers and their intentions.

Monahan, Mary Elizabeth

347

Courses for "Soil Practitioner" and other measures for raising soil awareness  

Science.gov (United States)

Today, unfortunately, little use is made of the findings of rhizosphere research in practice. Therefore the author, together with the organic farmers` associations Distelverein and Bio Austria, developed the education programme "Soil Practitioner" for organic farmers. The 9-days` course focuses on the topics nutrient dynamics in soil, plant-root interactions, soil management, humus management and practical evaluation of soil functions. A second series of courses developed by Bio Forschung Austria aims at improving organic matter management on farm level. In order to enable the farmers to estimate if the humus content of their fields is increasing or decreasing, they are familiarized with the humus balancing method. In a second step, humus balances of farmers' fields are calculated and the results are discussed together. Another activity to raise soil awareness is the "Mobile Soil Laboratory", which is presented at various events. The soil functions are demonstrated to the public using special exhibits, which illustrate for example infiltration rate in soils with and without earthworms, or water holding capacity of soils with and without earthworms or erosion intensity on soil blocks from adjacent plots which had been cultivated with different crop rotations. The habitat function of soil is illustrated with portable rhizotrons, which show the ability of plants to root surprisingly deep and to penetrate compacted soil layers. Another exhibit shows a habitat preference test between differently fertilized soils with earthworms as indicator organisms. In the "Mobile Soil Laboratory", visitors are also invited to watch live soil animals through the binocular microscope. They are supplied with information on the soil animals` habitat and behaviour and on how agriculture benefits from biologically active soil. And last but not least, the "Root Demonstration Arena" at our institute features a 3-m-deep excavation lined with large viewing windows into the soil profile, where visitors can observe the root growth of different plants.

Hartl, Wilfried

2014-05-01

348

Meat Quality of Thai Indigenous Chickens Raised Indoors or with Outdoor Access  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine the effect of rearing system on meat quality of Thai indigenous chickens. Three hundred and sixty 1 day old chicks were randomly allocated into 2 treatments: indoor treatment, housing in an indoor pen (5 birds/m2 or outdoor access treatment, housing in an indoor pen (5 birds/m2 with access to a grass paddock (1 bird/m2 from 8 weeks of age until slaughter. All birds were provided with the same diet during the experimental period. At 16th weeks of age, 24 birds per treatment were slaughtered to evaluate the quality of breast and thigh meat. The results showed that there was no difference in nutrient composition of breast meat among treatments (p>0.05. However, thigh meat from outdoor access treatment had higher protein content than that of indoor treatment (p0.05. Breast and thigh meat from outdoor access treatment had a higher shear force value (p = 0.05 than from indoor treatment. Thigh meat from outdoor access treatment was higher in soluble, insoluble and total collagen contents compared with indoor treatment (p<0.05. Breast and thigh meat from outdoor access treatment was less red (a*; p<0.05 and more yellow (b*; p<0.05 than those from indoor treatment. Breast skin from outdoor access treatment had more yellow than that of indoor treatment (p<0.05. The data indicated that Thai indigenous chickens raised with outdoor access could significantly increase shear value and collagen content in meat and increase yellow color in breast skin.

Wittawat Molee

2012-01-01

349

Manipulation of Rumen Fermentation with Organic Acids Supplementation in Ruminants Raised in the Tropics  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Locals feed resources are prime importance for ruminants raised in the tropic particularly low-quality roughages and agricultural crop-residues. Manipulating rumen fermentation through treatment of roughage, concentrate and strategic supplementation with organic acids could improve rumen efficiency by maintaining higher pH, optimum ammonia-nitrogen (NH3-N, thus reducing methane (CH4 and increasing microbial protein synthesis and essential volatile fatty acid (VFAs, for enhancing ruminant productivity in the tropics. The manipulation of rumen efficiency through the use of organic acids especially malate with local feeds would be an advantage. Indeed, organic acids potentially provide an alternative to currently used antimicrobial compounds by stimulating rather than inhibiting specific ruminal microbial populations. At the same time, local feed resources especially cassava chip could be used effectively at high level as an energy source for ruminants especially for beef and lactating cows. More recently, the combined use of concentrates containing high level of cassava chip with supplementation of sodium dl-malate and urea could improve rumen ecology and subsequent performance in dairy steers receiving urea-treated rice straw as a roughage. In addition, the high level of cassava chip in the diet resulted in increase population of bacteria and fungi, decreasing protozoal populations, and improving microbial protein synthesis and efficient microbial nitrogen supply in the rumen. Under these circumstances, malate was also effective in reducing the drop in ruminal pH normally seen 1 to 2 h after feeding a high-grain diet and improved cows performance efficiency. In summary, supplementation of organic acid like malate with local feed resources especially cassava chip or other carbohydrate sources with high rumen degradation would be a desirable alternative because there is no risk of developing antibiotic resistance or having unwanted residues appear in either meat or milk products as well as improving ruminal fermentation efficiency and productivity in ruminants in the tropics.

Sittisak Khampa

2007-01-01

350

RUMINAL CONDITION BETWEEN MADURA CATTLE AND ONGOLE CROSSBRED CATTLE RAISED UNDER INTENSIVE FEEDING  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Each four young bulls of Madura cattle and Ongole Crossbred (OC cattle were used to study the efficiency of ruminal fermentation by comparing the proportion of Volatile Fatty Acid (VFA of these two breeds which were raised under intensive feeding. All the cattle were in about 1.5 years-old with an average body weight of 147.75 ± 14.57 kg and 167 ± 22.57 kg, for Madura and OC cattle, respectively. They were fed Napier grass (Pennisetum purpureum hay, and concentrate feeding consists of pollard, soybean meal and rice bran for 10 weeks. Parameters measured were concentration of VFA at 0, 3 and 6 h post-feeding and pH. The concentration of VFA in both Madura and OC cattle was peaked at 3 h post-feeding, being 136.1 mmol and 158.9 mmol, respectively, and then were decreased at 6 h post-feeding at a level of 58.1 and 98.2 mmol, respectively. The proportion of acetic acid in Madura and OC cattle were 53.33% and 52.0% of total VFA, respectively, while the proportion of propionic acid and butyric acid were 28.80% and 17.87% for Madura cattle, and 30.71% and 17.28% for OC cattle, respectively. In addition, the Acetic/Propionic ratios were 1.85 and 1.69 for Madura and OC cattle, respectively. Rumen pH conditions of both cattle breeds tended to be basic, i.e. Madura cattle was ranged at 8.0-8.4, while the PO cattle was ranged at 7.6-8.4. In conclusion, both cattle breeds (Madura and OC cattle have a similar efficiency to utilize the feeds in the rumen.

M. Umar

2011-09-01

351

Analysis of the hydrology of raised bogs in the Irish Midlands : A case study of Raheenmore Bog and Clara Bog  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In the framework of the Irish-Dutch Raised Bog Project the hydrology of two raised bogs in the Irish Midlands, Raheenmore Bog and Clara Bog, was studied.The work focuses on relationships in the bog system and how they are affected by drain-age and turf cutting along margins. The concept of diplotelmy, a differentiation of the bog body into a shallow highly permeable top layer called acrotelm and a subjacent deep poorly permeable peat layer called catotelm, is followed. Some measuring methods ...

1999-01-01

352

2-(4-carbonylphenyl)benzoxazole inhibitors of CETP: scaffold design and advancement in HDLc-raising efficacy.  

Science.gov (United States)

The development of 2-phenylbenzoxazoles as inhibitors of cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) is described. Initial efforts aimed at engineering replacements for the aniline substructures in the benchmark molecule. Reversing the connectivity of the central aniline lead to a new class of 2-(4-carbonylphenyl)benzoxazoles. Structure-activity studies at the C-7 and terminal pyridine ring allowed for the optimization of potency and HDLc-raising efficacy in this new class of inhibitors. These efforts lead to the discovery of benzoxazole 11v, which raised HDLc by 24 mg/dl in our transgenic mouse PD model. PMID:21147531

Sweis, Ramzi F; Hunt, Julianne A; Kallashi, Florida; Hammond, Milton L; Chen, Ying; Eveland, Suzanne S; Guo, Qiu; Hyland, Sheryl A; Milot, Denise P; Cumiskey, Anne-Marie; Latham, Melanie; Rosa, Raymond; Peterson, Larry; Sparrow, Carl P; Wright, Samuel D; Anderson, Matt S; Sinclair, Peter J

2011-03-15

353

Chuanxiongzine relaxes isolated corpus cavernosum strips and raises intracavernous pressure in rabbits.  

Science.gov (United States)

It has been shown that there are many Chinese traditional herbals that can enhance sexual activity. Chuanxiongzine is a vasoactive ingredient that has been isolated and purified from Ligusticum chuanxiong Hort. In previous studies, it has been found that chuanxiongzine was effective in relaxing rabbit corpus cavernosum smooth muscle. We determined the effects of chuanxiongzine on relaxation of isolated corpus cavernosum strips in vitro and on increase of intracavernous pressure (ICP) in vivo in rabbits. Chuanxiongzine caused a concentration-dependent relaxation of phenylephrine precontracted isolated corpus cavernosum strips (EC(50) 1.58 x 10(-4) mol l(-1)), which were endothelium independent and NO independent. However, the guanylyl cyclase inhibitor 1-H-[1,2,4] oxadiazolo [4,3-a] quinoxalin-1-one significantly shifted the chuanxiongzine concentration-response relationship to the right. Although there was no significant difference in the level of cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) and cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) in isolated corpus cavernosum strips treated with chuanxiongzine or vehicle, chuanxiongzine caused a significant rise in the level of cGMP and cAMP in isolated corpus cavernosum strips pretreated with the activator of adenylyl cyclase forskolin and the source of NO sodium nitroprusside. In an in vivo study, chuanxiongzine dose-dependently raised ICP after the intracavernous injection of its cumulative doses (0.5, 1, 2 and 5 mg kg(-1)). The ICP increased from baseline to 19.1+/-3.7, 24.8+/-2.1, 30.2+/-4.8 and 39.7+/-6.1 mm Hg, respectively, and the duration of tumescence ranged from 8.5+/-2.8 to 22.9+/-7.3 min. Our results show that chuanxiongzine can relax isolated corpus cavernosum strips of rabbits in vitro and increase ICP of rabbits in vivo, which is neither endothelium dependent nor NO dependent, but may be partly mediated by the inhibition of cAMP phosphodiesterase or cGMP phosphodiesterase. PMID:19940852

Xiao, H-J; Wang, T; Chen, J; Fan, L-C; Yin, C-P; Liu, J-H; Gao, X

2010-01-01

354

Raising Awareness of Research Ethics in SoTL: The Role of Educational Developers  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Does the subject of research ethics take you by surprise? Does it make you somewhat uncomfortable? Does itseem to have nothing to do with your research or your practice? These are the attitudes we have encounteredabout research ethics among some SoTL researchers at workshops and conferences. In many cases, theseresearchers had conducted research that should have undergone research ethics board (REB review, but didnot; that should have included a consent process for the use of student data or previous work, but did not; orthat started out as program evaluation and became research without meeting the criteria of ethicallyacceptable research conduct. In this essay, we will argue that familiarity with our national research ethicsPolicy: The Tri-Council Policy Statement: Ethical Conduct for Research Involving Humans, 2nd edition(TCPS 2 and how it applies to SoTL, is essential for researchers and for educational developers. We willpropose a role for Centre of Teaching and Learning staff in raising awareness of TCPS 2 and we will dispelsome of the most common myths and misconceptions that abound regarding SoTL and research ethics.Le sujet de l’éthique de la recherche vous surprend-il? Vous rend-il quelque peu mal à l’aise? Semble-t-il nerien avoir à faire avec votre recherche ou votre pratique? Ce sont des attitudes que nous avons rencontréesquant à l’éthique de la recherche chez certains chercheurs en ACEA dans des ateliers et des conférences. Dansde nombreux cas, les chercheurs ont effectué des recherches qui auraient dû être examinées par les conseilsd’éthique en recherche, mais qui ne l’ont pas été; qui auraient dû comprendre un processus de consentementpour l’utilisation de données sur les étudiants ou de travaux antérieurs et pour lesquelles mais ils n’en ont pas,ou qui ont commencé par être une évaluation de programme et qui sont devenues une recherche sanstoutefois respecter les critères relatifs à la conduite d’une recherche éthiquement acceptable. Dans cet essai,nous expliquons que la connaissance de notre politique nationale d’éthique en matière de recherche : l’Énoncéde politique des trois Conseils : Éthique de la recherche avec des êtres humains 2e édition (EPTC 2, estessentielle et nous montrons en quoi elle s’applique à l’ACEA. Nous proposons un rôle pour le personnel duCentre d’enseignement et d’apprentissage afin de mieux faire connaître l’EPTC 2 et dissipons les mythes etidées erronées les plus courants qui abondent concernant l’ACEA et l’éthique de la recherche.

Laura-Lee Balkwill

2013-07-01

355

Normal inter-limb differences during the straight leg raise neurodynamic test: a cross sectional study  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background The straight leg raise (SLR neurodynamic test is commonly used to examine the sensitivity of the lower quarter nervous system to movement. Range of motion during the SLR varies considerably, due to factors such as age, sex and activity level. Knowing intra-individual, inter-limb differences may provide a normative measure that is not influenced by such demographic characteristics. This study aimed to determine normal asymmetries between limbs in healthy, asymptomatic individuals during SLR testing and the relationship of various demographic characteristics. Methods The limb elevation angle was measured using an inclinometer during SLR neurodynamic testing that involved pre-positioning the ankle in plantar flexion (PF/SLR and neutral dorsiflexion (DF/SLR. Phase 1 of the study included 20 participants where the ankle was positioned using an ankle brace replicating research testing conditions. Phase 2 included 20 additional participants where the ankle was manually positioned to replicate clinical testing conditions. Results The group average range of motion during PF/SLR was 57.1 degrees (SD: 16.8 degrees on the left and 56.7 degrees (SD: 17.2 degrees on the right while during DF/SLR the group average was 48.5 degrees (SD: 16.1 degrees on the left and 48.9 degrees (SD: 16.4 degrees on the right. The range of motion during SLR was moderately correlated to weight (?0.40 to ?0.52, body mass index (?0.41 to ?0.52, sex (0.40 to 0.42 and self-reported activity level (0.50 to 0.57. Intra-individual differences between limbs for range of motion during PF/SLR averaged 5.0 degrees (SD: 3.5 degrees (95% CI: 3.8 degrees, 6.1 degrees and during DF/SLR averaged 4.1 degrees (SD: 3.2 degrees (95% CI: 3.1 degrees, 5.1 degrees but were not correlated with any demographic characteristic. There were no significant differences between Phase 1 and Phase 2. Conclusions Overall range of motion during SLR was related to sex, weight, BMI and activity level, which is likely reflected in the high variability documented. We can be 95% confident that inter-limb differences during SLR neurodynamic testing fall below 11 degrees in 90% of the general population of healthy individuals. In addition, inter-limb differences were not affected by demographic factors and thus may be a more valuable comparison for test interpretation.

Boyd Benjamin S

2012-12-01

356

Microsatellite based genetic diversity and relationships among ten Creole and commercial cattle breeds raised in Brazil  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Brazil holds the largest commercial cattle populations worldwide. Local cattle breeds can be classified according to their origin, as exotic or Creole. Exotic breeds imported in the last 100 years, both zebuine and taurine, currently make up the bulk of the intensively managed populations. Locally adapted Creole breeds, originated from cattle introduced by the European conquerors derive from natural selection and events of breed admixture. While historical knowledge exists on the Brazilian Creole breeds very little is known on their genetic composition. The objective of this study was to assess the levels of genetic diversity, phylogenetic relationships and patterns of taurine/zebuine admixture among ten cattle breeds raised in Brazil. Results Significant reduction of heterozygosity exists due both to within-population inbreeding and to breed differentiation in both subspecies (taurine and zebuine. For taurine breeds the number of markers that contribute to breed differentiation is larger than for zebuine. A consistently similar number of alleles was seen in both subspecies for all microsatellites. Four Creole breeds were the most genetically diverse followed by the zebuine breeds, the two specialized taurine breeds and the Creole Caracu. Pairwise genetic differentiation were all significant indicating that all breeds can be considered as genetically independent entities. A STRUCTURE based diagram indicated introgression of indicine genes in the local Creole breeds and suggested that occasional Creole introgression can be detected in some Zebuine animals. Conclusion This study reports on a comprehensive study of the genetic structure and diversity of cattle breeds in Brazil. A significant amount of genetic variation is maintained in the local cattle populations. The genetic data show that Brazilian Creole breeds constitute an important and diverse reservoir of genetic diversity for bovine breeding and conservation. The genetic data was able to shed light on a number of issues related to the local breeds origin and structure. The Brazilian Creole breeds are all important and viable targets for conservation for they display peculiar traits both phenotypic and of cultural and historical nature that deserve conservation efforts.

Almeida Leonardo D

2007-12-01

357

Milk yield and composition from Angus and Angus-cross beef cows raised in southern Brazil.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study assessed milk yield and composition of Angus and Angus-cross beef cows raised in southern Brazil. A total of 128 records were collected in 2 consecutive calving seasons from cows between 3 and 5 yr of age of 4 breed compositions: Angus (ANAN), Caracu × Angus (CRAN), Hereford × Angus (HHAN), and Nelore × Angus (NEAN). These cows were mated to Brangus (BN) or Braford (BO) bulls and managed under extensive grazing conditions in southern Brazil. Milk production of these cows was assessed by 2 procedures: indirectly by the calf weigh-suckle-weigh procedure (WD) and directly by machine milking (MM). Lactation curves were estimated using nonlinear regression and the following related traits were derived: peak yield (PY), peak week (PW), total yield at 210 d (TY210), and lactation persistence (PERS). Milk composition and calf weaning weight adjusted to 210 d (WW210) were also determined. The MM technique was considered more accurate because of lower standard errors of estimated means, greater statistical power, and greater correlation between TY210 and WW210 (0.50) compared to WD (0.36). Considering the more precise evaluation by MM, the CRAN and NEAN cows had greater TY210 (1070 and 1116 kg, respectively) and PY (8.1 and 7.8 kg, respectively) compared to ANAN and HHAN cows, which had 858 and 842 kg for TY210 and 6.6 and 6.3 kg for PY, respectively. The NEAN cows had the latest PW at 10.8 wk. Late-calving cows had 21% lower TY210 compared to cows that calved earlier. Milk composition was influenced by cow genotype, with CRAN and NEAN cows producing milk with greater fat (3.8 and 3.9%, respectively) and protein (3.2 and 3.1%, respectively) content compared to ANAN and HHAN cows. Regardless of the genotype, fat, protein, and total solids increased in concentration from beginning to end of lactation, while lactose content decreased. Crossbreeding of Angus with adapted breeds of taurine or indicine origin can be effective in increasing milk yield and nutrient content and, consequently, producing heavier calves at weaning under extensive grazing in southern Brazil and other similar subtropical climate regions. PMID:24753378

Rodrigues, P F; Menezes, L M; Azambuja, R C C; Suñé, R W; Barbosa Silveira, I D; Cardoso, F F

2014-06-01

358

Seven steps to raise world security. Op-Ed, published in the Finanical Times  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In recent years, three phenomena have radically altered the security landscape. They are the emergence of a nuclear black market, the determined efforts by more countries to acquire technology to produce the fissile material usable in nuclear weapons and the clear desire of terrorists to acquire weapons of mass destruction. The IAEA has been trying to solve these new problems with existing tools. But for every step forward, we have exposed vulnerabilities in the system. The system itself - the regime that implements non-proliferation treaty needs reinforcement. Some of the necessary remedies can be taken in New York at the Meeting to be held in May, but only if governments are ready to act. With seven straightforward steps, and without amending the treaty, this conference could reach a milestone in strengthening world security. The first step: put a five-year hold on additional facilities for uranium enrichment and plutonium separation. Second, speed up existing efforts, led by the US global threat reduction initiative and others, to modify the research reactors worldwide operating with highly enriched uranium - particularly those with metal fuel that could be readily employed as bomb material. Third, raise the bar for inspection standards by establishing the 'additional protocol' as the norm for verifying compliance with the NPT. Fourth, call on the United Nations Security Council to act swiftly and decisively in the case of any country that withdraws from the NPT, in terms of the threat the withdrawal poses to international peace and security. Fifth, urge states to act on the Security Council's recent resolution 1540, to pursue and prosecute any illicit trading in nuclear material and technology. Sixth, call on the five nuclear weapon states party to the NPT to accelerate implementation of their 'unequivocal commitment' to nuclear disarmament, building on efforts such as the 2002 Moscow treaty between Russia and the US. Last, acknowledge the volatility of longstanding tensions that give rise to proliferation, in regions such as the Middle East and the Korean peninsula, and take action to resolve existing security problems and, where needed, provide security assurances. None of these steps will work in isolation. Each requires a concession from someone. But with leadership from all sides, this package of proposals will create gains for everyone. This opportunity will come again - in 2010. But given current trends, the international community cannot afford to wait another five years

2005-01-01

359

Ovarian changes during the reproductive cycle of the Tupinambis merianae lizard raised in a temperate environment  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available El ciclo reproductor de hembras de Tupinambis merianae criadas en ambiente templado consiste de tres fases gonadales: previtelogénica, vitelogénica y postovulatoria o lútea. Durante la fase previtelogénica, que ocupa gran parte del verano, el otoño e invierno, los ovarios son pequeños, pesan menos de 4 g y contienen solamente folículos no vitelogénicos, los cuales se desarrollan lentamente a partir de los nidos germinales, alcanzando unos 5 mm de diámetro. Debido a una maduración gonadal asincrónica entre ambos sexos, las cópulas acontecen cuando los ovarios son aún previtelogénicos. Luego sobreviene una corta e intensa vitelogénesis, durante la cual los folículos crecen uniformemente incrementando unas 6 veces su diámetro (cerca de 30 mm, mientras que la masa ovárica total alcanza unos 400 g. El proceso culmina entre los 15 y 20 días, con una ovulación generalizada y la subsiguiente oviposición. Como consecuencia, los ovarios postovulatorios aparecen reducidos a unos 5 g, con una superficie casi enteramente cubierta de cicatrices foliculares, las cuales pronto desarrollan cuerpos lúteos. La detención del ciclo ovárico, con atresia folicular previtelogénica masiva, como resultado del aislamiento de las hembras, permite concluir sobre la existencia de estímulos sexuales promotores de la vitelogénesis. The reproductive cycle of Tupinambis merianae females raised in a temperate environment consists of three gonadal phases: previtellogenic, vitellogenic and postovulatory or luteal phases. During the previtellogenic phase, which takes great part of the summer, autumn and winter, the ovaries are small, weigh less than 4 g, and contain only nonvitellogenic follicles, which develop slowly from germinal beds, until they are almost 5 mm diameter. Due to an asynchronous gonadal maturation in both sexes, matings occur when ovaries are still previtellogenic. Then comes a short and intense vitellogenesis, during which follicles grow steadily increasing around 6 times their diameter (close to 30 mm, while the total ovarian mass reaches almost 400 g. The process culminates between the 15th and 20th day, with a widespread ovulation and a subsequent oviposition. As a consequence, postovulatory ovaries appear reduced to 5 g approximately, with a surface almost entirely covered with follicular scars, which soon developed luteal bodies. Blockade of the ovarian cycle, with a massive previtellogenic follicular atresia, as a result of females isolation leads to conclude on the existence of sexual stimuli promoting vitellogenesis.

Manes, Mario E.

2007-03-01

360

[Animal welfare aspects regarding the raising of breeding ostriches in Germany].  

Science.gov (United States)

The commercial housing of African Ostriches in Germany for the breed and meat production still represents a disputed topic under the criterion of the animal's welfare. Above all critics state that the frequently wet-cold weather in Germany impairs the well-being and health of the animals. So far however there are just a few scientifically documented data about requirements for housing conditions of ostriches in Central Europe and thus hardly answers whether housing in Germany is possible under the criteria of the animal's welfare. This study tried to evaluate ostrich housing under South German climatic conditions (Rhine level), on the basis of behavioral observations of breeding ostriches. The use of the stable and the influence of different climatic parameters on the behavior were considered. In addition the behavior of 18 adult animals in 5 breeding groups from January to December 2002 was observed. Parallel various climatic data were raised. The housing of the animals took place in open stables with unrestricted pasture possibility. The ostriches reacted in their behavior to different climatic conditions. Particularly at cold weather and adverse soil conditions they used the open stable increasingly as weather protection. In addition, with increased wind velocities the animals spent more time in the stables. The daily amount of precipitation showed no influence on the frequency or duration of the stable use. Rainfall did not animate the animals to look for protection within the stable, but more to set itself on the ground in the external enclosure. The locomotion activity of the animals was strongly in dependence to the reproduction time and the territorial behavior and therefore highest in spring. On cold days the animals performed their reproduction behavior mainly in the stable. For the comfort behaviour distinct weather dependence was seen particularly for sand bathing. Warm temperatures and dry sand were the preconditions for it. Regarding the results it seems, that with the conditions existing on the examined farm, housing of ostriches under respect of animal welfare in Germany is possible. New regulations are to be demanded, adjusted to the newest level of knowledge about ostrich husbandry, with requirements for care, support, accommodation and nutrition of the animals as well as about the qualification of the owners. An occasional hobby animal husbandry limited to few single ostriches is to be rejected. Further scientific investigations at other farms, possibly also under variable climatic conditions are however necessary. PMID:15847067

Wöhr, A C; Schulz, A; Erhard, M H

2005-03-01

 
 
 
 
361

Compromised metamorphosis and thyroid hormone changes in wood frogs (Lithobates sylvaticus) raised on reclaimed wetlands on the Athabasca oil sands  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The wet landscape approach to oil sands tailings reclamation in the Athabasca Oil Sands region involves creating wetlands from fluid tailings in mined-out pits. We measured time to metamorphosis, thyroid hormone status, and detoxification enzyme (EROD) induction in Wood frog (Lithobates sylvaticus) tadpoles raised on reclaimed oil sands wetlands of different ages [young (?7 yr) vs. old (>7 yr)] and compared data with tadpoles raised on reference (control) wetlands. Metamorphosis was delayed or never occurred in tadpoles raised in young tailings; those exposed to older tailings developed similarly to those in reference wetlands. Thyroid hormone disruption likely played an important role in the metamorphosis delay as the T3:T4 ratio was lowest in tadpoles raised in young, tailings-affected wetlands. Our findings suggest tailings wetlands become less toxic with age, and that these amphibians will be able to complete their life cycle in tailing wetlands that have sufficiently detoxified with age. - This work provides guidance for reclamation of oil sands tailings and shows the usefulness of frogs and caging studies in environmental toxicology.

2011-02-01

362

Compromised metamorphosis and thyroid hormone changes in wood frogs (Lithobates sylvaticus) raised on reclaimed wetlands on the Athabasca oil sands  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The wet landscape approach to oil sands tailings reclamation in the Athabasca Oil Sands region involves creating wetlands from fluid tailings in mined-out pits. We measured time to metamorphosis, thyroid hormone status, and detoxification enzyme (EROD) induction in Wood frog (Lithobates sylvaticus) tadpoles raised on reclaimed oil sands wetlands of different ages [young ({<=}7 yr) vs. old (>7 yr)] and compared data with tadpoles raised on reference (control) wetlands. Metamorphosis was delayed or never occurred in tadpoles raised in young tailings; those exposed to older tailings developed similarly to those in reference wetlands. Thyroid hormone disruption likely played an important role in the metamorphosis delay as the T3:T4 ratio was lowest in tadpoles raised in young, tailings-affected wetlands. Our findings suggest tailings wetlands become less toxic with age, and that these amphibians will be able to complete their life cycle in tailing wetlands that have sufficiently detoxified with age. - This work provides guidance for reclamation of oil sands tailings and shows the usefulness of frogs and caging studies in environmental toxicology.

Hersikorn, Blair D., E-mail: blair.hersikorn@usask.c [Toxicology Centre, University of Saskatchewan, 44 Campus Drive, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, S7N 5B3 (Canada); Smits, Judit E.G., E-mail: judit.smits@ucalgary.c [Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Calgary, 3280 Hospital Drive NW, Calgary, Alberta, T2N 4Z6 (Canada)

2011-02-15

363

Consciousness-Raising as Collective Rhetoric: The Articulation of Experience in the Redstockings' Abortion Speak-Out of 1969  

Science.gov (United States)

This essay offers a theory of collective rhetoric derived from a case study of a central rhetorical event of the second wave of feminism, the Redstockings' 1969 abortion speak-out. A central rhetorical function of consciousness-raising was the collective development of experiential knowledge, and I propose that collective rhetorics are…

Dubriwny, Tasha N.

2005-01-01

364

Policy Rationalities and Policy Technologies: A Programme for Analysing the Raised School-Leaving Age in Western Australia  

Science.gov (United States)

In this paper I outline an approach towards policy analysis that takes governmentality as its point of theoretical orientation and begin to apply this approach to my research into the recently raised compulsory school-leaving age in Western Australia. I aim to demonstrate the methodological potentials of this approach by giving examples of the…

Hodgson, David

2011-01-01

365

Raising the Leaving Learning Age: Are the Public Convinced? A Survey of Parents and Teenagers. Research Report  

Science.gov (United States)

This research explores the attitudes of parents and teenagers towards the proposals in the "Raising expectations" Green Paper. It is based on a public opinion poll of 920 parents and 380 teenagers in the United Kingdom, which ran between 30 March and 10 April 2007. The results were analysed by Learning and Skills Network statisticians. It begins…

Villeneuve-Smith, Frank; Marshall, Liz; Munoz, Silvia

2007-01-01

366

Raising Awareness of Dominance: Does Recognising Dominance Mean One Has To Dismiss the Values of the Dominant Group?  

Science.gov (United States)

Concludes that raising awareness of dominance does not necessarily imply the dismissal of dominant group values. States that what is needed is a critical analysis of the complexity, subtlety, and systemic interrelatedness and embeddedness of dominant beliefs, values, and standards in western, democratic societies. (DAJ)

Applebaum, Barbara

2001-01-01

367

Cinta Senese and Large White x Cinta Senese raised on pasture in wood: sample join composition and meat quality  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

During recent years animal welfare has received considerable attention in Europe. To satisfy the demand for better ethics and health regarding pigs, it has become popular to raise pigs outdoors. In Mediterranean area free-ranged system is carried out with indigenous breed. In Italy Cinta Senese is one of the main autochthonous breed...

Pugliese, C.; Campodoni, G.; Badii, M.; Pianaccioli, L.; Franci, O.

2011-01-01

368

Family Functioning in Asian Families Raising Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders: The Role of Capabilities and Positive Meanings  

Science.gov (United States)

Background: There has been increasing interest in exploring the factors contributing to successful adaptation and family functioning in ethnically and culturally diverse families who raise children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD), in order to inform more appropriate strength-based family support services. This pilot study used the Family…

Xue, J.; Ooh, J.; Magiati, I.

2014-01-01

369

Cinta Senese and Large White x Cinta Senese raised on pasture in wood: sample join composition and meat quality  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available During recent years animal welfare has received considerable attention in Europe. To satisfy the demand for better ethics and health regarding pigs, it has become popular to raise pigs outdoors. In Mediterranean area free-ranged system is carried out with indigenous breed. In Italy Cinta Senese is one of the main autochthonous breed...

O. Franci

2011-03-01

370

Is the Week over yet? Insight for Educators about Social Network Support among Cyber Mothers Raising Children with ASD  

Science.gov (United States)

This study examined the motivation to participate in social networks maintained by mothers who blog and raise children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). The qualitative data analyzed in this study originated from a larger project that examined the perceptions, experiences, and meanings among mothers who maintained public blogs while parenting…

Swanke, Jayme; Doktor, Judy; Shrestha, Sabita; Zeman, Laura Dreuth

2013-01-01

371

Coal deposition in the Noric Depression (Eastern Alps). Raised and low-lying mires in Miocene pull-apart basins  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Pull-apart basins often form during the late stage of continental collision. Provided appropriate climatic conditions, these basins may contain thick coal seams. Two such examples are the Leoben and Fohnsdorf Basins in Austria, which formed in Miocene times during the post-collisional stage of the Alpine orogene. Both basins contain more than 10 m of sub-bituminous coal. Despite similar ages, tectonic settings, and similar stratigraphic position of the seams within the sedimentary sequence, the properties of the coals differ significantly. The Leoben coal is quite clean, whereas Fohnsdorf coal is rich in ash and sulfur. Petrographical and geochemical methods were applied to reconstruct the environmental factors that controlled coal properties in these basins. Coal formation in the Leoben Basin commenced in an eutrophic, low-lying mire. This was followed by deposition of the main body of coal, which formed in an ombrotrophic raised mire. Coal deposition was only shortly interrupted by deposition of volcanic ashes. Due to an acid paleo-environment, the volcanic material within the raised mire was altered to kaolinite. Thick vitrain bands representing large trees are found in the lower part of the seam only. Siderite is the main inorganic constituent in the main coal body. Lakes within the raised mire were present during late stages of peat accumulation and were filled with sapropelic coal. The high ash yields of this facies are due to abundant siliceous sponges, siliceous crusts, and tuffogenic minerals. Finally, high subsidence rates caused the flooding of the raised mire and sapropelic shales were deposited in the newly formed lake. The iron, which formed siderite in the raised mire, and biogenic and abiogenic silica present in the lakes within the raised mire, are derived from volcanic ashes. The high-ash Fohnsdorf coal was formed in a low-lying mire close to a brackish lake. The seam geometry is controlled by the progradation of a fluvio-deltaic system into the brackish lake, and its subsequent drowning. The roof of the seam is formed by coquinoidal limestones and sapropelic shales. The brackish influence reduced the acidity of the mire, which resulted in the transformation of volcanic glass into montmorillonite. The low acidity also promoted high bacterial activity, which together with the high sulfate content of brackish waters, explains the high sulfur and pyrite content of the coal. Its high content of biogenic (?) methane is probably another effect of bacterial activity. Low-ash, low-sulfur coal is restricted to thin layers. These might represent local raised mires, which formed after the withdrawal of a fluvial system.

Gruber, W.; Sachsenhofer, R.F. [Institut fuer Geowissenschaften, Montanuniversitaet Leoben, Peter-Tunner-Strasse 5, A-8700 Leoben (Austria)

2001-12-01

372

Education and Raising Awareness of Seismic Risk in the Black Sea Basin  

Science.gov (United States)

The Project "Black Sea Earthquake Safety Net(work)" ESNET has the intention to educate and raise awareness of seismic risk in the Black Sea Basin in four countries: Moldova, Romania, Bulgaria and Turkey. The project is financed through "The Black Sea Basin Joint Operational Programme", an EU operational programmes under European Neighborhood & Partnership Instrument (ENPI). The programme is financed by ENPI. The participation of Turkey is financed by Instrument for Pre-accession Assistance. It is implemented during the period 2007 - 2013. The project wants to contribute to the prevention of natural disasters generated by earthquakes in Black Sea Basin by developing a joint monitoring and intervention concept. All the countries involved in the project have their own studies, strategies, prevention and intervention systems in case of earthquakes, but until now there has not been an integrated approach so far in the Black Sea Basin. Given the cross-border character of seismic activity, it is necessary to have a cross-border approach on prevention, monitoring and intervention in case of earthquakes. Main objectives : 1. The assessment of the disaster potential, with accent on the seismic risk degree and the earthquakes effects in the intervention area. For achieving the main objective is to have an accurate and up-to-date assessment of the potential of disasters provoked by earthquakes in the project area/regions. This assessment will be carried out at national level and will be used in designing the common concept/approach for dealing with earthquakes at regional level, thus ensuring the cross-border character of the objective. 2.To develop an integrated seismic monitoring and intervention concept. This integrated concept, built on the basis of the previous objective, will have a cross-border relevance and is at the core of the action. The monitoring and intervention in case of earthquakes will be coordinated among the participating countries based on this, thus a more effective and efficient approach being ensured. 3. To increase the capacity of local institutions emergency intervention units for joint response activities in case of disasters. By involving the local emergency units and public administration in the project activities, especially in trainings, conferences and consultations, a better cooperation at cross-border level will be achieved. Step by step, the respective bodies will increase the cooperation and will benefit from each others expertise. Target groups : Research institutions and universities; Emergency intervention units; Local public authorities; NGOs. Final beneficiaries of the project: the population in the regions of the project. The project has a high educational perspective through its: a)training activities and b)training tools applied in the process. A) the training of 20 people from the emergency units from each country (80 in total) by experts in risk management. B) The Seismic Safety Web Portal of the project presenting all activities, maps and materials posted by members of the network agreement and not only. Also for changing expertise, opinions and long distance conferences is available a special software communication tool. An educational book is printed in 3 languages to be distributed in partner countries with main results.

Florin Balan, Stefan; Alcaz, Vasile; Trifonova, Petya; Uker, Nalan; Tataru, Dragos

2014-05-01

373

Water saving in chufa cultivation using flat raised beds and drip irrigation  

Science.gov (United States)

Chufa (Cyperus esculentus L. var. sativus), also known as tiger nut, is a typical crop in the Region of Valencia (Spain). Its tubers are used to produce a beverage called horchata. Chufa has been cultivated traditionally in ridges and furrow irrigated. Currently, the quality of water used is acceptable, there are no limitations on supply, and water is not expensive; therefore, large amounts of water are used. The European Water Framework Directive 2000/60 is based on the precautionary principle, considering preventive action for measures to be taken; thus, water use is an issue to improve. Moreover, drought periods are becoming more frequent and extended, and water is being diverted to other uses. In this two year study (2007-2008), we analysed how yield and irrigation water use efficiency (IWUE) are affected by two cultivation factors: planting strategy and irrigation system. Three planting strategies were analysed: ridges (R) and flat raised beds, with two (B2) and three (B3) plant rows along them, while two irrigation systems were compared, furrow (FI) and drip irrigation (DI). Within the beds, the effect of the position of the plant row was considered, differing among plants grown in the north (n), central (c), and south (s) rows. Distances between ridge and bed axes were 60, 80 and 120 cm for R, B2 and B3, respectively. Irrigation was based on the Volumetric Soil Water Content (VSWC), which was continuously monitored with capacitance sensors (ECH2O EC-5 in FI and multidepth capacitance sensors C-Probe in DI). Each irrigation session started when the VSWC in R dropped to 60% and 80% of field capacity in FI and DI, respectively. Each DI session lasted 60 min in 2007; while in 2008 the installation was automated, stopping each session when the sum of the VSWC at 10, 20, and 30 cm soil depth reached its corresponding field capacity value. With both irrigation systems, beds were irrigated simultaneously with ridges and with the same irrigation duration. Plants from the different plant rows were sampled periodically and later fractionated into leaves, roots, and tubers, to examine the evolution of the different plant organs. The results showed that there were no differences among planting strategies in 2007; however, in 2008, R produced lower yields than the two types of beds. The interaction between the experimental years and the irrigation strategy did affect the yield significantly, obtaining higher yields with DI than with FI, which led to higher yields in 2007 than in 2008. Regarding the IWUE, DI gave the highest values, especially in 2008. Ridges led to the highest IWUE with DI, and the lowest IWUE with FI. When comparing the different planting lines, the highest yield was obtained in the southern row. It can be concluded that modifications to the planting strategy and the irrigation system within the traditional cultivation practices of the chufa crop would increase IWUE and lead to major water savings.

Pascual-Seva, N.; San Bautista, A.; López-Galarza, S.; Maroto, J. V.; Pascual, B.

2012-04-01

374

Does raising morning rectal temperature to evening levels offset the diurnal variation in muscle force production?  

Science.gov (United States)

Muscle force production and power output in active males, regardless of the site of measurement (hand, leg, or back), are higher in the evening than in the morning. This diurnal variation is attributed to motivational, peripheral and central factors, and higher core and, possibly, muscle temperatures in the evening. This study investigated whether increasing morning rectal temperatures to evening resting values, by active or passive warm-ups, leads to muscle force production and power output becoming equal to evening values in motivated subjects. Ten healthy active males (mean ± SD: age, 21.2 ± 1.9 yrs; body mass, 75.4 ± 8 kg; height, 1.76 ± .06 m) completed the study, which was approved by the University Ethics Committee. The subjects were familiarized with the techniques and protocol and then completed four sessions (separated by at least 48 h): control morning (07:30 h) and evening (17:30 h) sessions (with an active 5-min warm-up) and then two further sessions at 07:30 h but proceeded by an extended active or passive warm-up to raise rectal temperature to evening values. These last two sessions were counterbalanced in order of administration. During each trial, three measures of handgrip strength, isokinetic leg strength measurements (of knee flexion and extension at 1.05 and 4.19 rad.s(-1) through a 90° range of motion), and four measures of maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) on an isometric ergometer (utilizing the twitch-interpolation technique) were performed. Rectal and intra-aural temperatures, ratings of perceived exertion (RPE) and thermal comfort (TC) were measured. Measurements were made after the subjects had reclined for 30 min and after the warm-ups and prior to the measurement of handgrip and isokinetic and isometric ergometry. Muscle temperature was taken after the warm-up and immediately before the isokinetic and MVC measurements. Warm-ups were either active (cycle ergometer at 150 W) or passive (resting in a room at 35 °C, relative humidity 45%). Data were analyzed using analysis of variance models with repeated measures. Rectal and intra-aural temperatures were higher at rest in the evening (.56 °C and .74 °C; p isokinetic knee flexion for peak torque and peak power at 1.05 rad.s(-1), and knee extension for peak torque at 4.19 rad.s(-1) all showed higher values in the evening. All other measures of strength or power showed a trend to be higher in the evening ( .10 > p > .05). There was no significant effect of active or passive warm-ups on any strength or power variable, and subjects reported maximal values for effort for each strength measure. In summary, effects of time of day were seen in some measures of muscle performance but, in this population of motivated subjects, there was no evidence that increasing morning rectal temperature to evening values by active or passive warm-up increased muscle strength to evening values. PMID:23281719

Edwards, Ben J; Pullinger, Samuel A; Kerry, Jonathan W; Robinson, William R; Reilly, Tom P; Robertson, Colin M; Waterhouse, James M

2013-05-01

375

The Soil Atlas of Africa: raising awareness and educate to the importance of soil  

Science.gov (United States)

The richness of African soil resources need to be protected for future generations. A number of threats are affecting the functioning of African soils, not only for the purpose of agricultural production, but also for other important environmental services that soil delivers to all of us. This is of particular importance once we know that many health-related problems in Africa are indirectly related to the services of soils. To raise the awareness of the general public, policy makers and other scientists to the importance of soil in Africa, the Joint Research Centre of the European Commission is to produce the first ever Soil Atlas of Africa. This is in collaboration with the African Union Commission, the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO), the Africa Soil Science Society, ISRIC - World Soil Information and scientists from both Europe and Africa. The Atlas compiles existing information on different soil types as easily understandable maps (both at regional and continental scale) covering the African continent. The Soil Atlas of Africa intends to produce derived maps at continental scale with descriptive text (e.g. vulnerability to desertification, soil nutrient status, carbon stocks and sequestration potential, irrigable areas and water resources) as well as specific maps to illustrate threats such as soil erosion for instance. For each regional overview, large scale examples of soil maps and derived products are presented too. The Atlas will be published as a hardcover book containing 174 A3 pages, which will allow soils maps to be displayed at the A2 scale. Both French and English versions of the Atlas will be edited. The Atlas will be sold at a low cost and will be for free for educational purpose (Schools and Universities). A digital version on CD and eventually freely downloadable on internet will also be available. Together with the publication of the Atlas, associated datasets on soil characteristics for Africa will be made available. These datasets will be useful for making broad distinction among soil types and provide general trends at the global and regional scales. The datasets will be made accessible for free downloading from the portals of the SOIL Action (http://eusoils.jrc.ec.europa.eu/) and the ACP Observatory for Sustainable Development (http://acpobservatory.jrc.ec.europa.eu). The Atlas links the theme of soil with rural development and, at the same time, supports the goals of the EU Thematic Strategy for Soil Protection in conserving a threatened natural resource that is vital to human existence. Not only climate change, but also desertification and loss of biodiversity are strongly affecting soils globally, making the "Soil Atlas of Africa" relevant to a much larger community of stakeholders involved in the implementation of the three "Rio-Conventions" and allowing to explore possible synergies among international multilateral agreements towards global soil protection.

Dewitte, Olivier; Jones, Arwyn; Bosco, Claudio; Spaargaren, Otto; Montanarella, Luca

2010-05-01

376

Task failure during standing heel raises is associated with increased power from 13 to 50 Hz in the activation of triceps surae  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The goal of this paper was to investigate the amplitude and sub-100 Hz frequency content of surface electromyography (EMG) signals obtained from agonist, antagonist and synergist muscles during a heel-raise task sustained to failure. Twenty-two healthy adults, 14 men and 8 women participated in the study. Surface EMG data from the raising and lowering phases of the movement were studied in the time (EMG amplitude) and frequency (wavelet transform) domains. For the raising phase, we found a si...

Pereira, Rafael; Schettino, Ludmila; Machado, Marco; Victor Da Silva, Pierre Augusto; Neto, Osmar Pinto

2010-01-01

377

Effect of Antibodies Raised in Bovine and Guineapigs on The Genetic Characters of Seroytpe Asia1 FMD Virus  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In the present work, the effect of antibodies (raised in Bovine against IND 63/72 and in Guineapigs against IND 63/72 and IND 491/97 on foot-and-mouth disease serotype Asia1 vaccine strain IND 63/72 was compared by analyzing the data obtained in nucleotide sequencing. The Nr viruses (neutralization resistant viruses which were selected by growing them in the presence of antibodies (Bovine Vaccinate Serum, BVS and Guineapig Serum, GPS showed certain characteristic features like common changes in the structural protein coding P1 region of this virus. This shows that the virus responds equally to the antibodies raised in both bovine (natural host and guineapig (experimental host. The result hereIn extends the finding that selection exerted by host antibody also plays a major role in the rapid evolution of FMD Virus serotype Asia1.

A. Sanyal

2006-01-01

378

Raise up [sup 99m]Tc-HMPAO brain SPECT for detecting the change in cerebral perfusion pressure  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

[sup 99m]Tc-hexamethylpropyleneamine oxime ([sup 99]mTc-HMPAO) crossed the blood brain barrier instantly in proportional to cerebral blood flow. Raise up stress and supine resting [sup 99m]Tc-HMPAO with brain SPECT was devised for detecting abnormal response in the changes of cerebral perfusion pressure. Asymmetric ratio in the middle cerebral artery area in patients with internal carotid artery occlusion (n=5) was changed significantly from 0.82[+-]0.06 to 0.90[+-]0.06 and that of normal (n=5) was not changed from 0.94[+-]0.03 to 0.95[+-]0.01. Raise up [sup 99m]Tc-HMPAO brain SPECT enhanced the detectability in abnormality of regional cerebral blood flow and visualized the dys-autoregulated area during blood pressure falls. (author).

Hayashida, Kohei; Nishimura, Tsunehiko; Uehara, Toshiisa; Kaminaga, Tatsurou; Hirose, Yoshiaki (National Cardiovascular Center, Suita, Osaka (Japan))

1992-07-01

379

The Release of a Captive-Raised Female African Elephant (Loxodonta africana) in the Okavango Delta, Botswana  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Wild female elephants live in close-knit matrilineal groups and housing captive elephants in artificial social groupings can cause significant welfare issues for individuals not accepted by other group members. We document the release of a captive-raised female elephant used in the safari industry because of welfare and management problems. She was fitted with a satellite collar, and spatial and behavioural data were collected over a 17-month period to quantify her interactions with the wild ...

Kate Evans; Moore, Randall J.; Stephen Harris

2013-01-01

380

Influence of the mycorrhizal Glomus intraradices on the development of in vitro raised olive seedlings during acclimation phase  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

For olive genetic improvement work it is very important to obtain a high rate of seed germination and a shortening of the juvenile period of the plants raised. By in vitro embryo culture, a 100% of germination is attained in a few days and the supply of adequate nutritive solutions and photoperiod speeds up seedling development during hardening, thus shortening juvenility. Mycorrhizal is another resource to improve plant development. This work attempts to know the effect of the vesicular-arbu...

2008-01-01

 
 
 
 
381

Inadvertent raising of levels in the FFTF primary sodium pumps. Final unusual occurrence report, HEDL 79-34 (FFTF-58)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The final unusual occurrence report describes the inadvertent raising of the sodium level in the FFTF primary sodium pumps during system testing. This event is now judged to have caused permanent deformation of the primary pump shaft on loop 1 during a period when pump rotation was stopped and sodium level in the pump tank was inadvertently increased. The shaft was subsequently removed, straightened, and returned to service in the spare FFTF pump

1981-01-01

382

Raising own funds for large-scale renewable energy projects; Die Akquisition von Eigenkapital fuer grosse erneuerbare Energie-Projekte  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The article discusses fund raising and financing strategies in the context of government policies and market conditions for private or corporate investors who wish to participate in the current strong upswing in the renewable energy sector in Germany. (orig./CB) [German] Der Artikel beschreibt den gegenwaaertig boomenden Markt fuer Energieerzeugung aus erneuerbaren Quellen in Deutschland und informiert ueber alle wichtigen Aspekte der Kapitalbeschaffung fuer Privatanleger oder Beteiligungsgesellschaften. (orig./CB)

Hille, G.; Evertz, H.J. [Volterra AG, Frankfurt am Main (Germany)

2002-03-01

383

The disclosure practices of a South African-born adolescent raised in an American lesbian-parent family  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This qualitative case study explores the disclosure practices of a South African-born adolescent who is raised in a lesbian-parent family in the United States of America, in an attempt to understand how adolescents negotiate their unique family structure throughout their daily lives. The data in this study were analysed using thematic content analysis. The concept of moral cultures is adopted from the work of Hart and Carlo (2005) and identified in the following dominant ...

Lubbe, Carien; Kruger, Liana

2012-01-01

384

Performance and organ morphology of broilers fed microbial or antimicrobial additives and raised in batteries or floor pens  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This study was conducted to determine the effect of microbial or antimicrobial additives on the performance and organ morphology of broilers raised in batteries or in floor pens. The effect of microbial additives on the presence of oocysts in the litter was also studied. Experiments 1 and 2 consisted of four treatments (non-supplemented control diet or diet supplemented with avilamycin, bacitracin methylene disalicylate or enramycin) and six repetitions in a randomized block design. In Experi...

Aa, Pedroso; Jfm, Menten; Amc, Racanicci; Fa, Longo; Job, Sorbara; Jb, Gaiotto

2003-01-01

385

How the Entrepreneurial Top Management Team Setup Influences Firm Performance and the Ability to Raise Capital: A Literature Review  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper reviews research findings on entrepreneurial top management teams within the last 20 years. It concentrates on team-based management factors and their influence on a new venture’s growth and ability to raise capital. This paper integrates recent findings and provides an overview of the current state of research. Moreover, it contributes to the overall topic by proposing five clusters of major team-specific influences, derives determinants of success and failure, and reveals recom...

2012-01-01

386

Analysis of Cattle Raising and Institutional Perspectives Regarding Collective Action in the El Ocote Biosphere Reserve, Chiapas, Mexico  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The objective of this study was to analyze the perceptions of representatives of government agencies and educational institutions regarding problems related to cattle raising in the El Ocote Biosphere Reserve. Through a structural analysis, we identified and prioritized problems which due to their joint relevance, require immediate attention in order to elaborate inter-institutional plans of action which would contribute to the sustainability of cattle raising systems in natural protected areas. Problems in the zone of power (fairly uninfluenced by other problems but which highly influence other problems were the following: lack of inter-institutional coordination with a motricity index of 10.7% and a dependence index of 3.31%, lack of public policies which promote environmentally friendly cattle raising with a motricity index of 9.09% and a dependence index of 7.74% and lack of organization among producers with a motricity index of 8.26% and a dependence index of 4.13%. A prioritization of the problems illustrates the importance of the institutions working together to seek solutions to those problems of greater motrocity in order to transcend currently prevalent force fields. Through collective action, the institutions should collectively propose actions and strategies to decision makers, legislators and other political actors in favor of sustainable cattle raising. Furthermore, there is a need for institutions to foment organization among producers and institutions in order to enhance the impact of projects. Meanwhile, institutions should transcend unilateral interests which often hinder efforts of representatives of institutions which work within the El Ocote Biosphere Reserve.

L. Rodriguez-Larramendi

2012-01-01

387

Multidisciplinary Engagement with Nanoethics Through Education—The Nanobio-RAISE Advanced Courses as a Case Study and Model  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper presents and evaluates two advanced courses organised in Oxford as part of the European project Nanobio-RAISE and suggests using their format to encourage multidisciplinary engagement between nanoscientists and nanoethicists. Several nanoethicists have recently identified the need for ‘better’ ethics of emerging technologies, arguing that ethical reflection should become part and parcel of the research and development (R&D) process itself. Such new forms of ethical deliberation...

Schuurbiers, Daan; Sleenhoff, Susanne; Jacobs, Johannes F.; Osseweijer, Patricia

2009-01-01

388

Determining the impact of community awareness-raising activities on the prevention of malaria transmission in Palawan, the Philippines.  

Science.gov (United States)

Palawan has the highest malaria endemicity in the Philippines, and malaria remains a major health burden in the region. In 1999, 344 microscopists were trained in Palawan. This allowed for early diagnosis and prompt treatment throughout the island. To take a significant step toward the elimination of malaria on the island, microscopists implemented community awareness-raising activities aimed at preventing transmission of malaria. The objective of the present study was to determine the impact of these activities on the self-implemented preventive measures against malaria by the ex-patients of the microscopists. Structured interviews were carried out from January to February in 2012, in 20 remote malaria-endemic villages throughout Palawan. In total, 141 ex-patients who had previously been diagnosed malaria-positive by the microscopists, volunteered to participate in the present study. Structural equation modeling was conducted to determine factors associated with self-implemented preventive measures against malaria, which included: (1) place of residence; (2) socio-demographic characteristics; (3) knowledge on malaria; (4) participation in community awareness-raising activities for malaria prevention; and (5) satisfaction with microscopists. Structural equation modeling identified six significant factors independently associated with self-implemented preventive measures against malaria; ethnicity, knowledge on malaria transmission, knowledge on vector species, knowledge on vector's most active time, participation in awareness-raising activities for malaria prevention by microscopists, and satisfaction with microscopists. Tagalog ethnicity (the predominant ethnic group) was positively related to better self-implemented preventive measures. In conclusion, aside from providing early diagnosis and treatment, microscopists played a significant role in self-implemented preventive measures against malaria. The strengthening of awareness-raising activities by microscopists was suggested to be an effective strategy for reducing malaria re-infection in Palawan. These activities should be strengthened to improve preventive measures implemented by ex-patients traveling to mountain areas and to enhance the knowledge on malaria transmission particularly among indigenous residents. PMID:24508869

Matsumoto-Takahashi, Emilie Louise Akiko; Tongol-Rivera, Pilarita; Villacorte, Elena A; Angluben, Ray U; Yasuoka, Junko; Kano, Shigeyuki; Jimba, Masamine

2014-06-01

389

The WBC raising effect and the side effects of LPS-701 injection of cervix cancer patients receiving radiotherapy  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper reports that LPS-701, an endotoxin extracted and purified by the authors' laboratory from Salmonella typhoid bacilli, has a marked effect on raising the white blood cell count of cervix cancer patients receiving radiotherapy, while the systemic and local side effects are slight. It is suggested that injection of LPS-701 can be used as a non-specific immunological stimulating agent for patients receiving radiotherapy. (Auth.)

1982-01-01

390

Levels and Types of Questions Raised by EFL Teachers in Southern Al-Mazar Directorate of Education  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This study aimed at investigating the levels and types of questions raised by EFL teachers in Southern Al-Mazar directorate of Education. The study comprised (12) female/ male teachers. The results of the study showed that; male/female teachers asked (1603) questions; (1290) questions were within the low level and (313) questions were high level. Female/male teachers asked (1603) questions where (393) questions were open and (1210) were ended questions . The results also, showed that...

Majid Mohammed Al-Khataybeh; I’timad Jamil Abdulraheem Al-Ja’freh

2012-01-01

391

‘Bridging the Gap. Raising Public Awareness of and Engagement in Natural and Cultural Heritage through Outdoor Education’.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Application of outdoor education to cultural and natural heritage issues has received very little attention to date. While research in the fields of heritage and culture/nature relations addresses the connections between cultures, environments and societies, this is largely neglected in outdoor education studies. Therefore, the overall aim of this research is to establish the possibility of raising awareness of the importance of and teaching about natural and cultural heritage through outdoor...

Litwa, Katarzyna Eliza

2012-01-01

392

Healthier? More Efficient? Fairer? An Overview of the Main Ethical Issues Raised by the Use of Ubicomp in the Workplace  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The development of Ambient Intelligence (AmI) will radically transform our everyday life and social representations. These transformations will notably impact the working environment. The objective of this paper is to offer a first survey of the main ethical issues raised by the development of intelligent working environments (IWEs). It especially focuses on the capacity of such environments to collect and handle personal medical data. The first two sections of this paper aim to...

Nihan, Ce?line Ehrwein

2013-01-01

393

Gender-Bending in Virtual Space : Using Voice-Morphing in Second Life to Raise Sociolinguistic Gender Awareness  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper presents further innovative use of virtual worlds under the pilot stages of ASSIS (A Second Step in Second Life), a project funded by Umeå University. One aim of the project is to make use of the affordances offered by Second Life in order to raise sociolinguistic language awareness among teacher trainees and other students studying sociolinguistics. Several experiments have been conducted where creative use of the avatar in combination with so-called “voice-morphing” allowed ...

Deutschmann, Mats; Steinvall, Anders; Lagerstro?m, Anna

2011-01-01

394

Absence of VanA- and VanB-Containing Enterococci in Poultry Raised on Nonintensive Production Farms in Brazil  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We examined cloacal samples from poultry raised on nonintensive production farms in Brazil for the presence of vancomycin-resistant enterococci. No VanA- or VanB-containing enterococci were identified in a total of 200 cloacal swabs. The most prevalent species were Enterococcus gallinarum (vanC1; 13.0%) and E. casseliflavus (vanC2/3; 5.5%).

Batista Xavier, Diego; Moreno Bernal, Francisco Ernesto; Titze-de-almeida, Ricardo

2006-01-01

395

Raised serum soluble interleukin-2 receptor concentrations in cystic fibrosis patients with and without evidence of lung disease.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Soluble interleukin-2 receptor (sIL-2R-CD25) concentrations were measured in the sera of 115 children with cystic fibrosis and 45 aged matched controls. Above the age of 4 years children with cystic fibrosis had significantly raised concentrations irrespective of disease status as judged by Shwachman score, lung function, or evidence of pseudomonas colonisation. It is believed that these data indicate that T lymphocyte activation can be detected before there is clinical evidence of lung infla...

Dagli, E.; Warner, J. A.; Besley, C. R.; Warner, J. O.

1992-01-01

396

Preferential feeding on high quality diets decreases methyl mercury of farm-raised common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.)  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This study on aquaculture ponds investigated how diet sources affect methyl mercury (MeHg) bioaccumulation of the worldwide key diet fish, common carp (Cyprinus carpio). We tested how MeHg concentrations of one and two year-old pond-raised carp changed with different food quality: a) zooplankton (natural pond diet), b) cereals enriched with vegetable oil (VO ponds), and c) compound feeds enriched with marine fish oils (FO ponds). It was hypothesized that carp preferentially feed on supplement...

2012-01-01

397

The effects of physicians’ affect-oriented communication style and raising expectations on analogue patients’ anxiety, affect and expectancies.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Objective: Patients' affect and expectancies can set off placebo effects and thus impact patients' health. We assessed the relative effects of physicians' affect-oriented communication style and raising expectations on patients' affective state and outcome expectancies. Method: Thirty healthy women presented severe menstrual pain in a scripted consultation with a general practitioner (GP). In a 2x2 randomized controlled trial, the GP communicated in a warm, empathic or cold, formal way and ra...

2010-01-01

398

The costs of raising children and the effectiveness of policies to support parenthood in European countries: a Literature Review  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The purpose of this report is to produce an overview of available knowledge about the following issues: ? the costs (to parents) of parenthood and of raising children in European Countries; ? the effectiveness, in the short and long term, of various policy measures in avoiding or compensating for those costs; 8 ? the impact of different policy instruments aimed at supporting families according to various policy objectives, e.g. achieving family projects, reconciling family and working l...

Letablier, Marie-the?re?se; Luci, Angela; Math, Antoine; The?venon, Olivier

2009-01-01

399

Effect of Raising the Environmental Awareness on Reducing Kitchen Water Consumption by Jordanian Families Living in Amman City  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Problem statement: Improper use of water by Jordanian families accombined with acute shortage in water resources. Approach: This study aimed to raise the degree of the environmental awareness regarding the significance of reducing kitchen water consumption of the Jordanian families living in Amman and to provide them with the necessary knowledge and practices about the right practices to reduce water consumption. Results: The results revealed that the average consumption ...

Said, Damanhouri M.; Mazahreh, Ayman S.; Heba Hammad; Al-shawabkeh, Ali F.; Al-saraireh, Khaled S.

2010-01-01

400

Should governments in Europe be more aggressive in pushing for gender equality to raise fertility? The first "YES"  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Together with three colleagues, I have been asked by the MPIDR to debate the following question: "Should governments in Europe be more aggressive in pushing for gender equality to raise fertility? Setting aside the "lighthearted" side of this "Rostocker Debate," (12 minutes for each speech, one minute for each comment), I saw this as a good opportunity to think about the stakes behind the question. In order to address this complex issue, it is necessary to think about the ...

2011-01-01

 
 
 
 
401

Total Zinc Intake May Modify the Glucose-Raising Effect of a Zinc Transporter (SLC30A8) Variant  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Objective: Many genetic variants have been associated with glucose homeostasis and type 2 diabetes in genome-wide association studies. Zinc is an essential micronutrient that is important for ?-cell function and glucose homeostasis. We tested the hypothesis that zinc intake could influence the glucose-raising effect of specific variants. Research Design and Methods: We conducted a 14-cohort meta-analysis to assess the interaction of 20 genetic variants known to be related to glycemic traits ...

2011-01-01

402

Occurrence of heavy metals and antibiotic resistance in bacteria from internal organs of american bullfrog (Rana catesbeiana) raised in Malaysia  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A total of 40 bacteria have been successfully isolated from internal organs of the American bullfrog (Rana catesbeiana) raised in Malaysia, namely, eight isolates of Aeromonas spp., 21 of Edwardsiella spp., six of Flavobacterium spp. and five of Vibrio spp. In terms of antibiotic susceptibility testing, each isolate was tested against 21 antibiotics, resulting in 482 (57.3%) cases of sensitivity and 61 (7.3%) cases of partial sensitivity. Meanwhile, 297 (35.4%) bacterial isolates were registe...

2009-01-01

403

Raising livestock in resource-poor communities of the North West Province of South Africa - a participatory rural appraisal study  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A participatory research model was used in six village communities in the Central Region of the North West Province of South Africa in order to achieve the following broad objectives : to obtain information on the challenges owners face in raising livestock in these areas and to evaluate the livestock owners' level of knowledge of internal parasites in their animals. Information obtained at participatory workshops clearly indicated a need for improvements in water supply, schools, job creatio...

2012-01-01

404

Exposure ethics: does hiv pre-exposure prophylaxis raise ethical problems for the health care provider and policy maker?  

Science.gov (United States)

The last few years have seen dramatic progress in the development of HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP). These developments have been met by ethical concerns. HIV interventions are often thought to be ethically difficult. In a context which includes disagreements over human rights, controversies over testing policies, and questions about sexual morality and individual responsibility, PrEP has been seen as an ethically complex intervention. We argue that this is mistaken, and that in fact, PrEP does not raise new ethical concerns. Some of the questions posed by PrEP are not specific to HIV prophylaxis, but simply standard public health considerations about resource allocation and striking a balance between individual benefit and public good. We consider sexual disinhibition in the context of private prescriptions, and conclude that only unjustified AIDS-exceptionalism or inappropriate moralism about sex supports thinking that PrEP raises new ethical problems. This negative conclusion is significant in a context where supposed ethical concerns about PrEP have been raised, and in the context of HIV exceptionalism. PMID:23796241

Venter, Francois; Allais, Lucy; Richter, Marlise

2014-07-01

405

Raised D-dimer levels in acute sickle cell crisis and their correlation with chest X-ray abnormalities  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Objective: Quantitation of D-dimer level during a sickling crisis and its correlation with other clinical abnormalities. Design: Prospective longitudinal study. Setting: Armed Forces Hospital, Southern Region, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Patients: Adult patients (12 years and older admitted acutely with a sickle cell crisis who consent to taking part in the study. Candidates may re-participate if they are readmitted with a further acute painful crisis. Results: 36 patients with homozygous sickle cell disease consented to take part in the study. D-dimer levels were raised in 31 (68.9% of 45 episodes of painful crisis of whom 13 had an abnormal chest X-ray. Of those with a normal chest X-ray only one patient had a raised D-dimer level: sensitivity of 92.3%, specificity 40.6%, positive predictive value 38.7% and negative predictive value of 92.9% for an abnormal chest X-ray. Conclusion: D-dimer levels are frequently raised during an acute painful crisis. A normal level has a high negative predictive value for an abnormal chest X-ray.

Hassan, Imad S. A.

2010-01-01

406

Sea-level standstill and dominant hermatypic coral from the holocene raised reef terraces at the Kikai Island, Ryukyu Islands  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Coral reef terraces are one of the best recorders of biological response to environmental change events (e.g., sea-level changes). Kikai Island provides a rare opportunity to show biological and ecological frameworks (e.g., competition, coexistence, and succession) during a recent geological period. The island is fringed by raised Holocene raised reef terraces, which formed as a result of periodic tectonic uplifts. This study aims to characterize the spatial and temporal changes of corals at this island during the Holocene. The analysis is based on topographical and biological data obtained for the three sites (Shidooke, Kadon, and Nakugama reefs). Three raised reef terraces (Terrace II, III, and IV) grew from 7300 to 4500 years ago (during 2800 years), from 4500 to 2900 years ago (during 1600 years), and from 2900 to 1800 years ago (during 1100 years), respectively. Terrace II and III were uplifted 1-2 m around 4500 years ago and around 2900 years ago. Terrace IV was uplifted 1-2 m around 1800 years ago. The modern reef has been composed of corals for 1800 years. Sixteen coral genera and 53 species were recorded from the reef terraces. Terrace III and IV were dominated by four coral species (A. digitifera, A. robusta, G. retiformis, and F. stelligera), but Terrace II was predominantly composed of A. digitifera and A. robusta. These biological and ecological variations between the terraces represent a growth strategy responding to differences of reef growth time and/or insolation. (author)

2010-10-01

407

Numerical Solution of Three-Dimensional Flow over Angled Backward-Facing Step with Raised Upper Wall  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In the present study, results obtained from three-dimensional incompressible flow over backward-facing step in a rectangular duct using Realizable k-? turbulence model are reported. Effects of step inclination angle have been investigated for ?=30?, 45?, 90? while upper wall of duct kept parallel to the bottom wall and then rose to ?=6?. Reynolds number based on freestream velocity and step height is examined by varying its magnitude in the range of 15,000-64,000. Simulated results are presented for revealing the general flow features and reattachment lengths after a successful validation of the present work with the experimental data of Driver and Seegmiller (1985. It is found that turbulence kinetic energy increases suddenly after the step for both straight and raised upper walls and reaches its maximum at x/h=5 that consistent with the published literature. The size of reattachment lengths increases with the step inclination angle, i.e., maximum reattachment length occurs at 90? for both straight and raised upper walls. It is seen that raising the upper wall leads to longer reattachment lengths.

Seyfettin Bayraktar

2014-01-01

408

Performance and organ morphology of broilers fed microbial or antimicrobial additives and raised in batteries or floor pens  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study was conducted to determine the effect of microbial or antimicrobial additives on the performance and organ morphology of broilers raised in batteries or in floor pens. The effect of microbial additives on the presence of oocysts in the litter was also studied. Experiments 1 and 2 consisted of four treatments (non-supplemented control diet or diet supplemented with avilamycin, bacitracin methylene disalicylate or enramycin and six repetitions in a randomized block design. In Experiment 1, 288 day-old chicks were housed in heated batteries in a environmentally controlled room, 12 chicks per cage; in Experiment 2, 1,200 day-old chicks were housed in a curtain-sided experimental house, with concrete floor and rice hulls as litter material, 50 chicks per pen. Experiments 3 and 4 were carried out similarly to Experiments 1 and 2, respectively, but the treatments consisted of microbial additives (non-supplemented control diet or Bacillus subtilis added to the feed plus Lactobacillus reuteri and Lactobacillus johnsonii added to the water, undefined microflora added to the water or live yeast added to the feed. The antibiotics did not affect the performance of birds raised in batteries, but improved feed conversion, weight gain and live weight when chickens were kept on the floor pens. Microbial additives did not affect bird performance in any environment; however, treatments affected liver weight. Microbial agents increased intestinal weight in floor-raised broilers. No relationship was seen between the use of microbial additives and the presence of oocysts in the litter.

Pedroso AA

2003-01-01

409

Performance and organ morphology of broilers fed microbial or antimicrobial additives and raised in batteries or floor pens  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english This study was conducted to determine the effect of microbial or antimicrobial additives on the performance and organ morphology of broilers raised in batteries or in floor pens. The effect of microbial additives on the presence of oocysts in the litter was also studied. Experiments 1 and 2 consiste [...] d of four treatments (non-supplemented control diet or diet supplemented with avilamycin, bacitracin methylene disalicylate or enramycin) and six repetitions in a randomized block design. In Experiment 1, 288 day-old chicks were housed in heated batteries in a environmentally controlled room, 12 chicks per cage; in Experiment 2, 1,200 day-old chicks were housed in a curtain-sided experimental house, with concrete floor and rice hulls as litter material, 50 chicks per pen. Experiments 3 and 4 were carried out similarly to Experiments 1 and 2, respectively, but the treatments consisted of microbial additives (non-supplemented control diet or Bacillus subtilis added to the feed plus Lactobacillus reuteri and Lactobacillus johnsonii added to the water, undefined microflora added to the water or live yeast added to the feed). The antibiotics did not affect the performance of birds raised in batteries, but improved feed conversion, weight gain and live weight when chickens were kept on the floor pens. Microbial additives did not affect bird performance in any environment; however, treatments affected liver weight. Microbial agents increased intestinal weight in floor-raised broilers. No relationship was seen between the use of microbial additives and the presence of oocysts in the litter.

Pedroso, AA; Menten, JFM; Racanicci, AMC; Longo, FA; Sorbara, JOB; Gaiotto, JB.

410

Slowed muscle oxygen uptake kinetics with raised metabolism are not dependent on blood flow or recruitment dynamics.  

Science.gov (United States)

Oxygen uptake kinetics (?VO2) are slowed when exercise is initiated from a raised metabolic rate. Whether this reflects the recruitment of muscle fibres differing in oxidative capacity, or slowed blood flow (Q) kinetics is unclear. This study determined ?VO2 in canine muscle in situ, with experimental control over muscle activation and Q during contractions initiated from rest and a raised metabolic rate. The gastrocnemius complex of nine anaesthetised, ventilated dogs was isolated and attached to a force transducer. Isometric tetanic contractions (50 Hz; 200 ms duration) via supramaximal sciatic nerve stimulation were used to manipulate metabolic rate: 3 min stimulation at 0.33 Hz (S1), followed by 3 min at 0.67 Hz (S2). Circulation was initially intact (SPON), and subsequently isolated for pump-perfusion (PUMP) above the greatest value in SPON. Muscle VO2 was determined contraction-by-contraction using an ultrasonic flowmeter and venous oximeter, and normalised to tension-time integral (TTI). ?VO2/TTI and ?Q were less in S1SPON (mean ± s.d.: 13 ± 3 s and 12 ± 4 s, respectively) than in S2SPON (29 ± 19 s and 31 ± 13 s, respectively; P < 0.05). ?VO2/TTI was unchanged by pump-perfusion (S1PUMP, 12 ± 4 s; S2PUMP, 24 ± 6 s; P < 0.001) despite increased O2 delivery; at S2 onset, venous O2 saturation was 21 ± 4% and 65 ± 5% in SPON and PUMP, respectively. VO2 kinetics remained slowed when contractions were initiated from a raised metabolic rate despite uniform muscle stimulation and increased O2 delivery. The intracellular mechanism may relate to a falling energy state, approaching saturating ADP concentration, and/or slowed mitochondrial activation; but further study is required. These data add to the evidence that muscle VO2 control is more complex than previously suggested. PMID:24469073

Wüst, Rob C I; McDonald, James R; Sun, Yi; Ferguson, Brian S; Rogatzki, Matthew J; Spires, Jessica; Kowalchuk, John M; Gladden, L Bruce; Rossiter, Harry B

2014-04-15

411

Total Zinc Intake May Modify the Glucose-Raising Effect of a Zinc Transporter (SLC30A8) Variant  

Science.gov (United States)

OBJECTIVE Many genetic variants have been associated with glucose homeostasis and type 2 diabetes in genome-wide association studies. Zinc is an essential micronutrient that is important for ?-cell function and glucose homeostasis. We tested the hypothesis that zinc intake could influence the glucose-raising effect of specific variants. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS We conducted a 14-cohort meta-analysis to assess the interaction of 20 genetic variants known to be related to glycemic traits and zinc metabolism with dietary zinc intake (food sources) and a 5-cohort meta-analysis to assess the interaction with total zinc intake (food sources and supplements) on fasting glucose levels among individuals of European ancestry without diabetes. RESULTS We observed a significant association of total zinc intake with lower fasting glucose levels (?-coefficient ± SE per 1 mg/day of zinc intake: ?0.0012 ± 0.0003 mmol/L, summary P value = 0.0003), while the association of dietary zinc intake was not significant. We identified a nominally significant interaction between total zinc intake and the SLC30A8 rs11558471 variant on fasting glucose levels (?-coefficient ± SE per A allele for 1 mg/day of greater total zinc intake: ?0.0017 ± 0.0006 mmol/L, summary interaction P value = 0.005); this result suggests a stronger inverse association between total zinc intake and fasting glucose in individuals carrying the glucose-raising A allele compared with individuals who do not carry it. None of the other interaction tests were statistically significant. CONCLUSIONS Our results suggest that higher total zinc intake may attenuate the glucose-raising effect of the rs11558471 SLC30A8 (zinc transporter) variant. Our findings also support evidence for the association of higher total zinc intake with lower fasting glucose levels.

Kanoni, Stavroula; Nettleton, Jennifer A.; Hivert, Marie-France; Ye, Zheng; van Rooij, Frank J.A.; Shungin, Dmitry; Sonestedt, Emily; Ngwa, Julius S.; Wojczynski, Mary K.; Lemaitre, Rozenn N.; Gustafsson, Stefan; Anderson, Jennifer S.; Tanaka, Toshiko; Hindy, George; Saylor, Georgia; Renstrom, Frida; Bennett, Amanda J.; van Duijn, Cornelia M.; Florez, Jose C.; Fox, Caroline S.; Hofman, Albert; Hoogeveen, Ron C.; Houston, Denise K.; Hu, Frank B.; Jacques, Paul F.; Johansson, Ingegerd; Lind, Lars; Liu, Yongmei; McKeown, Nicola; Ordovas, Jose; Pankow, James S.; Sijbrands, Eric J.G.; Syvanen, Ann-Christine; Uitterlinden, Andre G.; Yannakoulia, Mary; Zillikens, M. Carola; Wareham, Nick J.; Prokopenko, Inga; Bandinelli, Stefania; Forouhi, Nita G.; Cupples, L. Adrienne; Loos, Ruth J.; Hallmans, Goran; Dupuis, Josee; Langenberg, Claudia; Ferrucci, Luigi; Kritchevsky, Stephen B.; McCarthy, Mark I.; Ingelsson, Erik; Borecki, Ingrid B.; Witteman, Jacqueline C.M.; Orho-Melander, Marju; Siscovick, David S.; Meigs, James B.; Franks, Paul W.; Dedoussis, George V.

2011-01-01

412

Characterization of monoclonal antibodies raised against p300: both p300 and CBP are present in intracellular TBP complexes.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The amino terminus of the adenovirus E1A protein is involved in E1A transforming functions, repression of tissue-specific gene expression, and E1A-mediated enhancer repression. These N-terminal functions are associated with the ability of this region of E1A to bind to p300 and CBP, two closely related cellular proteins thought to function as transcriptional adaptor molecules. Here we describe the characterization of a panel of 11 monoclonal antibodies raised against E1A-affinity-purified 300-...

Dallas, P. B.; Yaciuk, P.; Moran, E.

1997-01-01

413

Protozoan parasites in captive chinchillas (Chinchilla lanigera raised in the State of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to identify Giardia sp., Eimeria spp. and Cryptosporidium spp. in fecal samples of chinchillas, respectively raised on farms located in the cities of Gravataí and Porto Alegre (State of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, Giardia sp. was detected in 8% of 250 samples. The variables age (p = 0.47 and gender (p = 0.07, submitted to Fisher's exact test, were not related to the results obtained through the method of Faust et al. (1939 apud Hoffmann (1987. Oocysts of Eimeria spp. and Cryptosporidium spp. were not identified in any of the samples

ANA CLÁUDIA FAGUNDES GURGEL

2005-12-01

414

Growth and Survival of Clarias gariepinus Fry Raised on Plankton from Cow Dung and Poultry Manure  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The effect of zooplankton raised from cow dung and poultry dropping on the growth and survival or Clarias gariepinus fry was investigated weighing 0.01 g ± and length ± 7.00 mm. Among the treatments, poultry manure source of zooplankton used for feeding fry six times daily had the highest specific growth rate 7.45, mean percentage body weight gain 45% and survival rate 53.33%. In terms of mean length gain, treatment fed nine times daily had the highest 2.88 mm. The specific growth ra...

Ogunremi, J. B.; Obasa, S. O.

2009-01-01

415

Weak bases and ionophores rapidly and reversibly raise the pH of endocytic vesicles in cultured mouse fibroblasts  

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It has been shown that endocytic vesicles in BALB/c 3T3 cells have a pH of 5.0 (Tycko and Maxfield, Cell, 28:643-651). In this paper, a method for measuring the effect of various agents, including weak bases and ionophores, on the pH of endocytic vesicles is presented. The method is based on the increase in fluorescein fluorescence with 490-nm excitation as the pH is raised above 5.0. Intensities of cells were measured using a microscope spectrofluorometer after internalization of fluorescein...

1982-01-01

416

How the Entrepreneurial Top Management Team Setup Influences Firm Performance and the Ability to Raise Capital: A Literature Review  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper reviews research findings on entrepreneurial top management teams within the last 20 years. It concentrates on team-based management factors and their influence on a new venture’s growth and ability to raise capital. This paper integrates recent findings and provides an overview of the current state of research. Moreover, it contributes to the overall topic by proposing five clusters of major team-specific influences, derives determinants of success and failure, and reveals recommendations for further research.

Konstantin Maschke

2012-05-01

417

Development of cross border gas transmission projects raise challenging issues. Case studies: The transmed and the Maghreb/Europe pipelines  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Development of cross border gas transmission projects raise complex and interdependent issues whose successful resolution require not only technical and management strengths but also a close cooperation between the key players involved in the game. In this paper we shall attempt to explain some of the major issues encountered during the appraisal and construction of long distance gas pipeline schemes. The information used derive essentially from the experience gained during the development of the Trans-mediterranean and the Maghreb/Europe pipelines. Running through the various issues we shall also identify and then discuss a number of factors which contributed to the successful implementation of these two projects. (au)

1997-06-10

418

Development of cross border gas transmission projects raise challenging issues. Case studies: The transmed and the Maghreb/Europe pipelines  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Development of cross border gas transmission projects raise complex and interdependent issues whose successful resolution require not only technical and management strengths but also a close cooperation between the key players involved in the game. In this paper we shall attempt to explain some of the major issues encountered during the appraisal and construction of long distance gas pipeline schemes. The information used derive essentially from the experience gained during the development of the Trans-mediterranean and the Maghreb/Europe pipelines. Running through the various issues we shall also identify and then discuss a number of factors which contributed to the successful implementation of these two projects. (au)

Khene, D. [Sonatrach (Algeria)

1997-11-01

419

Raised marsh deposits near Cartagena de Indias, evidence of eustatic and climatic instability during the upper Holocene  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The marsh deposits cropping out near Galerazamba are located at 15 m above sea level and at a distance of 1,250 m from the present day Cienaga El Totumo. This location suggests frequent changes in the sea level. A radiocarbon age of 4,150±50 yr BP was obtained from mollusc remains at the Cienaga El Totumo. The age of the marsh corresponds to a dry climate period according to paleoenvironmental data from the northern part of South America. The Cienaga El Totumo retreated during this dry episode. The fossil biota content found in these raised marsh deposits is poorly diversified and corresponds to the inner part of the marsh.

2008-01-01

420

Rowe Nicholas, Raising Dust : A cultural History of Dance in Palestine, I.B. Tauris, 2010, 246 p.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Raising Dust se présente comme une fouille archéologique tentant de dépoussiérer l'histoire passée et contemporaine de la danse en Palestine, en l'articulant au contexte politique fort mouvementé de ce territoire. L'objectif principal du livre est d'éclairerla façon dont la danse, en tant que pratique sociale et artistique, est reliée au politique ; comment les deux se font échoet peuvent être porteurs et reflets du changement social. À cet effet, l’auteur privilégie l'approche historique et ...

Krystel Khoury

2011-04-01

 
 
 
 
421

Effect of BCS at Mating on Some Reproductive Performance of Saanen Goat under Raised Semi Intensive Conditions  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The aim of this study was to determine the effects of the Body Condition Score (BCS) of 53 Saanen does on their reproductive performance 15 days before mating season and at the beginning of the mating season under raised semi intensive conditions. In this study, the does were synchronized in two different periods, one of which was 15 days before the other. Before the introduction of buck to the goats, the goats were weighed after measuring their BCS. Detailed records were kept for herd in yea...

Murat Yilmaz; Gunes Erdogan; Erbay Bardakcioglu, H.; Turgay Taskin; Tufan Altin

2011-01-01

422

Protozoan parasites in captive chinchillas (Chinchilla lanigera) raised in the State of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The aim of the present study was to identify Giardia sp., Eimeria spp. and Cryptosporidium spp. in fecal samples of chinchillas, respectively raised on farms located in the cities of Gravataí and Porto Alegre (State of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil), Giardia sp. was detected in 8% of 250 samples. The variables age (p = 0.47) and gender (p = 0.07), submitted to Fisher's exact test, were not related to the results obtained through the method of Faust et al. (1939) apud Hoffmann (1987). Oocysts of ...

ANA CLÁUDIA FAGUNDES GURGEL; AMANDA DOS SANTOS SARTORI; FLÁVIO ANTÔNIO PACHECO DE ARAÚJO

2005-01-01

423

Evaluation of milk production of a local Algerian rabbit population raised in the Tizi-Ouzou area (Kabylia).  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In order to characterize the does of a local Kabylian rabbit population raised in Algeria, a study of their milk production was carried out in the experimental rabbitry of the Tizi-Ouzou University. Milk production of does was measured every day during the 21 days following 299 parturitions by weighing each litter before and after the single daily suckling. The calculated parameters were the quantity of milk produced per day, per week and the total quantity produced in 21 days, as well as the...

Zerrouki, N.; Lebas, F.; Berchiche, M.; Bolet, G.

2005-01-01

424

Father's occupational exposure to radiation and the raised level of childhood leukemia near the Sellafield Nuclear Plant  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The first indications that childhood leukemia rates may be raised near the Sellafield nuclear plant in West Cumbria, England, came from largely anecdotal evidence in a television program Windscale: The Nuclear Laundry shown during 1983. During subsequent years, various epidemiological studies have investigated the claim in more detail. Geographical analyses of childhood leukemia incidence in the northern region and mortality in England and Wales using routinely available data made the first contribution. As a result, it was confirmed that leukemia rates in the area, particularly the neighboring village of Seascale, were high compared to other districts, although not totally extreme. Cohort studies of children born in Seascale or attending schools in Seascale were carried out to resolve some of the difficulties of interpretation of geographical analysis. Cohort studies indicated that the excess of leukemia was concentrated among children born in Seascale and was not found among those moving in after birth and suggested that any causal factors may be acting before birth or very early in life. A case-control study of leukemia (and lymphoma) among young people in West Cumbria has examined potentially important individual factors in detail. The study demonstrated a relationship between the raised incidence of leukemia in children and father's recorded external radiation dose during work at Sellafield before his child's conception. The association can effectively explain statistically the observed geographical excess

1991-01-01

425

Raised Ridges in the Sheepbed Member as Evidence for Early Subaqueous Diagenesis at Yellowknife Bay, Gale Crater, Mars  

Science.gov (United States)

Spatially restricted clusters of erosion-resistant, ridged fracture fills have been found throughout the fine-grained clay-rich Sheepbed member of the Yellowknife Bay Formation where the Mars Science Laboratory rover recently drilled. These 'raised ridge' features are characterized by 1-6 mm thick fractures filled with 2-4 subparallel resistant ridges. The ridges have been mapped throughout the Sheepbed member on Mastcam mosaics from sols 137 to 194 and are shown to be constrained to relatively dense, spatially localized clusters within the unit. The ridges have highly variable attitudes, ranging in dip from vertical to sub-horizontal, and striking in all directions, indicating that the original fractures formed in a mechanically isotropic setting. The fractures are generally short (synaeresis cracks, likely formed by gas expansion prior to final lithification of the Sheepbed member. Based on the isopachous nature of both the resistant and less-resistant fracture fills, the fracture-fillin