WorldWideScience

Sample records for raised antistreptolysin-o titre

  1. Antistreptolysin O titer in health and disease: levels and significance

    Alyaa Amal Kotby

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Over diagnosis of acute rheumatic fever (ARF based on a raised antistreptolysin O titer (ASOT is not uncommon in endemic areas. In this study, 660 children (aged 9.2 ±1.7 years were recruited consecutively and classified as: G1 (control group, n=200 healthy children, G2 (n=20 with ARF 1st attack, G3 (n=40 with recurrent ARF, G4 (n=100 with rheumatic heart disease (RHD on long acting penicillin (LAP, G5 (n=100 with acute follicular tonsillitis, and G6 (n=200 healthy children with history of repeated follicular tonsillitis more than three times a year. Serum ASOT was measured by latex agglutination. Upper limit of normal (ULN ASOT (80th percentile was 400 IU in G1, 200 IU in G4, and 1600 IU in G6. Significantly high levels were seen in ARF 1st attack when compared to groups 1 and 5 (P<0.001 and P<0.05, respectively. ASOT was significantly high in children over ten years of age, during winter and in those with acute rheumatic carditis. ASOT showed significant direct correlation with the number of attacks of tonsillitis (P<0.05. Egyptian children have high ULN ASOT reaching 400 IU. This has to be taken into consideration when interpreting its values in suspected ARF. A rise in ASOT is less prominent in recurrent ARF compared to 1st attack, and acute and recurrent tonsillitis. Basal levels of ASOT increase with age but the pattern of increase during infection is not age dependent

  2. Is raised helicobacter pylori antibody titre enough to decide retreatment

    Background: Helicobacter pylori infection causes a rise in its antibodies which take almost a year to come to baseline following successful eradication treatment. Checking these values in between a year may give falsely high values and many patients may thus be over treated. Aims: To serially determine Helicobacter pylori antibody titres in patients after giving them triple therapy for H. pylori eradication and see how these values drop over time. Study type, Settings and duration: Longitudinal study conducted in Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Pakistan Medical Research Council, Research Centre, Jinnah Post Graduate Medical Centre, Karachi, from May 2006 to April 2010. Subjects and Methods: Over the period of four years, 186 patients who were found positive for campylobacter like organism test during endoscopy were further tested for anti H. pylori IgG titre before being treated for H. pylori. Patients were given triple therapy comprising of Omeprazole (20 mg twice daily), Amoxicillin (1 gm twice daily) and Clarythromycin (500 mg twice daily) for a week and were followed at 1, 3, 6 and 12 months to check symptomatic relief and they were tested again for H.Pylori antibody titres. Data was collected on pre-designed proforma which included patient's demography, symptoms and diagnosis. Results: Out of 186 patients who had a positive campylobacter like organism test, 173 patients consented to participate in the study. Serology for H.Pylori was positive in 119(68%) cases. A decline in mean antibody titres was observed as 11%, 21.5%, 54.7% and 59.2% at 1, 3, 6 and 12 months respectively. Conclusions: Sensitivity of serology for diagnosing H. pylori infection is good but using these as a tool for monitoring response to treatment is doubtful. A slow drop in H.pylori antibodies was seen over 12 months and therefore, physicians are cautioned not to retreat the already treated cases till about one year post treatment. Policy message: H. pylori antibodies should

  3. Comparison of nephelometric and hemolytic techniques for determination of antistreptolysin O antibodies.

    Pacifico, L; Mancuso, G; Properzi, E; Ravagnan, G; Pasquino, A M; Chiesa, C

    1995-04-01

    The sensitivity of a newly devised nephelometric method for determining antistreptolysin O antibodies was compared with the hemolytic inhibition assay. Three hundred-thirty single serum samples from children with and without evidence of group A streptococcal infection were analyzed by the two techniques. The nephelometric method results correlated well with those of the reference test (concordance: r = 0.88). Furthermore, 134 pairs of acute and convalescent phase sera from patients with culture-proven GAS infection and 50 pairs from children who served as control subjects were examined. The nephelometric assay was more sensitive in detecting significant ASO antibody rises than the hemolytic assay. The automated nephelometric method appears to be a much simpler and sensitive procedure for testing ASO antibodies. PMID:7726133

  4. New compact-type latex photometric immunoassay system for hemoglobin and three acute inflammation markers: neutrophil count, C-reactive protein, and anti-streptolysin O.

    Fukumori, Tatsuo; Ohta, Hironobu; Okubo, Akio; Hino, Masayuki; Ohta, Kensuke; Yamane, Takahisa; Tatsumi, Noriyuki

    2002-01-01

    A new compact-type latex photometric immunoassay system, SPOTCHEM IM SI-3510 (ARKRAY, Inc., Kyoto, Japan), which assays three kinds of inflammatory markers-neutrophil count (NPC), C-reactive protein (CRP), and anti-streptolysin O (ASO)-was evaluated. Hemoglobin (Hb), which is a good marker for anemia, can also be measured with it. NPC and CRP are measured using antibodies against neutrophilic elastase and CRP, purified streptolysin O was used for ASO determination, and Hb was measured by an azide-methemoglobin method. Whole blood, serum, and plasma specimens can be used as samples with this system. In this study, whole blood treated with dipotassium ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid was used for evaluation. Linearity and reproducibility were good for all of the items studied. Good correlations were observed between the results obtained by this system and those obtained by routine methods. Since NPC exhibited a high correlation with the routine white blood cell (WBC) counts, it was judged to be useful as a substitute for WBC counting. Since this system is small and easy to operate, and evaluation revealed reliable results, it was judged to be practical for small laboratories, and satellite testing in hospitals and physicians' office laboratories for patients suspected to have acute inflammation. PMID:11948799

  5. The clinical value of anti-dnase B and antistreptolysin O microtitration test in the diagnosis of rheumatic disease%ASO和抗DNA酶B抗体联合检测对风湿病诊断的临床意义

    陈忠城; 蔡高荣; 邝昱; 许振杰

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To observe the changes and the diagnostic values of anti - Dnase B and Antistreptolysin O in serum of rheumatic disease patients caused by group A streptococcal (GAS) infection. Methods: Thirty patients with acute rheumatic fever (ARF) and 30 patients with Rheumatic activity heart disease and 30 patients with Rheumatic arthritis were included in the present study. Immune scatter nephelometry test was used to detect the level of anti - Dnase B and ASO in serum. Results: The positive rates of ASO in patients with ARF, Rheumatic activity heart disease and Rheumatic arthritis were 80%, 57.3% and 53.3%, respectively. The positive rates of anti -Dnase B in patients with ARF, Rheumatic activity heart disease and Rheumatic arthritis were 70%, 85.7% and 60%, respectively. Other than the group of Rheumatic activity heart disease, there was no statistical difference between the positive rates of ASO and anti - Dnase B in patients with ARF and Rheumatic arthritis. The positive rates of the joint detection of anti - Dnase B and ASO in patients with ARF, Rheumatic activity heart disease and Rheumatic arthritis were 90%, 92.8% and 80%, respectively. There was statistically significant difference in the positive rate between joint detection and any single test. Conclusion: The joint detection of anti - Dnase B and ASO could improve the diagnosis of Rheumatic disease and should be of important clinical value in the diagnosis of rheumatic disease.%目的:研究溶血性链球菌感染引起的风湿病患者抗DNA酶B和ASO的血清学变化及意义.方法:收集30例急性风湿热、30例活动期风湿性心脏病、30例风湿性关节炎患者血清,免疫散射比浊法检测其抗DNA酶B和ASO水平.结果:三组患者的ASO阳性率分别为80%、57.3%、53.3%,抗DNA酶B检测阳性率分别为70%、85.7%、60%.除活动期风湿性心脏病组外,其余两组患者的ASO阳性率与抗DNA酶B检测阳性率间的差异无统计学意义(P>0.05).

  6. Musique et référentialité sur les titres des disques Blue Note

    Philippe Carrard

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Les titres qui figurent sur la pochette des disques de la marque Blue Note peuvent dénoter le contenu musical de l’album (Boogie-Woogie Classics, le connoter (Blue Hour ou fonctionner strictement comme index (Speak No Evil. Quelle que soit leur valeur précise, ces titres permettent de revisiter un problème maintes fois soulevé par les musicologues et les sémioticiens: celui de savoir si la musique « réfère », et à quoi. Dans le cas des disques Blue Note, la question se pose d’une manière particulièrement aiguë à propos de certains enregistrements des années 1960, dont les titres (It’s Time, Right Now, Let Freedom Ring, etc. peuvent référer aux structures du jazz ou à la situation des noirs dans la société américaine, qu’il s’agit tous deux de transformer dans le sens d’une liberté accrue.The titles on the jackets of the records of the label Blue Note can denote the musical content of the album (Boogie-Woogie Classics, connote it (Blue Hour, or function strictly as indexes (Speak No Evil. Whatever their exact value might be, those titles make it possible to revisit a problem frequently raised in semiotics and musicology: the problem of knowing whether music « refers », and to what exactly. The question is especially acute in the case of some of the records released by Blue Note in the1960s, whose titles (It’s Time, Right Now, Let Freedom Ring may refer to musical structures or to the situation of African-Americans in American sociey, which have both to be changed in the sense of more freedom.

  7. EFFECT OF SELENIUM SUPPLEMENTATION ON ANTIBODY TITRES AGAINST INFECTIOUS BURSAL DISEASE VACCINE IN BROILER CHICKS

    M. Arshad, M. Siddique, M. Ashraf and H. A. Khan

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available A total of 200 chicks were raised upto 43 days of age under controlled experimental conditions. The birds were randomly divided into four groups A, B, C and D of 50 birds each at the age of day one. Birds of groups A and B were not supplemented with selenium, while those of groups C and D were given selenium @ 0.06 mg/Kg of feed from day one to day 43. The birds of groups B and D were vaccinated against infectious bursal disease (IBD at the age of day 10 and boosted at the age of day 25. The effect of selenium on humoral immune response was evaluated by recording weekly serum antibody titres against IBD through indirect haemagglutination (IHA test. The cumulative mean titres (CMT recorded in groups A, B, C and D were 15, 53, 16 and 61, respectively (P<0.05. These results indicate that selenium supplementation may help to increase post vaccination humoral immune response against IBD in broiler chicks.

  8. Analysis of factor VIII mediated suppression of lentiviral vector titres.

    Radcliffe, P A; Sion, C J M; Wilkes, F J; Custard, E J; Beard, G L; Kingsman, S M; Mitrophanous, K A

    2008-02-01

    Effective gene therapy for haemophilia A necessitates a vector system that is not subject to a pre-existing immune response, has adequate coding capacity, gives long-term expression and preferably can target non-dividing cells. Vector systems based on lentiviruses such as equine infectious anaemia virus (EIAV) fulfil these criteria for the delivery of factor VIII (FVIII). We have found that B domain-deleted (BDD) FVIII protein inhibits functional viral particle production when co-expressed with the EIAV vector system. Although particle numbers (as measured by reverse transcriptase activity) are near normal, RNA genome levels are reduced and measurement of integrated copies revealed the virus is severely defective in its ability to transduce target cells. This is due to the absence of sufficient vesicular stomatitis virus glycoprotein (VSV-G) envelope on viral particles derived from cells expressing FVIII. By using an internal tissue-specific promoter, that has low activity in the producer cells, to drive expression of FVIII we have overcome this inhibitory effect allowing us to generate titres approaching those obtained with vector genomes encoding reporter genes. Furthermore, we report that codon optimization of the full-length FVIII gene increased vector titres approximately 10-fold in addition to substantially improving expression per integrated vector copy. PMID:18046428

  9. Comparison of Coccidioides immitis serological antibody titres between forms of clinical coccidioidomycosis in horses.

    Higgins, Jill C; Pusterla, Nicola; Pappagianis, Demosthenes

    2007-01-01

    A retrospective study was performed to determine if there is an association between serological Coccidioides immitis antibody titres (IgG) and form/severity of coccidioidal disease in horses, and to identify trends in survival and treatment success based on the form of the disease. Data were obtained on horses with positive serological titres tested at the Coccidioidomycosis Serology Laboratory, School of Medicine, University of California, Davis from 1981 to 2004. Thirty-nine cases in which a diagnosis of coccidioidomycosis had been made were selected for inclusion. Six distinct categories were identified including abortion (n=6), miliary/interstitial pneumonia (n=6), pneumonia with thoracic effusion (pleural or pericardial) (n=11), disseminated (n=10), osteomyelitis (n=3) and external abscessation (n=3) both without pulmonary disease. Statistical differences in titre distribution were found between the abortion category and the pulmonary category (P=0.003), the abortion category and pneumonia with thoracic effusion (P=0.001), the abortion category and disseminated disease (P=0.001), and the pulmonary form and pneumonia with effusion (P=0.001). The other categories had overlapping titre results. Higher serological antibody titres seemed to be associated with a poorer prognosis for survival. Categories with the highest titres, disseminated (geometric mean titre=104) and pneumonia with thoracic effusion (geometric mean titre=226), were overwhelmingly fatal (19/21 known deaths) due to severe clinical disease. The categories with lower titres, abortion (geometric mean titre=4), bone involvement only (geometric mean titre=13) and cutaneous (geometric mean titre=5), had a better survival rate (10/12 known survivors) and less severe clinical disease. Measurement of serological titre may be a useful diagnostic aid in establishing form and severity of disease and thus inform prognosis. PMID:16249106

  10. Quantifying homologous and heterologous antibody titre rises after influenza virus infection.

    Freeman, G; Perera, R A P M; Ngan, E; Fang, V J; Cauchemez, S; Ip, D K M; Peiris, J S M; Cowling, B J

    2016-08-01

    Most influenza virus infections are associated with mild disease. One approach to estimate the occurrence of influenza virus infections in individuals is via repeated measurement of humoral antibody titres. We used baseline and convalescent antibody titres measured by haemagglutination inhibition (HI) and viral neutralization (VN) assays against influenza A(H1N1), A(H3N2) and B viruses to investigate the characteristics of antibody rises following virologically confirmed influenza virus infections in participants in a community-based study. Multivariate models were fitted in a Bayesian framework to characterize the distribution of changes in antibody titres following influenza A virus infections. In 122 participants with PCR-confirmed influenza A virus infection, homologous antibody titres rose by geometric means of 1·2- to 10·2-fold after infection with A(H1N1), A(H3N2) and A(H1N1)pdm09. Significant cross-reactions were observed between A(H1N1)pdm09 and seasonal A(H1N1). Antibody titre rises for some subtypes and assays varied by age, receipt of oseltamivir treatment, and recent receipt of influenza vaccination. In conclusion, we provided a quantitative description of the mean and variation in rises in influenza virus antibody titres following influenza virus infection. The multivariate patterns in boosting of antibody titres following influenza virus infection could be taken into account to improve estimates of cumulative incidence of infection in seroepidemiological studies. PMID:27018720

  11. Production of high titre antisera in rabbits against clostridium perfringens beta and epsilon toxoids

    To investigate the validity of production of high titre antisera against Clostridium perfringens and epsilon toxoids in rabbit, the immune response of these toxoid inoculated rabbits were measured. The highest neutralizing antibody titres from the beta and epsilon toxoids were equally log/sub 10/ 1.50 plus minus 0.042 on 21st day post-inoculation of toxoid. The precipitating antibodies were detected by agar gel immunodiffusion test on the above mentioned period. Statistically significant (P<0.01) rise of antibody titre was observed form 14th day to 21st day post-inoculation of toxoid. Antibody production did not vary significantly due to interaction between day of inoculation and toxoid. It suggested the utility of rabbit for excellent production of high titre antisera against Clostridium perfringens beta and epsilon toxoids. (author)

  12. Thyroxine, methimazole, and thyroid microsomal autoantibody titres in hypothyroid Hashimoto's thyroiditis.

    Jansson, R.; Karlsson, A; Dahlberg, P A

    1985-01-01

    Ten hypothyroid patients with Hashimoto's thyroiditis were treated with methimazole 30 mg in addition to thyroxine 0.15 mg daily. Another 10 hypothyroid patients with Hashimoto's thyroiditis were given thyroxine 0.15 mg alone. After 22 weeks of treatment significant decreases in thyroid microsomal autoantibody titres were observed in both groups (p less than 0.01). There was no difference in the mean change in titre between the two groups. When the patients treated with methimazole were subse...

  13. Enhancement of Antibody Titre and Development of Additional Red Cell Alloantibodies Following Intrauterine Transfusion.

    Dubey, Anju; Sonker, Atul; Chaudhary, Rajendra

    2016-03-01

    Intrauterine blood transfusion is the mainstay of managing foetuses with severe anemia. It may however result in fetomaternal hemorrhage, which in cases of Rh isoimmunisation may increase the severity of the disease by enhancing the maternal immunological response to fetal antigens. This study was conducted to determine the frequency, specificity and origin of additional red cell antibodies which developed after IUT. The change in the titre of allo anti-D following IUT was also determined. Antibody detection and titration was done on the blood samples of all the patients before and after intrauterine blood transfusion to check for the development of additional antibody and change in the titre of existing anti-D. Severe anemia was found in 17 (58.6 %) fetuses who received a total of 42 ultrasound-guided IUTs. Development of antibodies additional to anti-D in maternal serum was seen in 5 (29.4 %) cases. The specificity of additional alloantibodies was anti-C in four cases whereas it was anti-E in one case. Four fold or greater increase in existing allo-anti D titre was seen in 6 (35.3 %) cases after IUT. Enhancement of maternal sensitisation leading to an increase in maternal antibody titre is particularly seen after the first IUT. Matching of the donor RBCs particularly for Rh antigens might prevent the induction of additional alloantibodies against these antigens. IUT as a treatment modality should be given judiciously and only when the need is inevitable. PMID:26855513

  14. Deal with price raise

    2004-01-01

    The price raise in natural resources is inevitable. At present, building ceramic industry is facing the pressure brought by price raise in raw material. Marketing directors still hesitate whether the price of ceramic tiles should be raised. The crisis brought by social environment made the employees care-laden.

  15. Discriminant analysis of symptom pattern and serum antibody titres in humidifier related disease.

    McSharry, C; Anderson, K.(Enrico Fermi Institute, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL, U.S.A.); Speekenbrink, A; Lewis, C; Boyd, G.

    1993-01-01

    BACKGROUND--The heterogeneous patterns of symptoms among factory workers exposed to aerosols from contaminated air humidifiers were analysed to assess the association between specific symptoms and the serum IgG antibody response to the humidifier water contaminants, and to test the ability of specific symptoms to predict this antibody response. METHODS--Symptoms from 88 factory workers were surveyed by a doctor administered questionnaire and compared with their serum IgG antibody titres to hu...

  16. Streptokinase neutralisation titres up to 866 days after intravenous streptokinase for acute myocardial infarction.

    Patel, S.; S Jalihal; Dutka, D P; Morris, G K

    1993-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To follow the change in streptokinase neutralisation titres in a group of patients after treatment with streptokinase for acute myocardial infarction. DESIGN--Venous blood samples suitable for analysis were obtained up to 866 days after treatment with 1.5 million units of streptokinase in 189 patients. The ability of the patient's plasma to inhibit lysis of a thrombin clot by streptokinase was assessed. SETTING--A coronary care unit in a district general hospital. PATIENTS--A retro...

  17. Cattle rabies vaccination--A longitudinal study of rabies antibody titres in an Israeli dairy herd.

    Yakobson, Boris; Taylor, Nick; Dveres, Nelli; Rozenblut, Shira; Tov, Boris Even; Markos, Majid; Gallon, Nadav; Homer, David; Maki, Joanne

    2015-09-01

    In contrast to many regions of the world where rabies is endemic in terrestrial wildlife species, wildlife rabies has been controlled in Israel by oral rabies vaccination programs, but canine rabies is re-emerging in the northern area of the Golan Heights. From 2009 to 2014 there were 208 animal rabies cases in Israel; 96 (46%) were considered introduced primary cases in dogs, triggering 112 secondary cases. One third (37/112) of the secondary cases were in cattle. Rabies vaccination is voluntary for cattle in Israel, except those on public exhibit. Rabies vaccination schedules for cattle vary based on farm practices and perception of risk. In this study 59 cattle from a dairy farm which routinely vaccinates against rabies were assigned into six groups according to age and vaccination histories. Four groups contained adult cows which had received one previous rabies vaccination, one group of adults had received two previous vaccinations, and one group was unvaccinated calves. Serum samples were collected and the cows were vaccinated with a commercial rabies vaccine. Sera were again collected 39 days later and the calf group re-vaccinated and re-sampled 18 days later. Sera were analyzed for the presence of rabies virus neutralizing antibodies using the rapid immunofluorescent antibody test. Cattle with antibody titres ≥ 0.5 IU/ml were considered to be protected against rabies. Twenty-six of 27 adult cattle (96%) vaccinated once at less than five months old did not have protective titres. Sixty percent (6/10) cattle vaccinated once at around six months of age did have adequate titres. Cattle previously vaccinated twice (n=10; 100%) with an 18 month interval between inoculations, had protective titres and protective antibody titres following booster vaccination (n=51; 100%). The anamnestic response of cattle to a killed rabies vaccine was not affected by the time interval between vaccinations, which ranged from 12 to 36 months. These results suggest that calves from

  18. Raising and Transparency.

    Langacker, Ronald W.

    1995-01-01

    An account of the phenomena that transformational syntax handled by means of "raising" is formulated in the context of cognitive grammar. Raising is analyzed as a special case of the metonymy that relational expressions exhibit in regard to their choice of overtly coded arguments. The transparency of these constructions is explained. (83…

  19. Anti-acetylcholine receptor antibody titres in the sera of myasthenia patients treated with plasma exchange combined with immunosuppressive therapy.

    Carter, B.; Harrison, R.; Lunt, G G; Behan, P O; Simpson, J. A.

    1980-01-01

    Anti-acetylcholine receptor antibody titres have been monitored in the sera of 19 myasthenic patients treated with plasma exchange combined with a three month period of immunosuppressive therapy. In general the post-exchange titres stabilised at below pre-exchange levels for prolonged periods which were associated with clinical improvement. In seven instances recurrence of symptoms occurred and in six of these cases relapse was shown to be associated with a rise in anti-acetylcholine receptor...

  20. Raising Consciousness about Sexism

    Delworth, Ursula

    1973-01-01

    The sexism consciousness raising exercises provided in this article can help both men and women understand how cultural attitudes toward the sexes are embedded in our individual psychological makeup. (Author)

  1. Solid-phase radioimmunoassay for measurement of circulating antibody titres to wheat gliadin and its subfractions in patients with adult coeliac disease

    Ciclitira, P.J.; Ellis, H.J. (Guy' s Hospital, London (UK)); Evans, D.J. (Hammersmith Hospital, London (UK))

    1983-08-26

    A solid-phase radioimmunoassay for the measurement of circulating antibody titres to wheat gliadin is described. Using this assay, the authors have measured antibody titres to unfractionated gliadin in normal healthy controls, in coeliac patients on a gluten-free or a normal diet, and in patients with ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease. High titres of antibodies to unfractionated gliadin were observed only in the patients with untreated coeliac disease. Antibody titres to ..cap alpha.., ..beta.., ..gamma.. and ..omega.. gliadin subfractions were measured in patients with untreated coeliac disease and compared with titres in normal controls. Patients with untreated coeliac disease had higher antibody titres to the gliadin subfractions. No specific pattern of circulating antibody titres to gliadin subfractions was observed in the untreated coeliac patients which would provide a diagnostic profile. These results suggest shared antigenicity between the gliadin subfractions.

  2. A solid-phase radioimmunoassay for measurement of circulating antibody titres to wheat gliadin and its subfractions in patients with adult coeliac disease

    A solid-phase radioimmunoassay for the measurement of circulating antibody titres to wheat gliadin is described. Using this assay, the authors have measured antibody titres to unfractionated gliadin in normal healthy controls, in coeliac patients on a gluten-free or a normal diet, and in patients with ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease. High titres of antibodies to unfractionated gliadin were observed only in the patients with untreated coeliac disease. Antibody titres to α, #betta#, #betta# and #betta# gliadin subfractions were measured in patients with untreated coeliac disease and compared with titres in normal controls. Patients with untreated coeliac disease had higher antibody titres to the gliadin subfractions. No specific pattern of circulating antibody titres to gliadin subfractions was observed in the untreated coeliac patients which would provide a diagnostic profile. These results suggest shared antigenicity between the gliadin subfractions. (Auth.)

  3. Raising the Bar (3)

    Elhorst, P.; Abreu, M.; Amaral, P.; Bhattacharjee, A.; Corrado, L.; Fingleton, B.; Fuerst, F.; Garretsen, H.; Igliori, D.; Le Gallo, J.; McCann, P.; Monastiriotis, V.; Pryce, G.; Yu, J.

    2016-01-01

    This editorial summarizes and comments on the papers published in issue 11(3) so as to raise the bar in applied spatial economic research and highlight new trends. The first paper proposes spatial and a-spatial indicators to describe the networks of airline companies around the world. The second pap

  4. Raising Children Again

    ... Teen pregnancy Parent(s) living with HIV/AIDS Domestic violence in the home Military deployment of parent(s) Grandmothers caring for or raising grandchildren suffer more stress and depression than grandmothers who aren't caregivers. These are older women who may have health needs of their own. ...

  5. Effect of arginine or glutamine supplementation on production, organ weights, interferon gamma, interleukin 6 and antibody titre of broilers.

    Szabó, József; Andrásofszky, Emese; Tuboly, Tamás; Bersényi, András; Weisz, Andrea; Hetényi, Nikoletta; Hullár, István

    2014-09-01

    The objective of this study was designed to test whether supplementation of the diet with arginine (Arg) or glutamine (Gln) or their combination influences the production, organ weights and humoral immune response of broilers. A total of 432 one-day-old male Ross 308 broiler chickens were divided into 6 treatment groups: control, Arg-0.5%, Arg-1%, Gln-0.5%, Gln-1% and Arg-0.5%+Gln-0.5%. Drinking water and feed were provided ad libitum. On day 18 of the experiment 50% of chickens in each treatment group were immunised with bovine serum albumin. Ten and 21 days after immunisation blood samples were collected to determine the anti-albumin IgY titre, interleukin 6 (IL6) and interferon gamma (IFNG) and to measure the weight of the liver, spleen, bursa of Fabricius and thymus. Arg or Gln supplementation of the diets influenced neither the production nor the organ weights until 18 days of age. Between 18 and 39 days of age both Arg (0.5% and 1%) and Arg + Gln supplementation improved the feed conversion ratio (FCR) by 3.7%, 6.3% and 4.9%, respectively, while Gln-1% worsened it by 15%. Immunisation slightly (-0.79%) depressed the body weight gain of broilers fed the control diet, which was significantly improved by both Arg (0.5 or 1%) and Arg + Gln supplementation. Immunisation increased the weight of the spleen, bursa and thymus and decreased that of the liver. Supplementation with 1% Gln depressed (-5.13%) the body weight gain of the immunised chickens but strongly stimulated the immune response. Supplementations with Arg and Gln did not influence the IL6 and IFNG level of the blood; however, on day 10 after immunisation these two parameters showed a negative correlation with each other. Regarding production, organ weights and immunity, Arg supplementation should be recommended in the grower phase, while Gln supplementation can be useful in pullets raised for egg production, where a good immune response to vaccinations is an important factor. PMID:25038949

  6. Long-term survival in trial of medium-titre Edmonston-Zagreb measles vaccine in Guinea-Bissau

    Aaby, Peter; Lisse, Ida; Whittle, H; Knudsen, K; Thaarup, Jeppe; Poulsen, A; Sodemann, Morten; Jakobsen, M; Brink, L; Gansted, U

    1994-01-01

    A trial of protective efficacy which compared medium-titre Edmonston-Zagreb (EZ) measles vaccine (10(4.6) p.f.u.) from the age of 4 months with the standard Schwarz (SW) measles vaccine given from the age of 9 months was started in an urban community in Guinea-Bissau in 1985. Because trials of hi...

  7. Rh sensitized pregnancy with high ICT titre with favourable foetal outcome: a rare case

    Namrata Saxena

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Leiomyosarcoma Rhesus (Rh isoimmunization is the development of maternal IgG antibodies against fetal Rh Red Blood Cell (RBC antigens. Transplacental passage of maternal Rh antibody (IgG anti-D may result in Hemolytic Disease of the Newborn (HDN, a condition characterized by hemolysis, severe fetal anemia and generalized fetal edema (hydrops fetalis. The severity of Rh hemolytic disease may be assessed in the Immunized patient by several different means which include: past obstetric history, maternal antibody titer, ultrasonography, amniotic fluid bilirubin quantification, and percutaneous umbilical blood sampling. A past history of fetal demise, hydrops fetalis, intrauterine transfusion or neonatal exchange transfusion implies that the present pregnancy is or will be severely affected because Rh disease effects on the fetus generally recur or present progressively earlier or more severely with each successive Rh positive pregnancy. We present here a rare case of Rh sensitized pregnancy with high ICT titre who had normal fetal outcome. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2015; 4(5.000: 1574-1576

  8. Measurement of lentiviral vector titre and copy number by cross-species duplex quantitative PCR.

    Christodoulou, I; Patsali, P; Stephanou, C; Antoniou, M; Kleanthous, M; Lederer, C W

    2016-01-01

    Lentiviruses are the vectors of choice for many preclinical studies and clinical applications of gene therapy. Accurate measurement of biological vector titre before treatment is a prerequisite for vector dosing, and the calculation of vector integration sites per cell after treatment is as critical to the characterisation of modified cell products as it is to long-term follow-up and the assessment of risk and therapeutic efficiency in patients. These analyses are typically based on quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR), but as yet compromise accuracy and comparability between laboratories and experimental systems, the former by using separate simplex reactions for the detection of endogene and lentiviral sequences and the latter by designing different PCR assays for analyses in human cells and animal disease models. In this study, we validate in human and murine cells a qPCR system for the single-tube assessment of lentiviral vector copy numbers that is suitable for analyses in at least 33 different mammalian species, including human and other primates, mouse, pig, cat and domestic ruminants. The established assay combines the accuracy of single-tube quantitation by duplex qPCR with the convenience of one-off assay optimisation for cross-species analyses and with the direct comparability of lentiviral transduction efficiencies in different species. PMID:26202078

  9. Determination of specific antibodies titre to salmonella enteritidis by elisa technique in several selected flocks of laying hens

    Velhner Maja

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the antibody titre to Salmonella enteritidis (SE was examined by the ELISA method in two flocks of laying hens, where during routine bacteriological investigations Salmonellae was never isolated, and in one flock where Colysepticemia was diagnosed and Salmonella isolated accidentally. In the flocks were Salmonellae were not isolated, a titre with a high level of specific antibodies to SE was discovered (15 and 45%, while the flock with accidental findings of SE was poorly positive (5%. These results point to the necessity of introducing serological monitoring to SE so that the infection of salmonella may be discovered early and the prevalence in the flock determined, and also for the purpose of applying adequate measures that could reduce the possibility of secretion of SE through eggs.

  10. EFFECT OF VARIOUS STABILIZERS ON TITRE OF LYOPHILIZED LIVE-ATTENUATED PESTE DES PETITS RUMINANTS (PPR) VACCINE

    M. ASIM, A. RASHID AND A. H. CHAUDHARY

    2008-01-01

    Lyophilization stabilizes the biological materials by using two overlapping drying procedure i.e. primary drying by sublimation of the ice crystal from frozen material and secondary drying or desorption by evaporation of the free water adsorbed into the dried product. Three different stabilizers i.e. lactalbumin hydrolysate-sucrose, Weybridge medium and lactalbumin hydrolysate-manitol were used to lyophilize the Peste des petits ruminants (PPR) vaccine. Titre of live-attenuated PPR cell cultu...

  11. Hyaluronan treatment of biotinylated packaging cells increases titre of progeny retrovirus affinity-captured onto paramagnetic particles.

    Nesbeth, D. N.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The polysaccharide hyaluronan is a major component of the extracellular matrix and has been observed to impact retrovirus infectivity in biological settings. Hyaluronan has also been applied in biotechnology as a non-immunogenic, biocompatible agent to improve control of drug delivery and lentiviral transduction. We carried out a preliminary investigation to ascertain if the presence of hyaluronan influenced titre performance of an engineered retrovirus during the production, capt...

  12. Objective quantitation of serum antibody titres against Enterobacteriaceae using indirect immunofluorescence, read by videocamera and image processing system

    Apperloo-Renkema, H. Z.; M. H. F. Wilkinson; Oenema, D.G.; van der Waaij, D.

    1991-01-01

    A new way of measuring indirect immunofluorescence (IIF) of microscopic bacterial slide preparations by videocamera and an image processing system is presented. This method is compared with the conventional method of reading the slides by eye. The advantages of this new approach are objective reading, greater accuracy and easier performance. We have applied the method to measure serum antibody titres against endogenous Enterobacteriaceae. The method offers the opportunity to combine IIF with ...

  13. Serological diagnosis of untreated early syphilis. Importance of the differences in THA, TPHA, and VDRL test titres.

    Sequeira, P J

    1983-01-01

    The treponemal haemagglutination (THA) test has been used for 11 years as a routine test for syphilis at a central serology laboratory. Among patients with untreated early syphilis the antibodies detected by the THA test usually appeared later or were of relatively lower titre than those detected by the reagin tests. This finding was confirmed by follow up of patients and by replies to questionnaires and has been incorporated in a computer program. During 1981, using the results obtained on u...

  14. The influence of adhesin protein from Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans on IL-8 and MMP-8 titre in aggressive periodontitis

    Rini Revijanti Ridwan

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Adhesion can actually be considered as a part of both a powerful survival mechanism and a virulence mechanism for bacterial pathogens. Bacterial adhesin is an instrument for bacteria to do invasion to host. Bacterial adhesin depends on ligand interaction as a signaling mediator that will influence invasion and increase pro and anti-inflammatory because of the influence of the receptors of innate immune response. Aggregatibacter actimycetemcomitans has fimbriae included in type IV pili containing mostly with protein weighed 6.5 kDa and at least with protein weighed 54 kDa. Purpose: The purpose of this research is to analyze the influence of the induction of adhesin protein derived from A. actinomycetemcomitans on IL-8 and MMP-8 titre of Wistar rats. Methods: Adhesin protein derived from A. actinomycetemcomitans weighed 24 kDa was induced on the maxillary first molar sulcus of Wistar rats to prove that adhesin protein could affect IL-8 and MMP-8 titre. Next, to determine its influence, Elisa technique was conducted. Results: It is known that the levels of IL-8 and MMP-8 titre were increased in the group induced with adhesin protein derived from A. actinomycetemcomitans compared with the control group. Conclusion: It can be concluded that adhesin protein derived from A. actinomycetemcomitans can cause alveolar bone damage through the increasing levels of IL-8 and MMP-8 in aggressive periodontitis.

  15. String Vacuous Overt Verb Raising.

    Koisumi, Masatoshi

    2000-01-01

    Presents evidence for overt verb raising in Japanese, thereby defending the validity of the head parameter with its two values (head initial and head final). Explores consequences of the overt verb raising analysis of Japanese to various aspects of syntactic theory. (Author/VWL)

  16. Raising Awareness in Science Education for Women (RAISE-W)

    Faherty, Jacqueline K.; Holford, M.

    2014-01-01

    Raising Awareness in Science Education for Women (RAISE-W) is a 501c non profit corporation whose mission is to aid in increasing and retaining the number of women - especially underrepresented females - engaged in scientific teaching and research. Initiated by a Protein Chemist and an Astronomer, our ultimate goal has been to develop informational tools and create innovative outreach programs for women across all STEM fields. At present RAISE-W is recruiting women at the undergraduate, graduate, and early career stages to participate in a unique, 1-year, executive coaching program modeled after those used in the business sector.

  17. Relationship between haemagglutination-inhibiting antibody titres and clinical protection against influenza: development and application of a bayesian random-effects model

    Megas Françoise

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Antibodies directed against haemagglutinin, measured by the haemagglutination inhibition (HI assay are essential to protective immunity against influenza infection. An HI titre of 1:40 is generally accepted to correspond to a 50% reduction in the risk of contracting influenza in a susceptible population, but limited attempts have been made to further quantify the association between HI titre and protective efficacy. Methods We present a model, using a meta-analytical approach, that estimates the level of clinical protection against influenza at any HI titre level. Source data were derived from a systematic literature review that identified 15 studies, representing a total of 5899 adult subjects and 1304 influenza cases with interval-censored information on HI titre. The parameters of the relationship between HI titre and clinical protection were estimated using Bayesian inference with a consideration of random effects and censorship in the available information. Results A significant and positive relationship between HI titre and clinical protection against influenza was observed in all tested models. This relationship was found to be similar irrespective of the type of viral strain (A or B and the vaccination status of the individuals. Conclusion Although limitations in the data used should not be overlooked, the relationship derived in this analysis provides a means to predict the efficacy of inactivated influenza vaccines when only immunogenicity data are available. This relationship can also be useful for comparing the efficacy of different influenza vaccines based on their immunological profile.

  18. Raising Public Awareness of Mathematics

    Behrends, Ehrhard; Rodrigues, José Francisco

    2012-01-01

    This collective book aims to encourage and inspire actions directed towards raising public awareness of the importance of mathematical sciences for our contemporary society in a cultural and historical perspective. Mathematical societies, in Europe and around the world, can find ideas, blueprints and suggestions for activities - including concerted actions with other international organizations - directed towards raising public awareness of science, technology and other fields where mathematics plays a strong role. The material is divided into four parts: * National experiences * Exhibitions /

  19. A rapid assay for Hendra virus IgG antibody detection and its titre estimation using magnetic nanoparticles and phycoerythrin.

    Gao, Yuan; Pallister, Jackie; Lapierre, Florian; Crameri, Gary; Wang, Lin-Fa; Zhu, Yonggang

    2015-09-15

    Detection of Hendra viral IgG antibody in animal sera is useful for surveillance following a virus outbreak. The commonly used enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and fluorescence-based Luminex assay typically consist of three steps and take at least several hours to complete. We have simplified the procedure to two steps in an effort to develop a rapid procedure for IgG antibody, but not IgM antibody, detection. This is achieved by conjugating the fluorescence label R-phycoerythrin directly onto the IgG binding protein Protein G. The use of magnetic nanoparticles, due to their large specific surface area, has helped reduce each of the binding steps to 20 min. As a result, the whole assay can be completed in 60 min. We also demonstrate a method to quickly estimate IgG antibody titres by assaying the sera at only two dilutions (i.e. 1:20 and 1:1000) and using the fluorescence ratio at these dilutions as an indicator of antibody titre. The results of this approach correlated well with the well-regarded serum neutralization test in virus antibody assays. This protocol reported here can be adopted in Luminex assays, fluorescence-linked immunosorbent assays and assays on microfluidics platforms for rapid antibody surveillance of Hendra and other viruses. PMID:26141730

  20. The role of antibody affinity and titre in immunity to Schistosoma mansoni following vaccination with highly irradiated cercariae

    Sera from rabbits and rats vaccinated with highly irradiated cercariae of Schistosoma mansoni (VRabS, VRatS) were found to be of substantially higher affinity than sera from CBA mice vaccinated four times (4 x CVMS), single sex sera (SSS) or chronic infection sera (CIS). In contrast, immunoprecipitation studies demonstrated that sera from vaccinated LA mice (LVMS) recognized 125I-labelled schistosomular surface antigens more intensely than sera from vaccinated HA mice (HVMS). However, peritoneal macrophages from HA and LA mice in the presence of HVMS, LVMS or 4 x CVMS, and naive macrophages activated in vitro with interferon-gamma (IFN-γ)/lipopolysaccharide (LPS) mediated comparable levels of schistosomula killing in vitro. The experiments described here provide evidence that the titre of antibody rather than its affinity may be a more critical factor in the development of optimal immunity to S. mansoni. (author)

  1. The role of antibody affinity and titre in immunity to Schistosoma mansoni following vaccination with highly irradiated cercariae

    Vignali, D.A.A.; Devey, M.E.; Bickle, Q.D.; Taylor, M.G. (London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine (UK))

    1990-02-01

    Sera from rabbits and rats vaccinated with highly irradiated cercariae of Schistosoma mansoni (VRabS, VRatS) were found to be of substantially higher affinity than sera from CBA mice vaccinated four times (4 x CVMS), single sex sera (SSS) or chronic infection sera (CIS). In contrast, immunoprecipitation studies demonstrated that sera from vaccinated LA mice (LVMS) recognized {sup 125}I-labelled schistosomular surface antigens more intensely than sera from vaccinated HA mice (HVMS). However, peritoneal macrophages from HA and LA mice in the presence of HVMS, LVMS or 4 x CVMS, and naive macrophages activated in vitro with interferon-gamma (IFN-{gamma})/lipopolysaccharide (LPS) mediated comparable levels of schistosomula killing in vitro. The experiments described here provide evidence that the titre of antibody rather than its affinity may be a more critical factor in the development of optimal immunity to S. mansoni. (author).

  2. Distracted Driving Raises Crash Risk

    ... a Seriously Ill Child Featured Website: NIDA for Teens Past Issues Most Viewed February 2014 Print RSS Find us on Facebook External link, please review our exit disclaimer . Subscribe Distracted Driving Raises Crash Risk Video technology and in-vehicle sensors showed that distracted driving, ...

  3. A study to determine significant titre-values of widal test in the diagnosis of enteric fever for a population of north Kerala, India

    Gufran Ahmed M. Bijapur

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To determine the baseline Widal titres of a study population and to propose titre-values of significance in the diagnosis of enteric fever. Background: Enteric fever is endemic in the Indian subcontinent with high prevalence rates. Etiological diagnosis of the condition is problematic due to several limitations implicit in the region. Singly run Widal test is often the only means available for a workable diagnosis. A knowledge of prevalent baseline titres is essential for its interpretation. Method: We performed the standard Widal tube agglutination test on the serum samples of 250 individuals of the local population selected by using appropriate criteria of inclusion and exclusion criteria. Results: A majority (74.8% of the subjects were non-reactive. Prevalence of anti-TO antibody was highest (25.2% followed by that of anti-TH antibody (15.2%, anti-AH antibody (6.8% and anti-BH antibody (0.8%. Based on the distribution of titre values, the baseline titres determined were 40 for anti-TO and anti-TH antibodies and <20 for anti-AH and anti-BH antibodies. Any value obtained in Widal test over and above these values, i.e., ≥80 for anti-TO and anti-TH antibodies can be considered as significant. Similarly, for anti-AH and anti-BH antibodies, values of ≥20 can be considered as significant for diagnosis in an appropriate clinical setting. Conclusion: The baseline Widal titres of the local population were lower than those found in most other parts of India.

  4. Romania's flag raised at CERN

    Corinne Pralavorio

    2016-01-01

    A ceremony was held for the raising of the Romanian flag alongside the flags of CERN’s 21 other Member States.   The Romanian flag is raised alongside the flags of CERN’s other Member States, in the presence of the Romanian President, CERN’s Director-General, the President of the CERN Council and a large Romanian delegation. (Image: Maximilien Brice/ Sophia Bennett/CERN) On Monday, 5 September, the Romanian flag was raised in front of CERN for the first time, marking the country’s accession to Membership of the Organization. The blue, yellow and red flag joined those of the other 21 Member States of CERN in a ceremony attended by the President of Romania, Klaus Iohannis, the Romanian Minister for Education and Scientific Research, Mircea Dumitru, and several other members of the President’s office, the government and academia in Romania. The country officially became a CERN Member State on 17 July 2016, after 25 years of collaboration between the...

  5. Differences in female-male mortality after high-titre measles vaccine and association with subsequent vaccination with diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis and inactivated poliovirus

    Aaby, Peter; Jensen, Henrik; Samb, Badara;

    2003-01-01

    Females given high-titre measles vaccine (HTMV) have high mortality; diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis (DTP) vaccination might be associated with increased female mortality. We aimed to assess whether DTP or inactivated poliovirus (IPV) administered after HTMV was associated with increased female...

  6. The Sixth CHIME Raises Curtain

    Bai; Yifeng; Liu; Jinliang

    2006-01-01

      The Sixth China Harbin Interna tional Manufacturer Expo (CHIME), co-organized by China Council for the Promotion of International Trade (CCPIT), China Chamber of Commerce for Import and Export of Machinery and Electronic Products (CCCME), the People's Government of Heilongjiang Province, the People's Government of Harbin Municipal Government, raises curtain in Harbin International Exhibition Center on May 29,2006. This CHIME was undertaken by CCPIT Heilongjiang Branch and CCPIT Harbin Branch, Heilongjiang Daily Press Group, Harbin Zhongxin Weiye Exhibition Co., Ltd. The Expo lasts three days and closes on May 31.……

  7. The Sixth CHIME Raises Curtain

    Bai Yifeng; Liu Jinliang

    2006-01-01

    @@ The Sixth China Harbin Interna tional Manufacturer Expo (CHIME), co-organized by China Council for the Promotion of International Trade (CCPIT), China Chamber of Commerce for Import and Export of Machinery and Electronic Products (CCCME), the People's Government of Heilongjiang Province, the People's Government of Harbin Municipal Government, raises curtain in Harbin International Exhibition Center on May 29,2006. This CHIME was undertaken by CCPIT Heilongjiang Branch and CCPIT Harbin Branch, Heilongjiang Daily Press Group, Harbin Zhongxin Weiye Exhibition Co., Ltd. The Expo lasts three days and closes on May 31.

  8. Simultaneous saccharification and fermentation of steam exploded duckweed: Improvement of the ethanol yield by increasing yeast titre.

    Zhao, X; Moates, G K; Elliston, A; Wilson, D R; Coleman, M J; Waldron, K W

    2015-10-01

    This study investigated the conversion of Lemna minor biomass to bioethanol. The biomass was pre-treated by steam explosion (SE, 210°C, 10 min) and then subjected to simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) using Cellic® CTec 2 (20 U or 0.87 FPU g(-1) substrate) cellulase plus β-glucosidase (2 U g(-1) substrate) and a yeast inoculum of 10% (v/v or 8.0×10(7) cells mL(-1)). At a substrate concentration of 1% (w/v) an ethanol yield of 80% (w/w, theoretical) was achieved. However at a substrate concentration of 20% (w/v), the ethanol yield was lowered to 18.8% (w/w, theoretical). Yields were considerably improved by increasing the yeast titre in the inoculum or preconditioning the yeast on steam exploded liquor. These approaches enhanced the ethanol yield up to 70% (w/w, theoretical) at a substrate concentration of 20% (w/v) by metabolising fermentation inhibitors. PMID:26210138

  9. Prion subcellular fractionation reveals infectivity spectrum, with a high titre-low PrPres level disparity

    Lewis Victoria

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Prion disease transmission and pathogenesis are linked to misfolded, typically protease resistant (PrPres conformers of the normal cellular prion protein (PrPC, with the former posited to be the principal constituent of the infectious 'prion'. Unexplained discrepancies observed between detectable PrPres and infectivity levels exemplify the complexity in deciphering the exact biophysical nature of prions and those host cell factors, if any, which contribute to transmission efficiency. In order to improve our understanding of these important issues, this study utilized a bioassay validated cell culture model of prion infection to investigate discordance between PrPres levels and infectivity titres at a subcellular resolution. Findings Subcellular fractions enriched in lipid rafts or endoplasmic reticulum/mitochondrial marker proteins were equally highly efficient at prion transmission, despite lipid raft fractions containing up to eight times the levels of detectable PrPres. Brain homogenate infectivity was not differentially enhanced by subcellular fraction-specific co-factors, and proteinase K pre-treatment of selected fractions modestly, but equally reduced infectivity. Only lipid raft associated infectivity was enhanced by sonication. Conclusions This study authenticates a subcellular disparity in PrPres and infectivity levels, and eliminates simultaneous divergence of prion strains as the explanation for this phenomenon. On balance, the results align best with the concept that transmission efficiency is influenced more by intrinsic characteristics of the infectious prion, rather than cellular microenvironment conditions or absolute PrPres levels.

  10. Introduction au titre I

    2015-01-01

    Dans l’introduction de ses Règles pour former un avocat, Antoine Gaspard Boucher d’Argis donnait de l’avocat un portrait pour le moins flatteur : “un homme de bien, versé dans la jurisprudence et dans l’art de bien dire, qui concourt à l’administration de la justice, soit en aidant de ses conseils ceux qui ont recours à lui, soit en défendant en jugement leurs intérêts de vive voix ou par écrit”. Justement décrit sous sa double fonction de consultant et de défenseur, l’avocat occupe une place...

  11. Introduction au titre II

    2015-01-01

    159. L’objet de notre propos est de démontrer que l’Administration dispose, à la suite du juge, d’un véritable pouvoir normatif. L’admettre suppose d’en identifier les différentes manifestations qui s’expriment essentiellement par voie de circulaires administratives, de réponses ministérielles et d’avis administratifs et qui ne sauraient être assimilées au pouvoir réglementaire que l’Administration détient par ailleurs. L’ordre logique de la démonstration sera donc semblable à celui adopté po...

  12. Introduction au titre I

    2015-01-01

    330. La parenté une construction sociale modelant le donné biologique. Au développement et à la multiplicité des modèles familiaux et conjugaux, correspond inévitablement une pluralité des formes d’expression de la parenté. L’image de l’arbre fait apparaître de manière simple et rapide l’appartenance à la parenté. Clarifier la notion passe par la mise en exergue de ses critères déterminants. Quel lien détermine la continuité généalogique : lien génétique ou lien volontaire ? Le droit doit rép...

  13. Introduction au titre I

    2015-01-01

    Pline a eu dans sa carrière d’homme public à défendre les intérêts de l’Etat et des particuliers, à épurer des comptes, à juger et arbitrer. Ainsi le voulait l’ordonnancement du cursus honorum du Bas-Empire, héritier sur tous ces points de la tradition des charges publiques de la République. Les premières tâches du petiturus furent essentiellement judiciaires - on songe au vigintivirat - et elles se poursuivirent par des fonctions de moyenne importance (préture consulat) puis de haute adminis...

  14. Effects of aflatoxin B1 and fumonisin B1 on body weight, antibody titres and histology of broiler chicks.

    Tessari, E N C; Oliveira, C A F; Cardoso, A L S P; Ledoux, D R; Rottinghaus, G E

    2006-06-01

    1. Our objective was to evaluate the toxic effects of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) and fumonisin B1 (FB1), administered singly or in combination to broilers. 2. Feeds were prepared with concentrations equal to 0, 50 and 200 microg AFB1/kg, and/or 0, 50 and 200 mg FB1/kg, and offered to broiler chicks from 8 to 41 d of age. The experimental design was totally randomised, in a 3 x 3 factorial arrangement with 9 treatments and 12 birds per treatment. Animals were vaccinated against Newcastle disease on d 14 of life and killed at 41 d. 3. Compared with controls, all mycotoxin-treated groups at 41 d had lower body weight and weight gain, and higher relative heart weight. The relative weight of the liver increased only in birds fed diets containing 200 mg FB1, singly or in combination with AFB1. 4. At 35 d, all groups receiving mycotoxin-treated rations had reduced geometrical mean antibody titres, with birds from groups fed combinations of AFB1 and FB1/kg having even lower values, when compared to the other groups. 5. Histological changes were observed only in liver from birds fed mycotoxin-contaminated rations, and in kidneys of birds fed the diet containing 200 microg AFB1 and 200 mg FB1/kg. Main alterations included vacuolar degeneration and cell proliferation of bile ducts in the liver, and hydropic degeneration in renal tubules in the kidneys. 6. We concluded that AFB1 and FB1 in combination have primarily additive effects on body weight, liver structure and immunological response of broilers at the concentrations used. PMID:16787861

  15. Capture market share, raise prices

    Robbins RA

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available No abstract available. Article truncated after 150 words. Two principles in medical economics central to the Affordable Care Act (ACA were dealt blows by recently published studies. The first principle is the belief that economies of scale will result in lower prices. The theory is that larger insurers will have lower prices because they are more administratively efficient. The second principle is that provider-owned health plans, usually hospitals, will reduce premiums. The theory is that by controlling doctors over charging health plans in a fee-for-service model will lower prices. The first study published in Technology Science found that the largest insurer in each of the states served by HealthCare.gov raised their prices in 2015 by an average of over 10 per cent compared to smaller competitors in the same market (1. Those steeper price hikes for monthly premiums did not seem warranted by the level of health claims which did not significantly differ as a percentage of premiums ...

  16. Humoral response to influenza vaccination in relation to pre-vaccination antibody titres, vaccination history, cytomegalovirus serostatus and CD4/CD8 ratio.

    Strindhall, Jan; Ernerudh, Jan; Mörner, Andreas; Waalen, Kristian; Löfgren, Sture; Matussek, Andreas; Bengner, Malin

    2016-06-01

    Background Annual vaccination against influenza virus is generally recommended to elderly and chronically ill, but the relative importance of factors influencing the outcome is not fully understood. Methods In this study of 88 individuals all aged 69 years, the increase in haemagglutinin-inhibiting (HI) antibodies to trivalent inactivated influenza vaccine was correlated with HI titres before vaccination, prior vaccinations against influenza, cytomegalovirus serostatus and, as an estimate of immune risk profile, the ratio between CD4 + and CD8 + T cells. Results Vaccine responses were impaired by high pre-existing HI antibody titres. For influenza B repeated vaccinations and an inverse CD4/CD8 ratio had a negative impact on the vaccine response. Cytomegalovirus seropositivity had no apparent effect on HI titres before or after vaccination. Conclusions It is concluded that both pre-existing HI antibodies and previous vaccinations to influenza may influence the humoral response to influenza vaccination and that a CD4/CD8 ratio < 1 may indicate an impaired ability to respond to repeated antigenic stimulation. PMID:27030916

  17. O perfil da antiestreptolisina O no diagnóstico da febre reumática aguda Antistreptolysin O titer profile in acute rheumatic fever diagnosis

    Claudia Saad Magalhães Machado

    2001-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: estabelecer o perfil dos títulos de ASO, mediante o diagnóstico diferencial da FRA com outras afecções que também cursam com níveis elevados de ASO. MÉTODOS: foram estudados 78 casos de FRA na apresentação e seguimento, 22 de coréia isolada, 45 de infecções orofaringeanas recorrentes (IOR e 23 de artrites idiopáticas juvenis (AIJ, com início ou reativação recente. A determinação seqüencial de ASO (UI/ml foi realizada por ensaio nefelométrico automatizado (Behring®-Germany nos períodos de 0-7 dias, 1-2 semanas, 2-4 semanas, 1-2 meses, 2-4 meses, 4-6 meses, 6-12 meses, 1-2 anos, 2-3 anos, 3-4 anos e 4-5 anos após o diagnóstico. RESULTADOS: os títulos de ASO na fase aguda da FRA apresentaram elevação significante até o intervalo de 2- 4 meses (p 960 UI/ml. CONCLUSÃO: esta reavaliação do perfil da ASO indicou uma resposta exuberante na fase aguda da febre reumática indicou ainda que os seus níveis séricos podem diferenciá-la de outras afecções que também cursam com níveis elevados de ASO, como as infecções orofaringeanas recorrentes ou as artrites idiopáticas juvenis em atividade.OBJECTIVE: to determine ASO titer profile by establishing ARF differential diagnoses of other diseases with high levels of ASO antibodies. METHODS: we investigated 78 patients with ARF at onset and follow-up, 22 with isolated chorea at onset, 45 with recurrent oropharyngeal tonsillitis, and 23 with recent flare of juvenile idiopathic arthritis. We tested ASO with automated particle-enhanced immunonephelometric assay (Behring®-Germany. The ASO (IU/ml titers were assessed at the following time intervals: 0-7 days, 1-2 weeks, 2-4 weeks, 1-2 months, 2-4 months, 4-6 months, 6-12 months, 1-2 years, 2-3 years, 3-4 years, and 4-5 years after onset of ARF. RESULTS: ASO titers in patients diagnosed with ARF had a significant increase up to the 2-4-month time interval (P < 0.0001. Baseline levels were observed afterwards in patients under regular penicillin prophylaxis. The levels of ASO in ARF were also significantly higher than in patients with isolated chorea, recurrent oropharyngeal infections or juvenile idiopathic arthritis (P = 0.0025, when age-matched samples of these groups were compared. The test’s sensitivity was 73.3% and the specificity was 57.6%, and it was calculated taking into account the upper limit of normality at 320 IU/ml, as well as the established diagnosis of ARF. The test’s specificity and positive predictive value increased with rising or higher titers, being higher with titers above 960 UI/ml. CONCLUSION: this reappraisal of ASO profile in ARF patients indicates a remarkable response during the acute phase, and that points to the extent to which ASO levels may differentiate ARF from other diseases with high levels of ASO antibodies, as coincidental but unrelated streptococcal infection or chronic arthritis flareup.

  18. Container and Raised-Bed Gardening

    Niemiera, Alexander Xavier, 1951-

    2009-01-01

    Raised beds, while requiring a high initial labor input, offer improved growing conditions and advantages compared to the existing soil. Improved plant growth, increased yields, and better accessibility are reasons to construct raised beds. This publication reviews the proper containers and plants, planting instructions, watering and potting soils, overwintering plants and more.

  19. The Logic of the RAISE Specification Language

    George, Chris; Haxthausen, Anne Elisabeth

    2008-01-01

    This chapter describes the logic of the RAISE Specification Language, RSL. It explains the particular logic chosen for RAISE, and motivates this choice as suitable for a wide spectrum language to be used for designs as well as initial specifications, and supporting imperative and concurrent...... specifications as well as applicative sequential ones. It also describes the logical definition of RSL, its axiomatic semantics, as well as the proof system for carrying out proofs. Finally, a case study illustrates specification and verification methods in RAISE....

  20. Pain Raises Risk of Opioid Addiction

    ... fullstory_160033.html Pain Raises Risk of Opioid Addiction Men and younger people had higher odds of ... had a 41 percent higher risk of opioid addiction than those with no pain. That increased risk ...

  1. Alcohol, Obesity Could Raise Esophageal Cancer Risk

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_160133.html Alcohol, Obesity Could Raise Esophageal Cancer Risk A third ... now linked to 11 types of cancer and alcohol links to six," she said in an institute ...

  2. Pesticides Linked to Raised Risk of ALS

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_158737.html Pesticides Linked to Raised Risk of ALS One toxin ... MONDAY, May 9, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Exposure to pesticides and other chemicals may increase the risk for ...

  3. Pesticides Linked to Raised Risk of ALS

    ... nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_158737.html Pesticides Linked to Raised Risk of ALS One toxin ... MONDAY, May 9, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Exposure to pesticides and other chemicals may increase the risk for ...

  4. Asthma May Raise Risk for Abdominal Aneurysm

    ... nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_157202.html Asthma May Raise Risk for Abdominal Aneurysm Airway disease ... People 50 and older who have had recent asthma activity appear to be at an increased risk ...

  5. The Logic of the RAISE Specification Language

    George, Chris; Haxthausen, Anne Elisabeth

    This paper describes the logic of the RAISE Specification Language, RSL. It explains the particular logic chosen for RAISE, and motivates this choice as suitable for a wide spectrum language to be used for designs as well as initial specifications, and supporting imperative and concurrent...... specifications as well as applicative sequential ones. It also describes the logical definition of RSL, its axiomatic semantics, as well as the proof system for carrying out proofs....

  6. How to raise/educate for responsibility

    Lah, Tamara

    2013-01-01

    In the diploma degree I focused on how to raise awareness of responsibility. At the beginning I researched into what responsibility is and what is it connected to. In the second part I focused on education in terms of its purpose, past and present education systems, moral development of children and youth and the importance of responsibility. In addition, I have gathered some specific proposals on how to raise responsibility. In the third part of my degree I presented the Slovenian catholic G...

  7. 50 CFR 14.23 - Live farm-raised fish and farm-raised fish eggs.

    2010-10-01

    ... and farm-raised fish eggs meet the definition of “bred in captivity” as stated in 50 CFR 17.3. Except... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Live farm-raised fish and farm-raised fish eggs. 14.23 Section 14.23 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT...

  8. PROCEDURE FOR LOCALLY RAISING THE GROUND ARTIFICIALLY

    Schuiling, R.D.

    1991-01-01

    Abstract of corresponding document: WO 8909251 (A1) The present invention relates to a procedure for locally raising the ground artificially, wherein an equivalent quantity of the calcite (CaCO3) present in the porous underground limestone formations is converted into gypsum (CaSO4.2H2O) by inje

  9. RAISING BRAND AWARENEES THROUGH INTERNET MARKETING TOOLS

    Margarita Išoraitė

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes the opinions of different authors on brand awareness raising. It also describes and analyzes the concept of internet marketing, the implementation. The analysis of the most urgent and the most effective online marketing tools brand awareness. Article analysis website; internet advertising; social networks; search engine optimization.

  10. RAISING BRAND AWARENEES THROUGH INTERNET MARKETING TOOLS

    Margarita Išoraitė

    2016-01-01

    The article analyzes the opinions of different authors on brand awareness raising. It also describes and analyzes the concept of internet marketing, the implementation. The analysis of the most urgent and the most effective online marketing tools brand awareness. Article analysis website; internet advertising; social networks; search engine optimization.

  11. Consciousness-Raising, Error Correction and Proofreading

    O'Brien, Josephine

    2015-01-01

    The paper discusses the impact of developing a consciousness-raising approach in error correction at the sentence level to improve students' proofreading ability. Learners of English in a foreign language environment often rely on translation as a composing tool and while this may act as a scaffold and provide some support, it frequently leads to…

  12. Raising Butterflies from Your Own Garden.

    Howley-Pfeifer, Patricia

    2002-01-01

    Describes how raising monarch, black swallowtail, and mourning cloak butterflies in a kindergarten class garden can provide opportunities for observation experiences. Includes detailed steps for instruction and describes stages of growth. Excerpts children's journal dictations to illustrate ways to support the discovery process. Describes related…

  13. Head raising analysis and case revaluation

    Ager Gondra

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper shows that Basque relative clause construction follows the Head Raising Analysis: the CP of the relative clause is a complement to the external D and the Head of the relative clause, base-generated inside the TP, moves to the specifier position of the CP. This analysis predicts that the raised DPwill show a TP-internal Case. However, this is not the case, and the DP manifests the Case associated with the main clause. In order to address these Case inconsistencies, Precariousness Condition is proposed. This condition states that a DCase valued u-feature is precarious until it is sent to Spell-Out and therefore, the value is visible for further targeting by a c-commanding Probe.  Evidence for this multiple Agree operation comes from a DP long distance extraction.

  14. The use of homologous virus in the haemagglutination-inhibition assay after vaccination with Newcastle disease virus strain La Sota or clone30 leads to an over estimation of protective serum antibody titres

    Maas, R.A.; Oei, H.L.; Kemper, S.; Koch, G.; Visser, L.

    1998-01-01

    We evaluated the influence of the use of the Newcastle disease virus (NDV)-strains Ulster and La Sota in the haemagglutination inhibition (HI) assay for the measurement of antibody titres after NDV vaccination. The use of the homologous La Sota antigen in the HI assay after Clone30 and La Sota vacci

  15. Raising OER Awareness: VT Libraries and Beyond

    Walz, Anita R.

    2014-01-01

    This presentation highlights the first year of exploration into a possible Open Educational Resources (OER) initiative at the University Libraries, Virginia Tech. Key messages to convey while raising OER awareness include: copyright, open licensing, Creative Commons, OER availability and retrieval, adaptation and innovation, understanding one's institution, and pedagogy. Various events and activities of VT Libraries are mentioned in addition to resources for OER librarian support, library cha...

  16. 29 CFR 780.123 - Raising of bees.

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Raising of bees. 780.123 Section 780.123 Labor Regulations... Raising of Livestock, Bees, Fur-Bearing Animals, Or Poultry § 780.123 Raising of bees. The term “raising of * * * bees” refers to all of those activities customarily performed in connection with...

  17. Recensement d'hommes d'armes en Arbéroue vers 1550 (*) : APPA. 5 – 1770 Dans les « papiers Danaratz » sous le titre « Rôle des hommes d'armes d'Ayherre », photocopié par C. Arberlbide. Titre, transcription et notes par J.-B. Orpustan.

    Orpustan, Jean-Baptiste

    2010-01-01

    Cette liste est un brouillon d'écriture très négligée sur 3 feuilles et 5 colonnes, apparemment incomplet, rédigé en gascon béarnais vers 1550 et comportant nombre d'abréviations, difficilement lisible par endroits en particulier aux marges et aux pliures des feuilles. Des intertitres indiquent dans un certain désordre la spécialisation prévue en armes (« arquebusiers, lances »), et quelques noms de métiers sont notés par endroits. La section finale sous le titre « Helete » (Hélette) et diver...

  18. RAISED BOGS ON THE NORTH-EAST OF EUROPE

    T. K. YURKOVSKAYA

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available In the Northeastern Europe 2 types of raised bogs are distinguished: coastal (Southern White Sea raised hogs and continental (Pechora-Onega raised bogs. They have been compared as to their flora, prevailing syntaxa, characteristics of their complexes, structure of mire massifs and composition of peat deposits.

  19. Vesicular demyelination induced by raised intracellular calcium.

    Smith, K J; Hall, S M; Schauf, C L

    1985-11-01

    myelin vesiculation. We conclude that vesicular demyelination can be initiated in vital Schwann cells by a raised intracellular Ca2+ concentration. Such demyelination does not necessarily lead to Schwann cell death. The possible relevance of the findings to vesicular demyelinating neuropathies is discussed, and a hypothesis regarding the mechanism of demyelination is advanced. PMID:3003255

  20. Enti religiosi e fund raising: un binomio possibile (anzi, necessario

    Fabio Franceschi

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Contributo sottoposto a valutazioniSOMMARIO: 1. Premessa - 2. Il fund raising: inquadramento concettuale - 3. (segue Strategie, strumenti e tecniche di fund raising - 4. Il fund raising come fattore di potenziale sviluppo delle organizzazioni non profit - 5. Enti religiosi e fund raising: un binomio che necessita di essere consolidato (e potenziato - 6. Peculiarità dell’azione di fund raising degli enti religiosi - 7. Fund raising e aspetti economici e gestionali degli enti religiosi - 8. Considerazioni conclusive.Abstract:Religious organizations and fundraising: a possible combination (indeed necessary Fund-raising activities represent the principal livelihood and sources of growth and development for non-profit organisations. Fund-raising is, also, an increasingly important part of religious organizations life. Almost each of them engages in some kind of fund-raising activity, with the purpose of generating income to sustain the organization’s programs and activities. The present study analyzes the relationship between religious organizations and fund-raising activities: a correlation that always existed, but now calls for consolidation and improvement in order to allow religious organizations to achieve economic sustainability. Therefore, religious organizations should develop competency and capacity to design and implement fund-raising activities, through appropriate policies, tools and methodologies. In this perspective, the author examines all the facets of fund-raising activities related to the religious organizations sector and, more in general, the possible applications of business administration principles to the management of religious bodies (so-called “church management”.Parole chiave: enti religiosi; fund raising; sostenibilità economica; management

  1. THE EFFECTIVENESS OF STATE LOGOS FOR FARM-RAISED CATFISH

    Schupp, Alvin R.; Dellenbarger, Lynn E.

    1993-01-01

    Product differentiation can consist of identifying the corporate firm that produces the product (such as Kraft) or the producer cooperative that produces the product (such as Ocean Spray). The Catfish Institute (funded by producers, feed mills and processors) was created to promote the generic sales of farm-raised catfish. Also, a number of Mississippi catfish processors are differentiating their product by promoting it as Mississippi Farm-Raised Catfish. Louisiana farm-raised catfish are hig...

  2. Family Formation and Raising Children Among Same-sex Couples

    Gates, Gary

    2012-01-01

    Proportionally fewer same-sex couples are raising children today than in 2006, and their families reflect greater racial/ethnic and socioeconomic diversity than often represented in the media and academic research. Notably, childrearing is substantially higher among racial/ethnic minorities. Also, among individuals in same-sex couples who did not finish high school, 43% are raising children, and 20% of children raised by same-sex couples live in poverty. The decrease in the proportio...

  3. Key technologies of drilling process with raise boring method

    Zhiqiang Liu

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This study presents the concept of shaft constructed by raise boring in underground mines, and the idea of inverse construction can be extended to other fields of underground engineering. The conventional raise boring methods, such as the wood support method, the hanging cage method, the creeping cage method, and the deep-hole blasting method, are analyzed and compared. In addition, the raise boring machines are classified into different types and the characteristics of each type are described. The components of a raise boring machine including the drill rig, the drill string and the auxiliary system are also presented. Based on the analysis of the raise boring method, the rock mechanics problems during the raise boring process are put forward, including rock fragmentation, removal of cuttings, shaft wall stability, and borehole deviation control. Finally, the development trends of raise boring technology are described as follows: (i improvement of rock-breaking modes to raise drilling efficiency, (ii development of an intelligent control technique, and (iii development of technology and equipment for nonlinear raise boring.

  4. Consciousness-raising Activities in Communicative Language Teaching

    Cui Xiaoxia

    2011-01-01

    This study is based mainly on the theories of grammatical instruction in communicative methodologies. In review of the related theories,this paper presents the methodologies,and designs three consciousness-raising tasks to verify the effectiveness of consciousness-raising instruction.

  5. African American Single Mothers Raising Sons: Implications for Family Therapy

    Gantt, Ann L.; Greif, Geoffrey L.

    2009-01-01

    Being raised by a single mother is one factor that has been suggested as contributing to the plight of African American males. Yet few studies have focused specifically on African American single mothers' experiences with raising sons. This qualitative study explored the following questions: (1) What are the experiences of African American single…

  6. Violence May Raise a Woman's Risk for Stroke

    ... nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_157585.html Violence May Raise a Woman's Risk for Stroke Victims ... 4, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Being a victim of violence may increase a woman's risk of blood vessel ...

  7. Stress of Caring for Sick Spouse May Raise Stroke Risk

    ... nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_157606.html Stress of Caring for Sick Spouse May Raise Stroke ... University of California, San Francisco (UCSF), said chronic stress boosts blood levels of the hormone cortisol and ...

  8. Alcohol Sales Dropped After Maryland Raised Liquor Tax

    ... 158297.html Alcohol Sales Dropped After Maryland Raised Liquor Tax Study finding suggests the tactic could help ... 6 percent to 9 percent in 2011, and liquor sales subsequently fell 5 percent, the study found. ...

  9. Diabetes May Raise Risk for Dangerous Staph Infection

    ... 157736.html Diabetes May Raise Risk for Dangerous Staph Infection Researchers believe the disease might dampen immune system, ... News Related MedlinePlus Health Topics Diabetes Diabetes Complications Staphylococcal Infections About MedlinePlus Site Map FAQs Contact Us Get ...

  10. Rapid Acquisition Imaging Spectrograph (RAISE) Renewal Proposal Project

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The optical design of RAISE is based on a new class of UV/EUV imaging spectrometers that use  only two reflections to provide quasi-stigmatic performance...

  11. Psoriasis May Raise Risk for Aneurysms in Abdomen

    ... nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_158314.html Psoriasis May Raise Risk for Aneurysms in Abdomen: Study ... 14, 2016 THURSDAY, April 14, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Psoriasis patients may face a higher risk of an ...

  12. Pot While Pregnant May Raise Premature Birth Risk

    ... fullstory_159036.html Pot While Pregnant May Raise Premature Birth Risk: Study Experts' advice to expectant mothers ... pot while pregnant may increase the risk of premature delivery, a new study suggests. Women who continue ...

  13. Can Certain 'Poor Carb' Diets Raise Nonsmokers' Lung Cancer Risk?

    ... news/fullstory_157612.html Can Certain 'Poor Carb' Diets Raise Nonsmokers' Lung Cancer Risk? Study suggests link ... the disease may rise if they eat a diet rich in certain carbohydrates. These so-called "high ...

  14. Pregnancy Choices: Raising the Baby, Adoption, and Abortion

    ... PREGNANCY Pregnancy Choices: Raising the Baby, Adoption, and Abortion • What are my options if I find out ... is financial help available? • If I am considering abortion, what should I know about my state’s laws? • ...

  15. Alcohol, Processed Meats May Raise Stomach Cancer Risk

    ... nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_158407.html Alcohol, Processed Meats May Raise Stomach Cancer Risk Excess ... 21, 2016 WEDNESDAY, April 20, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Alcohol, processed meats -- such as hot dogs, ham and ...

  16. Pot While Pregnant May Raise Premature Birth Risk

    ... medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_159036.html Pot While Pregnant May Raise Premature Birth Risk: Study Experts' advice ... May 25, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Smoking pot while pregnant may increase the risk of premature delivery, a ...

  17. Sleep Apnea May Raise Heart Risks in People with Pacemakers

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_158688.html Sleep Apnea May Raise Heart Risks in People With ... 2016 (HealthDay News) -- People with heart pacemakers and sleep apnea are at much greater risk for a ...

  18. Infants and Toddlers (Ages 0-3) - Raising Healthy Children

    ... Submit Button Information For... Media Policy Makers Infants & Toddlers (Ages 0-3) - Raising Healthy Children Recommend on ... Milestones Fruits & Vegetables Hand Washing Hearing Screening Infant & Toddler Health Maternal and Infant Health Newborn Screening Nutrition, ...

  19. Early Virus Raises Asthma Risk in Certain Kids

    ... https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_160651.html Early Virus Raises Asthma Risk in Certain Kids: Study Infants ... Topics Asthma in Children Genetic Testing Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections About MedlinePlus Site Map FAQs Contact Us ...

  20. Drug for Yeast Infections May Raise Miscarriage Risk, FDA Warns

    ... gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_158503.html Drug for Yeast Infections May Raise Miscarriage Risk, FDA Warns Agency ... brand name Diflucan) is used to treat vaginal yeast infections. "Patients who are pregnant or actively trying ...

  1. Gene Tied to Breast Cancer Raises Uterine Cancer Risk Too

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_159652.html Gene Tied to Breast Cancer Raises Uterine Cancer Risk ... June 30, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Women with a gene mutation known as BRCA1 have an increased risk ...

  2. Calcium Supplements Might Raise Older Women's Dementia Risk

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_160508.html Calcium Supplements Might Raise Older Women's Dementia Risk Finding ... 2016 WEDNESDAY, Aug. 17, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Taking calcium supplements with the hope of keeping osteoporosis at ...

  3. Sleep Apnea May Raise Heart Risks in People with Pacemakers

    ... nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_158688.html Sleep Apnea May Raise Heart Risks in People With ... 2016 (HealthDay News) -- People with heart pacemakers and sleep apnea are at much greater risk for a ...

  4. Raising finance to support developing country action: some economic considerations

    Bowen, Alex

    2011-01-01

    This article explores the principles that should guide efforts to raise finance for climate action in developing countries. The main conclusions are that, first, there is an important role for private finance, which would be facilitated by having pervasive and broadly uniform emissions pricing around the world. Second, public finance is warranted by a range of market � and policy � failures associated with climate change and its mitigation. Third, raising tax revenues may be preferable to...

  5. THE EXCEPTION OF UNCONSTITUTIONALITY RAISED BEFORE AN INTERNATIONAL ARBITRAL TRIBUNAL

    Eugen HURUBÃ; Luminita GABURA

    2014-01-01

    The main aim of the paper work is to determine whether the Constitutional Court of Romania could be notified by international tribunals in relation to cases tried under Romanian law. On 5 March 2013 the Constitutional Court of Romania decided, for the first time, on a case concerning an exception of unconstitutionality raised before an international tribunal of commercial arbitration. The exception of unconstitutionality of a Government Emergency Ordinance was raised in an arbitration case pe...

  6. Vowel Raising in Nkpor Dialect: A Pattern of Sound Change

    Mbah, Evelyn Ezinwanne

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores a pattern of phonological change known as vowel raising in the Nkpor dialect of the Igbo language. Using a corpus of conversational Nkpor speech collected from the respondents through tape-recording, we presented data from an authority analysis of the vowels and auditory data of vowel raising. The data support three main claims. First, the voiced palatal nasal /ɲ/ is elided. It claims that in a word consisting of two root verbs, the initial verb root contains any consonant and any vowel, and the second verb root contains the voiced palatal nasal /ɲ/ and a mid front vowel /e/, then, the voiced palatal nasal is elided. Second, after the elision, the mid vowel /e/ of the second verb is raised to a high front vowel /i/ or /ɪ/, agreeing with the vowel harmony rule. Third, Nkpor dialect goes beyond the raising of only vowels of the second verb. It further raises vowels of the first verb which are not high. The much more rapid loss of the voiced palatal nasal /ɲ/ and the consequent raising of the vowels are plausibly attributed to rapid speech, especially in construction and some sociolinguistic factors.

  7. Katmanlı kompozit dikdörtgen plakların burkulma ve titreşim analizi=Buckling and vibration analysis of laminated composite rectangular plates

    Aydoğdu, Metin

    2003-01-01

    ÖZET Kompozit plakların uzay-havacılık sanayii gibi pek çok mühendislik alanında kullanımlarının yaygınlaşması ile dinamik ve stabilite davranış karakteristiklerinin belirlenmesi önem kazanmıştır. Bunun nedeni, kompozit malzemelerin yüksek özgül modül ve dayanıma sahip olmaları, ayrıca kompozit malzemelerden yapılmış yapıların istenen mekanik özelliklerde tasarlanabilmesidir. Bu çalışmada dikdörtgen, katmanlı kompozit plakların stabilite ve serbest titreşim analizleri, kayma deformasyon etkil...

  8. Raising awareness of climate change: Experience in Lithuania

    Bukantis, A.; Kliucininkas, L.; Rimkus, E.; Talockaite, E.

    2007-07-01

    Climate change is getting increased political attention all over the world. Academic research and studies, as well as formal and informal education are prominent participants in the public debate on climate change. Results of the public opinion poll show that although most people in Lithuania are aware of climate change and its threats, additional reliable information is highly required. Awareness-raising activities on climate change issues are foreseen in several national strategic documents. However, awareness-raising activities implemented in Lithuania in recent years could be considered to be isolated instances with a lack of monitoring of implementation and achieved results, lessons learnt, as well as a lack of continuity and coordination between different activities. New awareness-raising methods have to be created and used in order to attract as many target groups as possible. This chapter gives an overview of the main outcomes of the survey of public opinion on climate change issues in Lithuania. Recommendations for awareness-raising in different target groups, as well as several good examples of awareness raising on climate change in engineering studies and activities carried out by non-governmental organizations are presented. (orig.)

  9. Operating Classroom Aesthetic Reading Environment to Raise Children's Reading Motivation

    Chou, Mei-Ju; Cheng, Jui-Ching; Cheng, Ya-Wen

    2016-01-01

    This research aims to explore how preschool educators understand about raising children's reading motivation through operating classroom aesthetic reading environment. With one year qualitative research, sixteen 4-6 years old young were observed and interviewed. The first stage interviews were undergone with environmental guidance. After the…

  10. Supersensitive gastrin assay using antibodies raised against a cholecystokinin homolog

    Rehfeld, Jens F; Ericsson, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Peptide hormones may occur in particularly low amounts in samples from small animals. Hence, in a rat microdialysis study conventional immunoassays were not sufficiently sensitive to measure gastrin in the dialysis samples. We therefore exploited the observation that antibodies raised against the...

  11. Grandmothers Raising Grandchildren: An Exploration of Their Experiences and Emotions.

    Williamson, Jonathan; Softas-Nall, Basilia; Miller, Jill

    2003-01-01

    A qualitative study was designed to provide an in-depth understanding of the experiences and emotions of grandmothers raising their grandchildren. The grandmothers' stories revealed common themes of anger, frustration, loss, hurt, and depression. A key finding was that grandmothers who did not report depression had positive and helpful…

  12. Preferential heating of raised surface tumors with microwaves (MW)

    It is to be expected that the MW field within and adjacent to a raised surface tumor will be affected by the nonplanar geometry and abrupt changes in electrical properties at the tumor interface. This may result in MW focusing into the tumor, but the mathematical solution of this problem is complex since the near field is involved. To explore the possibility that MW enhanced heating occurs clinically in raised tumors, the temperature profiles from MW treatments of 9 raised tumors (height 0.5 to 3.9 cm above surface) in 5 patients were analyzed. Evidence to support an enhanced heating effect was found with the average measured tumor temperature and percent of tumor temperature over 43.50C increased by 0.80C and 20%, respectively, compared with values found for flat surface tumors. In order to further characterize this phenomenon, measurements were made with several applicators on four phantoms simulating raised tumors of various heights (0-2.2 cm). Enhanced SAR patterns were observed with indications of a focusing effect for an air coupled waveguide applicator. The findings of this investigation will aid in the subsequent design of surface applicators

  13. Tele-fund raising: what's it all about?

    Coren, S

    1998-04-01

    Now in its 12th year, Tele-Response Center Inc. raises funds and awareness through donor acquisition, renewal/cultivation and lapsed donor campaigns, direct mail follow up, special events, advertising sales for non-profit publications, and volunteer recruitment campaigns. PMID:10179033

  14. Raising Critical Consciousness via Creative Writing in the EFL Classroom

    Stillar, Scott

    2013-01-01

    This study discusses a method to promote raising critical consciousness in the English as a foreign language (EFL) classroom via creative writing activities by having students write journals and/or personal letters from the perspective of individuals from outside groups that have been marginalized or vilified in the students' dominant culture.…

  15. Raised dopamine metabolites in a case of malignant paraganglioma.

    Florkowski, C M; Fairlamb, D J; Freeth, M. G.; Taylor, S A; Taylor, A; Weinkove, C; Jacobs, A G

    1990-01-01

    This paper describes the case of a malignant retroperitoneal paraganglioma with extensive metastases. The patient presented with a supraclavicular mass and an absence of hypertension. Exclusively raised dopamine metabolites were detected which may be a marker of a malignant process and account for the lack of hypertension.

  16. Racism: Raising Awareness amongst a Group of Students.

    Visser, M.; Cleaver, G.; Schoeman, J.

    1999-01-01

    Describes the design and evaluation of a South African workshop to raise 70 psychology students' awareness of their own racism, prejudices, and stereotypes, and the impact of prejudice on relationships; and to improve intergroup attitudes and behaviors. Changes in some attitudes occurred, but not in all areas. The workshop was found to have an…

  17. Raising Standards through INQUIRE in Pre-Service Teacher Education

    Elster, D.; Barendziak, T.; Haskamp, F.; Kastenholz, L.

    2014-01-01

    Raising standards through inquiry-based science education (IBSE)--what are the challenges for pre-service teacher education? What do ongoing teachers and active teachers learn from each other when planning, conducting and evaluating minds-on and hands-on IBSE activities in the classroom? What do they learn "beyond" IBSE? The Bremen…

  18. From Dialogue to Action: Consciousness-Raising with Academic Mothers

    Seher, Christin L.; Iverson, Susan V.

    2015-01-01

    In this article, the authors argue that facilitated dialogues with academic mothers can provide space for consciousness-raising, validation, co-mentoring, and taking action. Stemming from the authors' experiences of negotiating motherhood in the academy, and their facilitation of a book discussion about academic motherhood through a faculty…

  19. More Evidence Gay Parents Raise Well-Adjusted Kids

    ... University of Amsterdam. An estimated 690,000 same-sex couples live in the United States, with about 19 percent ... outcomes when being raised by same- and different-sex parents in less-stable ... lives better, not meddle or be busybodies." SOURCES: Nanette ...

  20. Does Poor Sleep Raise Risk for Alzheimer's Disease?

    ... About ADEAR Does poor sleep raise risk for Alzheimer’s disease? February 29, 2016 Studies confirm what many ... prevent Alzheimer’s. Which comes first, poor sleep or Alzheimer’s? The chicken-and-egg question is whether Alzheimer’s- ...

  1. The RIF Book of Ideas: Raising Funds. No. 2.

    Smithsonian Institution, Washington, DC. National Reading is Fun-damental Program.

    Intended to help communities raise funds for Reading Is Fundamental (RIF) projects, this booklet lists ideas and examples, many volunteered and tested by RIF projects themselves. The first of the booklet's four sections offers suggestions for preparing for a fundraising effort. The next two sections contain ideas on the main avenues of…

  2. Questions raised by the controversy over recovered memories of incest.

    Lief, Harold I

    2003-01-01

    The controversy in the mental health community over recovered memory has been heated. The devastation to families falsely accused of incest has been profound. A fortunate consequence, however, has been the vigorous pursuit of answers to a variety of mind-behavior questions raised by the controversy. In this article I raise some of the important questions and in reply I review and summarize some of the data. Some questions deal with the nature of memory and of unconscious processes, especially the role of implicit memory; the techniques of recovered memory therapy and the evolution of pseudomemories and its relevance to clinical practice; the effects, real and alleged, of trauma; the place of dreams, flashbacks, and repetitive patterns of behavior in the understanding of memory and behavior; and finally, questions dealing with the definition of reality. All of these are important issues for the psychoanalyst. PMID:12866698

  3. Raising students’ awareness with respect to choice of literature

    Bagger, Bettan; Taylor Kelly, Hélène; Hørdam, Britta

    2011-01-01

    can only be assured if the academic and clinical areas collaborate closely. As nurse educators it is our experience that it is a challenge for students to categorize and evaluate their resources. Frequently they rely upon introductory textbooks as a major source of information until relatively late in...... the education. A study of bachelor projects in University College Sealand regime showed that students use proportionately few scientific and researched based resources. A pilot project aiming at raising students’ awareness with respect to choice of literature has thus been introduced. The ‘VIFOLA......’ model is a pedagogical tool which raises students’ awareness with respect to the necessity of employing scientific and researched based material. The tool is not only used in the theoretical setting but also in clinical practice. Students and clinical advisors evaluate the relevance of the pedagogical...

  4. RAISE: a Product Supporting Industrial Use of Formal Methods

    Haxthausen, Anne Elisabeth; Pedersen, J. Storbank; Prehn, Søren

    1993-01-01

    This paper gives an overview of RAISE, a product consisting of a method for developing software, an associated formal specification language and tools supporting the method and the language. The method is based on the notion of stepwise refinement and offers the possibility of formal verification....... The specification language incorporates several specification styles in one uniform framework. The product is aimed at industry and is currently being used by several companies......This paper gives an overview of RAISE, a product consisting of a method for developing software, an associated formal specification language and tools supporting the method and the language. The method is based on the notion of stepwise refinement and offers the possibility of formal verification...

  5. Existential Questions Raised in Never Let Me Go

    Mahinthan, Sarah; Nicolaysen, Isolde; Olsen, Alice Rita; Thorarinsdottir, Inga Dora

    2008-01-01

    In this report, we discuss the existential questions raised in Never Let Me Go, by Kazuo Ishiguro. In order to cover both dimensions of Text & Sign, as well as Science & Philosophy, we take an analytical and philosophical approach. Firstly, we analyze symbolic events using the Romberg model to shed light on the characters’ existential struggle. Secondly, we apply relevant theories by Jean-Paul Sartre and Albert Camus, to explain how the society in the novel is Absurd. Finally, we address ...

  6. The Network representations of control and raising : a parallel approach

    Lin, Wen-Tzu

    2006-01-01

    This paper probes a long-standing issue at raising/control distinction in terms of a parallel model. The literature has argued the isomorphism between syntax and semantics. The Principles and Parameters favour the syntactic distinctions, which mirror the semantic ones, whereas Structure Sharing supports a semantic influence. In GB, the PRO Theorem and Control Theory have empirical and theoretical problems. This further drives the development of Minimalism. In Hornstein’s moveme...

  7. Fuel Tax in Sight to Raise Energy Efficiency

    2007-01-01

    @@ Policymakers have talked about introducing a fuel tax for more than a decade. Now, the country's urgent need to raise energy efficiency makes it the right time to bring the tax into reality. China recently announced its action plan on climate change and the Chinese Government circular urging local governments and companies around the country to implement the General Work Plan for Energy Conservation and Pollutant Discharge Reduction.

  8. Does Stock Market Development Raise Economic Growth? Evidence from Nigeria

    2009-01-01

    This paper investigates whether stock market development raises economic growth in Nigeria, by employing the error correction approach. The econometric results indicate that stock market development (market capitalization-GDP ratio) increases economic growth. The recommendations therein include - removal of impediments to stock market development which include tax, legal, and regulatory barriers; development of the nation's infrastructure to create an enabling environment for where business c...

  9. The cholesterol-raising factor from coffee beans.

    Urgert, R.; Katan, M B

    1996-01-01

    Coffee beans and some types of coffee brew - not the regular types of coffee prepared with a paper filter or with soluble coffee granules - contain the diterpenes cafestol and kahweol. Cafestol and kahweol raise the serum concentration of cholesterol and triglycerides in humans, and they also appear mildly to affect the integrity of liver cells. Both effects are transient after withdrawal of the diterpenes, and it is as yet unsure whether these effects are associated. Patients at increased ri...

  10. Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome and acute post-streptococcal glomerulonephritis mimicking breakthrough seizures

    Kamille Abdool

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available We report the case of a 14-year-old boy with a past history of primary generalized seizures, who had been seizure-free for 2 years on sodium valproate and presented with generalized tonic clonic seizures suggestive of breakthrough seizures. Examination revealed hypertension, impetiginous lesions of the lower limbs, microscopic hematuria, elevated antistreptolysin O titre and low complement levels consistent with acute post-streptococcal glomerulonephritis. Cranial magnetic resonance imaging (MRI demonstrated changes consistent with posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome. Hypertension was controlled with intravenous nitroglycerin followed by oral captopril and amlodipine. Brain MRI changes returned normal within 2 weeks. The nephritis went in to remission within 2 months and after 8 months the patient has been seizure free again. Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome appeared to have neither short nor intermediate effect on seizure control in this patient. The relationship between posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome and seizures is reviewed.

  11. Raising consciousness about the nuclear threat through music

    Ungerleider, J.H.

    1987-01-01

    This dissertation examines the use of music, in particular topical collaborative group song writing, as a tool for raising consciousness about the threat of nuclear war. Consciousness raising is one way to overcome the phenomenon of denial and to increase discussion and social action in response to the nuclear threat. This dissertation measures the impact of a group song writing workshop on developing critical problem-solving in adult groups; it reviews how music is applied in psychological research and clinical work, has been used historically as a tool in social-change movements in America, and is used in the contemporary field of peace education. The perspectives of several theorists who discuss the potential of music to contribute to social change are presented. It is concluded that consciousness about the nuclear threat - in terms of naming and analyzing - can be raised by working with music's potential for developing affective, expressive, and collaborative capabilities in individuals and groups. Potential applications of the group song writing workshop are in schools, with peace organizations, music groups, and in relation to other social issues.

  12. Properties and structure of raised bog peat humic acids

    Klavins, Maris; Purmalis, Oskars

    2013-10-01

    Humic substances form most of the organic components of soil, peat and natural waters, and their structure and properties differ very much depending on their source. The aims of this study are to characterize humic acids (HAs) from raised bog peat, to evaluate the homogeneity of peat HAs within peat profiles, and to study peat humification impact on properties of HAs. A major impact on the structure of peat HAs have lignin-free raised bog biota (dominantly represented by bryophytes of different origin). On diagenesis scale, peat HAs have an intermediate position between the living organic matter and coal organic matter, and their structure is formed in a process in which more labile structures (carbohydrates, amino acids, etc.) are destroyed, while thermodynamically more stable aromatic and polyaromatic structures emerge as a result of abiotic synthesis. However, in comparison with soil, aquatic and other HAs, aromaticity of peat HAs is much lower. Comparatively, the raised bog peat HAs are at the beginning of the transformation process of living organic matter. Concentrations of carboxyl and phenolic hydroxyl groups change depending on the peat age and decomposition degree from where HAs have been isolated, and carboxylic acidity of peat HAs increases with peat depth and humification degree.

  13. Seven Mile Reservoir raising environmental impact assessment and compensation proposals

    The 1984 Skagit River Valley Treaty Implementation Act provided for raising of the Seven Mile Reservoir normal operating level from 522.7 m to 527.3 m. The dam, located on the Pend d'Oreille River, was completed in 1980 and with this raising and the future installation of a fourth unit, can operate at its full potential. Work included spillway gate completion and reservoir preparation. The reservoir raising caused impacts, including loss of whitetail deer winter range, slightly improved access for coarse fish into the Salmo River, and a reduced number of sites with recreational development potential. A number of compensation, enhancement, and monitoring measures to offset the losses caused by the project were identified and British Columbia Hydro proposes funding to implement the measures. An integral part of identifying and developing the programs was an interactive process involving local interest groups, government agencies, and the utility. Continued cooperation is anticipated in the implementation phase of the programs. 54 refs., 4 figs., 5 tabs

  14. Pathogenesis of optic disc edema in raised intracranial pressure.

    Hayreh, Sohan Singh

    2016-01-01

    Optic disc edema in raised intracranial pressure was first described in 1853. Ever since, there has been a plethora of controversial hypotheses to explain its pathogenesis. I have explored the subject comprehensively by doing basic, experimental and clinical studies. My objective was to investigate the fundamentals of the subject, to test the validity of the previous theories, and finally, based on all these studies, to find a logical explanation for the pathogenesis. My studies included the following issues pertinent to the pathogenesis of optic disc edema in raised intracranial pressure: the anatomy and blood supply of the optic nerve, the roles of the sheath of the optic nerve, of the centripetal flow of fluids along the optic nerve, of compression of the central retinal vein, and of acute intracranial hypertension and its associated effects. I found that, contrary to some previous claims, an acute rise of intracranial pressure was not quickly followed by production of optic disc edema. Then, in rhesus monkeys, I produced experimentally chronic intracranial hypertension by slowly increasing in size space-occupying lesions, in different parts of the brain. Those produced raised cerebrospinal fluid pressure (CSFP) and optic disc edema, identical to those seen in patients with elevated CSFP. Having achieved that, I investigated various aspects of optic disc edema by ophthalmoscopy, stereoscopic color fundus photography and fluorescein fundus angiography, and light microscopic, electron microscopic, horseradish peroxidase and axoplasmic transport studies, and evaluated the effect of opening the sheath of the optic nerve on the optic disc edema. This latter study showed that opening the sheath resulted in resolution of optic disc edema on the side of the sheath fenestration, in spite of high intracranial CSFP, proving that a rise of CSFP in the sheath was the essential pre-requisite for the development of optic disc edema. I also investigated optic disc edema with

  15. Raising the Retirement Age--Why Should Anybody Lose?

    Georg Hirte

    1999-01-01

    This paper questions the view that a rise of the retirement age does not reduce the financial problems of a pay-as-you-go public pension system if individuals receive compensations for additional years spent in the labor force. It is shown that rather utility compensation is required than actuarial compensation. As the former is lower it creates an opportunity to raise the retirement age in a Pareto-improving way. By performing a dynamic CGE analysis for Germany, a compensation scheme is deri...

  16. Efficiency of Raising Health Outcomes in the Indian States

    Prachitha J.; K. R. Shanmugam

    2012-01-01

    As health is a state subject and merit good, the state Governments in India spend increased amounts on it. However, the health outcomes vary across the states. This study measures the efficiency of Indian states in raising health outcomes, using the stochastic frontier methodology for panel data for the period 2000-2009. The average efficiency is estimated at 72.7 per cent, implying that there is a scope for improving health performances, without additional resources. In 7 out of 17 states, t...

  17. IMPLICATIONS OF RAISING THE NONFAT SOLIDS STANDARDS FOR BEVERAGE MILK

    Salathe, Larry E.; Price, J. Michael

    1992-01-01

    An econometric model of the dairy industry was used to estimate the effects on farmers, consumers, and taxpayers of nationwide adoption of the California nonfat solids standards for fluid milk. It was estimated that adoption of the California standards would raise farm-level milk prices by 1 to 5 percent in the short run and by 1 to 2 percent in the long run. The average retail price of fluid milk would rise by 9 to 13 cents per gallon. Dairy program costs fall under most scenarios, but could...

  18. Tenneco raises $75 million for independents' E and P

    Tenneco Gas's ventures group, Houston, has raised $75 million to invest in gas exploration and production by independent operations on the U.S. Gulf Coast. Institutional investors committed $50 million to the fund and a group of industrial investors $25 million. Tenneco the the fund will expand to accommodate additional investors through this year. This paper reports that the company's ventures group is evaluating acquisition and drilling opportunities with independents. Ventures group capital will be invested in independent exploratory, development, and producing properties

  19. Persistently raised intraocular pressure following extracapsular cataract extraction.

    David, R; Tessler, Z.; Yagev, R.; BRISCOE, D; Biedner, B. Z.; Gilad, E.; YASSUR;, Y.

    1990-01-01

    In this population based study we have reviewed the files of all patients who underwent an extracapsular cataract extraction (ECCE) between 1984 and 1987, were normotensives prior to surgery, and were followed up for at least 10 months after the ECCE. From a total of 1047 operations 746 qualified for the inclusion criteria; of these, 16 (2.1%) were found to have a consistently raised intraocular pressure (greater than 21 mmHg) on more than two occasions) at four months or later after surgery ...

  20. The Role of Public Relations in a Successful Fund-Raising Campaign.

    Adams, Michael F.; Bumgardner, Larry G.

    1991-01-01

    Pepperdine University's (California) 1980s fund-raising campaign was designed to raise overall institutional visibility, establish an image of quality education, improve institutional image in the business community, increase fund-raising momentum, and raise significant money for immediate capital needs. Theme, staffing, and advertising were key…

  1. An Effective Method for Information Security Awareness Raising Initiatives

    AliMaqousi

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Increasingly, all kinds of organizations and institutions are adopting the E-business model to conduct theiractivities and provide E-Services for their customers. In the process, whether they know it or not, thoseorganizations are also opening themselves up to the risk of information security breaches. Thereforeprotecting an organization’s ICT infrastructure, IT systems, and Data is a vital issue that is oftenunderestimated. Research has shown that one of the most significant threats to information security comesnot from external attack but rather from the system's users, because they are familiar with theinfrastructure and have access to its resources, but may be unaware of the risks. Moreover, using onlytechnological solutions to protect an organization’s assets is not enough; there is a need to consider thehuman factor by raising users’ security awareness. Our contribution to this problem is to propose anInformation Security Awareness Program that aims at raising and maintaining the level of users’ securityawareness. This paper puts forward a general model for an information security awareness program anddescribes how it could be incorporated into an organization’s website through the process of developmentlife cycle.

  2. Civil engineering work to raise the level of Route Goward

    2013-01-01

    Civil engineering work to raise the level of Route Goward will take place during Long Shutdown 1. The work will begin on 18 March 2013 and is expected to last around 5 months.   Route Goward runs over the top of the PS tunnel and is the only access route to the inside of the ring. The layer of shielding backfill beneath this road is the thinnest anywhere on the PS ring. As the purpose of this shielding is to protect against the ionising radiation emitted by the accelerator when in operation, this road has been classified as a “supervised radiation area” according to radiation protection regulations. This classification was merely a temporary solution and, on the recommendation of the PS Radiation Working Group (PSRWG), the decision has been taken to raise the surface level permanently by around 2 m in order to increase the thickness of the shielding and thus lower the dose rate to that of a non-designated area. As the PS tunnel itself is unable to withstand the weight of t...

  3. Raised Plasma Aldosterone and Natriuretic Peptides in Atrial Fibrillation

    Dixen, Ulrik; Ravn, Lasse Steen; Soeby-Rasmussen, Christian;

    2006-01-01

    , present AF at follow-up, total duration of AF disease, ongoing medication, and the LVEF as explanatory variables showed that only ongoing treatment with diuretics was significantly associated (likelihood ratio test, p = 0.0057) with a raised log-transformed plasma aldosterone, although present AF at...... log-transformed plasma Nt-proANP. Likewise, present AF at follow-up (p = 0.0008) as well as age (p < 0.0001) were associated with high log-transformed plasma Nt-proBNP. CONCLUSIONS: In patients with earlier AF, AF at long-term follow-up visit was independently associated with raised levels of Nt...... follow-up was related to a high aldosterone level (p = 0.09). For the natriuretic peptides, present AF at follow-up (p < 0.0001), age (p < 0.0001), female gender (p = 0.0047), ischemic heart disease (p = 0.0154), and ongoing treatment with sotalol (p = 0.0003) were all independently associated with high...

  4. Raised Relief Mars Globe Brings the Red Planet Closer

    2006-01-01

    The Mars Globe 20x is the first digitally produced raised relief globe to be sold at retail establishments. The rises and dips of the Martian landscape have been multiplied by 20 to make the shapes more noticeable to human touch and sight. They make this globe, with its over 1 million elevation points, a visually stunning introduction to the planet. Spectrum 3D used the NASA digital land elevation data to aim lasers that then shaped and defined the master globe s surface. Subsequent copies were then made by creating a master globe mold. The molded copies are hand finished by workers who remove errant edges or lines that may appear on the raw globes and then paint the surfaces. The result is a globe that measures in at 18 inches in diameter, roughly 1:15,729,473 scale of the actual planet. The exaggerated raised relief is like having a 3-D digital microscope for planetary shapes. This makes the landmarks easier to learn and understand, as it provides easy visuals for orientation. People have a natural propensity for understanding 3-D shapes more easily than numbers or words. The 3-D globes appeal to both the kinetic and visual learning aspects of the brain, making it easy for people to readily memorize the landmarks and to make a mental model that they will remember for a long time.

  5. « Lorsque l’archéologie rencontre la tradition littéraire : les titres militaires des spâhbed de l’empire sassanide ». Comptes rendus de l’Académie des Inscriptions et Belles Lettres [Séances de l’année 2001, janvier-juin], Paris, 2002,

    Rédaction,

    2006-01-01

    L’apparition d’une douzaine de sceaux de “généraux” de l’un des quatre “côtés” de l’empire sassanide a mis en évidence que ces personnages, parmi les plus importants de l’État, portaient aussi d’autres titres, correspondant peut-être à des fonctions “administratives” antérieures. Si certains de ces titres ne sont pas attestés ailleurs, d’autres sont mentionnés dans l’historiographie. La confrontation de cette dernière aux sources sigillographiques met en relief les confusions chronologiques s...

  6. Soil nitrogen and carbon impacts of raising chickens on pasture

    Ryals, R.; Leach, A.; Tang, J.; Hastings, M. G.; Galloway, J. N.

    2014-12-01

    Chicken is the most consumed meat in the US, and production continues to intensify rapidly around the world. Chicken manure from confined feeding operations is typically applied in its raw form to nearby croplands, resulting in hotspots of soil nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions. Pasture-raised chicken is an alternative to industrial production and is growing in popularity with rising consumer demand for more humanely raised protein sources. In this agricultural model, manure is deposited directly onto grassland soils where it is thought to increase pools of soil carbon and nitrogen. The fate of manure nitrogen from pasture-raised chicken production remains poorly understood. We conducted a controlled, replicated experiment on a permaculture farm in Charlottesville, Virginia (Timbercreek Organics) in which small chicken coops (10 ft x 12 ft) were moved daily in a pasture. We measured manure deposition rates, soil inorganic nitrogen pools, soil moisture, and soil N2O and CO2 emissions. Measurements were made for the 28-day pasture life of three separate flocks of chickens in the spring, summer, and fall. Each flock consisted of approximately 200-300 chickens occupying three to five coops (~65 chickens/coop). Measurements were also made in paired ungrazed control plots. Manure deposition rates were similar across flocks and averaged 1.5 kgdrywt ha-1 during the spring grazing event and 4.0 kgdrywt ha-1 during the summer and fall grazing events. Manure deposition was relatively constant over the four weeks pasture-lifetime of the chickens. Compared to control plots, grazed areas exhibited higher soil N2O and CO2 fluxes. The magnitude of these fluxes diminished significantly over the four-week span. Soil gas fluxes significantly increased following rainfall events. For a given rainfall event, higher fluxes were observed from transects that were grazed more recently. Soil gaseous reactive nitrogen losses were less in this pasture system compared to cultivated field amended

  7. Raise the management level of EPC contracting in six aspects

    Nuclear power construction develops rapidly today and EPC contracting for nuclear power projects, as a strategic decision of CNNC, has become a tendency. The target of engineering management can be smoothly realized or achieved by doing a good job in the following six aspects: effective communication between divisions of project department, high-degree consistency of managerial concepts for project management staff, clear objective for different divisions in the project department, presence of rules to be observed in construction management work, avoidance of human-initiated errors in the project, and clear distinction of management control concept. It is hoped that, through exchange and practice, management procedures and consciousness for EPC contracting can be further standardized and thus the level of management for EPC contracting will be raised finally. (authors)

  8. Raising chickens in city backyards: the public health role.

    Pollock, S L; Stephen, C; Skuridina, N; Kosatsky, T

    2012-06-01

    There is increasing interest in raising chickens in urban settings across North America. Current regulations on backyard chickens vary by jurisdiction due to concerns about perceived health threats. Proposed negative impacts on public health and community well-being include infectious diseases acquired through rearing practices or consumption of eggs, inappropriate waste management, interaction with pests and predators and nuisance factors such as noise and odour. Proposed benefits are derived largely from the human-animal bond and from feelings of autonomy over food selection. The importance or validity of claims of positive and negative effects cannot be supported by literature specific to the urban agriculture context. Public health practitioners might approach this issue in a manner analogous to concerns over keeping domestic pets. PMID:22083301

  9. Raising i.c. engine catalytic converter temperature

    Bowman, T.J.

    1994-10-19

    The engine when cold has delayed completion of combustion and advance of the exhaust event. Combustion of the exhaust gases is completed within the exhaust system in order to raise the temperature of the catalytic convertor. An ECV receives engine speed, load and temperature inputs and controls ignition timing, and/or the injection timing of part or all the fuel, and/or exhaust recirculation, and/or the number of inlet valves per cylinder and/or the number of spark plugs per cylinder which are operative and the timing of exhaust valve closure or the complete exhaust event in a four-stroke engine or the exhaust port geometry in a two-stroke engine. An afterburner may be provided upstream of the convertor. (UK)

  10. Universal Raising and Lowering Operators for a Discrete Energy Spectrum

    Torres-Vega, Gabino

    2016-06-01

    We consider the first-order finite-difference expression of the commutator between d / dx and x. This is the appropriate setting in which to propose commutators and time operators for a quantum system with an arbitrary potential function and a discrete energy spectrum. The resulting commutators are identified as universal lowering and raising operators. We also find time operators which are finite-difference derivations with respect to the energy. The matrix elements of the commutator in the energy representation are analyzed, and we find consistency with the equality [hat{T},hat{H}]=ihbar . We apply the theory to the particle in an infinite well and for the Harmonic oscillator as examples.

  11. Design of a Hybrid Propulsion System for Orbit Raising Applications

    Boman, N.; Ford, M.

    2004-10-01

    A trade off between conventional liquid apogee engines used for orbit raising applications and hybrid rocket engines (HRE) has been performed using a case study approach. Current requirements for lower cost and enhanced safety places hybrid propulsion systems in the spotlight. For evaluating and design of a hybrid rocket engine a parametric engineering code is developed, based on the combustion chamber characteristics of selected propellants. A single port cylindrical section of fuel grain is considered. Polyethylene (PE) and hydroxyl-terminated polybutadiene (HTPB) represents the fuels investigated. The engine design is optimized to minimize the propulsion system volume and mass, while keeping the system as simple as possible. It is found that the fuel grain L/D ratio boundary condition has a major impact on the overall hybrid rocket engine design.

  12. Technological characteristics of rabbit meat with raised n-3 PUFA

    C. Cavani

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The dietary use of linseed in animal feeding has been proposed by many authors as a vegetable way (in alternative to fish oil or fish meal to raise meat PUFA and mainly α- linolenic acid (C18:3 n-3 (Bernardini et al., 1999; Mattews et al., 2000; Riley et al., 2000; Rey et al., 2001. However, increasing amounts of PUFA could impair the technological characteristics of the meat for further processing (Enser, 1999. Main problems are concerned with lipid stability and meat colour changes over time which are related with both the out coming of rancid flavour and detrimental effects on the appearance of packaged further processed meat products...

  13. THE CHALLENGES OF RAISING REVENUES AND RESTRUCTURING SUBSIDIES IN MALAYSIA

    Suresh Narayanan

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Malaysia has run deficit budgets in all but five years since 1970 but past deficits have been managed thanks to substantial oil revenues and high domestic savings. However, the slow growth or decline of several traditional sources of revenue and the rising subsidy bill since 2007 have given pause for reflection on the traditional approach to fiscal management. In this paper, it is argued that fiscal management must not only centre around reducing non-productive expenditures and wasteful leakages but must also confront the problem of reducing and restructuring subsidies, particularly to petrol and petroleum-related products. The global dip in petroleum process has fortuitously provided the respite needed for such an exercise and should not lull policy makersinto complacency. When the economy recovers from the currentdownswing, a solid revenue raising instrument such as the value-addedtax must be introduced in order to wean the economy away from thecurrent over reliance on petroleum-based taxes.

  14. Raising Relational Critical Consciousness to Enhance Empathy in Clinical Hypnosis.

    Vargas, H Luis

    2016-01-01

    Empathic involvement theory suggests that a trance-like experience occurs when a cross-relational empathic connection is achieved. The empathically-laden relational phenomenon is thought to enhance hypnosis. Empathic involvement theory suggests hypnotizables are highly empathic. By the same token, the relational empathic connection necessitates a highly empathic practitioner of hypnosis. In the United States, where values of individualism are thought to be socially embedded and internalized, practitioners of hypnosis and clients alike may be impeded by an individually oriented worldview to empathically connect with others. Raising a relational critical consciousness is promoted as a way to increase sensitivity to the marginalization of relationships, limit empathic-effort burn-out, and promote cross-relational empathic connection. PMID:26675156

  15. Air flow management in raised floor data centers

    Arghode, Vaibhav K

    2016-01-01

    The Brief discuss primarily two aspects of air flow management in raised floor data centers. Firstly, cooling air delivery through perforated tiles will be examined and influence of the tile geometry on flow field development and hot air entrainment above perforated tiles will be discussed. Secondly, the use of cold aisle containment to physically separate hot and cold regions, and minimize hot and cold air mixing will be presented. Both experimental investigations and computational efforts are discussed and development of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) based models for simulating air flow in data centers is included. In addition, metrology tools for facility scale air velocity and temperature measurement, and air flow rate measurement through perforated floor tiles and server racks are examined and the authors present thermodynamics-based models to gauge the effectiveness and importance of air flow management schemes in data centers.

  16. Lexical consciousness-raising in the vicinity of target vocabulary

    Hadi, Farjami

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study compared the effectiveness of three techniques for teaching English vocabulary to Persian native speakers: a traditional procedure, the classical cloze procedure, and an innovative procedure, which is dubbed here as vicinity technique, based on incidental learning, noticing and consciousness-raising. To do the comparison, 51 students, registered at a private language institute, were randomly assigned to three groups and were taught 40 vocabulary items in five sessions in the three procedures. To evaluate the vocabulary gain in the three conditions, immediate and delayed post-tests were administered and the obtained data were analyzed using ANOVA. The results revealed that the vicinity technique was more effective than the traditional procedure; both in immediate and delayed evaluations. It was also revealed that, although there was no significant difference between the vicinity technique and the classical cloze technique in short-term, the vicinity technique was more effective than the classical cloze one for long-term retention.

  17. Amino acid geochronology of raised beaches in south west Britain

    Bowen, D. Q.; Sykes, G. A.; Reeves (nee Henry), Alayne; Miller, G. H.; Andrews, J. T.; Brew, J. S.; Hare, P. E.

    Based on (1) the epimerization of L:isoleucine to D:alloisoleucine ( {D}/{L} ratios) in Patella vulgata, Littorina littorea, L. littoralis, L. saxatilis, Littorina species and Nucella lapillus from raised beaches in south west Britain, (2) statistical analysis of the {D}/{L} ratios, and (3) lithostratigraphic and geomorphic evaluation, three ( {D}/{L}) Stages are proposed. The {D}/{L} ratios for all the species measured are converted to a Patella vulgata standard. The three ( {D}/{L}) Stages are: (1) The Minchin Hole ( {D}/{L}) Stage, {D}/{L} ratios 0.175 ± 0.014, defined at a stratotype in Minchin Hole Cave, Gower, Wales. (2) A provisionally defined, but as yet, unamed ( {D}/{L}) Stage, because of the current unavailability of a suitable stratotype, with {D}/{L} ratios of 0.135 ± 0.014 (3) The Pennard ( {D}/{L}) Stage, {D}/{L} ratios 0.105 ± 0.016, defined at a stratotype in Minchin Hole Cave, Gower, Wales. Two geochronological models of the three high sea-level events representing the {D}/{L} Stages are constrained by uranium-series age determinations on stalagmite interbedded with marine beds in Minchin Hole and Bacon Hole Caves, Gower, Wales. A potential 'fixed point' in model evaluation is an age determination which is equivalent to Oxygen Isotope Sub-stage 5e (122 ka). The two models are:

  18. Toward raising the higher level of radiological nursing

    The role and purpose of nursing in the radiological field are discussed with essentials of radiological nursing for raising its higher level and needed fundamental education. The discussion is from the thought that, at Fukushima Nuclear Power Plant Accident (Mar. 2011), general medical staff including nurses are rather insufficient of radiological knowledge like the exposure, radiation effect and risk. In the medical radiological field, nurses are expected to play roles of arranging the circumstance for patient's ease like explanation about health effect/risk, appropriate nursing of them after radiological diagnosis, radiation protection of nurses themselves, and of environment. At such an emergency as the Accident, care for the acutely exposed victims, their decontamination and responding to patient's concern are necessary. At the later phase, also needed are nursing of victims undergoing health management done by authorities and of radiological workers concerned as well as the third item above. Therefore, fundamentals of radiological knowledge such as physics, exposure, health effects, protection, contamination, legal rules and risk communication are required in the education of nurses. Otherwise, this education can be conducted as a part of safety security and physical assessment. The Accident also gives us the importance of radiological risk communication with its victims. (T.T.)

  19. Parental Stress in Raising a Child with Disabilities in India

    Naveen Mehrotra

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available  Purpose: To determine the parenting stress and its determinants among parents of children with disabling conditions in India.Methods: The Parenting Stress Index – short form and a few open ended questions were administered to a convenience sample of sixty-six patient families in July, 2009 in the cities of New Delhi and Faridabad regions of Northern India through six non- governmental organizations (NGOs that serve children with disabling conditions. Results: Female sex of the child was associated with higher stress related to failure of the child to meet parent’s expectations and to satisfy the parents in their parenting role. Parents engaged in more lucrative and prestigious occupations had more stress than parents engaged in less prestigious and lucrative occupations irrespective of their income. Many parents reported receiving little support from their extended families in taking care of their child. Religion was found to be a common coping resource used by the parents.Conclusion and Implications: Higher parenting stress in parents of girls raises the possibility of abuse and neglect. Little support from informal family resources underscores the need for developing formal resources for supporting the parents. The specific resources of parenting stress among parents of different socioeconomic status should be explored in future studies so that appropriate interventions can be planned.doi 10.5463/DCID.v23i2.119

  20. Raised Vaginal Fluid Fibronectin Level Indicates Premature Rupture of Membrane

    Amrita Bhowmik

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Premature rupture of membrane (PROM is one of the common complications of pregnancy that has major impact on fetal and neonatal outcome. It is the commonest clinical event where a normal pregnancy becomes suddenly a high-risk one for mother and fetus or neonate. Objective: The study was undertaken to investigate whether raised fibronectin level in vaginal fluid may indicate premature rupture of membrane. Materials and Methods: This cross sectional study was conducted in the department of Obstetrics and Gynecology in Sir Salimullah Medical College & Mitford Hospital, Dhaka during the period of January 2006 to December 2007. A total of 114 pregnant women with gestational age 28th week up to 40th week were included. Sixty were PROM (Group I and 54 were non-PROM (Group II subjects. Fibronectin in vaginal fluid was measured by an immunochemical reaction by nephelometer. Statistical analysis was done by SPSS version 10.0. Results: The PROM patients had significantly higher concentration of fibronectin (225.77 ± 115.18 ng/mL compared to that in non-PROM subjects (8.04 ± 16.17 ng/mL (p < 0.001. Conclusion: It can be concluded that in cases of unequivocal rupture or intactness of the membranes, the result of the fibronectin test corresponds well with the clinical situation. So fibronectin is a sensitive test for detection of amniotic fluid in the vagina.

  1. Leptospirosis control on an intensive raising pig farm

    Tešić M.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Leptospirosis is an infective disease which represents serious health and economic problems in pig raising. The disease is caused by bacteria from genus Leptospira interrogans, which has over 250 serotypes and is isolated from most animal species and also from humans in almost every country in the world. In farm conditions the disease is seldom manifested as a clinically apparent illness. More often is manifested as reduced conception rate increased abortion rate and increased birth of dead and non-vital piglets. The leptospirosis control and eradication program was made for a state owned farm with a capacity of about 1500 sows and over 30000 fattened animals per year. The farm had an on going endemic leptospirosis infection and subsequent progressive economic losses. We detected 29,80% seropositive sows and gilts in which serotypes pomona and icterhaemorrhagiae were isolated. Serologic examination of blood was performed again after program implementation, and no positive animals were found, while production and economic results were improved. The control of leptospirosis and the eradication program for a five-year period were based on detailed quantification of economics losses. Using cost-benefit analysis the necessary inputs and planned outputs were defined, and program evolution was made on the basis of net present value and benefit/cost ratio.

  2. 40 CFR 408.10 - Applicability; description of the farm-raised catfish processing subcategory.

    2010-07-01

    ...-raised catfish processing subcategory. 408.10 Section 408.10 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... SOURCE CATEGORY Farm-Raised Catfish Processing Subcategory § 408.10 Applicability; description of the farm-raised catfish processing subcategory. The provisions of this subpart are applicable to...

  3. 29 CFR 780.124 - Raising of fur-bearing animals.

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Raising of fur-bearing animals. 780.124 Section 780.124... General Scope of Agriculture Raising of Livestock, Bees, Fur-Bearing Animals, Or Poultry § 780.124 Raising of fur-bearing animals. (a) The term “fur-bearing animals” has reference to animals which bear fur...

  4. 7 CFR 760.204 - Eligible livestock, honeybees, and farm-raised fish.

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Eligible livestock, honeybees, and farm-raised fish... for Livestock, Honeybees, and Farm-Raised Fish Program § 760.204 Eligible livestock, honeybees, and farm-raised fish. (a) To be considered eligible livestock for livestock feed losses and grazing...

  5. The nanotechnological inventions raise competitive ability of the products

    VLASOV Vladimir Alexeevich

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A brief description of the nanotechnological inventions is given. The inventions in the area of nanotechnologies and nanomaterials produce a profound effect in construction, housing and communal services and adjacent economic fields as they allow us: to obtain high strength and durability of surfaces of the details, to provide different materials with hydrophil properties, to increase efficiency of transformation of light energy into electrical one etc., and in general – to raise competitive ability of the products. For example, the method of production of solar element and a unit of solar elements (RU 2532137 comprises following stages: formation of pn-transfer in semiconductor base plate, formation of passivating layer on the light-receptive surface and/or non light-receptive surface of semiconductor base plate and formation of power robbing electrodes on the light-receptive surface and non light-receptive. A film of aluminium oxide is formed as passivating layer, its thickness is up to 40 nm, and lectrode is formed by baking conductive paste under the temperature 500–900ͦͦ°C for 1 second – 30 inutes with formation of sintered product. The sintered product penetrates through passivating layer setting electric contact between electrode and base plate. The formation of aluminium ide with specified thickness on the surface of base plate makes it possible to achieve good passivating characteristics and good electric contact between silica and electrode only by eans of baking conductive paste, that is standard technology. Moreover the baking stage which was necessary to get the effect of film passivation for aluminium oxide in the past now can be cancelled to decrease costs. The specialists may be also interested in the following nanotechnological inventions: reinforced flaked element made of natural or conglomerate stone and its multilayer protective coating (RU 2520193; fine organic suspension of carbon metal-containing nanostructures

  6. Raising public awareness of nuclear science in action

    Nobel Prize for Maria Skodowska-Curie), the schools - after visiting us - try to organise their own minisymposia on the radioactivity, the visitors seem to receive proper message about the real risk connected with nuclear radiation. The latter is judged by the fact that very seldom we encounter typical symptoms of radio phobia after the visit to our Department. We are strongly convinced that our work will result in an increased interest of students in physics, and may regain the popularity of nuclear physics among the students. This is necessary if the nuclear energy is going to be developed and used safely in the country. We also believe that similar educational centres, if wherever absent, should be organised in other nuclear centres in Europe and all of them should form a network in which new didactical methods would be worked out and the experience could be easily evaluated and exchanged between the network's partners. The paper presents motivation, present status, methodology and results of our more than 5-years experience in raising public awareness of nuclear problems in various social groups. (author)

  7. Seismic monitoring experiment of raise boring in 2014

    Saari, J.; Malm, M. [AaF-Consult Oy, Espoo (Finland)

    2015-01-15

    In Olkiluoto, Posiva Oy has operated a local seismic network since February 2002. The purpose of the microearthquake measurements at Olkiluoto is to improve understanding of the structure, behaviour and long term stability of the bedrock. The studies include both tectonic and excavation-induced microearthquakes. An additional task of monitoring is related to safeguarding of ONKALO. The possibility to excavate an illegal access to ONKALO has been concerned when the safeguards are discussed. Therefore all recorded explosions in the Olkiluoto area and in ONKALO are located. If a concentration of explosions is observed, the origin of that is found out. Also a concept of hidden illegal explosions, detonated at the same time as the real excavation blasts, has been examined. According to the experience gained in Olkiluoto, it can be concluded that, as long the seismic network is in operation and the results are analysed by a skilled person, it is practically impossible to do illegal undetected excavation by blasting within the Olkiluoto seismic network area. In this report a possibility of seismic monitoring of undeclared excavation done by tunnel boring machine (TBM) has been investigated. In the earlier investigations the instruments were at the ground surface and the sensors were triaxial short period (1 Hz) geophones or broadband geophones. The characteristics (frequency content, polarity and amplitude) of the continuous seismic vibration generated by TMB were studied. The onset time of the seismic signal were not distinguished. Altogether 16 new 10 kHz accelerometers were installed in boreholes inside ONKALO March 2012. The sensors comprised a new subnetwork that monitored the raise boring of two shafts done 2014, from the level -455 m to the level -290 m. The aim was to record the seismic signal generated when the drill bit hits the rock at the moment the tunnel boring begins. Altogether 113 seismic signals generated by the drill bit were located during the

  8. The "Geoparks" as a way to raise geoconservation in Kazakhstan

    Fishman, Ilya; Kazakova, Julia; Abdov, Nurlan

    2013-04-01

    Kazakhstan is one of the nine largest countries of the world and not only has significant mineral resources but rich geological heritage. However, to date geology is considered only as a way to search for minerals due to the established traditions. Faced with a geologist, we usually ask: "What are you looking for?". But the man with the hammer must answer the more important question - about the future of the Planet and Humanity. But it is necessary to save and to study the stone chronicle page for this. Only history of the Earth, recorded in the annals of rock sheets, gives a scientific answer on the fate of Planet and Mankind, and allows realistically assess the risk of disasters, floods, global warming, etc. During 20 years we are trying to give a push to protection and use of geological heritage of Kazakhstan. In our country this new direction gets accustomed with large labor. The spread of the world experience on geoconservation, the databases created of the geological heritage of Kazakhstan, numerous performances in the scientific press and the media has not lead to real steps to preserve and use geodiversity in our country. Today we are trying to raise the idea of geoconservation in Kazakhstan based on Geoparks. A project "Geological study of the geoparks development in Kazakhstan" is developed. 12 representative areas were selected on a background of the database that includes 500 sites of geological heritage, embracing a large variety of geological processes in all regions of Kazakhstan. On October 31st, 2012 in Astana the "Kazakh Geographical Society" held an international conference including "Geoparks" section. At the conference reports of all the regions of Kazakhstan representatives were presented, as well as European countries with extensive experience in geoconservation and geoparks creation (Portugal, Bulgaria, Turkey). The conference was supported by UNESCO. Album "Millions of years before the Silk Road", which represents the future Kazakhstan

  9. Seismic monitoring experiment of raise boring in 2014

    In Olkiluoto, Posiva Oy has operated a local seismic network since February 2002. The purpose of the microearthquake measurements at Olkiluoto is to improve understanding of the structure, behaviour and long term stability of the bedrock. The studies include both tectonic and excavation-induced microearthquakes. An additional task of monitoring is related to safeguarding of ONKALO. The possibility to excavate an illegal access to ONKALO has been concerned when the safeguards are discussed. Therefore all recorded explosions in the Olkiluoto area and in ONKALO are located. If a concentration of explosions is observed, the origin of that is found out. Also a concept of hidden illegal explosions, detonated at the same time as the real excavation blasts, has been examined. According to the experience gained in Olkiluoto, it can be concluded that, as long the seismic network is in operation and the results are analysed by a skilled person, it is practically impossible to do illegal undetected excavation by blasting within the Olkiluoto seismic network area. In this report a possibility of seismic monitoring of undeclared excavation done by tunnel boring machine (TBM) has been investigated. In the earlier investigations the instruments were at the ground surface and the sensors were triaxial short period (1 Hz) geophones or broadband geophones. The characteristics (frequency content, polarity and amplitude) of the continuous seismic vibration generated by TMB were studied. The onset time of the seismic signal were not distinguished. Altogether 16 new 10 kHz accelerometers were installed in boreholes inside ONKALO March 2012. The sensors comprised a new subnetwork that monitored the raise boring of two shafts done 2014, from the level -455 m to the level -290 m. The aim was to record the seismic signal generated when the drill bit hits the rock at the moment the tunnel boring begins. Altogether 113 seismic signals generated by the drill bit were located during the

  10. A real-time machine-vision system for monitoring the textile raising process

    M.Carfagni; R. Furferi; L.Governi

    2005-01-01

    Special Issue on MACHINE VISION ABSTRACT - This work provides an automatic and non-intrusive tool to objectively monitoring the raising process by measuring the height and the density of the fibres emerging from a raised cloth (pile). These parameters are assessed by a numerical procedure, which elaborates the images provided by an appositely developed machine-vision system. The proposed approach allows the investigation and the control of the raising process and has been validated b...

  11. Household Animal Raising Behaviour in China’s Developed Regions: The Case of Zhejiang Province

    Liu, Xi-An; Guo, Qing-Fang; Teng, Hua-Yong

    2002-01-01

    Due to the dominant role of household animal raising in China’s animal production, an improved understanding of household animal raising practices is essential to study China’s feedgrain markets. It is also noted that the level of local economic development affects animal raising practices and the development of feedgrain markets. This paper reports the findings from a rural household survey we conducted recently in a China’s coastal and developed province. It was specially designed to examin...

  12. [Being raised by lesbian parents or in a single-parent family is no risk factor for problem behavior, however being raised as an adopted child is].

    Verhulst, F C; Versluis-den Bieman, H O; Balmus, N C

    1997-03-01

    Modern reproductive techniques and alternative family structures (with single or homosexual parents and adoption situations) raise questions about the consequences for the growing children involved. Genetic links appear to be less important for the functioning of a family than a strong wish for parenthood; parents who have become parents only through great efforts display a better quality of parenthood than average natural parents. Characteristics of the parent/parents, such as paedagogic qualities, and the quality of the parent-child relationship appear more important than the type of family. Published results of research reveal no reason why lesbian families should be judged differently from heterosexual ones as family types for the raising of children. The main negative factor for the functioning of the child growing up in a single-parent family is the marriage conflicts that have led to the single-parent situation; being raised by a single parent in itself has no adverse effect. Raising adopted children from other countries makes far greater demands on the adoptive parents than parents of biological children have to meet. The raising of a foreign adopted child by a single parent entails additional risks for the child's development. Data on the development of children in alternative family structures frequently concern exceptionally competent parents, which may have biased the findings. PMID:9173300

  13. Grandparents Raising Their Grandchildren: A Review of the Literature and Suggestions for Practice

    Hayslip, Bert; Kaminski, Patricia L.

    2005-01-01

    An increasingly prevalent family constellation is a home headed by a grandparent who is raising grandchildren. We explore the state of our knowledge about such grandparents with particular attention to its implications for service providers and researchers. In our review we address several key areas: (a) the costs and benefits of raising a…

  14. Hospitality and tourism management students raise funds for New Orleans students

    Ho, Sookhan

    2005-01-01

    Students in the Hospitality Management Association at Virginia Tech's Pamplin College of Business have raised $900 to help fellow hospitality and tourism management students at the University of New Orleans who have been affected by Hurricane Katrina. The student club's 52 members raised the funds through personal donations from students, faculty and staff members, alumni, family, and friends.

  15. 40 CFR 78.5 - Limitation on filing or presenting new evidence and raising new issues.

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Limitation on filing or presenting new evidence and raising new issues. 78.5 Section 78.5 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... raise a new issue shows that the evidence could not have reasonably been ascertained, filed,...

  16. Factors Associated with the Empowerment of Japanese Families Raising a Child with Developmental Disorders

    Wakimizu, Rie; Fujioka, Hiroshi; Yoneyama, Akira; Iejima, Atsushi; Miyamoto, Shinya

    2011-01-01

    We identified factors associated with the empowerment of Japanese families using the Family Empowerment Scale (FES) to contribute to the improvement of empowerment in Japanese families raising a child with developmental disorders (DDs). The study was conducted in 350 caregivers who raised children aged 4-18 years with DDs in urban and suburban…

  17. 7 CFR 8.9 - Use in 4-H fund raising.

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Use in 4-H fund raising. 8.9 Section 8.9 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture 4-H CLUB NAME AND EMBLEM § 8.9 Use in 4-H fund raising. (a) Fund... Research, Education, and Extension Service, United States Department of Agriculture, or a designee, if...

  18. Raising White Privilege Awareness and Reducing Racial Prejudice: Assessing Diversity Course Effectiveness

    Case, Kim A.

    2007-01-01

    Many diversity courses in psychology originally aimed to reduce student racial bias and raise their awareness of racism. However, quantitative data testing the effectiveness of such courses are lacking. This study assessed a required diversity course's effectiveness in raising awareness of White privilege and racism; increasing support for…

  19. Grandmothers Raising Grandchildren with Disabilities: Sources of Support and Family Quality of Life

    Kresak, Karen E.; Gallagher, Peggy A.; Kelley, Susan J.

    2014-01-01

    Sources of support and quality of life of 50 grandmother-headed families raising grandchildren with and without disabilities were examined. Comparative analyses revealed significant differences between grandmothers raising grandchildren with and without disabilities in regard to sources of support and family quality of life. Informal support was…

  20. Text Complexity: State of the Art and the Conundrums It Raises

    Goldman, Susan R.; Lee, Carol D.

    2014-01-01

    Standards for literacy in the twenty-first century raise the bar on the complexity of texts and the tasks for which they are used. The strengths and limitations of contemporary approaches to text complexity are discussed with respect to major points raised in the six articles in this special issue. In addition, four features of text that are of…

  1. ORIGIN OF RAISED MATERNAL SERUM ALPHA-FETOPROTEIN LEVELS IN 2ND-TRIMESTER OLIGOHYDRAMNIOS

    LOS, FJ; BEEKHUIS, [No Value; MARRINK, J; HAGENAARS, AM; REUSS, A; SACHS, ES; JAHODA, MGJ; WLADIMIROFF, JW

    1992-01-01

    Concanavalin A (Con A) subtyping of alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) revealed higher concentrations of AFP non-reactive with Con A in sera of 12 pregnant women with second-trimester oligohydramnios and raised total serum AFP levels than in sera of 42 pregnant women with raised total serum AFP levels and a no

  2. Staff Development for Raising Attainment: A Practitioner's View of What Works

    Bates, Sharon; Watt, Laura

    2016-01-01

    This paper offers a practitioner's view of how continuing professional development (CPD) can help raise achievement in schools. It is one of four papers in this issue linked to a research project in Stoke-on-Trent seeking to raise attainment in schools in deprived communicates. Based on over 20 years' experience working in and with different…

  3. Raised seedbeds for soybean in twin rows increase yields over flat seedbeds

    Irrigated soybean (Glycine max L. Merr.) grown using raised beds often produces higher yields than crops grown on flat surfaces. However, research confirming this is limited. Two soybean cultivars were grown at Stoneville, MS in 25 cm twin-rows, spaced 102 cm between centers on raised beds and fla...

  4. Suspension of a steam raising unit in a reinforced concrete pressure vessel of a high temperature reactor

    The invention concerns a supporting device in a steam raising unit, which is situated in the reinforced concrete pressure vessel of a high temperature reactor. The supporting device is situated in the space between the steam raising unit skirt and the steam raising unit jacket. If the suspension of the steam raising unit skirt fails, the steam raising unit skirt is well fixed by the supporting device in the steam raising unit jacket, without the feed water and steam pipes in the upper part of the steam raising unit being damaged. (orig.)

  5. An insight into pre-Columbian raised fields: the case of San Borja, Bolivian lowlands

    Rodrigues, Leonor; Lombardo, Umberto; Trauerstein, Mareike; Huber, Perrine; Mohr, Sandra; Veit, Heinz

    2016-07-01

    Pre-Columbian raised field agriculture in the tropical lowlands of South America has received increasing attention and been the focus of heated debates regarding its function, productivity, and role in the development of pre-Columbian societies. Even though raised fields are all associated to permanent or semi-permanent high water levels, they occur in different environmental contexts. Very few field-based studies on raised fields have been carried out in the tropical lowlands and little is known about their use and past management. Based on topographic surveying and mapping, soil physical and chemical analysis and OSL and radiocarbon dating, this paper provides insight into the morphology, functioning and time frame of the use of raised fields in the south-western Llanos de Moxos, Bolivian Amazon. We have studied raised fields of different sizes that were built in an area near the town of San Borja, with a complex fluvial history. The results show that differences in field size and height are the result of an adaptation to a site where soil properties vary significantly on a scale of tens to hundreds of metres. The analysis and dating of the raised fields sediments point towards an extensive and rather brief use of the raised fields, for about 100-200 years at the beginning of the 2nd millennium.

  6. RAISING LEARNER AWARENESS OF LOCAL WISDOM IN TOUR-RELATED PROJECT TEACHING

    Amporn Sa-ngiamwibool

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated how CLT (Communicative Language Teaching and awareness-raising enhanced Thai learners’ awareness of their local wisdom in a tour-related project work with three specific purposes, which were to explore how the learners interacted with textual representations of their local wisdom to create their project, what extent CLT and awareness-raising tasks developed their communicative competence of the target language, and what object of awareness that the tasks could help the learners realize while working on their projects. This study was triangulated. The elicitation instruments were project instructions, CLT and awareness-raising tasks, pretests and posttests based on TOEIC (Test of English for International Communication, learner logs, interviews, and observation notes. The study revealed that, first, on the awareness of local wisdom in a tour-related project work, the learners interacted with textual representations of their local wisdom through theme-centered learning process. Second, on the enhancement of CLT and awareness-raising, CLT allowed the learners to deal with interactive, spontaneous, and more meaningful communication actively while awareness-raising helped the learners consciously focus on semantic, linguistic, and pragmatic aspects of the target language. Lastly, on object of awareness, CLT and awareness-raising tasks could lead the learners to realize these objects of awareness: nature of experiential learning, subject content, and skill content. For pedagogical implications, project-based teaching with the support of CLT and awareness-raising tasks can raise learner awareness of local wisdom in tour-related topics effectively. Pedagogical implications illustrated some practical applications of CLT and awareness-raising tasks for enhancing learner awareness in ESP project work in a Thai classroom. Future inquiry should replicate this study or apply to business or other ESP project instructions.

  7. Raising Generation Tech Preparing Your Children for a Media-Fueled World

    Taylor, Jim

    2012-01-01

    Today's children are being raised as 'digital natives' in a world dominated by popular culture and technology. TV shows, computers, video games, social networking sites, advertisements, and cell phones too often have an unnecessarily strong-and negative? influence on children.  But pulling the plug just isn't an option in a world where being connected is essential for success. In Raising Generation Tech,  noted parenting and new-media expert Dr. Jim Taylor explores how popular culture and technology shape children's lives. The essential message from Raising Generation Tech is that excessive

  8. Raising Awareness

    2008-01-01

    Autism is China’s most common mental handicap,but the country lags behind in efforts to help the children who suffer from it or their parents University English teacher Tian Huiping,a career woman with a child,was living an ideal life in the eyes of many women,when in 1989 her family was shaken by the news that her son had autism.

  9. Report of geophysical raising of the amethyst and agate in two quarries in Artigas district Uruguay

    In a geophysical raising of amethyst and agate was studied the possibility to apply a better suitable geophysical method. The conclusion was that the electromagnetic VLF method was suitable to identify the zones.

  10. Raising the level of radioresistance of cultivated plants seeds by using natural antioxidant

    Investigations showed possibility of raising radioresistance and viability (Liupinus angustifolius, Hordeum vulgare, Triticum aestivum) seeds by using natural antioxidant (aqueous solution of extraction of Urtica Dioica) which inhibit lipid peroxidation and protein protection

  11. California gull chicks raised near colony edges have elevated stress levels

    Herring, Garth; Ackerman, Joshua T.

    2011-01-01

    Coloniality in nesting birds represents an important life history strategy for maximizing reproductive success. Birds nesting near the edge of colonies tend to have lower reproductive success than individuals nesting near colony centers, and offspring of edge-nesting parents may be impaired relative to those of central-nesting parents. We used fecal corticosterone metabolites in California gull chicks (Larus californicus) to examine whether colony size or location within the colony influenced a chick's physiological condition. We found that chicks being raised near colony edges had higher fecal corticosterone metabolite concentrations than chicks raised near colony centers, but that colony size (ranging from 150 to 11,554 nests) had no influence on fecal corticosterone levels. Fecal corticosterone metabolite concentrations also increased with chick age. Our results suggest that similarly aged California gull chicks raised near colony edges may be more physiologically stressed, as indicated by corticosterone metabolites, than chicks raised near colony centers.

  12. A President's Guide to Fund-Raising Success: Relationships Are Key.

    Bornstein, Rita

    2000-01-01

    Stresses the importance of the relationship between the institution's president and its advancement vice president for successful college fund raising. Suggests that a successful external relations program requires expertise, loyalty, and reciprocity in this working relationship. (DB)

  13. Obesity in Teens Seems to Raise Risk for Illness, Death in Middle Age

    ... nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_158289.html Obesity in Teens Seems to Raise Risk for Illness, ... is largely related to the fact that teen obesity has become so prevalent. In the United States, ...

  14. Students, Blacksburg merchants team up for April 24 tailgate to raise money for Haiti

    Crumbley, Liz

    2010-01-01

    Virginia Tech students and the Blacksburg community are teaming up to throw a tailgate party on April 24 to raise money for reliefs efforts in Haiti and to celebrate the university's and town's spirit of service.

  15. Considerations of Consciousness-raising Tasks in English Language Teaching (ELT) for Chinese College Learners

    江璇

    2009-01-01

    @@ Celce-Murcia (2002) states that raising the students' consciousness of how to use grammar accurately and appropriately is important for language acquisition and in particular for tertiary literacy skills development of adult learners.

  16. Polyhouse cultivation of invitro raised elite Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni: An assessment of biochemical and photosynthetic characteristics

    Polyhouse cultivated Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni plants, initially raised from synthetic seeds, were assessed for biochemical and photosynthetic characteristics and compared with their mother plant. Synthetic seeds were produced using nodal segments containing single axillary buds excised from in vitr...

  17. Breast Cancer Meds Won't Raise Chances of Heart Attack, Stroke, Study Suggests

    ... nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_158441.html Breast Cancer Meds Won't Raise Chances of Heart Attack, ... the risk of heart attacks and strokes among breast cancer survivors, a new study suggests. However, the researchers ...

  18. Heart Defects At Birth May Raise Risk for PTSD Later in Life

    ... Heart Defects at Birth May Raise Risk for PTSD Later in Life Rate is three times higher ... heart defects may be at increased risk for post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), researchers say. The reason? High levels of ...

  19. Fiboquadratic Sequences and Extensions of the Cassini Identity Raised From the Study of Rithmomachia

    Guardia, Tomás; Jiménez, Douglas

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we introduce fiboquadratic sequences as an extension to infinity of the board of Rithmomachia and we prove that this extension gives raise to fiboquadratic sequences which we define here. Also, fiboquadratic sequences provide extensions of Cassini's Identity.

  20. Study Raises Concerns about Mobile Phones%对手机多些关注

    陈平

    2003-01-01

    @@ Italian scientists have raised new health concerns about the safety of using mobile phones, with research showing radio waves from the handsets( 手机) makes cancerous cells grow more aggressively.

  1. Guynn family, University Honors students set to raise $100,000 for Katrina relief

    Davis, Lynn

    2005-01-01

    The Guynn family is no stranger to Virginia Tech. Now, in the aftermath of Hurricane Katrina, the family hopes to use their Virginia Tech relationships to raise funds for the American Red Cross and hurricane relief.

  2. Taiwan's plan to dispose of nuclear waste in North Korea stirs protests, raises questions

    As the furor raised by the Taiwan endash North Korea deal illustrates, the technical issues of nuclear waste disposal are inseparable from the social and political concerns.copyright 1997 American Institute of Physics

  3. Genes Tied to Red Hair, Pale Skin Greatly Raise Melanoma Risk?

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_159831.html Genes Tied to Red Hair, Pale Skin Greatly Raise ... The study's British authors estimate that having the gene is roughly equivalent to the person spending an ...

  4. AN ECONOMIC ANALYSIS OF PASTURE-RAISED BEEF SYSTEMS IN APPALACHIA

    Evans, Jason R.; D'Souza, Gerard E.; Sperow, Mark; Rayburn, Edward B.

    2004-01-01

    Cow-calf operations are important enterprises for family farmers in Appalachia and provide significant opportunity for supplemental income. This analysis constitutes a thorough economic assessment of pasture-raised beef production, an alternative to traditional production that could benefit the region's producers in terms of profitability and mitigated risk. Stochastic budgeting was utilized for profitability and risk comparison between traditional and pasture-raised operations and accounted ...

  5. Falsely raised TSH levels due to human anti‐mouse antibody interfering with thyrotropin assay

    Krishnan, S G S; Pathalapati, R; Kaplan, L.

    2006-01-01

    The case of a 39‐year‐old woman who was referred for weight gain and amenorrhoea is reported. Laboratory evaluation showed high levels of thyroid‐stimulating hormone (TSH). The patient was started on increasing doses of levothyroxine for subclinical hypothyroidism. TSH remained persistently raised and the patient became thyrotoxic. Evaluation at another laboratory showed normal levels of TSH, raising the possibility of interfering substances. TSH levels were normalised with the addition of mo...

  6. The social context of kentish raising: issues in old english sociolinguistics

    Graeme Trousdale

    2005-01-01

    This article considers issues in Old English sociolinguistics, in relation to specific changes affecting the low front vowels in ninth-century Kentish, as manifest in spelling variation in charters of the time. This change is referred to as Kentish Raising (Hogg 1988). It is suggested that variationist sociolinguistics is not an appropriate framework within which to explain Kentish Raising, since the nature of the data is such that a variationist approach is untenable. A reconstruction of the...

  7. FORMAZIONE, SOSTENIBILITA', FUND RAISING: DONARE PER LA CUSTODIA E LA SALVAGUARDIA DEL CREATO

    BOLSIERI, FLORIANA

    2014-01-01

    Il lavoro di ricerca, che ha a tema i concetti di formazione, sostenibilità, fund raising nell’ambito della pedagogia dell’ambiente, si propone di articolare un itinerario di approfondimento sulle possibili connessioni euristiche tra il concetto economico di fund raising e il linguaggio pedagogico, con riferimento ad alcuni tra gli ambiti in cui si sviluppa l’educabilità della persona e ai connessi percorsi formativi. Dal locale al globale, ogni istituzione sociale affronta le rilevanti ambig...

  8. The Relation of the Decline of Inflectional Morphology to the Loss of Verb Raising in English

    Leppänen, Eero Rikhard, 1984-

    2010-01-01

    This essay discusses the part inflectional morphology had in the loss of verb raising in English over a period ranging from Middle English to Modern English. The connection between rich morphology and verb raising is initially assumed to function along Rohrbacher’s Rich Agreement Hypothesis, which receives both support and contradiction from observations in theoretical syntax and from a variety of languages including ME and ModE and a selection of Germanic languages. The concluding evidence w...

  9. Time-Domain Predistortion Method Based on Raised Cosine Signaling in Real Transmission Channels

    Bretislav Sevcik

    2012-01-01

    The concept of time-domain predistortion method based on raised cosine signaling is applied in real transmission channels. The proposed PWM-RC method uses raised-cosine pulse shaping instead of conventional rectangular digital signals and pulse-width modulation (PWM) scheme to achieve better output channel data response in harsh channel environment. The conventional predistortion methods based on pulse amplitude adjusting are not compatible with modern low-power CMOS design. Currently existin...

  10. Alternative, non-animal based nutrient sources, for organic plant raising OF0308

    Unspecified,

    2003-01-01

    Organic plant raising has been investigated under two previous government funded projects (OF0109 & OF0144) (1, 2) and it was shown in this research that organic ‘transplants’ could be produced for a range of crop species (3, 4, 6, 7). However, some species were easier to produce than others and one of the limiting factors was the availability of suitable nutrient sources, especially for supplementary feeding. The use of animal based nutrient sources in organic plant raising has always bee...

  11. The processing of raising and nominal control: An eye-tracking study

    Patrick eSturt

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available According to some views of sentence processing, the memory retrieval processes involved in dependency formation may differ as a function of the type of dependency involved. For example, using closely matched materials in a single experiment Dillon et al (2013 found evidence for retrieval interference in subject-verb agreement, but not in reflexive-antecedent agreement. We report four eye-tracking experiments that examine examine reflexive-antecedent dependencies, combined with raising (e.g. ``John seemed to Tom to be kind to himself...'', or nominal control (e.g. ``John’s agreement with Tom to be kind to himself...''. We hypothesized that dependencies involving raising would (a be processed more quickly, and (b be less subject to retrieval interference, relative to those involving nominal control. This is due to the fact that the interpretation of raising is structurally constrained, while the interpretation of nominal control depends crucially on lexical properties of the control nominal. The results showed evidence of interference when the reflexive-antecedent dependency was mediated by raising or nominal control, but very little evidence that could be interpreted in terms of interference for direct reflexive-antecedent dependencies that did not involve raising or control. However, there was no evidence either for greater interference, or for quicker dependency formation, for raising than for nominal control.

  12. Evidence of streptococcal origin of acute non-necrotising cellulitis: a serological study.

    Karppelin, M; Siljander, T; Haapala, A-M; Aittoniemi, J; Huttunen, R; Kere, J; Vuopio, J; Syrjänen, J

    2015-04-01

    Bacteriological diagnosis is rarely achieved in acute cellulitis. Beta-haemolytic streptococci and Staphylococcus aureus are considered the main pathogens. The role of the latter is, however, unclear in cases of non-suppurative cellulitis. We conducted a serological study to investigate the bacterial aetiology of acute non-necrotising cellulitis. Anti-streptolysin O (ASO), anti-deoxyribonuclease B (ADN) and anti-staphylolysin (ASTA) titres were measured from acute and convalescent phase sera of 77 patients hospitalised because of acute bacterial non-necrotising cellulitis and from the serum samples of 89 control subjects matched for age and sex. Antibiotic treatment decisions were also reviewed. Streptococcal serology was positive in 53 (69%) of the 77 cases. Furthermore, ten cases without serological evidence of streptococcal infection were successfully treated with penicillin. Positive ASO and ADN titres were detected in ten (11%) and three (3%) of the 89 controls, respectively, and ASTA was elevated in three patients and 11 controls. Our findings suggest that acute non-necrotising cellulitis without pus formation is mostly of streptococcal origin and that penicillin can be used as the first-line therapy for most patients. PMID:25403372

  13. Raised fields in the Llanos de Moxos, Bolivia - description and analysis of their morphology

    Rodrigues, Leonor; Lombardo, Umberto; Veit, Heinz

    2014-05-01

    The disturbance of Pre Columbian populations on Amazonian ecosystems is being actively debated. The traditional view of amazon being an untouched landscape because of its poor soils and harsh climate has been challenged and the extreme opposite idea of highly modified landscapes with complex societies is growing. Recent research has led to new impulses and issues requesting about the agricultural strategies people developed to survive in this climate. The Llanos de Moxos, situated in the Bolivian Lowlands in south-eastern Amazonia is one important region which was densely altered and where a great variety of earthworks can be found. One of the most impressive earth works are the raised fields, which are earth platforms for cultivation of differing shape and dimension that are elevated above the landscapes natural surface. In contrast to the "terra preta" formation where artefacts and amendments like charcoal and kitchen waste have been clearly identified, raised fields have shown to be artefact poor and studies up till now couldn't find any evidence of additional amendments which could have improved soil quality in the long term. As a result the function and productivity of raised fields is still not well understood and is being actively discussed. Detailed investigations on raised fields located in the indigenous community of Bermeo, in the vicinity of San Ignacio de Moxos provides data showing a novel explanation of the Pre-Columbian management of raised fields, and a chronological sequence of their utilization and abandonment. OSL dating has shown that the raised fields had been in use since as early as 600 AD. Comparison of Geochemistry with a reference profile, away from raised fields, showed that there is no evidence for manure amendments deriving from kitchen waste or animal residues suggesting a rather extensive use of those fields. Complementary the description of intern morphology and laboratory analysis of this raised fields, combined with radiocarbon

  14. Pre-Columbian Agriculture: Construction history of raised fields in Bermeo, in the Bolivian Lowlands

    Rodrigues, Leonor; Fehr, Seraina; Lombardo, Umberto; Veit, Heinz

    2013-04-01

    Since the beginning of the 1960s, research in the Amazon has revealed that in Pre-Columbian times, landscapes that were viewed as challenging living environments were nevertheless altered in several ways. Raised fields agriculture is one of the most impressive phenomena that can be found in South-eastern Amazonia. Pre-Columbian raised fields are earth platforms of differing shape and dimension that are elevated above the landscape's natural surface. The Llanos de Moxos, situated in the Bolivian Lowlands is one of the areas with the highest density of raised fields. In spite of the high interest in raised field agriculture, very few field-based investigations have been performed. As a result, there remains little explanation as to how they were constructed, managed or for what time frame they were in use. Recently, more detailed investigations have been performed on raised fields located in the indigenous community of Bermeo, in the vicinity of San Ignacio de Moxos. Combined data from fieldwork and laboratory analysis including particle size distribution, thin section micromorphology and radiocarbon analyses as well as optically stimulated luminescence analysis has given an insight into the history of their construction. Applied to the Bolivian Lowlands, the current study provides for the first time data showing aspects of the Pre-Columbian management of the raised fields, and a chronological sequence of utilization and abandonment of these fields. Radiocarbon dating has shown that the raised fields had been in use since as early as 900 AD. Two distinct paleosols identified in the field sequence point to the existence of two separate prolonged soil formation periods. The paleosols are characterized by initial stages of Bt-horizons. Each soil sequence indicates therefore a particular stable period of the field during which no new earth was heaped up. This suggests that contrary to the well supported theory that raised fields were managed through continuous

  15. How different modes of child delivery influence abdominal muscle activities in the active straight leg raise.

    Kwon, Yu-Jeong; Hyung, Eun-Ju; Yang, Kyung-Hye; Lee, Hyun-Ok

    2014-08-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to examine the activities of the abdominal muscles of women who had experienced vaginal delivery in comparison with those who had experienced Cesarean childbirth. [Subjects and Methods] A total of 14 subjects (7 vaginal delivery, 7 Cesarean section) performed an active straight leg raise to 20 cm above the ground, and we measured the activities of the internal oblique abdominal muscle, the external oblique abdominal muscle, and the rectus abdominal muscle on both sides using electromyography. The effort required to raise the leg was scored on a Likert scale. Then, the subjects conducted maximum isometric contraction for hip joint flexion with the leg raised at 20 cm, and maximum torque and abdominal muscle activities were measured using electromyography. [Results] During the active straight leg raise, abdominal muscle activities were higher in the Cesarean section subjects. The Likert scale did not show a significant difference. The activities of the abdominal muscles and the maximum torque of the hip joint flexion at maximum isometric contraction were higher in the vaginal delivery subjects. [Conclusion] The abdominal muscles of Cesarean section subjects showed greater recruitment for maintaining pelvic stability during the active straight leg raising, but were relatively weaker when powerful force was required. Therefore, we consider that more abdominal muscle training is necessary for maintaining pelvic stability of Cesarean section subjects. PMID:25202194

  16. A survey of gastrointestinal parasites of alpacas (Vicugna pacos) raised in Japan.

    Hyuga, Ayako; Matsumoto, Jun

    2016-05-01

    This study aimed to determine the prevalence of gastrointestinal parasites in alpacas raised in Japan. From December 2010 to October 2011, 53 alpacas (Vicugna pacos) raised at a farm in the Kanto region, Japan, were examined for gastrointestinal parasites by 3 fecal tests: direct smear, centrifuged flotation and formalin-ether sedimentation. Eggs of Nematodirus sp. were found in 13.2%, Trichuris sp. in 11.3%, Capillaria spp. in 5.7%, strongyle-type in 50.9% and Moniezia sp. in 1.9%. Oocysts of Eimeria punoensis and/or E. alpacae were found in 69.8%, E. lamae in 1.9% and E. macusaniensis in 7.5%. We found that alpacas raised in Japan have gastrointestinal parasitic fauna similar to those in other countries. PMID:26725443

  17. THE SOCIAL CONTEXT OF KENTISH RAISING: ISSUES IN OLD ENGLISH SOCIOLINGUISTICS

    Graeme Trousdale

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available This article considers issues in Old English sociolinguistics, in relation to specific changes affecting the low front vowels in ninth-century Kentish, as manifest in spelling variation in charters of the time. This change is referred to as Kentish Raising (Hogg 1988. It is suggested that variationist sociolinguistics is not an appropriate framework within which to explain Kentish Raising, since the nature of the data is such that a variationist approach is untenable. A reconstruction of the social, political and cultural situation in ninth-century Kent is provided, which examines Mercian influence in the period, and suggests that a Mercian-driven change from above (Second Fronting cannot be the source of Kentish Raising. Finally, it is proposed that recent work in genetic anthropology, which seeks to discover more about the nature and extent of the continental migrations, may be useful in understanding the social context in which the varieties of Old English existed and developed.

  18. The water balance as an approach to assessing groundwater dependency in raised bog wetlands

    Regan, Shane

    2014-05-01

    The management of raised bogs, as active peat-forming ecosystems, requires an understanding of the relationships between regional hydrology and wetland ecohydrological processes. Marginal drainage, water seeping through the bog body to the regional groundwater table is in the order of 40 mm/ year. The downward seepage rate in Clara is > 100 mm/ year. A reduction in pore water pressure, due to drainage of the regional groundwater table, has disturbed the structure of the peat substratum and induced water loss from peat storage, resulting in the ecohydrological modification of the bog surface. Numerical modelling of a simulated raised groundwater table reduces the leakage rate to between 30 and 50 mm/ year. The significance is that the hydraulic gradient of the regional groundwater table is an important environmental supporting condition in raised bog ecosystems, implying indirect groundwater dependence.

  19. Obtaining raised density connections by thermosonic microwelding in 3D integrated microcircuits

    Lanin V. L.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The authors consider the processes of obtaining raised density microwelded connections in 3D-integrated microcircuits by the thermosonic microwelding. The processes include the use of the raised frequencies of ultrasound, application of the microinstrument with a thinning of the working end and precision devices for ball formation, which provide reproducibility of connections quality. At a small step of contact pads, the use of a wire of small diameter (not more than 25 µm is necessary for devices with a multilevel arrangement of leads and chess arrangement of contact pads on the chip, providing the maximum length of the formed crosspieces does not exceed 4—5 mm.

  20. A survey of gastrointestinal parasites of alpacas (Vicugna pacos) raised in Japan

    HYUGA, Ayako; Matsumoto, Jun

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to determine the prevalence of gastrointestinal parasites in alpacas raised in Japan. From December 2010 to October 2011, 53 alpacas (Vicugna pacos) raised at a farm in the Kanto region, Japan, were examined for gastrointestinal parasites by 3 fecal tests: direct smear, centrifuged flotation and formalin-ether sedimentation. Eggs of Nematodirus sp. were found in 13.2%, Trichuris sp. in 11.3%, Capillaria spp. in 5.7%, strongyle-type in 50.9% and Moniezia sp. in 1.9%. Oocysts o...

  1. A study on a systematic method for evaluating values of raised concerns

    The objective of this study is to develop a methodology that can externalise potential concerns and evaluate the values of the concerns raised in corporations. By implementing this methodology into corporate governance, it is expected to improve the work environment and enhance the capability for the corporate governance through supporting the internal autonomic purification. This study comprises of: case studies of past wrongdoings in corporations such as JCO and Tokyo Electric Power Company (TEPCO); identifying the viewpoints for evaluating values of raised concerns; developing a model to evaluate the values. (author)

  2. A RAISE Specification Framework and Justification assistant for the Duration Calculus

    Haxthausen, Anne Elisabeth; Xia, Yong

    1998-01-01

    . The goal of our work is two-fold:(1) to extend RSL with real-time features, and (2) to provide a specification language and tools support (e.g. a syntax and type checker, a justification assistant, etc.) for DC. A first step towards this goal, could be to combine DC and RSL achieving the power of both.......So far, we have encoded DC in RSL and set up a proof assistant tool to verify (encoded) DC formulas using the RAISE Justification tools. This paper first introduces a RAISE specification framework for DC, and then explains how the justification assistant is set up....

  3. DIY Materials: A Consciousness-Raising Exercise Prepared in Response to a Textbook "GAP."

    Maddalena, Sean R.

    2003-01-01

    Presents one teacher's evaluation of his own English-as-a-Second/Foreign-Language teaching materials produced in response to a textbook "gap" in Japan. Focuses on a consciousness-raising exercise created to elucidate clearly the difference between two grammatical forms. (Author/VWL)

  4. Court-Appointed Special Advocate Strong Beginnings: Raising Awareness across Early Childhood and Child Welfare Systems

    Corr, Catherine; Danner, Natalie

    2014-01-01

    Abuse or neglect and disability often go hand in hand. Unfortunately, most professionals who work with maltreated young children are not aware of early childhood and disability-related resources and services available. In order to raise awareness across early childhood and child welfare systems, a five-week advanced training for volunteer child…

  5. Genome Sequences of Three Spore-Forming Bacteria Isolated from the Feces of Organically Raised Chickens

    Kennedy, Victoria; Van Laar, Tricia A.; Aleru, Omoshola; Thomas, Michael; Ganci, Michelle

    2016-01-01

    Antibiotic feed supplements have been implicated in the rise of multidrug-resistant bacteria. An alternative to antibiotics is probiotics. Here, we report the genome sequences of two Bacillus and one Solibacillus species, all spore-forming, Gram-positive bacteria, isolated from the feces organically raised chicken feces, with potential to serve as probiotics. PMID:27587809

  6. Thinking with Your Hands: Speech-Gesture Activity during an L2 Awareness-Raising Task

    van Compernolle, Remi A.; Williams, Lawrence

    2011-01-01

    This article reports on a study of second language (L2) French learners' self-generated use of gesture to think through and resolve a metalinguistic awareness-raising task during small-group work with an expert mediator. Although the use of gesture in L2 communication and pedagogy has recently received increasing attention, little research has…

  7. Raising the Bar: Engaging Staff and Students in a Culture of Participation

    Kowalski, Sue

    2012-01-01

    To thrive, a successful school library program needs active participation from all members of its community. As an instructional leader, the school librarian must be the one to raise the bar, not just informing other educators about resources and services, but empowering all adults to become engaged in the school library program. For example,…

  8. Mothers Raising Children with Sickle Cell Disease at the Intersection of Race, Gender, and Illness Stigma

    Burnes, David P. R.; Antle, Beverley J.; Williams, Charmaine C.; Cook, Lisa

    2008-01-01

    This qualitative study used the long interview method with Canadian mothers of African and Caribbean descent to understand the underresearched experience of raising a child with sickle cell disease (SCD). Mothers' realities were explored through three levels of social organization: daily caregiver coping (micro level); community views of SCD, such…

  9. Using the Implicit Association Test as an Unconsciousness Raising Tool in Psychology

    Casad, Bettina J.; Flores, Abdiel J.; Didway, Jessica D.

    2013-01-01

    People are reluctant to admit they harbor implicit biases. Students (N = 68) from four social psychology courses completed an assignment designed to raise awareness about implicit biases. After completing an Implicit Association Test (IAT), students answered six essay questions, read two articles on the IAT, and answered five additional essay…

  10. Raising the Bar on Faculty Productivity: Realigning Performance Standards to Enhance Quality Trajectories

    Hardré, Patricia L.

    2014-01-01

    Many universities have observed needs and shared goals that include increasing faculty members' research productivity (in quantity or quality). Strategies for raising faculty performance include revising standards and supporting valued outcomes with rewards and incentives. One college at a research-extensive university received institutional…

  11. Preparing FCS Professionals: Using Simulations to Raise Awareness and Change Stereotypes, Prejudice, and Discrimination

    Heiden, Kathleen; Harpel, Tammy

    2013-01-01

    Many universities offer courses in multiculturalism to broaden students' perspectives, but are the courses effective? This article explores the effects of using simulations to raise awareness and challenge students' perspectives of stereotypes, prejudice, and discrimination. The results of three simulation activities are presented. Three…

  12. Genome Sequences of Three Spore-Forming Bacteria Isolated from the Feces of Organically Raised Chickens.

    Kennedy, Victoria; Van Laar, Tricia A; Aleru, Omoshola; Thomas, Michael; Ganci, Michelle; Rawat, Mamta

    2016-01-01

    Antibiotic feed supplements have been implicated in the rise of multidrug-resistant bacteria. An alternative to antibiotics is probiotics. Here, we report the genome sequences of two Bacillus and one Solibacillus species, all spore-forming, Gram-positive bacteria, isolated from the feces organically raised chicken feces, with potential to serve as probiotics. PMID:27587809

  13. Challenges and Opportunities for Vocational Education and Training in the Light of Raising the Participation Age

    Acquah, Daniel K.; Huddleston, Prue

    2014-01-01

    By 2015, all young people must participate in some form of education and training until they are aged 18. This review discusses the challenges and opportunities involved if vocational education and training is to contribute to this raising of the participation age. We argue that as well as ensuring that young people who have made a full-time…

  14. Flap raising on pulsatile perfused cadaveric tissue: a novel method for surgical teaching and exercise.

    Wolff, Klaus-Dietrich; Fichter, Andreas; Braun, Christian; Bauer, Florian; Humbs, Martin

    2014-10-01

    Exercising flap raising procedures on cadavers is considered a prerequisite to prepare for clinical practise. To improve teaching and create conditions as realistic as possible, a perfusion device was developed providing pulsatile flow through the vessels of different donor sites. A plastic bag filled with red stained tab water was placed into a pump, which was driven by an electric motor. The bag was set under rhythmic compression with variable frequency and pressure. The pedicles of the radial forearm, anterolateral thigh, rectus abdominis, fibular and iliac crest flap were cannulated at the origin from their source arteries. Flap raising was performed under pulsatile perfusion in 15 fresh bodies and subsequently in 6 Thiel-embalmed cadavers during a flap raising course. We regularly observed staining of the skin and skin bleeding in fresh bodies and less reliable in embalmed cadavers. All flap pedicles showed pulsatile movements, and the radial pulse became palpable. Most perforators of the anterolateral thigh and osteocutaneous fibular flap could be identified by their pulse. Bleeding from bony tissue and venous return was seldom observed. We conclude that pulsatile perfusion of cadaveric tissue creates more realistic conditions for flap raising and improves teaching for beginners and advanced surgeons. PMID:24938642

  15. The Role of Online Communication in Raising Awareness of Bilingual Identity

    Marley, Dawn

    2013-01-01

    Children of binational couples are often raised in the community of one of the parents and, thus, have limited exposure to the language of the other parent. This study focuses on a British/Moroccan family in the UK, where English is the dominant home language and Moroccan Arabic is the "other" language. Analysis of "live"…

  16. Azerbaijan - Raising Rates : Short-Term Implications of Residential Electricity Tariff Rebalancing

    World Bank

    2004-01-01

    Tariffs are low in Azerbaijan and need to be raised to finance badly needed network maintenance and to balance supply and demand. This study presents an analysis of the short-term impacts of a 50 percent electricity tariff increase on residential consumers. The study starts by reviewing electricity tariffs, consumption levels, and expenditure patterns compared to neighboring countries. It ...

  17. "More Bang for the Buck": Examining Influencers of Fundraising Efficiency and Total Dollars Raised

    Proper, Eve; Caboni, Timothy C.; Hartley, Harold V., III; Willmer, Wesley K.

    2009-01-01

    This study examines institution-specific factors that are within the control of the advancement office and that predict fundraising efficiency and total dollars raised. Using data from the Council of Independent Colleges and IPEDS, fundraising outcomes are examined at private colleges in the United States. Most of the variables of interest are not…

  18. Thermo-hydraulic analysis for SCWR during power-raising phase of startup

    The study of thermal characteristics during startup is one of the most important aspects for safety analysis of supercritical water-cooled reactor (SCWR). According to the given sliding pressure mode of SCWR, thermal analysis on temperature-raising phase and power-raising phase of startup are carried out. Considering the radial heterogeneity of power distribution,thermal characteristics for different assemblies during startup are also put forward. The results show that,during temperature-raising phase with core power increased only, the temperature of moderator, coolant and fuel cladding in inner assemblies are increased with little amplitude. During power-raising phase with core power and feed-water flow rate increased, the coolant temperature keeps unchanged, but the moderator temperature is decreased. With a greater variation of power, fuel cladding temperature shows a greater increase. Furthermore, considering the uneven distribution of radial power, thermo-hydraulic characteristics with uneven cladding temperature distribution shows a certain horizontal heterogeneity for different fuel assemblies, which becomes serious as flow rate and power increase. By adjusting flow rate distribution in different fuel assemblies or changing power setting during startup, the cladding temperature difference could be effectively reduced, which provides a certain reference for startup optimization of SCWR. (authors)

  19. Results of a Test and Win Contest to Raise Radon Awareness in Urban and Rural Settings

    Hahn, Ellen J.; Rayens, Mary Kay; Kercsmar, Sarah E.; Robertson, Heather; Adkins, Sarah M.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Radon is a leading cause of lung cancer, but few test their homes to determine radon levels. Purpose: The study assessed feasibility and success of a Test and Win Contest to promote radon testing in rural and urban communities. Methods: The prospective, quasi-experimental study tested a novel contest to raise radon awareness. Paid and…

  20. Effects of an Awareness Raising Campaign on Intention and Behavioural Determinants for Handwashing

    Seimetz, E.; Kumar, S.; Mosler, H.-J.

    2016-01-01

    This article assesses the effectiveness of The Great WASH Yatra handwashing awareness raising campaign in India on changing visitors' intention to wash hands with soap after using the toilet and the underlying behavioural determinants. Interviews based on the RANAS (Risk, Attitudes, Norms, Abilities, Self-regulation) model of behaviour change were…

  1. Dog-Raising Lecture Held at Lake View Place,Shunyi

    2008-01-01

    Pampers,a modern pet shop,is located at Lake View Place in Housayu central villa cluster,Shunyi District, Beijing. Simon,who owns the shop and is well known in Beijing pet circles,is an experienced specialist in dog-raising.

  2. Process and device for the protection of steam-raising units, particularly of nuclear reactors

    To protect the housing against corrosion by chemical conditioning of the feedwater, the redox potential of the feedwater and the corrosion potential of at least one pipe of the pipe bundle is continuously determined during operation of the steam raising unit. With potentials indicating the danger of corrosion, the quality of the secondary water can be improved by suitable measures. (orig./HP)

  3. 54. The Study on the Mutagenicity of Organic Extracts from Fish Raised in Water Containing Effluent

    2001-01-01

    objective: To assess the cytogenetic toxicological safety of fish raised in water containing effluent. Methods: Three experimental groups of fish were raised in water that contained effluent. Both fish samples and water samples were collected and analyzed. One group of fish raised in YuQiao reservoir (The source of drinking-water for Tianjin) and a reservoir water sample were collected at the same time as the clean control group. The mutagenicity of organic extracts of the fish was detected using the mice bone marrow micronucleus test and the mutagenicity of the water samples was detected using the micronucleus test of vicia faba root tip cells. Results: The results of the mice bone marrow micronucleus test on organic extracts of the fish showed that the micronucleus rates of the three experimental groups were significantly higher than that of the negative control group (peanut oil) and the clean control group (P0.05) Conclusions: The results indicate that the water containing effluent and the fish raised in this kind of water contain some kinds of organic mutagenic compounds, which might have some potentially hazardous effects on human beings through the food chains.

  4. Diurnal and seasonal variation of carbon dioxide exchange from a former true raised bog.

    Nieveen, J.P.; Jacobs, C.M.J.; Jacobs, A.F.G.

    1998-01-01

    Carbon dioxide exchange was measured, using the eddy covariance technique, during a one and a half year period in 1994 and 1995. The measurements took place over a former true raised bog, characterized by a shallow peat layer and a vegetation dominated by Molinia caerulea. The growing season extende

  5. 137Cs deposition in peat profiles on a raised bog in central Sweden; Forests ecosystems

    Rosen, K.; Vinichuk, M.; Galan, P.R.; Johanson, K.J. (Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Dept. of Soil Sciences, Uppsala (Sweden))

    2009-06-15

    Distribution of 137Cs depositions within peat profiles in open bog and nearby (low pine) sites in raised bog are shown and discussed. A possible involvement of Sphagnum moss in radionuclide binding and retention in such nutrient poor ecosystem is suggested. (au)

  6. Technological Literacy for All: A Course Designed to Raise the Technological Literacy of College Students

    Baskette, Kimberly G.; Fantz, Todd D.

    2013-01-01

    Understanding what technology is, and is not, is the first step in becoming technologically literate. One should also understand how technology is created, how it works, how it shapes society, and how society shapes technology. This study was designed to gauge the ability of a single-semester course to raise students' technological literacy…

  7. Urban Libraries Council Frequent Fast Facts Survey: Fund Raising and Financial Development Survey Results.

    Urban Libraries Council, Evanston, IL.

    This survey documents activities of Urban Libraries Council member libraries in the areas of fund raising and financial development, and gathers examples of library bylaws, policies on the use of private and general funds money, and policies on gifts. Questionnaires were sent to 89 member libraries in September 1993, and 63 were returned. Findings…

  8. Impact of Consciousness-Raising Activities on Young English Language Learners' Grammar Performance

    Fatemipour, Hamidreza; Hemmati, Shiva

    2015-01-01

    Grammar Consciousness-Raising (GCR) is an approach to teaching of grammar which learners instead of being taught the given rules, experience language data. The data challenge them to rethink, restructure their existing mental grammar and construct an explicit rule to describe the grammatical feature which the data illustrate (Ellis, 2002). And…

  9. An assessment of behavioral syndromes in rangeland-raised beef cattle

    Individuals in most animal groups exhibit consistent behavioural differences across situations or over time known as behavioural syndromes. We conducted a study with a herd of young rangeland-raised cows to determine whether animals exhibited consistent differences in foraging behaviours across cont...

  10. Raising Bilingual Children: A Qualitative Study of Parental Attitudes, Beliefs, and Intended Behaviors

    Lee, Michael; Shetgiri, Rashmi; Barina, Alexis; Tillitski, John; Flores, Glenn

    2015-01-01

    We examined parental preferences in raising Spanish/English bilingual children. We identified factors influencing their decisions, and the strategies used to promote bilingualism. Focus groups were conducted with Spanish-primary-language parents of children 3 to 7 years old. These groups were audiotaped and transcribed. Three reviewers…

  11. More Evidence Diabetes Drug Actos Raises Bladder Cancer Risk a Bit

    ... gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_158051.html More Evidence Diabetes Drug Actos Raises Bladder Cancer Risk a Bit But odds are small, and ... or federal policy. More Health News on: Bladder Cancer Diabetes Medicines Drug Reactions Recent Health News Related MedlinePlus ...

  12. Math, Science, and Web-Based Activities to Raise Awareness about Nutrition and Obesity

    Zuercher, Deborah K.

    2011-01-01

    The incidence of child obesity in the United States is increasing at an alarming rate. This article provides information about nutrition, obesity, and related health conditions and suggests some classroom activities to raise awareness about these issues and empower students to live healthier, more active lives. A list of recommended health-related…

  13. An Evaluation of the Adults and Children Together (ACT) against Violence Parents Raising Safe Kids Program

    Portwood, Sharon G.; Lambert, Richard G.; Abrams, Lyndon P.; Nelson, Ellissa Brooks

    2011-01-01

    This study evaluated the effectiveness of the Adults and Children Together (ACT) Against Violence Parents Raising Safe Kids program, developed by the American Psychological Association in collaboration with the National Association for the Education of Young Children, as an economical primary prevention intervention for child maltreatment. Using…

  14. Breeding strategy of US farm-raised channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus affects progeny production and performance

    catfish propagation for decades has been dependent on random mating of male and female channel catfish in ponds. It is simple and has been fairly successful in fulfilling the needs of the US farm-raised catfish industry. However, natural pond spawning is unreliable, unpredictable, and incurs 30 t...

  15. Ruled by Hetero-Norms? Raising Some Moral Questions for Teachers in South Africa

    Bhana, Deevia

    2014-01-01

    Thirty-eight countries in Africa regard homosexuality as punishable by law with South Africa remaining a standout country advancing constitutional equality on the basis of sexual orientation. In the context of homophobic violence, however, concerns have been raised about schools' potential to improve the educational, moral and social outcomes…

  16. European CME provider group raises concerns about policy statement from European Society of Cardiology

    Desbois, Eric-Jean; Farrow, Sheelagh; Gillgrass, Darren; Kaagman, Onno; Kellner, Thomas; Kleinoeder, Thomas; Koekkoek, Sanneke; Macelloni, Barbara; Pozniak, Eugene; Pearlstone, Alisa; Schaffer, Madeleine; Torr, Jack; Williams, David; Yarwood, Richard

    2012-01-01

    We have read with interest the above document and agree with the objectives and aspirations of continuing medical education (CME). However, some key issues have been raised regarding the provision of CME that we believe are inaccurate and do not refl ect the status and integrity of CME providers in Europe.(Published: 23 May 2012)DOI: 10.3109/21614083.2012.689269

  17. Pseudo-nitzschia seriata f. obtusa (Bacillariophyceae) raised in rank based onmorphological, phylogenetic and distributional data

    Hasle, Grethe Rytter; Lundholm, N.

    2005-01-01

    Pseudo-nitzschia seriata f. obtusa (Hasle) Hasle is raised in rank to P. obtusa (Hasle) Hasle & Lundholm, based on morphological, phylogenetic and distributional features. The most prominent distinctive morphological feature is the shape of the valve ends, which in girdle view are truncate in P...

  18. Noise, What Noise? Raising Awareness of Auditory Health among Future Primary-School Teachers

    Jimenez-Tejada, M. -P.; Hodar, J. A.; Gonzalez-Garcia, F.

    2012-01-01

    We study the perception of acoustic contamination and its deleterious effects on students preparing to become school teachers and analyse their acoustic habits, with the aim of raising their awareness concerning this problem. We designed a number of activities, applied during a practical lesson, in which students evaluated some of their…

  19. Raising Children in Chinese Immigrant Families: Evidence from the Research Literature

    Guo, Karen

    2006-01-01

    Children of Chinese culture are raised differently from children of other cultural groups. There is research evidence which contends that, regardless of where they live, the child-rearing practices within Chinese immigrant families are still influenced by Chinese traditional culture. Some studies also point out that Chinese immigrant parents…

  20. Murder-suicide involving BC doctor raises troubling questions about euthanasia.

    Wilson, V.

    1995-01-01

    The deaths last September of a British Columbia physician and his wife have raised troubling questions about euthanasia and Alzheimer's disease. Police described the deaths of Dr. Tom Powell and his wife Dr. Lorraine Miles, a retired dentist, as a murder-suicide. Friends of the couple wonder if more lenient laws concerning euthanasia and assisted suicide might have saved Miles' life.

  1. Educational Fund Raising: Principles and Practice. American Council on Education Series on Higher Education.

    Worth, Michael J., Ed.

    This volume offers 36 papers on higher education fundraising. Major topics treated are the development function, foundations of fund raising, annual giving, major gifts, campaigns, corporate and foundation support, special constituencies, managing development programs, special considerations for institutions, and special considerations for the…

  2. mRAISE: an alternative algorithmic approach to ligand-based virtual screening.

    von Behren, Mathias M; Bietz, Stefan; Nittinger, Eva; Rarey, Matthias

    2016-08-01

    Ligand-based virtual screening is a well established method to find new lead molecules in todays drug discovery process. In order to be applicable in day to day practice, such methods have to face multiple challenges. The most important part is the reliability of the results, which can be shown and compared in retrospective studies. Furthermore, in the case of 3D methods, they need to provide biologically relevant molecular alignments of the ligands, that can be further investigated by a medicinal chemist. Last but not least, they have to be able to screen large databases in reasonable time. Many algorithms for ligand-based virtual screening have been proposed in the past, most of them based on pairwise comparisons. Here, a new method is introduced called mRAISE. Based on structural alignments, it uses a descriptor-based bitmap search engine (RAISE) to achieve efficiency. Alignments created on the fly by the search engine get evaluated with an independent shape-based scoring function also used for ranking of compounds. The correct ranking as well as the alignment quality of the method are evaluated and compared to other state of the art methods. On the commonly used Directory of Useful Decoys dataset mRAISE achieves an average area under the ROC curve of 0.76, an average enrichment factor at 1 % of 20.2 and an average hit rate at 1 % of 55.5. With these results, mRAISE is always among the top performing methods with available data for comparison. To access the quality of the alignments calculated by ligand-based virtual screening methods, we introduce a new dataset containing 180 prealigned ligands for 11 diverse targets. Within the top ten ranked conformations, the alignment closest to X-ray structure calculated with mRAISE has a root-mean-square deviation of less than 2.0 Å for 80.8 % of alignment pairs and achieves a median of less than 2.0 Å for eight of the 11 cases. The dataset used to rate the quality of the calculated alignments is freely available

  3. A Review on Some Parameters of Environment in Youth Intensive Raising of Japanese Quail

    Lucian Ioniţă

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to review the state-of-art of scientific research on some environmentalparameters recommended by the literature in the intensive raising of young quails. As a result ofthe research it can be said that the temperature in the raising area of the young Japanese quailvaries between 35 º - 37.8 º C in the first week of life, after which it decreases by 3-4 ° C / week.The relative humidity in the shelter of young quails in the first week of raising must bemaintained at 80% (made with trays of water; then it should decrease at the value of 70%. Lightregime recommended for intensive young quails raising can be 24 hours light per day to 42 daysor can choose a program of light of 24 hours a day during the first 7 days of life, after which itcan be reducde up to 16 hours a day until the age of 42 days. Light intensity should be between20 lux and 45 lux for the first 7 days of life of the youth, then can be reduced by 20 to 5 lux untilthe age of 41 days. Density per area unit in the house is of 150 chicken / sqm (for ground riasing,reaching the age of 6 weeks at a density of 100 chicks / sqm or 250 chicken / sqm cage (in thecase of youth raising in batteries The number of chickens decreases to 250 for 1.5 sqm of cagearea in the second week of life and 250 chicken for 2 sqm cage area in the third week.

  4. Racial Socialization and Ability to Navigate Racism: The Experiences of Multiracial Black Adults Raised in Cross-Racial Families

    Snyder, Cyndy R.

    2011-01-01

    Using qualitative in-depth interviews with multiracial and transracially adopted adults of African descent, the purpose of this study was to investigate: (1) the ways in which Cross Racially Raised individuals experience racism in educational settings, (2) the ways in which Cross Racially Raised individuals perceive their parents/guardians' efforts toward racial socialization, (3) the coping strategies Cross Racially Raised individuals employ to navigate racially hostile environments, and (4)...

  5. ‘One of the Challenges that Can Plausibly Be Raised Against Them’?

    Holtermann, Jakob v. H.

    2016-01-01

    the truth-finding aspect of ICTs plays only a very limited role in the often heated debates about their legitimacy. Furthermore, those who actually do address the issue seem widely divided as to whether critiques of the epistemic function of ICTs in fact constitute, in Andreas Føllesdal’s words, one...... of ‘the challenges that can plausibly be raised against them’ – and if so, in what ways. In this paper, I address the first of these questions asking whether truth-finding should at all be considered a desideratum for ICTs. To this end, I discuss the widespread claim that it should not because the...... under-stood, truth in law is intimately connected to ordinary truth. Truth-finding capacity therefore does belong in legitimacy debates as a challenge that can plausibly be raised against them. This, in turn makes it relevant, in future research, to map, analyse and interrelate the various critiques...

  6. Poultry raising systems and highly pathogenic avian influenza outbreaks in Thailand: the situation, associations, and impacts.

    Chantong, Wasan; Kaneene, John B

    2011-05-01

    Highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI), caused by the virus strain H5N1, currently occurs worldwide with the greatest burden in Southeast Asia where the disease was first reported. In Thailand where the disease was first confirmed in January 2004, the virus had been persistent as a major threat to the poultry industry and human health over the past several years. It was generally hypothesized that the main reason for the disease to circulate in Thailand was the existence of traditional backyard chickens and free-range ducks raising systems. Consequently, this study reviewed the structure of poultry raising systems, the recent outbreaks of HPAI H5N1, the disease association to the backyard and free-grazing poultry production, and consequences of the outbreaks in Thailand. Although the major outbreaks in the country had declined, the sustaining disease surveillance and prevention are still strongly recommended. PMID:21706938

  7. Raising Children in an Evangelical Family Environment: Biblical Principles Applied to the Family

    Ljubinka Jambrek

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available As Creator, God designed the family and determined the standards and rules for living and functioning in the family. As a basic unit of society, the family is to reflect God’s glory. God’s plan for marriage and the family has not changed, only the human approach to this institution has changed. Therefore, it is vital to re-emphasize how important it is that the family functions according to biblical standards. This article deals with raising children in an evangelical environment which assumes God’s presence, the reading and keeping of God’s Word, love between the parents, prayer, and worship of God. Clear goals for raising children are presented. This work offers valuable and lived examples of biblical discipline. It discusses the topic of discipline from childhood to the teen ages, trust, responsibility, communication and relationship with God. Finally, the article points out the importance of times of family worship.

  8. Improved method to raise polyclonal antibody using enhanced green fluorescent protein transgenic mice

    Jianke Ren; Long Wang; Guoxiang Liu; Wen Zhang; Zhejin Sheng; Zhugang Wang; Jian Fei

    2008-01-01

    Recombinant fusion protein is widely used as an antigen to raise antibodies against the epitope of a target protein. However, the concomitant anticarrier antibody in resulting antiserum reduces the production of the desired antibody and brings about unwanted non-specific immune reactions. It is proposed that the carrier protein transgenic animal could be used to solve this problem. To validate this hypothesis, enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) transgenic mice were produced. By immunizing the mice with fusion protein His6HAtag-EGFP, we showed that the antiserum from the transgenic mice had higher titer antibody against His6HA tag and lower titer antibody against EGFP compared with that from wild-type mice. Therefore, this report describes an improved method to raise high titer antipeptide polyclonal antibody using EGFP transgenic mice that could have application potential in antibodypreparation.

  9. 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing dataset for conventionalized and conventionally raised zebrafish larvae.

    Davis, Daniel J; Bryda, Elizabeth C; Gillespie, Catherine H; Ericsson, Aaron C

    2016-09-01

    Data presented here contains metagenomic analysis regarding the sequential conventionalization of germ-free zebrafish embryos. Zebrafish embryos that underwent a germ-free sterilization process immediately after fertilization were promptly exposed to and raised to larval stage in conventional fish water. At 6 days postfertilization (dpf), these "conventionalized" larvae were compared to zebrafish larvae that were raised in conventional fish water never undergoing the initial sterilization process. Bacterial 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing was performed on DNA isolated from homogenates of the larvae revealing distinct microbiota variations between the two groups. The dataset described here is also related to the research article entitled "Microbial modulation of behavior and stress responses in zebrafish larvae" (Davis et al., 2016) [1]. PMID:27508247

  10. Monitoring and performance analysis of AGR boilers during commissioning and power raising

    The installed boiler plant, for two 1300 MW AGR stations, is comprehensively instrumented for boiler control, performance assessment and component monitoring to ensure the integrity and safe operation of the plant during normal and faulty operating conditions. Plant instrumentation and computer systems installed at site for vibration analysis during the engineering runs and data acquisition during the power raising stage have been described. The results, from early rig investigations and the vibration testing during the unfueled engineering runs, indicate that the behaviour of the plant within the practical range of operating conditions is free from vibration problems. Also the analysis of the steady state thermal and hydrodynamic behaviour of the boiler plant during the power raising phase confirms the methods and computer models used for the boiler design. (author)

  11. Raising Lower-Level Wages: When and Why It Makes Economic Sense

    Tomas Hellebrandt; Michael Jarand; Jacob Funk Kirkegaard; Tyler Moran; Adam S. Posen; Justin Wolfers; Jan Zilinsky

    2015-01-01

    As the United States emerges from the Great Recession, concern is rising over the issues of income inequality, stagnation of wages, and especially the struggles of lower-skilled workers at the bottom end of the wage scale. A number of major American employers—for example, Aetna and Walmart—have begun to voluntarily raise the pay of their own lowest-paid employees. In this collection of essays, economists from the Peterson Institute for International Economics analyze the potential benefits an...

  12. Plant traits in response to raising groundwater levels in wetland restoration: evidence from three case studies

    P. M. van Bodegom; Grootjans, A.P.; B. K. Sorrell; Bekker, R.M.; Bakker, C.; Ozinga, W A; Middleton, B

    2006-01-01

    Question: Is raising groundwater tables successful as a wetland restoration strategy? Location: Kennemer dunes, The Netherlands; Moksloot dunes, The Netherlands and Bullock Creek fen, New Zealand. Methods: Generalizations were made by analysing soil dynamics and the responsiveness of integrative plant traits on moisture, nutrient regime and seed dispersal in three case studies of rewetted vs. control wetlands with the same actual groundwater levels. Soil conditions included mineral (calcareou...

  13. Mother and Soldier: Raising a Child with a Disability in a Low-Income Military Family

    Taylor, Nancy E.; Wall, Shavaun M.; Liebow, Harriet; Sabatino, Christine A.; Timberlake, Elizabeth M.; Farber, Michaela Z.

    2005-01-01

    This article presents the results of a study of six low-income women, each of whom is raising a child with a suspected or diagnosed disability while also serving as an active member of the armed forces. Their experiences as they attempt to strike a balance between the highly demanding work role of the military and their role as a mother of a child…

  14. A simple method for predicting survival of pedicled skin flaps before completely raising them

    S Mishra

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Pedicled skin and fasciocutaneous flaps are commonly used in plastic surgery. Once such a flap is completely raised on its pedicle it becomes defenceless against any possible necrosis. Aim: To use a simple method for raising such a flap in a manner that can predict the vascularity better, offering additional protection against necrosis. Materials and Methods: A total of 30 skin and fasciocutaneous flaps were raised in 27 patients. They were raised as bipedicle flaps; and the vascularity of the flap was tested by occluding the additional pedicle with a pedicle occlusion clamp. If the vascularity was found to be satisfactory the flap was primarily transferred; if found unsatisfactory it was either delayed or abandoned. The delayed flaps were again tested during transfer. Results: Nineteen (63.3% flaps were primarily transferred, 11 (36.7% flaps were delayed, and two (6.7% delayed flaps displayed an unsatisfactory pattern during transfer. Twenty-two (73.3% flaps fully survived and seven (23.3% underwent partial thickness necrosis at the tip, which healed without any further surgical intervention, making 29 (96.7% flaps clinically successful. There was major necrosis of one flap. All the flaps with a scar at the base survived. Discussion: The clinical success of 96.7% indicated a high-degree of predictability of flap survival through this method. Also, this method could safely assess the vascularity of flaps during primary transfer, during delayed transfer, and also those with a scar at the base. Conclusions: This technique is recommended in all major pedicled skin and fasciocutaneous flaps.

  15. Raising Students' Awareness of Cross-Cultural Contrastive Rhetoric Via an E-Learning Course

    Jinghui Wang; Minjie Xing; Kenneth Spencer

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated the potential impact of e-learning on raising overseas students' cultural awareness and explored the possibility of creating an interactive learning environment for them to improve their English academic writing. The study was based on a comparison of Chinese and English rhetoric in academic writing, including a comparison of Chinese students' writings in Chinese with native English speakers' writings in English and Chinese students' writings in English with the help o...

  16. Specific Language Impairment (SLI: The Internet Ralli Campaign to Raise Awareness of SLI

    Conti-Ramsden Gina

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available In this short article, we discuss what is specific language impairment (SLI and why it is a hidden disability that few people have heard about. We describe the impact on research, policy and practice of SLI being a neglected condition. We end by providing the background and rationale of a new internet campaign, RALLI (www.youtube.com/rallicampaign, aimed at changing this state of affairs and raising awareness of SLI.

  17. Bivariate raising and lowering differential operators for eigenfunctions of a 2D Fourier transform

    We define a two-dimensional (2D) Fourier transform that self-reproduces a one-parameter family of bivariate Hermite functions; these are eigenfunctions of a Hamiltonian differential operator of second order, whose exponential is that transform. We find explicit forms of the bivariate raising and lowering partial differential operators of first degree for the eigenfunctions of this 2D Fourier transform. (paper)

  18. Normal inter-limb differences during the straight leg raise neurodynamic test: a cross sectional study

    Boyd Benjamin S; Villa Philip S

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background The straight leg raise (SLR) neurodynamic test is commonly used to examine the sensitivity of the lower quarter nervous system to movement. Range of motion during the SLR varies considerably, due to factors such as age, sex and activity level. Knowing intra-individual, inter-limb differences may provide a normative measure that is not influenced by such demographic characteristics. This study aimed to determine normal asymmetries between limbs in healthy, asymptomatic indi...

  19. Passive Leg Raising Correlates with Future Exercise Capacity after Coronary Revascularization

    Huang, Shu-Chun; Wong, May-Kuen; Lin, Pyng-Jing; Tsai, Feng-Chun; Wen, Ming-Shien; Kuo, Chi-Tai; Hsu, Chih-Chin; Wang, Jong-Shyan

    2015-01-01

    Hemodynamic properties affected by the passive leg raise test (PLRT) reflect cardiac pumping efficiency. In the present study, we aimed to further explore whether PLRT predicts exercise intolerance/capacity following coronary revascularization. Following coronary bypass/percutaneous coronary intervention, 120 inpatients underwent a PLRT and a cardiopulmonary exercise test (CPET) 2–12 days during post-surgery hospitalization and 3–5 weeks after hospital discharge. The PLRT included head-up, le...

  20. Raising a child with disability and dealing with life events: a mother's journey

    O'Connell, Tina; O'Halloran, Maeve; Doody, Owen

    2013-01-01

    Intellectual disability services recognise people with intellectual disability as a family member and aim to provide effective support that facilitates family cohesion. However, the needs of families and individuals within the family should be addressed in a holistic manner to ensure a seamless service. This article outlines a mother’s reflections on her experience of raising a child with autism spectrum disorder and its impact on her life. The article focuses on one mother’s feel...

  1. What Meaning does Raising a Child with Autism have for Parents? A Qualitative Exploration

    Jardine, Kirsten Marie

    2008-01-01

    Introduction: Children with autism experience difficulties in social interaction and communication which are often manifested behaviourally. The nature of these difficulties means that the task of parenting is often challenging. This study therefore aims to explore which aspects of raising a child with autism are most meaningful for parents. It will also investigate what, if any, are the positive aspects related to the experience of having a child with autism. Method: A q...

  2. Strategic Management of Tourism Sector in Bangladesh to raise Gross Domestic Product: An analysis

    Muhammad Mahboob Ali; Rehana Parvin

    2010-01-01

    Tourism sector brings tremendous opportunities as a fastest-growing economic sector in terms of foreign exchange earnings, creation of employment opportunities and raising purchasing power. As such tourism sector can play positive contribution towards enhancing Gross Domestic Product (GDP) of a country. The tourism sector in Bangladesh has been gradually growing from mid Nineties to till now. The study has been undertaken to observe effective and efficient utilization of strategic management ...

  3. Mitigation of greenhouse gas fluxes from cultivated organic soils by raised water table

    Regina, Kristiina

    2010-01-01

    Cultivated organic soils are a remarkable source of greenhouse gases (GHG) in some countries and raised ground water table has been suggested as a mitigation measure on these soils. Drainage of the peat increases mineralization of the organic matter and causes high emissions of carbon dioxide (CO2) and nitrous oxide (N2O) while emissions of methane (CH4) are lowered compared to pristine peatlands. In countries with a large area of organic soils these GHG emissions can be remarkable. In ...

  4. A basic income can raise employment and welfare for a majority

    Felix R. FitzRoy; Jin, Jim Yongtao

    2015-01-01

    With growing interest in a universal basic income (BI), we provide new results for a majority to benefit from replacing (some) unemployment benefits with BI. Given any income distribution and an extensive margin, such a replacement always benefits those remaining unemployed, raises utilitarian welfare, and benefits a poor - or even a working - majority. Similar results follow with involuntary unemployment, and joint distributions of wages and costs of work. Moreover, using quasi-linear utilit...

  5. Most frequent nematode parasites of artificially raised pheasants (Phasianus colchicus L) and measures for their control

    Pavlović Ivan 1; Jakić-Dimić Dobrila; Kulišić Zoran; Florestean Iulia

    2003-01-01

    Helminthoses have an important role in the pathology of artificially raised game pheasants. During the period 1997-2002. we examined a total of 1893 pheasant poults aged from 4 to 14 weeks and 1432 adult birds at several pheasanteries in Serbia. The following nematode species were found: Syngamus trachea, Ascaridia galli, A. columbae, Heterakis gallinarum, H. isolonche Capillaria gallinae (sin. C. caudinflata), C. columbae (sin. C. obsignata) and C. phasianis. The intensity of infection in to...

  6. Impact of Consciousness-Raising Activities on Young English Language Learners’ Grammar Performance

    Hamidreza Fatemipour; Shiva Hemmati

    2015-01-01

    Grammar Consciousness-Raising (GCR) is an approach to teaching of grammar which learners instead of being taught the given rules, experience language data. The data challenge them to rethink, restructure their existing mental grammar and construct an explicit rule to describe the grammatical feature which the data illustrate (Ellis, 2002). And also GCR approach encourages learners to pay attention to language form (Richards & Smidth, 2002). The present study aimed to consider the effectiv...

  7. PetroChina and Sinopec Raises Oil Ex-refinery Prices

    2004-01-01

    @@ Sinopec and PetroChina have raised ex-refinery prices for gasoline and diesel to boost sagging margins as it faces soaring crude prices. The Chinese refiners increased 90-octane gasoline price by 100 yuan (US$12) a ton to about 3,580 yuan (US$432) a ton, and that of diesel by 40 yuan (US$4.80) a ton to 3,602 yuan (US$435),effective September 17.

  8. Structural evaluation of WIPP disposal room raised to clay seam G

    An error was discovered in the ALGEBBRA script used to calculate the disturbed rock zone around the disposal room and the shear failure zone in the anhydrite layers in the original version. To correct the error, a memorandum of correction was submitted according to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Quality Assurance program. The recommended course of action was to correct the error, to repeat the post-process, and to rewrite Section 7.4, 7.5, 8, and Appendix B in the original report. The sections and appendix revised by the post-process using the corrected ALGEBRA scripts are provided in this revision. The original report summarizes a series of structural calculations that examine effects of raising the WIPP repository horizon from the original design level upward 2.43 meters. Calculations were then repeated for grid changes appropriate for the new horizon raised to Clay Seam G. Results are presented in three main areas: (1) Disposal room porosity, (2) Disturbed rock zone characteristics, and (3) Anhydrite marker bed failure. No change to the porosity surface for the compliance re-certification application is necessary to account for raising the repository horizon, because the new porosity surface is essentially identical. The disturbed rock zone evolution and devolution are charted in terms of a stress invariant criterion over the regulatory period. This model shows that the propagation of the DRZ into the surrounding rock salt does not penetrate through MB 139 in the case of both the original horizon and the raised room. Damaged salt would be expected to heal in nominally 150 years. The shear failure does not occur in either the upper or lower anhydrite layers at the moment of excavation, but appears above and below the middle of the pillar one day after the excavation. The damaged anhydrite is not expected to heal as the salt in the DRZ is expected to

  9. Crowdfunding as a tool for startups to raise capital : why and how to use it

    Andersen, Lasse Magnus Klæbo; Mauritzen, Lars Joakim

    2016-01-01

    This thesis aims to educate the reader on the different characteristics of crowdfunding, such that entrepreneurs who are considering how to raise funds for their new project can make more informed decisions. The thesis does this by extensively reviewing existing literature, both on crowdfunding and on related financing methods. The authors also examine the leading European crowdfunding markets in terms of performance, the crowdfunding platform...

  10. Negative Events Experienced by Mothers Raising Children with Cleft Lip and Palate

    Nakanii, Mihoko

    2010-01-01

    This study is aimed at clarifying the negative events experienced by mothers raising children with cleft lip and palate. Semi-structured interviews were held with 18 mothers living in Western Japan. The following factors were extracted from content analysis: birth of an unhealthy child, difficulty in remedial education, anxiety over the child's future, improper treatment in the maternity ward, lack of the family understanding, unavailability of social support, the mother's excessive responses...

  11. STUDY ON SEED-FEEDINGWHEEL WORKING PARAMETERS OF RICE COMPOUND SEEDLINE RAISING MACHINE

    1998-01-01

    The rice compound seedling raising machine is developed according to the request for the rice project-seeding plant technology. The principle of the transmission system of the rice compound seedlingraising machine and the seed-feeding wheel working parameters are introduced. The tests of different structure and working parameters are made in the testing device of the new rice compound seedling raisingmachine, and the optimizing parameters for designing of seed-feeding wheel are obtained.

  12. Growth of hatchery raised banana shrimp Penaeus merguiensis (de Man) (Crustacea: Decapoda) juveniles under different salinity

    Saldanha, C.M.; Achuthankutty, C.T.

    of Marine Sciences Vol. 29, June 2000, pp. 179-180 Short Communication Growth of hatchery raised banana shrimp Penaeus merguiensis (de Man) (Crustacea:Decapoda) juveniles under different salinity Christina M. Saldanha* & C T Achuthankutty Aquaculture... (8.5 times the initial weight in 4 weeks). The results indicate that this species is suitable for cultivation in high saline waters. Biology of any aquatic organism is profoundly influenced by several abiotic factors and its distribution in any...

  13. Detection of multidrug resistance Aeromonas hydrophila in farm raised fresh water prawns

    Md. Bakhtiar Lijon; Mst. Mousumi Khatun; Ariful Islam; Mst. Minara Khatun; Md. Ariful Islam

    2015-01-01

    This study was undertaken for isolation, identification and determination of antibiogram profile of Aeromonas hydrophila in farm raised fresh water prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii) on five commercial ghers. Fresh water prawns (n=25) were collected from five ghers located at Satkhira, Bagerhat and Khulna districts of Bangladesh. Brain (n=25), muscle (n=25) and intestine (n=25) samples were collected aseptically from fresh water prawn and inoculated into alkaline peptone (APW) water for enrich...

  14. Structural evaluation of WIPP disposal room raised to Clay Seam G.

    Park, Byoung Yoon (Sandia National Laboratories, Carlsbad, NM); Holland, John F. (Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM)

    2007-09-01

    An error was discovered in the ALGEBBRA script used to calculate the disturbed rock zone around the disposal room and the shear failure zone in the anhydrite layers in the original version. To correct the error, a memorandum of correction was submitted according to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Quality Assurance program. The recommended course of action was to correct the error, to repeat the post-process, and to rewrite Section 7.4, 7.5, 8, and Appendix B in the original report. The sections and appendix revised by the post-process using the corrected ALGEBRA scripts are provided in this revision. The original report summarizes a series of structural calculations that examine effects of raising the WIPP repository horizon from the original design level upward 2.43 meters. Calculations were then repeated for grid changes appropriate for the new horizon raised to Clay Seam G. Results are presented in three main areas: (1) Disposal room porosity, (2) Disturbed rock zone characteristics, and (3) Anhydrite marker bed failure. No change to the porosity surface for the compliance re-certification application is necessary to account for raising the repository horizon, because the new porosity surface is essentially identical. The disturbed rock zone evolution and devolution are charted in terms of a stress invariant criterion over the regulatory period. This model shows that the propagation of the DRZ into the surrounding rock salt does not penetrate through MB 139 in the case of both the original horizon and the raised room. Damaged salt would be expected to heal in nominally 150 years. The shear failure does not occur in either the upper or lower anhydrite layers at the moment of excavation, but appears above and below the middle of the pillar one day after the excavation. The damaged anhydrite is not expected to heal as the salt in the DRZ is expected to.

  15. Your Genes, Your Choices: Exploring the Issues Raised by Genetic Research

    Baker, C.

    1999-05-31

    Your Genes, Your Choices provides accurate information about the ethical, legal, and social implications of the Human Genome Project and genetic research in an easy-to-read style and format. Each chapter in the book begins with a brief vignette, which introduces an issue within a human story, and raises a question for the reader to think about as the basic science and information are presented in the rest of the chapter.

  16. Topics raised by the summary report of the first review meeting

    This document presents the fulfilling of the Brazilian obligations under the Convention on Nuclear Safety. The Chapter 7 of the document contains topics raised by the summary report of the first review meeting. The chapter covers status and position of the regulatory body, collective doses, effluents release trends, adoption of the ICRP 60 and basic safety standards, regulatory strategy, quality assurance, monitoring safety management, international cooperation, probabilistic safety assessment and safety improvement programmes

  17. UoGAS - A Get Away Special Satellite with Orbit-Raising Capability

    Lorenz, Ralph

    1988-01-01

    The low cost of satellite deployment from Shuttle GAS canister makes it an attractive launch option. However, the low deployment altitude severely constrains lifetime so the UoGAS (University of Surrey Get Away Special) spacecraft will incorporate a propulsion system. Lifetime extension methods are considered and a start-of-mission orbit-raising manoeuvre is selected. An orbit dynamics simulation method (taking into account the atmospheric drag) is discussed and results presented. Mission pro...

  18. Functional diversity, succession, and human-mediated disturbances in raised bog vegetation.

    Dyderski, Marcin K; Czapiewska, Natalia; Zajdler, Mateusz; Tyborski, Jarosław; Jagodziński, Andrzej M

    2016-08-15

    Raised and transitional bogs are one of the most threatened types of ecosystem, due to high specialisation of biota, associated with adaptations to severe environmental conditions. The aim of the study was to characterize the relationships between functional diversity (reflecting ecosystem-shaping processes) of raised bog plant communities and successional gradients (expressed as tree dimensions) and to show how impacts of former clear cuts may alter these relationships in two raised bogs in 'Bory Tucholskie' National Park (N Poland). Herbaceous layers of the plant communities were examined by floristic relevés (25m(2)) on systematically established transects. We also assessed patterns of tree ring widths. There were no relationships between vegetation functional diversity components and successional progress: only functional dispersion was negatively, but weakly, correlated with median DBH. Lack of these relationships may be connected with lack of prevalence of habitat filtering and low level of competition over all the successional phases. Former clear cuts, indicated by peaks of tree ring width, influenced the growth of trees in the bogs studied. In the bog with more intensive clear cuts we found more species with higher trophic requirements, which may indicate nutrient influx. However, we did not observe differences in vegetation patterns, functional traits or functional diversity indices between the two bogs studied. We also did not find an influence of clear cut intensity on relationships between functional diversity indices and successional progress. Thus, we found that alteration of the ecosystems studied by neighbourhood clear cuts did not affect the bogs strongly, as the vegetation was resilient to these impacts. Knowledge of vegetation resilience after clear cuts may be crucial for conservation planning in raised bog ecosystems. PMID:27110977

  19. Raising argument strength using negative evidence: A constraint on models of induction

    Heussen, Daniel; Voorspoels, Wouter; Verheyen, Steven; Storms, Gerrit; Hampton, James A.

    2011-01-01

    Both intuitively, and according to similarity-based theories of induction, relevant evidence raises argument strength when it is positive and lowers it when it is negative. In three experiments, we tested the hypothesis that argument strength can actually increase when negative evidence is introduced. Two kinds of argument were compared through forced choice or sequential evaluation: single positive arguments (e.g., “Shostakovich’s music causes alpha waves in the brain; therefore, Bach’s musi...

  20. Raised bed technology for wheat crop in irrigated areas of punjab, pakistan

    The present paper analyzes the determinants of adoption of raised bed planting of wheat in irrigated areas of Punjab, Pakistan. Wheat is an important staple food of Pakistan. It contributes 13 % to the value added in agriculture and 2.6 % to the GDP. The agrarian economy of Pakistan is continuously under stress due to the low yield of almost all the crops and constrained with many problem. One of the most important issues of agriculture is water shortage which is increasing day by day and is a major challenge now a days. Therefore, water saving becomes the utmost need of the hour. The national research system is now putting their focus and efforts to manage the precious water through various modern/latest water saving models to draw some solid method of irrigation with less wastage. Raised bed planting method is also one of the modern methods of planting crop with significant water saving. The study was planned and conducted by the Social Sciences Research Institute, Faisalabad in 2011-12 to assess the determinants of the adoption of the raised bed technology for wheat crop in irrigated Punjab, Pakistan. The study was conducted at three sites of the districts Faisalabad and Toba Tek Singh where the Water Management Research Institute, University of Faisalabad promoted the raised bed technology for wheat crop. A sample of 63 farmers was interviewed in detail to understand the whole system and the factors contributing to the adoption of the technology. The study revealed that adopters typically have a more favorable resource base and tend to variously outperform non-adopters. More access to education and other social indicators increases the chances to adopt new technologies by the farming community. However, the small farmers can also be benefited with the technology with proper education regarding the technology in the area with good social mobilization for the conservation of scarce and valuable farm resources. (author)

  1. An Efficient In vitro Hardening Technique of Tissue Culture Raised Plants

    C.R. Deb; T. Imchen

    2010-01-01

    Micropropagation has been extensively used for the rapid multiplication of many plants species. However, its wider use is restricted often by the high percentage of plant loss or damaged when transferred to ex vitro condition. To acclimatize the micropropagated plants, different workers have employed different approach toward successful establishment of in vitro raised plants under ex vitro condition. In the present study, a successful attempt has been made to acclimatize the tissue culture r...

  2. Effects of Induced Astigmatism on Foot Placement Strategies when Stepping onto a Raised Surface

    Johnson, Louise; Supuk, Elvira; Buckley, John G.; Elliott, David B.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Large changes in spectacle prescription can increase falls risk in older people. We investigated the effect of induced astigmatism (a common cause of distorted or blurred vision in older people) on locomotor stepping patterns to determine whether the orientation of astigmatic changes could have differential effects on gait safety when negotiating steps and stairs. Methods 10 older adults (mean age 76.0±6.4 years) walked up to and stepped onto a raised block whilst wearing their specta...

  3. Hydrolysis of pyridoxal-5'-phosphate in plasma in conditions with raised alkaline phosphate.

    Anderson, B B; O'Brien, H.; Griffin, G E; Mollin, D. L.

    1980-01-01

    Hydrolysis of pyridoxal phosphate in plasma was demonstrated in patients with liver disease and other conditions with raised alkaline phosphatase, and this usually closely paralleled the alkaline phosphatase level, whether of liver or bone origin. The endogenous plasma pyridoxal phosphate was inversely related to the alkaline phosphatase, and plasma hydrolysis of pyridoxal phosphate may at least in part be responsible. Very large doses of vitamin B6 may be necessary to compensate for this hyd...

  4. Voltage raising and dropping type direct conversion circuit; Shokoatsugata chokusetsu henkan kairo

    NONE

    2000-01-10

    The AC-AC conversion circuit is generally a system to convert AC power into DC power, and then converts the DC power into AC power. However, an electrolytic capacitor to store DC power is a large obstacle for reducing the size and weight and extending the life of the equipment. Fuji Electric is promoting development of a direct conversion circuit to covert AC power into AC power having different frequencies and amplitudes without using an electrolytic capacitor. The figure shows the configuration of a voltage raising and dropping type direct conversion circuit (three-phase to three-phase). Making this type of circuitry makes direct AC-AC conversion and voltage raising and dropping operation possible, and reducing the size and weight and extending the life of the equipment may be expected. Therefore, high-frequency switching technology (15.6 kHz) was used to verify the operation of a functional prototype ( 10 kVA). As a result, voltage raising and dropping operation from input voltage of 100V AC to and from zero and 200V AC of the output voltage was realized with input current distortion of 5.9% and output voltage distortion of 3.7%. (translated by NEDO)

  5. Structural evaluation of WIPP disposal room raised to Clay Seam G.

    Park, Byoung Yoon; Holland, John F.

    2004-01-01

    This report summarizes a series of structural calculations that examine effects of raising the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant repository horizon from the original design level upward 2.43 meters. These calculations allow evaluation of various features incorporated in conceptual models used for performance assessment. Material presented in this report supports the regulatory compliance re-certification, and therefore begins by replicating the calculations used in the initial compliance certification application. Calculations are then repeated for grid changes appropriate for the new horizon raised to Clay Seam G. Results are presented in three main areas: 1. Disposal room porosity, 2. Disturbed rock zone characteristics, and 3. Anhydrite marker bed failure. No change to the porosity surface for the compliance re-certification application is necessary to account for raising the repository horizon, because the new porosity surface is essentially identical. The disturbed rock zone evolution and devolution are charted in terms of a stress invariant criterion over the regulatory period. This model shows that the damage zone does not extend upward to MB 138, but does reach MB 139 below the repository. Damaged salt would be expected to heal in nominally 100 years. The anhydrite marker beds sustain states of stress that promote failure and substantial marker bed deformation into the room assures fractured anhydrite will sustain in the proximity of the disposal rooms.

  6. Prediction of antibody persistency from antibody titres to natalizumab

    Jensen, Poul Erik H; Koch-Henriksen, Nils; Sellebjerg, Finn; Sørensen, Per S

    2012-01-01

    In a subgroup of patients with multiple sclerosis natalizumab therapy causes generation of anti-natalizumab antibodies that may be transient or persistent. It is recommended to discontinue natalizumab therapy in persistently antibody-positive patients.......In a subgroup of patients with multiple sclerosis natalizumab therapy causes generation of anti-natalizumab antibodies that may be transient or persistent. It is recommended to discontinue natalizumab therapy in persistently antibody-positive patients....

  7. L’européanité : quelques titres

    Lévy, Jacques

    2007-01-01

    Perry ANDERSON, 1978, L’état absolutiste, Paris, François Maspéro. Fernand BRAUDEL, 1979, Civilisation matérielle, économie et capitalisme : xve-xviiie siècle, Paris, Armand Colin, 3 vol. Albert DEMANGEON, 1920, Le déclin de l’Europe, Paris, Librairie Payot. Jacques DERRIDA, 1991, L’autre cap, Paris, Minuit. Hartmut KAEBLE, 1988, Vers une société européenne, Paris, Belin (éd. orig. allemande : 1987). Milan KUNDERA, « Un Occident kidnappé ou la tragédie de l’Europe centrale », Le Débat, 27, no...

  8. WIDAL TITRES AMONG CHILDREN IN A TERTIARY CARE HOSPITAL

    Poornima

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To determine the titers of antibodies against O, H, AH & BH antigens of S.typhi & S. paratypi by Widal test over a 1 year study period among children in a tertiary level hospital. METHODS: This observational study was conducted in the Pediatric wards of a tertiary hospital at Bangalore, Karnataka from 1st January 2013 to December 31st 2013. Children who presented with a history of fever of =/> 7 days were included in the study. These children underwent a Widal test to rule out typhoid fever. A total of 1197 such patients were included in the study. Children with antibody titers more than 1:160 were considered to have enteric fever. RESULTS: Out of the 1197 children, 515 were females & 682 were males. Among females in the age group of /=1:160. Similarly, 5.97%, 6.9% & 7.41% of males in the age group of /=1:160.The titers were similar among the males & the females in all the 3 age groups that were studied. CONCLUSION: The level of antibody titers may vary with time. The highest level of Widal titers of 1:320 against both O & H antigen were found in 3.08%, 2.22% & 1.67% of females in the age group of <2yrs, 2-5 years & 5-18 yrs. Similarly, 1.49%, 3.45% & 1.4% of males in the age group of <2yrs, 2-5 years & 5-18 years had the highest level of titers of 1: 320 against both antigens . Thus there has been an increase in the level of baseline titers against Salmonella species, which needs to be considered while interpreting the results of Widal test for the diagnosis of enteric fever.

  9. Le titre, le poste et la compétence

    Causer, Jean-Yves

    2012-01-01

    Issue, à l’origine, du champ professionnel, la notion de compétence s’est imposée progressivement dans celui de la formation professionnelle et de l’éducation. Il reste dès lors à saisir ce que ce passage pourrait apporter aux théoriciens du champ éducatif en termes d’avancée cognitive mais aussi de praxéologie. Rendre compte des enjeux heuristiques, contenus dans les efforts de définition et les débats concernant les compétences numériques, peut ainsi difficilement faire l’impasse de leur ca...

  10. Mechanistic studies on the lipid-raising coffee diterpenes cafestol and kahweol in monkeys, mice and man

    Roos, de B.

    2000-01-01

    Cafestol and kahweol are lipid-raising diterpenes present in unfiltered coffee. The objective of this thesis was to study their lipid-raising action in man. Unravelling this action might lead to new insights into the regulation of serum cholesterol levels.We first studied the absorption and urinary

  11. Where Are We With HDL Raising and Inhibition of Cholesteryl Ester Transfer for Heart Disease Risk Reduction?

    Purpose: To review recent research in the area of high density lipoprotein (HDL) raising and coronary heart disease (CHD) risk reduction. Recent Findings: It is known that a decreased HDL cholesterol is an important CHD risk factor, and that raising HDL cholesterol has been associated with CHD risk...

  12. Measuring Metacognition and Reaction Time: Further Findings on the Performances of General Education, Low-Achieving, and Institutionally Raised Students

    Al-Hilawani, Yasser A.; Abdullah, Ahmad A.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to use the picture format to examine in depth the metacognitive performances and reaction time in general education, low-achieving, and institutionally raised students. Results revealed that institutionally raised students, unlike low-achieving students, took significantly the longest reaction time to finish the test…

  13. Bio-Economic Evaluation of the Performance of Rabbits Raised under Two Different Housing Systems

    Mobolaji-Bukola, PU.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to evaluate the bio-economic performance of rabbits raised under two different housing systems: conventional hutch with cage system as control (A and the non-conventional floor housing system (B. Thirty six adult rabbits of medium size breed category of both sexes aged 5-6 months comprising Chinchilla (20, New Zealand White (10, Dutch (6 were used in the study which lasted 24 weeks. Fifteen does and 3 bucks were each randomly but equally assigned to both housing systems. Data on individual and group treatments were analysed with a one-way analysis of variance and students' ttest, employed in testing differences between the means. A benefit-cost analysis was used to evaluate the relative cost effectiveness of each housing option. Results obtained showed that rabbits raised on floor performed better (6 kittens < 0.05 biologically than those reared in hutched (3 kittens. For example, significant final weights (1.9 kg and weight gains (0.4 kg were observed in rabbits reared on floor as against those in hutch 1.6 kg and 0.09 kg. From an economic viewpoint, rabbits raised on floor contributed higher positive income (N 58.2 per unit of meat produced than rabbits reared in hutch or cage. Rate of return on investment in the former was estimated at about 50%. The floor housing system which is the cheaper, more productive and cost-effective is therefore recommended for farmers who are lacking the fundamental factors of production namely land and particularly capital as observed in the study location or environment.

  14. A large blood pressure-raising effect of nitric oxide synthase inhibition in humans

    Sander, M.; Chavoshan, B.; Victor, R. G.; Blomqvist, C. G. (Principal Investigator)

    1999-01-01

    In experimental animals, systemic administration of nitric oxide synthase (NOS) inhibitors causes large increases in blood pressure that are in part sympathetically mediated. The aim of this study was to determine the extent to which these conclusions can be extrapolated to humans. In healthy normotensive humans, we measured blood pressure in response to two NOS inhibitors, NG-monomethyl-L-arginine (L-NMMA) and NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME), the latter of which recently became available for use in humans. The major new findings are 3-fold. First, L-NAME produced robust increases in blood pressure that were more than 2 times larger than those previously reported in humans with L-NMMA and approximated those seen in experimental animals. L-NAME (4 mg/kg) raised mean arterial pressure by 24+/-2 mm Hg (n=27, P<0.001), whereas in subjects who received both inhibitors, a 12-fold higher dose of L-NMMA (50 mg/kg) raised mean arterial pressure by 15+/-2 mm Hg (n=4, P<0.05 vs L-NAME). Second, the L-NAME-induced increases in blood pressure were caused specifically by NOS inhibition because they were reversed by L-arginine (200 mg/kg, n=12) but not D-arginine (200 mg/kg, n=6) and because NG-nitro-D-arginine methyl ester (4 mg/kg, n=5) had no effect on blood pressure. Third, in humans, there is an important sympathetic component to the blood pressure-raising effect of NOS inhibition. alpha-Adrenergic blockade with phentolamine (0.2 mg/kg, n=9) attenuated the L-NAME-induced increase in blood pressure by 40% (P<0.05). From these data, we conclude that pharmacological inhibition of NOS causes large increases in blood pressure that are in part sympathetically mediated in humans as well as experimental animals.

  15. SCHOOL-BASED SAVINGS PROGRAMMES AS A METHOD OF RAISING FINANCIAL AWARENESS IN CHILDREN

    Joanna Lenkiewicz

    2014-01-01

    Saving money and budgeting concerns every one of us. One of the most famous ways of depositing money is the use of an account or a traditional piggy bank. Not only the last option is close to the youngest. It has long been known School-based Savings Programmes (SSP). We try to instill in the youngest ability and habit of depositing mon-ey. Bank goes out to meet the needs and continually improve the SSP. The first part of the article focuses on the notion of SSP. It was raised matter of passbo...

  16. How high the temperature of a liquid be raised without boiling?

    Das, Mala; Chatterjee, B. K.; Roy, B; Roy, S. C.

    2000-01-01

    How high the temperature of a liquid be raised beyond its boiling point without vaporizing (known as the limit of superheat) is an interesting subject of investigation. A new method of finding the limit of superheat of liquids is presented here. The superheated liquids are taken in the form of drops suspended in visco elastic gel. The nucleation is detected acoustically by a sensitive piezo-electric transducer, coupled to a multi channel scaler and the nucleation is observed as a funtion of t...

  17. Baseline hematology and clinical chemistry results from captive-raised trumpeter swans

    Olsen, G.H.; Rininger, D.L.; Ets, M.K.; Sladen, William J. L.

    2002-01-01

    Results from hematology and clinical chemistry tests are presented for healthy captive-raised Trumpeter Swans (Cygnus buccinator) to help establish baseline data. Blood samples were obtained from 14 cygnets between the ages of three to four and seven to eight months that were the subjects of a study to teach migration routes to swans. Males and females differed significantly in asparatate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase and total protein. Age categories differed significantly in hematocrit, white blood cell counts, alkaline phosphatase, aspar-rate aminotransferase, glucose, cholesterol and uric acid. There were no significant differences among age categories in values of alanine aminotransferase, calcium, triglycerides and total protein.

  18. Building America Case Study: Raised Ceiling Interior Duct System, New Smyrna, Florida (Fact Sheet)

    2014-09-01

    One of BA-PIRC's longtime Habitat for Humanity partners, S.E. Volusia CO (SEVHFH), was interested in building a home to the new Challenge Home standards. SEVHFH routinely builds ENERGY STAR V3.1 homes. The only modification to their design needed to comply with the Challenge Home criteria was the interior duct requirement. Unwilling to incur the added costs of a foam roof deck or wall heights above 8 feet to accommodate a fur-down chase SEVHFH opted to build a fur-up or raised ceiling chase.

  19. Does Raising the School Leaving Age Reduce Teacher Effort? A Note from a Policy Experiment

    Green, C.; Navarro Paniagua, M

    2010-01-01

    This paper examines the impact of an increase in the school leaving age on high school teachers’ absence behaviour. We estimate differ- ence in difference models of absenteeism using count data approaches. Employing data from the Spanish Labour Force Survey, our findings suggest that high school teachers reduced their effort due to the re- form that raised the age of compulsory education commencing in the academic year 1998-1999 in Spain. In particular, they take 15% more sickness absence i...

  20. Passive Leg Raising Correlates with Future Exercise Capacity after Coronary Revascularization.

    Shu-Chun Huang

    Full Text Available Hemodynamic properties affected by the passive leg raise test (PLRT reflect cardiac pumping efficiency. In the present study, we aimed to further explore whether PLRT predicts exercise intolerance/capacity following coronary revascularization. Following coronary bypass/percutaneous coronary intervention, 120 inpatients underwent a PLRT and a cardiopulmonary exercise test (CPET 2-12 days during post-surgery hospitalization and 3-5 weeks after hospital discharge. The PLRT included head-up, leg raise, and supine rest postures. The end point of the first CPET during admission was the supra-ventilatory anaerobic threshold, whereas that during the second CPET in the outpatient stage was maximal performance. Bio-reactance-based non-invasive cardiac output monitoring was employed during PLRT to measure real-time stroke volume and cardiac output. A correlation matrix showed that stroke volume during leg raise (SVLR during the first PLRT was positively correlated (R = 0.653 with the anaerobic threshold during the first CPET. When exercise intolerance was defined as an anaerobic threshold < 3 metabolic equivalents, SVLR / body weight had an area under curve value of 0.822, with sensitivity of 0.954, specificity of 0.593, and cut-off value of 1504·10-3mL/kg (positive predictive value 0.72; negative predictive value 0.92. Additionally, cardiac output during leg raise (COLR during the first PLRT was related to peak oxygen consumption during the second CPET (R = 0.678. When poor aerobic fitness was defined as peak oxygen consumption < 5 metabolic equivalents, COLR / body weight had an area under curve value of 0.814, with sensitivity of 0.781, specificity of 0.773, and a cut-off value of 68.3 mL/min/kg (positive predictive value 0.83; negative predictive value 0.71. Therefore, we conclude that PLRT during hospitalization has a good screening and predictive power for exercise intolerance/capacity in inpatients and early outpatients following coronary

  1. Passive Leg Raising Correlates with Future Exercise Capacity after Coronary Revascularization.

    Huang, Shu-Chun; Wong, May-Kuen; Lin, Pyng-Jing; Tsai, Feng-Chun; Wen, Ming-Shien; Kuo, Chi-Tai; Hsu, Chih-Chin; Wang, Jong-Shyan

    2015-01-01

    Hemodynamic properties affected by the passive leg raise test (PLRT) reflect cardiac pumping efficiency. In the present study, we aimed to further explore whether PLRT predicts exercise intolerance/capacity following coronary revascularization. Following coronary bypass/percutaneous coronary intervention, 120 inpatients underwent a PLRT and a cardiopulmonary exercise test (CPET) 2-12 days during post-surgery hospitalization and 3-5 weeks after hospital discharge. The PLRT included head-up, leg raise, and supine rest postures. The end point of the first CPET during admission was the supra-ventilatory anaerobic threshold, whereas that during the second CPET in the outpatient stage was maximal performance. Bio-reactance-based non-invasive cardiac output monitoring was employed during PLRT to measure real-time stroke volume and cardiac output. A correlation matrix showed that stroke volume during leg raise (SVLR) during the first PLRT was positively correlated (R = 0.653) with the anaerobic threshold during the first CPET. When exercise intolerance was defined as an anaerobic threshold < 3 metabolic equivalents, SVLR / body weight had an area under curve value of 0.822, with sensitivity of 0.954, specificity of 0.593, and cut-off value of 1504·10-3mL/kg (positive predictive value 0.72; negative predictive value 0.92). Additionally, cardiac output during leg raise (COLR) during the first PLRT was related to peak oxygen consumption during the second CPET (R = 0.678). When poor aerobic fitness was defined as peak oxygen consumption < 5 metabolic equivalents, COLR / body weight had an area under curve value of 0.814, with sensitivity of 0.781, specificity of 0.773, and a cut-off value of 68.3 mL/min/kg (positive predictive value 0.83; negative predictive value 0.71). Therefore, we conclude that PLRT during hospitalization has a good screening and predictive power for exercise intolerance/capacity in inpatients and early outpatients following coronary revascularization

  2. Raising Children in an Evangelical Family Environment: Biblical Principles Applied to the Family

    Ljubinka Jambrek

    2009-01-01

    As Creator, God designed the family and determined the standards and rules for living and functioning in the family. As a basic unit of society, the family is to reflect God’s glory. God’s plan for marriage and the family has not changed, only the human approach to this institution has changed. Therefore, it is vital to re-emphasize how important it is that the family functions according to biblical standards. This article deals with raising children in an evangelical environment which assume...

  3. Bio-Economic Evaluation of the Performance of Rabbits Raised under Two Different Housing Systems

    Mobolaji-Bukola, PU.; Allison-Oguru, EA.; Berepubo, NA.; Oruwari, BM.

    2002-01-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the bio-economic performance of rabbits raised under two different housing systems: conventional hutch with cage system as control (A) and the non-conventional floor housing system (B). Thirty six adult rabbits of medium size breed category of both sexes aged 5-6 months comprising Chinchilla (20), New Zealand White (10), Dutch (6) were used in the study which lasted 24 weeks. Fifteen does and 3 bucks were each randomly but equally assigned to both housing ...

  4. Performance of an electrically raised, synchronous satellite when subjected to radiation degradation effects

    Cake, J. E.; Regetz, J. D., Jr.

    1971-01-01

    The use of solar electric propulsion to raise a high-power communication satellite from a low altitude, inclined circular orbit of the geosynchronous orbit is evaluated. Since the satellite ascends through the high intensity radiation belts, the power available from the solar array and therefore to the ion thrusters degrades. The performance of the solar electric stage in combination with the thrust augmented Thor/Delta launch vehicle is evaluated for two thrust steering programs. The transfer times and solar array requirements are presented for total geosynchronous payloads from 450 to 1100 kg.

  5. Technique improvement of thoracoabdominal CT scan for patients with arm-raising disability

    Objective: To explore a new scanning technique to reduce and avoid image artifacts of thoracoabdominal CT and improve image quality for patients who cannot raise their arms. Methods: Sixty-one patients with arm-raising disability between March 2004 and May 2009 were enrolled in the study. Thirty-one cases before June 2007 were scanned with their arms beside their body (control group), 30 cases after June 2007 were scanned with their arms shifting to different imaging planes of the spine (study group), and another 30 patients who can raising their arms were taken as routine group. The images artifacts were blindly evaluated by 5-points scale (severe, less severe, moderate, minimum and no artifact) by 2 experienced CT technologists and one radiologist and compared between the three groups (X2 test). CT values and its noise of the liver with or without artifact of the three groups were measured and analyzed by one-way ANOVA test. Results: In the control group, 11 cases had severe, 15 cases had less severe, 5 cases had moderate. In the study group, 6 cases had moderate, 15 cases had minimum, 9 cases had no artifact. In the routine group, 8 cases minimum and 22 cases had no artifact. Image quality was significantly improved in the study group compared to the conventional group where X2=95.32 and P<0.01. CT value and the noise of the liver without artifact were (54.5 ± 3.0) HU and 10.7 ± 2.4 in the control group, (52.0 ± 3.5) HU and 10.7 ± 0.5 in the study group, (53.7 ± 3.1) HU and 9.9 ± 0.5 in the routine group, respectively. CT value and noise of the liver with artifact were (41.7 ± 8.4) HU and 17.9 ± 2.6 in control group, (53.1 ± 6.9) HU and 11.0 ± 0.7 in the study group, (54.1 ± 2.4) HU and 9.9 ± 0.5 in the routine group, respectively. The CT value and its noise variation with artifact were significantly higher in the control group than the study group and the control group, where F=36.352, 235.848, respectively and P<0.01. Conclusion: The image quality

  6. Does Raising the Early Retirement Age Increase Employment of Older Workers?*

    Staubli, Stefan; Zweimüller, Josef

    2013-01-01

    Two pension reforms in Austria increased the early retirement age (ERA) from 60 to 62 for men and from 55 to 58.25 for women. We find that raising the ERA increased employment by 9.75 percentage points among affected men and by 11 percentage points among affected women. The reforms had large spillover effects on the unemployment insurance program but negligible effects on disability insurance claims. Specifically, unemployment increased by 12.5 percentage points among men and by 11.8 percenta...

  7. Corixidae (Hemiptera Heteroptera) in two artifical lakes on Irish cutaway raised bog

    O'Connor, Áine; Kavanagh, Brendan P; Reynolds, Julian D

    2000-01-01

    Oceanic raised bogs have long been exploited, both commercially and privately in Ireland. At present, 23,628 ha or 8% remains in an active state (Foss 1998), while at least 60,000 ha will be cutaway by the middle of the next century (Egan 1998). Industrial exploitation through milling involves the gradual removal of layers of peat until the less combustible fen peat is reached. On abandonment, the substrate is generally a mix of acid and alkaline peats and even occasionally lake marl and boul...

  8. Raising students and educators awareness of radioactive materials transport through creative classroom materials and exhibits

    The public is concerned about how the shipping and handling of radioactive materials affects them and their environment. Through exhibit showings doing professional education conferences and smaller, focussed workshops, the United States Department of Energy (DOE) has found teachers and students to be an especially interested audience for hazardous and radioactive materials transportation information. DOE recognizes the importance of presenting educational opportunities to students about scientific and societal issues associated with planning for and safely transporting these types of materials. Raising students' and educators' awareness of hazardous and radioactive materials transport through creative classroom materials and exhibits may help them make informed decisions as adults about this often controversial and difficult issue

  9. Self concept and drinking problems of college students raised in alcohol-abused homes.

    Rearden, J J; Markwell, B S

    1989-01-01

    To examine drinking problems and self concept of college students raised in homes where alcohol is abused, 148 lower division college students were given the following paper and pencil tests: The Michigan Alcoholism Screening Test, The Children of Alcoholics Screening Test, and the "Personal Self" section of The Tennessee Self Concept Scale. Students classified as children of alcoholics had a significantly lower self concept (F = 4.23, p = .04). Tabulation of the incidence of heavy drinking (31%) and lapses of memory after drinking bouts (62%) show an amount of drinking on college campuses that is truly alarming. PMID:2728960

  10. Screening for genetic haemochromatosis in blood samples with raised alanine aminotransferase

    Bhavnani, M; Lloyd, D; Bhattacharyya, A.; Marples, J; Elton, P; Worwood, M.

    2000-01-01

    BACKGROUND—In the UK approximately 1 in 140 people are homozygous for the C282Y mutation of the HFE gene and are at risk from iron overload caused by genetic haemochromatosis (GH). Early detection can prevent organ damage secondary to iron deposition and increase life expectancy.
AIM—To screen for GH in all blood samples sent to the laboratory for routine liver function tests in which raised serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) activity was detected.
METHODS—ALT was measured in sera sent to t...

  11. The New Ways to Raise Capital: An Exploratory Study of Crowdfunding

    2014-01-01

    Purpose ¨C Paper aims is to describe, analyze and to increase the knowledge of the emerging crowdfunding phenomenon. This can be defined as the practice of funding a project or venture by raising a lot of small quantities of money from a huge number of people. Even though the number of academic studies has been increasing, the coverage of the population is relatively weak and not well understood by entrepreneurs and individual investors. Design/Methodology/Findings - The research can be class...

  12. Raised middle-finger: electrocortical correlates of social conditioning with nonverbal affective gestures.

    Wieser, Matthias J; Flaisch, Tobias; Pauli, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Humans form impressions of others by associating persons (faces) with negative or positive social outcomes. This learning process has been referred to as social conditioning. In everyday life, affective nonverbal gestures may constitute important social signals cueing threat or safety, which therefore may support aforementioned learning processes. In conventional aversive conditioning, studies using electroencephalography to investigate visuocortical processing of visual stimuli paired with danger cues such as aversive noise have demonstrated facilitated processing and enhanced sensory gain in visual cortex. The present study aimed at extending this line of research to the field of social conditioning by pairing neutral face stimuli with affective nonverbal gestures. To this end, electro-cortical processing of faces serving as different conditioned stimuli was investigated in a differential social conditioning paradigm. Behavioral ratings and visually evoked steady-state potentials (ssVEP) were recorded in twenty healthy human participants, who underwent a differential conditioning procedure in which three neutral faces were paired with pictures of negative (raised middle finger), neutral (pointing), or positive (thumbs-up) gestures. As expected, faces associated with the aversive hand gesture (raised middle finger) elicited larger ssVEP amplitudes during conditioning. Moreover, theses faces were rated as to be more arousing and unpleasant. These results suggest that cortical engagement in response to faces aversively conditioned with nonverbal gestures is facilitated in order to establish persistent vigilance for social threat-related cues. This form of social conditioning allows to establish a predictive relationship between social stimuli and motivationally relevant outcomes. PMID:25054341

  13. Raised middle-finger: electrocortical correlates of social conditioning with nonverbal affective gestures.

    Matthias J Wieser

    Full Text Available Humans form impressions of others by associating persons (faces with negative or positive social outcomes. This learning process has been referred to as social conditioning. In everyday life, affective nonverbal gestures may constitute important social signals cueing threat or safety, which therefore may support aforementioned learning processes. In conventional aversive conditioning, studies using electroencephalography to investigate visuocortical processing of visual stimuli paired with danger cues such as aversive noise have demonstrated facilitated processing and enhanced sensory gain in visual cortex. The present study aimed at extending this line of research to the field of social conditioning by pairing neutral face stimuli with affective nonverbal gestures. To this end, electro-cortical processing of faces serving as different conditioned stimuli was investigated in a differential social conditioning paradigm. Behavioral ratings and visually evoked steady-state potentials (ssVEP were recorded in twenty healthy human participants, who underwent a differential conditioning procedure in which three neutral faces were paired with pictures of negative (raised middle finger, neutral (pointing, or positive (thumbs-up gestures. As expected, faces associated with the aversive hand gesture (raised middle finger elicited larger ssVEP amplitudes during conditioning. Moreover, theses faces were rated as to be more arousing and unpleasant. These results suggest that cortical engagement in response to faces aversively conditioned with nonverbal gestures is facilitated in order to establish persistent vigilance for social threat-related cues. This form of social conditioning allows to establish a predictive relationship between social stimuli and motivationally relevant outcomes.

  14. Raising the dead without a Red Sea-Dead Sea canal? Hydro-economics and governance

    D. E. Rosenberg

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Seven decades of extractions have dramatically reduced Jordan River flows, lowered the Dead Sea level, opened sink holes, and caused other environmental problems. The fix Jordan, Israel, and the Palestinians propose would build an expensive multipurpose canal from the Red Sea to the Dead Sea that would also generate hydropower and desalinated water. This paper compares the Red-Dead project to alternatives that may also raise the Dead Sea level. Hydro-economic model results for the Jordan-Israel-Palestinian inter-tied water systems show two restoration alternatives are more economically viable than the proposed Red-Dead project. Many decentralized new supply, wastewater reuse, conveyance, conservation, and leak reduction projects and programs in each country can together increase economic benefits and reliably deliver up to 900 MCM/year to the Dead Sea. Similarly, a smaller Red-Dead project that only generates hydropower can deliver large flows to the Dead Sea when the sale price of generated electricity is sufficiently high. However, for all restoration options, net benefits fall and water scarcity rises as flows to the Dead Sea increase. This finding suggests (i each country has no individual incentive to return water to the Dead Sea, and (ii outside institutions that seek to raise the Dead must also offer countries direct incentives to deliver water to the Sea besides building the countries new infrastructure.

  15. Raising the Dead without a Red Sea-Dead Sea project? Hydro-economics and governance

    D. E. Rosenberg

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Seven decades of extractions have dramatically reduced Jordan River flows, lowered the Dead Sea level, opened sink holes, and caused other environmental problems. The fix Jordan, Israel, and the Palestinians propose would build an expensive multipurpose conveyance project from the Red Sea to the Dead Sea that would also generate hydropower and desalinate water. This paper compares the Red-Dead project to alternatives that may also raise the Dead Sea level. Hydro-economic model results for the Jordan-Israel-Palestinian inter-tied water systems show two restoration alternatives are more economically viable than the proposed Red-Dead project. Many decentralized new supply, wastewater reuse, conveyance, conservation, and leak reduction projects and programs in each country can together increase economic benefits and reliably deliver up to 900 MCM yr−1 to the Dead Sea. Similarly, a smaller Red-Dead project that only generates hydropower can deliver large flows to the Dead Sea when the sale price of generated electricity is sufficiently high. However, for all restoration options, net benefits fall and water scarcity rises as flows to the Dead Sea increase. This finding suggests (i each country has no individual incentive to return water to the Dead Sea, and (ii outside institutions that seek to raise the Dead must also offer countries direct incentives to deliver water to the Sea besides building the countries new infrastructure.

  16. Short, sharp shock public health campaign had limited impact on raising awareness of laryngeal cancer.

    Sethi, Neeraj; Rafferty, Amy; Rawnsley, Trisha; Jose, Jemy

    2016-09-01

    Laryngeal cancer has poorer outcomes if diagnosed at a later stage. Improving awareness could encourage earlier presentation and improve outcomes. This study aimed to evaluate a public engagement campaign targeted at raising awareness of laryngeal cancer. An epidemiological study identified high-risk populations in the region. A target population as well as a matched control population was selected. A cancer awareness survey combined with focus groups guided the design of a 3-month multimedia campaign. The survey was repeated post-campaign to evaluate the campaign effectiveness. The study identified populations with the highest rates of laryngeal cancer and late stage disease at presentation. The surveys performed revealed a limited effect of the multimedia campaign in raising awareness of the signs and symptoms of laryngeal cancer. Recall of the campaign also faded rapidly. This is the first public awareness campaign aimed at laryngeal cancer carried out in the UK. The results suggest that short-term campaigns have a limited effect and a more prolonged approach should be considered. PMID:26573156

  17. Raising Genomic Citizens: Adolescents and the Return of Secondary Genomic Findings.

    Sabatello, Maya; Appelbaum, Paul S

    2016-06-01

    Whole genome and exome sequencing (WGS/WES) techniques raise hope for a new scale of diagnosis, prevention, and prediction of genetic conditions, and improved care for children. For these hopes to materialize, extensive genomic research with children will be needed. However, the use of WGS/WES in pediatric research settings raises considerable challenges for families, researchers, and policy development. In particular, the possibility that these techniques will generate genetic findings unrelated to the primary goal of sequencing has stirred intense debate about whether, which, how, and when these secondary or incidental findings (SFs) should be returned to parents and minors. The debate is even more pronounced when the subjects are adolescents, for whom decisions about return of SFs may have particular implications. In this paper, we consider the rise of "genomic citizenship" and the main challenges that arise for these stakeholders: adolescents' involvement in decisions relating to return of genomic SFs, the types of SFs that should be offered, privacy protections, and communication between researchers and adolescents about SFs. We argue that adolescents' involvement in genomic SF-related decisions acknowledges their status as valuable stakeholders without detracting from broader familial interests, and promotes more informed genomic citizens. PMID:27338605

  18. Free radical scavenging potential of in vitro raised and greenhouse acclimatized plants of Artemisia amygdalina

    R.Rasool; B.A.Ganai; S.Akbar; A.N.Kamili

    2013-01-01

    AIM:Artemisia amygdalina Decne.(Asteraceae) is a critically endangered and endemic herb of Kashmir Himalayan sub-alpine region and Pakistan.Scientific research throughout the world has evidence to support the tremendous medicinal utility of the genus Artemisia.The natural resources of medicinal plants are being reduced day by day.This study provides the alternative way for medicinal resource utilization and conservation of A.amygdalina.METHODS:In vitro-raised plants and greenhouse acclimatized plants were obtained by culturing wild explants on Murashige and Skoog's medium.Plant extracts were obtained and subjected to different antioxidant assays:DPPH assay,riboflavin photo-oxidation assay,deoxy ribose assay,ferric thiocyanate assay,thiobarbituric acid assay,post mitochondrial supernatant assay and DNA damage on agarose gel.RESULTS:In vitro grown plants,as well as those acclimatized in the greenhouse reveals antioxidant activity against hydroxyl,superoxide,and lipid peroxyl radicals.CONCLUSION:This preliminary study revealed the free radical scavenging potential of tissue culture-raised plant extracts of A.amydalina.

  19. Raising Climate Finance from International Transport Sectors. Identification and Analysis of Governance Structures

    Faber, J. [CE Delft, Delft (Netherlands); Pahuja, N.; Garg, A. [The Energy and Resources Institute TERI, New Delhi (India)

    2012-03-15

    Market based instruments (MBIs) for maritime transport have the potential to reduce emissions while at the same time raising funds for climate policies in developing countries. GHG emissions from international aviation and maritime transport accounted for approximately 5% of global anthropogenic emissions in 2005 and are rising rapidly. There is a clear need to address these emissions in order not to undermine policies for mitigating land based emissions. Developing countries need financial support to carry out climate policies, both adaptation and mitigation. The UN Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) makes policies by developing countries conditional on climate finance. In the current economic and financial circumstances, there is a need for new sources of finance. The governance of such MBIs should ensure that they are neither an international tax nor require hypothecation of fiscal revenues, while they should provide new and additional finance. MBIs which are in fact an international tax would not be politically feasible, and likewise hypothecation would be opposed by many states. This report finds that an emissions trading scheme (ETS) can satisfy these criteria, provided that: (1) it transfers a share of allowances directly to developing countries in order to ensure there is no net incidence on them; developing countries could auction these allowances in order to raise revenue; (2) it transfers allowances to the Green Climate Fund to support climate policies; auctioning these allowances would provide revenues for the Fund; (3) it transfers allowances to IMO or another organisation in order to finance fuel-efficiency improvements in international transport.

  20. Material Development to Raise Awareness of Using Smart Boards: An Example Design and Development Research

    Serpil Günaydin

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to develop training material that will help raise awareness in prospective teachers regarding the benefits of using smart boards in the classroom. In this study, a Type 2 design and development research method (DDR was used. The material was developed by applying phases of ADDIE – an instructional systems design model. The development process was informed by Mayer’s multimedia design principles and Gagné’s instructional events. The subject and the target group of the research was defined at the stage of needs analysis. Powtoon, an online content development tool, was used to produce multimedia material with the aim of raising awareness regarding the benefits of using smart boards in the classroom. An expert instructional designer guided the entire process of the material development. Upon completion of the development phase, three field experts were consulted and improvements were then conducted in compliance with their suggestions. Next, the material was presented to 39 teacher candidates. After they reviewed the material, their opinions were collected. These opinions were analyzed under four aspects: message, visual, sound, and overall effect. The material reached its final form following the applications of ameliorations in line with observations conducted during its application and the feedback given by the teacher candidates. Participants of the study stated that the material, on the whole, was impressive, beneficial, and captivating.

  1. Synanthropization of the Baltic-type raised bog “Roby” (NW Poland

    Sotek Zofia

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Raised and transitional peat bogs, despite their considerable resistance to synanthropization, as a result of anthropogenic transformations are exposed to the colonisation by alien species. One of them is the peatland “Roby”, where, in the years 2007-2009 and 2014, floristic, phytosociological and soil studies were carried out in order to record the signs of ongoing synanthropization. Conducted observations and analyses indicated that the expansion of willows has taken place and at present they occupy a large part of the bog, encroaching into bog birch forest and successfully competing with Myrica gale. Progressive peat mineralisation and constructed surfaced roads within the bog, contributed to the appearance and wide distribution of synanthropic species, such as: Urtica dioica, Impatiens parviflora and Spiraea salicifolia. Raised bog communities and their characteristic species occur on a few fragments of the bog, in north-western part, where water regime is shaped mainly by precipitation and peat deposit is fairly well-preserved. At the same time, in the patches of these communities, a distinct unfavourable increase in the share of Molinia caerulea is observed.

  2. Raising the Dead without a Red Sea-Dead Sea project? Hydro-economics and governance

    Rosenberg, D. E.

    2011-04-01

    Seven decades of extractions have dramatically reduced Jordan River flows, lowered the Dead Sea level, opened sink holes, and caused other environmental problems. The fix Jordan, Israel, and the Palestinians propose would build an expensive multipurpose conveyance project from the Red Sea to the Dead Sea that would also generate hydropower and desalinate water. This paper compares the Red-Dead project to alternatives that may also raise the Dead Sea level. Hydro-economic model results for the Jordan-Israel-Palestinian inter-tied water systems show two restoration alternatives are more economically viable than the proposed Red-Dead project. Many decentralized new supply, wastewater reuse, conveyance, conservation, and leak reduction projects and programs in each country can together increase economic benefits and reliably deliver up to 900 MCM yr-1 to the Dead Sea. Similarly, a smaller Red-Dead project that only generates hydropower can deliver large flows to the Dead Sea when the sale price of generated electricity is sufficiently high. However, for all restoration options, net benefits fall and water scarcity rises as flows to the Dead Sea increase. This finding suggests (i) each country has no individual incentive to return water to the Dead Sea, and (ii) outside institutions that seek to raise the Dead must also offer countries direct incentives to deliver water to the Sea besides building the countries new infrastructure.

  3. Raising the dead without a Red Sea-Dead Sea canal? Hydro-economics and governance

    Rosenberg, D. E.

    2010-12-01

    Seven decades of extractions have dramatically reduced Jordan River flows, lowered the Dead Sea level, opened sink holes, and caused other environmental problems. The fix Jordan, Israel, and the Palestinians propose would build an expensive multipurpose canal from the Red Sea to the Dead Sea that would also generate hydropower and desalinated water. This paper compares the Red-Dead project to alternatives that may also raise the Dead Sea level. Hydro-economic model results for the Jordan-Israel-Palestinian inter-tied water systems show two restoration alternatives are more economically viable than the proposed Red-Dead project. Many decentralized new supply, wastewater reuse, conveyance, conservation, and leak reduction projects and programs in each country can together increase economic benefits and reliably deliver up to 900 MCM/year to the Dead Sea. Similarly, a smaller Red-Dead project that only generates hydropower can deliver large flows to the Dead Sea when the sale price of generated electricity is sufficiently high. However, for all restoration options, net benefits fall and water scarcity rises as flows to the Dead Sea increase. This finding suggests (i) each country has no individual incentive to return water to the Dead Sea, and (ii) outside institutions that seek to raise the Dead must also offer countries direct incentives to deliver water to the Sea besides building the countries new infrastructure.

  4. Work performed by a Classical-"reversible"-Carnot cycle Raising's distribution for the small "driving weights"

    Liberto, F

    2000-01-01

    The expansions or the compressions of the ideal gas in the quasi-static Carnot cycle, can be performed (on adiabatic or isothermal way) by slowly increasing or decreasing the external pressure by means of small weights acting on the piston of the vessel containing the gas. We call them shortly the ``driving weights'' (dw). Let N be their number, a large one. To determine the work performed by the ideal gas in the cycle the ``driving weights'' must be handled carefully. If we let them move on-off the piston only horizontally, their vertical motions will be due only to the gas. Here we show that, at the end, while some of them will have moved down (will have negative raising) the remaining ones (the majority) will have moved up (will have positive raising) so that the total work performed by the ideal gas equals the total variation of the gravitational potential energy of the ``driving weghts''. The cycle is performed in 2N time-steps. For each step t_i, with i in 1,..,2N, we give H(t_i), and DH(t_{i-1},t_i), r...

  5. Development of survival skills in captive-raised Siberian polecats (Mustela eversmanni) I: locating prey

    Miller, Brian; Biggins, Dean; Wemmer, Chris; Powell, Roger; Hanebury, Lou; Horn, Deborah; Vargas, Astrid

    1990-01-01

    Captive-raised mustelids appear to have a rudimentary capacity to kill prey, but the skills necessary for locating prey may be eroded during captivity. We tested the maturational component of prey-searching behavior with captive-raised Siberian polecats (Mustela eversmanni) by subjecting polecats to a simulated prairie dog colony of 6 burrows within a 200 m2 arena. Ten naive Siberian polecats at ages 2.5, 3.5, and 4.5 months (30 total) were deprived of food for 12 hours. A dead prairie dog was placed in 1 prairie dog burrow and the other 5 were empty. A single Siberian polecat was released onto the colony shortly before sunset and its movements monitored from an observation tower. Older Siberian polecats located prey significantly quicker than younger polecats, but all age groups spent a great deal of time in surface activity not directed toward a burrow. When Siberian polecats were about 10 months old, all burrows in the arena were plugged with dirt including the burrow with the prairie dog. In this winter test, Siberian polecats located the prey but still spent a great deal of time in non-burrow directed surface activity. Economical use of surface time, with a low amount of non-burrow directed behavior, would presumably reduce the risk of predation for hunting polecats.

  6. A RAISED PANEL METHOD BASED ON NURBS FOR FREE-SURFACE POTENTIAL FLOWS WITH FORWARD SPEED

    Gao Gao; Ma Ling

    2003-01-01

    A raised panel method based on NURBS (Non-Uniform Rational B-Splines) for free-surface flows with forward speed is presented. In this generalized panel method, NURBS are employed to represent the body geometry, disturbed free surface, and to express the unknown source strength distribution, on the body surface and above the free surface. Compared with common higher-order panel methods, it has no need of adopting local coordinates. NURBS make the geometry representation of the body shape and the wave pattern more precise. Raised panels above the free surface produce less numerical dispersion error, need less CPU consumption and are helpful and combined with collocation-point shifting up-stream, can satisfy the radiation condition numerically. By using continuous and discrete Fourier analysis, numerical errors of this method are discussed and a general expression for the errors of numerical damping and dispersion, including the effects of the vertical distance of singularities to the free surface, the order of singularity distribution represented by B-splines in panels, and collocation-point shifting is derived.

  7. Detection of multidrug resistance Aeromonas hydrophila in farm raised fresh water prawns

    Md. Bakhtiar Lijon

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This study was undertaken for isolation, identification and determination of antibiogram profile of Aeromonas hydrophila in farm raised fresh water prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii on five commercial ghers. Fresh water prawns (n=25 were collected from five ghers located at Satkhira, Bagerhat and Khulna districts of Bangladesh. Brain (n=25, muscle (n=25 and intestine (n=25 samples were collected aseptically from fresh water prawn and inoculated into alkaline peptone (APW water for enrichment at 37℃ for 8 h. Enriched cultured was streaked into Thiosulfate Citrate Bile Salt Sucrose (TCBS agar to isolate bacteria. Bacteria were identified by cultural, Gram staining, biochemical properties and polymerase chain reaction (PCR assay. The antibiogram profiles of bacteria were investigated against 5 commonly used antibiotics (Gentamicin, Cefalexin, Ampicillin, Azithromycin and Ciprofloxacin by disc diffusion method. Thirteen A. hydrophila isolates were identified and the prevalence of the A. hydrophila in fresh water prawn was 17.33%. All 13 (100% isolates were sensitive to Ciprofloxacin, Gentamicin, Azithromycin and resistant to Ampicillin and Cefalexin. The results of this study indicate that farm raised fresh water prawn harbor multidrug resistant A. hydrophila which might causes public health problem if enter into human food chain.

  8. How Could Agricultural Land Systems Contribute to Raise Food Production Under Global Change?

    WU Wen-bin; YU Qiang-yi; Verburg H Peter; YOU Liang-zhi; YANG Peng; TANG Hua-jun

    2014-01-01

    To feed the increasing world population, more food needs to be produced from agricultural land systems. Solutions to produce more food with fewer resources while minimizing adverse environmental and ecological consequences require sustainable agricultural land use practices as supplementary to advanced biotechnology and agronomy. This review paper, from a land system perspective, systematically proposed and analyzed three interactive strategies that could possibly raise future food production under global change. By reviewing the current literatures, we suggest that cropland expansion is less possible amid iferce land competition, and it is likely to do less in increasing food production. Moreover, properly allocating crops in space and time is a practical way to ensure food production. Climate change, dietary shifts, and other socio-economic drivers, which would shape the demand and supply side of food systems, should be taken into consideration during the decision-making on rational land management in respect of sustainable crop choice and allocation. And ifnally, crop-speciifc agricultural intensiifcation would play a bigger role in raising future food production either by increasing the yield per unit area of individual crops or by increasing the number of crops sown on a particular area of land. Yet, only when it is done sustainably is this a much more effective strategy to maximize food production by closing yield and harvest gaps.

  9. Consequences of raising the height of a landfill in a water-deficient climate.

    Blight, G E

    2005-01-01

    A large-scale field experiment has been carried out at the Coastal Park landfill which serves the City of Cape Town, South Africa. The landfill is unlined, and the City Council was under pressure from the central Government to cap and close the existing landfill and to establish an extension to the landfill with a lining to prevent the escape of leachate into the ground water. Measuring cells, installed to measure the rate of leachate flow from the landfill had shown that over a period of 9 years, from 1987 to 1995, leachate flow had averaged only 2% of rainfall. It therefore appeared possible, by increasing the moisture absorption capacity of the landfill, i.e., by increasing its height, to stop the leachate flow completely. If this could be achieved, there would be no need for a lining, and the raising would considerably extend the life of the landfill. The paper describes the experiment and its results, including the effects of the raising on leachate flow, settlement, leachate quality and the potential for polluting ground water, and the landfill's water balance. PMID:15961303

  10. Household Animal Raising Behaviour in China’s Developed Regions: The Case of Zhejiang Province

    Liu, Xi-An; Zhou, Zhang-Yue; Teng, Hua-Yong; Guo, Qing-Fang

    2002-01-01

    Due to the dominant role of household animal raising in China’s animal production, an improved understanding of household animal raising practices is essential to study China’s feedgrain markets. It is also noted that the level of local economic development affects animal raising practices and the development of feedgrain markets. This paper reports the findings from a rural household survey we conducted in a developed coastal province of China. It was specially designed to examine issues...

  11. Evaluation of the performance of two strains of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis Niloticus in mixed raising systems

    Patrícia Ribeiro Neves

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the productive performance of two strains of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus in mixed raising systems. A total of 3600 fish-larvae species was used, 1800 belonging to Bouaké lineage, and 1800 to Chitralada. The experiment was carried out in three phases; Phase I in an incubator in 18 boxes, in which two treatments (Bouaké and Chitralada were tested by using nine repetitions; Phases II and III were performed in 18 cement tanks with the same treatments. In phase I, regarding the final weight and gain of weight, Chitralada strain showed the highest final weight values. In phase II, Chitralada showed the highest final weight value when compared with Bouaké, and, considering the gain of weight, Bouaké obtained the best result. In phase III, Chitralada showed better final weight results (104 days of raising, final weight, final length and gain of length/cm (152 days of raising; but, after 279 days of the cultivation, Bouaké showed a higher weight and length gain. These findings showed that Chitralada strain presented the best performance.O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o desempenho produtivo de duas linhagens de tilápia do Nilo (Oreochromis niloticus em sistemas de cultivo misto. Foram utilizados 3600 alevinos de tilápia, 1800 da linhagem Bouaké e 1800 da Chitralada. O experimento foi conduzido em três fases, a Fase I realizada em estufa em 18 caixas, nas quais foram testados dois tratamentos (Bouaké e Chitralada e nove repetições; e a Fase II e III realizadas em 18 tanques de alvenaria, com os mesmos tratamentos. Na fase I, a linhagem Chitralada apresentou os maiores valores para peso final e ganho em peso. Na fase II, a Chitralada apresentou o maior valor para peso final em relação à Bouaké, já para o ganho em peso a Bouaké obteve o melhor resultado. Na fase III, a Chitralada apresentou os melhores resultados para peso final (104 dias de cultivo; peso final, comprimento final e ganho

  12. Reduction of emissions from Brazilian cattle raising and the generation of energy: Intensification and confinement potentials

    The identification of the main sources of anthropic greenhouse gas emissions (GHG) associated with the mitigation and removal of these emissions has become an important instrument in the attenuation of the climatic changes predicted by the IPCC. The largest emission source in Brazil is forest conversion. This land use change has always had a strong relationship with the expansion of agriculture, an activity of great importance in the country, which has the largest commercial cattle herd in the planet. Following the considerable reduction in emissions from deforestation, agriculture has been since 2010 the most important source (MCTI (Ministério da Ciência, Tecnologia e Inovação), 2013. Brasília: Ministério daCiência, Tecnologia e Inovação, Brasil). Seeking to discover the possibilities of altering the emissions profile in the agricultural sector, four scenarios were developed related to how this is dealt with in the beef cattle sector, calculating the potential removal of carbon from the atmosphere through natural regeneration of biomes. The results suggest that picketing and rotation scenario has the greatest potential, with a carbon reduction of 17.7 Gt CO2eq, while the shared raising with grain legumes scenario has the lowest calculated reduction potential of 7.1 Gt CO2eq was calculated. The animal confinement scenario had an intermediary reduction potential of 8.3 Gt CO2eq. The mosaic of methods scenario, in which it is attempted to simulate the parallel adoption of the measures proposed in all other scenarios, had a reduction potential of 13.1 Gt CO2eq. In the scenarios where animal confinement occurs, the treatment of waste with biodigestion allows the generation of biogas and biofertilizers, contributing to an increase in the potential carbon reduction. - Highlights: • We identify one main source of anthropic GHG in Brazil after forest conversion (deforestation), the beef cattle raising. • Four scenarios to mitigate emissions from cattle raising

  13. "Social Crimes": Understandings of HIV/AIDS as a Disease Among Grandparents Raising Grandchildren in Vietnam.

    Harris, Lesley M; Boggiano, Victoria; Nguyen, Duy Thang

    2016-10-01

    Grandparent caregivers are vital to the survival of grandchildren who are orphaned and who have been affected by HIV/AIDS. The purpose of this qualitative study was to understand the meaning of HIV as a disease among grandparents raising grandchildren orphaned by HIV/AIDS in northern Vietnam and to gain insight into how this understanding affected grandparents' relationships and health-seeking decisions. Results indicated that grandparents had knowledge deficits about the biomedical aspects of the disease and often hid their grandchildren's HIV status or preferred not to seek testing. Effective interventions must address stigma reduction, family relationships, and access to health care to increase testing and treatment of grandchildren. PMID:27218419

  14. CATTLE BREEDING AND TERRITORY: A SURVEY ON THE MAREMMANA BREED RAISED IN TUSCANY

    Roberto FRATINI

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to highlight the importance of a cattle race native in an area of the territory of Tuscany. The Maremmana breed is a valuable breed raised in the pastures that stretch between southern Tuscany and northern Lazio. A sample of 12 farms was analyzed through direct interview, carried out at the farm. The farms surveyed implement organic farming, according to precise rules. The aspect that mostly catches in the interviews is that the only livestock activity is not sufficient for economic development of this rural area; in fact most of the farms perform multi-functional, practicing agritourism activities. In terms of remuneration of the factors of production used in animal husbandry it seems that especially farms with few animals require the integration of agricultural income with other business activities.

  15. Bog discharge from different viewpoints: comparison of Ingram's theory with observations from an Estonian raised bog

    Oosterwoud, Marieke; van der Ploeg, Martine; van der Zee, Sjoerd

    2013-04-01

    Raised bogs are typically dome shaped and have a groundwater level located close to the soil surface. Besides their typical dome shape, these peatlands are often characterized by a pronounced surface topography consisting of pools, wet depressions (hollows), stretches of Sphagnum species (lawns), drier mounds (hummocks) and higher drier areas with terrestrial vegetation (ridges). These peat bodies drain laterally by gravity to adjacent areas with lower groundwater levels. The integrity of these bogs is only ascertained when water is stored in the peat body in periods of precipitation deficit and efficiently removed in wet periods. This is realized by the fact that the bog's top layer, often called acrotelm, has a variable hydraulic conductivity. In response to precipitation its hydraulic conductivity increases, whereas, under evaporative demand the water table lowers and therefore also the hydraulic conductivity decreases. Ingram proposed a model based on the Dupuit-Forchheimer approximation for Darcy's law that assumes vertical flow is negligible, and the slope of the water table is equal to the hydraulic gradient. U- Hm2- K = L2 (1) where U is net recharge (P-ET), K is horizontal hydraulic conductivity, Hm is hydraulic head above a flat bottom at the centre of the bog, L is half the width of the bog along the cross section. This model incorporates the assumption that all net rainfall reaching the water table will be discharged to the stream. Ingram's model does not consider local heterogeneities in surface topography, like pool-ridge patterns. We hypothesize that under drier conditions it is likely that pool-ridge patterning will inhibit water from flowing along the surface gradient. Under wet conditions, however, pools can become connected and water can move through the upper highly permeable layer of ridges. In this study, we investigated the influence of ridge-pool patterning on the horizontal water flow through a raised bog and compared it with Ingram

  16. Radioactivity studies on farm raised and wild catfish produced in Mississippi, USA

    To understand the contribution of radiation dose to human from consumption of catfish, a comparative radiological assessment study was performed on farm and river raised fish. Gamma spectroscopic analyses of catfish indicated the presence of isotopes of 40K, 226Ra, and 228Ra with activity values of 99.4 ± 14.5, 0.41 ± 0.05, and 0.89 ± 0.08 Bq kg-1 respectively in farm catfish and 101 ± 15.7, 0.47 ± 0.05, and 0.97 ± 0.050 Bq kg-1 respectively in river catfish. The measured activities in two sets of samples were statistically compared using a two-tailed t test at 95 % confidence interval and results indicated that activities of 226Ra and 228Ra were significantly different. (author)

  17. Density profiles in the raise and peel model with and without a wall; physics and combinatorics

    We consider the raise and peel model of a one-dimensional fluctuating interface in the presence of an attractive wall. The model can also describe a pair annihilation process in disordered unquenched media with a source at one end of the system. For the stationary states, several density profiles are studied using Monte Carlo simulations. We point out a deep connection between some profiles seen in the presence of the wall and in its absence. Our results are discussed in the context of conformal invariance (c = 0 theory). We discover some unexpected values for the critical exponents, which are obtained using combinatorial methods. We have solved known (Pascal's hexagon) and new (split-hexagon) bilinear recurrence relations. The solutions of these equations are interesting in their own right since they give information on certain classes of alternating sign matrices

  18. Grammar Consciousness-Raising Activities and Iranian EFL Learners' Attitudes toward English Language

    Farrokhlagha Heidari

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The first purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of consciousness-raising (C-R activities on learning grammatical structures by Iranian EFL learners. The second one was to investigate the effect of gender through C-R activities and tasks. Finally, this study wanted to investigate the Iranian students’ attitudes toward learning English prior to and after applying the C-R activities. An attitude questionnaire was use to investigate the participants' attitudes toward learning English before and after applying C-R activities. Data analysis indicated that using C-R activities in is significantly more effective than the traditional approaches. Regarding gender, male outperformed females. Therefore, it is recommended that other teachers consider C-R activities as useful options in teaching other aspects of language.  Based on the statistics and findings, Iranian students’ attitudes toward learning English language were not much different prior to and after applying C-R activities.

  19. BEHAVIOURAL DESCRIPTION OF Sapajus nigritus (GOLDFUSS, 1809 RAISED IN CAPTIVITY AT IPATINGA, MG

    Felipe Santana Machado

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The maintenance of animals in captivity is one of the many ways of species preservation and allows studies that are often unattainable under natural conditions. Primate’s behavior and ecology studies supply tools for the development of conservation and management strategies. Consequently, the current research aimed to describe the patterns of behavior of a capuchin monkey, Sapajus nigritus, group raised in captivity at the Biodiversity Center of Associação Esportiva e Recreativa at Ipatinga, MG, Brazil. The Scan Sample was used with five minutes intervals. Ad libitum and Focal Animal were the complementary sampling. Twenty-three behavioral categories were recorded; this is considered average when compared to other ethograms. The behavioral class with greater prominence was foraging, however the different categories of behavior suggest a complex capacity of intra-specific interaction. The information serves as basic tools for the formulation of conservation strategies, management and to the comprehension of ecological interactions.

  20. How high the temperature of a liquid be raised without boiling?

    Das, M; Roy, B; Roy, S C; Das, Mala

    2000-01-01

    How high the temperature of a liquid be raised beyond its boiling point without vaporizing (known as the limit of superheat) is an interesting subject of investigation. A new method of finding the limit of superheat of liquids is presented here. The superheated liquids are taken in the form of drops suspended in visco elastic gel. The nucleation is detected acoustically by a sensitive piezo-electric transducer, coupled to a multi channel scaler and the nucleation is observed as a funtion of time and with increase of temperature. The limit of superheat measured by the present method supersedes all other measurements and theoretical predictions in reaching closest to the critical temperature and warrants improved theoretical predictions.

  1. Policy issues raised by intervenor requests for financial assistance in NRC proceedings

    The purpose of the report presented is to focus and develop the myriad issues raised by intervenor requests for financial assistance for the NRC's proposed rulemaking proceeding. The report analyzes and assesses the various alternatives open to the Commission, and collects relevant data and material which may be informative to those participating in and conducting the rulemaking. Three major questions are examined: (1) should the Commission, as a matter of policy choice, provide financial assistance to intervenors in NRC proceedings; (2) are there preferable alternatives to direct intervenor financial aid, such as the establishment of an office of public counsel or provision of other forms of Commission assistance; and (3) what are the legal, administrative and policy considerations involved in implementing a determination to award financial assistance to intervenors, should the Commission so decide

  2. Technology Solutions Case Study: Raised Ceiling Interior Duct System, New Smyrna, Florida

    None

    2014-09-01

    Builder S.E. Volusia County Habitat for Humanity (SEVHFH) was interested in constructing a home to the new U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Zero Energy Ready Home standards. SEVHFH partners with DOE team Building America Partnership for Improved Residential Construction on Habitat for Humanity homes and routinely builds to ENERGY STAR V3.1. The only modification to the design needed to comply with the Zero Energy Ready Home criteria was the interior duct requirement. Unwilling to incur the added costs of a foam roof deck or wall heights that exceed 8 ft to accommodate a fur-down chase, SEVHFH opted to build a fur-up or raised ceiling chase. This case study describes the project.

  3. Raising energy efficiency and cutting greenhouse gas emissions : an analysis of publicly funded petroleum research

    NONE

    2012-11-01

    From the preface: This brochure is based on an analysis study that ascertained that since 2004 the Research Council's PETROMAKS and DEMO 2000 programmes have allocated funding to more than 80 projects carried out by the research community and private industry relating to climate challenges. Once these projects have been concluded, they will have received a total of over half a billion kroner in public funding. There is no doubt that many of the measures recommended by these projects will have positive impacts on the environment. Many of these research findings can contribute to making processes more energy efficient or to directly reducing emissions of greenhouse gases. The brochure presents a selection of these projects. A complete list of projects under the PETROMAKS and DEMO 2000 programmes which address raising energy efficiency may be found at the end of the brochure.(eb)

  4. Raising Backyard Poultry in Rural Bangladesh: Financial and Nutritional Benefits, but Persistent Risky Practices

    Shanta, I. S.; Hasnat, Md A.; Zeidner, N.;

    2016-01-01

    480%. Yearly, median family consumption of eggs was one-fifth of the total produced eggs and three poultry from their own flock. Respondents’ reported practices conflicted with government recommendations. Sixty per cent of raisers had never heard of avian influenza or ‘bird flu’. Among the respondents...... interviewed the raisers to collect data on poultry-raising practices. They followed the raisers for 2–12 months to collect data on household income and nutrition from poultry. Income from backyard poultry flocks accounted for 2.8% of monthly household income. Return on annual investment (ROI) per flock was...... avian influenza transmission did not impact the behaviour of poultry producers. Further research should prioritize developing interventions that simultaneously reduce the risk of avian influenza transmission and increase productivity of backyard poultry....

  5. “ECHOES OF SILENCE, RAISING OUR VOICES”: LOCAL TRANSLATIONS OF WOMEN´S HUMAN RIGHTS

    María del Pilar Tudela Vázquez

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Women´s Human Rights are often conceived from global frameworks and, –in universalist terms- to be locally applied. This exercise of “translation” demands us to situate our analysis on those spaces where it is shaped, addressing those different discourses and social actors involved. We find a good example in the grassroots women movements, actively inserted in the political context to propose an intersectional analysis that allows us to contextualize and multiply gender experiences. This work is located in United States and carried out in spaces of creative tension, allowing us to address the dynamics that intervene in local translation of Women´s Human Rights. This study is focused on the work developed by the collective “Mujeres Unidas y Activas” through its campaign “Echoes of the Silence: Raising our Voices” as an example of local translation of Human Rights

  6. Raising money with tax incentives: an overview of how U.S. tax credits are marketed

    This article outlines a method for using certain U.S. income tax credits to raise investment capital. With proper structuring, these tax credits can essentially be ''sold'' to outside investors. A project which may not have sufficient income to take advantage of tax benefits, such as the 29 alternative fuel credit, may sell an interest in the project to commercial investors who can use tax credits. The investors provide cash for the project in return for the tax credits, as well as a portion of the income generated by the project. This article outlines how this type of arrangement can be structured and which tax credits are available for ''sale''. It also identifies possible sources of investment money, issues that an investor will likely consider before investing in such a project, and the potential pitfalls of such a project. (author)

  7. Local flow regulation and irrigation raise global human water consumption and footprint

    Jaramillo, Fernando; Destouni, Georgia

    2015-12-01

    Flow regulation and irrigation alter local freshwater conditions, but their global effects are highly uncertain. We investigated these global effects from 1901 to 2008, using hydroclimatic observations in 100 large hydrological basins. Globally, we find consistent and dominant effects of increasing relative evapotranspiration from both activities, and decreasing temporal runoff variability from flow regulation. The evapotranspiration effect increases the long-term average human consumption of fresh water by 3563 ± 979 km3/year from 1901-1954 to 1955-2008. This increase raises a recent estimate of the current global water footprint of humanity by around 18%, to 10,688 ± 979 km3/year. The results highlight the global impact of local water-use activities and call for their relevant account in Earth system modeling.

  8. Most frequent nematode parasites of artificially raised pheasants (Phasianus colchicus L and measures for their control

    Pavlović Ivan

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Helminthoses have an important role in the pathology of artificially raised game pheasants. During the period 1997-2002. we examined a total of 1893 pheasant poults aged from 4 to 14 weeks and 1432 adult birds at several pheasanteries in Serbia. The following nematode species were found: Syngamus trachea, Ascaridia galli, A. columbae, Heterakis gallinarum, H. isolonche Capillaria gallinae (sin. C. caudinflata, C. columbae (sin. C. obsignata and C. phasianis. The intensity of infection in total was not high, except for infection with ascaridata and gapeworms, and depended of age of the examined birds. Consisting of anthelmintic drugs mixed with meal gave the most favourable results in therapy on rhe medicated food.

  9. Mind the gap: the distributional effects of raising the early eligibility age and full retirement age.

    Olsen, Anya

    2012-01-01

    Policymakers have proposed increases to the early eligibility age (EEA) and/or full retirement age (FRA) to address increasing life expectancy and Social Security solvency issues. This analysis uses the Social Security Administration's Modeling Income in the Near Term, version 6 (MINT6) model to compare three retirement-age increases suggested by the Social Security Advisory Board: increase the gap between the EEA and FRA by raising only the FRA, increase both the EEA and FRA to maintain a 4-year gap between them, and increase both the EEA and FRA to maintain a 5-year gap between them. Although all three options would improve system solvency by similar proportions, their effect on individual beneficiaries in the future would vary. Benefit reductions are greater under the proposals with more months between the EEA and FRA, while the option that maintains a 4-year gap results in benefit increases for some beneficiaries compared with current law. PMID:23397744

  10. Economic growth to raise U.S. oil products, natural gas demand

    An accelerating economy will raise consumption of oil products and natural gas in the US this year. Contributing to demand growth will be the slump that began late last year in prices for crude oil and petroleum products. Some price recovery is likely in 1994, but there's little reason to expect a major increase. With oil production falling and demand rising, imports will have to climb again this year. OGJ projects a 2.6% increase this year following a 6.6% increase last year. Imports are expected to fill a record high 49.3% of US oil demand this year. The paper discusses energy and the economy, overall energy use, energy by source, the electrification trend, energy supplies, imports, refining operations, the growth of margins, and the energy demand of motor gasoline, jet fuel, distillate fuels, residual fuel oils, other petroleum products, and natural gas

  11. Removal of Cu and Zn from swine raising wastewater using organic filters.

    de Matos, A T; Brandão, V S; Neves, J C L; Martinez, M A

    2003-02-01

    Rice husks, coffee bean skins, sugar cane bagasse, maize cobs, saw dust and fine charcoal dust were evaluated as filters for the removal of heavy metals (Cu and Zn) from the waste water of swine raising installations. The specific mass, pH and the sum of bases and removable acids were determined to characterize each of the filter materials. Each filtering material was placed in a 100 mm diameter, 600 mm long, PVC column to a height of 500 mm under 12,500 N m(-2) of compression. Chemical and physical analyses were determined on effluent samples collected for each 1.5 l up to a total of 15 l. The organic materials reduced the concentration of sediment solids (> 90%), total solids (up to 33%) and Cu (up to 43.6%) of the inffluent but had little or no effect on Zn concentration. PMID:12666787

  12. Pig behaviour during the growth phase raised in an enriched environment

    Ezza Karolliny Ferreira Vasconcelos

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to evaluate the behavior of pigs raised in an enriched environment. The study was conducted in Sector Swine Technical College of Bom Jesus, belonging to the Campus Professor Cinobelina Elvas the Federal University of Piauí. Dose were used male piglets, hybrids between 35 and 105 days of age. The behavioral variables were evaluated: sleeping, standing, lying down, exploring, wallowing, drinking, eating, entertainment, digging, defecating, urinating, sitting, walking, vocalizing, biting, fighting and playing environment with and without environmental enrichment. It can be observed that there was significant difference at 5% probability for the variables standing, lying down, wallowing, eating, digging, urinating, playing and fighting. Thus, one can determine that the behavior of the pigs evaluated at the growth phase is influenced by the presence of environmental enrichment.

  13. Liberating minds: Consciousness-raising as a bridge between feminism and psychology in 1970s Canada.

    Ruck, Nora

    2015-08-01

    This article examines the interrelations between psychology and feminism in the work of feminist psychologists and radical feminists in Toronto in the early 1970s. For Canadian feminist psychology as well as for second-wave activism, Toronto was a particular hotspot. It was the academic home of some of the first Canadian feminist psychologists, and was the site of a lively scene of feminists working in established women's organizations along with younger socialist and radical feminists. This article analyzes the interrelations of academic feminist psychology and feminist activism by focusing on consciousness-raising, a practice that promised to bridge tensions between the personal and the political, psychological and social liberation, everyday knowledge and institutionalized knowledge production, theory and practice, as well as the women's movement and other spheres of women's lives. PMID:26375157

  14. Absence of tetrodotoxins in a captive-raised riparian frog, Atelopus varius.

    Daly, J W; Padgett, W L; Saunders, R L; Cover, J F

    1997-05-01

    Bufonid frogs of the genus Atelopus contain two classes of skin toxins, namely the steroidal bufadienolides and the water-soluble tetrodotoxins. Frogs of the Panamanian species Atelopus varius have now been raised in captivity and levels in skin extracts of bufadienolides and of tetrodotoxin-like compounds assessed, using inhibition of [3H]ouabain binding and inhibition of [3H]saxitoxin binding, respectively. Levels of ouabain equivalents, corresponding to bufadienolides, were comparable to those found in wild-caught frogs from the same population in Panama, while tetrodotoxin-like activity was undetectable. The results strongly implicate environmental factors, perhaps symbiotic microorganisms, in the genesis of tetrodotoxins in the skin of frogs of the genus Atelopus, while indicating that the frog itself produces the skin bufadienolides. PMID:9203295

  15. Developing a Translator from C Programs to Data Flow Graphs Using RAISE

    Haxthausen, Anne Elisabeth

    1996-01-01

    Describes how a translator from a subset of C to data flow graphs has been formally developed using the RAISE (Rigorous Approach to Industrial Software Engineering) method and tools. In contrast to many development examples described in the literature, this development is not a case study......, but a real one, and it covers all development phases, including the code-generation phase. The translator is now one of the components of the LYCOS (LYngby CO-Synthesis) system, which is a software/hardware co-synthesis system under development at the Technical University of Denmark. The translator, together...... with the other components of LYCOS, provides a means for moving parts of C programs to dedicated hardware, thereby obtaining better performance. The translator was refined in steps, starting with an abstract specification and ending with a concrete specification from which C++ code was then automatically...

  16. Difficulties in Raising Finance and Sources of Finance Available for SMEs

    范怡纯

    2015-01-01

    Compared with large sized enterprises,one of the chief characters of smal and medium enterprises(SMEs)is that the scale is smal and the power has been highly concentrated.Essential y , almost any smal enterprise manages their business independently.Thus,the initiative of the operator total y determines the motivation for profits.As the operators are sensitive to the changeable market,implementing the combination of the right of ownership and management control can help operators either save the supervision costs or make quick decisions.However,dif iculties in raising finance have secularly blocked the development of the SMEs.Therefore,it becomes a key issue for the growing of the SMEs that how to ef ectively improve the financing situation of SMEs.

  17. Raising awareness of amphibian Chytridiomycosis will not alienate ecotourists visiting Madagascar.

    Wollenberg, Katharina C; Jenkins, Richard K B; Randrianavelona, Roma; Ralisata, Mahefa; Rampilamanana, Roseline; Ramanandraibe, Andrianirina; Ravoahangimalala, Olga Ramilijaona; Vences, Miguel

    2010-06-01

    Chytridiomycosis (Bd) is contributing to amphibian extinctions worldwide but has so far not been detected in Madagascar. The high likelihood for Bd to spread to the island and efface this amphibian diversity and endemism hotspot requires respective conservation policies to be developed. Bd could be introduced by the large number of tourists that visit protected areas; therefore, increasing awareness among tourists and encouraging them to participate in safety measures should be a priority conservation action. However, concerns have been raised that tourists would not be able to distinguish between an amphibian disease harmless to humans and emerging diseases that would imply a danger for human health, invoking a negative image of Madagascar as an ecotourism destination. We evaluated whether informing tourists about this infectious animal disease would cause health scare and diminish trip satisfaction. Based on 659 respondents we found that most ecotourists favored to be informed about Bd and were proactive about participating in prevention measures, refuting previous concerns. PMID:20517634

  18. Faculty Pay Up 5.9 Pct. to $35,470; Best Raise in 15 Years, AAUP Says.

    Heller, Scott

    1987-01-01

    While faculty salaries rose more overall, there are continuing signs of salary compression, with lower-ranking faculty getting larger raises than higher-ranking faculty, and faculty continue to lose purchasing power. (MSE)

  19. Effects of ADMA upon gene expression: an insight into the pathophysiological significance of raised plasma ADMA.

    Caroline L Smith

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA is a naturally occurring inhibitor of nitric oxide synthesis that accumulates in a wide range of diseases associated with endothelial dysfunction and enhanced atherosclerosis. Clinical studies implicate plasma ADMA as a major novel cardiovascular risk factor, but the mechanisms by which low concentrations of ADMA produce adverse effects on the cardiovascular system are unclear. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We treated human coronary artery endothelial cells with pathophysiological concentrations of ADMA and assessed the effects on gene expression using U133A GeneChips (Affymetrix. Changes in several genes, including bone morphogenetic protein 2 inducible kinase (BMP2K, SMA-related protein 5 (Smad5, bone morphogenetic protein receptor 1A, and protein arginine methyltransferase 3 (PRMT3; also known as HRMT1L3, were confirmed by Northern blotting, quantitative PCR, and in some instances Western blotting analysis to detect changes in protein expression. To determine whether these changes also occurred in vivo, tissue from gene deletion mice with raised ADMA levels was examined. More than 50 genes were significantly altered in endothelial cells after treatment with pathophysiological concentrations of ADMA (2 microM. We detected specific patterns of changes that identify pathways involved in processes relevant to cardiovascular risk and pulmonary hypertension. Changes in BMP2K and PRMT3 were confirmed at mRNA and protein levels, in vitro and in vivo. CONCLUSION: Pathophysiological concentrations of ADMA are sufficient to elicit significant changes in coronary artery endothelial cell gene expression. Changes in bone morphogenetic protein signalling, and in enzymes involved in arginine methylation, may be particularly relevant to understanding the pathophysiological significance of raised ADMA levels. This study identifies the mechanisms by which increased ADMA may contribute to common cardiovascular diseases and

  20. Raising healthy children: examining the impact of promoting healthy driving behavior within a social development intervention.

    Haggerty, Kevin P; Fleming, Charles B; Catalano, Richard F; Harachi, Tracy W; Abbott, Robert D

    2006-09-01

    This study evaluated the impact of two targeted family sessions focused on driving issues delivered within the context of the Raising Healthy Children project. The Raising Healthy Children project began in the fall of 1993, drawing students in the 1st or 2nd grades from 10 schools. Schools were assigned to an intervention or control condition, and the school-wide, family- and student-focused preventive intervention to address developmentally salient risk and protective factors was delivered during elementary and middle school. The family driving sessions were administered to families in the intervention condition prior to and after teenagers received their driver's license. The first session consisted of a home visit with families designed to help parents and their children improve decision-making skills concerning driving and to develop clear standards and expectations regarding driving-related behavior. A second session, at the time of licensure, was designed to help parents and teens develop a written contract that stated family expectations, a plan for monitoring compliance with these expectations, and consequences for compliance or non-compliance. Consistent with the study's group-randomized design, intervention effects were assessed with multi-level logistic regression models in which students were grouped by their original school assignment. These models assessed specific effects of the driving sessions by adjusting for control variables measured when students were in 8th grade, prior to the driving sessions. Results indicated that students in the intervention group were more likely than students in the control group to report that they had a written driving contract (p = .003, OR = 4.98), and had participated in making the driving rules in the family (p = .025, OR = 1.70). Further, students in the intervention group reported significantly fewer risky behaviors including driving under the influence of alcohol (p = .021, OR = .45) and driving with someone who

  1. System for automatically preventing the raising of ash from dedicated landfills

    Milutinović Predrag

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a system for automatic prevention of raising of ashes from dedicated landfills based on a simple mathematical model which has modest entry requirements for meteorological data. Such an approach is efficient enough and enables fast information retrieval, i.e. zones with different concentrations of dust in the air, enabling quick start of counter measures to reduce emissions of ashes into the air. The system hardware consists of an automatic weather station, set of meters that determine moisture of ash, set of remotely managed sprinklers, computers, microprocessor and microcontroller based elements for the local acquisition and management of the executive elements and modules for wireless data transfer. An original software application for the system management has been developed. Within the application there is a module that allows entering of all data necessary to configure the system, as well as data about sensors and sprinklers. Based on the meteorological input data, measured moisture content of the ashes, and on the basis of determined functional dependencies, special software module operates sprinklers for soaking the surfaces from which the ashes is emitted into the air, in order to eliminate these emissions. The system, based on the developed mathematical model, predicts the propagation of ashes through the air, as well as dry and wet deposition, in real-time. The system automatically stores all the data relevant to the future analyses and reporting. The system is designed and implemented as modular and open. A custom developed graphical user interface serves as Man-Machine Interface (MMI. By using the TCP/IP connection it could be easily connected with the other information systems. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR-15005: Design and development of pilot system for preventing automatic raise of ashes from dedicated dumps

  2. The application of quality control circle in neurosurgery ICU nurses in raising compliance of the head of a bed

    Li, Na; Sun, Jing

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To explore the application of quality control circle in raising compliance of the head of a bed in neurosurgery ICU nurses. Methods: The quality control circle was made up of 4 ICU nurses, determine the subject in order to improve the neurosurgery ICU nurses in raising compliance of the head of a bed, according to the QCC activity steps to formulate plans, including grasp the current situation, goal setting, through analysis, circle members develop strategy and plan implementation ...

  3. Contribution of caffeine to the homocysteine-raising effect of coffee : a randomized controlled trial in humans

    Verhoef, P.; Pasman, W.J.; Vliet, van, W.; Urgert, R.; Katan, M. B.

    2002-01-01

    Background: A high plasma total homocysteine concentration is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease. Consumption of unfiltered or filtered coffee raises total homocysteine concentrations in healthy volunteers. The responsible compound, however, is unknown. Objective: The objective was to determine whether caffeine explains the homocysteine-raising effect of coffee. Design: Forty-eight subjects aged 19–65 y completed this randomized crossover study with 3 treatments, each la...

  4. 舍饲与放养饲养方式下蕨麻猪肉的挥发性成分对比%Comparison of Volatile Components in Pork from Feedlot-raised and Pasture-raised Tibetan Miniature Pigs

    孙志昶; 韩玲; 李永鹏; 杨勤

    2011-01-01

    利用气相色谱质谱联用技术(GC—MS),研究甘肃甘南藏族自治州舍饲(谷物饲料)与放养(天然草料)6月龄蕨麻猪背最长肌中的挥发性风味化合物。两者的差异主要体现在醛类化合物上(舍饲组38.33%,放养组25.19%)。对于来源于美拉德反应的挥发性化合物而言,甲硫基丙醛(呈肉香)与苯并噻唑(呈肉汤味)在舍饲组的含量分别比放养组多23%和122%。舍饲组脂肪氧化产物总相对含量显著高于放养组(P〈0.05),且两组肉样中脂肪氧化产物的种类差异很大。放养组蕨麻猪肉中的萜类含量显著高于舍饲组(P〈0.05)。结果表明,%The volatile compounds in longissimus dorsi muscles from 6 month-old Tibetan miniature pigs raised in feedlot with cereal and on natural pasture from Gannan Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture, Gansu province were investigated by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Feedlot-raised and pasture-raised Tibetan miniature pigs mostly varied in their aldehyde contents (38.33% and 25.19%, respectively). Methylthiopropanal (meaty flavor) and benzothiazole (gravy flavor) that can be derived from Mailard reaction in feedlot-raised pork were 23% and 122% more than that in pasture-raised pork, respectively. Lipid oxidation products showed a significant increase in feedlot-raised pork as compared with their pasture-raised pork (P 〈 0.05), and a significant difference in the types of lipid oxidation products was also found. Pasture-raised pork exhibited significantly higher terpene content than feedlot-raised pork (P 〈 0.05). From these results, we concluded that raising methods can affect volatile compounds in pork from Tibetan miniature pig and therefore might affect pork flavor.

  5. The application of quality control circle in neurosurgery ICU nurses in raising compliance of the head of a bed

    Na LI

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To explore the application of quality control circle in raising compliance of the head of a bed in neurosurgery ICU nurses. Methods: The quality control circle was made up of 4 ICU nurses, determine the subject in order to improve the neurosurgery ICU nurses in raising compliance of the head of a bed, according to the QCC activity steps to formulate plans, including grasp the current situation, goal setting, through analysis, circle members develop strategy and plan implementation and review, finally compared the situation before and after neurosurgery ICU nurses raised bed activities compliance. Results: After implementation of QCC, neurosurgery ICU nurses raised bed to 30 ~ 45 degrees. After activities, circle members in the team cooperation ability, cohesion, to accept new things ability, and innovative thinking ability and to raise the understanding of the relevant knowledge of the head of a bed has improved significantly. Conclusion: The application of quality management circle activity improves the neurosurgery ICU nurses effectively raise the compliance of the head of a bed, improve the comprehensive quality of the clinical nurses.

  6. Metabolic changes of masseter muscle in experimental unilateral bite-raised rat determined by {sup 31}P-MRS

    Nishide, Naoto [Kyoto Prefectural Univ. of Medicine (Japan)

    1997-05-01

    Occlusal interference is known to alter the functional activity of masticatory muscle, but no alteration of the energy metabolism of masticatory muscle which has gone occlusal interference has been reported. The purpose of this study was to investigate the energy metabolism in rat masseter muscle during masticatory movements following unilateral bite-raising. A bite-raising splint (1 mm) was fixed on the unilateral upper molar of experimental rats, and after 2, 4 and 6 weeks, the rats were anesthetized and masticatory movements were induced by electrical stimulation applied to the masseter muscle (with a biting force of 40 g, a frequency of 5 Hz and a stimulation time of 32 min). {sup 31}P Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy of the masseter muscle were recorded during a sequence of rest, stimulation and recovery periods, and the resonance signal area ratio of PCr and Pi ((PCr)/(PCr + Pi)) and the muscle pH were determined. After 4 and 6 weeks following the bite-raising, the masseter of the bite-raised side showed a decrease in the (PCr)/(PCr + Pi) ratio compared with a control group during stimulation (p<0.05). Neither the bite-raised side masseter at 2 weeks and the contralateral side at 4 weeks showed any differences compared with the control. The muscle pH during stimulation was similar in both the control and the bite-raised groups of rats. These findings suggest that the occlusal alteration induced by unilateral bite-raising reduces the masseter energy level during mastication. (author)

  7. Metabolic changes of masseter muscle in experimental unilateral bite-raised rat determined by 31P-MRS

    Occlusal interference is known to alter the functional activity of masticatory muscle, but no alteration of the energy metabolism of masticatory muscle which has gone occlusal interference has been reported. The purpose of this study was to investigate the energy metabolism in rat masseter muscle during masticatory movements following unilateral bite-raising. A bite-raising splint (1 mm) was fixed on the unilateral upper molar of experimental rats, and after 2, 4 and 6 weeks, the rats were anesthetized and masticatory movements were induced by electrical stimulation applied to the masseter muscle (with a biting force of 40 g, a frequency of 5 Hz and a stimulation time of 32 min). 31P Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy of the masseter muscle were recorded during a sequence of rest, stimulation and recovery periods, and the resonance signal area ratio of PCr and Pi ((PCr)/(PCr + Pi)) and the muscle pH were determined. After 4 and 6 weeks following the bite-raising, the masseter of the bite-raised side showed a decrease in the (PCr)/(PCr + Pi) ratio compared with a control group during stimulation (p<0.05). Neither the bite-raised side masseter at 2 weeks and the contralateral side at 4 weeks showed any differences compared with the control. The muscle pH during stimulation was similar in both the control and the bite-raised groups of rats. These findings suggest that the occlusal alteration induced by unilateral bite-raising reduces the masseter energy level during mastication. (author)

  8. Comparison of aviary, barn and conventional cage raising of chickens on laying performance and egg quality.

    Ahammed, M; Chae, B J; Lohakare, J; Keohavong, B; Lee, M H; Lee, S J; Kim, D M; Lee, J Y; Ohh, S J

    2014-08-01

    This study intended to compare the productive performance of three different layer raising systems; conventional cage (CC), barn (BR) and aviary (AV). The AV is welfare bestowed housing that allows free locomotion for birds within the BR. The BR allows bird's free locomotion inside BR but without multilevel structures. Both pullets and cockerels were housed together in both AV and BR, but only pullets in CC. Seventeen weeks old Lohmann Brown Lite (n = 800) pullets were housed in AV during this study. The same age layer pullets were simultaneously assigned to either at CC or BR to compare egg production performance with AV. The duration of experiment was 40 weeks (from 21st to 60th week). There were no remarkable differences in egg production, hen day egg production (HDEP) and average egg weight among three rearing systems. First 20 weeks (phase-1) average HDEP (%) of AV, CC, and BR were 85.9, 88.8, 87.1 and average egg weights (g) were 57.5, 59.9, and 56.9 respectively. Those of the remaining 20 weeks (phase-2) were 87.1, 87.9, 85.5 and 64.2, 63.0 62.1, respectively. Daily feed intakes (122 g, 110 g, 125 g); feed conversion ratio (2.4, 2.1, 2.5) and daily egg mass (53.9 g, 54.4 g, 52.8 g) data from AV, CC, and BR were not influenced significantly by the respective raising systems. Daily feed intake of layers in both AV (124 g) and BR (127 g) tended to be higher than that in CC (113 g) during phase-2. Overall, exterior egg quality (dirty and cracked eggs) in both phases was superior in BR compared with AV and CC, whereas CC generated intermediate results. This study indicated that the HDEP per se in AV and BR were not significantly different from that in CC. The study implied that the facility depreciation cost for AV and cost for increased feed intake in AV compared to CC are believed to be critical to evaluate the cost effectiveness of egg production in AV. PMID:25083115

  9. Hydrophobicity of 43 potting media: Its implications for raising seedlings in revegetation programs

    Gautam, Resham; Ashwath, Nanjappa

    2012-04-01

    SummaryThe practice of using nursery-raised seedlings is becoming popular in revegetation programs, as this will allow rapid establishment of plants. However, this practice often results in low survival of seedlings in the field, especially in the tropics under rain fed conditions. Part of this can be attributed to hydrophobicity of the media being used in raising the seedlings. Hydrophobicity is the property of potting media which make the media not able to readily absorb water from the surrounding soil once the media dry out. Thus, 41 commercially available potting media and media components and two soil samples (Control) were assessed for hydrophobicity at different moisture levels via Water Droplet Penetration Test (WDPT). At the driest state (oven dried samples), the tested media were classified into five hydrophobicity classes, viz., extremely hydrophobic (WDP time >3600 s, 28% of the tested media), severely hydrophobic (WDP time 600-3600 s, 35%), strongly hydrophobic (WDP time 60-600 s, 21%), slightly hydrophobic (WDP time 5-60 s, 12%) and non-hydrophobic (WDP time increase in moisture content of the media. For example, when samples were oven dried, 63% of the media were found severely to extremely hydrophobic whereas only 14% of the media remained in these categories when moisture content increased to 15%. Significant (P capacity (P adapted from a "Sheen Screen" method suggested that the number of wax degrading bacteria were similar amongst the non-hydrophobic and hydrophobic media. This indicates that the bacterial number may not be an important factor for breaking down hydrophobicity but most likely it is the bacterial activity that plays an important role in this process. Since the majority of the tested potting media were hydrophobic in nature (under dry conditions), and hydrophobicity affects survival of seedlings in the field, we recommend testing of potting media for hydrophobicity as a complimentary requirement of the Australian Standards. Studies

  10. 42 CFR 493.927 - General immunology.

    2010-10-01

    ...) Antinuclear antibody Antistreptolysin O Anti-human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) Complement C3 Complement C4... nonreactive. Complement C3 Target value ±3 SD. Complement C4 Target value ±3 SD. Hepatitis (HBsAg,...

  11. Avalanches in the raise and peel model in the presence of a wall

    Antillon, Edwin; Wehefritz-Kaufmann, Birgit; Kais, Sabre

    2013-07-01

    We investigate a non-equilibrium one-dimensional model known as the raise and peel model describing a growing surface which grows locally and has non-local desorption. For specific values of adsorption (ua) and desorption (ud) rates, the model shows interesting features. At ua = ud, the model is described by a conformal field theory (with conformal charge c = 0) and its stationary probability can be mapped onto the ground state of the XXZ quantum chain. Moreover, for the regime ua ⩾ ud, the model shows a phase in which the avalanche distribution is scale-invariant. In this work, we study the surface dynamics by looking at avalanche distributions using a finite-sized scaling formalism and explore the effect of adding a wall to the model. The model shows the same universality for the cases with and without a wall for an odd number of tiles removed, but we find a new exponent in the presence of a wall for an even number of tiles released in an avalanche. New insights into the effect of parity on avalanche distributions are discussed and we provide a new conjecture for the probability distribution of avalanches with a wall obtained by using an exact diagonalization of small lattices and Monte Carlo simulations.

  12. The influence of insulin on the raised plasma fibronectin concentration in human obesity

    Dejgård, A; Andersen, T; Gluud, C

    1986-01-01

    Plasma concentrations of fibronectin, free insulin, C-peptide and plasma glucose were determined in 40 morbidly obese subjects and in 51 normal weight controls, matched for sex and age. All plasma concentrations were significantly elevated (p less than 0.01) among the obese subjects. A significant...... correlation (r = 0.34, p less than 0.05) between plasma fibronectin and plasma free insulin was found among the obese patients, but not among the controls (r = -0.02, p greater than 0.05). No significant correlation was found between plasma fibronectin and plasma C-peptide, neither in the obese patients nor...... in the controls (obese r = 0.06, controls r = 0.02; p greater than 0.05). Plasma fibronectin was insignificantly correlated with body weight (obese r = 0.21, controls r = 0.15; p greater than 0.05) and percentage overweight (obese r = 0.27, controls r = 0.04; p greater than 0.05). The raised level of...

  13. Effects of an awareness raising campaign on intention and behavioural determinants for handwashing.

    Seimetz, E; Kumar, S; Mosler, H-J

    2016-04-01

    This article assesses the effectiveness of The Great WASH Yatra handwashing awareness raising campaign in India on changing visitors' intention to wash hands with soap after using the toilet and the underlying behavioural determinants. Interviews based on the RANAS (Risk, Attitudes, Norms, Abilities, Self-regulation) model of behaviour change were conducted with 687 visitors before and after their visit to the campaign. Data showed that a campaign visit had little effect on the intention to wash hands with soap, even when comparing visitors who had actively participated in handwashing games with those who had not. After a campaign visit, knowledge about the benefits of washing hands had increased by almost half a standard deviation. A multiple linear regression analysis revealed that when considering all behavioural determinants change scores simultaneously, they were able to explain 57% of the variance in the intention change score. These findings suggest that substantively changing behaviour requires more than improving knowledge and emphasizing the importance of washing hands. Identifying the crucial behavioural determinants for handwashing may be an important first step in planning effective large-scale promotion programmes. PMID:26936481

  14. When ethical reform became law: the constitutional concerns raised by recent legislation in Taiwan.

    Su, Yi-Chen

    2014-07-01

    In an effort at ethical reform, Taiwan recently revised the Hospice Palliative Care Law authorising family members or physicians to make surrogate decisions to discontinue life-sustaining treatment if an incompetent terminally ill patient did not express their wishes while still competent. In particular, Article 7 of the new law authorises the palliative care team, namely the physicians, to act as sole decision-makers on behalf of the incompetent terminally ill patient's best interests if no family member is available. However, the law fails to provide guidance as to what constitutes the patient's best interests or what specific procedures the treating physicians should follow, and so has raised constitutional concerns. It may be difficult to translate ethical reform into law but it is not impossible if essential requirements are carefully followed. First, there must be substantial nexus between the purpose of the statute and the measures provided under the statute. Second, advocates need to convince the public that futility or waste has amounted to a public health emergency so as to justify lower procedural requirements. Third, a remedy or compensation should be available if the surrogate decisions have not been appropriately made. Fourth,minimum procedural safeguards are necessary even though the statute is intended to reduce the procedural burdens of making surrogate decisions on behalf of incompetent patients who lack family members and did not express their wishes while still competent. PMID:24131902

  15. Raising New Zealand’s Terrorism Threat Level: Is Transparency Important in National Security?

    Richard Shortt

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In mid-October 2014, ten years after the New Zealand Government confirmed the establishment of a Combined Threat Assessment Group (CTAG to advise it on a range of potential threats, the prime minister announced, for the first time, the raising of New Zealand’s domestic terrorism threat level. Unfortunately, the assessment that gave rise to the threat level’s change (or a version of it was not made public. Therefore, how were New Zealanders or others expected to properly understand the environment giving rise to the threat changes, and to judge whether the assessors got the setting right. This paper argues increased public transparency is appropriate when additional security measures resulting from a change in threat perception impact citizens’ lives and cost tax-payers more money. In presenting this argument, the paper briefly describes the role of threat assessments and how threat levels are set. In the absence of a public version of New Zealand’s threat assessment giving a cohesive, concise and transparent outline of the threat environment, the paper presents publicly available information from well-informed high office holders to see if that provides alternative and suitable transparency. Finally, the paper compares New Zealand’s terrorism threat assessment transparency processes with those of four countries with similar characteristics to New Zealand to see if alternative models of public transparency are available for consideration.

  16. Dams and Displacement: Raising the Standards and Broadening the Research Agenda

    Brooke McDonald-Wilmsen

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The World Commission on Dams provided an analytical overview of the cumulative effects of years of dam development. A lack of commitment or capacity to cope with displacement or to consider the civil rights of, or risks to, displaced people led to the impoverishment and suffering of tens of millions and growing opposition to dams by affected communities worldwide. However, after the WCD, little has changed for the better in terms of resettlement policies. In fact, the standards of key agencies, like the Asian Development Bank, have been lowered and diluted compared to prior policies. Dam-induced development and displacement are stifled by a 'managerialist' approach to planning, in which solutions are sought internally and subordinated to the economics that underpins the existence of the project. The aim of successful resettlement is to prevent impoverishment and to enable displaced people to share in the project’s benefits. Within the field of dam-induced resettlement, this is a lofty goal rarely achieved. However, in other fields of resettlement, such as refugee studies and adaptation to environmental change, such a goal is regarded as a minimum standard. In this paper we seek to broaden the research agenda on dam-induced resettlement and to raise the standards of development projects that entail resettlement. We do this by importing some of the considerations and concerns from practice and research from the fields of refugee studies and adaptation to environmental change.

  17. Current means for raising efficiency of counteraction to counterfeit goods trafficking

    Dronova O.B.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The urgency of counteraction to counterfeit goods trafficking is shown. Annual loss due to counterfeit goods producing and trafficking reaches several billion dollars. There remains a danger of buying low-quality and counterfeit goods despite implementing new producing techniques and protective elements. Measures, taken by law enforcement agencies, state authorities and public human rights organizations have not led to systematic suppression of producing and trafficking of such goods. Creation of new information and reference resource, containing information blocks of protective symbols on goods and packages and illustrated materials comprising patterns of discovered counterfeit goods, can assist to increase public awareness and to give necessary information to law enforcement agencies. Organizations, realizing state and social protection of consumers and entrepreneurs, along with producers, rightholders’ representatives and law enforcement bodies can accept the responsibility of creating and functioning this information and reference system in the Internet. Such level of cooperation of all interested organizations will allow to raise efficiency of measures for counteraction to trafficking goods with violated consumer properties. The author proves the necessity to organize functioning of information and reference resource for a wide range of users. Operation of such resource should comply with main principles of generating any information resource, notably full scale, authenticity and relevance of information. The author proposes the algorithm of creating such system which provides cooperation of law enforcement agencies, producers and consumers for the purpose of preventing counterfeit goods trafficking and investigating committed crimes.

  18. Root Raised Cosine (RRC) Filters and Pulse Shaping in Communication Systems

    Cubukcu, Erkin

    2012-01-01

    This presentation briefly discusses application of the Root Raised Cosine (RRC) pulse shaping in the space telecommunication. Use of the RRC filtering (i.e., pulse shaping) is adopted in commercial communications, such as cellular technology, and used extensively. However, its use in space communication is still relatively new. This will possibly change as the crowding of the frequency spectrum used in the space communication becomes a problem. The two conflicting requirements in telecommunication are the demand for high data rates per channel (or user) and need for more channels, i.e., more users. Theoretically as the channel bandwidth is increased to provide higher data rates the number of channels allocated in a fixed spectrum must be reduced. Tackling these two conflicting requirements at the same time led to the development of the RRC filters. More channels with wider bandwidth might be tightly packed in the frequency spectrum achieving the desired goals. A link model with the RRC filters has been developed and simulated. Using 90% power Bandwidth (BW) measurement definition showed that the RRC filtering might improve spectrum efficiency by more than 75%. Furthermore using the matching RRC filters both in the transmitter and receiver provides the improved Bit Error Rate (BER) performance. In this presentation the theory of three related concepts, namely pulse shaping, Inter Symbol Interference (ISI), and Bandwidth (BW) will be touched upon. Additionally the concept of the RRC filtering and some facts about the RRC filters will be presented

  19. Challenges of raising road maintenance funds in developing countries: An analysis of road tolling in Zimbabwe

    T. C. Mbara

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The condition of Zimbabwe's roads has been declining due to insufficient maintenance and rehabilitation. Year on year, budget allocations have compared unfavourably with funding considered adequate to maintain highway networks and conduct modest construction work. Road infrastructure shortcomings have manifested themselves in the form of high vehicle operating costs and rampant potholes, leading to a decline in road safety and a deterioration of service levels for those who use roads to deliver goods or connect to international markets. In order to try and stop this vicious cycle of decline, the Government of Zimbabwe, on 8 August 2009, introduced a new policy of road-user charges, which involved the setting-up of 22 toll gates on the trunk road network. The overall objective was to raise revenue in order to close the funding gap, blamed for declining road quality. Although alternative methods of financing road maintenance have been debated for years, a generally accepted understanding is that road users should pay costs for road provisioning. This paper assesses the implementation of a road tolling system in Zimbabwe and describes matters relating to, inter alia, implementation strategy, initial performance outcomes and sustainability.

  20. Ethical Issues Raised by Epigenetic Testing for Alcohol, Tobacco, and Cannabis.

    Erwin, Cheryl

    2015-10-01

    Epigenetic testing is one of the most significant new technologies to provide insight into the behavioral and environmental factors that influence the development and reconfiguration of the human genetic code. This technology allows us to identify structural changes in the genome that occur due to exposure to a wide variety of substances including alcohol, tobacco, and cannabis. The information gained can be used to promote health but it also raises a variety of ethical, legal, and social issues. As society progresses in understanding the epigenetic mechanisms of substance use and addiction, there is an opportunity to use these use this knowledge to enable medical, behavioral, and environmental interventions to alleviate the burden of addiction. This article describes the ethical issues associated with use of epigenetic testing for alcohol, tobacco, and cannabis and the implications of this technology. A further review of the scientific basis for the relevance of epigenetics is found in the accompanying article by Philibert and Erwin in this issue. PMID:26358643

  1. Avalanches in the raise and peel model in the presence of a wall

    We investigate a non-equilibrium one-dimensional model known as the raise and peel model describing a growing surface which grows locally and has non-local desorption. For specific values of adsorption (ua) and desorption (ud) rates, the model shows interesting features. At ua = ud, the model is described by a conformal field theory (with conformal charge c = 0) and its stationary probability can be mapped onto the ground state of the XXZ quantum chain. Moreover, for the regime ua ⩾ ud, the model shows a phase in which the avalanche distribution is scale-invariant. In this work, we study the surface dynamics by looking at avalanche distributions using a finite-sized scaling formalism and explore the effect of adding a wall to the model. The model shows the same universality for the cases with and without a wall for an odd number of tiles removed, but we find a new exponent in the presence of a wall for an even number of tiles released in an avalanche. New insights into the effect of parity on avalanche distributions are discussed and we provide a new conjecture for the probability distribution of avalanches with a wall obtained by using an exact diagonalization of small lattices and Monte Carlo simulations. (paper)

  2. Rope NDT as means to raise safety of crane and elevator use

    Steel rope NDT by magnetic flaw detectors is usual for mine hoist inspection through the world. But it is no ordinary by crane and especially by elevator inspection. However, magnetic NDT statistic data of 60 crane and 227 elevator ropes in use shows that about 23% of crane and 9% of elevator ropes should be discarded in accordance with actual discarding criterion in Russia. Russian State Rules for crane safe exploitation require the magnetic NDT while periodically inspection. But not all the inspecting companies meet it in Russia, contenting themselves by visual inspection only. This is not objective and does not provide rope inner faults detection. That is a reason of rope break rather high percentage in general statistics of crane accidents and damages. Investigation of accidents with crane ropes in Moscow region in 2001 shows that they would de prevented by the magnetic NDT fulfilled timely. The elevator rope NDT problem is not so sharp but attention should de attracted to it to raise safety of elevators. (author)

  3. Population genetic structure of Ascaridia galli of extensively raised chickens of South Africa.

    Malatji, D P; Tsotetsi, A M; van Marle-Koster, E; Muchadeyi, F C

    2016-01-30

    Ascaridia galli is one of the most common nematode affecting chickens. This study characterized A. galli parasites collected from South African village chickens of Limpopo (n=18) and KwaZulu-Natal (n=22) provinces using the 510bp sequences of cytochrome C oxidase subunit 1 gene of the mitochondrial DNA. Fourteen and 12 polymorphic sites were observed for Limpopo and KwaZulu-Natal sequences, respectively. Six haplotypes were observed in total. Haplotype diversity was high and ranged from 0.749 for Limpopo province to 0.758 for KwaZulu-Natal province isolates. There was no genetic differentiation between A. galli from Limpopo and KwaZulu-Natal provinces. The six South African haplotypes were unique compared to those published in the GeneBank sampled from Hy-line chickens raised under organic farming in Denmark. The utility of cytochrome C oxidase subunit 1 gene as a potential genetic marker for studying A. galli in village chicken populations is presented. PMID:26801600

  4. Study of the legal problems raised by the siting of nuclear power stations in artificial islands

    The creation and operation of a nuclear power station on an artificial island in French waters are governed by domestic law and are subject to two types of procedure: the first concerns erection of the artificial island and the second the control of the public authorities over creation and operation of the nuclear power station. At administrative level, the setting up of an artificial island requires that it be attached to a commune as well as permission for occupancy from the maritime authorities. Furthermore, setting up of a nuclear power station on an artificial island is subject to the licensing procedure for large nuclear installations and to delivery of the licenses required for release of gaseous and liquid radioactive effluents. Given the proximity of the high seas and eventually, the borders of other States, siting of a nuclear power station on an artificial island imposes obligations at international level. These requirements, which concern prevention of transfrontier pollution, stem from the London (1972) and Paris (1974) Conventions on marine pollution. The third party liability regime for a nuclear incident caused by an installation sited in territorial seas is that of the 1960 Paris Convention on third party liability in the nuclear field and the 1963 Brussels Supplementary Convention. Another problem likely to be raised is that of the right of innocent passage of ships near such installations

  5. Does Raising the Early Retirement Age Increase Employment of Older Workers?

    Staubli, Stefan; Zweimüller, Josef

    2013-12-01

    Two pension reforms in Austria increased the early retirement age (ERA) from 60 to 62 for men and from 55 to 58.25 for women. We find that raising the ERA increased employment by 9.75 percentage points among affected men and by 11 percentage points among affected women. The reforms had large spillover effects on the unemployment insurance program but negligible effects on disability insurance claims. Specifically, unemployment increased by 12.5 percentage points among men and by 11.8 percentage points among women. The employment response was largest among high-wage and healthy workers, while low-wage and less healthy workers either continued to retire early via disability benefits or bridged the gap to the ERA via unemployment benefits. Taking spillover effects and additional tax revenues into account, we find that for a typical birth-year cohort a one year increase in the ERA resulted in a reduction of net government expenditures of 107 million euros for men and of 122 million euros for women. PMID:24319299

  6. Microbial Communities in Globodera pallida Females Raised in Potato Monoculture Soil.

    Eberlein, Caroline; Heuer, Holger; Vidal, Stefan; Westphal, Andreas

    2016-06-01

    Globodera spp. are under strict quarantine in many countries. Suppressiveness to cyst nematodes can evolve under monoculture of susceptible hosts. Females developing in potato monoculture soil infested with G. pallida populations Chavornay or Delmsen were examined for inherent microbial communities. In the greenhouse, nonheated and heat-treated (134°C for 10 min) portions of this soil were placed in root observation chambers, planted with Solanum tuberosum 'Selma', and inoculated with G. pallida Pa3 Chavornay. At harvest in Delmsen soil, cysts had fewer eggs in nonheated than heat-treated soil. In denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis analysis, bacterial and fungal fingerprints were characterized by a high variability between replicates; nonheated soils displayed more dominant bands than heated soils, indicating more bacterial and fungal populations. In amplicon pyrosequencing, females from nonheated portions frequently contained internal transcribed spacer sequences of the fungus Malassezia. Specific for the Chavornay and Delmsen population, ribosomal sequences of the bacteria Burkolderia and Ralstonia were abundant on eggs. In this first report of microbial communities in G. pallida raised in potato monoculture, candidate microorganisms perhaps associated with the health status of the eggs of G. pallida were identified. If pathologies on cyst nematodes can be ascertained, these organisms could improve the sustainability of production systems. PMID:26863445

  7. Raising the SUSY-breaking scale naturally in a Goldstone-Higgs model

    Alanne, Tommi; Sannino, Francesco; Thomsen, Anders Eller

    2016-01-01

    We show that by marrying the elementary-Goldstone-Higgs scenario and supersymmetry it is possible to raise the scale of supersymmetry breaking to several TeVs while keeping the relevant features of a natural supersymmetric extension of the Standard Model. This is achieved by first enhancing the global symmetries of the super-Higgs sector to SU(4) and then embedding the electroweak sector and the Standard-Model fermions. We determine the conditions under which the model achieves a vacuum such that the resulting Higgs is a pseudo-Goldstone boson. The main results are: the supersymmetry-breaking scale is identified with the spontaneous-symmetry-breaking scale of SU(4) which is several TeVs above the radiatively induced electroweak scale; intriguingly the global symmetry of the Higgs sector predicts the existence of two super-Higgs multiplets with one mass eigenstate playing the role of the pseudo-Goldstone Higgs; the symmetry-breaking dynamics fixes $\\tan\\beta = 1$ and requires a supplementary singlet chiral sup...

  8. SCHOOL-BASED SAVINGS PROGRAMMES AS A METHOD OF RAISING FINANCIAL AWARENESS IN CHILDREN

    Joanna Lenkiewicz

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Saving money and budgeting concerns every one of us. One of the most famous ways of depositing money is the use of an account or a traditional piggy bank. Not only the last option is close to the youngest. It has long been known School-based Savings Programmes (SSP. We try to instill in the youngest ability and habit of depositing mon-ey. Bank goes out to meet the needs and continually improve the SSP. The first part of the article focuses on the notion of SSP. It was raised matter of passbook evolution into an online account, and thus describes the functions and capabilities of such an account. The article describes the operation and maintenance of accounts, SSP and its rules. At the end of the article, condensed results of a survey conducted at the school in Stare Juchy were placed. The result was to assess the awareness of the youngest in terms of saving and School-based Savings Programmes.

  9. Luminescence and radiocarbon dating of raised beach sediments, Bunger Hills, East Antarctica

    Luminescence and radiocarbon dating of raised marine sediments from the Bunger Hills, East Antarctica, demonstrates that luminescence methods can be applied to such poorly bleached sediments as long as the luminescence behaviour of the sediments is understood. This is essential as the complete zeroing of the luminescence signal due to light exposure is required to allow an accurate age for the sediment accumulation. Unfortunately, independent checks on the luminescence ages are rare. In the present study, some independent age control is provided by AMS radiocarbon ages from shell obtained from and adjacent to the luminescence dated horizons, although the radiocarbon ages may suffer to some degree from variability in the marine reservoir effect. Application of the single aliquot luminescence technique to feldspar grains from the marine sediments demonstrated that the luminescence behaviour of the sediments was complex. For each sample, 18 replicate paleodose estimates were used to demonstrate whether the sediments were well bleached before deposition. Optically, well-bleached samples give younger luminescence ages, whilst poorly bleached samples often give excessively old ages compared to the associated radiocarbon-dated material. (author)

  10. Studies on the reproductive performance of indigenous beef cattle breeds raised on-farm in Ghana

    Studies were undertaken to investigate the reproductive performance of a mixture of N'dama and West African Shorthorn (N'dama/WASH) and Sanga cattle raised under traditional management conditions on four privately owned small-holder farms. The first study involved an analysis of reproductive records and the measurement of plasma progesterone concentration to delineate the onset of various reproductive phenomena, including age at puberty and first calving, post-partum resumption of ovarian activity and other abnormal events like abortions. The second study investigated the influence of dry-season feed supplementation on reproductive performance. In study 1 the ages at first plasma progesterone rise (puberty), first mating and first calving for N'dama/WASH cattle on three farms averaged 981, 1016 and 1296 days respectively. The calving interval, calving-to-progesterone rise and calving-to-mating averaged 412, 129 and 114 days respectively. Significant differences existed among farms with Farms 1 and 2 out-performing Farm 3. The respective mean ages at first progesterone elevation, first mating and first calving for Sanga cattle (Farm 4) were 964, 990 and 1271 days while calving-to-progesterone rise, calving-to-mating and calving intervals averaged 107, 150 and 431 days. In study 2, dry-season feed supplementation generally reduced ages at puberty and first calving as well as the interval of post-partum acyclicity. (author). 18 refs, 3 figs, 9 tabs

  11. Immuno-oncology combinations: raising the tail of the survival curve

    Harris, Samuel J.; Brown, Jessica; Lopez, Juanita; Yap, Timothy A.

    2016-01-01

    There have been exponential gains in immuno-oncology in recent times through the development of immune checkpoint inhibitors. Already approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration for advanced melanoma and non-small cell lung cancer, immune checkpoint inhibitors also appear to have significant antitumor activity in multiple other tumor types. An exciting component of immunotherapy is the durability of antitumor responses observed, with some patients achieving disease control for many years. Nevertheless, not all patients benefit, and efforts should thus now focus on improving the efficacy of immunotherapy through the use of combination approaches and predictive biomarkers of response and resistance. There are multiple potential rational combinations using an immunotherapy backbone, including existing treatments such as radiotherapy, chemotherapy or molecularly targeted agents, as well as other immunotherapeutics. The aim of such antitumor strategies will be to raise the tail on the survival curve by increasing the number of long term survivors, while managing any additive or synergistic toxicities that may arise with immunotherapy combinations. Rational trial designs based on a clear understanding of tumor biology and drug pharmacology remain paramount. This article reviews the biology underpinning immuno-oncology, discusses existing and novel immunotherapeutic combinations currently in development, the challenges of predictive biomarkers of response and resistance and the impact of immuno-oncology on early phase clinical trial design.

  12. Hydrogen sulfide raises cytosolic calcium in neurons through activation of L-type Ca2+ channels.

    García-Bereguiaín, Miguel Angel; Samhan-Arias, Alejandro Khalil; Martín-Romero, Francisco Javier; Gutiérrez-Merino, Carlos

    2008-01-01

    Hydrogen sulfide (H(2)S) concentration can be maintained in cell cultures within the range reported for rat brain by repetitive pulses of sodium hydrogen sulfide. Less than 2 h exposure to H(2)S concentrations within 50 and 120 microM (i.e., within the upper segment of the reported physiological range of H(2)S in rat brain), produces a large shift of the intracellular calcium homeostasis in cerebellar granule neurons (CGN) in culture, leading to a large and sustained increase of cytosolic calcium concentration. Only 1 h exposure to H(2)S concentrations within 100 and 300 microM raises intracellular calcium to the neurotoxic range, with nearly 50% cell death after 2 h. L-type Ca(2+) channels antagonists nimodipine and nifedipine block both the H(2)S-induced rise of cytosolic calcium and cell death. The N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antagonists (+)-MK-801 and DL-2-amino-5-phosphonovaleric acid afforded a nearly complete protection against H(2)S-induced CGN death and largely attenuated the rise of cytosolic calcium. Thus, H(2)S-induced rise of cytosolic calcium eventually reaches the neurotoxic cytosolic calcium range, leading to glutamate-induced excitotoxic CGN death. The authors conclude that H(2)S is a major modulator of calcium homeostasis in neurons as it induces activation of Ca(2+) entry through L-type Ca(2+) channels, and thereby of neuronal activity. PMID:17956188

  13. The Quality of Liquid Fermented Products for Alternative Use of Antibiotics for Animal Raising

    The chemical properties of liquid fermented products (LFP) as probiotics substance for alternative uses of antibiotic were studied. The LFP of 235 were sampling from markets and farmers during 2005-2006. The total count of bacteria, fungi, lactic acid bacteria (LAB), Actinomyces and coliform bacteria were conducted. Chemical analysis of LFP showed medium nitrogen (0.01- 0.55%), maximum sugar contents (0.02 - 19.40%), high lactic acid contents (0.34 - 13.01%) and low pH (2.9-5.0). LFPs were free from fecal coliform and Escherichia coil (Ec); but in LAB (1.0 - 1.25x107 cfu/ml) and high Actinomyces (1.0 - 7.5 x 106 cfu/ml). LFPs inhibited Staphylococcus aureus (Sa), Samonella typhimurium (STM), Escherichia coil (Ec) and Ec 0157 at maximum yield by using Minimal Inhibition Concentration (MIC). But Pseudomonas aeruginosa (Pa) could medium inhibited. Therefore LFP samples are suitable as probiotics for alternative use of antibiotic for animal raising.

  14. Deceased Donor Organs: What Can Be Done to Raise Donation Rates Using Evidence From Malaysia?

    Rasiah, R; Manikam, R; Chandrasekaran, S K; Naghavi, N; Mubarik, S; Mustafa, R; Pushparajan, S

    2016-05-01

    Organ donation rates have continued to fall seriously short of needs worldwide, with the lowest rates recorded among developing economies. This study seeks to analyze evidence from a developing economy to explore the usefulness of social psychological theory to solve the problem. The study deployed a large survey (n = 10 412) using a convenience sampling procedure targeted at increasing the number of Malaysians registered with the Ministry of Health, Malaysia who are willing to donate organs upon death. Structural equation modeling was deployed to estimate simultaneously the relative influence of cognitive and noncognitive variables on willingness to donate deceased organs. The cognitive factors of donation perception, socioeconomic status and financial incentives, and the noncognitive factors of demography and fear showed a high statistically significant (1%) relationship with willingness to donate organs after death. While financial incentives were significant, cash rewards showed the least impact. Donation perception showed the highest impact, which shows that the development of effective pedagogic programs with simultaneous improvements to the quality of services provided by medical personnel engaged in retrieving and transplanting deceased donor organs can help raise organ donation rates. PMID:26602367

  15. Analysis of the stress raising action of flaws in laser clad deposits

    Highlights: ► Laser clad defects are 0D-pores/inclusions, 1D-clad waviness or 2D-planar defects. ► Surface pore of laser clad bar initiates fatigue cracks. ► Side edge surface pores are more critical than in-clad surface pores. ► Smaller notch radius and angle of as-laser clad surface raises stress significantly. ► Planar inner defects grow faster towards surface. - Abstract: Fatigue cracking of laser clad cylindrical and square section bars depends upon a variety of factors. This paper presents Finite Element Analysis (FEA) of the different macro stress fields generated as well as stress raisers created by laser cladding defects for four different fatigue load conditions. As important as the defect types are their locations and orientations, categorized into zero-, one- and two-dimensional defects. Pores and inclusions become critical close to surfaces. The performance of as-clad surfaces can be governed by the sharpness of surface notches and planar defects like hot cracks or lack-of-fusion (LOF) are most critical if oriented vertically, transverse to the bar axis. The combination of the macro stress field with the defect type and its position and orientation determines whether it is the most critical stress raiser. Based on calculated cases, quantitative and qualitative charts were developed as guidelines to visualize the trends of different combinations

  16. Peripheral and gastrointestinal immune systems of healthy cattle raised outdoors at pasture or indoors on a concentrate-based ration

    Reilly Petrina

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite an increasing preference of consumers for beef produced from more extensive pasture-based production systems and potential human health benefits from the consumption of such beef, data regarding the health status of animals raised on pasture are limited. The objective of this study was to characterise specific aspects of the bovine peripheral and the gastrointestinal muscosal immune systems of cattle raised on an outdoor pasture system in comparison to animals raised on a conventional intensive indoor concentrate-based system. Results A number of in vitro functional tests of immune cells suggested subtle differences between the animals on the outdoor versus indoor production systems. There was a decrease in the number of neutrophils and monocytes engaged in phagocytosis in outdoor cattle (P P P P P P P Conclusion Despite distinctly contrasting production systems, only subtle differences were identified in the peripheral immune parameters measured between cattle raised at pasture in comparison to animals raised on a conventional intensive indoor concentrate-based production system.

  17. Anti-Tribbles homolog 2 (TRIB2) autoantibodies in narcolepsy are associated with recent onset of cataplexy

    Kawashima, Minae; Lin, Ling; Tanaka, Susumu; Jennum, Poul; Knudsen, Stine; Nevsimalova, Sona; Plazzi, Giuseppe; Mignot, Emmanuel

    2010-01-01

    Recent studies have found increased autoantibodies against Tribbles homolog 2 (anti-TRIB2) and anti-streptolysin O (ASO) in narcolepsy. In this study, we replicated this finding with a primary focus on recent onset cases.......Recent studies have found increased autoantibodies against Tribbles homolog 2 (anti-TRIB2) and anti-streptolysin O (ASO) in narcolepsy. In this study, we replicated this finding with a primary focus on recent onset cases....

  18. Can Venice be raised by pumping water underground? A pilot project to help decide

    Castelletto, N.; Ferronato, M.; Gambolati, G.; Putti, M.; Teatini, P.

    2008-01-01

    Recent field evidence suggests that injecting fluids below the ground surface can induce an anthropogenic land uplift of a few tens of centimeters over a time interval that may range from a few months to a few years. At the same time, new modeling studies using a lot of realistic hydrogeological and geomechanical information from the northern Adriatic basin indicate that pumping seawater into a 600-800 m deep brackish aquifer below the Venice Lagoon might help raise the city uniformly by 25-30 cm over 10 years (a). This could provide Venice with an important innovative defence from and a substantial mitigation to the so-called "acqua alta," i.e., the increasingly frequent floods that plague the city. To test the feasibility of an actual program of anthropogenic Venice uplift, a pilot project is designed with the aim of investigating the occurrence over a limited area selected on purpose within or in the margin of the lagoon where three boreholes down to 800 m are drilled and seawater properly treated for geochemical compatibility is pumped into the selected aquifer during 3 a. Using an improved reconstruction of the geology and lithostratigraphy from a new seismic survey to be carried out in the lagoon subsurface, the pilot project plans the instrumentation of the injection wells and other boreholes for the continuous monitoring and accurate measurement of (1) pore water overpressure; (2) expansion of the injected unit by the radioactive marker technique; (3) compaction, if any, of the upper fresh water aquifer system with the aid of an extensometer; and (4) vertical and horizontal motions of land surface via spirit leveling, GPS and interferometric synthetic aperture radar. Preliminary numerical simulations show that a constant saltwater injection rate of 12 × 103 m3 s-1 from each well might provide a maximum 7 cm uplift at the center of the selected site over a 3-a time, namely, a limited amount that is nevertheless accurately measurable and should not raise

  19. Dryout power of a CANFLEX bundle string with raised bearing pads

    Dryout power data have been obtained with CANFLEX bundle strings equipped with raised bearing pads (1.7 mm and 1.8 mm height as compared to 1.4 mm in the current Mk-IV design) at Stern Laboratories. The experiment covered a wide range of steam-water flow conditions in three flow tubes simulating uncrept, and 3.3% and 5.1% crept profiles. The dryout power follows consistent parametric trends: it increases with increasing mass-flow rate, and decreases with increasing pressure, inlet-fluid temperature and channel creep. Local and boiling-length-average (BLA) critical-heat-flux (CHF) values were evaluated from the dryout-power measurements. The dryout power and BLA CHF values of the high bearing-pad bundles are higher than those of the low bearing-pad bundles at the same channel inlet flow conditions. On average, the dryout powers for bundles with 1.7 mm and 1.8 mm bearing pads are about 8% and 10%, respectively, higher than those for the bundle with 1.4 mm bearing pads. Compared to the 37-element bundle, an enhancement in dryout power is shown with CANFLEX bundles for all bearing-pad heights, at flow conditions of interest for reactor licensing. The average dryout power enhancement varies from 4% for the CANFLEX bundle with 1.4 mm bearing pads in the uncrept channel to 27% for the CANFLEX bundle with 1.8 mm bearing pads in the 5.1% crept channel. (author)

  20. Platelet-collagen interaction: inhibition by a monoclonal antibody raised against collagen receptor

    The authors have previously reported that polyclonal antibody raised against the purified platelet collagen receptor cross reacted with glycoprotein IIb-IIIa complex of platelets. In order to study the receptor function further, the authors prepared a monoclonal antibody to the collagen receptor (65K). Platelet collagen receptor was purified as described previously by the authors. Mice were immunized by injection of purified 65K protein emulsified in complete Freund's adjuvant, and hybridomas were obtained from the fusion of spleen cells of immunized mice with myeloma cells (SP 2/0). The assay for antibody was performed with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The hybridoma cells producing specific anti-65K protein were subcloned and the subcloned cells were injected into peritoneal cavity of Pristane-Primed mice. Immunoglobulin G(IgG) was isolated from ascitic fluids by an Affigel Blue chromatography. The Fab' fragments were isolated from papain digested IgG followed by an Affigel Blue chromatography. Immunoblot experiments using the monoclonal IgG of solubilized platelet membrane proteins following NaDodSO4-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis showed that the monoclonal IgG reacted with the antigen specifically. It did not react with glycoprotein IIb-IIIa. The isolated IgG and Fab' fragments inhibited competitively the binding of radiolabelled α1(I) to washed platelets and soluble collagen- as well as fibrillar collagen-induced but not ADP-induced platelet aggregation. This indicates that collagen-induced platelet aggregation is mediated through interaction of collagen with 65K platelet receptor

  1. Cerebrovascular reactivity among native-raised high altitude residents: an fMRI study

    Zhang Jiaxing

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The impact of long term residence on high altitude (HA on human brain has raised concern among researchers in recent years. This study investigated the cerebrovascular reactivity among native-born high altitude (HA residents as compared to native sea level (SL residents. The two groups were matched on the ancestral line, ages, gender ratios, and education levels. A visual cue guided maximum inspiration task with brief breath holding was performed by all the subjects while Blood-Oxygenation-Level-Dependent (BOLD functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI data were acquired from them. Results Compared to SL controls, the HA group showed generally decreased cerebrovascular reactivity and longer delay in hemodynamic response. Clusters showing significant differences in the former aspect were located at the bilateral primary motor cortex, the right somatosensory association cortex, the right thalamus and the right caudate, the bilateral precuneus, the right cingulate gyrus and the right posterior cingulate cortex, as well as the left fusiform gyrus and the right lingual cortex; clusters showing significant differences in the latter aspect were located at the precuneus, the insula, the superior frontal and temporal gyrus, the somatosensory cortex (the postcentral gyrus and the cerebellar tonsil. Inspiratory reserve volume (IRV, which is an important aspect of pulmonary function, demonstrated significant correlation with the amount of BOLD signal change in multiple brain regions, particularly at the bilateral insula among the HA group. Conclusions Native-born HA residents generally showed reduced cerebrovascular reactivity as demonstrated in the hemodynamic response during a visual cue guided maximum inspiration task conducted with BOLD-fMRI. This effect was particularly manifested among brain regions that are typically involved in cerebral modulation of respiration.

  2. Gonadal differentiation in frogs, Rana japonica and R. brevipoda, raised from UV irradiated eggs

    The gonadal differentiation of anurans, Rana japonica and R. brevipoda, was examined in animals raised from eggs which had been irradiated at the vegetal hemisphere with UV (9300 erg/mm2) at the 2-cell stage. In R. japonica about 70% of the larvae at stage I from the pressed and UV-irradiated eggs were germ cell free, but at a stage immediately after metamorphosis all animals had at least some germ cells, although their gonads often were extremely small and poorly differentiated. When male animals matured sexually, many of them had abnormal gonads. However, all of them were shown by artificial means to be capable of fertilization. In the nonpressed and irradiated group, no larvae were germ cell free and the animals immediately after metamorphosis showed nearly normal gonadal differentiation except for the presence of a few degenerate oocytes in the ovaries. The results in R. brevipoda were basically similar to those in R. japonica. In both species, sex ratios were determined at two stages, the first immediately after metamorphosis and the other when the animals matured, as based on gonad morphology and histology and on external sexually dimorphic characters as well. Sex ratios at these two stages in frogs from the pressed and irradiated eggs differed markedly in R. brevipoda. The ratio was normal at metamorphosis but high M/F ratios occurred when animals became mature. That sex reversal took place in this species as well as in R. japonica (in which sex-ratio deviation was not statistically significant) was supported by the sex ratios of the progenies of these supernumerary males

  3. Raising voices: How sixth graders construct authority and knowledge in argumentative essays

    Monahan, Mary Elizabeth

    This qualitative classroom-based study documents one teacher-researcher's response to the "voice" debate in composition studies and to the opposing views expressed by Elbow and Bartholomae. The author uses Bakhtin's principle of dialogism, Hymes's theory of communicative competence, as well as Ivanic's discussion of discoursally constructed identities to reconceptualize voice and to redesign writing instruction in her sixth grade classroom. This study shows how students, by redefining and then acting on that voice pedagogy in terms that made sense to them, shaped the author's understanding of what counts as "voiced" writing in non-narrative discourse. Based on a grounded-theory analysis of the twenty-six sixth graders' argumentative essays in science, the author explains voice, not as a property of writers or of texts, but as a process of "knowing together"---a collaborative, but not entirely congenial, exercise of establishing one's authority by talking with, against, and through other voices on the issue. As the results of this study show, the students' "I-Ness" or authorial presence within their texts, was born in a nexus of relationships with "rivals," "allies" and "readers." Given their teacher's injunctions to project confidence and authority in argumentative writing, the students assumed fairly adversarial stances toward these conversational partners throughout their essays. Exaggerating the terms for voiced writing built into the curriculum, the sixth graders produced essays that read more like caricatures than examples of argumentation. Their displays of rhetorical bravado and intellectual aggressiveness, however offsetting to the reader, still enabled these sixth graders to composed voiced essays. This study raises doubts about the value of urging students to sound like their "true selves" or to adopt the formal registers of academe. Students, it seems clear, stand to gain by experimenting with a range of textual identities. The author suggests that voice

  4. Raising the temperature of the UK heat pump market: Learning lessons from Finland

    Heat pumps play a central role in decarbonising the UK's buildings sector as part of the Committee on Climate Change's (CCC) updated abatement scenario for meeting the UK's fourth carbon budget. However, the UK has one of the least developed heat pump markets in Europe and renewable heat output from heat pumps will need to increase by a factor of 50 over the next 15 years to be in line with the scenario. Therefore, this paper explores what lessons the UK might learn from Finland to achieve this aim considering that its current level of heat pump penetration is comparable with that outlined in the CCC scenario for 2030. Despite the two countries’ characteristic differences we argue they share sufficient similarities for the UK to usefully draw some policy-based lessons from Finland including: stimulating new-build construction and renovation of existing stock; incorporating renewable heat solutions in building energy performance standards; and bringing the cost of heat pumps in-line with gas fired heating via a combination of subsidies, taxes and energy RD&D. Finally, preliminary efforts to grow the heat pump market could usefully focus on properties unconnected to the gas-grid, considering these are typically heated by relatively expensive oil or electric heating technologies. -- Highlights: •Heat pumps are expected to play a key role in meeting the UK's 4th carbon budget. •Today, heat pump deployment per capita in the UK is one of the lowest in Europe. •Finland offers some policy lessons given its high level of heat pump deployment. •Policies: raising build rates, building standards and heat pump cost-effectiveness. •Deployment efforts should focus on buildings not heated by relatively low-cost gas

  5. Children are costly, but raising them may pay: The economic approach to fertility

    Martin Werding

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This article provides a non-technical introduction to analyses of fertility which are based on a rational-choice paradigm and which acknowledge that raising children may have a strong impact on the well-being of parents that can be described in terms of costs and benefits. It surveys different types of economic fertility models which can be used to address a variety of research questions, and it also discusses some basic strengths and weaknesses of applying economic analyses in this particular field. Results: Starting from a seminal contribution by Becker (1960 which may have been of little use for applied research or for interdisciplinary work, the economic theory of fertility has unfolded a differentiated research programme with indispensable contributions to the broader field of fertility research. Important features are the inclusion of (i different bargaining positions and differing incentives of partners interacting in fertility choices; (ii simultaneous decisions regarding labour force participation (as well as education and fertility, and the role played by employers, labour market institutions, and other public interventions; (iii the idea that children (or their "human capital" are investment goods with various kinds of returns that may be dispersed over an extremely long period of time, are subject to enormous uncertainties, and are strongly influenced by the social context and, again, by public policies. Conclusions: Economic aspects and elements of economic models should be included in any large-scale attempt at understanding fertility behaviour through interdisciplinary research. Improvements in the data infrastructure, which are only partly underway thus far, would be an important pre-requisite.

  6. Follicular development and steroid concentrations in cows with different levels of fertility raised under nutritional stress.

    Oliveira, J F C; Neves, J P; Moraes, J C F; Gonçalves, P B D; Bahr, J M; Hernandez, A G; Costa, L F S

    2002-09-16

    The aim of the present study was to characterize ovarian follicular development and steroid concentrations during postpartum and the estrous cycle of Brangus Ibagé cows (3/8 Nelore + 5/8 Aberdeen Angus) with different levels of fertility. Cows were classified as having high or low fertility according to the calving interval (CI). The average CI of the herd from which cows used in this study were selected was 404.6+/-5.44 and 711.2+/-20.89 days for the high and low fertility groups, respectively. Four cows of high fertility and five cows of low fertility had calves removed between 70 and 100 days after parturition. Ovarian activity was monitored daily by ultrasound for 16 days after calf removal. Days to emergency of the first follicular wave after calf removal, number of follicles with diameter >9 mm, growth rate of largest follicle, maximum diameter of largest follicle, length (days) and number of follicular waves were recorded. During this period, blood was collected daily for measurements of serum progesterone (P(4)) and estradiol (E(2)) concentrations. In another experiment, ovarian activity and P(4) and E(2) concentrations were examined during estrous cycle in five cows of high fertility and four cows of low fertility. Ovarian activity and steroid concentrations were assessed from the day prior to estrus to the 15th day of the estrous cycle (estrus = day 0). In postpartum cows of high fertility, the total number of follicles >5mm and the maximum diameter of the largest follicle were higher than in cows of low fertility (P 5mm, but the day effect was significant (P < 0.01). Plasma concentrations of P(4) and E(2) were similar in both groups. These data suggest that cows, from a population raised in the same environment have different fertility as a consequence of individual physiological characteristics. PMID:12220814

  7. Evaluation of the specificity of antibodies raised against cannabinoid receptor type 2 in the mouse retina.

    Cécyre, Bruno; Thomas, Sébastien; Ptito, Maurice; Casanova, Christian; Bouchard, Jean-François

    2014-02-01

    Cannabinoid receptors (CB1R and CB2R) are among the most abundant G protein-coupled receptors in the central nervous system. The endocannabinoid system is an attractive therapeutic target for immune system modulation and peripheral pain management. While CB1R is distributed in the nervous system, CB2R has traditionally been associated to the immune system. This dogma is currently a subject of debate since the discovery of CB2R expression in neurons using antibody-based methods. The localization of CB2R in the central nervous system (CNS) could have a significant impact on drug development because it would mean that in addition to its effects on the peripheral pain pathway, CB2R could also mediate some central effects of cannabinoids. In an attempt to clarify the debate over CB2R expression in the CNS, we tested several commercially or academically produced CB2R antibodies using Western blot and immunohistochemistry on retinal tissue obtained from wild-type mice and mice lacking CB2R (cnr2 (-/-) ). One of the antibodies tested exhibited a valuable specificity as it marked a single band near the predicted molecular weight in Western blot and produced no staining in cnr2 (-/-) mice retina sections. The other antibodies tested detected multiple bands in Western blot and labeled unidentified proteins when used with their immunizing peptide or on cnr2 (-/-) retinal sections. We conclude that many commonly used antibodies raised against CB2R are not specific for use in immunohistochemistry, at least in the context of the mouse retina. Moreover, some of them tested presented significant lot-to-lot variability. Hence, caution should be used when interpreting prior and future studies using CB2R antibodies. PMID:24185999

  8. Dark Skies Ahead? Activities to Raise Awareness during the International Year of Astronomy

    Walker, Constance E.; Isbell, D.; Pompea, S.

    2007-12-01

    "Dark Skies as a Universal Resource” is one of 7 themes targeted for the International Year of Astronomy in 2009. The theme's goal is to raise public awareness of the impact of artificial lighting on local environments and the ongoing loss of a dark night sky as a natural resource for much of the world's population. To reach this goal, activities are being developed which highlight dark skies preservation issues 1) through new technology (e.g., programs at planetaria, blogging, podcasting); 2) at events such as star parties and observatory open houses; 3) in arts, entertainment and storytelling (e.g., art competitions, documentaries, lectures, native American traditions); 4) through unaided-eye and digital-meter star count programs involving citizen-scientists; and 5) by relating them to public health, economic issues, ecological consequences, energy conservation, safety and security. A centerpiece of the Dark Skies theme is the unaided-eye and digital-meter versions of the GLOBE at Night program. The unaided-eye version directs citizen-scientists on how to observe and record the brightness of the night sky by matching its appearance toward the constellation of Orion with one of 7 stellar maps of different limiting magnitudes. For the "digital” version, low-cost meters are used by citizen-scientists to measure the integrated sky brightness. Data sets and maps of both versions are supplied on-line for further capstone activities. In the presentation, we will outline the activities being developed as well as plans for funding, implementation, marketing and the connections to the global cornerstone IYA project, "Dark Skies Awareness".

  9. Platelet-collagen interaction: inhibition by a monoclonal antibody raised against collagen receptor

    Chiang, T.; Jin, A.; Kang, A.

    1986-05-01

    The authors have previously reported that polyclonal antibody raised against the purified platelet collagen receptor cross reacted with glycoprotein IIb-IIIa complex of platelets. In order to study the receptor function further, the authors prepared a monoclonal antibody to the collagen receptor (65K). Platelet collagen receptor was purified as described previously by the authors. Mice were immunized by injection of purified 65K protein emulsified in complete Freund's adjuvant, and hybridomas were obtained from the fusion of spleen cells of immunized mice with myeloma cells (SP 2/0). The assay for antibody was performed with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The hybridoma cells producing specific anti-65K protein were subcloned and the subcloned cells were injected into peritoneal cavity of Pristane-Primed mice. Immunoglobulin G(IgG) was isolated from ascitic fluids by an Affigel Blue chromatography. The Fab' fragments were isolated from papain digested IgG followed by an Affigel Blue chromatography. Immunoblot experiments using the monoclonal IgG of solubilized platelet membrane proteins following NaDodSO/sub 4/-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis showed that the monoclonal IgG reacted with the antigen specifically. It did not react with glycoprotein IIb-IIIa. The isolated IgG and Fab' fragments inhibited competitively the binding of radiolabelled ..cap alpha..1(I) to washed platelets and soluble collagen- as well as fibrillar collagen-induced but not ADP-induced platelet aggregation. This indicates that collagen-induced platelet aggregation is mediated through interaction of collagen with 65K platelet receptor.

  10. Kinetic epitope mapping of monoclonal antibodies raised against the Yersinia pestis virulence factor LcrV.

    Read, Thomas; Olkhov, Rouslan V; Williamson, E Diane; Shaw, Andrew M

    2014-10-01

    Five monoclonal antibodies, mAb7.3, mAb29.3, mAb46.3, mAb12.3 and mAb36.3, raised to the LcrV virulence factor from Yersinia pestis were characterised for their Fab affinity against the purified protein and their Fc affinity to Protein A/G as a proxy for the FcγR receptor. Kinetic measurements were performed label-free in a localised particle plasmon array reader. The Fc-ProteinA/G complex first-order half-life was determined for each antibody and fell in the range of 0.8-3.8h. The Fab first-order half-lives had ranged from 3.4 to 9.2h although two antibodies, mAb12.3 and mAb36.3, showed low affinity interactions. Competitive binding studies of mixtures of the Fab-active antibodies were performed to measure the relative binding efficiency of one antibody in the presence of the other. A geometric relative positioning of the epitopes of mAb7.3, mAb29.3 and mAb46.3 was determined based on the footprint locus of the antibody and the percentage of competitive binding. The two known protective antibodies mAb7.3 and mAb29.3 showed greater interference, indicating epitopes close to one another compared to the non-protective mAb46.3 antibody. The Fab-Fc complex half-life screen and epitope mapping are potentially useful tools in the screening of therapeutic antibodies or vaccine candidates. PMID:25461137

  11. A REPOSITORY DESIGNED TO RAISE THE STUDENTS’ KNOWLEDGE AND AWARENESS ON NANOSCIENCE AND NANOTECHNOLOGY

    GABRIEL GORGHIU

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available As defined in the information technology area, a repository represents a digital collection in which data is preserved and maintained in an organized and structured manner. This comes helpful for many projects that envisage sharing specific databases, files or resources for being accessed or distributed. More, several free and open-source software solutions for designing open-access repositories are available at present, having features very similar to the systems built for document management. Trying to implement such digital collection, as extra-readings and references related to Nanoscience and Nanotechnology area, in the frame of the LLP KA3-ICT project no. 511787-LLP-1-2010-1-TR-KA3-KA3MP: “Nano-Tech Science Education”, it was set up a repository/database for being used by students, Science prospective teachers and teachers, as a part of a Virtual Lab, which represents the main project product - an experimental virtual aid created for Science education. The Lab mainly consists of experimental room, podcasting room and repository, and serves as a platform for Science lessons, as a database of teaching materials, and as a hub for science-learning-related graphic aids and recorded and illustrated appealing experiments on Nanoscience and Nanotechnology. Its repository includes articles, books, chapters, posters, videos, experiments, methodological documents which introduce in fact, actual findings and researches developed in different countries. Basically, the main role of the repository is to update the virtual lab users’ knowledge and to raise their awareness on Nanoscience and Nanotechnology. The paper presents the features of the designed repository, its main services, and specific developments. As this is an instrument under continuous updating, the paper offers also a status of its actual structure and content.

  12. Utah Flooding Hazard: Raising Public Awareness through the Creation of Multidisciplinary Web-Based Maps

    Castleton, J.; Erickson, B.; Bowman, S. D.; Unger, C. D.

    2014-12-01

    The Utah Geological Survey's (UGS) Geologic Hazards Program has partnered with the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers to create geologically derived web-based flood hazard maps. Flooding in Utah communities has historically been one of the most damaging geologic hazards. The most serious floods in Utah have generally occurred in the Great Salt Lake basin, particularly in the Weber River drainage on the western slopes of the Wasatch Range, in areas of high population density. With a growing population of 2.9 million, the state of Utah is motivated to raise awareness about the potential for flooding. The process of increasing community resiliency to flooding begins with identification and characterization of flood hazards. Many small communities in areas experiencing rapid growth have not been mapped completely by the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) Flood Insurance Rate Maps (FIRM). Existing FIRM maps typically only consider drainage areas that are greater than one square mile in determining flood zones and do not incorporate geologic data, such as the presence of young, geologically active alluvial fans that indicate a high potential for debris flows and sheet flooding. Our new flood hazard mapping combines and expands on FEMA data by incorporating mapping derived from 1:24,000-scale UGS geologic maps, LiDAR data, digital elevation models, and historical aerial photography. Our flood hazard maps are intended to supplement the FIRM maps to provide local governments and the public with additional flood hazard information so they may make informed decisions, ultimately reducing the risk to life and property from flooding hazards. Flooding information must be widely available and easily accessed. One of the most effective ways to inform the public is through web-based maps. Web-based flood hazard maps will not only supply the public with the flood information they need, but also provides a platform to add additional geologic hazards to an easily accessible format.

  13. Effects of induced astigmatism on foot placement strategies when stepping onto a raised surface.

    Louise Johnson

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Large changes in spectacle prescription can increase falls risk in older people. We investigated the effect of induced astigmatism (a common cause of distorted or blurred vision in older people on locomotor stepping patterns to determine whether the orientation of astigmatic changes could have differential effects on gait safety when negotiating steps and stairs. METHODS: 10 older adults (mean age 76.0±6.4 years walked up to and stepped onto a raised block whilst wearing their spectacle prescription and when blurred with ±3.00D cylinders at axes 45°, 90°, 135° and 180°. Gait measurements included foot placement before the block, toe clearance over the block edge and foot placement on the block. RESULTS: Induced astigmatism with axes at 90°, providing magnification in the horizontal meridian only, caused no change in stepping pattern. Induced astigmatism with axes at 180° caused foot placement changes in the anterior or posterior direction according to whether magnification was positive or negative in the vertical meridian (block perceived higher or lower respectively. Induced astigmatism with axes oblique at 45° and 135° (causing the block to be perceived as a parallelogram sloping downwards either to the right or left caused gait changes in the anterior and posterior, vertical and lateral directions. Changes in lateral foot placement appeared to be an attempt to maintain constant foot clearance levels over the block edge by stepping over the perceived 'lower' side of the 'sloping' block. CONCLUSIONS: Astigmatic changes with oblique axes had the greatest effect on gait. Clinicians, including optometrists, physiotherapists, occupational therapists and nurses should counsel older patients about the effects of astigmatism on gait safety. Furthermore, partial prescribing of astigmatic corrections should be considered to reduce the risk of falling.

  14. In Romania, exposure to Toxoplasma gondii occurs twice as often in swine raised for familial consumption as in hunted wild boar, but occurs rarely if ever among fattening pigs raised in confinement

    A wide range of swine husbandry practices prevail in Romania: pork for human consumption is derived from hunting wild boar, from household rearing of small numbers of backyard pigs, and from indoor, industrial production of swine raised in confinement indoors. Romania thus represents an instructive ...

  15. GLOBE at Night: Raising Public Awareness and Involvement through Citizen Science

    Walker, C. E.; Pompea, S. M.; Sparks, R. T.

    2010-12-01

    With half of the world’s population now living in cities, many urban dwellers have never experienced the wonderment of pristinely dark skies and maybe never will. Light pollution is obscuring people’s long-standing natural heritage to view stars. The GLOBE at Night program (www.globeatnight.org) is an international citizen-science campaign to raise public awareness of the impact of light pollution by encouraging everyone everywhere to measure local levels of night sky brightness and contribute observations online to a world map. In the last 5 years, GLOBE at Night has been the most productive public light pollution monitoring campaign, collecting over 52,000 observations in a two-week period annually. This year, during the moonless two weeks in March, the campaign set a record high of over 17,800 measurements from people in 86 countries. Foundational resources are available to facilitate the public’s participation in promoting dark skies awareness. The GLOBE at Night website explains clearly the simple-to-participate-in 5 step program and offers background information and interactive games on key concepts. The program has been expanded to include trainings of the general public, but especially educators in schools, museums and science centers, in unique ways. Education kits for dark skies awareness have been distributed at the training workshops. The kit includes material for a light shielding demonstration, a digital Sky Quality Meter and “Dark Skies Rangers” activities. The activities are on how unshielded light wastes energy, how light pollution affects wildlife and how you can participate in a citizen-science star-hunt like GLOBE at Night. In addition, projects are being developed for what to do with the data once it is taken. The GLOBE at Night data from different years can be compared to look for trends over time or with population density maps. The data can also be used to search for dark sky oases or to monitor lighting ordinance compliance. Most

  16. Normal inter-limb differences during the straight leg raise neurodynamic test: a cross sectional study

    Boyd Benjamin S

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The straight leg raise (SLR neurodynamic test is commonly used to examine the sensitivity of the lower quarter nervous system to movement. Range of motion during the SLR varies considerably, due to factors such as age, sex and activity level. Knowing intra-individual, inter-limb differences may provide a normative measure that is not influenced by such demographic characteristics. This study aimed to determine normal asymmetries between limbs in healthy, asymptomatic individuals during SLR testing and the relationship of various demographic characteristics. Methods The limb elevation angle was measured using an inclinometer during SLR neurodynamic testing that involved pre-positioning the ankle in plantar flexion (PF/SLR and neutral dorsiflexion (DF/SLR. Phase 1 of the study included 20 participants where the ankle was positioned using an ankle brace replicating research testing conditions. Phase 2 included 20 additional participants where the ankle was manually positioned to replicate clinical testing conditions. Results The group average range of motion during PF/SLR was 57.1 degrees (SD: 16.8 degrees on the left and 56.7 degrees (SD: 17.2 degrees on the right while during DF/SLR the group average was 48.5 degrees (SD: 16.1 degrees on the left and 48.9 degrees (SD: 16.4 degrees on the right. The range of motion during SLR was moderately correlated to weight (−0.40 to −0.52, body mass index (−0.41 to −0.52, sex (0.40 to 0.42 and self-reported activity level (0.50 to 0.57. Intra-individual differences between limbs for range of motion during PF/SLR averaged 5.0 degrees (SD: 3.5 degrees (95% CI: 3.8 degrees, 6.1 degrees and during DF/SLR averaged 4.1 degrees (SD: 3.2 degrees (95% CI: 3.1 degrees, 5.1 degrees but were not correlated with any demographic characteristic. There were no significant differences between Phase 1 and Phase 2. Conclusions Overall range of motion during SLR was related to sex, weight, BMI and

  17. Microsatellite based genetic diversity and relationships among ten Creole and commercial cattle breeds raised in Brazil

    Almeida Leonardo D

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Brazil holds the largest commercial cattle populations worldwide. Local cattle breeds can be classified according to their origin, as exotic or Creole. Exotic breeds imported in the last 100 years, both zebuine and taurine, currently make up the bulk of the intensively managed populations. Locally adapted Creole breeds, originated from cattle introduced by the European conquerors derive from natural selection and events of breed admixture. While historical knowledge exists on the Brazilian Creole breeds very little is known on their genetic composition. The objective of this study was to assess the levels of genetic diversity, phylogenetic relationships and patterns of taurine/zebuine admixture among ten cattle breeds raised in Brazil. Results Significant reduction of heterozygosity exists due both to within-population inbreeding and to breed differentiation in both subspecies (taurine and zebuine. For taurine breeds the number of markers that contribute to breed differentiation is larger than for zebuine. A consistently similar number of alleles was seen in both subspecies for all microsatellites. Four Creole breeds were the most genetically diverse followed by the zebuine breeds, the two specialized taurine breeds and the Creole Caracu. Pairwise genetic differentiation were all significant indicating that all breeds can be considered as genetically independent entities. A STRUCTURE based diagram indicated introgression of indicine genes in the local Creole breeds and suggested that occasional Creole introgression can be detected in some Zebuine animals. Conclusion This study reports on a comprehensive study of the genetic structure and diversity of cattle breeds in Brazil. A significant amount of genetic variation is maintained in the local cattle populations. The genetic data show that Brazilian Creole breeds constitute an important and diverse reservoir of genetic diversity for bovine breeding and conservation. The

  18. Eddy covariance measurements of greenhouse gases from a restored and rewetted raised bog ecosystem.

    Lee, S. C.; Christen, A.; Black, T. A.; Johnson, M. S.; Ketler, R.; Nesic, Z.; Merkens, M.

    2015-12-01

    Wetland ecosystems play a significant role in the global carbon (C) cycle. Wetlands act as a major long-term storage of carbon by sequestrating carbon-dioxide (CO2) from the atmosphere. Meanwhile, they can emit significant amounts of methane (CH4) due to anaerobic microbial decomposition. The Burns Bog Ecological Conservancy Area (BBECA) is recognized as one of Canada's largest undeveloped natural areas retained within an urban area. Historically, it has been substantially reduced in size and degraded by peat mining and agriculture. Since 2005, the bog has been declared a conservancy area, and the restoration efforts in BBECA focus on rewetting the disturbed ecosystems to promote a transition back to a raised bog. A pilot study measured CH4, CO2 and N2O exchanges in 2014 and concluded to monitor CO2, CH4 fluxes continuously. From the perspective of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, CO2 sequestered in bog needs to be protected and additional CO2 and CH4 emissions due to land-cover change need to be reduced by wise management. In this study, we measured the growing-season (June-September) fluxes of CO2 and CH4 exchange using eddy covariance (EC). A floating platform with an EC system for both CO2 (closed-path) and CH4 (open-path) began operation in June 2015. During the growing-season, gross ecosystem photosynthesis (GEP) and ecosystem respiration (Re) averaged 5.87 g C m-2 day-1 and 2.02 g C m-2 day-1, respectively. The magnitude of GEP and Re were lower than in previous studies of pristine northern peatlands. The daily average CH4 emission was 0.99 (±1.14) g C m-2 day-1 and it was higher than in most previous studies. We also characterized how environmental factors affected the seasonal dynamics of these exchanges in this disturbed peatland. Our measurements showed that soil temperature and soil water content were major drivers of seasonal changes of GHG fluxes. The daily average GHG warming potential (GWP) of the emissions in the growing seasons (from CO2 and CH4

  19. Seven steps to raise world security. Op-Ed, published in the Finanical Times

    In recent years, three phenomena have radically altered the security landscape. They are the emergence of a nuclear black market, the determined efforts by more countries to acquire technology to produce the fissile material usable in nuclear weapons and the clear desire of terrorists to acquire weapons of mass destruction. The IAEA has been trying to solve these new problems with existing tools. But for every step forward, we have exposed vulnerabilities in the system. The system itself - the regime that implements non-proliferation treaty needs reinforcement. Some of the necessary remedies can be taken in New York at the Meeting to be held in May, but only if governments are ready to act. With seven straightforward steps, and without amending the treaty, this conference could reach a milestone in strengthening world security. The first step: put a five-year hold on additional facilities for uranium enrichment and plutonium separation. Second, speed up existing efforts, led by the US global threat reduction initiative and others, to modify the research reactors worldwide operating with highly enriched uranium - particularly those with metal fuel that could be readily employed as bomb material. Third, raise the bar for inspection standards by establishing the 'additional protocol' as the norm for verifying compliance with the NPT. Fourth, call on the United Nations Security Council to act swiftly and decisively in the case of any country that withdraws from the NPT, in terms of the threat the withdrawal poses to international peace and security. Fifth, urge states to act on the Security Council's recent resolution 1540, to pursue and prosecute any illicit trading in nuclear material and technology. Sixth, call on the five nuclear weapon states party to the NPT to accelerate implementation of their 'unequivocal commitment' to nuclear disarmament, building on efforts such as the 2002 Moscow treaty between Russia and the US. Last, acknowledge the volatility of

  20. Grammatical consciousness-raising: a problem-solving, process-focused approach

    Wendy R. Kilfoil

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available How can we address the teaching of English as a second language in South African secondary schools given what we know about the nature of language acquisition, learners' lack of exposure to mother tongue English speakers and their widely divergent language experience at primary school/eve!? This paper argues that grammatical consciousness-raising should be the basis of the secondary school syllabus. Current syllabuses do not adequately consider language acquisition processes. Although their aims are defined as 'communicative: syllabuses continue to focus on what language should be taught, with the result that they remain essentially lists of structures and functions. Syllabuses should be completely redesigned to develop a coherent process-focused, problemsolving approach to second language teaching. At the moment there is a distinct reluctance to make any definitive pronouncements about the place of language instruction in the classroom. This has a detrimental effect on both teachers and learners. The only way to cope with the developing language needs of the learner in the secondary school is through a more conscious study of how language is used in natural discourse. A more deliberate language control on the part of the learner will enhance the efficacy of extensive listening, speaking, reading and writing activities designed to supply input which is a necessary but not sufficient criterion for acquisition at this leveL Hoe kan ons die onderrig van Engels as 'n tweede taal in Suid-Afrikaanse sekondere skole aanspreek, gegee ons kennis van die aard van taalverwerwing, die leerders se gebrek aan blootstelling aan Engels-moederlaalsprekers en hul uiteenlopende taalondervinding op laerskoolvlak? Hierdie arlikel voer aan dat grammatikale bewustheidsopskerping die basis van die sekondere skoolleerplan behoorl te wees. Huidige leerplanne neem nie taalverwerwingsprosesse voldoende in ag nie. Alhoewel hulle doelstellings as kommunikatief beskryf word

  1. Milk yield and composition from Angus and Angus-cross beef cows raised in southern Brazil.

    Rodrigues, P F; Menezes, L M; Azambuja, R C C; Suñé, R W; Barbosa Silveira, I D; Cardoso, F F

    2014-06-01

    This study assessed milk yield and composition of Angus and Angus-cross beef cows raised in southern Brazil. A total of 128 records were collected in 2 consecutive calving seasons from cows between 3 and 5 yr of age of 4 breed compositions: Angus (ANAN), Caracu × Angus (CRAN), Hereford × Angus (HHAN), and Nelore × Angus (NEAN). These cows were mated to Brangus (BN) or Braford (BO) bulls and managed under extensive grazing conditions in southern Brazil. Milk production of these cows was assessed by 2 procedures: indirectly by the calf weigh-suckle-weigh procedure (WD) and directly by machine milking (MM). Lactation curves were estimated using nonlinear regression and the following related traits were derived: peak yield (PY), peak week (PW), total yield at 210 d (TY210), and lactation persistence (PERS). Milk composition and calf weaning weight adjusted to 210 d (WW210) were also determined. The MM technique was considered more accurate because of lower standard errors of estimated means, greater statistical power, and greater correlation between TY210 and WW210 (0.50) compared to WD (0.36). Considering the more precise evaluation by MM, the CRAN and NEAN cows had greater TY210 (1070 and 1116 kg, respectively) and PY (8.1 and 7.8 kg, respectively) compared to ANAN and HHAN cows, which had 858 and 842 kg for TY210 and 6.6 and 6.3 kg for PY, respectively. The NEAN cows had the latest PW at 10.8 wk. Late-calving cows had 21% lower TY210 compared to cows that calved earlier. Milk composition was influenced by cow genotype, with CRAN and NEAN cows producing milk with greater fat (3.8 and 3.9%, respectively) and protein (3.2 and 3.1%, respectively) content compared to ANAN and HHAN cows. Regardless of the genotype, fat, protein, and total solids increased in concentration from beginning to end of lactation, while lactose content decreased. Crossbreeding of Angus with adapted breeds of taurine or indicine origin can be effective in increasing milk yield and nutrient

  2. Raising awareness for research on earth walls, and earth scientific aspects

    van den Ancker, Hanneke; Jungerius, Pieter Dirk; Baas, Henk; Groenewoudt, Bert; Peen, Charlotte

    2013-04-01

    A conference to raise awareness In the Netherlands, little research on earth walls has been done. To improve attention for earth walls, a number of organisations, including Geoheritage NL, organized a conference at the RCE, the Cultural Heritage Agency of the Netherlands. The conference* presented a state-of-the-art of research done. The book with the presentations, and extra case studies added, was published in December 2012. The book concludes with a research action list, including earth science research, and can be downloaded freely from the internet. It has English summaries. The earth science aspects Historical earth walls do not only add cultural value to a landscape, but also geodiversity value. Apart from geomorphological aspects, the walls contain information about past land- and climate conditions: - They cover up a former topography, a past landscape. A relevant source of scientific information where lands are levelled, as is the case in many parts of The Netherlands; - The soil formation under the earth wall is a reference soil. The soil formation in the top of the wall gives insight in the rate of soil formation in relationship with the age and parent material of the wall; - The soil profiles of different age have ecological significance. Older walls with a more pronounced soil formation often hold forest flora that has disappeared from the surrounding environment, such as historical bush or tree species, autogenetic DNA material or a specific soil fauna; - The materials in the earth walls tell about the process of wall-building. Paleosols and sedimentary structures in the earth walls, in the gullies and colluvial fans along the walls contain information about past land management and climate. - The eroded appearance of the earth walls is part of their history, and contain information about past management and land conditions, has ecological relevance, for example for insects, and is often visually more interesting. Insight in the rates of erosion are

  3. A stacked record of late-Holocene moisture variability from three raised bogs in Maine

    Clifford, M. J.; Booth, R. K.

    2011-12-01

    During the past century, drought has caused substantial social, economic, and ecological changes in North America. Semi-arid regions of the western United States have been particularly vulnerable to drought and drought impacts. However, drought has been less frequent and severe in humid regions of North America during the past century, leading to the perception that these regions are not particularly vulnerable to hydroclimatic change. Although the tree-ring record provides a detailed perspective on drought frequency and duration for the past millennium in the western US, much less is known about the long-term history of water balance in humid regions like the Northeast. To better understand the long-term history of moisture variability in this region, we developed records of past hydroclimate variability spanning the past 3000 years from three raised bogs in Maine. We used testate amoeba-inferred water table depths and measurements of the degree of peat decomposition to reconstruct the paleohydrology at each site. Proxy hydroclimate records from these bogs were combined (stacked), creating a single, regional record of hydroclimate variability. Our results reveal that droughts longer or more severe than any recorded during the 20th century have been common in the region, with particularly prominent multidecadal-to-centennial scale droughts centered on ~1800 yr BP, ~1650 yr BP, ~850 yr BP, and ~550 yr BP. Hydroclimate variability was greatest during the Medieval Climate Anomaly, a time period of relative warmth in much of the Northern Hemisphere. Droughts in Maine during the past century have been associated with northerly wind anomalies and anomalously cool sea surface temperatures in the adjacent northwestern North Atlantic, patterns that are likely associated with broader circulation features such as those associated with the North Atlantic Oscillation. Droughts of the past 3000 years may have been characterized by similar responses to the coupled ocean

  4. Investigating body patterning in aquarium-raised flamboyant cuttlefish (Metasepia pfefferi).

    Thomas, Amber; MacDonald, Christy

    2016-01-01

    Cuttlefish are known for their ability to quickly alter their total appearance, or body pattern, to camouflage or to communicate with predators, prey and conspecifics. The body patterns of some species have been extensively documented to gain a better understanding of their behaviors. However, the flamboyant cuttlefish (Metasepia pfefferi) is largely unstudied. Recently, aquarists have been able to breed, house and display M. pfefferi, giving researchers ample opportunities to study their behavior under those conditions. This study aimed to identify the dorsally-visible components of the body patterns used by 5 sexually-mature, freely-behaving, F5 generation M. pfefferi in their home aquarium at The Seas in Epcot at Walt Disney World Resorts(®), Lake Buena Vista, FL, USA. Furthermore, we aimed to determine the most probable patterns used by this population of animals and to create a database of components that can be used in future behavioral studies. We found that this population of M. pfefferi use a combination of 7 textural, 14 postural, 7 locomotor and between 42 and 75 chromatic components in their home aquarium. Using maximum likelihood analysis and AutoClass@IJM software, we found that these components combine to generate 11 distinct body patterns. The software was able to sort 98% of the live animal observations into one of the 11 patterns with 90% confidence and 88% of observations with 99% confidence. Unusually for cuttlefish, 8 of the 11 identified patterns contained at least one "traveling" component (i.e., traveling waves or blinking spots) in which the colors on the skin appeared to travel on the animal's mantle. In other species, these components are generally seen during hunting or aggression, but this population of M. pfefferi uses them frequently during a variety of contexts in their home aquarium. With few published data on the behavior of M. pfefferi in their natural environment, we cannot compare the behavior of the tank-raised individuals in

  5. Gene by Environment Research to Prevent Externalizing Problem Behavior : Ethical Questions Raised from a Public Healthcare Perspective

    Chhangur, Rabia R.; Weeland, Joyce; Matthys, Walter; Overbeek, Geertjan

    2015-01-01

    The main public health advantages of examining gene by environment interactions (i.e., G x E) in externalizing behavior lie in the realm of personalized interventions. Nevertheless, the incorporation of genetic data in randomized controlled trials is fraught with difficulties and raises ethical ques

  6. Compromised metamorphosis and thyroid hormone changes in wood frogs (Lithobates sylvaticus) raised on reclaimed wetlands on the Athabasca oil sands

    Hersikorn, Blair D., E-mail: blair.hersikorn@usask.c [Toxicology Centre, University of Saskatchewan, 44 Campus Drive, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, S7N 5B3 (Canada); Smits, Judit E.G., E-mail: judit.smits@ucalgary.c [Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Calgary, 3280 Hospital Drive NW, Calgary, Alberta, T2N 4Z6 (Canada)

    2011-02-15

    The wet landscape approach to oil sands tailings reclamation in the Athabasca Oil Sands region involves creating wetlands from fluid tailings in mined-out pits. We measured time to metamorphosis, thyroid hormone status, and detoxification enzyme (EROD) induction in Wood frog (Lithobates sylvaticus) tadpoles raised on reclaimed oil sands wetlands of different ages [young ({<=}7 yr) vs. old (>7 yr)] and compared data with tadpoles raised on reference (control) wetlands. Metamorphosis was delayed or never occurred in tadpoles raised in young tailings; those exposed to older tailings developed similarly to those in reference wetlands. Thyroid hormone disruption likely played an important role in the metamorphosis delay as the T3:T4 ratio was lowest in tadpoles raised in young, tailings-affected wetlands. Our findings suggest tailings wetlands become less toxic with age, and that these amphibians will be able to complete their life cycle in tailing wetlands that have sufficiently detoxified with age. - This work provides guidance for reclamation of oil sands tailings and shows the usefulness of frogs and caging studies in environmental toxicology.

  7. 40 CFR 124.13 - Obligation to raise issues and provide information during the public comment period.

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Obligation to raise issues and provide information during the public comment period. 124.13 Section 124.13 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS PROCEDURES FOR DECISIONMAKING General Program Requirements §...

  8. 25 CFR 900.25 - What if only a portion of a proposal raises one of the five declination criteria?

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What if only a portion of a proposal raises one of the five declination criteria? 900.25 Section 900.25 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE... SELF-DETERMINATION AND EDUCATION ASSISTANCE ACT Declination Procedures § 900.25 What if only a...

  9. The Children Should Lead Us: Diane Ehrensaft's "Gender Born, Gender Made--Raising Healthy Gender-Nonconforming Children"

    Beemyn, Genny

    2013-01-01

    This article reviews Diane Ehrensaft's "Gender Born, Gender Made: Raising Healthy Gender-Nonconforming Children", a thoughtful and practical guide that can help parents, other family members, and therapists better understand and support children and youth whom the author refers to as "gender creative." Ehrensaft's work is at the forefront of a…

  10. A Knowledge-Based Expert System Which Assists Non-Profit Organizations in Fund-Raising Software Selections.

    Hoppe, Patricia Anne

    Outcomes of a project designed to develop the knowledge base necessary for creating an expert system that would help nonprofit organizations select fund-raising software are presented in this paper. When the system is completed, its components will ask the user for information that will assist in determining the organization's administrative needs…

  11. South African Families Raising Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders: Relationship between Family Routines, Cognitive Appraisal and Family Quality of Life

    Schlebusch, L.; Samuels, A. E.; Dada, S.

    2016-01-01

    Background: The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between family routines, cognitive appraisal of the impact of autism spectrum disorders (ASD) on the family and family quality of life (FQOL) in families raising children with ASD in South Africa. Methods: A sample of 180 families of young children with ASD who were…

  12. Compromised metamorphosis and thyroid hormone changes in wood frogs (Lithobates sylvaticus) raised on reclaimed wetlands on the Athabasca oil sands

    The wet landscape approach to oil sands tailings reclamation in the Athabasca Oil Sands region involves creating wetlands from fluid tailings in mined-out pits. We measured time to metamorphosis, thyroid hormone status, and detoxification enzyme (EROD) induction in Wood frog (Lithobates sylvaticus) tadpoles raised on reclaimed oil sands wetlands of different ages [young (≤7 yr) vs. old (>7 yr)] and compared data with tadpoles raised on reference (control) wetlands. Metamorphosis was delayed or never occurred in tadpoles raised in young tailings; those exposed to older tailings developed similarly to those in reference wetlands. Thyroid hormone disruption likely played an important role in the metamorphosis delay as the T3:T4 ratio was lowest in tadpoles raised in young, tailings-affected wetlands. Our findings suggest tailings wetlands become less toxic with age, and that these amphibians will be able to complete their life cycle in tailing wetlands that have sufficiently detoxified with age. - This work provides guidance for reclamation of oil sands tailings and shows the usefulness of frogs and caging studies in environmental toxicology.

  13. Efficacy of crystalline lysine in alternative diets for pond-raised hybrid catfish, female Ictalurus punctatus X male Ictalurus furcatus

    study was conducted to examine the efficacy of crystalline lysine in alternative diets for pond-raised hybrid catfish, ' Ictalurus punctatus × ' Ictalurus furcatus. Two 28% protein alternative diets supplemented with l-lysine HCl at the required level based on 62% (previously published value) or 10...

  14. Coupling of soil solarization and reduced rate fumigation: Effects on methyl iodide emissions from raised beds under field conditions

    Using field plots, we studied the effect on methyl iodide (MeI) emissions of coupling soil solarization (passive and active) and reduced rate fumigation (70% of a standard fumigation) in raised beds under virtually impermeable film (VIF). The results showed that for the standard fumigation and the p...

  15. Serious gaming used as management intervention to prevent work-related stress and raise work-engagement among workers

    Wiezer, N.; Bakhuys Roozeboom, M.; Oprins, E.

    2013-01-01

    Work-related stress is a large occupational risks in the Netherlands but interventions to reduce this risk are not implemented in organizations. The characteristics of a serious game make it a useful training tool for managers to raise awareness on their role in stimulating work engagement and manag

  16. The Effect of the SCAMPER Technique in Raising Awareness Regarding the Collection and Utilization of Solid Waste

    Çelikler, Dilek; Harman, Gonca

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effect of the SCAMPER technique in raising awareness among science students regarding the collection and utilization of solid waste. The participants included a total of 65 third-year students. According to the study results, the science students described schools and visual media as their main source of…

  17. At the Roots of Finnish Elementary Education--How Were Children Raised in the First Finnish Elementary Schools?

    Uusiautti, Satu; Paksuniemi, Merja; Määttä, Kaarina

    2013-01-01

    This study dissects the history of Finnish elementary education and the way children were raised during the initial phase of Finnish education in the 18th century. The development of Finnish education was studied through contemporary decrees and laws and studies of Finnish school history. The preliminary aim was to focus on the principles and…

  18. Improving fumigation efficiency by increasing drip-tape number and using low permeability film in raised-bed production systems

    Drip fumigation is commonly used for controlling soilborne pests in raised-bed strawberry production systems in California. However, the high emission loss and poor pest control indicate that the current fumigation practice with two drip tapes and polyethylene film (PE) covering need to be improved....

  19. Optimizing fumigation efficiency by doubling drip line number and using low permeability film in raised-bed production systems

    Southern California strawberries are planted in raised-beds covered by polyethylene (PE) film and typically are irrigated with two drip lines placed near the bed surface. To control soil-borne pests, fumigants are commonly applied through the drip lines prior to transplanting strawberries, but effic...

  20. Pizza Parties, Pep Rallies, and Practice Tests: Strategies Used by High School Principals to Raise Percent Proficient

    Hollingworth, Liz; Dude, David J.; Shepherd, Julie K.

    2010-01-01

    This study explores ways high school principals are responding to the demands of education reform to raise student test scores on achievement tests used for accountability purposes. Anecdotal evidence suggests administrators have instituted pizza parties and pep rallies to motivate students to do their best and practice tests to prepare students…

  1. Raising Students' Awareness of Cross-Cultural Contrastive Rhetoric in English Writing via an E-Learning Course

    Xing, Minjie; Wang, Jinghui; Spencer, Kenneth

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated the potential impact of e-learning on raising overseas students' cultural awareness and explored the possibility of creating an interactive learning environment for them to improve their English academic writing. The study was based on a comparison of Chinese and English rhetoric in academic writing, including a comparison…

  2. The Effects of Pragmatic Consciousness-­-Raising Activities on the Learning of Speech Acts in the Beginning CFL Classroom

    Yang, Li; Zhu, Jia

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates the effects of instruction on learners' pragmatic competence by integrating pragmatic consciousness-raising (PCR) activities into a beginning-level Chinese language course during one academic semester. The study also examines the effect of integrating the PCR activities, i.e., before or after the instruction of a…

  3. ACT against Violence Parents Raising Safe Kids Program: Effects on Maltreatment-Related Parenting Behaviors and Beliefs

    Knox, Michele S.; Burkhart, Kimberly; Hunter, Kimberly E.

    2011-01-01

    The ACT Against Violence Parents Raising Safe Kids program (ACT-PRSK) is an interactive violence prevention program developed by the American Psychological Association for parents of young children. The program teaches and supports parents in the areas of child development, roots and consequences of violence, anger management for adults and…

  4. War against Rape (WAR): The Experience of an Activist Group in Karachi in Raising Awareness of Sexual Crimes against Women.

    Zaman, Riffat Moazam

    This paper describes the experiences of an activist group in Karachi (Pakistan) in raising awareness of sexual crimes against women, pursuant to a rape of a professional woman which occurred during an armed robbery. It describes how, since rape was regarded as rare or nonexistent in a conservative, Islamic society, the efforts of the Women's…

  5. Dating raised bogs : New aspects of AMS C-14 wiggle matching, a reservoir effect and climatic change

    Kilian, MR; VanDerPlicht, J; VanGeel, B; Geel, B. van

    1995-01-01

    High resolution AMS dating of Holocene raised bog deposits (Engbertsdijksvenen, The Netherlands) shows natural C-14 variations (wiggles) which can be matched with the dendrochronological calibration curve. Comparison of our results with other, conventionally dated peat cores and the Delta(14)C recor

  6. Family Functioning in Asian Families Raising Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders: The Role of Capabilities and Positive Meanings

    Xue, J.; Ooh, J.; Magiati, I.

    2014-01-01

    Background: There has been increasing interest in exploring the factors contributing to successful adaptation and family functioning in ethnically and culturally diverse families who raise children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD), in order to inform more appropriate strength-based family support services. This pilot study used the Family…

  7. Preliminary studies on the depuration of common off-flavors from fish raised in recirculating aquaculture systems

    “Off-flavor” problems can adversely impact the growth of the aquaculture industry. Fish raised in recirculating systems have the potential to develop the common off-flavors “earthy” and “musty” due to accumulation of the microbial metabolites geosmin and 2-methylisoborneol (MIB) in the fish flesh. ...

  8. Serum antibodies to Pseudomonas aeruginosa in cystic fibrosis.

    Brett, M M; Ghoneim, A T; Littlewood, J M

    1986-01-01

    Serum IgG antibodies to Pseudomonas aeruginosa cell surface antigens were determined by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay. Titres in patients without cystic fibrosis were low (140-235). Those in patients with cystic fibrosis who were chronically infected by P. aeruginosa were very high (1100-20,500), while patients who grew the organism intermittently had lower titres (160-4400). Longitudinal studies showed that raised titres were observed at a very early stage of infection. High titres were ...

  9. Ovarian changes during the reproductive cycle of the Tupinambis merianae lizard raised in a temperate environment

    Manes, Mario E.

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available El ciclo reproductor de hembras de Tupinambis merianae criadas en ambiente templado consiste de tres fases gonadales: previtelogénica, vitelogénica y postovulatoria o lútea. Durante la fase previtelogénica, que ocupa gran parte del verano, el otoño e invierno, los ovarios son pequeños, pesan menos de 4 g y contienen solamente folículos no vitelogénicos, los cuales se desarrollan lentamente a partir de los nidos germinales, alcanzando unos 5 mm de diámetro. Debido a una maduración gonadal asincrónica entre ambos sexos, las cópulas acontecen cuando los ovarios son aún previtelogénicos. Luego sobreviene una corta e intensa vitelogénesis, durante la cual los folículos crecen uniformemente incrementando unas 6 veces su diámetro (cerca de 30 mm, mientras que la masa ovárica total alcanza unos 400 g. El proceso culmina entre los 15 y 20 días, con una ovulación generalizada y la subsiguiente oviposición. Como consecuencia, los ovarios postovulatorios aparecen reducidos a unos 5 g, con una superficie casi enteramente cubierta de cicatrices foliculares, las cuales pronto desarrollan cuerpos lúteos. La detención del ciclo ovárico, con atresia folicular previtelogénica masiva, como resultado del aislamiento de las hembras, permite concluir sobre la existencia de estímulos sexuales promotores de la vitelogénesis. The reproductive cycle of Tupinambis merianae females raised in a temperate environment consists of three gonadal phases: previtellogenic, vitellogenic and postovulatory or luteal phases. During the previtellogenic phase, which takes great part of the summer, autumn and winter, the ovaries are small, weigh less than 4 g, and contain only nonvitellogenic follicles, which develop slowly from germinal beds, until they are almost 5 mm diameter. Due to an asynchronous gonadal maturation in both sexes, matings occur when ovaries are still previtellogenic. Then comes a short and intense vitellogenesis, during which follicles grow

  10. Anthropogenic degradation of mountainous raised bogs. Case study of the Polish Carpathians

    Lajczak, Adam

    2016-04-01

    Publications on the human impact on peat bogs pay a lot of attention to peat erosion, peat burning and changes in the physical and chemical properties of peat deposits that indicate pollution in the environment, but a more detailed analysis of current changes in the peat bog relief as a result of peat deposit extraction and drying is omitted. Compared to other areas of the world, the level of knowledge on anthropogenic changes in the relief of peat bogs in some areas of Poland may be considered advanced. This applies not only to peat bogs in northern Poland but also southern Poland, where peat bogs in the Carpathians and the Sudetes are also found. The best analyzed peat bogs in southern Poland are the raised bogs in the Orawsko-Nowotarska Basin (Western Carpathians) and in valleys in the Bieszczady Mts. (Eastern Carpathians). Both areas are impacted by deep precipitation shadow. The purpose of this paper is: (1) to assess the rate of shrinkage in the surface area of peat domes in the mentioned areas, (2) to describe the rate of growth in the surface area of older and younger post-peat areas, (3) to explain current changes in peat bogs morphology, (4) to explain changes in water retention in peat deposit, (5) to separate phases in peat bogs relief changes. With that in mind, the direction and rate of change of landforms typical of younger post-peat areas, such as peat extraction scarps, post-extraction hollows, drainage systems including ditches and regulated stream channels, were analyzed. A special emphasis was placed on the period of time when the restoration of such areas has taken place. The paper is based on an analysis of maps produced over the last 230 years as well as on aerial photographs taken since 1965 and on LiDAR data. Fieldwork included the geomorphological and hydrographic mapping of specified landforms within peat bogs using GPS methods. In period prior to human activity peat domes were larger than today and were surrounded by lagg fens and were

  11. The Soil Atlas of Africa: raising awareness and educate to the importance of soil

    Dewitte, Olivier; Jones, Arwyn; Bosco, Claudio; Spaargaren, Otto; Montanarella, Luca

    2010-05-01

    The richness of African soil resources need to be protected for future generations. A number of threats are affecting the functioning of African soils, not only for the purpose of agricultural production, but also for other important environmental services that soil delivers to all of us. This is of particular importance once we know that many health-related problems in Africa are indirectly related to the services of soils. To raise the awareness of the general public, policy makers and other scientists to the importance of soil in Africa, the Joint Research Centre of the European Commission is to produce the first ever Soil Atlas of Africa. This is in collaboration with the African Union Commission, the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO), the Africa Soil Science Society, ISRIC - World Soil Information and scientists from both Europe and Africa. The Atlas compiles existing information on different soil types as easily understandable maps (both at regional and continental scale) covering the African continent. The Soil Atlas of Africa intends to produce derived maps at continental scale with descriptive text (e.g. vulnerability to desertification, soil nutrient status, carbon stocks and sequestration potential, irrigable areas and water resources) as well as specific maps to illustrate threats such as soil erosion for instance. For each regional overview, large scale examples of soil maps and derived products are presented too. The Atlas will be published as a hardcover book containing 174 A3 pages, which will allow soils maps to be displayed at the A2 scale. Both French and English versions of the Atlas will be edited. The Atlas will be sold at a low cost and will be for free for educational purpose (Schools and Universities). A digital version on CD and eventually freely downloadable on internet will also be available. Together with the publication of the Atlas, associated datasets on soil characteristics for Africa will be made

  12. Education and Raising Awareness of Seismic Risk in the Black Sea Basin

    Florin Balan, Stefan; Alcaz, Vasile; Trifonova, Petya; Uker, Nalan; Tataru, Dragos

    2014-05-01

    The Project "Black Sea Earthquake Safety Net(work)" ESNET has the intention to educate and raise awareness of seismic risk in the Black Sea Basin in four countries: Moldova, Romania, Bulgaria and Turkey. The project is financed through "The Black Sea Basin Joint Operational Programme", an EU operational programmes under European Neighborhood & Partnership Instrument (ENPI). The programme is financed by ENPI. The participation of Turkey is financed by Instrument for Pre-accession Assistance. It is implemented during the period 2007 - 2013. The project wants to contribute to the prevention of natural disasters generated by earthquakes in Black Sea Basin by developing a joint monitoring and intervention concept. All the countries involved in the project have their own studies, strategies, prevention and intervention systems in case of earthquakes, but until now there has not been an integrated approach so far in the Black Sea Basin. Given the cross-border character of seismic activity, it is necessary to have a cross-border approach on prevention, monitoring and intervention in case of earthquakes. Main objectives : 1. The assessment of the disaster potential, with accent on the seismic risk degree and the earthquakes effects in the intervention area. For achieving the main objective is to have an accurate and up-to-date assessment of the potential of disasters provoked by earthquakes in the project area/regions. This assessment will be carried out at national level and will be used in designing the common concept/approach for dealing with earthquakes at regional level, thus ensuring the cross-border character of the objective. 2.To develop an integrated seismic monitoring and intervention concept. This integrated concept, built on the basis of the previous objective, will have a cross-border relevance and is at the core of the action. The monitoring and intervention in case of earthquakes will be coordinated among the participating countries based on this, thus a

  13. Should governments in Europe be more aggressive in pushing for gender equality to raise fertility? The second "NO"

    Gerda Neyer

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper argues against the suggestion that governments should push for gender equality more aggressively in order to raise fertility. The paper presents a threefold "no" to this proposal. It takes issue with the goal of raising fertility, arguing that the claims that fertility must be increased are based on myths. It rejects a more aggressive pursuit of gender equality for demographic purposes, maintaining that this method preserves inequality. It warns against using gender equality for fertility purposes, stating that this narrows the realm of gender equality. The paper is based on a debate held at the Max Planck Institute for Demographic Research in Rostock, at which the author was asked to argue against the gender equality-fertility proposal. The other participants in the debate were Laurent Toulemon ("yes", Dimiter Philipov ("no", and Livia Oláh ("yes".

  14. R&W Club Frederick Raises $1,500 for The Children’s Inn at Annual Golf Tournament | Poster

    Forty-four government and contractor employees, along with their friends and family members, took to the Maryland National Golf Club course this fall for a cause. The R&W Club Frederick held its third annual golf tournament at the Middletown, Md., golf course on Sept. 14 to raise funds for The Children’s Inn at NIH, which celebrated its 25th anniversary this year. The Inn provides support and a home away from home for seriously ill children and their families receiving treatment at the NIH Clinical Center. Through the tournament, the club raised approximately $1,500 for The Children’s Inn, according to Tanya Ransom, biologist, NCI Center for Cancer Research, and secretary of the R&W Club Frederick. She also coordinated the golf tournament. After the tournament, a silent auction of sports memorabilia and collectibles, sponsored by Great Moments, Frederick, was held, and a portion of the proceeds also went to the Inn.

  15. Predicting venous insufficiency in flaps raised on the deep inferior epigastric system using computed tomography (CT) angiography.

    Wagels, M; Pillay, R; Saylor, A; Vrtik, L; Senewiratne, S

    2015-12-01

    Computed Tomography Angiogram (CTA) has become a routine part of pre-operative assessment of vascular anatomy and design in perforator flaps. We conducted a retrospective cohort study of flap raised on the deep inferior epigastric system (DIES) at our institution in order to identify CTA signs that might predict venous congestion in these flaps. 98 consecutive patients who had 124 DIES flaps raised from 2008 to 2012 were studied. Of these 124 flaps, four (3.2%) developed venous congestion. Our results showed that a Superficial Inferior Epigastric Vein (SIEV) that is larger than the DIEV at origin is highly predictive of congestion (5.2 vs 3.5 mm, p = 0.007). The findings of an axial non-arborising superficial system (96.7% vs 0, p flap failure with patients, and contingency planning to augment venous drainage with the superficial system if required. PMID:26375461

  16. Healthier? More Efficient? Fairer? An Overview of the Main Ethical Issues Raised by the Use of Ubicomp in the Workplace

    Céline Ehrwein NIHAN

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The development of Ambient Intelligence (AmI will radically transform our everyday life and social representations. These transformations will notably impact the working environment. The objective of this paper is to offer a first survey of the main ethical issues raised by the development of intelligent working environments (IWEs. It especially focuses on the capacity of such environments to collect and handle personal medical data. The first two sections of this paper aim to clarify the methodology (2 as well as the object (3 of the research. We then point out some of the main ethical issues raised by IWEs and their capacity to collect and handle medical data. The final section attempts to offer some elements of reflection regarding the ethical principles that should guide the development of IWEs in the future.

  17. Occurrence of heavy metals and antibiotic resistance in bacteria from internal organs of american bullfrog (Rana catesbeiana) raised in Malaysia

    Lee SW; M. Najiah; W Wendy; M Nadirah; SH Faizah

    2009-01-01

    A total of 40 bacteria have been successfully isolated from internal organs of the American bullfrog (Rana catesbeiana) raised in Malaysia, namely, eight isolates of Aeromonas spp., 21 of Edwardsiella spp., six of Flavobacterium spp. and five of Vibrio spp. In terms of antibiotic susceptibility testing, each isolate was tested against 21 antibiotics, resulting in 482 (57.3%) cases of sensitivity and 61 (7.3%) cases of partial sensitivity. Meanwhile, 297 (35.4%) bacterial isolates were registe...

  18. Raised serum soluble interleukin-2 receptor concentrations in cystic fibrosis patients with and without evidence of lung disease.

    Dagli, E.; Warner, J. A.; Besley, C R; Warner, J O

    1992-01-01

    Soluble interleukin-2 receptor (sIL-2R-CD25) concentrations were measured in the sera of 115 children with cystic fibrosis and 45 aged matched controls. Above the age of 4 years children with cystic fibrosis had significantly raised concentrations irrespective of disease status as judged by Shwachman score, lung function, or evidence of pseudomonas colonisation. It is believed that these data indicate that T lymphocyte activation can be detected before there is clinical evidence of lung infla...

  19. Hurley Medical Center report makes fund-raising look like fun. Hackensack, CMH use styles suited to their donors.

    Botvin, J D

    2000-01-01

    Myriad elements go into making a great fund-raising publication. Judges singled out three reports with content and design clearly aimed at thanking supporters and stimulating the flow of contributions. They are: Hurley Medical Center, Grand Rapids, Mich., first place; Hackensack University Medical Center, Hackensack, N.J., second place; and Clinton Memorial Healthcare Regional Health System Foundation, Wilmington, Ohio, third place. PMID:11188143

  20. The gut bacterial communities associated with lab-raised and field-collected ants of Camponotus fragilis (Formicidae: Formicinae).

    He, Hong; Wei, Cong; Wheeler, Diana E

    2014-09-01

    Camponotus is the second largest ant genus and known to harbor the primary endosymbiotic bacteria of the genus Blochmannia. However, little is known about the effect of diet and environment changes on the gut bacterial communities of these ants. We investigated the intestinal bacterial communities in the lab-raised and field-collected ants of Camponotus fragilis which is found in the southwestern United States and northern reaches of Mexico. We determined the difference of gut bacterial composition and distribution among the crop, midgut, and hindgut of the two types of colonies. Number of bacterial species varied with the methods of detection and the source of the ants. Lab-raised ants yielded 12 and 11 species using classical microbial culture methods and small-subunit rRNA genes (16S rRNAs) polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment-length polymorphism analysis, respectively. Field-collected ants yielded just 4 and 1-3 species using the same methods. Most gut bacterial species from the lab-raised ants were unevenly distributed among the crop, midgut, and hindgut, and each section had its own dominant bacterial species. Acetobacter was the prominent bacteria group in crop, accounting for about 55 % of the crop clone library. Blochmannia was the dominant species in midgut, nearly reaching 90 % of the midgut clone library. Pseudomonas aeruginosa dominated the hindgut, accounting for over 98 % of the hindgut clone library. P. aeruginosa was the only species common to all three sections. A comparison between lab-raised and field-collected ants, and comparison with other species, shows that gut bacterial communities vary with local environment and diet. The bacterial species identified here were most likely commensals with little effect on their hosts or mild pathogens deleterious to colony health. PMID:24748441

  1. Did Joseph Arch Raise Agricultural Wages? Rural Trade Unions and the Labour Market in Late-Nineteenth Century England

    Boyer, George; Hatton, Timothy J.

    1990-01-01

    The outbreak of rural unionism in the early 1870s and its subsequent collapse is a well-known milestone in labour history. It was one of the earliest attempts to raise wages among unskilled labourers through unionism. There has been much conjecture but little systematic analysis of its effect on rural wages. Using two different approaches we provide the first econometric estimates of the impact of rural unionism on wages during this era. We find that unionism produced a significant effect on ...

  2. Raising Medical Students’ Awareness of Nutrition and Fitness in Disease Prevention: Nutrition and Fitness Program at the University of Iowa

    Snetselaar, Linda; Malville-Shipan, Katherine; Ahrens, Lois; Smith, Karen; Chenard, Cathy; Stumbo, Phyllis; Gordon, Joel; Thomas, Alexandra

    2009-01-01

    At the University of Iowa we devised a learning experience, called the Nutrition and Fitness Program, for third-year medical students. The program was designed to raise awareness of the role of nutrition and exercise in the prevention and treatment of disease. Students spent one af-ternoon learning about their personal health risk factors, such as body mass index, percent body fat, other anthropometric measures such as waist, hip and mid-arm circumference, blood lipids, bone-mass density, die...

  3. Genotypic and Phenotypic Characterization of Antimicrobial-Resistant Escherichia coli from Farm-Raised Diarrheic Sika Deer in Northeastern China

    Li, Rui; He, Liang; Hao, Lili; Wang, Qi; Zhou, Yu; Jiang, Hongchen

    2013-01-01

    In China, overuse and/or abuse of antimicrobials are common in stockbreeding, which possess high risks of antimicrobial-resistant contaminations. The serogroups, major virulence genes, and antimicrobial resistant patterns of the antimicrobial-resistant Escherichia coli (E. coli) were investigated in the feces of diarrheic farm-raised sika deer from 50 farms in three Northeastern provinces of China. A total of 220 E. coli isolates were obtained and characterized. Twenty-eight O serogroups were...

  4. The WBC raising effect and the side effects of LPS-701 injection of cervix cancer patients receiving radiotherapy

    This paper reports that LPS-701, an endotoxin extracted and purified by the authors' laboratory from Salmonella typhoid bacilli, has a marked effect on raising the white blood cell count of cervix cancer patients receiving radiotherapy, while the systemic and local side effects are slight. It is suggested that injection of LPS-701 can be used as a non-specific immunological stimulating agent for patients receiving radiotherapy. (Auth.)

  5. Do entrepreneurship programmes raise entrepreneurial intention of science and engineering students? The effect of learning, inspiration and resources

    Souitaris, V.; S. Zerbinati; Al-Laham, A.

    2007-01-01

    Drawing on the theory of planned behaviour, this study tests the effect of entrepreneurship programmes on the entrepreneurial attitudes and intentions of science and engineering students. This is necessary in order to confirm (or disconfirm) conventional wisdom that entrepreneurship education increases the intention to start a business. The results show that the programmes raise some attitudes and the overall entrepreneurial intention and that inspiration (a construct with an emotional elemen...

  6. How the Entrepreneurial Top Management Team Setup Influences Firm Performance and the Ability to Raise Capital: A Literature Review

    Maschke, Konstantin; zu Knyphausen-Aufseß, Dodo

    2012-01-01

    This paper reviews research findings on entrepreneurial top management teams within the last 20 years. It concentrates on team-based management factors and their influence on a new venture’s growth and ability to raise capital. This paper integrates recent findings and provides an overview of the current state of research. Moreover, it contributes to the overall topic by proposing five clusters of major team-specific influences, derives determinants of success and failure, and reveals recomme...

  7. Gender-Bending in Virtual Space : Using Voice-Morphing in Second Life to Raise Sociolinguistic Gender Awareness

    Deutschmann, Mats; Steinvall, Anders; Lagerström, Anna

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents further innovative use of virtual worlds under the pilot stages of ASSIS (A Second Step in Second Life), a project funded by Umeå University. One aim of the project is to make use of the affordances offered by Second Life in order to raise sociolinguistic language awareness among teacher trainees and other students studying sociolinguistics. Several experiments have been conducted where creative use of the avatar in combination with so-called “voice-morphing” allowed stude...

  8. Phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate, ionomycin or ouabain, and raised extracellular magnesium induce proliferation of chicken heart mesenchymal cells.

    Balk, S D; Morisi, A; Gunther, H S

    1984-01-01

    Cultured chicken heart mesenchymal cells are proliferatively quiescent at low densities in medium containing plasma at 10%. Mitogenic hormones like epidermal growth factor and insulin-like growth factors cause these cells to proliferate very actively, as does infection with avian sarcoma viruses, erythroblastosis virus, or myelocytomatosis virus. We have found that the combination of phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA), ionomycin or ouabain, and raised extracellular magnesium, likewise, cau...

  9. Green Prosperity: How Clean-Energy Policies Can Fight Poverty and Raise Living Standards in the United States

    Robert Pollin; Jeannette Wicks-Lim; Heidi Garrett-Peltier

    2009-01-01

    This study, co-commissioned by Natural Resources Defense Council and Green For All, considers the employment and other policy effects of a $150 billion annual investment in clean-energy specifically in terms of its ability to raise living standards for lower-income workers and families. This report shows that investments in clean energy can benefit lower-income families first by expanding job opportunities, and also by lowering household utility bills through energy efficiency investments and...

  10. COMPARISON OF MORPHOLOGICAL AND REPRODUCTIVE PROPERTIES OF LIPPIZANER MARES IN STUD FARM RAISING AND ON FAMILY FARMS

    Tomo Rastija; Draženka Gutzmirtl; Zvonko Antunović; Ivan Knežević; Mirjana Baban

    2000-01-01

    This paper aimed at determination of defferences in morphological and reproductive properties of Lippizaner breed blood mares raised in stud farm Đakovo and on family farms. Results of morphological properties investigation indicate better development of investigated body measures of a stud farm mares, except chest width that was more pronounced in family farm mares. Significant differences were determined with withers height (cattle tape), back height and cannon bone circumference whereas di...

  11. NCIF annual development banking conference: The CDFI banking industry – raising the bar for mission and profit

    Saurabh Narain; Joe Ferrari

    2012-01-01

    The National Community Investment Fund (NCIF) held its Annual Development Banking Conference on November 2 and 3, 2011, at the Federal Reserve Bank of Chicago. The conference brought together 160 CEOs, investors, regulators, and other stakeholders from the Community Development Financial Institution (CDFI) banking industry to share knowledge and discuss issues around the theme of “Mission and Profit: Raising the Bar.” There were seven panels over two days that centered on topics addressing ho...

  12. The potential of land cover classification techniques for conservation of Wedholme Flow, a lowland raised peat bog in Cumbria

    Rockall, E.; Milton, E. J.; Anderson, K.

    2008-01-01

    Land cover classification of a lowland raised bog, (Wedholme Flow) Cumbria was undertaken using remotely sensed fine spatial-resolution Ikonos data coupled with airborne LiDAR data. The aim of this work was to provide spatial data which could be used to aid future conservation of the site. Conventional Maximum Likelihood classification was compared to fuzzy object-oriented classification techniques to assess which technique is most suited to spatial assessment of semi-natural peat environme...

  13. RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN ATTRIBUTES OF BEEF CATTLE RAISED USING ULTRASOUND TECHNOLOGY AND PRICES RECEIVED AT THE PACKERS: A HEDONIC PRICE ANALYSIS

    Rimal, Arbindra; Perkins, Tommy; Paschal, Joe C.

    2003-01-01

    Sluggish growth in per capita consumption and a downward pressure on beef price at the farm level has required producers to raise cattle that precisely target the meat attributes desired by consumers. Ultrasound technology can help farmers to produce a carcass with an optimal mix of marbling and muscling, and external fat. The results of this study show a high level of accuracy of ultrasound technology in predicting carcass attributes. An estimated hedonic regression model shows that the carc...

  14. Multiple stressors in agricultural streams: a mesocosm study of interactions among raised water temperature, sediment addition and nutrient enrichment.

    Jeremy J Piggott

    Full Text Available Changes to land use affect streams through nutrient enrichment, increased inputs of sediment and, where riparian vegetation has been removed, raised water temperature. We manipulated all three stressors in experimental streamside channels for 30 days and determined the individual and pair-wise combined effects on benthic invertebrate and algal communities and on leaf decay, a measure of ecosystem functioning. We added nutrients (phosphorus+nitrogen; high, intermediate, natural and/or sediment (grain size 0.2 mm; high, intermediate, natural to 18 channels supplied with water from a nearby stream. Temperature was increased by 1.4°C in half the channels, simulating the loss of upstream and adjacent riparian shade. Sediment affected 93% of all biological response variables (either as an individual effect or via an interaction with another stressor generally in a negative manner, while nutrient enrichment affected 59% (mostly positive and raised temperature 59% (mostly positive. More of the algal components of the community responded to stressors acting individually than did invertebrate components, whereas pair-wise stressor interactions were more common in the invertebrate community. Stressors interacted often and in a complex manner, with interactions between sediment and temperature most common. Thus, the negative impact of high sediment on taxon richness of both algae and invertebrates was stronger at raised temperature, further reducing biodiversity. In addition, the decay rate of leaf material (strength loss accelerated with nutrient enrichment at ambient but not at raised temperature. A key implication of our findings for resource managers is that the removal of riparian shading from streams already subjected to high sediment inputs, or land-use changes that increase erosion or nutrient runoff in a landscape without riparian buffers, may have unexpected effects on stream health. We highlight the likely importance of intact or restored buffer

  15. Raising livestock in resource-poor communities of the North West Province of South Africa - a participatory rural appraisal study

    J.K. Getchell; A.F. Vatta; P.W. Motswatswe; R.C. Krecek; R. Moerane; A. N. Pell; Tucker, T. W.; S. Leshomo

    2002-01-01

    A participatory research model was used in six village communities in the Central Region of the North West Province of South Africa in order to achieve the following broad objectives : to obtain information on the challenges owners face in raising livestock in these areas and to evaluate the livestock owners' level of knowledge of internal parasites in their animals. Information obtained at participatory workshops clearly indicated a need for improvements in water supply, schools, job creatio...

  16. Comprehensive integrated spirometry using raised volume passive and forced expirations and multiple-breath nitrogen washout in infants

    Morris, Mohy G.

    2009-01-01

    With the rapid somatic growth and development in infants, simultaneous accurate measurements of lung volume and airway function are essential. Raised volume rapid thoracoabdominal compression (RTC) is widely used to generate forced expiration from an airway opening pressure of 30 cm H2O (V30). The (dynamic) functional residual capacity (FRCdyn) remains the lung volume most routinely measured. The aim of this study was to develop comprehensive integrated spirometry that included all subdivisio...

  17. An evaluation of the impact of large-scale interventions to raise public awareness of a lung cancer symptom

    Ironmonger, L.; Ohuma, E; Ormiston-Smith, N; Gildea, C.; Thomson, C S; Peake, M D

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Long-term lung cancer survival in England has improved little in recent years and is worse than many countries. The Department of Health funded a campaign to raise public awareness of persistent cough as a lung cancer symptom and encourage people with the symptom to visit their GP. This was piloted regionally within England before a nationwide rollout. Methods: To evaluate the campaign's impact, data were analysed for various metrics covering public awareness of symptoms and pro...

  18. Behavior comparisons for whooping cranes raised by costumed caregivers and trained for an ultrallght?led migration

    Olsen, G.H.

    2008-01-01

    The successful reintroduction program being run by the Whooping Crane Eastern Partnership using whooping cranes (Grus americana) trained to fly behind ultralight aircraft depends on a supply of these trained crane colts each year. The crane colts are hatched from eggs contributed by the various partners and trained to follow costume clad humans and ultralight aircraft at USGS Patuxent Wildlife Research Center, Laurel, Maryland, USA. After several seasons of raising small numbers of crane colts (7-14), we wanted to increase the number of birds being trained, but were restrained by limits in our facilities. By altering the established husbandry and training program to allow the use of a recently modified facility, we have increased the number of colts raised for this release program. However, we did not know whether the new facility and husbandry regime would significantly alter the behavior of the colts. Therefore, we have begun a two year study to determine if there are differences in the behavior of cranes raised by the two methods, and if any of the differences discovered relate directly to whooping crane survival and migration skills in the release program.

  19. Sea-level standstill and dominant hermatypic coral from the holocene raised reef terraces at the Kikai Island, Ryukyu Islands

    Coral reef terraces are one of the best recorders of biological response to environmental change events (e.g., sea-level changes). Kikai Island provides a rare opportunity to show biological and ecological frameworks (e.g., competition, coexistence, and succession) during a recent geological period. The island is fringed by raised Holocene raised reef terraces, which formed as a result of periodic tectonic uplifts. This study aims to characterize the spatial and temporal changes of corals at this island during the Holocene. The analysis is based on topographical and biological data obtained for the three sites (Shidooke, Kadon, and Nakugama reefs). Three raised reef terraces (Terrace II, III, and IV) grew from 7300 to 4500 years ago (during 2800 years), from 4500 to 2900 years ago (during 1600 years), and from 2900 to 1800 years ago (during 1100 years), respectively. Terrace II and III were uplifted 1-2 m around 4500 years ago and around 2900 years ago. Terrace IV was uplifted 1-2 m around 1800 years ago. The modern reef has been composed of corals for 1800 years. Sixteen coral genera and 53 species were recorded from the reef terraces. Terrace III and IV were dominated by four coral species (A. digitifera, A. robusta, G. retiformis, and F. stelligera), but Terrace II was predominantly composed of A. digitifera and A. robusta. These biological and ecological variations between the terraces represent a growth strategy responding to differences of reef growth time and/or insolation. (author)

  20. Ontogeny of plunge diving behaviour in brown boobies: Application of a data logging technique to hand-raised seabirds

    Yoda, Ken; Kohno, Hiroyoshi; Naito, Yasuhiko

    2007-02-01

    How do seabirds acquire diving skills after fledging? This is an important issue to complete our basic knowledge of life history in seabirds, but the mobility of juveniles obstructs the continuous recording of the development of diving behaviour. In this study, we raised hatchling brown boobies, Sula leucogaster, which are known to have a long post-fledging period. Once boobies began to fly, they made round trips between the sea and the nest, and begged for food from us, their surrogate parents. During this post-fledging care period, the development of diving behaviour was recorded using data loggers. In addition, we attached data loggers to adult brown boobies in the field and compared their diving performance with that of juveniles. The hand-raised juveniles had relatively slow development of diving ability during the first month after fledging. This slow development of behaviour with ontogeny might be the proximate cause for the extended post-fledging care period in this species. This study shows that the combination of bio-logging and hand raising of seabirds is a useful tool for assessing the ontogeny of diving behaviour in these animals.