WorldWideScience

Sample records for raised antistreptolysin-o titre

  1. Antistreptolysin O titer in health and disease: levels and significance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sahar Ezz El Arab

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Over diagnosis of acute rheumatic fever (ARF based on a raised antistreptolysin O titer (ASOT is not uncommon in endemic areas. In this study, 660 children (aged 9.2 ±1.7 years were recruited consecutively and classified as: G1 (control group, n=200 healthy children, G2 (n=20 with ARF 1st attack, G3 (n=40 with recurrent ARF, G4 (n=100 with rheumatic heart disease (RHD on long acting penicillin (LAP, G5 (n=100 with acute follicular tonsillitis, and G6 (n=200 healthy children with history of repeated follicular tonsillitis more than three times a year. Serum ASOT was measured by latex agglutination. Upper limit of normal (ULN ASOT (80th percentile was 400 IU in G1, 200 IU in G4, and 1600 IU in G6. Significantly high levels were seen in ARF 1st attack when compared to groups 1 and 5 (P<0.001 and P<0.05, respectively. ASOT was significantly high in children over ten years of age, during winter and in those with acute rheumatic carditis. ASOT showed significant direct correlation with the number of attacks of tonsillitis (P<0.05. Egyptian children have high ULN ASOT reaching 400 IU. This has to be taken into consideration when interpreting its values in suspected ARF. A rise in ASOT is less prominent in recurrent ARF compared to 1st attack, and acute and recurrent tonsillitis. Basal levels of ASOT increase with age but the pattern of increase during infection is not age dependent

  2. Is raised helicobacter pylori antibody titre enough to decide retreatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background: Helicobacter pylori infection causes a rise in its antibodies which take almost a year to come to baseline following successful eradication treatment. Checking these values in between a year may give falsely high values and many patients may thus be over treated. Aims: To serially determine Helicobacter pylori antibody titres in patients after giving them triple therapy for H. pylori eradication and see how these values drop over time. Study type, Settings and duration: Longitudinal study conducted in Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Pakistan Medical Research Council, Research Centre, Jinnah Post Graduate Medical Centre, Karachi, from May 2006 to April 2010. Subjects and Methods: Over the period of four years, 186 patients who were found positive for campylobacter like organism test during endoscopy were further tested for anti H. pylori IgG titre before being treated for H. pylori. Patients were given triple therapy comprising of Omeprazole (20 mg twice daily), Amoxicillin (1 gm twice daily) and Clarythromycin (500 mg twice daily) for a week and were followed at 1, 3, 6 and 12 months to check symptomatic relief and they were tested again for H.Pylori antibody titres. Data was collected on pre-designed proforma which included patient's demography, symptoms and diagnosis. Results: Out of 186 patients who had a positive campylobacter like organism test, 173 patients consented to participate in the study. Serology for H.Pylori was positive in 11. Serology for H.Pylori was positive in 119(68%) cases. A decline in mean antibody titres was observed as 11%, 21.5%, 54.7% and 59.2% at 1, 3, 6 and 12 months respectively. Conclusions: Sensitivity of serology for diagnosing H. pylori infection is good but using these as a tool for monitoring response to treatment is doubtful. A slow drop in H.pylori antibodies was seen over 12 months and therefore, physicians are cautioned not to retreat the already treated cases till about one year post treatment. Policy message: H. pylori antibodies should be checked on regular basis to diagnose new cases but it should not be used in previously treated patients to retreat. (author)

  3. ASO: Antistreptolysin O titer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... acute kidney dysfunction, tissue swelling ( edema ), and high blood pressure ( hypertension ). The ASO test can be used to help determine if these are due to a recent group A strep infection. How is the sample collected for testing? A blood sample is obtained by inserting a ...

  4. Valores referenciales de antiestreptolisina O en estudiantes de 10 a 15 años del Municipio "Francisco Linares Alcántara": Estado Aragua, Venezuela / Antistreptolysin O reference values in students of 10 to 15 years of the Municipality "Francisco Linares Alcantara": Aragua state, Venezuela

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Clara Nancy, Gutiérrez G; Nurys Alejandra, Guzmán H; Yuccely Andreína, González M; Juan, Luis-León; Luis Manuel, Pérez-Ybarra; María Zoiret, Chacón H.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available La respuesta serológica más útil para evidenciar la infección por estreptococo beta hemolítico del grupo A,es la determinación de antiestreptolisina O (ASTO). La faringitis estreptocócica es la infección más frecuentemente causada por estos microorganismos, que puede conllevar a complicaciones no su [...] purativas como la fiebre reumática aguda y la glomerulonefritis. Dichas complicaciones pueden prevenirse mediante un diagnóstico y tratamiento oportuno. Para la determinación de ASTO en Venezuela se emplean reactivos importados cuyos valores referenciales han sido establecidos en poblaciones y latitudes diferentes a la de nuestro país; por lo que el objetivo del presente estudio es determinar los valores referenciales de ASTO en 203 estudiantes de 10 a 15 años de edad inscritos en cuatro instituciones del Municipio "Francisco Linares Alcántara", estado Aragua, mediante una investigación de tipo descriptivo de corte transversal. De cada estudiante se recolectó una muestra de sangre total para la determinación de ASTO empleando pruebas de neutralización y aglutinación. Se determinó la concordancia entre los títulos positivos de ASTO por ambos métodos; se calculó la sensibilidad, especificidad y valores predictivos positivo y negativo de la prueba de aglutinación. Los resultados refieren como valor referencial para el método de neutralización hasta 250 Unidades Todd/mL y para la técnica aglutinación hasta 400 Unidades Internacionales/mL. La concordancia fue débil entre ambas pruebas y se obtuvo una sensibilidad, especificidad, valores predictivos positivo y negativo de 100%, 60%, 24,2% y 100%, respectivamente. Se sugiere la divulgación de los resultados de este estudio en los centros de salud del municipio mencionado. Abstract in english The most useful for evidence of streptococcal infection of group A beta hemolytic serological response is the determination of antistreptolysin O (ASO). Strep throat is most common infection caused by these organisms, which can lead to non-suppurative complications such as acute rheumatic fever and [...] glomerulonephritis.These complications can be prevented by proper diagnosis and treatment. For determination of ASO in Venezuela imported reagents are used whose reference values have been established in different populations and latitudes; so the aim of this study is to determine the reference values of ASO titlesin 203 students aged 10 to 15 years old enrolled in four institutions of the Municipality "Francisco Linares Alcántara", Aragua state, through an investigation of cross-sectional descriptive.Each student a sample of whole blood was collected for determination of ASO titles using neutralization tests and agglutination.The correlation between positive ASO titles were determined by both methods, the sensitivity, specificity and positive and negative predictive values of the agglutination test was calculated.The results refer to as reference value for the method of neutralization to 250 Todd Units/mL and for technical agglutination 400 International Units/mL. The concordance was weak between the two tests and obtained sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values of 100%, 60%, 24.2% and 100%, respectively. The disclosure in the health centers in the mentioned municipality of referential values of ASO found in this study is suggested.

  5. Raising concerns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-25

    NHS Employers has developed a flowchart for staff who want to raise concerns in the workplace. The flowchart, which can be downloaded and adapted to reflect individual organisations' policies and processes, and other resources relevant to creating an open and transparent culture in health services are available at tinyurl.com/o2qeao6. PMID:25253328

  6. Recurrences of transient synovitis of the hip.

    OpenAIRE

    Illingworth, C. M.

    1983-01-01

    Thirty six children with transient synovitis of the hip had a total of 80 recurrences, 69 of them personally observed, and 11 described by the mother. No features distinguished the initial attack of those who had a recurrence from that of the 18 children who have not so far had a recurrence. We analysed the total of 126 episodes. In 72 there was evidence of an associated infection from the history, clinical signs, and a raised antistreptolysin O titre or isolation of a pathogen from a throat ...

  7. Panda Raising

    Science.gov (United States)

    Science Update (AAAS; )

    2005-12-08

    This year has seen a record number of panda babies in zoos around the world, including precocious Tai Shan at the National Zoo in Washington, DC. Assistant curator Lisa Stevens is on the team that cares for Tai. She says his birth has been a good opportunity for the zoo to showcase its style of panda-raising which is to step back and let the mother do the work.

  8. Endotoxin and liver diseases. High titres of enterobacterial common antigen antibodies in patients with alcoholic cirrhosis.

    OpenAIRE

    Turunen, U.; Malkama?ki, M.; Valtonen, V. V.; Larinkar?i, U.; Pikkarainen, P.; Salaspuro, M. P.; Ma?kela?, P. H.

    1981-01-01

    We have measured antibodies to the enterobacterial common antigen (ECA) in sera of 86 patients with various liver diseases. ECA is a component of the cell wall of all enteric bacteria, and ECA antibodies are a specific indication of the presence of enterobacterial components. Patients with alcoholic cirrhosis with or without signs of alcoholic hepatitis had significantly raised anti-ECA titres compared with healthy control subjects. Other groups of patients (alcoholic hepatitis and/or fatty l...

  9. Serum bactericidal and inhibitory titres in the management of melioidosis.

    OpenAIRE

    Simpson, AJ; Dance, DA; Wuthiekanun, V; White, NJ

    2000-01-01

    A retrospective evaluation of the relationship between serum bactericidal and inhibitory titres and treatment outcome in 195 adult Thai patients with severe melioidosis was conducted. Drug regimens included ceftazidime (52% of patients), co-amoxiclav (24%), imipenem (11%) or the conventional four-drug combination (11%). Pre- and 1 h post-dose serum samples were collected after 48-72 h of therapy, and serum inhibitory and bactericidal titrations determined. Median post-dose titres were: bacter...

  10. Raising Children Again

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Aging Diseases and conditions Caregiving Caregiver stress Raising children again Wellness Staying active Mental health Sexual health Safety and abuse Falls Drugs and alternative medicine Paying for health ...

  11. Raising funds for UTeach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marder, Michael P., 1960-

    This article by Professor Michael Marder includes a brief history of the UTeach program at the University of Texas - Austin and a detailed discussion of raising funds for the program through private donations.

  12. Raise Funds, Not Hackles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaidel, Lisa Brusman

    1996-01-01

    Ten strategies for fundraising include setting start/stop dates, dividing the workload, stating a purpose for the funds, establishing financial goals, choosing quality products to sell, remembering the sellers' ages, learning about the fund-raising companies, motivating the volunteers, considering a business sponsorship, and conducting a…

  13. Raising the axion mass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present a mechanism which raises the axion mass while maintaining the standard axion-fermion coupling and the removal of strong CP violation. The source of this new contribution to the axion mass is small color SU(3) instantons; these may be important if new physics above the weak interaction scale causes the color coupling constant to grow strong and produces anomalous dimensions for certain many-fermion operators. Strongly interacting hyperquarks may be responsible for both effects. We discuss the working of this mechanism in an explicit hypercolor-sideways interaction model in which a Peccei-Quinn symmetry appears naturally. In this particular model, heavy axion exchange could produce significant D0anti D0 mixing. (orig.)

  14. O perfil da antiestreptolisina O no diagnóstico da febre reumática aguda Antistreptolysin O titer profile in acute rheumatic fever diagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Saad Magalhães Machado

    2001-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: estabelecer o perfil dos títulos de ASO, mediante o diagnóstico diferencial da FRA com outras afecções que também cursam com níveis elevados de ASO. MÉTODOS: foram estudados 78 casos de FRA na apresentação e seguimento, 22 de coréia isolada, 45 de infecções orofaringeanas recorrentes (IOR e 23 de artrites idiopáticas juvenis (AIJ, com início ou reativação recente. A determinação seqüencial de ASO (UI/ml foi realizada por ensaio nefelométrico automatizado (Behring®-Germany nos períodos de 0-7 dias, 1-2 semanas, 2-4 semanas, 1-2 meses, 2-4 meses, 4-6 meses, 6-12 meses, 1-2 anos, 2-3 anos, 3-4 anos e 4-5 anos após o diagnóstico. RESULTADOS: os títulos de ASO na fase aguda da FRA apresentaram elevação significante até o intervalo de 2- 4 meses (p 960 UI/ml. CONCLUSÃO: esta reavaliação do perfil da ASO indicou uma resposta exuberante na fase aguda da febre reumática indicou ainda que os seus níveis séricos podem diferenciá-la de outras afecções que também cursam com níveis elevados de ASO, como as infecções orofaringeanas recorrentes ou as artrites idiopáticas juvenis em atividade.OBJECTIVE: to determine ASO titer profile by establishing ARF differential diagnoses of other diseases with high levels of ASO antibodies. METHODS: we investigated 78 patients with ARF at onset and follow-up, 22 with isolated chorea at onset, 45 with recurrent oropharyngeal tonsillitis, and 23 with recent flare of juvenile idiopathic arthritis. We tested ASO with automated particle-enhanced immunonephelometric assay (Behring®-Germany. The ASO (IU/ml titers were assessed at the following time intervals: 0-7 days, 1-2 weeks, 2-4 weeks, 1-2 months, 2-4 months, 4-6 months, 6-12 months, 1-2 years, 2-3 years, 3-4 years, and 4-5 years after onset of ARF. RESULTS: ASO titers in patients diagnosed with ARF had a significant increase up to the 2-4-month time interval (P < 0.0001. Baseline levels were observed afterwards in patients under regular penicillin prophylaxis. The levels of ASO in ARF were also significantly higher than in patients with isolated chorea, recurrent oropharyngeal infections or juvenile idiopathic arthritis (P = 0.0025, when age-matched samples of these groups were compared. The test’s sensitivity was 73.3% and the specificity was 57.6%, and it was calculated taking into account the upper limit of normality at 320 IU/ml, as well as the established diagnosis of ARF. The test’s specificity and positive predictive value increased with rising or higher titers, being higher with titers above 960 UI/ml. CONCLUSION: this reappraisal of ASO profile in ARF patients indicates a remarkable response during the acute phase, and that points to the extent to which ASO levels may differentiate ARF from other diseases with high levels of ASO antibodies, as coincidental but unrelated streptococcal infection or chronic arthritis flareup.

  15. O perfil da antiestreptolisina O no diagnóstico da febre reumática aguda / Antistreptolysin O titer profile in acute rheumatic fever diagnosis

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Claudia Saad Magalhães, Machado; Katya, Ortiz; Alessandra de Lourenço Budin, Martins; Roberto Salvador, Martins; Nilton Carlos, Machado.

    2001-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: estabelecer o perfil dos títulos de ASO, mediante o diagnóstico diferencial da FRA com outras afecções que também cursam com níveis elevados de ASO. MÉTODOS: foram estudados 78 casos de FRA na apresentação e seguimento, 22 de coréia isolada, 45 de infecções orofaringeanas recorrentes (IOR) [...] e 23 de artrites idiopáticas juvenis (AIJ), com início ou reativação recente. A determinação seqüencial de ASO (UI/ml) foi realizada por ensaio nefelométrico automatizado (Behring®-Germany) nos períodos de 0-7 dias, 1-2 semanas, 2-4 semanas, 1-2 meses, 2-4 meses, 4-6 meses, 6-12 meses, 1-2 anos, 2-3 anos, 3-4 anos e 4-5 anos após o diagnóstico. RESULTADOS: os títulos de ASO na fase aguda da FRA apresentaram elevação significante até o intervalo de 2- 4 meses (p 960 UI/ml. CONCLUSÃO: esta reavaliação do perfil da ASO indicou uma resposta exuberante na fase aguda da febre reumática indicou ainda que os seus níveis séricos podem diferenciá-la de outras afecções que também cursam com níveis elevados de ASO, como as infecções orofaringeanas recorrentes ou as artrites idiopáticas juvenis em atividade. Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: to determine ASO titer profile by establishing ARF differential diagnoses of other diseases with high levels of ASO antibodies. METHODS: we investigated 78 patients with ARF at onset and follow-up, 22 with isolated chorea at onset, 45 with recurrent oropharyngeal tonsillitis, and 23 with [...] recent flare of juvenile idiopathic arthritis. We tested ASO with automated particle-enhanced immunonephelometric assay (Behring®-Germany). The ASO (IU/ml) titers were assessed at the following time intervals: 0-7 days, 1-2 weeks, 2-4 weeks, 1-2 months, 2-4 months, 4-6 months, 6-12 months, 1-2 years, 2-3 years, 3-4 years, and 4-5 years after onset of ARF. RESULTS: ASO titers in patients diagnosed with ARF had a significant increase up to the 2-4-month time interval (P

  16. Raising Awareness in Science Education for Women (RAISE-W)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faherty, Jacqueline K.; Holford, M.

    2014-01-01

    Raising Awareness in Science Education for Women (RAISE-W) is a 501c non profit corporation whose mission is to aid in increasing and retaining the number of women - especially underrepresented females - engaged in scientific teaching and research. Initiated by a Protein Chemist and an Astronomer, our ultimate goal has been to develop informational tools and create innovative outreach programs for women across all STEM fields. At present RAISE-W is recruiting women at the undergraduate, graduate, and early career stages to participate in a unique, 1-year, executive coaching program modeled after those used in the business sector.

  17. Raising Public Awareness of Mathematics

    CERN Document Server

    Behrends, Ehrhard; Rodrigues, José Francisco

    2012-01-01

    This collective book aims to encourage and inspire actions directed towards raising public awareness of the importance of mathematical sciences for our contemporary society in a cultural and historical perspective. Mathematical societies, in Europe and around the world, can find ideas, blueprints and suggestions for activities - including concerted actions with other international organizations - directed towards raising public awareness of science, technology and other fields where mathematics plays a strong role. The material is divided into four parts: * National experiences * Exhibitions /

  18. Raising HDL cholesterol in women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danny J Eapen

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Danny J Eapen1, Girish L Kalra1, Luay Rifai1, Christina A Eapen2, Nadya Merchant1, Bobby V Khan11Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA, USA; 2University of South Florida School of Medicine, Tampa, FL, USAAbstract: High-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C concentration is essential in the determination of coronary heart disease (CHD risk in women. This is especially true in the postmenopausal state, where lipid profiles and CHD risk mimic that of age-matched men. Thus, interventions designed to reduce CHD risk by raising HDL-C levels may have particular significance during the transition to menopause. This review discusses HDL-C-raising therapies and the role of HDL in the primary prevention of CHD in women. Lifestyle-based interventions such as dietary change, aerobic exercise regimens, and smoking cessation are initial steps that are effective in raising HDL-C, and available data suggest women respond similarly to men with these interventions. When combined with pharmacotherapy, the effects of these lifestyle alterations are further amplified. Though studies demonstrating gender-specific differences in therapy are limited, niacin continues to be the most effective agent in raising HDL-C levels, especially when used in combination with fibrate or statin therapy. Emerging treatments such as HDL mimetic therapy show much promise in further raising HDL-C levels and improving cardiovascular outcomes.Keywords: high-density lipoprotein, HDL, women, cholesterol, heart disease

  19. Thyroxine, methimazole, and thyroid microsomal autoantibody titres in hypothyroid Hashimoto's thyroiditis.

    OpenAIRE

    Jansson, R.; Karlsson, A.; Dahlberg, P. A.

    1985-01-01

    Ten hypothyroid patients with Hashimoto's thyroiditis were treated with methimazole 30 mg in addition to thyroxine 0.15 mg daily. Another 10 hypothyroid patients with Hashimoto's thyroiditis were given thyroxine 0.15 mg alone. After 22 weeks of treatment significant decreases in thyroid microsomal autoantibody titres were observed in both groups (p less than 0.01). There was no difference in the mean change in titre between the two groups. When the patients treated with methimazole were subse...

  20. 7 CFR 65.235 - Raised.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...CONTINUED) COUNTRY OF ORIGIN LABELING OF BEEF, PORK, LAMB, CHICKEN, GOAT MEAT, PERISHABLE AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES, MACADAMIA NUTS, PECANS, PEANUTS, AND GINSENG General Provisions Definitions § 65.235 Raised. Raised means, in...

  1. Successful Community College Fund-Raising Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Spencer

    2005-01-01

    This article describes a study whose primary purposes were to determine the characteristics of an effective fund-raising program, the marketing practices that contribute to the success of a fund-raising program, and factors of the development system's influence on a fund-raising program. This study utilized a Delphi research instrument. Initially,…

  2. Vibrations of raised access floors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amick, Hal; Gendreau, Michael; Gordon, Colin G.

    2002-11-01

    Raised access floors play a critical role in modern cleanroom design. They have unique mechanical properties that make them respond to dynamic loading in a manner quite different from conventional floors. For example, an unbraced floor is much more flexible horizontally than in the vertical direction. Horizontal vibration amplitudes with walker excitation may exceed 100 mum/s in an unbraced floor, exceeding the sensitivity of 1000 x inspection microscopes by as much as an order of magnitude. Issues such as these become important when moderately vibration-sensitive instruments, such as optical microscopes, are supported on access floors, typically the case in cleanrooms. This paper presents results of experimental studies involving a 3 m x3 m segment of floor and a large floor installed in a cleanroom, both of which were subjected to dynamic loads using a shaker. Both drive-point and propagation properties were examined. In addition, data are presented for variations in bracing and bolting using the 3 m x3 m segment.

  3. Poliovirus antibody titres, relative affinity, and neutralising capacity in maternal milk.

    OpenAIRE

    Zaman, S.; Carlsson, B.; Morikawa, A.; Jeansson, S.; Narayanan, I.; Thiringer, K.; Jalil, F.; Hanson, L. A.

    1993-01-01

    Varying titres of secretory IgA antibodies to poliovirus type 1 were found previously in the milk of unvaccinated, lactating Pakistani mothers during two different years, reflecting the antigenic exposure on mucosal membranes. To study further the changes in the extent and the form of antigenic exposure reflected in the human milk, human milk samples from Pakistani, Indian, Japanese, and Swedish mothers were collected. The quality and the neutralising capacity of the antibodies was also studi...

  4. Brain metabolism and autoantibody titres predict functional impairment in systemic lupus erythematosus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackay, Meggan; Tang, Chris C; Volpe, Bruce T; Aranow, Cynthia; Mattis, Paul J; Korff, Ricki A; Diamond, Betty; Eidelberg, David

    2015-01-01

    Objective We investigated whether systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) disease duration or serology associate with abnormal regional glucose metabolism as measured with [18F]2-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) and deficits on neuropsychological testing. Methods Subjects with SLE with stable disease activity, without brain damage or clinical symptoms of neuropsychiatric (NP) SLE, stratified by disease duration (short-term (ST)-SLE=disease ?2?years, long-term (LT)-SLE=disease ?10?years), underwent clinical assessments, neuropsychological testing, resting FDG-PET scan imaging and measurement of serum titres of antibody to N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor (DNRAb). FDG-PET scans were compared with age-matched and gender-matched healthy controls. Results Subjects with LT-SLE demonstrated hypometabolism in the prefrontal and premotor cortices that correlated with accrued SLE-related damage, but not with DNRAb titre or performance on NP testing. Independent of disease duration, subjects with SLE demonstrated hypermetabolism in the hippocampus and orbitofrontal cortex that correlated with impaired memory performance and mood alterations (depression, anxiety, fatigue). Serum DNRAb also correlated independently with impaired memory performance and increased anxiety. Together, serum DNRAb titre and regional hypermetabolism were more powerful predictors of performance than either alone. Interpretation The presence of serum DNRAbs can account for some aspects of brain dysfunction in patients with SLE, and the addition of regional measurements of resting brain metabolism improves the assessment and precise attribution of central nervous system manifestations related to SLE. PMID:25861456

  5. Widal agglutination titre: a rapid serological diagnosis of typhoid fever in developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To study the reliability of a single Widal test and to find out the diagnostic significance of 'O' and 'H' agglutinin titre in the diagnosis of typhoid fever. Community-based case-control study conducted from Jan 2001 to June 2007. The blood samples were collected from the medical and out door department of Sir Ganga Ram Hospitals, Lahore. The diagnostic value of an acute phase single Widal agglutination test for suspected typhoid fever was evaluated in 733 consecutive patients with fever lasting 6 or more days. In 733 patients with fever 84 (11.45%) were positive for Widal test. A noteworthy rise 1/320 of H and/or O agglutinin titre was observed in 86 (11.3%) of patients with typhoid fever. In the absence of vaccination an elevated level of H and/or O agglutinin titre of 1: 320 is of diagnostic value for typhoid fever especially in our setting where a single sample of serum is relied on for the diagnosis of typhoid fever. (author)

  6. Variation in the reproductive potential of Schistocephalus infected male sticklebacks is associated with 11-ketotestosterone titre.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macnab, V; Scott, A P; Katsiadaki, I; Barber, I

    2011-09-01

    Parasites can impact host reproduction by interfering with host endocrine systems, but the adaptive nature of such effects is disputed. Schistocephalus solidus plerocercoids are parasites of three-spined sticklebacks Gasterosteus aculeatus that are often associated with impaired host reproduction. Here, we relate reproductive behavior and physiology to levels of the androgen 11-ketotestosterone (11KT) in naturally infected and non-infected male sticklebacks from two UK populations. In one population infected males harbored heavy infections and showed uniformly reduced 11KT titres and kidney spiggin (nesting glue protein) content compared to non-infected fish. However in a second population infection levels were more variable and males with smaller infections recorded 11KT and spiggin titres that overlapped those of non-infected fish; among infected males from this population 11KT and kidney spiggin also both correlated negatively with infection severity. Male reproductive behavior correlated closely with 11KT titre in both populations, and infected males with high 11KT levels exhibited normal reproductive behavior. Our results suggest that Schistocephalus infection per se does not block reproductive development in male sticklebacks, and that some male fish may have the ability to breed whilst infected. Our results are not consistent with the hypothesis that Schistocephalus adaptively castrates male hosts via endocrine disruption; rather they support the hypothesis that reproductive disruption is a side effect of the energetic costs of infection. PMID:21781969

  7. Fund Raising. The Guide to Raising Money from Private Sources. Second Edition, Revised and Enlarged.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broce, Thomas E.

    A basic guide and reference to raising funds from private sources is presented that is designed primarily for professional personnel or the administrator employing fund-raising personnel. The first edition of the guide has also been used as a textbook for university courses in fund-raising. This revised edition includes new materials on: capital…

  8. The Logic of the RAISE Specification Language

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    George, Chris; Haxthausen, Anne Elisabeth

    2008-01-01

    This chapter describes the logic of the RAISE Specification Language, RSL. It explains the particular logic chosen for RAISE, and motivates this choice as suitable for a wide spectrum language to be used for designs as well as initial specifications, and supporting imperative and concurrent specifications as well as applicative sequential ones. It also describes the logical definition of RSL, its axiomatic semantics, as well as the proof system for carrying out proofs. Finally, a case study illustrates specification and verification methods in RAISE.

  9. ER Physician Raises Concerns about Powdered Caffeine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 151208.html ER Physician Raises Concerns About Powdered Caffeine One teaspoon of substance equivalent to about 25 ... HealthDay News) -- The availability of both alcohol and caffeine in powdered form that can be added to ...

  10. Practitioners' Guide: Fund Raising when the Weather Is Foul: Are There Limits to Fund Raising during Times of Trouble?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakewell, Thomas

    2005-01-01

    Query: Is hope a fund-raising strategy? Are there limits to fund raising or can more fund raising remedy every situation and solve every problem? Is it possible to raise money in times of trouble? What do you think? Answer: Hope is not an effective fund-raising strategy. There are, unequivocally, limits to fund raising. And it "is" possible to…

  11. Testicular Cancer May Raise Prostate Cancer Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... nih.gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_151106.html Testicular Cancer May Raise Prostate Cancer Risk: Study But it's too soon to make ... 2015 (HealthDay News) -- Men who've had testicular cancer may be at increased risk for prostate cancer, ...

  12. People on the Farm: Raising Beef Cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crain, Robert L.

    This booklet provides information on raising beef cattle through profiles of two families, the Ritschards of Colorado and the Schuttes of Missouri. Through descriptions of daily life for these families, the booklet discusses the way of life on modern beef cattle farms and the problems and decisions faced by farmers. The booklet explains how…

  13. Raising Children in a Socially Toxic Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garbarino, James

    1998-01-01

    Examines current social issues and the challenge of raising children under such conditions. Discusses elements of a socially toxic environment such as violence, poverty, disruption of family relationships, trauma, and alienation, and their effects on child development. Encourages a commitment to improve the quality of the social environment to…

  14. Raising Butterflies from Your Own Garden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howley-Pfeifer, Patricia

    2002-01-01

    Describes how raising monarch, black swallowtail, and mourning cloak butterflies in a kindergarten class garden can provide opportunities for observation experiences. Includes detailed steps for instruction and describes stages of growth. Excerpts children's journal dictations to illustrate ways to support the discovery process. Describes related…

  15. 29 CFR 780.121 - What constitutes “raising” of livestock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...RELATED SUBJECTS UNDER THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT General Scope of Agriculture Raising of Livestock, Bees, Fur-Bearing Animals, Or Poultry § 780.121 What constitutes “raising” of livestock. The term “raising”...

  16. 29 CFR 780.120 - Raising of “livestock.”

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...Scope of Agriculture Raising of Livestock, Bees, Fur-Bearing Animals, Or Poultry § 780.120 Raising of “livestock...enumeration of activities, such as the raising of fur-bearing animals, which would be included in the generic...

  17. 12 CFR 1805.503 - Time frame for raising match.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Time frame for raising match. 1805...FINANCIAL INSTITUTIONS FUND, DEPARTMENT OF THE...PROGRAM Matching Funds Requirements ...Time frame for raising match. Applicants...satisfy matching funds requirements...

  18. Anaplasmosis in dogs: the relation of haematological, biochemical and clinical alterations to antibody titre and PCR confirmed infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravnik, Urska; Tozon, Natasa; Smrdel, Katja Strasek; Zupanc, Tatjana Avsic

    2011-04-21

    Laboratory and clinical parameters of 149 dogs, exposed to Anaplasma phagocytophilum (A. phagocytophilum), and 19 control dogs were evaluated and compared retrospectively. The aim of our study was to determine statistically significant differences of selected parameters between groups of patients, divided according to the immunofluorescence (IFA) titres, in attempt to improve current diagnostic and treatment criteria. Exposure to A. phagocytophilum was confirmed by IFA and infection by PCR. Based on the results, the dogs were divided into 8 groups (6 groups of seropositive dogs according to the antibody titre, 1 group of PCR positive dogs, and a control group). Selected parameters were compared between groups. Thrombocytopenia was confirmed to be the most prominent haematological change in IFA and/or PCR positive dogs. There were no statistically significant differences in clinical and haematological observations between groups of different IFA titre but clear overall differences between each IFA and PCR positive groups compared to the control group. Our results showed the necessity of introducing additional diagnostic procedures in clinical practice, since antibody titre and haematological parameters are not sufficient to confirm the clinical relevance of exposure to A. phagocytophilum in a particular patient. PMID:21112165

  19. Is AKH titre modulated by oxidative stress in the Colorado potato beetle (CPB) leptinotarsa decemlineata fed on genetically modified potatoes?.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kodrík, Dalibor; Krishnan, Natraj; Habuštová, Oxana

    Manchester : European Society for Comparative Endocrinology, 2006. s. 87-87. [Conference of European Comparative Endocrinologists /23./. 29.08.2006-02.09.2006, Manchester] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50070508 Keywords : AKH titre Subject RIV: ED - Physiology

  20. Raising Female Employment : Reflections and Policy Tools

    OpenAIRE

    Garibaldi, Pietro; Wasmer, Etienne

    2004-01-01

    While there is consensus on the need to raise the time spent in the market by European women, it is not clear how these goals should be achieved. Tax wedges, assistance in the job search process, and part-time jobs are policy instruments that are widely debated in policy circles. The paper presents a simple model of labor supply with market frictions and heterogenous home production where the effects of these policies can be coherently analyzed. We show that subsidies to labor ...

  1. 29 CFR 780.123 - Raising of bees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Raising of bees. 780.123 Section 780.123 Labor...of Agriculture Raising of Livestock, Bees, Fur-Bearing Animals, Or Poultry § 780.123 Raising of bees. The term “raising of * * *...

  2. A heuristic sublevel stope optimizer with multiple raises

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    X, Bai; D, Marcotte; R, Simon.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available A new heuristic sublevel mining stope optimizer is presented. The optimizer seeks the best locations and lengths of a series of vertical raises that, together with the blocks linked to each raise, define a mining stope. Five design constraints - the footwall angle, the hangingwall angle, the number [...] of raises, the maximum distance of a block from a raise, and the minimum width required to move the farthest block towards the raise - allow the shape of the sub-stopes associated with each raise to be controlled. The optimization is done on the locations and lengths of raises using a genetic algorithm to efficiently sample the parameters' space. For each raise, a local network is defined in cylindrical coordinates around the raise such as to impose the design constraints. A maxflow algorithm on the local network is used to determine the optimal sub-stope for each raise. All sub-stopes are combined to define the global stope for the entire deposit. The best global stope is obtained using a genetic algorithm to find the raise parameters providing the best profit over the entire deposit. Two synthetic cases and one real deposit are used to evaluate the new algorithm and compare the results with the single-raise optimizer. The multiple raises approach leads to significantly improved economics compared with the single-raise stope optimizer, and the dilution is also substantially reduced compared to the single-raise case.

  3. Worldwide trends and orientations of raising goats

    OpenAIRE

    Chetroiu, Rodica; Ca?lin, Ion; Niculescu, Georgeta Carmen

    2013-01-01

    Worldwide, raising goats had generally an ascending trend, both in terms of stocks and the production level. Thus, according to FAO statistics, in 2011 there were over 875.5 million heads of goats. The largest number of goats was in the year 2011 in Asia - over 539 million heads, representing 61.6% of the total, followed by Africa with over 276 million heads, holding a share of 31.6% of livestock globally. At European level, in 2011, the largest goat populations were in Greece and Romania ran...

  4. Raising female employment : reflexions and policy tools

    OpenAIRE

    Garibaldi, Pietro; Wasmer, Etienne

    2003-01-01

    While there is consensus on the need to raise the time spent in the market by European women, it is not clear how these goals should be achieved. Tax wedges, assistance in the job search process, and part-time jobs are policy instruments that are widely debated in policy circles. The paper presents a simple model of labour supply with market frictions and heterogenous home production where the effects of these policies can be coherently analysed. We show that subsidies to labour market entry ...

  5. The optimal age for vaccination against measles in an Asiatic city, Taipei, Taiwan: reduction of vaccine induced titre by residual transplacental antibody.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Y L; Black, F L; Chen, C L; Wu, C L; Berman, L L

    1983-09-01

    Children vaccinated when aged between six and thirteen months against measles in Taipei showed a high frequency of response, similar to that reported from Nairobi, Kenya and contrasting with analogous data for the USA. The age for optimal protection against measles mortality by a single dose of vaccine in this group of children is nine months. Maternal antibody exerted a negative effect on measles antibody titre in vaccinees beyond the age at which it blocked the response so that the infants of mothers with the higher titres themselves had lower titres. A separate effect of immunological immaturity on titre of the response could not be demonstrated in children over six months of age. PMID:6629623

  6. Raising the standards of the calf-raise test: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hébert-Losier, Kim; Newsham-West, Richard J; Schneiders, Anthony G; Sullivan, S John

    2009-11-01

    The calf-raise test is used by clinicians and researchers in sports medicine to assess properties of the calf muscle-tendon unit. The test generally involves repetitive concentric-eccentric muscle action of the plantar-flexors in unipedal stance and is quantified by the number of raises performed. Although the calf-raise test appears to have acceptable reliability and face validity, and is commonly used for medical assessment and rehabilitation of injuries, no universally acceptable test parameters have been published to date. A systematic review of the existing literature was conducted to investigate the consistency as well as universal acceptance of the evaluation purposes, test parameters, outcome measurements and psychometric properties of the calf-raise test. Nine electronic databases were searched during the period May 30th to September 21st 2008. Forty-nine articles met the inclusion criteria and were quality assessed. Information on study characteristics and calf-raise test parameters, as well as quantitative data, were extracted; tabulated; and statistically analysed. The average quality score of the reviewed articles was 70.4+/-12.2% (range 44-90%). Articles provided various test parameters; however, a consensus was not ascertained. Key testing parameters varied, were often unstated, and few studies reported reliability or validity values, including sensitivity and specificity. No definitive normative values could be established and the utility of the test in subjects with pathologies remained unclear. Although adapted for use in several disciplines and traditionally recommended for clinical assessment, there is no uniform description of the calf-raise test in the literature. Further investigation is recommended to ensure consistent use and interpretation of the test by researchers and clinicians. PMID:19231286

  7. Low-speed centrifugation of retroviral vectors absorbed to a particulate substrate: a highly effective means of enhancing retroviral titre.

    OpenAIRE

    Darling, D; Hughes, C.; Galea-Lauri, J; Gäken, J.; Trayner, ID; Kuiper, M.; Farzaneh, F.

    2000-01-01

    For many gene therapy applications the effective titre of retroviral vectors is a limiting factor both in vitro and in vivo. Purification and concentration of retrovirus from packaging cell supernatant can overcome this problem. To this end we have investigated a novel procedure which involves complexing retrovirus to a dense and particulate substrate followed by a short low-speed centrifugation. The study reported here uses heat-killed, formaldehyde fixed Staphylococcus aureus (Pansorbin) ab...

  8. Hepatitis B vaccination status of health care workers and their antiHBs titres - A cross sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarwat Fatima

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Back ground: The risk from occupational exposure to HBV infection is 2-4 times higher in HCW’s. A protective vaccine with a reported efficacy of 95% is available. Yet many HCW’s in developing countries remain non vaccinated, incompletely vaccinated or if vaccinated unaware of their post vaccination anti HBs status. Estimation of protective immune response following vaccination is essential to clear the misconceptions regarding booster dose of vaccine and non responder state which prevails among the HCW’s. Objective: The present study is designed to assess the hepatitis B vaccination rates in HCW’s and their antiHBs titres. Material and methods: A cross sectional study on 87 subjects was carried out at a tertiary care hospital by testing their sera for HBsAg & anti HBs levels. Results: None of the HCW’s were found to be HBsAg positive. Vaccination rate observed was 79%. Most vaccinated were the doctors and least the paramedics. Among doctors variation within the occupational groups was noticed. More number of males and young subjects were vaccinated and protected. Only 49% of the vaccinated HCW’s were vaccine compliant and 35% of these were protected. Factors like age, sex and time since last dose of vaccine influenced the anti HBs titres. None were aware of their anti HBs titres post vaccination. Conclusion: The study group involves only a small number of HCW’s but the findings are significant. Keeping in mind the annual global hepatitis B infection rates in HCW’s in developing countries we recommend the health care authorities to strengthen the existing educational programmes on Hepattis B infection which improves the awareness levels and thereby increases the vaccine rates. Further to make essential post vaccination assessment of antiHBs titres and its documentation to clear misconceptions regarding booster dose of vaccine.

  9. EFFECT OF VARIOUS STABILIZERS ON TITRE OF LYOPHILIZED LIVE-ATTENUATED PESTE DES PETITS RUMINANTS (PPR) VACCINE

    OpenAIRE

    M. ASIM, A. RASHID AND A. H. CHAUDHARY

    2008-01-01

    Lyophilization stabilizes the biological materials by using two overlapping drying procedure i.e. primary drying by sublimation of the ice crystal from frozen material and secondary drying or desorption by evaporation of the free water adsorbed into the dried product. Three different stabilizers i.e. lactalbumin hydrolysate-sucrose, Weybridge medium and lactalbumin hydrolysate-manitol were used to lyophilize the Peste des petits ruminants (PPR) vaccine. Titre of live-attenuated PPR cell cultu...

  10. Relationship between haemagglutination-inhibiting antibody titres and clinical protection against influenza: development and application of a bayesian random-effects model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megas Françoise

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Antibodies directed against haemagglutinin, measured by the haemagglutination inhibition (HI assay are essential to protective immunity against influenza infection. An HI titre of 1:40 is generally accepted to correspond to a 50% reduction in the risk of contracting influenza in a susceptible population, but limited attempts have been made to further quantify the association between HI titre and protective efficacy. Methods We present a model, using a meta-analytical approach, that estimates the level of clinical protection against influenza at any HI titre level. Source data were derived from a systematic literature review that identified 15 studies, representing a total of 5899 adult subjects and 1304 influenza cases with interval-censored information on HI titre. The parameters of the relationship between HI titre and clinical protection were estimated using Bayesian inference with a consideration of random effects and censorship in the available information. Results A significant and positive relationship between HI titre and clinical protection against influenza was observed in all tested models. This relationship was found to be similar irrespective of the type of viral strain (A or B and the vaccination status of the individuals. Conclusion Although limitations in the data used should not be overlooked, the relationship derived in this analysis provides a means to predict the efficacy of inactivated influenza vaccines when only immunogenicity data are available. This relationship can also be useful for comparing the efficacy of different influenza vaccines based on their immunological profile.

  11. A Balanced Approach to Literacy: Raising Student Achievement and Raising Active Citizens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derrico, Regina Dunlavey

    2005-01-01

    Secondary English teachers are required to use a balanced approach to literacy while testing students' achievement and raising active citizens enriched by both literacy and democracy. Teachers should encourage students to participate in a variety of educational endeavors such as the SAT program.

  12. 29 CFR 780.126 - Contract arrangements for raising poultry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...false Contract arrangements for raising poultry. 780.126 Section 780.126 Labor...Livestock, Bees, Fur-Bearing Animals, Or Poultry § 780.126 Contract arrangements for raising poultry. Feed dealers and...

  13. Pregnancy Choices: Raising the Baby, Adoption, and Abortion

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... pregnancy? • Why is prenatal care important? • What should I think about if I am considering raising the baby? • ... use after the baby is born. What should I think about if I am considering raising the baby? ...

  14. 29 CFR 780.125 - Raising of poultry in general.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...RELATED SUBJECTS UNDER THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT General Scope of Agriculture Raising of Livestock, Bees, Fur-Bearing Animals, Or Poultry § 780.125 Raising of poultry in general. (a) The term “poultry” includes...

  15. RAISED BOGS ON THE NORTH-EAST OF EUROPE

    OpenAIRE

    T. K. YURKOVSKAYA

    2004-01-01

    In the Northeastern Europe 2 types of raised bogs are distinguished: coastal (Southern White Sea raised hogs) and continental (Pechora-Onega raised bogs). They have been compared as to their flora, prevailing syntaxa, characteristics of their complexes, structure of mire massifs and composition of peat deposits.

  16. RAISED BOGS ON THE NORTH-EAST OF EUROPE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. K. YURKOVSKAYA

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available In the Northeastern Europe 2 types of raised bogs are distinguished: coastal (Southern White Sea raised hogs and continental (Pechora-Onega raised bogs. They have been compared as to their flora, prevailing syntaxa, characteristics of their complexes, structure of mire massifs and composition of peat deposits.

  17. Effective Fund-Raising for Non-profit Camps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Paula

    1998-01-01

    Identifies and describes strategies for effective fundraising: imagining the possibilities, identifying fund-raising sources, targeting fund-raising efforts, maximizing time by utilizing public relations efforts and involving staff, writing quality proposals and requests, and staying educated on fund-raising topics. Sidebars describe planned…

  18. Natural Radioactivity in a Raised Peat Bog

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peatlands generally accumulate C because the rate of biomass production is greater than the rate of decomposition. The apparent long-term rate of carbon accumulation for boreal and subarctic regions is estimated to 15-30 g C m-2 year-1. Peatlands are archives of past diversity, climate, and other environmental conditions. The recently formed surface layers of peat land are an archive for recent environmental information and offer an opportunity to understand how environmental conditions have been recorded in peat profiles by relating the signals in the peat to recent historical records. Since they have not undergone the same decay and compression, the temporal resolution of surface peat can be considerably higher than deeper layers. Peatland has accumulated huge amounts of pollutants including radioactivity. The activity can be released by using peat as fuel for electricity and heat production or by the global warming causing higher decomposition. The activity can then either be released to the atmosphere or concentrated in ashes or be released to the water sheds. Of special interest are raised bogs since they receive pollutants only from the atmosphere. Natural radioactivity such as 210Po, 210Pb and Uranium isotopes have been studied in peat. Also anthropogenic radionuclides such as 137Cs and 239+240Pu were studied in the same samples. Peat cores, about 20 cm in length, were sampled from Axmar raised pn length, were sampled from Axmar raised peat bog (61o01 N, 17o21 E), Sweden with a cylindrical steel corer (O = 8 cm). The cores were sliced in 1 cm sections and dried ( 60oC). 210Po was deposited spontaneously on Ag or Ni discs after mineral acid digestion. 210Pb was determined by ingrown 210Po and repeated deposition. Uranium isotopes and Plutonium were sequentially separated by anion exchange. As radiochemical yield determinants 209Po, 232U and 242Pu were used. The samples were measured by alpha spectrometry using ion implanted silicon detectors. 137Cs was measured by a HpGe well type detector. The results are shown. The activity concentrations of 210Po and 210Pb agree very well by the method used. This is also expected since analysis was carried out 1 year after sampling. Otherwise sometimes equilibrium has not been reached in the top-layer. The dating of the peat bog using unsupported 210Pb works very well and shows a growth rate of 1.5 mm per year corresponding to a net mass increase of 170 g m-2 per year. Uranium concentrations are increasing with depth from 4 to 25 Bq kg-1 (1-17 cm). Most of the uranium must have other origin than atmospheric deposition for example migrating from deeper layers. The 234U/238U activity ratio is generally smaller than one which is unusual for water and biological material. It is known that 234U has a higher solubility from mineral surfaces due to the alpha particle recoil. As can be seen there is a peak at 8 cm depth for 137Cs which then corresponds very well to the major nuclear tests 1962-1963 especially considering some overlapping from earlier tests 1957-1958. The peak from the Chernobyl accident, 1986, should be at about 3 cm depth but we have also observed that a large fraction of radiocaesium is found in the top layers where there is growing plant material. Plutonium has also a maximum at 8 cm depth but not as distinct as for 137Cs in this profile. The contribution of 239+240Pu from the Chernobyl accident was relatively much smaller than that for 137Cs. (author)

  19. Comprehensive Fund-Raising Campaigns: A Basic Guide for Governing Boards of Independent Institutions. Fund-Raising Topics. Board Basics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrum, Jake B., Ed.

    2001-01-01

    This guide for the governing boards of independent institutions discusses conducting a comprehensive fund-raising campaign. A comprehensive fund-raising campaign is broader and more strategic than past capital fund raising campaigns. Its financial goals include all potential gifts from annual fund donors, all gifts for the endowment, all gifts for…

  20. Enti religiosi e fund raising: un binomio possibile (anzi, necessario

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Franceschi

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Contributo sottoposto a valutazioniSOMMARIO: 1. Premessa - 2. Il fund raising: inquadramento concettuale - 3. (segue Strategie, strumenti e tecniche di fund raising - 4. Il fund raising come fattore di potenziale sviluppo delle organizzazioni non profit - 5. Enti religiosi e fund raising: un binomio che necessita di essere consolidato (e potenziato - 6. Peculiarità dell’azione di fund raising degli enti religiosi - 7. Fund raising e aspetti economici e gestionali degli enti religiosi - 8. Considerazioni conclusive.Abstract:Religious organizations and fundraising: a possible combination (indeed necessary Fund-raising activities represent the principal livelihood and sources of growth and development for non-profit organisations. Fund-raising is, also, an increasingly important part of religious organizations life. Almost each of them engages in some kind of fund-raising activity, with the purpose of generating income to sustain the organization’s programs and activities. The present study analyzes the relationship between religious organizations and fund-raising activities: a correlation that always existed, but now calls for consolidation and improvement in order to allow religious organizations to achieve economic sustainability. Therefore, religious organizations should develop competency and capacity to design and implement fund-raising activities, through appropriate policies, tools and methodologies. In this perspective, the author examines all the facets of fund-raising activities related to the religious organizations sector and, more in general, the possible applications of business administration principles to the management of religious bodies (so-called “church management”.Parole chiave: enti religiosi; fund raising; sostenibilità economica; management

  1. Constructing an Engineering Model for Raising an Egyptian Obelisk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Charles R.

    2009-01-01

    One of the greatest mysteries of ancient times is how the Egyptians managed to raise huge obelisks using very simple technology. This remarkable task has puzzled engineers for thousand of years. After failing to raise an obelisk with simple machines, such as levers and pulleys, a team of modern engineers solved the mystery using a sandpit and the…

  2. College Fund Raising Using Theoretical Perspectives to Understand Donor Motives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, Timothy

    2007-01-01

    This paper provides senior leadership teams with a body of literature that will guide the development of "fund-raising strategy" and provides an "interdisciplinary" context for understanding "donor motives". Consideration of these "theoretical foundations" can help shape the fund-raising philosophy of the institution. These perspectives also have…

  3. Shaking the Money Tree: Fund-Raising and Grants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Carol Anne

    2001-01-01

    Discusses fund-raising efforts and grants, focusing on identifying potential grant sources and grant writing, within the context of music education. Includes tips and resources on fund-raising, details the elements of the grant proposal, and provides further sources of information on writing grants. (CMK)

  4. Long-term survival in trial of medium-titre Edmonston-Zagreb measles vaccine in Guinea-Bissau : five-year follow-up

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aaby, Peter; Lisse, Ida

    1994-01-01

    A trial of protective efficacy which compared medium-titre Edmonston-Zagreb (EZ) measles vaccine (10(4.6) p.f.u.) from the age of 4 months with the standard Schwarz (SW) measles vaccine given from the age of 9 months was started in an urban community in Guinea-Bissau in 1985. Because trials of high-titre measles vaccine have found increased mortality among female recipients, we examined whether EZ medium-titre vaccine was associated with any long-term impact on mortality, suppression of T-cells, or growth. The mortality rate ratio over 5 years of follow-up was 1.12 for EZ children compared with children in the standard group (P = 0.63). Seventy-five percent of the children still residing in the area at 5 years of age took part in an immunological and anthropometric examination. There was no difference in T-cell subsets between the two groups. There was no difference in mid-upper-arm circumference, but EZ children were significantly shorter than the children in the standard group. In conclusion, medium-titre EZ was not associated with reduced survival or persistent immunosuppression.

  5. Autoantibody Levels and Clinical Disease Severity in Patients with Pemphigus: Comparison of Aggregated Anti-desmoglein ELISA Values and Indirect Immunofluorescence Titres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Doris; Ristl, Robin; Griss, Johannes; Bangert, Christine; Foedinger, Dagmar; Stingl, Georg; Brunner, Patrick M

    2015-04-28

    Detecting serum-autoantibodies by anti-Desmoglein-1 (anti-Dsg1) and anti-Dsg3 ELISAs as well as indirect immunofluorescence (IIF) are established complementary methods to diagnose pemphigus. Whether autoantibody levels also reflect clinical disease activity is still a matter of debate, as head-to-head comparisons of ELISA values and IIF titres with clinical activity over a longer treatment period are scarce. In our retrospective study, we compared aggregated repetitive intra-patient ELISA values and IIF titres with grades of clinical disease (1?=?remission, 2?=?moderate activity, 3?=?exacerbation) in 47 patients suffering from pemphigus vulgaris (PV, n?=?36) and pemphigus foliaceus (PF, n=11). We found that anti-Dsg1 ELISA values in PF and mucocutaneous PV as well as anti-Dsg3 ELISA values in PV best reflect disease activity. IIF titres, by contrast, did not show a significant association with disease severity. From these data we conclude that ELISA index values can be a valuable tool to monitor disease in patients with pemphigus, whereas IIF titres reflect clinical activity only insufficiently. PMID:25423997

  6. Home Oxygen Raises Burn Risk for COPD Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 151814.html Home Oxygen Raises Burn Risk for COPD Patients Smoking near unit can be hazardous, researchers report ... to their burns. "The benefits of oxygen in COPD patients outweigh the modest risks of burn injury," said ...

  7. Rapid Acquisition Imaging Spectrograph (RAISE) Renewal Proposal Project

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The optical design of RAISE is based on a new class of UV/EUV imaging spectrometers that use  only two reflections to provide quasi-stigmatic performance...

  8. Brain Injury Linked to Raised Risk of Road Rage

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_152504.html Brain Injury Linked to Raised Risk of Road Rage ... HealthDay News) -- People who have suffered a traumatic brain injury are at increased risk for road rage, ...

  9. Obesity Raises Women's Cancer Risk by 40 Percent, Study Finds

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_151517.html Obesity Raises Women's Cancer Risk by 40 Percent, Study ... 17, 2015 TUESDAY, March 17, 2015 (HealthDay News) -- Obesity takes a huge toll on health, and a ...

  10. Generalized raising and lowering operators for supersymmetric quantum mechanics

    OpenAIRE

    Coffey, Mark W.

    2015-01-01

    Supersymmetric quantum mechanics has many applications, and typically uses a raising and lowering operator formalism. For one dimensional problems, we show how such raising and lowering operators may be generalized to include an arbitrary function. As a result, the usual Rodrigues' formula of the theory of orthogonal polynomials may be recovered in special cases, and it may otherwise be generalized to incorporate an arbitrary function. We provide example generalized operator...

  11. Raising finance to support developing country action: some economic considerations

    OpenAIRE

    Bowen, Alex

    2011-01-01

    This article explores the principles that should guide efforts to raise finance for climate action in developing countries. The main conclusions are that, first, there is an important role for private finance, which would be facilitated by having pervasive and broadly uniform emissions pricing around the world. Second, public finance is warranted by a range of market – and policy – failures associated with climate change and its mitigation. Third, raising tax revenues may be preferable...

  12. Incidence and aetiology of a raised hemidiaphragm after cardiopulmonary bypass.

    OpenAIRE

    Large, S. R.; Heywood, L. J.; Flower, C. D.; Cory-pearce, R.; Wallwork, J.; English, T. A.

    1985-01-01

    A raised hemidiaphragm has been reported as an uncommon complication of cardiopulmonary bypass, possibly resulting from cold injury to the phrenic nerve. At Papworth Hospital myocardial protection during cardiac arrest relies in part on irrigation of the pericardial cavity with large volumes of Hartmann's solution at 4 degrees C. Retrospective review of the chest radiographs of 100 consecutive patients undergoing cardiopulmonary bypass showed that 31 had a raised left hemidiaphragm soon after...

  13. Vowel Raising in Nkpor Dialect: A Pattern of Sound Change

    OpenAIRE

    Mbah, Evelyn Ezinwanne; Okeke, Chukwuma Onyebuchi

    2013-01-01

    This paper explores a pattern of phonological change known as vowel raising in the Nkpor dialect of the Igbo language. Using a corpus of conversational Nkpor speech collected from the respondents through tape-recording, we presented data from an authority analysis of the vowels and auditory data of vowel raising. The data support three main claims. First, the voiced palatal nasal /?/ is elided. It claims that in a word consisting of two root verbs, the initial verb root contains any consonan...

  14. A practice of advancing return shaft by raised shaft technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Advance of super-high raise has been a difficult problem in the underground construction of mines. A main return shaft of a uranium mine was advanced by raised shaft technique. The technique has advantages such as high efficience, safety and economy. Monthly shaft completion averaged 85 m, the highest was up to 120 m. Blasting efficience was above 92%. A reference is provided for similar projects. (authors)

  15. HOW TO RAISE EQUITY CAPITAL? A CASE OF POLISH COMPANIES

    OpenAIRE

    B?ach, Joanna

    2011-01-01

    The strategies of raising equity capital available to the Polish companies were studied, both in the theoretical and empirical dimension. According to the law regulations three strategies of raising equity capital were distinguished and characterized: the retaining profit strategy, the strategy based on the hybrid securities and the strategy using the issue of new shares. The empirical researches were conducted based on the aggregated data illustrating the practical application of ...

  16. Effect of recurrent invasive pneumococcal disease on serum anti-pneumolysin IgG titres in HIV infected adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etuwewe, Onajite M.; Swann, Natalie; Hollingshead, Susan; Tolmie, Helen; Zijlstra, Ed E.; Faragher, Brian; French, Neil; Gordon, Stephen B.

    2009-01-01

    We measured serum anti-pneumolysin IgG concentrations in a prospective cohort of 34 HIV infected adults who developed recurrent pneumococcal bacteraemia, and compared baseline levels with HIV positive and HIV negative control subjects that remained free of pneumococcal disease. Anti-pneumolysin concentrations in HIV positive cases and controls were higher compared to HIV negative controls. There was no significant difference in levels between HIV positive subjects who did and did not subsequently develop pneumococcal bacteraemia (geometric means 849.1 U/ml vs. 564.6 U/ml, p = 0.059). Anti-pneumolysin IgG titres before, and after the recurrent episode of pneumococcal bacteraemia did not differ significantly (p = 0.95). High levels of anti-pneumolysin IgG do not predict protection from invasive pneumococcal disease or indicate that an effective immune response has occurred in HIV infected patients. PMID:19376181

  17. The role of antibody affinity and titre in immunity to Schistosoma mansoni following vaccination with highly irradiated cercariae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sera from rabbits and rats vaccinated with highly irradiated cercariae of Schistosoma mansoni (VRabS, VRatS) were found to be of substantially higher affinity than sera from CBA mice vaccinated four times (4 x CVMS), single sex sera (SSS) or chronic infection sera (CIS). In contrast, immunoprecipitation studies demonstrated that sera from vaccinated LA mice (LVMS) recognized 125I-labelled schistosomular surface antigens more intensely than sera from vaccinated HA mice (HVMS). However, peritoneal macrophages from HA and LA mice in the presence of HVMS, LVMS or 4 x CVMS, and naive macrophages activated in vitro with interferon-gamma (IFN-?)/lipopolysaccharide (LPS) mediated comparable levels of schistosomula killing in vitro. The experiments described here provide evidence that the titre of antibody rather than its affinity may be a more critical factor in the development of optimal immunity to S. mansoni. (author)

  18. Vowel Raising in Nkpor Dialect: A Pattern of Sound Change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mbah, Evelyn Ezinwanne

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores a pattern of phonological change known as vowel raising in the Nkpor dialect of the Igbo language. Using a corpus of conversational Nkpor speech collected from the respondents through tape-recording, we presented data from an authority analysis of the vowels and auditory data of vowel raising. The data support three main claims. First, the voiced palatal nasal /?/ is elided. It claims that in a word consisting of two root verbs, the initial verb root contains any consonant and any vowel, and the second verb root contains the voiced palatal nasal /?/ and a mid front vowel /e/, then, the voiced palatal nasal is elided. Second, after the elision, the mid vowel /e/ of the second verb is raised to a high front vowel /i/ or /?/, agreeing with the vowel harmony rule. Third, Nkpor dialect goes beyond the raising of only vowels of the second verb. It further raises vowels of the first verb which are not high. The much more rapid loss of the voiced palatal nasal /?/ and the consequent raising of the vowels are plausibly attributed to rapid speech, especially in construction and some sociolinguistic factors.

  19. Raising and Lowering operators of spin-weighted spheroidal harmonics

    CERN Document Server

    Shah, Abhay G

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we generalize the spin-raising and lowering operators of spin-weighted spherical harmonics to linear-in-$\\gamma$ spin-weighted spheroidal harmonics where $\\gamma$ is an additional parameter present in the second order ordinary differential equation governing these harmonics. One can then generalize these operators to higher powers in $\\gamma$. Constructing these operators required calculating the $\\ell$-, $s$- and $m$-raising and lowering operators (and various combinations of them) of spin-weighted spherical harmonics which have been calculated and shown explicitly in this paper.

  20. Raising Wages as a Strategy to Reduce Corruption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hideki Sato

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines whether raising the salaries of government tax auditors reduces their incentive to accept bribes. It evaluates an optimal tax structure and economic welfare under conditions of perfect and imperfect information in relation to conditions for bribery. The major policy implication of this paper is that it is not necessarily desirable to increase salaries as an anticorruption measure. Even if government can reduce corruption by improving civil servants’ pay, obtaining funds to do so by raising the income tax will worsen economic welfare, based on the optimal tax structure.

  1. Radiosensitivity of tissue culture raised white marigold seeds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White marigold of the (Tagetes erecta L. compositae) is an important ornamental crop suited for pot and bed plants. It suffers from the problem of low seed viability and poor seed germination. The technique of in vitro regeneration has already been standardized for production of large scale quality planting materials of white marigold. For inducing greater genetic variability, seeds collected from in vitro raised plants were included in a gamma ray induced mutation breeding programme. The main objective of the present experiment was to study the radiosensitivity of tissue culture raised seeds

  2. Raising Cultural Awareness in the English Language Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, Jerrold

    2013-01-01

    This article discusses how teachers can incorporate cultural knowledge into English language classes, exploring elements of culture, intercultural phenomena, and high-context and low-context cultures. Activities offered by the author to raise cultural awareness include web quests, role plays, cultural observations, and culture journals.

  3. Racism: Raising Awareness amongst a Group of Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visser, M.; Cleaver, G.; Schoeman, J.

    1999-01-01

    Describes the design and evaluation of a South African workshop to raise 70 psychology students' awareness of their own racism, prejudices, and stereotypes, and the impact of prejudice on relationships; and to improve intergroup attitudes and behaviors. Changes in some attitudes occurred, but not in all areas. The workshop was found to have an…

  4. T lymphocyte subpopulations diverge in commercially raised chickens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bridle, Byram W.; Julian, Richard; Shewen, Patricia E.; Vaillancourt, Jean-Pierre

    2006-01-01

    Abstract To evaluate immunocompetence in commercially raised chickens, we immunophenotyped Dekalb Delta and H&N White Leghorn (WLH) hybrids, 20 chickens in each of 3 age groups (9 wk [juvenile], 25 wk [young adult], and 79 or 80 wk [adult]), for circulating CD3+, CD4+, CD8+, TCR1+, TCR2+, and TCR3+ lymphocytes. The proportion of CD3+ T cells, including CD4+ and CD8+ subsets, was increased in the hybrids as compared with published values for laboratory-raised outbred WLH chickens. The proportion of the TCR2+ (V?1) T cell subpopulation was also increased. An age-related decrease in the proportion of TCR1+ (??) T cells was noted in both hybrids. Further, a remarkably low CD4:CD8 ratio was evident in all age groups of both hybrids, indicating decreased immunocompetence. Overall, these experiments provide age-related proportions of various peripheral-blood T lymphocyte subpopulations in commercially raised Dekalb Delta and H&N chickens that diverge from the proportions in laboratory-raised outbred WLH chickens and suggest reduced immunocompetence. Such a decline in immunocompetence, including humoral immune capacity, could be attributed to genetic selection for production traits, environmental factors associated with commercial operations, and intense immunization. PMID:16850940

  5. T lymphocyte subpopulations diverge in commercially raised chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bridle, Byram W; Julian, Richard; Shewen, Patricia E; Vaillancourt, Jean-Pierre; Kaushik, Azad K

    2006-07-01

    To evaluate immunocompetence in commercially raised chickens, we immunophenotyped Dekalb Delta and H&N White Leghorn (WLH) hybrids, 20 chickens in each of 3 age groups (9 wk [juvenile], 25 wk [young adult], and 79 or 80 wk [adult]), for circulating CD3+, CD4+, CD8+, TCR1+, TCR2+, and TCR3+ lymphocytes. The proportion of CD3+ T cells, including CD4+ and CD8+ subsets, was increased in the hybrids as compared with published values for laboratory-raised outbred WLH chickens. The proportion of the TCR2+ (Vbeta1) T cell subpopulation was also increased. An age-related decrease in the proportion of TCR1+ (gammasigma) T cells was noted in both hybrids. Further, a remarkably low CD4:CD8 ratio was evident in all age groups of both hybrids, indicating decreased immunocompetence. Overall, these experiments provide age-related proportions of various peripheral-blood T lymphocyte subpopulations in commercially raised Dekalb Delta and H&N chickens that diverge from the proportions in laboratory-raised outbred WLH chickens and suggest reduced immunocompetence. Such a decline in immunocompetence, including humoral immune capacity, could be attributed to genetic selection for production traits, environmental factors associated with commercial operations, and intense immunization. PMID:16850940

  6. The Board's Role in Fund-Raising. Board Basics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legon, Richard D.

    2003-01-01

    Fund-raising is one of a board's most basic and important responsibilities. Virtually all higher education institutions seek private support, and virtually all institutional leaders call upon key volunteers--including members of governing boards, public institution foundation boards, and advisory councils in many institutions--to give generously…

  7. The Hardest Sell in Fund Raising: Attracting Talent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masterson, Kathryn; Wolverton, Brad

    2008-01-01

    Connie Kravas, the vice president for university advancement at the University of Washington, has brought in 64 new fund raisers since 2002--close to doubling its staff--to help raise money for a $2-billion-plus campaign. Many college development offices have experienced similar rapid growth in recent years, with many adding fund raisers at a…

  8. Fund-Raising Coalitions in School Board Elections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Brian

    2008-01-01

    This article examines campaign finance activity in two large school districts: San Francisco, California and Hillsborough County, Florida. Using datasets containing contributions to school board candidates, it explores from whom candidates raise campaign funds. The findings indicate that entities with material interests in school board decisions,…

  9. With Dwindling Resources, Colleges Recalibrate Fund-Raising Staffs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masterson, Kathryn

    2009-01-01

    After several years of aggressive hiring, some college fund-raising operations are now cutting back as both revenue and investment income fall. The regrouping could slow growth plans on many campuses at a time when the need for private support has never been greater. Often the colleges cutting employees are laying off back-office staff members and…

  10. Higher Education Fund Raising: What Is the President to Do?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satterwhite, C. Robin; Cedja, Brent

    2005-01-01

    Reductions in state and federal allocations to higher education are requiring colleges and universities to seek alternative sources of funding, and higher education institutions are becoming progressively more involved in fund raising. This increased dependence on private sources of funding emphasizes the need for more in-depth studies of higher…

  11. Enlightenment and Comparison of Raising Higher Educational Funds

    Science.gov (United States)

    DONG, Xiao-hong

    2008-01-01

    The main developed countries raise higher educational funds actively by increasing the tuition fees, improving the rate of loan, striving for scientific research funds, improving the income of education and service as well as accepting all kinds of donations. According to Chinese realities, it should be increased higher educational funds to…

  12. Abnormal Test Results in Hospital Signal Raised Kidney Injury Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Signal Raised Kidney Injury Risk Research finds other risk factors include diabetes, being older, male or black To use the ... the investigators found. The study showed that having diabetes or being ... But the strongest risk factor was abnormal results on blood and urine tests ...

  13. Public Libraries and Private Fund Raising: Opportunities and Issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeavons, Thomas H.

    In the context of faster growth of community information needs and demands than growth of public funds, questions about where new resources can be found are the subject of much discussion within the library profession. This report is an attempt to raise questions and clarify issues that should be considered in advance of the formulation of library…

  14. X-ray sensititvity of embryonated Capillaria hepatica eggs and serum-GLDH activities and antibody titres in Mastomys natalensis infected with untreated or irradiated eggs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    X-ray irradiation of embryonated Capillaria hepatica eggs using 0.5, 1, or 2 Krd resulted in a progressive decrease of egg production of the female nematodes which had developed from irradiated first stage larvae in Mastomys natalensis. Egg production did not occur after irradiation with 3, 4, 5, 10, 30, 50, or 70 Krd. The capacity of the parasites to invade the liver was not influenced. Infection of M. natalensis using unirradiated eggs was followed by an increase of serum-GLDH-activities between days 6 and 8 post infection reaching maximum values in this period of infection. Furthermore high values have been determined after the beginning of patency. Increased activity persisted up to the end of the experiment on day 36 post infection. After infection with eggs which had received 2.2 or 5 Krd the increase of serum-GLDH-activities was decreased and occurred later in the course of infection using 5 Krd irradiated eggs. Antibodies could be demonstrated as early as one week after infection with unirradiated eggs. Employing the indirect haemagglutination test, using an aqueous extract from non-embryonated eggs as antigen, maximum titres occurred at the beginning of patency. After a nearly plateau-like course titres began to drop about 7 weeks p.i., i.e. about the end of egg production by the female worms, but antibodies were still detectable 17 weeks p.i. (end of the observation period). After infection with eggs which had received 2.2 or 5 Krd antibody development was ded 2.2 or 5 Krd antibody development was delayed. Maximum titres were somewhat (2.2 Krd) or markedly (5 Krd) lower. Thereafter titres dropped to values comparable to those of uninfected M. natalensis. The results are compared with published reports on the pathohistology of capillariasis. (orig.)

  15. Generation of high-titre virus stocks using BrK.219, a B-cell line infected stably with recombinant Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kati, Semra; Hage, Elias; Mynarek, Martin; Ganzenmueller, Tina; Indenbirken, Daniela; Grundhoff, Adam; Schulz, Thomas F

    2015-06-01

    Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) is a gamma-2-lymphotropic human oncogenic herpesvirus associated with Kaposi's sarcoma (KS) and two B-cell lymphoproliferative diseases, primary effusion lymphoma (PEL) and multicentric Castleman's disease (MCD). KSHV establishes latency soon after infection in vivo and in vitro. Consequently, it is technically difficult to generate high-titre virus stocks required for infection experiments in tissue culture. Currently used methods of KSHV stock production involve induction of the lytic/productive cycle in PEL cell lines or in adherent cell lines harbouring recombinant KSHV genomes. In this study, the BJAB-derived B-cell line BrK.219, which is infected latently with a recombinant KSHV (rKSHV.219), is used to produce high-titre virus stocks. BrK.219 cells enter the lytic KSHV replication cycle upon cross-linking of B-cell receptors (BCRs) with anti-IgM antibodies without the need for additional, potentially toxic chemical inducers. High cell concentrations can be cultured and induced easily in spinner flasks, saving time and resources. The established protocol allows the generation of KSHV virus stocks with titres of up to 10(6) IU/ml in unconcentrated culture supernatants, representing a 10(3)-10(4)-fold improvement compared to conventional methods. PMID:25736227

  16. Prion subcellular fractionation reveals infectivity spectrum, with a high titre-low PrPres level disparity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lewis Victoria

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Prion disease transmission and pathogenesis are linked to misfolded, typically protease resistant (PrPres conformers of the normal cellular prion protein (PrPC, with the former posited to be the principal constituent of the infectious 'prion'. Unexplained discrepancies observed between detectable PrPres and infectivity levels exemplify the complexity in deciphering the exact biophysical nature of prions and those host cell factors, if any, which contribute to transmission efficiency. In order to improve our understanding of these important issues, this study utilized a bioassay validated cell culture model of prion infection to investigate discordance between PrPres levels and infectivity titres at a subcellular resolution. Findings Subcellular fractions enriched in lipid rafts or endoplasmic reticulum/mitochondrial marker proteins were equally highly efficient at prion transmission, despite lipid raft fractions containing up to eight times the levels of detectable PrPres. Brain homogenate infectivity was not differentially enhanced by subcellular fraction-specific co-factors, and proteinase K pre-treatment of selected fractions modestly, but equally reduced infectivity. Only lipid raft associated infectivity was enhanced by sonication. Conclusions This study authenticates a subcellular disparity in PrPres and infectivity levels, and eliminates simultaneous divergence of prion strains as the explanation for this phenomenon. On balance, the results align best with the concept that transmission efficiency is influenced more by intrinsic characteristics of the infectious prion, rather than cellular microenvironment conditions or absolute PrPres levels.

  17. HOW TO RAISE EQUITY CAPITAL? A CASE OF POLISH COMPANIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna B?ACH

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The strategies of raising equity capital available to the Polish companies were studied, both in the theoretical and empirical dimension. According to the law regulations three strategies of raising equity capital were distinguished and characterized: the retaining profit strategy, the strategy based on the hybrid securities and the strategy using the issue of new shares. The empirical researches were conducted based on the aggregated data illustrating the practical application of the distinguished strategies in the activity of the Polish non-financial companies in 2006 – 2009, aiming at finding changes in the strategy profile due to the impact of the global financial crisis. The achieved results can be used as a basis for further, more detail studies, also for the cross-country comparative analysis.

  18. Questions raised by the controversy over recovered memories of incest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lief, Harold I

    2003-01-01

    The controversy in the mental health community over recovered memory has been heated. The devastation to families falsely accused of incest has been profound. A fortunate consequence, however, has been the vigorous pursuit of answers to a variety of mind-behavior questions raised by the controversy. In this article I raise some of the important questions and in reply I review and summarize some of the data. Some questions deal with the nature of memory and of unconscious processes, especially the role of implicit memory; the techniques of recovered memory therapy and the evolution of pseudomemories and its relevance to clinical practice; the effects, real and alleged, of trauma; the place of dreams, flashbacks, and repetitive patterns of behavior in the understanding of memory and behavior; and finally, questions dealing with the definition of reality. All of these are important issues for the psychoanalyst. PMID:12866698

  19. Raising rivals' costs with environmental regulation: An intertemporal lobbying approach

    OpenAIRE

    Ko?rber, Achim

    1995-01-01

    This paper addresses the question why a lot of firms demand stricter environmental regulation. With non-identical producers within the same industry, lobbying for tighter environmental rules turns out to be an important strategy of raising rivals' costs. Furthermore, the paper explains when the potential target firms of stricter regulation in such an intra-industrial competition engage in counter-lobbying and when they remain silent.

  20. Surveys and Studies on Tranditional Pig Raising in Guangxi

    OpenAIRE

    Huang Minrui; Lai Zhiqing; Huang Minsheng; Lu Weihe; Liao Chifeng Guangxi

    1999-01-01

    Main studies were conducted on tranditonal pig raising( TPR) fed with local feeds effected on reproductivities of sows and productivities of fattening hogs with the motheds of on-the -spot surveys,tests and consulting literatures for backgrounds of agriculture,livestock industry,feed resources and present situations of pig production. Through surveyed on reproductivities of 320 sows and on liveweight gains and feed consumed of 3109 hogs sold, it was shown that on an average,a live litter size...

  1. Raised Vaginal Fluid Fibronectin Level Indicates Premature Rupture of Membrane

    OpenAIRE

    Amrita Bhowmik; Debashish Paul; Mst Nigar Sultana; Nasrin Sultana; Samira Humaira Habib; Samsad Jahan; http://dx.doi.org/10.3329/jemc.v2i2.12841; Khodeja Begum

    2012-01-01

    Background: Premature rupture of membrane (PROM) is one of the common complications of pregnancy that has major impact on fetal and neonatal outcome. It is the commonest clinical event where a normal pregnancy becomes suddenly a high-risk one for mother and fetus or neonate. Objective: The study was undertaken to investigate whether raised fibronectin level in vaginal fluid may indicate premature rupture of membrane. Materials and Methods: This cross sectional study was conducted in the ...

  2. Some Aspects for Raising of Economic Competitiveness of Dairy Farming

    OpenAIRE

    Sandor Kalmar

    2003-01-01

    In Hungary the last decade the number of cattle stock practically hasdiminished 50% because of the unfavourable economic conditions. This fact and the nearing joining to EU reflect the important for developing dairy farming in the knew circumstances. Theoretically the over production is favourable for the profitability, because of the decreasing of the specific stable cost. Unfortunately, this way is closedfor the Hungarian dairy farming because of the quota system. Raising of the milk qualit...

  3. Raising Wages as a Strategy to Reduce Corruption

    OpenAIRE

    Hideki Sato

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines whether raising the salaries of government tax auditors reduces their incentive to accept bribes. It evaluates an optimal tax structure and economic welfare under conditions of perfect and imperfect information in relation to conditions for bribery. The major policy implication of this paper is that it is not necessarily desirable to increase salaries as an anticorruption measure. Even if government can reduce corruption by improving civil servants’ pay, obtaining funds ...

  4. Does Stock Market Development Raise Economic Growth? Evidence from Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Abu Nurudeen

    2009-01-01

    This paper investigates whether stock market development raises economic growthin Nigeria, by employing the error correction approach. The econometric results indicate thatstock market development (market capitalization-GDP ratio) increases economic growth.The recommendations therein include: removal of impediments to stock market developmentwhich include tax, legal, and regulatory barriers; development of the nation’s infrastructureto create an enabling environment for where business can s...

  5. Environmental NGOs in the raising debate of climate change

    OpenAIRE

    Dahan Dalmedico, Amy; Buffet, Christophe

    2009-01-01

    The issue of climate change was raising since the last 20 years, up to preempting debates about sustainable development This paper aims, in a first part, at underlining the diversity of environmental NGOs involved in climate change debate at all levels. In a second part, the text analyses how environmental NGOs interacted within climate change regime within United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) negotiations.

  6. Problems raised by corrosion in the nuclear fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the uranium ore processing industry, materials which resist both mechanical abrasion and corrosion in an acid medium are required. Different typical cases are examined. For the reprocessing of irradiated fuels, two processes are possible: the conventional wet process, of the Purex type, and the fluoride volatilization process. In the latter case, the problems raised by fluoride corrosion in the presence of fission products is examined. The other parts of the fuel cycle are examined in the same manner

  7. Raising Rebels : Participation and Recruitment in Civil War

    OpenAIRE

    Eck, Kristine

    2010-01-01

    Why do some individuals choose to participate in rebellion, and what recruitment tactics can rebel groups use to affect this decision? These questions are central to the study of civil war because rebel groups must raise troops in order to challenge the government and to survive as an organization. Indeed, much of the civil war literature builds on participation as a key causal mechanism, yet it is rarely specified in theoretical or empirical models. The dissertation attempts to open this bla...

  8. The cholesterol-raising factor from coffee beans.

    OpenAIRE

    Urgert, R.; Katan, M. B.

    1996-01-01

    Coffee beans and some types of coffee brew - not the regular types of coffee prepared with a paper filter or with soluble coffee granules - contain the diterpenes cafestol and kahweol. Cafestol and kahweol raise the serum concentration of cholesterol and triglycerides in humans, and they also appear mildly to affect the integrity of liver cells. Both effects are transient after withdrawal of the diterpenes, and it is as yet unsure whether these effects are associated. Patients at increased ri...

  9. Seven Mile Reservoir raising environmental impact assessment and compensation proposals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 1984 Skagit River Valley Treaty Implementation Act provided for raising of the Seven Mile Reservoir normal operating level from 522.7 m to 527.3 m. The dam, located on the Pend d'Oreille River, was completed in 1980 and with this raising and the future installation of a fourth unit, can operate at its full potential. Work included spillway gate completion and reservoir preparation. The reservoir raising caused impacts, including loss of whitetail deer winter range, slightly improved access for coarse fish into the Salmo River, and a reduced number of sites with recreational development potential. A number of compensation, enhancement, and monitoring measures to offset the losses caused by the project were identified and British Columbia Hydro proposes funding to implement the measures. An integral part of identifying and developing the programs was an interactive process involving local interest groups, government agencies, and the utility. Continued cooperation is anticipated in the implementation phase of the programs. 54 refs., 4 figs., 5 tabs

  10. Radiation protection issues raised in Korea since Fukushima accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For the past 3 years since Fukushima accident, various issues related to nuclear safety and radiation safety were raised in Korea. This presentation focuses radiation protection (RP) issues among the various issues and has the purpose to share experiences and lessons-learned related to the RP issues. Special safety inspections on NPPs in Korea were performed immediately after Fukushima accident and 50 follow-up measures were established in May, 2011 to improve the nuclear safety. Some of them were related to radiation protection and emergency responses. Recently, in March, 2014, additional follow-up measures were decided to be taken in additionally strengthening safety-related equipment and emergency response organization. The 50 Fukushima-accident-follow-up measures include radiation protection for members of the public in emergency responses. Based on the follow-up measures, expansion of emergency planning zone (EPZ) is to be made according to the approval of legislation by National Assembly on May 2, 2014. For the past 3 years, the degree of the public concerns on radiation risk has been the highest. Spontaneous activities for radiation monitoring happened in the public. Some members of the public found some contaminated paved roads in November, 2011 and a contaminated kitchen ware in January, 2012. These findings suggest the importance of the management of recycled metal scraps imported from other countries. Fukushima accident gave much impact on Korean society all. The public gets very sensitive to issues about nuclear safety and radiation safety. Most parts of RP issues raised are related to the public. The lessons-learned are that as an issue is raised, it has a chance to be solved. However, RP issues related to radiation workers in accident conditions in NPPs are difficult to be raised enough to confirm and improve the robustness of radiation protection programs in accident conditions. It is necessary to share RP issues raised in each country as well as experiences and lessons-learned. Then, the shared information could help to enhance RP programs in each country in different conditions. (author)

  11. Les femmes et les enfants, prisonniers politiques ou déportés à titre préventif pendant la guerre civile grecque

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina Alexopoulos

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Les conditions et stratégies de survie des milliers de femmes condamnées ou déportées de la guerre civile grecque permettent d'établir une typologie.Pendant la guerre civile grecque (1946-1949 des milliers de personnes sont emprisonnées, déportées dans des camps de concentration ou exilées dans des îles, une population hétéroclite d’hommes et de femmes, persécutés pour leurs idées, leurs origines ou même des liens de parenté avec les communistes. Dans la présente étude, nous nous intéresserons à un groupe lui-même peu homogène, les femmes et les enfants, prisonniers politiques ou déportés à titre préventif pendant le conflit. Après un bref rappel de la pratique de la déportation et une esquisse de typologie de la réclusion, nous étudierons les conditions de détention et les stratégies de survie des femmes, souvent emprisonnées avec leurs enfants, leur statut au sein des prisonniers politiques ainsi que le sens de l'engagement politique dans leur système de valeurs.During the Greek Civil War (1946-1949 thousands of persons were imprisoned, deported to concentration camps or exiled on the islands, a heteroclite population of men and women, persecuted for their ideas, their origins or even their association with the Communists. In the present study, we are interested in a not particularly homogeneous group of women and children, political prisoners or deportees who had been detained for preventive reasons during the conflict. Following a brief summary of the practice of deportation and a typological sketch of the imprisonment, we shall study the detention conditions and the survival strategies of the women, often imprisoned with their children, their status vis-à-vis the political prisoners as well as the meaning of political commitment in their value system.

  12. Evaluación anátomo-histopatológica de bursa, timo y bazo de pollos de carne criados sobre cama reutilizada vs. cama nueva / Anatomical and histopathological evaluation of the bursa, thymus and spleen of broiler chickens raised in new or reused litter

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Antonio, Tambini A.; Mónica, Alba C.; Rosa, Perales C; Néstor, Falcón P.

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Se evaluó el desarrollo anátomo-histopatológico de la bursa, timo y bazo de pollos de carne criados en cama nueva y cama reutilizada por cinco campañas. Se criaron 250 pollos machos de la línea Ross 308, la mitad en cama nueva y la otra mitad en cama reutilizada. Semanalmente, se determinaron los ín [...] dices morfométricos de bursa, timo y bazo, y la relación entre bursa y bazo por grupo. Los órganos linfoides fueron evaluados mediante histopatología, y los títulos de anticuerpos contra las enfermedades de Gumboro, Newcastle, Bronquitis Infecciosa, Anemia Infecciosa y Reovirus, al inicio y final de la crianza (49 días), se determinaron por la prueba de ELISA. Se encontró diferencia estadística (p Abstract in english The anatomo-histopathological development of the bursa, thymus and spleen of broiler chickens raised in new and reused litter through five campaigns was evaluated. Two hundred and fifty male chickens of the Ross 308 line were raised, half in new and half in reused litter. On a weekly basis, the morp [...] hometric indexes of bursa, thymus and spleen, and the relation bursa/spleen were recorded. The lymphoid organs were evaluated by histopathology and ELISA test was used to determine antibody titres for Gumboro, Newcastle, Infectious Bronchitis, Infectious Anemia, and Reovirus at the beginning and end of the study (49 days). Statistical difference was found (p

  13. Issues Raised in Relation to Radioactive Waste Management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nirex has undertaken various consultations with different stakeholders to identify their issues and concerns about radioactive waste management in general and specific aspects of Nirex's work. This paper will outline what dialogue techniques Nirex has undertaken and the issues and concerns that people have raised during the events. It will outline some of the work that Nirex is undertaking to address stakeholders' issues and concerns. Nirex has used a variety of dialogue techniques co-ordinated under the Nirex Involvement Programme to engage with stakeholders about the work we undertake. We are now trying to address the issues, concerns, scenarios and questions raised in our work programme. Key lessons that we have learned in undertaking the dialogues include: The importance of appropriate facilitation and organisation of meetings; The need for a clear purpose for meetings; Being flexible to the needs of the attendees and the issues they raise; Providing feedback to those who participate and following up issues. Through engaging with the public Nirex has learned that: Radioactive waste is not an everyday concern for people; The public can, will and want to engage with the issue of radioactive waste management. This includes engaging with the ethical debate. To facilitate this Nirex and others need to: Provide information in a neutral form outlining the pros and cons and including various people's opinions; Use proactive techniques to allow access and space for people ques to allow access and space for people to discuss the issues; Demonstrate how people's opinions have been taken into account. People understand the issues very differently to the way institutions understand them. There is a need for institutions to learn to understand public concerns and the ways in which the public understand issues, as well as for the public to understand the institutional positions better. We are using these insights to develop our future work in this area

  14. Some Aspects for Raising of Economic Competitiveness of Dairy Farming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandor Kalmar

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available In Hungary the last decade the number of cattle stock practically hasdiminished 50% because of the unfavourable economic conditions. This fact and the nearing joining to EU reflect the important for developing dairy farming in the knew circumstances. Theoretically the over production is favourable for the profitability, because of the decreasing of the specific stable cost. Unfortunately, this way is closedfor the Hungarian dairy farming because of the quota system. Raising of the milk quality is more possible and real way for raising of the economic competitiveness in the milk farming, especially in lower classes. In connection profit, price and cost it can be said, that the production cost of milk is lower at the private farms, but the milk price is higher at company farms every year. This means, that private farms are responsive to cost (more economical production, adaptation to environment, etc., and the companies are responsive to price (higher milk quality, technical level, etc.. The two opposite tendencies result in higher income at private farms. The production cost, of course, depends on a lot of factors (labour, technology,keeping, etc. but the feed cost plays decisive role. The feed cost variation is 2-3 times more than the average milk cost variation, so we can say, that environmentally adapted milk production ? throw the feed cost will play decisive role in milk economics. This fact especially will be true in the next quota system and guaranteed price! Purpose of the investigation was to examine some opportunities for raising of competitiveness of dairy farming.

  15. Tenneco raises $75 million for independents' E and P

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tenneco Gas's ventures group, Houston, has raised $75 million to invest in gas exploration and production by independent operations on the U.S. Gulf Coast. Institutional investors committed $50 million to the fund and a group of industrial investors $25 million. Tenneco the the fund will expand to accommodate additional investors through this year. This paper reports that the company's ventures group is evaluating acquisition and drilling opportunities with independents. Ventures group capital will be invested in independent exploratory, development, and producing properties

  16. Legal problems raised by the dissemination of information

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dissemination of nuclear information presents specific aspects at the legal level which are explained by historical, political and technical connotations. Certain international agreements notably the Euratom Treaty or the Treaty on the non-proliferation of nuclear weapons determine legal frameworks for the dissemination of information that specialized international organizations also try to facilitate. Agreements concluded in this field include characteristic provisions (duration, definition of knowledge, guarantee clauses, protection of secrecy, the importance of technical assistance R and D, ...) which give them a complex legal nature. These problems are now raised in particular in the nuclear safety sector. (Auth)

  17. Raising the Awareness of Development Progress in Distributed Agile Projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sultan Alyahya

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses a computer-based holistic approach to raise the awareness of development progress in distributed agile projects. The approach analyses how the technical activities (i.e. source code versioning, unit testing, acceptance testing, integration and releasing affects development progress and provides automatic mechanisms that help co-ordinate progress change with distributed team members. The approach has been evaluated through practical scenarios and has validated these through a research prototype. The result shows that the use of the holistic approach can provide better awareness of progress to team members than the traditional approach that relies on informal communications.

  18. Single mothers raising children with "male-positive" attitudes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doherty, William J; Craft, Shonda M

    2011-03-01

    Among the challenges facing single mothers, a particularly difficult one is how to help children develop "male-positive" attitudes in situations when the parents have broken up and children have no active relationship with the father. Despite a large academic literature on single mothering, there is strikingly little discussion on this topic. Using symbolic interactionism and family systems theory, we offer psychoeducational messages for single mothers who want to raise their children with male-positive attitudes. We also call for a new cultural conversation on an issue ignored for too long. PMID:21361924

  19. MRSA in The Netherlands: preventive measure raises a moral issue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gebhardt, D O E

    2003-08-01

    In the Netherlands the incidence of methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infections in hospitals is surprisingly low when compared to that of neighbouring countries. It is believed that this favourable condition is caused by stringent precautionary measures such as complete isolation of the patients. In one case the nurse taking care of such patients was herself MRSA positive. This condition changed and she became MRSA negative after removal (at her request) of her tonsils. The question is raised how far one should go to protect patients when the preventive measures taken may endanger the health of those who take care of them. PMID:12930851

  20. Raising the critical temperature of the oxide superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is shown that when the separation d between a pair of linear defects introduced into a two-dimensional superconductor is varied, periodic singularities in Tc of the form Tc ? (d - dn)-1 arise; these are the strongest of the known singularities. The smearing of the singularities associated with various cut off mechanisms is examined. These are (a) the finite transparency of the defects, (b) quasiparticle damping, and (c) finite temperatures. The introduction of plane defects perpendicular to the Cu-O layers is discussed as a possibility for significantly raising the Tc of the oxide superconductors. 13 refs., 3 figs

  1. Change in reductase activity is responsible for senescent decline in sex pheromone titre in the lightbrown apple moth, Epiphyas postvittana (Walker).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenwood, D R.; Foster, S P.

    1997-11-01

    Sex pheromone titre in the tortricid moth Epiphyas postvittana follows a pattern commonly observed in other species of moths: an increase to a peak some time after eclosion (2-3days), and then a slow decline as the female ages. Previous work has shown that this decline is not regulated by the pheromone biosynthesis activating neuropeptide PBAN. Using in vivo and in vitro enzyme assays, and fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) analyses of pheromone precursors in the gland, we have investigated this senescent decline in pheromone titre. The enzyme assays have shown that in older females the fatty acid reductase and fatty acid synthesis enzyme systems decrease in activity (relative to younger females), whereas other enzyme systems involved in pheromone biosynthesis, including limited beta-oxidation (2-carbon chain-shortening), (E)-11-desaturation, and acetylation (by an acetyl transferase) remain unchanged in their activity. Of the two enzymatic processes involved, the more important one contributing to the decline appears to be the fatty acid reductase. This is consistent with FAME analyses of pheromone glands in old and young females, which show little difference in levels of saturated FAME, but a significant increase in the level of the putative precursor, (E)-11-tetradecenoate, of the sex pheromone component (E)-11-tetradecenyl acetate. Thus, this decline in fatty acid reductase activity results in a buildup of the precursor as the female ages. The near ubiquity of fatty acid reductases in moth sex pheromone systems suggests that this may be a common mechanism for the senescent decline of sex pheromone titre in moths. PMID:12770481

  2. Effect of Corn or Sorghum in Combination with Soybean Meal or Mungbean as Feed Ingredients on the Serum Antibody Titres to NDV Vaccine in Broiler Chickens

    OpenAIRE

    Retno Murwani

    2008-01-01

    A research was carried out to study the effect of feed types in the diet based on corn or sorghum in combination with soybean meal or broken green beans on titre antibody to NDV vaccine of broilers. Three hundreds day old chicks broilers with initial body weight of 46.35 ± 4.66 grams were randomly assigned into four treatment groups i.e. T1 (diet based on corn and soybean meal), T2 (diet based on corn and green-bean), T3 (diet based on sorghum and soybean meal), T4 (diet based on sorghum and...

  3. School District Interests and Challenges Buying Chicken Raised without Antibiotics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathryn J. A. Colasanti

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The overuse of antibiotics in animal agriculture is recognized as contributing to human antibiotic resistance. With large meat purchases, particularly chicken, school districts have an opportunity to leverage their buying power to engage with this issue. However, few school food service professionals have done so and little is known about their awareness, attitudes, or experiences. This research surveyed 36 school districts affiliated with School Food FOCUS, which works on procurement reform with many of the largest school districts in the country. Questions were designed to solicit familiarity with the issue of antibiotic use in poultry production, attitudes, and extent of relevant action taken. Motivations and barriers for purchasing poultry raised with minimal, safe and sustainable use of antibiotics as well as fresh (raw poultry, which has been found to be an affordable way to menu antibiotic-free chicken, were assessed. Results revealed that this issue is important to respondents but difficult to address due to more immediate concerns. Barriers are experienced with purchasing both chicken raised without antibiotics and preparing fresh chicken. Product cost was perceived as a particularly high barrier. Responding to concerns of parents and the community was a top motivation.

  4. Civil engineering work to raise the level of Route Goward

    CERN Multimedia

    2013-01-01

    Civil engineering work to raise the level of Route Goward will take place during Long Shutdown 1. The work will begin on 18 March 2013 and is expected to last around 5 months.   Route Goward runs over the top of the PS tunnel and is the only access route to the inside of the ring. The layer of shielding backfill beneath this road is the thinnest anywhere on the PS ring. As the purpose of this shielding is to protect against the ionising radiation emitted by the accelerator when in operation, this road has been classified as a “supervised radiation area” according to radiation protection regulations. This classification was merely a temporary solution and, on the recommendation of the PS Radiation Working Group (PSRWG), the decision has been taken to raise the surface level permanently by around 2 m in order to increase the thickness of the shielding and thus lower the dose rate to that of a non-designated area. As the PS tunnel itself is unable to withstand the weight of t...

  5. [Raising of fur-bearing animals and animal welfare].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grauvogl, A

    1990-04-01

    The Ministry of Agriculture has drafted a prescription for raising animals for fur production. It contains high standards of knowledge about raising, feeding and care for those animals. Included is combined interest and negotiation between farmers and the organisations for the protection of animals. Some facts of ethology need clarification soon. Special: the social deprive of Minks; the bath taking possibility for the Mink; the requirement of space for the Mink; the collar plate on Chinchillas; the water requirement of swamp Beavers; the size of group and dense occupation of Foxes. All recommendations, directions and prescriptions up to now are patchwork. In certain cases must the advisor and the farmer be in position to recognize deficiencies in care and management and be able to stop it if necessary. In this connection they must observe behaviour of tail biting, skin tearing and consumption of new born, disturbances in mating behaviour as well as in upbringing. They must also look for stereotyped movements and the expressions of pain and anxiety. The Council of Europe gave also a draft of recommendations concerning fur animals and in this paper is also attached the importance to farmers diagnosis of disturbed behaviour. PMID:2351052

  6. An Effective Method for Information Security Awareness Raising Initiatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AliMaqousi

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Increasingly, all kinds of organizations and institutions are adopting the E-business model to conduct theiractivities and provide E-Services for their customers. In the process, whether they know it or not, thoseorganizations are also opening themselves up to the risk of information security breaches. Thereforeprotecting an organization’s ICT infrastructure, IT systems, and Data is a vital issue that is oftenunderestimated. Research has shown that one of the most significant threats to information security comesnot from external attack but rather from the system's users, because they are familiar with theinfrastructure and have access to its resources, but may be unaware of the risks. Moreover, using onlytechnological solutions to protect an organization’s assets is not enough; there is a need to consider thehuman factor by raising users’ security awareness. Our contribution to this problem is to propose anInformation Security Awareness Program that aims at raising and maintaining the level of users’ securityawareness. This paper puts forward a general model for an information security awareness program anddescribes how it could be incorporated into an organization’s website through the process of developmentlife cycle.

  7. Research Raising the Bilingual Teaching Level of Chinese in College

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Sun

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available China’s admission to the World Trade Organization (WTO, compounded by the rapid global economic growth – over the last decade – had created exuberant need for skilled manpower in China. This is evident by the demand for skilled talent in inter-disciplinary fields related to foreign language training. Mastering foreign language is considered a scarce resource in China as these specialist skilled persons will provide an important trans-culture bridging link with the Western World. The need for such niche skilled manpower had created challenges to Chinese universities to develop accelerated bilingual training programs to cater for such a demand. China’s Education Authorities recognize this requirement and had set priorities to administer the local universities to provide such bilingual courses. This article has discussed the professional course bilingual education necessity, analyzes concrete questions which Chinese universities bilingual education exists, and proposed the measures and the suggestions which raises the standard of bilingual education level.

  8. THE CHALLENGES OF RAISING REVENUES AND RESTRUCTURING SUBSIDIES IN MALAYSIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suresh Narayanan

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Malaysia has run deficit budgets in all but five years since 1970 but past deficits have been managed thanks to substantial oil revenues and high domestic savings. However, the slow growth or decline of several traditional sources of revenue and the rising subsidy bill since 2007 have given pause for reflection on the traditional approach to fiscal management. In this paper, it is argued that fiscal management must not only centre around reducing non-productive expenditures and wasteful leakages but must also confront the problem of reducing and restructuring subsidies, particularly to petrol and petroleum-related products. The global dip in petroleum process has fortuitously provided the respite needed for such an exercise and should not lull policy makersinto complacency. When the economy recovers from the currentdownswing, a solid revenue raising instrument such as the value-addedtax must be introduced in order to wean the economy away from thecurrent over reliance on petroleum-based taxes.

  9. It Takes a Library to Raise a Community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marjatta Asu

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Ontario Library Service-North is publishing a series of community development tools for public libraries, beginning with the Crime Prevention and Personal Safety for Your Library and Community tool kit that was e-published on the OLS-North website in 2004. This article introduces library boards and staff to community building principles and practices, and the language of community developers. The role of the library in community and capacity building is discussed, as was introduced at the Ontario Library Association Super Conference 2007 session and as described in the tool kit, It Takes a Library to Raise a Community: A Community Development Activities Tool Kit for Public Libraries. The tool kit is about to be released to libraries.

  10. Pharmacogenomics of high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol-raising therapies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aslibekyan, Stella; Straka, Robert J; Irvin, Marguerite R; Claas, Steven A; Arnett, Donna K

    2013-03-01

    High levels of HDL cholesterol (HDL-C) have traditionally been linked to lower incidence of cardiovascular disease, prompting the search for effective and safe HDL-C raising pharmaceutical agents. Although drugs such as niacin and fibrates represent established therapeutic approaches, HDL-C response to such therapies is variable and heritable, suggesting a role for pharmacogenomic determinants. Multiple genetic polymorphisms, located primarily in genes encoding lipoproteins, cholesteryl ester transfer protein, transporters and CYP450 proteins have been shown to associate with HDL-C drug response in vitro and in epidemiologic studies. However, few of the pharmacogenomic findings have been independently validated, precluding the development of clinical tools that can be used to predict HDL-C response and leaving the goal of personalized medicine to future efforts. PMID:23469915

  11. Raise the management level of EPC contracting in six aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear power construction develops rapidly today and EPC contracting for nuclear power projects, as a strategic decision of CNNC, has become a tendency. The target of engineering management can be smoothly realized or achieved by doing a good job in the following six aspects: effective communication between divisions of project department, high-degree consistency of managerial concepts for project management staff, clear objective for different divisions in the project department, presence of rules to be observed in construction management work, avoidance of human-initiated errors in the project, and clear distinction of management control concept. It is hoped that, through exchange and practice, management procedures and consciousness for EPC contracting can be further standardized and thus the level of management for EPC contracting will be raised finally. (authors)

  12. [Louis Braille (1809-1852)--inventor of raised dots system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maciejewicz, Piotr; Kopacz, Dorota

    2005-01-01

    Louis Braille was born on January 4th 1809 in Coupvray, France. An injury to his eye at the age of three, resulted in total loss of vision. In 1819 he entered the Institute for Blind Youth in Paris. There he would live, study, and later teach. When he was fifteen, he developed system of reading and writing by means of raised dots, which is known today as Braille. The basis of the Braille system is known as a Braille cell. The cell is comprised of six dots numbered in a specific order. Each dot or combination of dots represents a letter of the alphabet. This Braille system has established itself internationally and formed the basic Braille for all languages. PMID:16619834

  13. Does Stock Market Development Raise Economic Growth? Evidence from Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abu Nurudeen

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates whether stock market development raises economic growthin Nigeria, by employing the error correction approach. The econometric results indicate thatstock market development (market capitalization-GDP ratio increases economic growth.The recommendations therein include: removal of impediments to stock market developmentwhich include tax, legal, and regulatory barriers; development of the nation’s infrastructureto create an enabling environment for where business can strive; employment of policies thatwill increase the productivity and efficiency of firms as well encourage them to access capitalon the stock market; enhancement of the capacity of the Nigeria Security and ExchangeCommission to facilitate the growth of the stock market, restore the confidence of stockmarket participants and safeguard the interest of shareholders by checking sharp practicesof market operators (particularly speculators.

  14. Problems raised by radium collection and final processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radium, in its different physico-chemical states and in source form, whether sealed or not, has been the first radionuclide to be used by industry and medicine. Progressively given up and replaced by other radionuclides providing a more attractive efficiency/safety ratio, waste of radium and compounds are currently often stored in totally unsuitable places. Considering the 1622 years radioactive half-life of radium, the radiological hazards bound to that natural radionuclide are important enough to start urgently the collection of this type of waste by a specialized organism. The problems raised by radium collection and final processing, including the on site conditioning and the conveying to the selected storage places, are the subject of the present paper. (author)

  15. A novel method for the measurement of hepatitis C virus infectious titres using the IncuCyte ZOOM and its application to antiviral screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Hazel; Bartlett, Christopher; Ross-Thriepland, Douglas; Shaw, Joseph; Griffin, Stephen; Harris, Mark

    2015-01-01

    Summary Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a significant human pathogen infecting 3% of the world population. An infectious molecular clone capable of replicating and releasing infectious virions in cell culture has only been available since 2005, leaving a significant knowledge gap concerning post-RNA replication events such as particle assembly, trafficking and release. Thus, a fast, efficient and accurate method of measuring infectious viral titres is highly desirable. Current methods rely upon manual counting of infected cell foci and so are both labour-intensive and susceptible to human error. Here, we report a novel protocol, which utilises the IncuCyte ZOOM instrument and related software to accurately count infected cells and extrapolation of this data to produce an infectious titre, reported as infectious units per millilitre (IU/mL). This method reduces cost, time and error in experiments. We also demonstrate that this approach is amenable to high-throughput compound screening, thereby expediting the identification of novel antivirals. PMID:25796989

  16. A novel method for the measurement of hepatitis C virus infectious titres using the IncuCyte ZOOM and its application to antiviral screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Hazel; Bartlett, Christopher; Ross-Thriepland, Douglas; Shaw, Joseph; Griffin, Stephen; Harris, Mark

    2015-06-15

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a significant human pathogen infecting 3% of the world population. An infectious molecular clone capable of replicating and releasing infectious virions in cell culture has only been available since 2005, leaving a significant knowledge gap concerning post-RNA replication events such as particle assembly, trafficking and release. Thus, a fast, efficient and accurate method of measuring infectious viral titres is highly desirable. Current methods rely upon manual counting of infected cell foci and so are both labour-intensive and susceptible to human error. Here, we report a novel protocol, which utilises the IncuCyte ZOOM instrument and related software to accurately count infected cells and extrapolation of this data to produce an infectious titre, reported as infectious units per millilitre (IU/mL). This method reduces cost, time and error in experiments. We also demonstrate that this approach is amenable to high-throughput compound screening, thereby expediting the identification of novel antivirals. PMID:25796989

  17. 7 CFR 8.9 - Use in 4-H fund raising.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Use in 4-H fund raising. 8.9 Section 8.9 Agriculture Office...4-H CLUB NAME AND EMBLEM § 8.9 Use in 4-H fund raising. (a) Fund-raising programs using the 4-H Name or Emblem...

  18. 29 CFR 780.124 - Raising of fur-bearing animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 false Raising of fur-bearing animals. 780.124 Section 780.124 Labor...Raising of Livestock, Bees, Fur-Bearing Animals, Or Poultry § 780.124 Raising of fur-bearing animals. (a) The term “fur-bearing...

  19. Raised plasma aldosterone and natriuretic peptides in atrial fibrillation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dixen, U; Ravn, L

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND AIMS: During atrial fibrillation (AF), the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) may be activated. In this study, our aim was to evaluate at a long-term follow-up visit the levels of plasma aldosterone and natriuretic peptides as markers of neurohormonal remodeling in patients with earlier, documented AF in relation to present heart rhythm, clinical data, and the left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF). We hypothesized that increased levels of aldosterone and natriuretic peptides were significantly associated with present AF as markers of RAAS activation during the arrhythmia. METHODS: We studied 158 patients with earlier ECG-documented AF followed by restored sinus rhythm (SR) attending a follow-up visit 2.6 years (mean) after primary inclusion. RESULTS: At follow-up, 93 patients had SR. Heart rhythm at follow-up visit (SR/AF), plasma aldosterone, plasma N-terminal pro Brain Natriuretic Peptide (Nt-proBNP), plasma N-terminal pro Atrial Natriuretic Peptide (Nt-proANP), LVEF, medication,and clinical characteristics were recorded. Standard linear multiple regression analysis including age, sex, weight, hypertension, congestive heart failure, ischemic heart disease, present AF at follow-up, total duration of AF disease, ongoing medication, and the LVEF as explanatory variables showed that only ongoing treatment with diuretics was significantly associated (likelihood ratio test, p = 0.0057) with a raised log-transformed plasma aldosterone, although present AF at follow-up was related to a high aldosterone level (p = 0.09). For the natriuretic peptides, present AF at follow-up (p < 0.0001), age (p < 0.0001), female gender (p = 0.0047), ischemic heart disease (p = 0.0154), and ongoing treatment with sotalol (p = 0.0003) were all independently associated with high log-transformed plasma Nt-proANP. Likewise, present AF at follow-up (p = 0.0008) as well as age (p < 0.0001) were associated with high log-transformed plasma Nt-proBNP. CONCLUSIONS: In patients with earlier AF, AF at long-term follow-upvisit was independently associated with raised levels of Nt-proANP and Nt-proBNP and to some extent with plasma aldosterone indicating neurohormonal activation during arrhythmia. Copyright 2007 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  20. Raised plasma aldosterone and natriuretic peptides in atrial fibrillation.

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dixen, U; Ravn, L

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND AIMS: During atrial fibrillation (AF), the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) may be activated. In this study, our aim was to evaluate at a long-term follow-up visit the levels of plasma aldosterone and natriuretic peptides as markers of neurohormonal remodeling in patients with earlier, documented AF in relation to present heart rhythm, clinical data, and the left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF). We hypothesized that increased levels of aldosterone and natriuretic peptides were significantly associated with present AF as markers of RAAS activation during the arrhythmia. METHODS: We studied 158 patients with earlier ECG-documented AF followed by restored sinus rhythm (SR) attending a follow-up visit 2.6 years (mean) after primary inclusion. RESULTS: At follow-up, 93 patients had SR. Heart rhythm at follow-up visit (SR/AF), plasma aldosterone, plasma N-terminal pro Brain Natriuretic Peptide (Nt-proBNP), plasma N-terminal pro Atrial Natriuretic Peptide (Nt-proANP), LVEF, medication, and clinical characteristics were recorded. Standard linear multiple regression analysis including age, sex, weight, hypertension, congestive heart failure, ischemic heart disease, present AF at follow-up, total duration of AF disease, ongoing medication, and the LVEF as explanatory variables showed that only ongoing treatment with diuretics was significantly associated (likelihood ratio test, p = 0.0057) with a raised log-transformed plasma aldosterone, although present AF at follow-up was related to a high aldosterone level (p = 0.09). For the natriuretic peptides, present AF at follow-up (p < 0.0001), age (p < 0.0001), female gender (p = 0.0047), ischemic heart disease (p = 0.0154), and ongoing treatment with sotalol (p = 0.0003) were all independently associated with high log-transformed plasma Nt-proANP. Likewise, present AF at follow-up (p = 0.0008) as well as age (p < 0.0001) were associated with high log-transformed plasma Nt-proBNP. CONCLUSIONS: In patients with earlier AF, AF at long-term follow-up visit was independently associated with raised levels of Nt-proANP and Nt-proBNP and to some extent with plasma aldosterone indicating neurohormonal activation during arrhythmia. Copyright 2007 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  1. Raised Vaginal Fluid Fibronectin Level Indicates Premature Rupture of Membrane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amrita Bhowmik

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Premature rupture of membrane (PROM is one of the common complications of pregnancy that has major impact on fetal and neonatal outcome. It is the commonest clinical event where a normal pregnancy becomes suddenly a high-risk one for mother and fetus or neonate. Objective: The study was undertaken to investigate whether raised fibronectin level in vaginal fluid may indicate premature rupture of membrane. Materials and Methods: This cross sectional study was conducted in the department of Obstetrics and Gynecology in Sir Salimullah Medical College & Mitford Hospital, Dhaka during the period of January 2006 to December 2007. A total of 114 pregnant women with gestational age 28th week up to 40th week were included. Sixty were PROM (Group I and 54 were non-PROM (Group II subjects. Fibronectin in vaginal fluid was measured by an immunochemical reaction by nephelometer. Statistical analysis was done by SPSS version 10.0. Results: The PROM patients had significantly higher concentration of fibronectin (225.77 ± 115.18 ng/mL compared to that in non-PROM subjects (8.04 ± 16.17 ng/mL (p < 0.001. Conclusion: It can be concluded that in cases of unequivocal rupture or intactness of the membranes, the result of the fibronectin test corresponds well with the clinical situation. So fibronectin is a sensitive test for detection of amniotic fluid in the vagina.

  2. Raising antibodies against circulating foetal cells from maternal peripheral blood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    SØrensen, Morten Dræby; Melchjorsen, Connie Jenning

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Cells of foetal origin circulating in the maternal peripheral bloodstream present a unique source for non-invasive prenatal diagnostics. The aims of this study were to raise antibodies against identified circulating foetal cells from the maternal blood, test the properties of these antibodies and to determine the foetal cell type recognised by the antibodies. METHOD: Cells from a male foetus were identified in a maternal blood sample by FISH analysis of the X- and Y- chromosomes. The identified cells were subjected to phage display selection using a novel single cell selection strategy. Selected antibodies were tested by immunocytochemistry on foetal and adult tissue arrays, an endothelial cell line, and peripheral blood mononuclear cells. RESULTS: Three identified foetal cells subjected to antibody selection, yielded a total of 12 antibodies. Three antibodies gave distinct staining patterns on tissue arrays, and endothelial cells. One antibody, SF1.3, shows specific staining of a subpopulation of peripheral blood mononuclear cells, including a fraction of CD34 positive cells. CONCLUSION: These findings indicate that the identified foetal cells could have been progenitor cells of haematopoietic origin. The antibody SF1.3 could be a potential tool toward non-invasive prenatal diagnostics.

  3. Wilson disease in septuagenarian siblings: Raising the bar for diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ala, Aftab; Borjigin, Jimo; Rochwarger, Arnold; Schilsky, Michael

    2005-03-01

    Wilson Disease (WD) usually presents in the first decades of life, although rare patients have a later presentation. We report the clinical features, diagnostic evaluation, and outcome with treatment of two septuagenarian siblings evaluated as part of a research trial for treatment of neurological WD. The index case was a 72-year-old woman who suffered progressive neurological disability, then developed sub-fulminant liver failure. Her sibling was a 70-year-old man with minimal neurological symptoms and a mild depressive disorder. His liver biopsy revealed only steatosis and minimal fibrosis and an elevated hepatic copper content (671 mug/g dry weight liver). Molecular studies demonstrated compound heterozygosity for disease specific ATP7B mutations E1064A and H1069Q in both patients. Both individuals were treated with trientine and Zn followed by Zn maintenance therapy. Over the last 5 years, the clinical course stabilized and improved, although the index case recently died from bronchopneumonia. In conclusion, advanced age and different clinical presentations of these two subjects with identical ATP7B mutations raises the question of the degree of penetrance for these and other ATP7B mutations. Environmental and extragenic factors are pivotal determinants of disease phenotype. We suggest that WD must be considered at all ages in patients with hepatic disease, neurological disease, or psychiatric symptoms. PMID:15723329

  4. Toward raising the higher level of radiological nursing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The role and purpose of nursing in the radiological field are discussed with essentials of radiological nursing for raising its higher level and needed fundamental education. The discussion is from the thought that, at Fukushima Nuclear Power Plant Accident (Mar. 2011), general medical staff including nurses are rather insufficient of radiological knowledge like the exposure, radiation effect and risk. In the medical radiological field, nurses are expected to play roles of arranging the circumstance for patient's ease like explanation about health effect/risk, appropriate nursing of them after radiological diagnosis, radiation protection of nurses themselves, and of environment. At such an emergency as the Accident, care for the acutely exposed victims, their decontamination and responding to patient's concern are necessary. At the later phase, also needed are nursing of victims undergoing health management done by authorities and of radiological workers concerned as well as the third item above. Therefore, fundamentals of radiological knowledge such as physics, exposure, health effects, protection, contamination, legal rules and risk communication are required in the education of nurses. Otherwise, this education can be conducted as a part of safety security and physical assessment. The Accident also gives us the importance of radiological risk communication with its victims. (T.T.)

  5. Amino acid geochronology of raised beaches in south west Britain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowen, D. Q.; Sykes, G. A.; Reeves (nee Henry), Alayne; Miller, G. H.; Andrews, J. T.; Brew, J. S.; Hare, P. E.

    Based on (1) the epimerization of L:isoleucine to D:alloisoleucine ( {D}/{L} ratios) in Patella vulgata, Littorina littorea, L. littoralis, L. saxatilis, Littorina species and Nucella lapillus from raised beaches in south west Britain, (2) statistical analysis of the {D}/{L} ratios, and (3) lithostratigraphic and geomorphic evaluation, three ( {D}/{L}) Stages are proposed. The {D}/{L} ratios for all the species measured are converted to a Patella vulgata standard. The three ( {D}/{L}) Stages are: (1) The Minchin Hole ( {D}/{L}) Stage, {D}/{L} ratios 0.175 ± 0.014, defined at a stratotype in Minchin Hole Cave, Gower, Wales. (2) A provisionally defined, but as yet, unamed ( {D}/{L}) Stage, because of the current unavailability of a suitable stratotype, with {D}/{L} ratios of 0.135 ± 0.014 (3) The Pennard ( {D}/{L}) Stage, {D}/{L} ratios 0.105 ± 0.016, defined at a stratotype in Minchin Hole Cave, Gower, Wales. Two geochronological models of the three high sea-level events representing the {D}/{L} Stages are constrained by uranium-series age determinations on stalagmite interbedded with marine beds in Minchin Hole and Bacon Hole Caves, Gower, Wales. A potential 'fixed point' in model evaluation is an age determination which is equivalent to Oxygen Isotope Sub-stage 5e (122 ka). The two models are:

  6. Differences in female-male mortality after high-titre measles vaccine and association with subsequent vaccination with diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis and inactivated poliovirus : reanalysis of West African studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aaby, Peter; Jensen, Henrik

    2003-01-01

    Females given high-titre measles vaccine (HTMV) have high mortality; diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis (DTP) vaccination might be associated with increased female mortality. We aimed to assess whether DTP or inactivated poliovirus (IPV) administered after HTMV was associated with increased female-male mortality ratio.

  7. Raise Management Standards of Property Tax on Transnational Corporations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying-hui CUI

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available
    As China joined WTO, more and more foreign multinational companies will enter China. They run enterprises within the territory of China. This will inevitably play an active role in promoting the economic construction of China. But we should pay attention to some foreign multinational companies in China that often reduce the incomes of Chinese branch companies by utilizing transfer prices. Thus they achieve the goal of evading payment of duty. These make the tax revenue of Chinese Government fall sharply. So it is very important to raise management level of property tax to the multinational companies. This text explains the loss caused by the foreign businessmen using improper means to transfer prices. They import raw materials at a high price and export the products at a low price. Also the corresponding measures are made out in this paper.
    Key words: Multinational companies, Import at a high price and export at a low price, Current capital, Transfer prices
    Résumé: Avec l’adhésion de la Chine à l’OMC, de plus en plus nombreux sont les entreprises transnationales qui s’investiraient en Chine. Cela poussera inévitablement la construction économique de la Chine. Néanmoins, nons devons noter que, actuellement, des entreprises étrangères en Chine diminuent les profits des filiales chinoise en transférant les prix et atteint ainsi leur but d’éviter la taxe. De cet effet, les recettes fiscales de la Chine diminuent considérablement. Donc, il est très important d’améliorer le viveau de gestion fiscale à l’égard des entreprises transnationales. Cet article expose d’abord le déficit provoqué par les actions malhonnêtes de commerçants étrangers qui transfèrent les prix avec des moyens illégitimes pour acheter les ressources productives à haut prix et vendre les produits à bas prix, et propose ensuite des contre-mesures.
    Mots-Clés: entreprise transnationale, acheter cher et vendre moins cher, fonds liquides

  8. Surveys and Studies on Tranditional Pig Raising in Guangxi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huang Minrui

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Main studies were conducted on tranditonal pig raising( TPR fed with local feeds effected on reproductivities of sows and productivities of fattening hogs with the motheds of on-the -spot surveys,tests and consulting literatures for backgrounds of agriculture,livestock industry,feed resources and present situations of pig production. Through surveyed on reproductivities of 320 sows and on liveweight gains and feed consumed of 3109 hogs sold, it was shown that on an average,a live litter size of a sow was 10.57 heads with initial weight of 8.45 kg/litter when born and was 9.83 heads with the weight of 110.8 kg /litter when weaned at 57.50 days old. Delivery interval was 180-205 days. Duration of reproduction of the sows was 5-8 years. With TPR,it could save 20-30 percent concentrate stuff but time for slaughtering of hogs was extended to 2-5 months;it could save 50-60 percent concentrate with the sows. By tested on 41 fattening hogs,the experiment groups basically lived on green forages with a diet containing 12.15-18.05 percent crude fiber (CF per kg dry matter (DM gained 495g/head per day and 1.79 kg concentrate,1.41 kg roughage and 11.95 kg green forages should be consumed to gain one kg liveweight,which had 10.84 Mcal digestable energy (DE and 480 g crude protein (CP. On the basis of the investigation, the advantages and disadvantages of TPR were pointed out and some opions and suggestions on the improvement of TPR were put forward.

  9. Raising highly desirable lipoprotein versus lowering deleterious lipoprotein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Bernard My; Kumana, Cyrus R

    2010-03-01

    Evaluation of: Taylor AJ, Villines TC, Stanek EJ et al. Extended-release niacin or ezetimibe and carotid intima-media thickness. N. Engl. J. Med. 361(22), 2113-2122 (2009). Epidemiological evidence suggests that elevated low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and reduced high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) are both factors causing coronary heart disease. These authors compared extended-release niacin, which raises HDL-C, with ezetimibe, which lowers LDL-C, in a study named Arterial Biology for the Investigation of the Treatment Effects of Reducing Cholesterol 6-HDL and LDL Treatment Strategies (ARBITER 6-HALTS). The study was terminated early and only 208 patients were included in the analysis. Ezetimibe decreased LDL-C by 19.2%, to 66 mg/dl (1.7 mmol/l), whereas niacin increased HDL-C by 18.4%. Ezetimibe did not reduce carotid intima-media thickness, whereas niacin decreased it significantly. Moreover, major adverse cardiovascular events occurred in 5% of the ezetimibe group but only 1% of the niacin group (p = 0.04). The study suggests that niacin may be more effective than ezetimibe as an adjunct to statin in regressing atherosclerosis and in preventing cardiovascular events. This small study of short duration reported a very large treatment effect, so the findings need to be confirmed in a larger longer trial. Nevertheless, it provides the evidence that we now have an additional class of drugs besides statins that can reduce atherosclerosis and cardiovascular events. PMID:22111565

  10. Haematopoietic depletion in vaccine-induced neonatal pancytopenia depends on both the titre and specificity of alloantibody and levels of MHC I expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Charlotte R; MacHugh, Niall D; Connelley, Timothy K; Degnan, Kathryn; Morrison, W Ivan

    2015-07-01

    Bovine Neonatal Pancytopenia (BNP) is a disease of calves characterised by haematopoietic depletion, mediated by ingestion of alloantibodies in colostrum. It has been linked epidemiologically to vaccination of the dams of affected calves with a particular vaccine (Pregsure) containing a novel adjuvant. Evidence suggests that BNP-alloantibodies are directed against MHC I molecules, induced by contaminant bovine cellular material from Madin-Darby Bovine Kidney (MDBK) cells used in the vaccine's production. We aimed to investigate the specificity of BNP-alloantibody for bovine MHC I alleles, particularly those expressed by MDBK cells, and whether depletion of particular cell types is due to differential MHC I expression levels. A complement-mediated cytotoxicity assay was used to assess functional serum alloantibody titres in BNP-dams, Pregsure-vaccinated dams with healthy calves, cows vaccinated with an alternative product and unvaccinated controls. Alloantibody specificity was investigated using transfected mouse lines expressing the individual MHC I alleles identified from MDBK cells and MHC I-defined bovine leukocyte lines. All BNP-dams and 50% of Pregsure-vaccinated cows were shown to have MDBK-MHC I specific alloantibodies, which cross-reacted to varying degrees with other MHC I genotypes. MHC I expression levels on different blood cell types, assessed by flow cytometry, were found to correlate with levels of alloantibody-mediated damage in vitro and in vivo. Alloantibody-killed bone marrow cells were shown to express higher levels of MHC I than undamaged cells. The results provide evidence that MHC I-specific alloantibodies play a dominant role in the pathogenesis of BNP. Haematopoietic depletion was shown to be dependent on the titre and specificity of alloantibody produced by individual cows and the density of surface MHC I expression by different cell types. Collectively, the results support the hypothesis that MHC I molecules originating from MDBK cells used in vaccine production, coupled with a powerful adjuvant, are responsible for the generation of pathogenic alloantibodies. PMID:26055292

  11. Chandra's Find of Lonely Halo Raises Questions About Dark Matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-10-01

    Dark matter continues to confound astronomers, as NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory demonstrated with the detection of an extensive envelope of dark matter around an isolated elliptical galaxy. This discovery conflicts with optical data that suggest a dearth of dark matter around similar galaxies, and raises questions about how galaxies acquire and keep such dark matter halos. The observed galaxy, known as NGC 4555, is unusual in that it is a fairly large, elliptical galaxy that is not part of a group or cluster of galaxies. In a paper to be published in the November 1, 2004 issue of the Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Ewan O'Sullivan of the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics in Cambridge, MA and Trevor Ponman of the University of Birmingham, United Kingdom, use the Chandra data to show that the galaxy is embedded in a cloud of 10-million-degree-Celsius gas. X-ray/Optical Composite of NGC 4555 X-ray/Optical Composite of NGC 4555 This hot gas cloud has a diameter of about 400,000 light years, about twice that of the visible galaxy. An enormous envelope, or halo, of dark matter is needed to confine the hot cloud to the galaxy. The total mass of the dark matter halo is about ten times the combined mass of the stars in the galaxy, and 300 times the mass of the hot gas cloud. A growing body of evidence indicates that dark matter - which interacts with itself and "normal" matter only through gravity - is the dominant form of matter in the universe. According to the popular "cold dark matter" theory, dark matter consists of mysterious particles left over from the dense early universe that were moving slowly when galaxies and galaxy clusters began to form. "The observed properties of NGC 4555 confirm that elliptical galaxies can posses dark matter halos of their own, regardless of their environment," said O'Sullivan. "This raises an important question: what determines whether elliptical galaxies have dark matter halos?" DSS Optical Image of NGC 4555 DSS Optical Image of NGC 4555 Most large elliptical galaxies are found in groups and clusters of galaxies, and are likely the product of the merger of two spiral galaxies. In such an environment, the dark matter halos can be stripped away by gravitational tidal force and added to other galaxies or the group as a whole. Therefore, it is difficult to determine how much dark matter the original galaxies had, and how much they have lost to the group as a whole through interactions with their environment. The importance of the issue of the intrinsic amount of dark matter associated with an elliptical galaxy has recently increased owing to a report by an international team of astronomers led by Aaron Romanowsky of the University of Nottingham, United Kingdom. This team found little, if any evidence of dark matter in three relatively nearby elliptical galaxies. Two of these were in loose galaxy groups, and one was isolated. Their result, based on optical data from the 4.2 meter William Herschel Telescope on the Spanish island of La Palma, is in clear conflict with the X-ray data on NGC 4555. The optical technique used to search for dark matter in the nearby elliptical galaxies could not be applied to NGC 4555 because it is more than 3 times as far away from Earth. 2MASS Infrared Image of NGC 4555 2MASS Infrared Image of NGC 4555 Either the galaxies observed by Romanowsky and colleagues have lost their dark matter halos through earlier interactions with other galaxies, or their dark matter halos are much more extended, or they formed without dark matter halos. The first option is possible for the galaxies in groups, but very unlikely for the isolated galaxy. The second and third options are still open, but would require a modification - perhaps a major modification - of the cold dark matter theory of galaxy formation. "This is clearly a question which deserves further consideration," said O'Sullivan. "It seems likely that much more theoretical and observational work on elliptical galaxies will be required befor

  12. On the control/raising ambiguity with aspectual verbs : a structural account

    OpenAIRE

    Fukuda, Shin

    2007-01-01

    In what follows, I first briefly review Perlmutter (1968, 1970), in which it is argued that aspectual verbs are ambiguous between control and raising. I suggest that while the argument for the raising analysis is solid, the arguments supporting the control analysis of aspectual verbs are less so. As an alternative hypothesis to consider, I introduce the structural ambiguity hypothesis. In Section 3, I review three recent analyses of control and raising. Although there are important difference...

  13. Irreligious Socialization? The Adult Religious Preferences of Individuals Raised with No Religion

    OpenAIRE

    Merino, Stephen M.

    2012-01-01

    Recent birth cohorts of Americans are more likely than previous cohorts to be raised outside of a religious tradition. In addition, those raised with no religion are increasingly likely to have no religious preference as adults. Despite their growing numbers, individuals raised with no religion have received little attention from scholars. The adult religious preferences of these individuals provide researchers with a unique opportunity to test theories of religion and social change. Using Ge...

  14. Raising public awareness of nuclear science in action

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Department of Training and Consulting was created at the Soltan Institute for Nuclear Studies about 7 years ago. Its main goal consists in dissemination of knowledge of nuclear physics and its applications with special emphasis on the use of radiation in everyday life, its biological effects and the risks connected with the use of nuclear radiation. The second important goal is to counteract social radiophobia. Last but not least, is presentation of the scientific and technological achievements of the Institute. The main target groups are secondary-school teachers and their pupils who in spite of various obstacles in organisation of travels to Otwierk, are coming in mass. During last 4 years we accepted more than 20,000 visitors from all over Poland. In addition to lectures themselves and lectures with experimental demonstrations two permanent exhibitions are displayed permanently. One is called 'Nuclear Wastes: Problems, Solutions', the other one is displaying 1:10 model of nuclear power plant (VVER-440-type), both extremely useful in discussing the problems of nuclear wastes, and organisation and use of the nuclear power plants. Very specific place in the Department is quite unique Laboratory of Atomic and Nuclear Physics, dedicated to secondary schools' students although it is also used by university students and in teachers' trainings. Number of basic experiments from nuclear physics can be carried out by students, so the very basis of atomic and nucleats, so the very basis of atomic and nuclear physics can be learnt on experimental basis. The experimental park can also be used in any professional courses on e.g. radiation protection. The need of having this type of units at the otherwise research institute is clearly seen by the systematically growing number of visitors, and their demands for educational material. One can also see some direct results: the groups who visited our centre were winning in all-Poland conquest for a project from radioactivity (organised on 100th Anniversary of Nobel Prize for Maria Skodowska-Curie), the schools - after visiting us - try to organise their own minisymposia on the radioactivity, the visitors seem to receive proper message about the real risk connected with nuclear radiation. The latter is judged by the fact that very seldom we encounter typical symptoms of radio phobia after the visit to our Department. We are strongly convinced that our work will result in an increased interest of students in physics, and may regain the popularity of nuclear physics among the students. This is necessary if the nuclear energy is going to be developed and used safely in the country. We also believe that similar educational centres, if wherever absent, should be organised in other nuclear centres in Europe and all of them should form a network in which new didactical methods would be worked out and the experience could be easily evaluated and exchanged between the network's partners. The paper presents motivation, present status, methodology and results of our more than 5-years experience in raising public awareness of nuclear problems in various social groups. (author)

  15. The "Geoparks" as a way to raise geoconservation in Kazakhstan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fishman, Ilya; Kazakova, Julia; Abdov, Nurlan

    2013-04-01

    Kazakhstan is one of the nine largest countries of the world and not only has significant mineral resources but rich geological heritage. However, to date geology is considered only as a way to search for minerals due to the established traditions. Faced with a geologist, we usually ask: "What are you looking for?". But the man with the hammer must answer the more important question - about the future of the Planet and Humanity. But it is necessary to save and to study the stone chronicle page for this. Only history of the Earth, recorded in the annals of rock sheets, gives a scientific answer on the fate of Planet and Mankind, and allows realistically assess the risk of disasters, floods, global warming, etc. During 20 years we are trying to give a push to protection and use of geological heritage of Kazakhstan. In our country this new direction gets accustomed with large labor. The spread of the world experience on geoconservation, the databases created of the geological heritage of Kazakhstan, numerous performances in the scientific press and the media has not lead to real steps to preserve and use geodiversity in our country. Today we are trying to raise the idea of geoconservation in Kazakhstan based on Geoparks. A project "Geological study of the geoparks development in Kazakhstan" is developed. 12 representative areas were selected on a background of the database that includes 500 sites of geological heritage, embracing a large variety of geological processes in all regions of Kazakhstan. On October 31st, 2012 in Astana the "Kazakh Geographical Society" held an international conference including "Geoparks" section. At the conference reports of all the regions of Kazakhstan representatives were presented, as well as European countries with extensive experience in geoconservation and geoparks creation (Portugal, Bulgaria, Turkey). The conference was supported by UNESCO. Album "Millions of years before the Silk Road", which represents the future Kazakhstan Geoparks, was published. Geoparks of Kazakhstan extremely visually represent global geological processes. Ustuyrt plateau is a part of a tectonic system Caspian-Aral-Ustyurt. The study of the plateau as part of a tectonic megasystem Caspian-Aral Ustyurt allows us to understand the nature of largest intercontinental hollow of the world (the "country-crater" by Alexander von Humboldt). As a result, the Caspian Sea is considered today as a "window into the mantle". Paleovolcanic area Shuyldak is relict of Devonian Ural Ocean World standard of volcanic structures of ancient mid-ocean type. It is an illustrative base of plate tectonics. At the Kokshetau National Park the world's largest diamond deposit is explored. 2.5 billion carats is more than in all the deposits in Yakutia. This technical microdiamonds that are not mined. The field is interesting not only for geologists, but for mass tourism too. National Park Burabaj linked to the ancient granite-metamorphic dome. For nearly a billion years (from Proterozoic to Mesozoic) metamorphic complexes and granite melts had been formed which compose the foundation of modern scenic lake and forest landscape.

  16. Factors Associated with the Empowerment of Japanese Families Raising a Child with Developmental Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakimizu, Rie; Fujioka, Hiroshi; Yoneyama, Akira; Iejima, Atsushi; Miyamoto, Shinya

    2011-01-01

    We identified factors associated with the empowerment of Japanese families using the Family Empowerment Scale (FES) to contribute to the improvement of empowerment in Japanese families raising a child with developmental disorders (DDs). The study was conducted in 350 caregivers who raised children aged 4-18 years with DDs in urban and suburban…

  17. Chinese Food Safety: A Case Study of Pig-Raising Industry

    OpenAIRE

    He, Ge; Chen, Minghong

    2012-01-01

    This paper introduces the Shuanghui scandal, which is affected Chinese food safety to some extend. On that base, the causes of the food safety problems in pig-raising industry in China are explained. Finally, some suggestion was presented to improve the safety in china.
    Keywords: Food safety; Pig-raising industry; Chinese agricultural

  18. Recession Tempers the Usual Optimism in College Fund-Raising Offices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masterson, Kathryn

    2009-01-01

    After years of growth and predictions that fund raising for higher education would escape the brunt of the economic crash, the recession has started to affect colleges' efforts to raise money, according to a survey by "The Chronicle" and Moody's Investors Service. Predictions are that 2009 may be an even tougher year for fund raisers, with…

  19. Enhancing the Undergraduate Student Experience via Fund-Raising Partnerships: An Action Research Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorley, Wendy; Marjoribanks, Bruce; Kranz, Julian

    2014-01-01

    This project was developed from practitioner action research and considers the impact of integrating fund-raising activities into the formal curriculum with a target group of undergraduate students. The main aim of this project was to evaluate the impact of developing fund-raising activities as an integral aspect at both module and programme…

  20. Foundation Boards and Fund-Raising Teams: A Win for Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worth, Michael J.

    2011-01-01

    Why is the foundation board's involvement in fund raising important? Because successful fund raising requires a team effort, and volunteer leaders are essential members of the team. Board members should set the pace through their own giving, and they should be actively engaged in the identification, cultivation, and solicitation of others. The…

  1. Donor Relations as Public Relations: Toward a Philosophy of Fund-Raising.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wedgeworth, Robert

    2000-01-01

    Presents a rationale for understanding the broader implications of fund-raising in academic libraries, and for organizing it as an integral component of public relations activities. Discusses fund-raising goals; potential donors, including faculty and employees; infringement on the autonomy of institutions through gifts; and experiences within the…

  2. The Critical Role of Stewardship in Fund Raising: The Coaches vs. Cancer Campaign.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worley, Debra A.; Little, Jennifer K.

    2002-01-01

    Examines the critical role of stewardship in the process of fund raising. Uses the Coaches vs. Cancer campaign to illustrate the limitations of the public relations ROPE (research, objectives, planning, and evaluation) model in explaining fund raising success, and supports K.S. Kelly's contention that addition of a fifth step to the model, the…

  3. Utilizing Public Relations Theory to Conceptualize and Test Models of Fund Raising.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Kathleen S.

    1995-01-01

    Finds that four models of fund raising, conceptualized from public relations theory, describe the typical ways fund raising is practiced. Shows that press agentry is predominately practiced today, although fund raisers tend to move toward the two-way symmetrical model when conducting major gifts programs as compared to annual giving programs. (SR)

  4. Suspension of a steam raising unit in a reinforced concrete pressure vessel of a high temperature reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The invention concerns a supporting device in a steam raising unit, which is situated in the reinforced concrete pressure vessel of a high temperature reactor. The supporting device is situated in the space between the steam raising unit skirt and the steam raising unit jacket. If the suspension of the steam raising unit skirt fails, the steam raising unit skirt is well fixed by the supporting device in the steam raising unit jacket, without the feed water and steam pipes in the upper part of the steam raising unit being damaged. (orig.)

  5. Production of antibody fragment (Fab) throughout Escherichia coli fed-batch fermentation process: Changes in titre, location and form of product

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Reza, Jalalirad.

    2013-05-15

    Full Text Available Background: Recombinant proteins, including antibodies and antibody fragments, often contain disulfide bond bridges that are necessary for their folding, stability and function. Production of disulfide-bond-containing proteins in the periplasm of Escherichia coli has been very useful, due to unique [...] characteristics of the periplasm, for obtaining fully active and correctly folded products and for alleviating downstream processing. Results: In this study, fed-batch cultivation of Escherichia coli (E. coli) for production of Fab D1.3, which is an anti-hen egg white lysozyme (HEWL) antibody fragment was carried out at 37ºC, and the bacterial cells were induced by adding 0.1 mM IPTG to the culture medium. Fermentor was sampled over the course of fermentation; the bacterial cells were centrifugally separated from the culture broth and subjected to osmotic shock (with excluding HEWL) and sonication procedures. The resulting fractions were analysed for Fab using a combination of ELISA, SDS-PAGE and Western blotting and changes in product titre, location, and form was assessed throughout growth. It was shown that osmotic shock released the Fab from the periplasm very efficiently and its efficacy was 20-45% more than sonication. This study demonstrates that, at high cell density cultivation in fermentor, target product can appear inside and outside the cells, depending on the time of induction. The maximum amount of Fab (47 mg/l) in the periplasm was reached at 14 hrs cultivation (4 hrs post induction), being suitable time for cell harvest, selective periplasmic extraction and downstream capture. The Fab increasingly leaked into the culture medium, and reached its maximum culture medium titre of ~78 mg/l after 6 hrs post induction. After 16 hrs cultivation (6 hrs post induction) the amount of Fab remained constant in different locations within and outside the cells. Western blot analysis of cell fractions showed that certain amount of the Fab was also produced in the cells as insoluble form. Conclusions: In this work we showed that the production of Fab in the periplasm during high cell density cultivation of E. coli in fermentor can be challenging as the product may appear in various locations within and outside the cells. To exploit the advantages of the periplasmic expression systems for purification in downstream processing, bacterial cells should be harvested when they maintain the majority of the target protein in their periplasmic space (i.e. 4 hrs post induction).

  6. High antibody titres against predicted Mycoplasma surface proteins do not prevent sequestration in infected lung tissue in the course of experimental contagious bovine pleuropneumonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schieck, Elise; Liljander, Anne; Hamsten, Carl; Gicheru, Nimmo; Scacchia, Massimo; Sacchini, Flavio; Heller, Martin; Schnee, Christiane; Sterner-Kock, Anja; Hlinak, Andreas; Naessens, Jan; Poole, Jane; Persson, Anja; Jores, Joerg

    2014-08-01

    Contagious bovine pleuropneumonia (CBPP), a severe respiratory disease of cattle caused by Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides (Mmm) is endemic in many African countries due to fragmented veterinary services and the lack of an efficient vaccine and sensitive diagnostics. More efficient tools to control the disease are needed, but to develop the tools, a better understanding of host-pathogen interactions is necessary. The aim of this study was to characterize the kinetics of the humoral immune response against 65 Mmm surface antigens for an extended period in cattle that survived a primary infection with Mmm. We describe clinical and haematological outcomes, and dissect the humoral immune response over time, to specific antigens and compared the antibody responses between different pathomorphological outcomes. No antigen-specific antibodies correlating with protection were identified. Interestingly we found that animals that developed Mycoplasma-containing sequestra had significantly higher antibody levels against proteins comprising the surface proteome than the animals that cleared Mycoplasma from their lungs. Based on these data we suggest that high antibody titres might play a role in the establishment of pathomorphological changes, such as vasculitis, which should be investigated in future studies. Beneficial antibody specificities and cellular immune responses need to be identified in order to foster the development of an improved vaccine in the future. PMID:24880898

  7. Raising Generation Tech Preparing Your Children for a Media-Fueled World

    CERN Document Server

    Taylor, Jim

    2012-01-01

    Today's children are being raised as 'digital natives' in a world dominated by popular culture and technology. TV shows, computers, video games, social networking sites, advertisements, and cell phones too often have an unnecessarily strong-and negative? influence on children.  But pulling the plug just isn't an option in a world where being connected is essential for success. In Raising Generation Tech,  noted parenting and new-media expert Dr. Jim Taylor explores how popular culture and technology shape children's lives. The essential message from Raising Generation Tech is that excessive

  8. Pelvic mass associated with raised CA 125 for benign condition: a case report

    OpenAIRE

    Asher Viren; Hammond Robert; Duncan Tim J

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Raised CA 125 with associated pelvic mass is highly suggestive of ovarian malignancy, but there are various other benign conditions that can be associated with pelvic mass and a raised CA 125. Case presentation We present a case of 19 year old, Caucasian British woman who presented initially with sudden onset right sided iliac fossa pain and on imaging was found to have 9.8 × 4.5 cm complex cystic mass in right adnexa with a raised CA 125 of 657, which was initially thoug...

  9. Joseph eleve des poissons au Gabon. Guide pour l'elevage des poissons (Joseph Raises Fish in Gabon. Guide for Raising Fish).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Needham, Scott

    A guide, in French, to raising fish for food and profit is designed to instruct and encourage Gabonese natives to establish family fisheries. It describes and illustrates in story form the process used to plan the fishery, clear the land, seek help from an agricultural agent, create a dam, make compost, plan and build the pond, feed the fish,…

  10. Report of geophysical raising of the amethyst and agate in two quarries in Artigas district Uruguay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In a geophysical raising of amethyst and agate was studied the possibility to apply a better suitable geophysical method. The conclusion was that the electromagnetic VLF method was suitable to identify the zones.

  11. Is a raised intraepithelial lymphocyte count with normal duodenal villous architecture clinically relevant?

    OpenAIRE

    Mahadeva, S; Wyatt, J I; Howdle, P.D.

    2002-01-01

    Background: A raised intraepithelial lymphocyte (IEL) count with normal villous architecture is a recognised finding in latent coeliac disease. Little information is available in cases without gluten sensitive enteropathy in adults.

  12. Social Status Dynamics of Raising Professional Skills System of Paramedical Personnel (interview materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andriyanova ?.?.

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The results of sociological research (interview are presented in the work. Factors of social status dynamics of raising skills system for paramedical personnel in the Soviet and post-Soviet periods have been revealed and studied

  13. Characteristics of milk production traits of Balkan goats raised under “low-input” production systems

    OpenAIRE

    Vladan Bogdanovi?

    2010-01-01

    In order to analyse dairy production traits (milk yield in full lactation, milk fat content, daily milk yield and length of lactation) of Balkan goats raised under “low-input” production systems, data on 440 lactation records from 118 does raised on 9 farms in south-east part of Serbia were used. General linear model, used for analysing variability of lactation length, was consisting of following fixed effects: farm, year of birth, year of production and number of lactation. Model for mil...

  14. The revenue raising capabilities of a VAT system in developing countries

    OpenAIRE

    Azaria, N.T.; Robinson, Zurika; Robinson, Z. Clausen

    2005-01-01

    The paper attempts to elaborate on the revenue-raising capabilities (economic efficiency and viability) of a value-added tax (VAT) system, particularly in developing countries. The analysis concentrates on the effect of a VAT on tax revenues raised, and the main objective is to determine whether a VAT system generates greater benefits than previously-utilised sales taxes, i.e. pre-existing sales taxes (PEST). Using a panel data regression analysis, our results indicate that while all countrie...

  15. The effect of emotional intelligence awareness-raising activities on L2 motivation

    OpenAIRE

    Barzegar, Reza; Sadr, Sajjad Aref

    2013-01-01

    This article reports a study investigating the effect of emotional intelligence (EI) awareness-raising on Iranian university students’ overall as well as variable-specific L2 motivation. The 136 participants (107 males, 29 females) were divided into a control group and an experimental group, both of which completed the same motivation questionnaire at the beginning and end of the study, with the latter receiving EI awareness-raising in seven sessions over a seven-week period....

  16. Can more revenue be raised by increasing income tax rates for the very rich?

    OpenAIRE

    Brewer, M.; Browne, J.

    2009-01-01

    This Briefing Note discusses how much scope there is to raise revenue from the very rich by increasing income tax rates and assesses in detail the amount of revenue that is likely to be raised by the government's proposed reforms. It extends analysis presented in the 2009 IFS Green Budget and updates some calculations in a submission to the Mirrlees Review. It also discusses information recently released by HM Treasury and HM Revenue & Customs concerning their methodology for calculating how ...

  17. Chinese Food Safety: A Case Study of Pig-Raising Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ge HE

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available

    This paper introduces the Shuanghui scandal, which is affected Chinese food safety to some extend. On that base, the causes of the food safety problems in pig-raising industry in China are explained. Finally, some suggestion was presented to improve the safety in china.
    Keywords: Food safety; Pig-raising industry; Chinese agricultural

  18. Application of raise-boring technique to ventilation engineering of a uranium mine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The world-wide development status, application conditions and advantages of raise-boring construction technique are briefly introduced. Two air shafts (above 300 m depth) and a air inclined shaft (84 m depth) were advanced by raise-boring technique in a mine of Fuzhou Jin'an Uranium Corporation. These shafts form the ventilating system of the mine. Ventilation effect was obviously improved and the good economic benefits were obtained. (authors)

  19. Falsely raised TSH levels due to human anti?mouse antibody interfering with thyrotropin assay

    OpenAIRE

    Krishnan, S G S; Pathalapati, R; Kaplan, L.

    2006-01-01

    The case of a 39?year?old woman who was referred for weight gain and amenorrhoea is reported. Laboratory evaluation showed high levels of thyroid?stimulating hormone (TSH). The patient was started on increasing doses of levothyroxine for subclinical hypothyroidism. TSH remained persistently raised and the patient became thyrotoxic. Evaluation at another laboratory showed normal levels of TSH, raising the possibility of interfering substances. TSH levels were normalised with the addition of mo...

  20. Ocular sonography in patients with raised intracranial pressure: the papilloedema revisited

    OpenAIRE

    Geeraerts, Thomas; Duranteau, Jacques; Benhamou, Dan

    2008-01-01

    Invasive devices are recommended for the early detection of raised intracranial pressure (ICP) after severe traumatic brain injury. Owing to contraindication or local issues, however, invasive ICP monitoring is not always possible. Moreover, a significant proportion of moderate traumatic brain injury patients (managed without invasive ICP) will develop raised ICP. Reliable noninvasive ICP techniques are therefore needed. Soldatos and colleagues report the usefulness of ocular sonography in th...

  1. Free anterolateral thigh flap raised on musculocutaneous perforators of rectus femoris muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehtesham-ul-Haq; Aslam, Ayesha; Hameed, Shahid; Ahmad, Rao Saood; Majid, Abdul; Waqas, Muhammad

    2011-08-01

    The anterolateral thigh flap (ALTF) has been in wide clinical use for the last two decades, its major disadvantage has been its variable anatomy. We are presenting a case in which no substantial perforators were found to be arising from either the lateral septum of thigh or Vastus Laterlis muscle. In this case, instead of raising another flap, we used the same skin paddle raised on the musculocutaneous perforators of rectus femoris muscle. PMID:21798144

  2. Grandparents Raising Grandchildren in the United States: Changing Family Forms, Stagnant Social Policies

    OpenAIRE

    Baker, Lindsey A.; Silverstein, Merril; Putney, Norella M.

    2008-01-01

    As a consequence of increased divorce rates, the proliferation of single-parent families, and patterns of economic stagnation, parents are increasingly relying on extended family to care for children. In the past few decades, a substantial increase in the number of grandparents raising grandchildren has been observed within the United States. Grandparents who raise their grandchildren are particularly vulnerable, as are the grandchildren in their care; however, U.S. policy currently presents ...

  3. The processing of raising and nominal control: an eye-tracking study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sturt, Patrick; Kwon, Nayoung

    2015-01-01

    According to some views of sentence processing, the memory retrieval processes involved in dependency formation may differ as a function of the type of dependency involved. For example, using closely matched materials in a single experiment, Dillon et al. (2013) found evidence for retrieval interference in subject-verb agreement, but not in reflexive-antecedent agreement. We report four eye-tracking experiments that examine examine reflexive-antecedent dependencies, combined with raising (e.g., “John seemed to Tom to be kind to himself…”), or nominal control (e.g., “John's agreement with Tom to be kind to himself…”). We hypothesized that dependencies involving raising would (a) be processed more quickly, and (b) be less subject to retrieval interference, relative to those involving nominal control. This is due to the fact that the interpretation of raising is structurally constrained, while the interpretation of nominal control depends crucially on lexical properties of the control nominal. The results showed evidence of interference when the reflexive-antecedent dependency was mediated by raising or nominal control, but very little evidence that could be interpreted in terms of interference for direct reflexive-antecedent dependencies that did not involve raising or control. However, there was no evidence either for greater interference, or for quicker dependency formation, for raising than for nominal control. PMID:25852629

  4. Raising Nora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mack, Margo

    1996-01-01

    Describes a creative approach to including Nora, a student with cerebral palsy, in an outdoor adventure--a hilly, seven-mile trek through Eastern Oregon's Ponderosa pine forests. With teachers' and classmates' help, Nora practiced on a simulated horse and saddle, overcame her fear of heights, and eagerly joined classmates on horseback. (MLH)

  5. Raising Tibet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, T. M.; Copeland, Peter; Kidd, W. S. F.; Yin, An

    1992-03-01

    Thermochronologic, sedimentologic, oceanographic, and paleoclimatic studies suggest that rapid uplift and unroofing of southern Tibet began about 20 million years ago and that the present elevation of much of the Tibetan plateau was attained by about 8 million years ago. Hypotheses advanced to explain the tectonic evolution of the India-Asia collision, which began about 40 to 50 million years ago, predict the timing and rates of crustal thickening of the southern margin of Asia. However, these models do not predict the prominently enhanced early Miocene denudation and uplift that are manifested in a variety of geological records. A model involving continental extrusion, development of a crustal-scale thrust ramp of the Main Central Thrust beneath the Gangdese belt, and lithospheric delamination provides a history consistent with these observations.

  6. 16 CFR 301.16 - Disclosure of origin of certain furs raised or taken in United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...Regulations § 301.16 Disclosure of origin of certain furs raised or taken...connection therewith connotes foreign origin and such animal is raised or...having the United States as the country of origin; as for example: Dyed...

  7. Comparison of Performance Metrics for QPSK and OQPSK Transmission Using Root Raised Cosine and Raised Cosine Pulse shaping Filters for Applications in Mobile Communication

    CERN Document Server

    Chattopadhyay, Sudipta

    2009-01-01

    Quadrature Phase Shift Keying (QPSK) and Offset Quadrature Phase Shift Keying (OQPSK) are two well accepted modulation techniques used in Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA) system. The Pulse Shaping Filters play an important role in digital transmission. The type of Pulse Shaping Filter used, and its behavior would influence the performance of the communication system. This in turn, would have an effect on the performance of the Mobile Communication system, in which the digital communication technique has been employed. In this paper we have presented comparative study of some performance parameters or performance metrics of a digital communication system like, Error Vector Magnitude (EVM), Magnitude Error, Phase Error and Bandwidth Efficiency for a QPSK transmission system. Root Raised Cosine (RRC) and Raised Cosine (RC) Pulse shaping filters have been used for comparison. The measurement results serve as a guideline to the system designer to select the proper pulse shaping filter with the appropriate valu...

  8. How different modes of child delivery influence abdominal muscle activities in the active straight leg raise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Yu-Jeong; Hyung, Eun-Ju; Yang, Kyung-Hye; Lee, Hyun-Ok

    2014-08-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to examine the activities of the abdominal muscles of women who had experienced vaginal delivery in comparison with those who had experienced Cesarean childbirth. [Subjects and Methods] A total of 14 subjects (7 vaginal delivery, 7 Cesarean section) performed an active straight leg raise to 20?cm above the ground, and we measured the activities of the internal oblique abdominal muscle, the external oblique abdominal muscle, and the rectus abdominal muscle on both sides using electromyography. The effort required to raise the leg was scored on a Likert scale. Then, the subjects conducted maximum isometric contraction for hip joint flexion with the leg raised at 20?cm, and maximum torque and abdominal muscle activities were measured using electromyography. [Results] During the active straight leg raise, abdominal muscle activities were higher in the Cesarean section subjects. The Likert scale did not show a significant difference. The activities of the abdominal muscles and the maximum torque of the hip joint flexion at maximum isometric contraction were higher in the vaginal delivery subjects. [Conclusion] The abdominal muscles of Cesarean section subjects showed greater recruitment for maintaining pelvic stability during the active straight leg raising, but were relatively weaker when powerful force was required. Therefore, we consider that more abdominal muscle training is necessary for maintaining pelvic stability of Cesarean section subjects. PMID:25202194

  9. Some results on the isotope studies of water exchange in boreal raised bogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raised bogs are rather common and one of the most exciting mire types of the boreal zone. They receive water and nutrients from precipitation and pore water stored in their domes (up to 10 m in height) is spaced above levels of regional ground water or streams draining them. Peatland hydrologists have long assumed that fluid flow occurs mainly in a peat layer near to the surface and water transport is negligible in deeper layers. The 'acrotelm/catotelm' paradigm on active and inert horizons for the peat above and below the lowest water level is still widely spread in peatland hydrology. However, recent studies have shown that deep water movement is much more dynamic in raised bogs than was previously thought. Based on geochemical studies and numerical simulations even temporal reverse of the vertical direction of water fluid flow through the peat as connected to climate fluctuations was assumed. Relying on isotope studies we consider only the mounded strata of the raised bogs to have relatively active water exchange. The study included two raised bogs, representing different local hydrological conditions (underlain by outwash sands and moraine clay) at the Zapadnaya Dvina Peatland Field Station of the Forest Research Institute located 400 km west of Moscow. Peatlands, among which raised bogs dominate, constitute >30% of the area, and maximum peat thickness exceeds 7 m

  10. DETERMINATION OF ZERDAVA DOG (KAPI KOPEGI) RAISED IN NORTHEAST OF TURKEY

    OpenAIRE

    Yilmaz, Orhan; Ertugrul, Mehmet

    2012-01-01

    This is the first document on Turkish Zerdava dogs raised in northeast of Turkey. This study was carried out to define the morphologic traits of the Turkish Zerdava dogs raised in east of Turkey comparing with some other native dog breeds of Turkey. To this end, a total of 39 (19 male and 20 female) dogs was analyzed using the Minitab 15 statistical software program using ANOVA and Student’s t-Test. Descriptive statistics and comparison results were for height at shoulders 51.2±0.35, heigh...

  11. To grandmother's house we go ... and stay. Children raised in intergenerational families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, S J; Yorker, B C; Whitley, D

    1997-09-01

    An increased incidence in child abuse and neglect has resulted in a dramatic rise in the number of grandparents raising grandchildren and great-grandchildren. Grandchildren raised by grandparents often suffer from emotional and behavioral problems due to prior abuse, neglect, and abandonment. Grandparent caregivers experience increased health problems, psychological distress, and social isolation related to their roles as primary caregivers of children. Grandparents who become caregivers of grandchildren face increased financial responsibilities at a time in their lives, close to or at retirement, when income is dramatically decreased. PMID:9355480

  12. Ecology and hydrology of pristine and cutover lowland raised bogs: relationships and implications for restoration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labadz, Jillian; Hart, Roger; Robbins, Jane; Butcher, David; Topliss, David

    2013-04-01

    This paper will examine relationships in vegetation communities and hydrological conditions on areas of lowland raised bog in north west England, comparing damaged and relatively intact sites on two adjacent bogs in Cumbria. Walton Moss is a relatively pristine site whilst and Bolton Fell Moss has a small nature reserve area with remnant vegetation which is surrounded by commercial peat cutting. The intended outcome is to provide a mechanism to inform management decisions, with a view to assisting in the long-term protection and rehabilitation of lowland raised bogs.

  13. Obtaining raised density connections by thermosonic microwelding in 3D integrated microcircuits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lanin V. L.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The authors consider the processes of obtaining raised density microwelded connections in 3D-integrated microcircuits by the thermosonic microwelding. The processes include the use of the raised frequencies of ultrasound, application of the microinstrument with a thinning of the working end and precision devices for ball formation, which provide reproducibility of connections quality. At a small step of contact pads, the use of a wire of small diameter (not more than 25 µm is necessary for devices with a multilevel arrangement of leads and chess arrangement of contact pads on the chip, providing the maximum length of the formed crosspieces does not exceed 4—5 mm.

  14. GRAMMATICAL SYLLABUS AND EFL TEXTBOOKS: THE NEED FOR CONSCIOUSNESS-RAISING ACTIVITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sasan Baleghizadeh

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the role of the grammatical syllabus in EFL settings is examined. To this end, the grammatical syllabus and its shortcomings are first explored. It is then argued that the grammatical syllabus is perhaps the best channel through which grammar instruction can take shape, and hence the importance of grammar instruction is discussed. Finally, the concept of consciousness-raising activities is introduced and it is suggested that the explicit presentation of grammar in traditional EFL textbooks still used in certain settings be replaced by consciousness-raising activities.

  15. A study on a systematic method for evaluating values of raised concerns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this study is to develop a methodology that can externalise potential concerns and evaluate the values of the concerns raised in corporations. By implementing this methodology into corporate governance, it is expected to improve the work environment and enhance the capability for the corporate governance through supporting the internal autonomic purification. This study comprises of: case studies of past wrongdoings in corporations such as JCO and Tokyo Electric Power Company (TEPCO); identifying the viewpoints for evaluating values of raised concerns; developing a model to evaluate the values. (author)

  16. The Role of Online Communication in Raising Awareness of Bilingual Identity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marley, Dawn

    2013-01-01

    Children of binational couples are often raised in the community of one of the parents and, thus, have limited exposure to the language of the other parent. This study focuses on a British/Moroccan family in the UK, where English is the dominant home language and Moroccan Arabic is the "other" language. Analysis of "live"…

  17. Marital Relationship in Greek Families: Raising a Child with a Severe Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsibidaki, Assimina

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: The target of the study is to examine important aspects of the marital relationship: marital satisfaction, spouse's representation of the marital relationship, roles and boundaries in families raising a child with a severe disability. Also, this study compares families with a child with a severe disability to those with children…

  18. Failure to thrive and death in early infancy associated with raised urinary homovanillic and vanillylmandelic acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirschberger, M; Kleinberg, G

    1976-01-01

    A case of failure to thrive in an infant with persistently raised urinary levels of homovanillic and vanillylmandelic acids is descirbed. No neural crest tumour was discovered at surgical exploration or at necropsy. The relation of this biochemical abnormality and failure to thrive is unclear. Images FIG. PMID:1015852

  19. Effects of the ACT Raising Safe Kids Parenting Program on Children's Externalizing Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knox, Michele; Burkhart, Kimberly; Howe, Tasha

    2011-01-01

    Eighty-seven parents and primary caregivers of children aged 10 years or younger participated in a study examining the effects of the ACT Raising Safe Kids program on children's behavior. It was hypothesized that children of caregivers who complete ACT-RSK would demonstrate reduced behavior problems compared to children of caregivers in a…

  20. Preparing FCS Professionals: Using Simulations to Raise Awareness and Change Stereotypes, Prejudice, and Discrimination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heiden, Kathleen; Harpel, Tammy

    2013-01-01

    Many universities offer courses in multiculturalism to broaden students' perspectives, but are the courses effective? This article explores the effects of using simulations to raise awareness and challenge students' perspectives of stereotypes, prejudice, and discrimination. The results of three simulation activities are presented. Three…

  1. Thinking with Your Hands: Speech-Gesture Activity during an L2 Awareness-Raising Task

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Compernolle, Remi A.; Williams, Lawrence

    2011-01-01

    This article reports on a study of second language (L2) French learners' self-generated use of gesture to think through and resolve a metalinguistic awareness-raising task during small-group work with an expert mediator. Although the use of gesture in L2 communication and pedagogy has recently received increasing attention, little research has…

  2. 137Cs deposition in peat profiles on a raised bog in central Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Distribution of 137Cs depositions within peat profiles in open bog and nearby (low pine) sites in raised bog are shown and discussed. A possible involvement of Sphagnum moss in radionuclide binding and retention in such nutrient poor ecosystem is suggested. (au)

  3. Math, Science, and Web-Based Activities to Raise Awareness about Nutrition and Obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuercher, Deborah K.

    2011-01-01

    The incidence of child obesity in the United States is increasing at an alarming rate. This article provides information about nutrition, obesity, and related health conditions and suggests some classroom activities to raise awareness about these issues and empower students to live healthier, more active lives. A list of recommended health-related…

  4. Results of a Test and Win Contest to Raise Radon Awareness in Urban and Rural Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, Ellen J.; Rayens, Mary Kay; Kercsmar, Sarah E.; Robertson, Heather; Adkins, Sarah M.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Radon is a leading cause of lung cancer, but few test their homes to determine radon levels. Purpose: The study assessed feasibility and success of a Test and Win Contest to promote radon testing in rural and urban communities. Methods: The prospective, quasi-experimental study tested a novel contest to raise radon awareness. Paid and…

  5. Chlortetracycline-resistant intestinal bacteria in organically raised and feral Swine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanton, Thad B; Humphrey, Samuel B; Stoffregen, William C

    2011-10-01

    Organically raised swine had high fecal populations of chlortetracycline (CTC)-resistant (growing at 64 ?g CTC/ml) Escherichia coli, Megasphaera elsdenii, and anaerobic bacteria. By comparison, CTC-resistant bacteria in feral swine feces were over 1,000-fold fewer and exhibited lower taxonomic diversity. PMID:21821750

  6. Chlortetracycline-Resistant Intestinal Bacteria in Organically Raised and Feral Swine ?

    OpenAIRE

    Stanton, Thad B.; Humphrey, Samuel B.; Stoffregen, William C.

    2011-01-01

    Organically raised swine had high fecal populations of chlortetracycline (CTC)-resistant (growing at 64 ?g CTC/ml) Escherichia coli, Megasphaera elsdenii, and anaerobic bacteria. By comparison, CTC-resistant bacteria in feral swine feces were over 1,000-fold fewer and exhibited lower taxonomic diversity.

  7. Chlortetracycline-Resistant Intestinal Bacteria in Organically Raised and Feral Swine ?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanton, Thad B.; Humphrey, Samuel B.; Stoffregen, William C.

    2011-01-01

    Organically raised swine had high fecal populations of chlortetracycline (CTC)-resistant (growing at 64 ?g CTC/ml) Escherichia coli, Megasphaera elsdenii, and anaerobic bacteria. By comparison, CTC-resistant bacteria in feral swine feces were over 1,000-fold fewer and exhibited lower taxonomic diversity. PMID:21821750

  8. Chlortetracycline - resistant intestinal bacteria in organically-raised and feral swine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Organically-raised swine had high fecal populations of chlortetracycline (CTC)-resistant (growing at 64 micro g CTC/ml) Escherichia coli, Megasphaera elsdenii and anaerobe populations. By comparison, predominant CTC-resistant bacteria in feral swine feces were over 1000-fold fewer and exhibited lo...

  9. Juggling Fund Raising and Internal Leadership Demands: What Does It Take?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufman, Barbara

    2005-01-01

    Gone are the days when university presidents were hired primarily based on a lifetime of scholarship and academic credentials that resonated with faculty, and then expected to focus on internal governance and maintaining the institution's status quo. Increasingly, leaders of higher education institutions are under relentless pressure to raise

  10. How Strategic Presidential Leadership and Institutional Culture Influenced Fund-Raising Effectiveness at Spelman College

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, T. Gregory

    2006-01-01

    How have presidential leadership strategy, decision approaches, and institutional culture preferences influenced fund-raising effectiveness at a historically Black college for women? These conceptual dimensions guided a qualitative study that interviewed three recent Spelman College presidents and investigated documentary evidence to develop an…

  11. Murder-suicide involving BC doctor raises troubling questions about euthanasia.

    OpenAIRE

    Wilson, V

    1995-01-01

    The deaths last September of a British Columbia physician and his wife have raised troubling questions about euthanasia and Alzheimer's disease. Police described the deaths of Dr. Tom Powell and his wife Dr. Lorraine Miles, a retired dentist, as a murder-suicide. Friends of the couple wonder if more lenient laws concerning euthanasia and assisted suicide might have saved Miles' life.

  12. Evaluation of Preparatory Measures for Coping with Anxiety Raised by Media Coverage of Terrorism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slone, Michelle; Shoshani, Anat

    2006-01-01

    This study examines effects of television broadcasts of terrorism on viewers' anxiety and raises suggestions for 2 intervention strategies to moderate elevated anxiety. Participants were 120 young Israeli adults randomly allocated to a terrorism or a nonterrorism television broadcast and assigned to 1 of 3 intervention conditions prior to…

  13. Challenges and Opportunities for Vocational Education and Training in the Light of Raising the Participation Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acquah, Daniel K.; Huddleston, Prue

    2014-01-01

    By 2015, all young people must participate in some form of education and training until they are aged 18. This review discusses the challenges and opportunities involved if vocational education and training is to contribute to this raising of the participation age. We argue that as well as ensuring that young people who have made a full-time…

  14. Raising a Child with Intellectual Disabilities in Ethiopia: What Do Parents Say?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weldeab, Chernet Tekle; Opdal, Liv Randi

    2007-01-01

    Parental experiences in raising children with intellectual disability in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia are described. Using a qualitative research approach, interviews from eleven families formed a rich contextual data base, in addition to informal observations, informal conversations, discussions with key informants, and document review. Findings show…

  15. Raising the Bar for Hispanic Serving Institutions: An Analysis of College Completion and Success Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contreras, Frances; Contreras, Gilbert J.

    2015-01-01

    Hispanic serving institutions (HSIs) in California have the potential to play a key role in raising Latino college completion rates. However, while HSIs provide access to higher education for Latinos, student success, persistence, and completion rates remain low. This study utilized the Integrated Postsecondary Education Data System and the…

  16. Raising Their Voices: Engaging Students, Teachers, and Parents to Help End the High School Dropout Epidemic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bridgeland, John M.; Balfanz, Robert; Moore, Laura A.; Friant, Rebecca S.

    2010-01-01

    High dropout rates continue to be a silent epidemic afflicting the nation's schools. Although some measurable progress is being made in some school districts and states to raise high school graduation rates, and federal, state, and local policies and practices are changing to meet the dropout challenge, the nation's progress is too slow and the…

  17. A biological mechanism for Bayesian feature selection: Weight decay and raising the LASSO.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connor, Patrick; Hollensen, Paul; Krigolson, Olav; Trappenberg, Thomas

    2015-07-01

    Biological systems are capable of learning that certain stimuli are valuable while ignoring the many that are not, and thus perform feature selection. In machine learning, one effective feature selection approach is the least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (LASSO) form of regularization, which is equivalent to assuming a Laplacian prior distribution on the parameters. We review how such Bayesian priors can be implemented in gradient descent as a form of weight decay, which is a biologically plausible mechanism for Bayesian feature selection. In particular, we describe a new prior that offsets or "raises" the Laplacian prior distribution. We evaluate this alongside the Gaussian and Cauchy priors in gradient descent using a generic regression task where there are few relevant and many irrelevant features. We find that raising the Laplacian leads to less prediction error because it is a better model of the underlying distribution. We also consider two biologically relevant online learning tasks, one synthetic and one modeled after the perceptual expertise task of Krigolson et al. (2009). Here, raising the Laplacian prior avoids the fast erosion of relevant parameters over the period following training because it only allows small weights to decay. This better matches the limited loss of association seen between days in the human data of the perceptual expertise task. Raising the Laplacian prior thus results in a biologically plausible form of Bayesian feature selection that is effective in biologically relevant contexts. PMID:25897512

  18. Flap raising on pulsatile perfused cadaveric tissue: a novel method for surgical teaching and exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolff, Klaus-Dietrich; Fichter, Andreas; Braun, Christian; Bauer, Florian; Humbs, Martin

    2014-10-01

    Exercising flap raising procedures on cadavers is considered a prerequisite to prepare for clinical practise. To improve teaching and create conditions as realistic as possible, a perfusion device was developed providing pulsatile flow through the vessels of different donor sites. A plastic bag filled with red stained tab water was placed into a pump, which was driven by an electric motor. The bag was set under rhythmic compression with variable frequency and pressure. The pedicles of the radial forearm, anterolateral thigh, rectus abdominis, fibular and iliac crest flap were cannulated at the origin from their source arteries. Flap raising was performed under pulsatile perfusion in 15 fresh bodies and subsequently in 6 Thiel-embalmed cadavers during a flap raising course. We regularly observed staining of the skin and skin bleeding in fresh bodies and less reliable in embalmed cadavers. All flap pedicles showed pulsatile movements, and the radial pulse became palpable. Most perforators of the anterolateral thigh and osteocutaneous fibular flap could be identified by their pulse. Bleeding from bony tissue and venous return was seldom observed. We conclude that pulsatile perfusion of cadaveric tissue creates more realistic conditions for flap raising and improves teaching for beginners and advanced surgeons. PMID:24938642

  19. Noise, What Noise? Raising Awareness of Auditory Health among Future Primary-School Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jimenez-Tejada, M. -P.; Hodar, J. A.; Gonzalez-Garcia, F.

    2012-01-01

    We study the perception of acoustic contamination and its deleterious effects on students preparing to become school teachers and analyse their acoustic habits, with the aim of raising their awareness concerning this problem. We designed a number of activities, applied during a practical lesson, in which students evaluated some of their…

  20. Ruled by Hetero-Norms? Raising Some Moral Questions for Teachers in South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhana, Deevia

    2014-01-01

    Thirty-eight countries in Africa regard homosexuality as punishable by law with South Africa remaining a standout country advancing constitutional equality on the basis of sexual orientation. In the context of homophobic violence, however, concerns have been raised about schools' potential to improve the educational, moral and social outcomes…

  1. Thermo-hydraulic analysis for SCWR during power-raising phase of startup

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The study of thermal characteristics during startup is one of the most important aspects for safety analysis of supercritical water-cooled reactor (SCWR). According to the given sliding pressure mode of SCWR, thermal analysis on temperature-raising phase and power-raising phase of startup are carried out. Considering the radial heterogeneity of power distribution,thermal characteristics for different assemblies during startup are also put forward. The results show that,during temperature-raising phase with core power increased only, the temperature of moderator, coolant and fuel cladding in inner assemblies are increased with little amplitude. During power-raising phase with core power and feed-water flow rate increased, the coolant temperature keeps unchanged, but the moderator temperature is decreased. With a greater variation of power, fuel cladding temperature shows a greater increase. Furthermore, considering the uneven distribution of radial power, thermo-hydraulic characteristics with uneven cladding temperature distribution shows a certain horizontal heterogeneity for different fuel assemblies, which becomes serious as flow rate and power increase. By adjusting flow rate distribution in different fuel assemblies or changing power setting during startup, the cladding temperature difference could be effectively reduced, which provides a certain reference for startup optimization of SCWR. (authors)

  2. Navigating Interdependence: How Adolescents Raised Solely by Grandparents Experience Their Family Relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolbin-MacNab, Megan L.; Keiley, Margaret K.

    2009-01-01

    This study examined how adolescents raised solely by grandparents navigated their relationships with their parents and grandparents and how these relationships were influenced by the caregiving context. Forty-one adolescents participated in qualitative, semistructured interviews. Findings suggest that relationships with parents were primarily…

  3. A Hands-On Activity to Raise Awareness about Healthy Sun Exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    João Fonseca, Maria; Costa, Patrício; Lencastre, Leonor; Tavares, Fernando

    2015-01-01

    Excessive exposure to solar ultraviolet (UV) radiation causes sunburn and has been consistently associated with increased susceptibility to melanoma and skin ageing. Acknowledging the need to promote healthy sun exposure habits, numerous educational initiatives have been developed to raise public awareness towards this issue. However, studies…

  4. Firearms law raises issue of MDs' duty to predict and report potentially violent patients.

    OpenAIRE

    Capen, K

    1995-01-01

    The possibility that an amendment to new firearms legislation would require physicians to report potentially violent patients raises the controversial issues of physicians' legal duty to warn and the ability of physicians and other health care professionals to predict violent behaviour. For these reasons, it will be necessary to follow carefully any proposed amendments to the legislation.

  5. Evidence of streptococcal origin of acute non-necrotising cellulitis: a serological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karppelin, M; Siljander, T; Haapala, A-M; Aittoniemi, J; Huttunen, R; Kere, J; Vuopio, J; Syrjänen, J

    2015-04-01

    Bacteriological diagnosis is rarely achieved in acute cellulitis. Beta-haemolytic streptococci and Staphylococcus aureus are considered the main pathogens. The role of the latter is, however, unclear in cases of non-suppurative cellulitis. We conducted a serological study to investigate the bacterial aetiology of acute non-necrotising cellulitis. Anti-streptolysin O (ASO), anti-deoxyribonuclease B (ADN) and anti-staphylolysin (ASTA) titres were measured from acute and convalescent phase sera of 77 patients hospitalised because of acute bacterial non-necrotising cellulitis and from the serum samples of 89 control subjects matched for age and sex. Antibiotic treatment decisions were also reviewed. Streptococcal serology was positive in 53 (69%) of the 77 cases. Furthermore, ten cases without serological evidence of streptococcal infection were successfully treated with penicillin. Positive ASO and ADN titres were detected in ten (11%) and three (3%) of the 89 controls, respectively, and ASTA was elevated in three patients and 11 controls. Our findings suggest that acute non-necrotising cellulitis without pus formation is mostly of streptococcal origin and that penicillin can be used as the first-line therapy for most patients. PMID:25403372

  6. Raising medium-sized livestock and hepatitis risk: A national study in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Holly Herawati

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Latar belakang: Sanitasi lingkungan, termasuk kandang pemeliharaan ternak sedang, berpengaruh terhadap penyebaran penyakit hepatitis A dan E. Tujuan penelitian ini menilai lokasi kandang pemeliharaan ternak sedang berkaitan dengan risiko gejala hepatitis di beberapa propinsi dengan prevalensi hepatitis tinggi di Indonesia. Metode: Data berasal dari sebagian hasil Riset Kesehatan Dasar (Riskesdas tahun 2007 di Indonesia. Untuk penilaian ini, data yang dipakai berasal dari 12 propinsi dengan prevalensi tinggi (0,6% hepatitis di Indonesia, dan dipilih hanya subjek yang tidak memelihara ternak serta hanya yang memelihara ternak sedang. Subjek hepatitis adalah responden yang pada saat wawancara mengatakan pernah mempunyai gejala hepatitis atau pernah di diagnosis menderita hepatitis oleh dokter atau paramedik dalam kurun waktu 12 bulan terakhir. Hasil: Dari 141.291 subjek, 1.257 (0,8% menderita hepatitis. Pada umumnya yang memelihara ternak sedang berisiko 86% lebih banyak terkena hepatitis dibandingkan dengan yang tidak memelihara  ternak [rasio odds suaian (ORa=1,86; 95% interval kepercayaan (CI=1,61-2,09]. Risiko tertinggi (2 kali lipat terkena hepatitis terjadi di antara subjek yang mengandangkan ternak sedang di dalam rumah (ORa=1,98; 95% CI=1,47-2,66, sedangkan risiko terkecil (38% lebih besar terkena hepatitis terjadi di antara yang mengandangkan ternak sedangnya di luar luar rumah dibandingkan dengan tidak memelihara ternak sedang (ORa=1,38; 95% CI=1,14-1,67 dibandingkan dengan tidak memelihara ternak. Kesimpulan: Kandang di luar rumah untuk meliharaan ternak sedang yang paling kecil menyebabkan risiko hepatitis. (Health Science Indones 2011;2:14-20   Abstract Background: Environmental sanitation, among others raising medium-sized livestock, affect the spread of hepatitis A and E. This paper presents an assessment of relation between place of raising medium-sized livestock and risk of hepatitis in high prevalence endemic hepatitis provinces in Indonesia. Methods: This paper used a part data of the Basic Health Survey (Riskesdas 2007 in 33 provinces in Indonesia. For this assessment samples consisted of those who had as well as did not have medium-sized livestock in twelve provinces with Hepatitis prevalence above national average. Hepatitis subject was those who ever diagnosed hepatitis by health workers (physician or paramedic or ever had symptoms of hepatitis in the last 12 months. Results: Of 141,291subjectts, 1,257 (0.8% subjects ever had hepatitis. In general, subjects who had raising medium-sized livestock had 83% more hepatitis risk compared to who did not have raising medium-sized livestock [adjusted odds ratio (ORa= 1.83; 95% confidence interval (CI= 1.61-2.09]. The highest risk (almost 2-fold to be hepatitis occurred among who had corral inside the house for raising medium-sized livestock (ORa=1.98; 95% CI=1.47-2.66, and the least risk (38% more risk to be hepatitis occurred among who had corral outside the house for raising medium-sized livestock (ORa=1.38; 95% CI=1.14-1.67 compared with who did not have raising medium-sized livestock. Conclusion: The least risk to be hepatitis occurred among who had corral outside the house among whom raising medium-sized livestock. (Health Science Indones 2011;2:14-20

  7. Monitoring and performance analysis of AGR boilers during commissioning and power raising

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The installed boiler plant, for two 1300 MW AGR stations, is comprehensively instrumented for boiler control, performance assessment and component monitoring to ensure the integrity and safe operation of the plant during normal and faulty operating conditions. Plant instrumentation and computer systems installed at site for vibration analysis during the engineering runs and data acquisition during the power raising stage have been described. The results, from early rig investigations and the vibration testing during the unfueled engineering runs, indicate that the behaviour of the plant within the practical range of operating conditions is free from vibration problems. Also the analysis of the steady state thermal and hydrodynamic behaviour of the boiler plant during the power raising phase confirms the methods and computer models used for the boiler design. (author)

  8. Gizzard impaction in lesser rhea chicks (Pterocnemia pennata) raised on farms in Patagonia, Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reissig, E C; Robles, C A

    2001-01-01

    Impaction of the gizzard was diagnosed in 33 1-to-4-wk-old lesser rhea (Pterocnemia pennata) raised on farms in Patagonia, Argentina. The birds showed anorexia, lethargy, constipation, dehydration, weight loss, and weakness. Necropsy revealed gizzard impaction by fibrous material, sand, rocks, and rubbish. Also, excess fibrous material was observed in the small intestine, and intussusception was found in one chick. Impaction of the gizzard observed in the present study was similar to that reported in other ratite species and confirmed that this disease can affect lesser rhea chicks raised in captivity. This disease affected 33 out of 41 (80%) dead lesser rhea chicks submitted to the Animal Health Unit of The National Institute of Agricultural Technology, Bariloche, Argentina, during the study period, so it can be a significant cause of mortality in farmed rheas in Argentina. PMID:11332489

  9. A review of optimal planning of level and raise spacing in inclined narrow reefs

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    C., Musingwini.

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The subject of optimal planning of level and raise spacing for inclined narrow reef deposits has received intermittent attention over the years because the subject matter is inherently complex. Previous work has approached the problem as simply that of simultaneously minimizing the total excavation [...] and haulage cost associated with the development workings. However, when level and raise spacing are altered, other factors such as productivity are negatively affected, thus requiring a delicate trade-off of contradicting planning or optimization criteria. The paper concludes that the problem is actually of the multi-criteria decision analysis (MCDA) type, contrary to traditional thinking that the planning problem is achieved solely by minimizing waste development.

  10. Structural evaluation of WIPP disposal room raised to Clay Seam G.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Byoung Yoon (Sandia National Laboratories, Carlsbad, NM); Holland, John F. (Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM)

    2007-09-01

    An error was discovered in the ALGEBBRA script used to calculate the disturbed rock zone around the disposal room and the shear failure zone in the anhydrite layers in the original version. To correct the error, a memorandum of correction was submitted according to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Quality Assurance program. The recommended course of action was to correct the error, to repeat the post-process, and to rewrite Section 7.4, 7.5, 8, and Appendix B in the original report. The sections and appendix revised by the post-process using the corrected ALGEBRA scripts are provided in this revision. The original report summarizes a series of structural calculations that examine effects of raising the WIPP repository horizon from the original design level upward 2.43 meters. Calculations were then repeated for grid changes appropriate for the new horizon raised to Clay Seam G. Results are presented in three main areas: (1) Disposal room porosity, (2) Disturbed rock zone characteristics, and (3) Anhydrite marker bed failure. No change to the porosity surface for the compliance re-certification application is necessary to account for raising the repository horizon, because the new porosity surface is essentially identical. The disturbed rock zone evolution and devolution are charted in terms of a stress invariant criterion over the regulatory period. This model shows that the propagation of the DRZ into the surrounding rock salt does not penetrate through MB 139 in the case of both the original horizon and the raised room. Damaged salt would be expected to heal in nominally 150 years. The shear failure does not occur in either the upper or lower anhydrite layers at the moment of excavation, but appears above and below the middle of the pillar one day after the excavation. The damaged anhydrite is not expected to heal as the salt in the DRZ is expected to.

  11. Topics raised by the summary report of the first review meeting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document presents the fulfilling of the Brazilian obligations under the Convention on Nuclear Safety. The Chapter 7 of the document contains topics raised by the summary report of the first review meeting. The chapter covers status and position of the regulatory body, collective doses, effluents release trends, adoption of the ICRP 60 and basic safety standards, regulatory strategy, quality assurance, monitoring safety management, international cooperation, probabilistic safety assessment and safety improvement programmes

  12. Topics raised by the summary report of the first review meeting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-09-01

    This document presents the fulfilling of the Brazilian obligations under the Convention on Nuclear Safety. The Chapter 7 of the document contains topics raised by the summary report of the first review meeting. The chapter covers status and position of the regulatory body, collective doses, effluents release trends, adoption of the ICRP 60 and basic safety standards, regulatory strategy, quality assurance, monitoring safety management, international cooperation, probabilistic safety assessment and safety improvement programmes.

  13. Raising Awareness about Water Issues: The Role of Water Symbolism and Proverbs

    OpenAIRE

    Joško Sindik; Yoseph Negusse Araya

    2013-01-01

    Sustainable water management is one of the global grand challenges of our time. Tackling this challenge through corrective actions would require the participation of the general public, a public with sound awareness of the challenge and commitment. One such awareness raising intervention could be through the use of water symbolism and proverbs, targeted to particular society. Water has the different symbolism and levels of importance to people, depending of their personal characteristics and...

  14. International Technology Mergers & Acquisitions and Raising the Competitiveness of China Equipment Manufacturing Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Xiuling Liu; Li Cai; Huiping Tan

    2012-01-01

    Developing and strengthening the competitiveness of the equipment manufacturing industry is that needs solving the weighty problem. China equipment manufacturing enterprises could acquire the core technique with international tech-nology mergers & acquisitions. This is an important strategy that could facilitate raising innovation capital and R&D level of the enterprise by a wide margin. This paper analyses the problems of China equipment manufacturing industry, advantages of internat...

  15. Your Genes, Your Choices: Exploring the Issues Raised by Genetic Research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baker, C.

    1999-05-31

    Your Genes, Your Choices provides accurate information about the ethical, legal, and social implications of the Human Genome Project and genetic research in an easy-to-read style and format. Each chapter in the book begins with a brief vignette, which introduces an issue within a human story, and raises a question for the reader to think about as the basic science and information are presented in the rest of the chapter.

  16. Sweet Potato and Cassava Can Modify Cholesterol Profile in Humans with Moderately Raised Serum Cholesterol Levels

    OpenAIRE

    Theressa F. Aviles; Marco P. de Leon; Melissa S. Borlagdan; Aida C. Mallillin; Trinidad P. Trinidad; Rosario S. Sagum

    2013-01-01

    Sweet potato (kamote) and cassava are good sources of dietary fiber and resistant starch and are staple foods in the Philippines. The objective of the study is to determine changes in glucose and lipid profile after consumption of sweet potato and cassava in humans with moderately raised serum glucose and lipid profile. Sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas, Super Taiwan variety), and cassava (Manihot esculenta) were used as test foods while white bread was used as the control food. Fifty-nine appar...

  17. The cholesterol-raising factor from boiled coffee does not pass a paper filter.

    OpenAIRE

    Dusseldorp, M.; Katan, M. B.; Vliet, T. van; Demacker, P.N.M.; Stalenhoef, A.F.H.

    1991-01-01

    Previous studies have indicated that consumption of boiled coffee raises total and low density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, whereas drip-filtered coffee does not. We have tested the effect on serum lipids of consumed coffee that was first boiled and then filtered through commercial paper coffee filters. Sixty-four healthy volunteers consumed six cups per day of this boiled and filtered coffee for 17 days. Then, they were randomly divided into three groups, which, for the next 79 days, recei...

  18. DO FISCAL DEFICITS RAISE INTEREST RATES IN NIGERIA? A VECTOR AUTOREGRESSION APPROACH

    OpenAIRE

    Obi, Ben; Nurudeen, Abu

    2009-01-01

    The paper examines the effects of fiscal deficits and government debt on interest rates in Nigeria, by applying the Vector Auto-regression approach. The results confirm a positive interest rates effect of fiscal deficits and debt. It is recommended that government revenue base should be increased, while unnecessary spending should be discouraged. Moreover, where deficit financing is inevitable, it should be put into productive activities in order to create more employment opportunities, raise...

  19. What Meaning does Raising a Child with Autism have for Parents? A Qualitative Exploration

    OpenAIRE

    Jardine, Kirsten Marie

    2008-01-01

    Introduction: Children with autism experience difficulties in social interaction and communication which are often manifested behaviourally. The nature of these difficulties means that the task of parenting is often challenging. This study therefore aims to explore which aspects of raising a child with autism are most meaningful for parents. It will also investigate what, if any, are the positive aspects related to the experience of having a child with autism. Method: A q...

  20. Specification, proof, and model checking of the Mondex electronic purse using RAISE

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    George, C.; Haxthausen, Anne Elisabeth

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes how the communication protocol of Mondex electronic purses can be specified and verified against desired security properties. The specification is developed by stepwise refinement using the RAISE formal specification language, RSL, and the proofs are made by translation to PVS and SAL. The work is part of a year-long project contributing to the international grand challenge in verified software engineering.

  1. Structural evaluation of WIPP disposal room raised to clay seam G

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An error was discovered in the ALGEBBRA script used to calculate the disturbed rock zone around the disposal room and the shear failure zone in the anhydrite layers in the original version. To correct the error, a memorandum of correction was submitted according to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Quality Assurance program. The recommended course of action was to correct the error, to repeat the post-process, and to rewrite Section 7.4, 7.5, 8, and Appendix B in the original report. The sections and appendix revised by the post-process using the corrected ALGEBRA scripts are provided in this revision. The original report summarizes a series of structural calculations that examine effects of raising the WIPP repository horizon from the original design level upward 2.43 meters. Calculations were then repeated for grid changes appropriate for the new horizon raised to Clay Seam G. Results are presented in three main areas: (1) Disposal room porosity, (2) Disturbed rock zone characteristics, and (3) Anhydrite marker bed failure. No change to the porosity surface for the compliance re-certification application is necessary to account for raising the repository horizon, because the new porosity surface is essentially identical. The disturbed rock zone evolution and devolution are charted in terms of a stress invariant criterion over the regulatory period. This model shows that the propagation of the DRZ into the surrounding rock salt does not penetrate through MB 139 ck salt does not penetrate through MB 139 in the case of both the original horizon and the raised room. Damaged salt would be expected to heal in nominally 150 years. The shear failure does not occur in either the upper or lower anhydrite layers at the moment of excavation, but appears above and below the middle of the pillar one day after the excavation. The damaged anhydrite is not expected to heal as the salt in the DRZ is expected to

  2. Specific Language Impairment (SLI: The Internet Ralli Campaign to Raise Awareness of SLI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Conti-Ramsden Gina

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available In this short article, we discuss what is specific language impairment (SLI and why it is a hidden disability that few people have heard about. We describe the impact on research, policy and practice of SLI being a neglected condition. We end by providing the background and rationale of a new internet campaign, RALLI (www.youtube.com/rallicampaign, aimed at changing this state of affairs and raising awareness of SLI.

  3. RAISING INTERCULTURAL AWARENESS AT PRIMARY LEVEL THROUGH STORYTELLING WITHIN A CLIL APPROACH

    OpenAIRE

    Logioio, Alejandra Judith

    2010-01-01

    In an attempt to respond to recent communicative needs in foreign language education, this project work investigates how storytelling through a CLIL approach can contribute to raising intercultural awareness at primary level. This project work explores the use of storytelling, which includes traditional stories and tales from a diversity of cultures, as a springboard for activities that promote intercultural awareness through the teaching of content derived from the stories in ...

  4. Raising Awareness of Grey Literature in an Academic Community Using the Cognitive Behavioral Theory

    OpenAIRE

    Lin, Yongtao; Vaska, Marcus; Greynet, Grey Literature Network Service

    2009-01-01

    Cognitive skill training, part of cognitive behavior management, is based on the cognitive behavioral theory. The principle that thinking controls behavior has been widely used by educators to develop methods to improve the performance of students, while clinicians provide multifaceted health promotion and psychological counseling programs. The plan of our educational project is to raise awareness among students, faculty members, and researchers of material not produced via standard commercia...

  5. Bivariate raising and lowering differential operators for eigenfunctions of a 2D Fourier transform

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We define a two-dimensional (2D) Fourier transform that self-reproduces a one-parameter family of bivariate Hermite functions; these are eigenfunctions of a Hamiltonian differential operator of second order, whose exponential is that transform. We find explicit forms of the bivariate raising and lowering partial differential operators of first degree for the eigenfunctions of this 2D Fourier transform. (paper)

  6. Uterine Angioleiomyoma with Atypia, Raised CA-125 Levels, and Pseudo-Meigs Syndrome: An Alarming Presentation

    OpenAIRE

    Sunitha Thomas; Laxmi Radhakrishnan; Latha Abraham; Anna Matthai

    2012-01-01

    Angioleiomyomas are benign mesenchymal tumours commonly occurring in the subcutis of extremities. They are typically composed of interlacing fascicles of smooth muscle cells with intersecting vascular channels. Angioleiomyomas of the uterus are rare with only very few case reports available in literature. Herein, we report a case of this rare entity in a 47-year-old woman owing to its highly unusual features of cellular atypia, raised CA-125 levels, and pseudo Meigs syndrome.

  7. Transferrin Polymorphism in Hair Goat Breeds Raised in the Bursa Region

    OpenAIRE

    Elmaci, Cengiz; Koyuncu, Mehmet; Tuncel, Erdog?an

    2001-01-01

    In this study transferrin polymorphism was investigated in hair goat breeds raised in the Bursa region by using 148 blood samples of hair goat. The separation of transferrin types was carried out using horizontal starch-gel electrophoresis. The frequencies of transferrin alleles were calculated to be 0.54 ±0.029 and 0.46 ±0.029 for Tf A and Tf B , respectively. Differences between the expected and observed number of transferrin genotypes were insignificant.

  8. International Technology Mergers & Acquisitions and Raising the Competitiveness of China Equipment Manufacturing Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Xiuling Liu; Li Cai; Huiping Tan

    2012-01-01

    Developing and strengthening the competitiveness of the equipment manufacturing industry is that needs solving the weighty problem. China equipment manufacturing enterprises could acquire the core technique with international tech-nology mergers & acquisitions. This is an important strategy that could facilitate raising innovation capital and R&D level of the enterprise by a wide margin. This paper analyses the problems of China equipment manufacturing industry, advantages of internat...

  9. International Technology Mergers & Acquisitions and Raising the Competitiveness of China Equipment Manufacturing Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiuling Liu

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Developing and strengthening the competitiveness of the equipment manufacturing industry is that needs solving the weighty problem. China equipment manufacturing enterprises could acquire the core technique with international tech-nology mergers & acquisitions. This is an important strategy that could facilitate raising innovation capital and R&D level of the enterprise by a wide margin. This paper analyses the problems of China equipment manufacturing industry, advantages of international technology mergers & acquisitions and puts forward appropriate proposals and measures.

  10. Raised bed technology for wheat crop in irrigated areas of punjab, pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present paper analyzes the determinants of adoption of raised bed planting of wheat in irrigated areas of Punjab, Pakistan. Wheat is an important staple food of Pakistan. It contributes 13 % to the value added in agriculture and 2.6 % to the GDP. The agrarian economy of Pakistan is continuously under stress due to the low yield of almost all the crops and constrained with many problem. One of the most important issues of agriculture is water shortage which is increasing day by day and is a major challenge now a days. Therefore, water saving becomes the utmost need of the hour. The national research system is now putting their focus and efforts to manage the precious water through various modern/latest water saving models to draw some solid method of irrigation with less wastage. Raised bed planting method is also one of the modern methods of planting crop with significant water saving. The study was planned and conducted by the Social Sciences Research Institute, Faisalabad in 2011-12 to assess the determinants of the adoption of the raised bed technology for wheat crop in irrigated Punjab, Pakistan. The study was conducted at three sites of the districts Faisalabad and Toba Tek Singh where the Water Management Research Institute, University of Faisalabad promoted the raised bed technology for wheat crop. A sample of 63 farmers was interviewed in detail to understand the whole system and the factors contributing to the adoption of the technology. The study revealeption of the technology. The study revealed that adopters typically have a more favorable resource base and tend to variously outperform non-adopters. More access to education and other social indicators increases the chances to adopt new technologies by the farming community. However, the small farmers can also be benefited with the technology with proper education regarding the technology in the area with good social mobilization for the conservation of scarce and valuable farm resources. (author)

  11. Disentangling Ethnic and Contextual Influences Among Parents Raising Youth in High-Risk Communities

    OpenAIRE

    Hurley, Sean; BIERMAN, KAREN L.; Coie, John D.; DODGE, KENNETH A.; Greenberg, Mark T.; Lochman, John E.; McMahon, Robert J.; Pinderhughes, Ellen E.

    2008-01-01

    This article reports on analyses examining contextual influences on parenting with an ethnically and geographically diverse sample of parents (predominantly mothers) raising 387 children (49% ethnic minority; 51% male) in high-risk communities. Parents and children were followed longitudinally from first through tenth grades. Contextual influences included geographical location, neighborhood risk, SES, and family stress. The cultural variable was racial socialization. Parenting constructs cre...

  12. Communicating adaptation with emotions: the role of intense experiences in raising concern about extreme weather.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleftheria Vasileiadou

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Adaptation to extreme weather is often considered as having a low urgency and being a low priority governance option, even though the intensity of extreme weather events is expected to increase as a result of climate change. An important issue is how to raise an adequate level of concern among individuals, policy makers, and broader decision makers in companies and organizations so that adaptation to extreme events becomes mainstream practice. We conducted 40 indepth interviews with individuals from different sectors in The Netherlands to identify the different types of experiences with extreme events, as well as the relationship between such experiences and the level of concern about extreme weather. Our results indicate that individuals who have experienced an intense, life-threatening event have a significantly higher level of concern than those without such an experience. Professional experience and secondhand experience through participating in information events do not significantly affect the level of concern about extreme events. This suggests limited intervention possibilities for communication of adaptation, as well as for raising support for adaptation measures. Framing adaptation measures in relation to personal circumstances and emotions during extreme events could help raise concern about extreme weather events, as well as societal support for adaptation measures.

  13. Orbit Determination Accuracy Analysis of the Magnetospheric Multiscale Mission During Perigee Raise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pachura, Daniel A.; Vavrina, Matthew A.; Carpenter, J. R.; Wright, Cinnamon A.

    2014-01-01

    The Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) Flight Dynamics Facility (FDF) will provide orbit determination and prediction support for the Magnetospheric Multiscale (MMS) mission during the missions commissioning period. The spacecraft will launch into a highly elliptical Earth orbit in 2015. Starting approximately four days after launch, a series of five large perigee-raising maneuvers will be executed near apogee on a nearly every-other-orbit cadence. This perigee-raise operations concept requires a high-accuracy estimate of the orbital state within one orbit following the maneuver for performance evaluation and a high-accuracy orbit prediction to correctly plan and execute the next maneuver in the sequence. During early mission design, a linear covariance analysis method was used to study orbit determination and prediction accuracy for this perigee-raising campaign. This paper provides a higher fidelity Monte Carlo analysis using the operational COTS extended Kalman filter implementation that was performed to validate the linear covariance analysis estimates and to better characterize orbit determination performance for actively maneuvering spacecraft in a highly elliptical orbit. The study finds that the COTS extended Kalman filter tool converges on accurate definitive orbit solutions quickly, but prediction accuracy through orbits with very low altitude perigees is degraded by the unpredictability of atmospheric density variation.

  14. Structural evaluation of WIPP disposal room raised to Clay Seam G

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report summarizes a series of structural calculations that examine effects of raising the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant repository horizon from the original design level upward 2.43 meters. These calculations allow evaluation of various features incorporated in conceptual models used for performance assessment. Material presented in this report supports the regulatory compliance re-certification, and therefore begins by replicating the calculations used in the initial compliance certification application. Calculations are then repeated for grid changes appropriate for the new horizon raised to Clay Seam G. Results are presented in three main areas: 1. Disposal room porosity, 2. Disturbed rock zone characteristics, and 3. Anhydrite marker bed failure. No change to the porosity surface for the compliance re-certification application is necessary to account for raising the repository horizon, because the new porosity surface is essentially identical. The disturbed rock zone evolution and devolution are charted in terms of a stress invariant criterion over the regulatory period. This model shows that the damage zone does not extend upward to MB 138, but does reach MB 139 below the repository. Damaged salt would be expected to heal in nominally 100 years. The anhydrite marker beds sustain states of stress that promote failure and substantial marker bed deformation into the room assures fractured anhydrite will sustain in the proximity of the disposal roomsximity of the disposal rooms

  15. The apolipoprotein E polymorphism and the cholesterol-raising effect of coffee

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rymo Lars

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The response of serum cholesterol to diet may be affected by the apolipoprotein E (APOE ?2/?3/?4 polymorphism, which also is a significant predictor of variation in the risk of coronary heart disease (CHD and CHD death. Here, we test the hypothesis that the APOE polymorphism may modulate the cholesterol-raising effect of coffee. Objective We determined the effect of a coffee abstention period and a daily intake of 600 mL coffee on serum cholesterol and triglycerides with respect to the APOE polymorphism. Design 121 healthy, non-smoking men (22% and women (78% aged 29–65 years, took part in a study with four intervention periods: 1 and 3 a coffee free period of three weeks, 2 and 4 600 mL coffee/day for four weeks. Results APOE ?2 positive individuals had significantly lower total cholesterol concentration at baseline (4.68 mmol/L and 5.28 mmol/L, respectively, p = 0.01, but the cholesterol-raising effect of coffee was not influenced significantly by APOE allele carrier status. Conclusions The APOE ? 2 allele is associated with lower serum cholesterol concentration. However, the APOE polymorphism does not seem to influence the cholesterol-raising effect of coffee.

  16. Chromosome comparison between populations of the collared peccary, Tayassu tajacu, raised in captivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Carvalho de Souza

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available The collared peccary (Tayassu tajacu is widely distributed over the American continent, being found from the south of the USA to the north of Argentina. In Brazil, it is spread all over the country, being one of the potential species to be raised in captivity. Therefore, the cytogenetic techniques could be a potential tool for reproductive monitoring of animals raised in captivity, mainly when destined for commercial purposes. This study had the objective of determining the chromosome number of two populations raised in captivity and characterizing them by GTG banding. For this purpose, an analysis was made of mitotic metaphases obtained from lymphocyte cultures made from blood samples of 11 animals, six of which from the Northeast and five from the North of Brazil. The results of this analysis showed the same karyotype pattern for the species (2n=30 chromosomes and NF=48, besides corresponding to the South American pattern of the species, i.e., without a translocation between autosomes 1 and 8, chromosome X acrocentric, and no differences were found between the two populations studied. However, chromosomal polymorphisms were observed compared to data from the literature on populations from North and South America.

  17. Chromosome comparison between populations of the collared peccary, Tayassu tajacu, raised in captivity

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Patrícia, Carvalho de Souza; André, Salim Khayat; Igor, Chamon Seligmann; Rommel Mario, Rodríguez Burbano.

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available The collared peccary (Tayassu tajacu) is widely distributed over the American continent, being found from the south of the USA to the north of Argentina. In Brazil, it is spread all over the country, being one of the potential species to be raised in captivity. Therefore, the cytogenetic techniques [...] could be a potential tool for reproductive monitoring of animals raised in captivity, mainly when destined for commercial purposes. This study had the objective of determining the chromosome number of two populations raised in captivity and characterizing them by GTG banding. For this purpose, an analysis was made of mitotic metaphases obtained from lymphocyte cultures made from blood samples of 11 animals, six of which from the Northeast and five from the North of Brazil. The results of this analysis showed the same karyotype pattern for the species (2n=30 chromosomes and NF=48), besides corresponding to the South American pattern of the species, i.e., without a translocation between autosomes 1 and 8, chromosome X acrocentric, and no differences were found between the two populations studied. However, chromosomal polymorphisms were observed compared to data from the literature on populations from North and South America.

  18. Flicker adaptation or superimposition raises the apparent spatial frequency of coarse test gratings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaneko, Sae; Giaschi, Deborah; Anstis, Stuart

    2015-03-01

    Independent channels respond to both the spatial and temporal characteristics of visual stimuli. Gratings 3 cpd are sensed by sustained channels that prefer steady stimulation. From this we predict that adaptation to a spatially uniform flickering field will selectively adapt the transient channels and raise the apparent spatial frequency of coarse sinusoidal gratings. Observers adapted to a spatially uniform field whose upper or lower half was steady and whose other half was flickering. They then adjusted the spatial frequency of a stationary test (matching) grating on the previously unmodulated half field until it matched the apparent spatial frequency of a grating falling on the previously flickering half field. The adapting field flickered at 8 Hz and the spatial frequency of the gratings was varied in octave steps from 0.25 to 16 cpd. As predicted, adapting to flicker raised the apparent spatial frequency of the test gratings. The aftereffect reached a peak of 11% between 0.5 and 1 cpd and disappeared above 4 cpd. We also observed that superimposed 10 Hz luminance flicker raised the apparent spatial frequency of 0.5 cpd test gratings. The effect was not seen with slower flicker or finer test gratings. Altogether, our study suggests that apparent spatial frequency is determined by the balance between transient and sustained channels and that an imbalance between the channels caused by flicker can alter spatial frequency perception. PMID:25666488

  19. Emissions from soil fumigation in two raised bed production systems tarped with low permeability films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Ruijun; Gao, Suduan; Thomas, John E; Dickson, Donald W; Ajwa, Husein; Wang, Dong

    2013-10-01

    Raised beds are used to produce some high-value annual fruit and vegetable crops such as strawberry in California (CA) and tomato in Florida (FL), USA. Pre-plant soil fumigation is an important tool to control soil-borne pests in the raised beds. However, fumigant emissions have detrimental environmental consequences. Field trials were conducted to evaluate emissions of 1,3-dichloropropene (1,3-D) and chloropicrin (CP) in two different production systems with raised beds covered by different tarps. In the CA trial, InLine (60.8% 1,3-D and 33.3% CP) was drip-applied at 340 kg ha(-1) to 5 cm deep in the beds (30 cm high and 107 cm wide) tarped with polyethylene (PE) or virtually impermeable film (VIF). In the FL trial, carbonated Telone C35 (63.4% 1,3-D and 34.7% CP) was shank-applied at 151 kg ha(-1) to 20 cm deep in the beds (22 cm high and 76 cm wide) tarped with totally impermeable film (TIF). Emissions from tarped beds relative to furrows were contrary between the two trials. For the CA trial, the emission was 47% of applied 1,3-D and 27% of applied CP from PE tarped beds and 31% of applied 1,3-D and 15% of applied CP from VIF tarped beds, while that from uncovered furrows was<0.4% for both chemicals in both fields. In the FL trial, only 0.1% 1,3-D was emitted from the TIF tarped beds, but 27% was measured from the uncovered furrows. Factors contributing to the differences in emissions were chiefly raised-bed configuration, tarp permeability, fumigant application method, soil properties, soil water content, and fumigant carbonation. The results indicate that strategies for emission reduction must consider the differences in agronomic production systems. Modifying raised bed configuration and fumigant application technique in coarse textured soils with TIF tarping can maximize fumigation efficiency and emission reduction. PMID:23899923

  20. Ideologies, Struggles and Contradictions: An Account of Mothers Raising Their Children Bilingually in Luxembourgish and English in Great Britain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirsch, Claudine

    2012-01-01

    Researchers have studied family language planning within bilingual family contexts but there is a dearth of studies that examine language planning of multilingual parents who raise their children in one of the world's lesser spoken languages. In this study I explore the ideologies and language planning of Luxembourgish mothers who are raising

  1. The Effects of Explicit Feedback and Form--Meaning Processing on the Development of Pragmatic Proficiency in Consciousness-Raising Tasks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takimoto, Masahiro

    2006-01-01

    The present study evaluates the relative effectiveness of two types of input-based instruction, consciousness-raising instruction (the consciousness-raising task only) and consciousness-raising instruction with feedback (the consciousness-raising task + reactive explicit feedback) for teaching English polite requestive forms, involving 45 Japanese…

  2. Proof support for RAISE - by a Reuse Approach Based on Institutions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindegaard, Morten Peter

    2004-01-01

    Formal methods are mathematically based methods for developing software. Such methods usually involve that software and requirements are specified in a formal specification language, after which it is verified that the software meets the requirements. RAISE is a formal method with the associated specification language RSL and a proof system. Computer-based proof tools are available for RAISE, but a higher degree of automation is desired. Isabelle/HOL is a proof assistant for higher-order logic (HOL). It is an instantiation of the generic proof assistant Isabelle which offers a suitable degree of automation and flexibility. In order to use the Isabelle/HOL proof assistant for the RAISE method, translation from RSL to HOL is considered. The translation is based on institutions which formalize the informal notion of "a logical system". Institutions and morphisms between institutions are presented together with specifications over institutions and model-theoretic semantics of specifications. The concept of "light institution comorphisms" is introduced as a modification of well-known institution comorphisms, and it is proved that a light institution comorphism enables sound reuse of proof assistants when it has certain properties. Moreover, the concept of looser semantics of specifications is introduced as a model-theoretic description of the semantics of RSL specifications, and an equivalence result is proved. An institution for an applicative, deterministic subset of RSL, referred to as "mRSL", is defined. Then, a well-known institution for HOL is presented, and Isabelle/HOL is briefly described. An institution comorphism from the mRSL institution to the HOL institution is defined, providing a translation from mRSL to Isabelle/HOL, and it is proved that the light institution comorphism has the properties that enable sound reuse of the Isabelle/HOL proof assistant. The use of the translation is described in connection with three examples: logical circuits, a generalized railway crossing, and an encoding of Duration Calculus in RSL. In Danish: Formelle metoder er matematisk baserede metoder til udvikling af programmel. Sådanne metoder involverer som regel, at programmel og krav beskrives i et formelt specifikationssprog, hvorefter det verificeres, at programmellet opfylder de ønskede krav. RAISE er en formel metode med det tilhørende specifikationssprog RSL og et bevissystem. Der findes datamatbaserede bevisværktøjer til RAISE, men en højere grad af automation er ønskværdig. Isabelle/HOL er en bevisfører for højereordens logik (HOL). Bevisføreren er en instantiering af den generiske bevisfører Isabelle, der tilbyder en passende grad af automation og fleksibilitet. Med henblik på at benytte bevisføreren Isabelle/HOL i forbindelse med RAISE metoden, betragtes oversættelse fra RSL til HOL. Oversættelsen baseres på institutioner, der formaliserer det uformelle begreb "logisk system ". Institutioner og morfier mellem institutioner gennemgås sammen med specifikationer over institutioner og modelteoretisk semantikaf specifikationer. Begrebet "let institutionscomorfi" introduceres som en modifikation af velkendte institutionscomorfier, og det bevises, at en let institutionscomorfi muliggør sund genbrug af bevisførere, når den har visse egenskaber. Derudover introduceres begrebet løsere semantik af specifikationer som en modelteoretisk beskrivelse af semantikken af RSL- specifikationer, og et ækvivalensresultat bevises. Der defineres en institution for en applikativ, deterministisk delmængde af RSL, der benævnes "mRSL". Herefter præsenteres en velkendt institution for HOL, og Isabelle/HOL gennemgås kort. Der defineres en let institutionscomorfi fra mRSL- institutionen til HOL-institutionen, hvorved der fås en oversættelse fra mRSL til Isabelle/HOL, og det bevises, at den definerede lette institutionscomorfi har de egenskaber, der muliggør sund genbrug af bevisføreren Isabelle/HOL. Brugen af den definerede oversættelse beskrives i forbindelse med tre eksempler: logiske kredsløb, en jernbaneoverskæring

  3. Effects of different raising systems on colour and quality characteristics of turkish pekin duck meats

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    E., Lacin; M.I., Aksu; M., Macit; A., Yildiz; M., Karaoglu; N., Esenbuga; M.A., Yoruk.

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available The current trial was conducted to determine the influence of different raising systems on the meat quality properties of male Turkish Pekin ducks. Ninety male ducklings were randomly allocated to three experimental groups: an animal-fish integrated farming group (IG), a non-animal-fish integrated f [...] arming group (NIG) and a poultry house group (PHG). All ducklings were fed a starter diet from weeks 2 to 6 and a finisher diet from weeks 6 to 10. Feed and water were offered ad libitum. At the end of the trial all ducks were slaughtered and the carcasses were stored at 3 °C for 24 hours, after which L*, a* and b* values of the carcass skins were measured. After standard dissection of carcasses, pectoralis muscles were obtained on which pH, colour (L*, a*, b*, C and H), total aerobic mesophilic, total aerobic psychrotrophic, lactic acid bacteria, Micrococcus/Staphylococcus, yeast-mould and Enterobacteriaceae counts were determined. The different raising systems of the ducks had significant effects on the pH, total aerobic mesophilic, Enterobacteriaceae, and L* and b* values of the pectoralis muscle. The lowest pH, total aerobic mesophilic and Enterobacteriaceae counts were found in the PHG group. The lowest L* values for the pectoralis muscle were found in the IG group while the highest a* value was recorded in the IG group. Significant differences in skin colour were observed between the experimental groups. For all production groups, all microbial counts were found to be within acceptable ranges. However, pH, total aerobic mesophilic and Enterobacteriaceae results were found to be lower in the PHG group than in the other groups. Different raising systems were thus found to affect the meat and skin colour of ducks, which may influence the preference of consumers.

  4. Targeting residual cardiovascular risk: raising high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hausenloy, D J; Yellon, D M

    2008-11-01

    The last 20 years have witnessed dramatic reductions in cardiovascular risk using 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase inhibitors ("statins") to lower levels of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C). Using this approach one can achieve a reduction in the risk of major cardiovascular events of 21% for every 1 mmol/l (39 mg/dl) decrease in LDL-C. However, despite intensive therapy with high dose "statins" to lower LDL-C levels below 2.6 mmol/l (100 mg/dl), the risk of a major cardiovascular event in patients with established coronary artery disease remains significant at a level approaching an annual risk of 9%, paving the way for new strategies for reducing the residual cardiovascular risk in this patient group. Early epidemiological studies have identified low levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) (aerobic exercise, weight loss and dietary manipulation. Therapeutic strategies have included niacin, fibrates, thiazolidinediones and bile acid sequestrants. Newly developed pharmacological agents include apolipoprotein A-I mimetics and the cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) inhibitors, JTT-705 and torcetrapib, the latter of which has been recently withdrawn from clinical testing because of serious adverse effects. Emerging experimental studies investigating the complex pathways of HDL metabolism have identified several new targets for raising HDL-C with new pharmaceutical agents currently in development. For the time being, the long-acting formulations of nicotinic acid remain the most effective and best tolerated pharmacological strategy for raising HDL-C in patients already on statin therapy to control LDL-C. Therefore, raising HDL-C represents an important strategy for reducing residual cardiovascular risk in patients already optimally treated with statins, and should lead to further improvements in clinical outcomes in these patient groups. PMID:19103817

  5. Effect of ultraviolet rays upon the productivity and adaptive possibilities of sows raised under industrial conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two experiments, aimed at establishing the effect of treatment with UV-rays on productivity of sows, the growth rate of pigs up to weaning, their adaptive reactions, and the micro-climate on the premises were carried out with 60 sows, divided into two groups: group i (controls) raised on premises without treatment with UV-rays, and group ii (experimental) raised on premises under treatment with UV-rays. Both nursing sows and piglets until their weaning were raised under industrial conditions. Type PRK-2 mercury lamp of 120 V, 3.75 A, and 375 W was used as a source of UV-rays. Each animal was exposed to irradiation daily for a period of 2 min. The live weight of sows, prolificacy, live weight of pigs at weaning and number of culled pigs during the sucking period, were checked. The adaptive reactions of sows and pigs were examined by ACT-hormon testing. Before treatment and 3 h after treatment with this hormone leucocyte, eosinophile and erythrocyte count and the haemoglobin, Ca, blood sugar, total protein, albumin and globulin in the blood were checked. The temperature, moisture, velocity of movement and gas composition of air were measured prior to blood sampling. Under the conditions existing in industrial pig-breeding complexes ensuring complete feeding of animals UV-treatment did not produce essential effects on the productivity of sows and the growth rate of pigs as well as on the adaptive reactions of animals and the micro-climate on the premiseso-climate on the premises

  6. Growth curve of locally adapted pantaneiro cows raised under natural conditions

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Eleonora Araújo, Barbosa; Andréa Alves do, Egito; Urbano Gomes Pinto de, Abreu; Raquel Soares, Juliano; Joseane Padilha da, Silva; Arthur da Silva, Mariante; Alexandre Floriani, Ramos.

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to use morphometric and ultrasound evaluations to estimate the growth curve of the Pantaneiro cattle breed, raised in its natural habitat, aiming at the re-insertion of this breed in production systems. One hundred and three females, aging from months to 11 years, and [...] raised on native pastures, were evaluated. The animals belonged to the Conservation Nucleus of Embrapa Pantanal, located in the Pantanal of Mato Grosso do Sul (Brazil). Weight, thoracic perimeter (TP), body length (BL), rump height (RH), height at withers (HW), hip height (HH), depth (DP), distance between the ilia (DI) (cm) and rib-eye area (REA) were measured. To relate the measurements with the age of the animals, the univariate regression model was used, assigning the variable response to gamma distribution. The Pearson correlation between variables was also estimated. The inflection point of the growth curve was 37 months for HH; between 38 and 39 months for TP and HW; between 40 and 41 months for DI, HH and DP; and 45 months for BL. The REA results could not fit in a statistical model. The majority of the variables presented a correlation above 60% among themselves, except for REA × Age, of 15.81%; REA × HW, of 34.44%; HH × Age, of 46.19; HH × DI, of 58.07%; REA × HH, of 24.57%; and REA × TP, of 39.9%. The cows showed maturity age at 40 months, which may have occurred because they were raised in natural farming conditions. In Pantaneiro cows reared in extensive systems only on natural pastures, the use of ultrasound is not effective to estimate the curve of muscular development, perhaps because this breed was not selected for weight gain.

  7. Building America Case Study: Raised Ceiling Interior Duct System, New Smyrna, Florida (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2014-09-01

    One of BA-PIRC's longtime Habitat for Humanity partners, S.E. Volusia CO (SEVHFH), was interested in building a home to the new Challenge Home standards. SEVHFH routinely builds ENERGY STAR V3.1 homes. The only modification to their design needed to comply with the Challenge Home criteria was the interior duct requirement. Unwilling to incur the added costs of a foam roof deck or wall heights above 8 feet to accommodate a fur-down chase SEVHFH opted to build a fur-up or raised ceiling chase.

  8. Characterization of Monoclonal Antibodies Raised against the Latent Nuclear Antigen of Human Herpesvirus 8

    OpenAIRE

    Kellam, Paul; Bourboulia, Dimitra; Dupin, Nicolas; Shotton, Chris; Fisher, Cyril; Talbot, Simon; Boshoff, Chris; Weiss, Robin A.

    1999-01-01

    Human herpesvirus 8 (HHV-8; also designated Kaposi’s sarcoma-associated herpesvirus) is the likely etiological agent of Kaposi’s sarcoma (KS). HHV-8 encodes a latent nuclear antigen (LNA) which is the product of the viral gene orf 73. LNA is recognized by most infected patient sera and is the basis of current immunofluorescence assays used in epidemiological studies of HHV-8 infection. Here we describe the characterization of four monoclonal antibodies raised to the C-terminal third of LN...

  9. Raising the level of seismic protection of existing RC structures in seismically active regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zivko Bozinovski

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available RC structural systems appeared in practice after 1950, but with relatively weak and non-earthquake resistant structural elements. Modern RC systems started to be built after 1980. With the coming into effect of modern regulations, there arises the need for raising the level of seismic protection of existing RC structures that are not seismically built. The procedure for analysis and design is similar to the procedure for analysis and design of masonry buildings. For the RC elements, there is a more sophisticated method for definition of the capacity of strength, stiffness and deformability as well as definition of characteristic points in the P-? working diagram.

  10. Hematology and serum chemistry values of the lesser rhea (Pterocnemia pennata) raised in Patagonian farms (Argentina).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reissig, Elizabeth Chang; Robles, Carlos A; Sager, Ricardo

    2002-12-01

    Hematologic and serum chemistry values were determined for chicks, juveniles, and adult farmed lesser rheas (Prerocnemia pennata). Blood samples were taken during March-April 1998 from the brachial veins of lesser rhea, including 64 chicks, 24 juveniles, and 36 adults, raised in Patagonian farms (Argentina). Lesser rhea chicks had significantly lower erythrocyte counts, hematocrit, hemoglobin, red cell indices, and copper than did the juveniles and adult individuals. No significant differences were observed between females and males. Most values were similar to those reported for other ratites. The data obtained provide hematologic and serum chemistry values for lesser rhea from farms. PMID:12564529

  11. Technique improvement of thoracoabdominal CT scan for patients with arm-raising disability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To explore a new scanning technique to reduce and avoid image artifacts of thoracoabdominal CT and improve image quality for patients who cannot raise their arms. Methods: Sixty-one patients with arm-raising disability between March 2004 and May 2009 were enrolled in the study. Thirty-one cases before June 2007 were scanned with their arms beside their body (control group), 30 cases after June 2007 were scanned with their arms shifting to different imaging planes of the spine (study group), and another 30 patients who can raising their arms were taken as routine group. The images artifacts were blindly evaluated by 5-points scale (severe, less severe, moderate, minimum and no artifact) by 2 experienced CT technologists and one radiologist and compared between the three groups (X2 test). CT values and its noise of the liver with or without artifact of the three groups were measured and analyzed by one-way ANOVA test. Results: In the control group, 11 cases had severe, 15 cases had less severe, 5 cases had moderate. In the study group, 6 cases had moderate, 15 cases had minimum, 9 cases had no artifact. In the routine group, 8 cases minimum and 22 cases had no artifact. Image quality was significantly improved in the study group compared to the conventional group where X2=95.32 and P<0.01. CT value and the noise of the liver without artifact were (54.5 ± 3.0) HU and 10.7 ± 2.4 in the control group, (52.0 ± 3.5) HU and 10.7 ± 0.5 in tp, (52.0 ± 3.5) HU and 10.7 ± 0.5 in the study group, (53.7 ± 3.1) HU and 9.9 ± 0.5 in the routine group, respectively. CT value and noise of the liver with artifact were (41.7 ± 8.4) HU and 17.9 ± 2.6 in control group, (53.1 ± 6.9) HU and 11.0 ± 0.7 in the study group, (54.1 ± 2.4) HU and 9.9 ± 0.5 in the routine group, respectively. The CT value and its noise variation with artifact were significantly higher in the control group than the study group and the control group, where F=36.352, 235.848, respectively and P<0.01. Conclusion: The image quality can be improved and the artifact can be minimized for the patients with arm-raising disability by shifting their arm position to the different imaging planes of the spine. (authors)

  12. Mama `poma´, dad `apple´: Raising a Child with Catalan in Australia.

    OpenAIRE

    Victòria Gras

    2014-01-01

    The decision to speak Catalan to my daughter came naturally to me. How else would I tell a story, sing a lullaby or make her laugh but in the language I was told stories, sung lullabies to and made to laugh since I was a new-born! However, whereas the choice to speak one’s mother tongue to your children is not questioned anymore in Spain, making this same choice when you live elsewhere seems to raise a lot of eyebrows. In this article I will reflect, from my own experience...

  13. Brainstem tegmental necrosis and olivary hypoplasia: raising awareness of a rare neuropathologic correlate of congenital apnea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katsetos, Christos D; Anderson, Carol E; Guzman, Miguel A; Pascasio, Judy Mae; de Chadarévian, Jean-Pierre; Legido, Agustin

    2014-06-01

    This case study describes an instance of death in an early term female newborn with congenital apnea in the clinical setting of multiple congenital anomalies (retrognathia, posteriorly rotated ears, camptodactyly, and arthrogryposis) and prenatal history of polyhydramnios. Postmortem neuropathologic findings were significant for tegmental necrosis in the caudal pons and medulla characterized by a coalescence of microcalcifications accompanied by neuronal loss, axonal spheroids, gliosis, and a concomitant hypoplasia of the inferior olives. This report raises awareness of the rare lethal entity of brainstem tegmental necrosis and olivary hypoplasia and its nosological relationship to the Möbius syndrome in the context of differential diagnosis of congenital apnea owing to central respiratory dysfunction. PMID:25149959

  14. Raising students and educators awareness of radioactive materials transport through creative classroom materials and exhibits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The public is concerned about how the shipping and handling of radioactive materials affects them and their environment. Through exhibit showings doing professional education conferences and smaller, focussed workshops, the United States Department of Energy (DOE) has found teachers and students to be an especially interested audience for hazardous and radioactive materials transportation information. DOE recognizes the importance of presenting educational opportunities to students about scientific and societal issues associated with planning for and safely transporting these types of materials. Raising students' and educators' awareness of hazardous and radioactive materials transport through creative classroom materials and exhibits may help them make informed decisions as adults about this often controversial and difficult issue

  15. Children are costly, but raising them may pay: The economic approach to fertility

    OpenAIRE

    Martin Werding

    2014-01-01

    Objective: This article provides a non-technical introduction to analyses of fertility which are based on a rational-choice paradigm and which acknowledge that raising children may have a strong impact on the well-being of parents that can be described in terms of costs and benefits. It surveys different types of economic fertility models which can be used to address a variety of research questions, and it also discusses some basic strengths and weaknesses of applying economic analyses in thi...

  16. Raising the Dead without a Red Sea-Dead Sea project? Hydro-economics and governance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. E. Rosenberg

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Seven decades of extractions have dramatically reduced Jordan River flows, lowered the Dead Sea level, opened sink holes, and caused other environmental problems. The fix Jordan, Israel, and the Palestinians propose would build an expensive multipurpose conveyance project from the Red Sea to the Dead Sea that would also generate hydropower and desalinate water. This paper compares the Red-Dead project to alternatives that may also raise the Dead Sea level. Hydro-economic model results for the Jordan-Israel-Palestinian inter-tied water systems show two restoration alternatives are more economically viable than the proposed Red-Dead project. Many decentralized new supply, wastewater reuse, conveyance, conservation, and leak reduction projects and programs in each country can together increase economic benefits and reliably deliver up to 900 MCM yr?1 to the Dead Sea. Similarly, a smaller Red-Dead project that only generates hydropower can deliver large flows to the Dead Sea when the sale price of generated electricity is sufficiently high. However, for all restoration options, net benefits fall and water scarcity rises as flows to the Dead Sea increase. This finding suggests (i each country has no individual incentive to return water to the Dead Sea, and (ii outside institutions that seek to raise the Dead must also offer countries direct incentives to deliver water to the Sea besides building the countries new infrastructure.

  17. Increasing Public Participation through Awareness Raising Activities: A Case Study in Trao Reef Marine Reserve, Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hang Thi Minh Tran

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available In the last few decades, community-based management has evolved to become an effective approach in managing natural resources and solving environmental problems around the world. In this approach, stakeholder participation is considered as a very important factor contributing to the success or failure of the management effort. To promote and enhance stakeholder participation, awareness raising activities could be conducted in various innovative forms. This is clearly illustrated in the case of Trao Reef, a locally-managed marine reserve in central Vietnam. The paper reviews the management approach applied to Trao Reef, focusing on analysis of stakeholder participation. The high level of environmental awareness of the local community contributed to the successful outcome of the project. Many communication activities and awareness raising campaigns were organized within the community to get them involved in all steps of the management process. The project enhanced the marine resources and ecosystem health, and helped to build a more sustainable livelihood and living lifestyle for the local community. Trao Reef has become a role model for effective environmental management that harmonizes the socio-economic benefits of the local community and nature conservation.

  18. DETERMINATION OF ZERDAVA DOG (KAPI KOPEGI RAISED IN NORTHEAST OF TURKEY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orhan YILMAZ

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This is the first document on Turkish Zerdava dogs raised in northeast of Turkey. This study was carried out to define the morphologic traits of the Turkish Zerdava dogs raised in east of Turkey comparing with some other native dog breeds of Turkey. To this end, a total of 39 (19 male and 20 female dogs was analyzed using the Minitab 15 statistical software program using ANOVA and Student’s t-Test. Descriptive statistics and comparison results were for height at shoulders 51.2±0.35, height at rump 51.6±0.28, body length 56.3±0.35, heart girth circumference 50±1.43, chest width 25.6±0.22, cannon circumference 9.4±0.14, and head length 19.4±0.17 cm respectively. The overall results of the study demonstrated that Turkish Zerdava dogs had a very close resemblance to the Turkish Kangal (Karabash and Akbash Shepherd dogs related with body measurements. The Zerdava dogs reach mature body weight and size at around 18 months of age.

  19. Characteristics of milk production traits of Balkan goats raised under “low-input” production systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladan Bogdanovi?

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available In order to analyse dairy production traits (milk yield in full lactation, milk fat content, daily milk yield and length of lactation of Balkan goats raised under “low-input” production systems, data on 440 lactation records from 118 does raised on 9 farms in south-east part of Serbia were used. General linear model, used for analysing variability of lactation length, was consisting of following fixed effects: farm, year of birth, year of production and number of lactation. Model for milk yield in full lactation, milk fat content and daily milk yield was consisting of farms, year of birth, year of production and number of lactation as fixed effects and length of lactation as covariate. The highest milk yield (392 kg and the highest milk fat content (3.89 % were achieved in III lactation. Effects of farm, year of production and number of lactation were very significant sources of variation (P<0.001 for milk yield, daily milk yield and milk fat content, while the year of birth as factor of phenotypic variation in these traits expressed no such consistency. Highly significant sources of variation (P<0.001 for the length of lactation were farm and year of production, while the length of lactation had a significant influence (P<0.001 only for total milk yield variability.

  20. Raising Climate Finance from International Transport Sectors. Identification and Analysis of Governance Structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faber, J. [CE Delft, Delft (Netherlands); Pahuja, N.; Garg, A. [The Energy and Resources Institute TERI, New Delhi (India)

    2012-03-15

    Market based instruments (MBIs) for maritime transport have the potential to reduce emissions while at the same time raising funds for climate policies in developing countries. GHG emissions from international aviation and maritime transport accounted for approximately 5% of global anthropogenic emissions in 2005 and are rising rapidly. There is a clear need to address these emissions in order not to undermine policies for mitigating land based emissions. Developing countries need financial support to carry out climate policies, both adaptation and mitigation. The UN Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) makes policies by developing countries conditional on climate finance. In the current economic and financial circumstances, there is a need for new sources of finance. The governance of such MBIs should ensure that they are neither an international tax nor require hypothecation of fiscal revenues, while they should provide new and additional finance. MBIs which are in fact an international tax would not be politically feasible, and likewise hypothecation would be opposed by many states. This report finds that an emissions trading scheme (ETS) can satisfy these criteria, provided that: (1) it transfers a share of allowances directly to developing countries in order to ensure there is no net incidence on them; developing countries could auction these allowances in order to raise revenue; (2) it transfers allowances to the Green Climate Fund to support climate policies; auctioning these allowances would provide revenues for the Fund; (3) it transfers allowances to IMO or another organisation in order to finance fuel-efficiency improvements in international transport.

  1. Hypertonic saline for the management of raised intracranial pressure after severe traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangat, Halinder S; Härtl, Roger

    2015-05-01

    Hyperosmolar agents are commonly used as an initial treatment for the management of raised intracranial pressure (ICP) after severe traumatic brain injury (TBI). They have an excellent adverse-effect profile compared to other therapies, such as hyperventilation and barbiturates, which carry the risk of reducing cerebral perfusion. The hyperosmolar agent mannitol has been used for several decades to reduce raised ICP, and there is accumulating evidence from pilot studies suggesting beneficial effects of hypertonic saline (HTS) for similar purposes. An ideal therapeutic agent for ICP reduction should reduce ICP while maintaining cerebral perfusion (pressure). While mannitol can cause dehydration over time, HTS helps maintain normovolemia and cerebral perfusion, a finding that has led to a large amount of pilot data being published on the benefits of HTS, albeit in small cohorts. Prophylactic therapy is not recommended with mannitol, although it may be beneficial with HTS. To date, no large clinical trial has been performed to directly compare the two agents. The best current evidence suggests that mannitol is effective in reducing ICP in the management of traumatic intracranial hypertension and carries mortality benefit compared to barbiturates. Current evidence regarding the use of HTS in severe TBI is limited to smaller studies, which illustrate a benefit in ICP reduction and perhaps mortality. PMID:25726965

  2. Caregiver burden and sibling relationships in families raising children with disabilities and typically developing children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roper, Susanne Olsen; Allred, Diane W; Mandleco, Barbara; Freeborn, Donna; Dyches, Tina

    2014-06-01

    Using family systems theory as a theoretical framework, we investigated direct and indirect associations between type of disability, caregiver burden, and sibling relationships with structural equation modeling. We recruited 172 families raising typically developing children or a child with a disability. Participants volunteered at meetings and workshops for families of children with disabilities and were also recruited through snowball sampling. Mothers and fathers independently completed self-report questionnaires on caregiver burden and perceptions of the sibling relationship. Mothers experienced higher levels of caregiver burden than fathers. Parents of children with autism reported higher levels of caregiver burden than parents of typically developing children. Mothers of children with Down syndrome and multiple disabilities reported more positive sibling relationships than mothers of typically developing children. Mothers' and fathers' perceptions of caregiver burden were negatively related to their perceptions of the sibling relationship. Caregiver burden mediated the relationship between having a child with autism and positive sibling relationships. Results indicate the benefits of using a systems framework in examining families raising children with disabilities. Future research should focus on interventions for families of children with disabilities that help alleviate parental burden and foster positive sibling relationships. PMID:24818514

  3. Influence of raised plastic floors compared with pine shaving litter on environment and Pekin duck condition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karcher, D M; Makagon, M M; Fraley, G S; Fraley, S M; Lilburn, M S

    2013-03-01

    Commercial poultry production management practices have been under increased public scrutiny driven by concerns for food safety and animal welfare. Within the United States, wood shavings and raised plastic floors are common flooring systems used in duck production. It is intuitive that each flooring type would present different management challenges influencing physical characteristics of growing ducks. This study evaluated the relationship between flooring type and duck condition during the winter. Random samples of 20 ducks from 5 predetermined areas (n = 100) were examined in commercial duck houses (n = 9, litter; n = 11, raised plastic slats). Ducks were assessed at 7, 21, and 32 d of age for eye, nostril, and feather cleanliness, feather and foot pad quality, and gait. The data were analyzed to determine the proportion of ducks with a given score. In both housing types, the proportion of 0 scores for foot pad quality improved during the production cycle (P hygiene declined with age in ducks reared on litter flooring, whereas ducks reared on slatted flooring had cleaner feathers at d 32 (P < 0.011). With the exception of foot pad scores, the majority of ducks had no detectable problems for any single trait. The only main effect due to flooring pertained to feather quality with the proportion of ducks having a 0 or 1 score greater in litter flooring systems than slats (P < 0.05). Overall, the condition of ducks reared, regardless of flooring system, was considered to be good. PMID:23436508

  4. Equipment for inspection and carrying out repairs, if required, for tube bundles of steam raising units

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The equipment solves the problem of being able to inspect and possibly to repair U-tubes of a vertical steam raising unit standing on a tube floor, without draining the primary medium and bringing the test equipment and tools into the inside of the boiler first. This is achieved by leaving a considerable part of the equipment permanently in the hemispherical space under the tube floor and operating it from the outside, on the other side of the concrete shielding. An inspection tube is threaded in turn horizontally through a concrete shield, a tube duct in the heat insulation of the steam raising unit, and through a hole in the hemispherical space under the tube floor into this space. The end of an angle tube can be moved axially from outside the concrete shield and can be rotated in a semicircle above the tube axis. By interposing a, for example, 12 part distributor with 12 short, differently bent tubes 12 adjacent tubes opening into the tube floor can be controlled and tested, by axial movement of the angle tube together with the distributor, e.g. 4 x 12 other U tubes. A turbulent flow sensor, for example, can be introduced through the angle tube and distributor. In the non-operational condition the equipment is moved into a recess via a supporting angle and stopped there. (ORU)

  5. Development of survival skills in captive-raised Siberian polecats (Mustela eversmanni) I: locating prey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Brian; Biggins, Dean; Wemmer, Chris; Powell, Roger; Hanebury, Lou; Horn, Deborah; Vargas, Astrid

    1990-01-01

    Captive-raised mustelids appear to have a rudimentary capacity to kill prey, but the skills necessary for locating prey may be eroded during captivity. We tested the maturational component of prey-searching behavior with captive-raised Siberian polecats (Mustela eversmanni) by subjecting polecats to a simulated prairie dog colony of 6 burrows within a 200 m2 arena. Ten naive Siberian polecats at ages 2.5, 3.5, and 4.5 months (30 total) were deprived of food for 12 hours. A dead prairie dog was placed in 1 prairie dog burrow and the other 5 were empty. A single Siberian polecat was released onto the colony shortly before sunset and its movements monitored from an observation tower. Older Siberian polecats located prey significantly quicker than younger polecats, but all age groups spent a great deal of time in surface activity not directed toward a burrow. When Siberian polecats were about 10 months old, all burrows in the arena were plugged with dirt including the burrow with the prairie dog. In this winter test, Siberian polecats located the prey but still spent a great deal of time in non-burrow directed surface activity. Economical use of surface time, with a low amount of non-burrow directed behavior, would presumably reduce the risk of predation for hunting polecats.

  6. Raising of informative value of renal scintigraphy with 99mTc-DMSA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A method of high frequency image filtration improving the quality of imaging, and more precise renometry with measurement of the total count and the level of RP kidney accumulation were used for raising the informative value of the results of renal scintigraphy with 99mTc-DMSA. 54 patients with unilateral pyelonephritis, 46 - with bilateral pyelonephritis, 15 - with nephroptosis, and 10 healthy persons were examined. Informative values were calculated on the basis of the results of these investigations. The sensitivity of routine renometry was 0.88, its specificity - 0.27 and precision - 0.78; the same indices for routine static scintigraphy were 0.88; 0.4 and 0.84 ; for modified renal investigations - 0.98; 0.77 and 0.96, respectively. The results of the investigations have shown that the use of scintigraphy with improved quality of kidney image in parallel with modified renometry raises the informative value of renal studies with 99mTc-DMSA and precision of diagnosis of renal parenchymal lesions

  7. Rooks use stones to raise the water level to reach a floating worm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bird, Christopher David; Emery, Nathan John

    2009-08-25

    In Aesop's fable "The Crow and the Pitcher," a thirsty crow uses stones to raise the level of water in a pitcher and quench its thirst. A number of corvids have been found to use tools in the wild, and New Caledonian crows appear to understand the functional properties of tools and solve complex physical problems via causal and analogical reasoning. The rook, another member of the corvid family that does not appear to use tools in the wild, also appears able to solve non-tool-related problems via similar reasoning. Here, we present evidence that captive rooks are also able to solve a complex problem by using tools. We presented four captive rooks with a problem analogous to Aesop's fable: raising the level of water so that a floating worm moved into reach. All four subjects solved the problem with an appreciation of precisely how many stones were needed. Three subjects also rapidly learned to use large stones over small ones, and that sawdust cannot be manipulated in the same manner as water. This behavior demonstrates a flexible ability to use tools, a finding with implications for the evolution of tool use and cognition in animals. PMID:19664926

  8. [Comment on “Raising the ante on the climate debate”] Wasting public money?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parrish, Judith Totman

    The letters written by U.S. Rep. Joe Barton and his committee (Forum, Eos, 12 July 2005, p. 262) asking for data from Michael Mann and other scientists are certainly chilling because of the time it would take to meet the requests, but Rep. Barton has every right to make such requests.Thomas Crowley asked,“At some point, one must ask why should a member of the U.S. Congress get involved in this matter which may have been raised by a Canadian?” He opines that the reason was to intimidate and foment uncertainty. The real answer is, Barton is making the request because he can and is doing what, in his mind, is his job. That the issues were raised by a Canadian is immaterial; plenty of Americans are also skeptical of global change research. Moreover, the argument that “there is more agreement than disagreement” among the various paleoclimate reconstructions would not resonate with a layperson; even laypeople know that the history of science is fraught with examples of consensuses that proved wrong.

  9. Status of tuberculosis in bovine animals raised by tuberculosis infected patients in Western Chitwan, Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dhakal IP

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Bovine tuberculosis (bTB is an important public health concern worldwide. This study was conducted to determine the status of bTB in animals raised by tuberculosis patients in Western Chitwan, Nepal.MATERIALS AND METHODS: This cross-sectional study was conducted from August, 2011 to January, 2012. A total of 100 bovines (cattle and buffalo raised in 60 farms of tuberculosis patients were tested with single intradermal tuberculin test considering various animal factors. Well designed questionnaire survey was taken with 70 tuberculosis patients of same 60 families focusing knowledge, awareness and various practices related to bovine tuberculosis.RESULTS: Overall 15% bovines were positive for tuberculosis (13.6% cattle and 15.4% buffaloes. Age of animal was significantly associated with tuberculosis (p<0.05 while sex and species were not. 24% tuberculosis patients had raw milk consuming habit while very few of them (9% were aware of zoonotic aspect of bovine tuberculosis.CONCLUSIONS: There is high chance of tuberculosis transmission form animals to humans or vice versa. Further detailed study is needed in large scale with stronger intersectoral collaboration of medical and veterinary health sector to determine the scale of problem and find out prevention and control strategies against zoonotic tuberculosis.

  10. [Maria Goeppert-Mayer Award to Taiwan-born and raised American physicist Michele Ma Chung-pei

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    "The American Physical Society conferred the prestigious Maria Goeppert-Mayer Award to Taiwan-born and raised American physicist Michele Ma Chung-pei recently in recognition of her important contributions to theoretical astrophysics" (1 page).

  11. Reduction of emissions from Brazilian cattle raising and the generation of energy: Intensification and confinement potentials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The identification of the main sources of anthropic greenhouse gas emissions (GHG) associated with the mitigation and removal of these emissions has become an important instrument in the attenuation of the climatic changes predicted by the IPCC. The largest emission source in Brazil is forest conversion. This land use change has always had a strong relationship with the expansion of agriculture, an activity of great importance in the country, which has the largest commercial cattle herd in the planet. Following the considerable reduction in emissions from deforestation, agriculture has been since 2010 the most important source (MCTI (Ministério da Ciência, Tecnologia e Inovação), 2013. Brasília: Ministério daCiência, Tecnologia e Inovação, Brasil). Seeking to discover the possibilities of altering the emissions profile in the agricultural sector, four scenarios were developed related to how this is dealt with in the beef cattle sector, calculating the potential removal of carbon from the atmosphere through natural regeneration of biomes. The results suggest that picketing and rotation scenario has the greatest potential, with a carbon reduction of 17.7 Gt CO2eq, while the shared raising with grain legumes scenario has the lowest calculated reduction potential of 7.1 Gt CO2eq was calculated. The animal confinement scenario had an intermediary reduction potential of 8.3 Gt CO2eq. The mosaic of methods scenario, in which it is attempted to simulate the parallel adoption of the measures proposed in all other scenarios, had a reduction potential of 13.1 Gt CO2eq. In the scenarios where animal confinement occurs, the treatment of waste with biodigestion allows the generation of biogas and biofertilizers, contributing to an increase in the potential carbon reduction. - Highlights: • We identify one main source of anthropic GHG in Brazil after forest conversion (deforestation), the beef cattle raising. • Four scenarios to mitigate emissions from cattle raising (agriculture sector) are modeled. • We calculate potential removals of carbon from the atmosphere through natural regeneration of biomes for each scenario. • The results suggest that picketing and rotation has the greatest potential, with a carbon reduction of 1.8 Mt CO2eq/yr. • Biodigestion of manure allows the generation of biogas and biofertilizers, increasing carbon reduction potentials

  12. Aspectos epidemiológicos da caprinocultura cearense / Epidemiological aspects of the raising goat in Ceará State, Brazil

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    R.R., Pinheiro; A.M.G., Gouveia; F.S.F., Alves; J.P.A., Haddad.

    2000-10-01

    Full Text Available O desenvolvimento da caprinocultura na região Nordeste do Brasil é severamente afetado por inúmeros fatores, entre eles a alta incidência de doenças. Objetivou-se conhecer o atual manejo sanitário empregado e os problemas sanitários existentes na opinião do criador do Ceará. O trabalho foi realizado [...] nas várias regiões criadoras de caprinos de raças leiteiras, nativas ou sem raça definida. Foram selecionadas 127 propriedades onde se aplicou um questionário. A percentagem média de mortalidade de animais foi de 22,8% e 4,6% em jovens e adultos, respectivamente. Os sinais clínicos relatados, por ordem, foram: anemia e edema de barbela (81,9% dos criatórios), diarréia (78,7%), aborto (75,6%), pododermatite (67,7%), linfadenite (66,9%), ectoparasitoses (63,8%), mamite (51,2%), pneumonia (44,9%), lesões vesiculares de pele (35,4%), ceratoconjuntivite (29,1%), problemas de ordem nervosa (26,8%), malformação fetal (15%), criptorquidismo (11%), prolapso de vagina/útero (11%) e artrite (8,7%). Pode-se concluir que o manejo sanitário dos caprinos desses criatórios é precário, independente do tipo de exploração ou regime de criação, a mortalidade de animais, principalmente de jovens, é considerada alta. Mesmo em criatórios com exploração leiteira não existe uma preocupação rigorosa com higiene e qualidade do leite. Abstract in english The development of the goat raising in the Northeastern region of Brazil is hardly affected by several factors, among them, the high incidence of illness. The aim of this study was to assess the adopted sanitary management and the healthy problems according to Ceara’s goat breeders. The work was car [...] ried out in many regions of dairy and native goat raising. There were selected 127 properties where a questionnaire was applied. Mean percentage of animals’ mortality was 22.8 and 4.6% for young and adult, respectively. Reported clinical signs were: anemia and dewlap edema (81.9% of the properties), diarrhea (78.7%), abortion (75.6%), foot rot (67.7%), lymphadenitis (66.9%), external parasites (63.8%), mastitis (51.2%), pneumonia (44.9%), goat pox (35.4%), keratoconjunctivitis (29.1%), nervous disorders (26.8%), fetal malformation (15%), cryptorchidism (11%), uterus/vagina prolapsed (11%), arthritis (8.7%), foot and mouth disease (2.4%) and rabies (0.8%). It could be concluded that the goats’ sanitary management of those properties is precarious, independently either the exploitation way or the raising regimen; the animals’ mortality, especially the youngest ones, is considered high; and even in dairy properties there is a lack of rigid worry concerning about hygiene and milk quality.

  13. Performance of Seedling Ages and Seedling Raising Techniques on Yield and Yield Components of Transplant Aman Rice

    OpenAIRE

    M. Z. Alam; M Ahmed; Alam, M. S.(State University of New York, 12222, Albany, New York, USA); M.E. Haque; M.S. Hossin

    2002-01-01

    The experiment was carried out to investigate the effect of (a) three seedling ages viz. 21, 28 and 35 days and (b) four seedling raising techniques viz. normal wet, modified wet, floating and modified dapog on the yield and yield components of transplant aman rice cv. Binadhan 4. Except the number of non-effective tillers hill-1, weight of 1000-grains, harvest index and other characters were significantly influenced by both seedling ages and seedling raising techniques...

  14. The application of quality control circle in neurosurgery ICU nurses in raising compliance of the head of a bed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Na LI

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To explore the application of quality control circle in raising compliance of the head of a bed in neurosurgery ICU nurses. Methods: The quality control circle was made up of 4 ICU nurses, determine the subject in order to improve the neurosurgery ICU nurses in raising compliance of the head of a bed, according to the QCC activity steps to formulate plans, including grasp the current situation, goal setting, through analysis, circle members develop strategy and plan implementation and review, finally compared the situation before and after neurosurgery ICU nurses raised bed activities compliance. Results: After implementation of QCC, neurosurgery ICU nurses raised bed to 30 ~ 45 degrees. After activities, circle members in the team cooperation ability, cohesion, to accept new things ability, and innovative thinking ability and to raise the understanding of the relevant knowledge of the head of a bed has improved significantly. Conclusion: The application of quality management circle activity improves the neurosurgery ICU nurses effectively raise the compliance of the head of a bed, improve the comprehensive quality of the clinical nurses.

  15. Transfer of jacking up anchor for steam raising unit in Tokai Power Station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tokai power station was closed down in March 1998 and is being decommissioned. Removal works of steam raising unit (four units of heat exchangers) by jacking down method of construction started from August 2010 with decommissioning data accumulated. 'Tear 2' of heat exchanger shell was removed by April 2012 and transfer work of jacking up anchor firstly attached at 'tear 7' of heat exchanger shell was performed with newly installed anchor by welding and annealing at top head shell of heat exchanger outside controlled areas so as to avoid possible interference with support hoist of remote-operated primary cutting equipment with further removal work of heat exchanger. Jack system on the roof floor of heat exchanger area of reactor building was horizontally moved toward the center of heat exchanger and its strands were connected to new anchor. (T. Tanaka)

  16. Bog discharge from different viewpoints: comparison of Ingram's theory with observations from an Estonian raised bog

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oosterwoud, Marieke; van der Ploeg, Martine; van der Zee, Sjoerd

    2013-04-01

    Raised bogs are typically dome shaped and have a groundwater level located close to the soil surface. Besides their typical dome shape, these peatlands are often characterized by a pronounced surface topography consisting of pools, wet depressions (hollows), stretches of Sphagnum species (lawns), drier mounds (hummocks) and higher drier areas with terrestrial vegetation (ridges). These peat bodies drain laterally by gravity to adjacent areas with lower groundwater levels. The integrity of these bogs is only ascertained when water is stored in the peat body in periods of precipitation deficit and efficiently removed in wet periods. This is realized by the fact that the bog's top layer, often called acrotelm, has a variable hydraulic conductivity. In response to precipitation its hydraulic conductivity increases, whereas, under evaporative demand the water table lowers and therefore also the hydraulic conductivity decreases. Ingram proposed a model based on the Dupuit-Forchheimer approximation for Darcy's law that assumes vertical flow is negligible, and the slope of the water table is equal to the hydraulic gradient. U- Hm2- K = L2 (1) where U is net recharge (P-ET), K is horizontal hydraulic conductivity, Hm is hydraulic head above a flat bottom at the centre of the bog, L is half the width of the bog along the cross section. This model incorporates the assumption that all net rainfall reaching the water table will be discharged to the stream. Ingram's model does not consider local heterogeneities in surface topography, like pool-ridge patterns. We hypothesize that under drier conditions it is likely that pool-ridge patterning will inhibit water from flowing along the surface gradient. Under wet conditions, however, pools can become connected and water can move through the upper highly permeable layer of ridges. In this study, we investigated the influence of ridge-pool patterning on the horizontal water flow through a raised bog and compared it with Ingram's approach. Our study site was Mannikjarve, a raised bog located centrally in Estonia and part of the larger Endla Nature Reserve. The size of the bog is approximately 2 km2. Mannikjarve is characterized by a surface pattern of different microtopes consisting of ridge-pool, hollow-ridge, hummock-hollow, Sphagnum lawn, and margin forest. We created a flow-net based on the raised bogs surface elevation. This flow-net defines the direction of lateral flow in the acrotelm. Based on the flow-net we divided the bog into sub-catchments representing the area contributing to discharge at the outlets of the bog. The measured discharge was used in a double mass analysis to calculate discharge ratio's. We assume that changes in discharge ratio's can be relate to changes in contributing area as a result of variable water flow paths. Furthermore, we compared the measured discharges with calculated discharge according to Ingram's model. Based on several reasonable estimates for input parameters, the observed discharges cannot be reproduced with the Ingram model. Furthermore, discharge ratio's between different sub-catchments within the peatland appear to be not constant over time, thus suggesting a shift in water divides that depends on atmospheric events.

  17. The dismantling of the Tokai 1 Steam Raising Units using remotely controlled techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Tokai 1 gas cooled reactor 166 MW(e) reactor went into service in 1966 and was shut down in 1998. Since that date the Japan Atomic Power Company, the owner of the plant has been planning and implementing an ambitious programme which will lead to the first Level 3 decommissioning of a commercial power reactor in Japan. JPC's basic strategy is to manage and perform the decommissioning work with in-house resources, calling on the support of specialist companies as and when required. This paper describes the JPC programme and in particular the dismantling of the 4 steam raising units (SRU) which is to be performed using remotely controlled equipment. (authors)

  18. Interpreting the mineral reservation of the Stock-Raising Homestead Act: Watt v. Western Nuclear, Inc

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Supreme Court interpreted the Stock-Raising Homestead Act (SRHA) in Watt v. Western Nuclear, Inc. as reserving common gravel deposits to the US because they are minimal in character. This ignored traditional rules of statutory construction, an adopted an all-inclusive definition of the term minerals that is limited only by fluctuating market conditions. The Court subjugated the original congressional objective of settling the West to the current policy of reserving all assets absolutely. Rather than clarifying the definition of reserved minerals, this injected additional ambiguity into the land title area in which the Court has been unwilling to upset settled expectations. Such a departure from the common use and understanding of the term and from property rights cannot be justified by either policy considerations or notions of justice and fair play

  19. Molecular characterization and differentiation of five horse breeds raised in Algeria using polymorphic microsatellite markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berber, N; Gaouar, S; Leroy, G; Kdidi, S; Tabet Aouel, N; Saïdi Mehtar, N

    2014-10-01

    In this study, genetic analyses of diversity and differentiation were performed on five horse breeds raised in Algeria (Barb, Arab-Barb, Arabian, Thoroughbred and French Trotter). All microsatellite markers were highly polymorphic in all the breeds. A total of 123 alleles from 14 microsatellite loci were detected in 201 horses. The average number of alleles per locus was the highest in the Arab-Barb horses (7.86) and lowest in the thoroughbred breed (5.71), whereas the observed and expected heterozygosities per breed ranged from 0.71 (Thoroughbred) to 0.752 (Barb) and 0.71 (Thoroughbred) to 0.77 (Arab-Barb), respectively. The genetic differentiation between the breeds was significant (p horse populations and the other breeds. The Barb and Arab-Barb breeds seem to be the most genetically related and support the decision to consider the breeds as same population. PMID:24834806

  20. Raising awareness of amphibian Chytridiomycosis will not alienate ecotourists visiting Madagascar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wollenberg, Katharina C; Jenkins, Richard K B; Randrianavelona, Roma; Ralisata, Mahefa; Rampilamanana, Roseline; Ramanandraibe, Andrianirina; Ravoahangimalala, Olga Ramilijaona; Vences, Miguel

    2010-06-01

    Chytridiomycosis (Bd) is contributing to amphibian extinctions worldwide but has so far not been detected in Madagascar. The high likelihood for Bd to spread to the island and efface this amphibian diversity and endemism hotspot requires respective conservation policies to be developed. Bd could be introduced by the large number of tourists that visit protected areas; therefore, increasing awareness among tourists and encouraging them to participate in safety measures should be a priority conservation action. However, concerns have been raised that tourists would not be able to distinguish between an amphibian disease harmless to humans and emerging diseases that would imply a danger for human health, invoking a negative image of Madagascar as an ecotourism destination. We evaluated whether informing tourists about this infectious animal disease would cause health scare and diminish trip satisfaction. Based on 659 respondents we found that most ecotourists favored to be informed about Bd and were proactive about participating in prevention measures, refuting previous concerns. PMID:20517634

  1. Seroepidemiological survey on Japanese encephalitis virus in swine raising on the southern border of Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antarasena, C.

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available From February to March 1999, a seroepidemiological survey on Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV was carried out. One thousand and thirteen serum samples of swine were collected from 37 farms in 4 provinces at the southern border of Thailand; Songkhla, Yala, Narathiwat and Satun. Japanese encephalitis virus antibody was measured using microtiter hemagglutination inhibition (HI test. The results indicated that 95.12 - 99.42% of the breeder pigs had JE-HI antibodies at > 1:40 compared with 89.08% of the gilts. The percentages of seropositive animals were 49.75%, 50.65% and 100% in fattening pigs, weaning and suckling piglets, respectively. The study demonstrated a high exposure rate of JEV infection among swine population raised on the southern border of Thailand.

  2. Raising energy efficiency and cutting greenhouse gas emissions : an analysis of publicly funded petroleum research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-11-01

    From the preface: This brochure is based on an analysis study that ascertained that since 2004 the Research Council's PETROMAKS and DEMO 2000 programmes have allocated funding to more than 80 projects carried out by the research community and private industry relating to climate challenges. Once these projects have been concluded, they will have received a total of over half a billion kroner in public funding. There is no doubt that many of the measures recommended by these projects will have positive impacts on the environment. Many of these research findings can contribute to making processes more energy efficient or to directly reducing emissions of greenhouse gases. The brochure presents a selection of these projects. A complete list of projects under the PETROMAKS and DEMO 2000 programmes which address raising energy efficiency may be found at the end of the brochure.(eb)

  3. Development of decontamination technologies for Tokai Power Station's Steam Raising Units (SRU)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steam Raising Units (SRU) are identified as the largest metallic radioactive waste appearing from the ongoing decommissioning campaign of Tokai Power Station. Considering its low activity, it is believed that a practical way to minimize the disposal cost should be decontamination together with other contaminated metallic components. To find a reasonable and effective decontamination method for SRU, research and development efforts were made by Japan Atomic Power Company (JAPC) and Nuclear Power Engineering Corporation (NUPEC). Kawasaki Heavy Industries Ltd. (KHI), the manufacturer of SRU, took an important role in these R and D activities, applying its rich store of knowledge from experiences of maintenance, engineering abilities, and so on. Here we present the detail of these R and D activities and our own efforts. (author)

  4. Grammar Consciousness-Raising Activities and Iranian EFL Learners' Attitudes toward English Language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farrokhlagha Heidari

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The first purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of consciousness-raising (C-R activities on learning grammatical structures by Iranian EFL learners. The second one was to investigate the effect of gender through C-R activities and tasks. Finally, this study wanted to investigate the Iranian students’ attitudes toward learning English prior to and after applying the C-R activities. An attitude questionnaire was use to investigate the participants' attitudes toward learning English before and after applying C-R activities. Data analysis indicated that using C-R activities in is significantly more effective than the traditional approaches. Regarding gender, male outperformed females. Therefore, it is recommended that other teachers consider C-R activities as useful options in teaching other aspects of language.  Based on the statistics and findings, Iranian students’ attitudes toward learning English language were not much different prior to and after applying C-R activities.

  5. Raising Awareness about Water Issues: The Role of Water Symbolism and Proverbs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joško Sindik

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Sustainable water management is one of the global grand challenges of our time. Tackling this challenge through corrective actions would require the participation of the general public, a public with sound awareness of the challenge and commitment. One such awareness raising intervention could be through the use of water symbolism and proverbs, targeted to particular society. Water has the different symbolism and levels of importance to people, depending of their personal characteristics and socio-demographic factors (e.g. gender, age, occupation, residence. Similarly, water proverbs can also demonstrate attitudes towards water among communities, ethnic groups and whole nations. Such meanings and symbolism could help determine attitude and be a powerful tool towards education. In this context, we describe and propose a psychological Health Belief Model (HBM as a way to explain behaviour and stimulate sustainable water management practice.

  6. Policy issues raised by intervenor requests for financial assistance in NRC proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of the report presented is to focus and develop the myriad issues raised by intervenor requests for financial assistance for the NRC's proposed rulemaking proceeding. The report analyzes and assesses the various alternatives open to the Commission, and collects relevant data and material which may be informative to those participating in and conducting the rulemaking. Three major questions are examined: (1) should the Commission, as a matter of policy choice, provide financial assistance to intervenors in NRC proceedings; (2) are there preferable alternatives to direct intervenor financial aid, such as the establishment of an office of public counsel or provision of other forms of Commission assistance; and (3) what are the legal, administrative and policy considerations involved in implementing a determination to award financial assistance to intervenors, should the Commission so decide

  7. Occurrence of Theileria equi in horses raised in the Jaboticabal microregion, São Paulo State, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldani, Cristiane Divan; Nakaghi, Andrea Cristina Higa; Machado, Rosangela Zacarias

    2010-01-01

    Blood and serum samples from 170 horses raised in the Jaboticabal microregion, São Paulo State, Brazil, were collected and tested by microscopic examination of blood smears, indirect fluorescent antibody test (IFAT) and nested polymerase chain reaction (nPCR) for Theileria equi infections. The association among the test results was verified by the McNemar test. During the examination of thin blood smears, parasites were detected in six (3.52%) horses. Anti-T. equi antibodies were detected in 100% sera samples, with titers ranging between 1:80 and 1:5120. The nPCR based on the T. equi merozoite antigen gene (EMA-1) allowed the visualization of species-specific amplified product in 108 (63.53%) horses. All six samples judged positive microscopically were also positive for nPCR. Statistical analysis indicated general disagreement (p equi is widely spread among horses in the Jaboticabal microregion, Northeast region of São Paulo State, Brazil. PMID:21184699

  8. Most frequent nematode parasites of artificially raised pheasants (Phasianus colchicus L and measures for their control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavlovi? Ivan

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Helminthoses have an important role in the pathology of artificially raised game pheasants. During the period 1997-2002. we examined a total of 1893 pheasant poults aged from 4 to 14 weeks and 1432 adult birds at several pheasanteries in Serbia. The following nematode species were found: Syngamus trachea, Ascaridia galli, A. columbae, Heterakis gallinarum, H. isolonche Capillaria gallinae (sin. C. caudinflata, C. columbae (sin. C. obsignata and C. phasianis. The intensity of infection in total was not high, except for infection with ascaridata and gapeworms, and depended of age of the examined birds. Consisting of anthelmintic drugs mixed with meal gave the most favourable results in therapy on rhe medicated food.

  9. Raising money with tax incentives: an overview of how U.S. tax credits are marketed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article outlines a method for using certain U.S. income tax credits to raise investment capital. With proper structuring, these tax credits can essentially be ''sold'' to outside investors. A project which may not have sufficient income to take advantage of tax benefits, such as the 29 alternative fuel credit, may sell an interest in the project to commercial investors who can use tax credits. The investors provide cash for the project in return for the tax credits, as well as a portion of the income generated by the project. This article outlines how this type of arrangement can be structured and which tax credits are available for ''sale''. It also identifies possible sources of investment money, issues that an investor will likely consider before investing in such a project, and the potential pitfalls of such a project. (author)

  10. Genetic diversity of a large set of horse breeds raised in France assessed by microsatellite polymorphism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mériaux Jean-Claude

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The genetic diversity and structure of horses raised in France were investigated using 11 microsatellite markers and 1679 animals belonging to 34 breeds. Between-breed differences explained about ten per cent of the total genetic diversity (Fst = 0.099. Values of expected heterozygosity ranged from 0.43 to 0.79 depending on the breed. According to genetic relationships, multivariate and structure analyses, breeds could be classified into four genetic differentiated groups: warm-blooded, draught, Nordic and pony breeds. Using complementary maximisation of diversity and aggregate diversity approaches, we conclude that particular efforts should be made to conserve five local breeds, namely the Boulonnais, Landais, Merens, Poitevin and Pottok breeds.

  11. Strained-Si nMOSFET with a raised source/drain structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, electrical characteristics for strained-Si n-channel metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect-transistors (nMOSFETs) combining raised source/drain (RSD) structure and cobalt silicide have been studied using the devices with various gate pattern areas (W × L). A strained-Si device with RSD structure provides an additional driving current enhancement (up to 12%) for large-area devices (W × L = 10 × 10 µm2) compared to a strained-Si device without RSD. Further improvement of 24% for device areas down to W × L = 0.15 × 0.15 µm2 indicates that obvious pattern effects exist in strained-Si without RSD case, which is mainly due to the formation of silicide agglomeration at the source/drain (S/D) region and is responsible for the increased S/D resistance

  12. Mind the gap: the distributional effects of raising the early eligibility age and full retirement age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, Anya

    2012-01-01

    Policymakers have proposed increases to the early eligibility age (EEA) and/or full retirement age (FRA) to address increasing life expectancy and Social Security solvency issues. This analysis uses the Social Security Administration's Modeling Income in the Near Term, version 6 (MINT6) model to compare three retirement-age increases suggested by the Social Security Advisory Board: increase the gap between the EEA and FRA by raising only the FRA, increase both the EEA and FRA to maintain a 4-year gap between them, and increase both the EEA and FRA to maintain a 5-year gap between them. Although all three options would improve system solvency by similar proportions, their effect on individual beneficiaries in the future would vary. Benefit reductions are greater under the proposals with more months between the EEA and FRA, while the option that maintains a 4-year gap results in benefit increases for some beneficiaries compared with current law. PMID:23397744

  13. Importance of the horse and financial impact of equine trypanosomiasis on cattle raising in Venezuela.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, S Andrea; Concepción, Juan Luis; Nava, Mayerly; Molinari, Jesús

    2013-11-01

    In Venezuela, horses are indispensable for extensive cattle raising, and extensive cattle raising prevails in all regions. This determines the numerical relationship between horses and cattle (r?=?0.93) to be relatively constant nationwide. At regional level, the average extension of cattle ranches varies greatly. However, in relation to the area covered by pastures, the numbers of horses (r?=?0.95) and cattle (r?=?0.93) are relatively uniform nationwide. Water buffalo occupy small fractions of the territory; therefore, their numbers are related to the area of pastures less strongly (r?=?0.56). There is no information on the numerical relationship between the numbers of horses and water buffalo. In the Llanos region of the country, equine trypanosomiasis is responsible for a high mortality in horses, causing considerable financial losses to cattle ranches. So far, such losses have not been assessed. For this region, in 2008, it can be calculated that: (1) with no treatment, losses owing to horse mortality caused by this hemoparasitosis would have amounted to US$7,486,000; (2) the diagnosis and treatment of affected horses would have required an investment of US$805,000; and (3) in terms of horses saved, this investment would have resulted in benefit of US$6,232,000. Therefore, for every monetary unit invested, there would be a benefit 7.75 times greater, this ratio being applicable to any year and all regions of the country. It follows that the profitability of investing in the diagnosis and treatment of equine trypanosomiasis is guaranteed. PMID:23666515

  14. Sweet Potato and Cassava Can Modify Cholesterol Profile in Humans with Moderately Raised Serum Cholesterol Levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theressa F. Aviles

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Sweet potato (kamote and cassava are good sources of dietary fiber and resistant starch and are staple foods in the Philippines. The objective of the study is to determine changes in glucose and lipid profile after consumption of sweet potato and cassava in humans with moderately raised serum glucose and lipid profile. Sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas, Super Taiwan variety, and cassava (Manihot esculenta were used as test foods while white bread was used as the control food. Fifty-nine apparently healthy human adults were fed with the test foods for 90 days and grouped into three: Control, Sweet potato and Cassava. After an overnight fast, 10 mL blood samples were taken from the study participants for total cholesterol, HDL-C, LDL-C, triglycerides, glucose and hemoglobin A1C measurements. Height/weight and percent fat mass were also determined. The groups given sweet potato and cassava significantly increased HDL-C (P 0.05. There was a significant decrease in LDL-C in the cassava group (P 0.05. The group given slice bread significantly increased serum triglycerides (P 0.05. No significant results were observed with regards to BMI, percent fat, glucose, HbA1C, and total cholesterol. In conclusion, sweet potato and cassava increased HDL-C and decreased LDL-C in humans with moderately raised serum glucose and cholesterol levels. Sustainable intake of sweet potato and cassava may be promising in the prevention for risk of cardiovascular diseases as well as obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus.

  15. 25 CFR 1000.195 - When must an affected Tribe/Consortium or Tribal organization raise the issue of a limitation or...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...Tribal organization raise the issue of a limitation or reduction...Tribal organization raise the issue of a limitation or reduction...Tribal organization may raise the issue of limitation or reduction... (1) Region-wide Tribal shares meetings occurring before...

  16. Puberty and sexual maturity in Anglo-Nubian male goats raised in semi-intensive system

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Luiz Eduardo Barreto de, Souza; Jurandir Ferreira da, Cruz; Milton Rezende, Teixeira Neto; Rita de Cássia Santos, Nunes; Maria Helena Coelho, Cruz.

    1533-15-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to characterize the sexual development in Anglo-Nubian male goats raised in semi-intensive system. Eight animals were monitored every fifteen days, from the 12th to the 44th week for age at penis detachment, live weight, scrotal circumference, seminal parameters (volu [...] me, aspect, concentration, wave motion, progressive individual motility, vigor and spermatic abnormalities) and serum testosterone levels. Serum testosterone levels were determined in blood samples collected at the 20th, 28th and 38th weeks of age. Penis detachment occurred at 102.9 ± 15.4 days of age. Live weight and scrotal circumference at 20th and 44th weeks of age ranged from 25.9 ± 3.5 to 44.7 ± 4.7 kg and from 21.2 ± 1.6 cm to 26.0 ± 1.5 cm, respectively. The ejaculate volume ranged from 0.38 ± 0.05 to 0.96 ± 0.04 mL, concentration ranged from 1.33 ± 0.64 to 3.54 ± 0.14.10(9) mL-1 and the progressive individual motility varied from 48.0 ± 10.52% to 82.0 ± 3.74%, at the same age. The number of defective spermatozoa (major and minor) was 32.2 ± 5.8% vs. 8.80 ± 2.9% at the 20th and the 44th week of age, respectively. Serum testosterone level was 2.70 ± 1.40 ng.mL-1 at the 20th week, 8.50 ± 4.66 ng.mL-1 at the 28th week and 2.21 ± 2.28 ng.mL-1 at the 38th week of age. Age showed a correlation with live weight, scrotal circumference, and all the qualitative parameters of semen except for volume, with all other qualitative parameters of semen, and the correlation among sperm abnormalities and the other traits was negative. Serum testosterone levels and andrological parameters of Anglo-Nubian goats raised in semi-intensive system are closely related to age. In those animals, puberty is reached at the 20th week and sexual maturity is reached at the 38th week of age.

  17. Puberty and sexual maturity in Anglo-Nubian male goats raised in semi-intensive system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Eduardo Barreto de Souza

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to characterize the sexual development in Anglo-Nubian male goats raised in semi-intensive system. Eight animals were monitored every fifteen days, from the 12th to the 44th week for age at penis detachment, live weight, scrotal circumference, seminal parameters (volume, aspect, concentration, wave motion, progressive individual motility, vigor and spermatic abnormalities and serum testosterone levels. Serum testosterone levels were determined in blood samples collected at the 20th, 28th and 38th weeks of age. Penis detachment occurred at 102.9 ± 15.4 days of age. Live weight and scrotal circumference at 20th and 44th weeks of age ranged from 25.9 ± 3.5 to 44.7 ± 4.7 kg and from 21.2 ± 1.6 cm to 26.0 ± 1.5 cm, respectively. The ejaculate volume ranged from 0.38 ± 0.05 to 0.96 ± 0.04 mL, concentration ranged from 1.33 ± 0.64 to 3.54 ± 0.14.10(9 mL-1 and the progressive individual motility varied from 48.0 ± 10.52% to 82.0 ± 3.74%, at the same age. The number of defective spermatozoa (major and minor was 32.2 ± 5.8% vs. 8.80 ± 2.9% at the 20th and the 44th week of age, respectively. Serum testosterone level was 2.70 ± 1.40 ng.mL-1 at the 20th week, 8.50 ± 4.66 ng.mL-1 at the 28th week and 2.21 ± 2.28 ng.mL-1 at the 38th week of age. Age showed a correlation with live weight, scrotal circumference, and all the qualitative parameters of semen except for volume, with all other qualitative parameters of semen, and the correlation among sperm abnormalities and the other traits was negative. Serum testosterone levels and andrological parameters of Anglo-Nubian goats raised in semi-intensive system are closely related to age. In those animals, puberty is reached at the 20th week and sexual maturity is reached at the 38th week of age.

  18. Analysis of the stress raising action of flaws in laser clad deposits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ? Laser clad defects are 0D-pores/inclusions, 1D-clad waviness or 2D-planar defects. ? Surface pore of laser clad bar initiates fatigue cracks. ? Side edge surface pores are more critical than in-clad surface pores. ? Smaller notch radius and angle of as-laser clad surface raises stress significantly. ? Planar inner defects grow faster towards surface. - Abstract: Fatigue cracking of laser clad cylindrical and square section bars depends upon a variety of factors. This paper presents Finite Element Analysis (FEA) of the different macro stress fields generated as well as stress raisers created by laser cladding defects for four different fatigue load conditions. As important as the defect types are their locations and orientations, categorized into zero-, one- and two-dimensional defects. Pores and inclusions become critical close to surfaces. The performance of as-clad surfaces can be governed by the sharpness of surface notches and planar defects like hot cracks or lack-of-fusion (LOF) are most critical if oriented vertically, transverse to the bar axis. The combination of the macro stress field with the defect type and its position and orientation determines whether it is the most critical stress raiser. Based on calculated cases, quantitative and qualitative charts were developed as guidelines to visualize the trends of different combinations

  19. Batten disease and the ATP synthase subunit c turnover pathway: raising antibodies to subunit c.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, D N; Bayliss, S L; Westlake, V J

    1995-06-01

    Analysis of storage bodies in the ceroid-lipofuscinoses (Batten disease) has demonstrated a high protein content suggestive of a proteinosis. Direct N-terminal sequencing has shown that subunit c of mitochondrial ATP synthase is specifically stored in the disease in sheep and cattle, and in the human late infantile and juvenile diseases, as well as in 3 breeds of dogs. No differences have been found between the stored subunit c and that in normal mitochondria. No other mitochondrial components are stored. Different proteins, sphingolipid activator proteins (SAPs or saposins) A and D, are stored in the infantile disease. Linkage studies have shown that different forms of ceroid-lipofuscinosis are coded for on different genes on different chromosomes. The genes for subunit c, its production, its insertion into mitochondria, and mitochondrial function are normal. This suggests that underlying the various forms of the disease is a family of lesions in the normal pathway of subunit c turnover, after its normal insertion into the ATP synthase complex. Antibodies to subunit c offer one way of mapping that pathway and detecting the sites of lesions. Specific antibodies have been raised against stored subunit c, using a liposomal adjuvant system which proved superior to classical adjuvants. These antibodies are also useful diagnostically, both in Western blotting and in immunocytochemistry. PMID:7668342

  20. Student exchange for nursing students: does it raise cultural awareness'? A descriptive, qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohman, Doris M; Borglin, Gunilla

    2014-05-01

    With free movement for citizens within the European Union and with distant parts of our globe becoming more accessible, cultural awareness and cultural competence are becoming important skills for nurses. Internationalisation and raising awareness of other cultural contexts are essential elements in Swedish higher education, thus explaining the variety of student exchange programmes that are available. The aim of this study was to explore Swedish nursing students' perceptions of student exchange and their experiences. Data were collected through group interviews and then analysed following the principles of content analysis. Our analysis resulted in three categories: Preparing to go abroad, Reasons for going abroad and From expectation to experience. Cultural aspects and cultural awareness were emphasised as strong motivational factors, both personal and professional, behind participation in student exchange programmes. Information was also highlighted as a crucial means of reaching potential students as well as the power of knowledge through personal experience. This study highlights the importance of student exchange in expanding the individual student's personal and professional horizons. It also stresses the importance of including a transcultural nursing element in nursing curricula. PMID:24406034

  1. SCHOOL-BASED SAVINGS PROGRAMMES AS A METHOD OF RAISING FINANCIAL AWARENESS IN CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Lenkiewicz

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Saving money and budgeting concerns every one of us. One of the most famous ways of depositing money is the use of an account or a traditional piggy bank. Not only the last option is close to the youngest. It has long been known School-based Savings Programmes (SSP. We try to instill in the youngest ability and habit of depositing mon-ey. Bank goes out to meet the needs and continually improve the SSP. The first part of the article focuses on the notion of SSP. It was raised matter of passbook evolution into an online account, and thus describes the functions and capabilities of such an account. The article describes the operation and maintenance of accounts, SSP and its rules. At the end of the article, condensed results of a survey conducted at the school in Stare Juchy were placed. The result was to assess the awareness of the youngest in terms of saving and School-based Savings Programmes.

  2. Community psychiatric nurse education in the United Kingdom: 8 years of surveys and the issues raised.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowers, L

    1996-05-01

    Over the past 8 years annual surveys of the take-up and development of community psychiatric nursing courses within the United Kingdom have been conducted under the auspices of the Standing Advisory Group on Community Psychiatric Nurse Education (SAGCPNE). They reveal a clear link between changes in funding structure and numbers of community psychiatric nurses (CPNs) undertaking training, with recently implemented arrangements resulting in rises in student numbers. Rising numbers are not distributed evenly across course centres, with some courses showing more dramatic increases than others. As a consequence of Project 2000 and the UKCC PREP (Post-Registration Education and Practice policy), the surveys show that CPN courses have moved in many cases to diploma level and in some cases to degree level. A number of issues are raised by the changes charted by the surveys. Funding structures are set to change again within the next few years, and may have a negative impact upon CPN training. Market pressures have led to greater secrecy over curriculum content at a time when more openness could lead to shared improvements and greater uniformity of courses. In conjunction with these changes, government mental health policy has implications for CPN training. These issues are discussed and some modest recommendations made. PMID:8732518

  3. Avalanches in the raise and peel model in the presence of a wall

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We investigate a non-equilibrium one-dimensional model known as the raise and peel model describing a growing surface which grows locally and has non-local desorption. For specific values of adsorption (ua) and desorption (ud) rates, the model shows interesting features. At ua = ud, the model is described by a conformal field theory (with conformal charge c = 0) and its stationary probability can be mapped onto the ground state of the XXZ quantum chain. Moreover, for the regime ua ? ud, the model shows a phase in which the avalanche distribution is scale-invariant. In this work, we study the surface dynamics by looking at avalanche distributions using a finite-sized scaling formalism and explore the effect of adding a wall to the model. The model shows the same universality for the cases with and without a wall for an odd number of tiles removed, but we find a new exponent in the presence of a wall for an even number of tiles released in an avalanche. New insights into the effect of parity on avalanche distributions are discussed and we provide a new conjecture for the probability distribution of avalanches with a wall obtained by using an exact diagonalization of small lattices and Monte Carlo simulations. (paper)

  4. Individual and family predictors of psychological control in parents raising children with type 1 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jubber, Ann P; Olsen Roper, Susanne; Yorgason, Jeremy B; Poulsen, Franklin O; Mandleco, Barbara L

    2013-06-01

    The purpose of this research is to examine how metabolic control, parents' marital conflict, and parental caregiver burden are related to parents' use of psychological control in families raising a child with Type 1 diabetes (T1D). Differences between mothers and fathers are also considered. In this cross-sectional study, parents of 85 children with T1D independently completed self-report questionnaires; metabolic control levels were obtained through patient medical records. Structural equation modeling showed that better metabolic control is related to lower levels of fathers' caregiver burden, and marital conflict is positively related to both mothers' and fathers' ratings of caregiver burden. Mothers' caregiver burden is positively related to their psychological control (a type of parental behavior that threatens children's autonomous thoughts and feelings) and, similarly, fathers' caregiver burden is positively related to their psychological control. Paths in the model differed by parent gender, but there were no crossover effects. Future research is needed to develop new, effective interventions for children with diabetes and their parents, focusing not only on the child but on multiple family systems. PMID:23795626

  5. When ethical reform became law: the constitutional concerns raised by recent legislation in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Yi-Chen

    2014-07-01

    In an effort at ethical reform, Taiwan recently revised the Hospice Palliative Care Law authorising family members or physicians to make surrogate decisions to discontinue life-sustaining treatment if an incompetent terminally ill patient did not express their wishes while still competent. In particular, Article 7 of the new law authorises the palliative care team, namely the physicians, to act as sole decision-makers on behalf of the incompetent terminally ill patient's best interests if no family member is available. However, the law fails to provide guidance as to what constitutes the patient's best interests or what specific procedures the treating physicians should follow, and so has raised constitutional concerns. It may be difficult to translate ethical reform into law but it is not impossible if essential requirements are carefully followed. First, there must be substantial nexus between the purpose of the statute and the measures provided under the statute. Second, advocates need to convince the public that futility or waste has amounted to a public health emergency so as to justify lower procedural requirements. Third, a remedy or compensation should be available if the surrogate decisions have not been appropriately made. Fourth,minimum procedural safeguards are necessary even though the statute is intended to reduce the procedural burdens of making surrogate decisions on behalf of incompetent patients who lack family members and did not express their wishes while still competent. PMID:24131902

  6. Presence and characterization of Campylobacter jejuni in organically raised chickens in Quebec.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thibodeau, Alexandre; Fravalo, Philippe; Laurent-Lewandowski, Sylvette; Guévremont, Evelyne; Quessy, Sylvain; Letellier, Ann

    2011-10-01

    The objective of this study was to estimate the presence of the important foodborne pathogen Campylobacter jejuni in organically raised chickens in the province of Quebec. The recovered isolates were further characterized for their antimicrobial resistance profile, autoagglutination property and chemotaxis. Antimicrobial resistance was evaluated using agar dilution for: tetracycline, erythromycin, chloramphenicol, ciprofloxacin, gentamicin, nalidixic acid, clindamycin, ampicillin, azithromycin, bacitracin, and ceftiofur. Autoagglutination was measured by monitoring optical density changes in a bacterial suspension after 3 h of incubation at room temperature. Chemotaxis was evaluated after a contact time of 3 h between isolates and mucin, using a quantitative protocol. A total of 10 lots of chickens was sampled in August and September 2009; half of them were positive for the presence of C. jejuni. Antimicrobial resistance was found only for tetracycline (44%), erythromycin (6%), azithromycin (6%) and clindamycin (2%). Variation was observed in the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) for ceftiofur and bacitracin, for which C. jejuni possess intrinsic resistance. Autoagglutination and chemotaxis varied among isolates and lot-level differences in these were observed. Autoagglutination and chemotaxis levels appeared as independent isolate properties. Further monitoring and characterization of isolates originating from organic chickens is of interest since this type of production might represent another source of exposure of consumers to a variety of the foodborne pathogen C. jejuni. PMID:22468028

  7. Sustainable capacity building among immigrant communities: the raising sexually healthy children program in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narushima, Miya; Wong, Josephine Pui-Hing; Li, Anda; Sutdhibhasilp, Noulmook

    2014-03-01

    The Raising Sexually Healthy Children (RSHC) program is a peer-to-peer leadership training program for immigrant parents in Toronto, Canada. It was established in 1998 with the goal of promoting family sex education and parent-child communication. This evaluative study examined the developmental processes and outcomes of the RSHC program to identify the strengths, challenges and insights that can be used to improve the program. It employed a multi-case study approach to compare the RSHC programs delivered in the Chinese, Portuguese and Tamil communities. Data collection methods included focus groups, individual interviews and document analysis. The cross-case analysis identified both common and unique capacity building processes and outcomes in the three communities. In this paper, we report factors that have enhanced and hindered sustainable capacity building at the individual, group/organizational and community levels, and the strategies used by these communities to address challenges common to immigrant families. We will discuss the ecological and synergetic, but time-consuming processes of capacity building, which contributed to the sustainability of RSHC as an empowering health promotion program for immigrant communities. We conclude the paper by noting the implications of using a capacity building approach to promote family health in ethno-racial-linguistic minority communities. PMID:23740257

  8. The Quality of Liquid Fermented Products for Alternative Use of Antibiotics for Animal Raising

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The chemical properties of liquid fermented products (LFP) as probiotics substance for alternative uses of antibiotic were studied. The LFP of 235 were sampling from markets and farmers during 2005-2006. The total count of bacteria, fungi, lactic acid bacteria (LAB), Actinomyces and coliform bacteria were conducted. Chemical analysis of LFP showed medium nitrogen (0.01- 0.55%), maximum sugar contents (0.02 - 19.40%), high lactic acid contents (0.34 - 13.01%) and low pH (2.9-5.0). LFPs were free from fecal coliform and Escherichia coil (Ec); but in LAB (1.0 - 1.25x107 cfu/ml) and high Actinomyces (1.0 - 7.5 x 106 cfu/ml). LFPs inhibited Staphylococcus aureus (Sa), Samonella typhimurium (STM), Escherichia coil (Ec) and Ec 0157 at maximum yield by using Minimal Inhibition Concentration (MIC). But Pseudomonas aeruginosa (Pa) could medium inhibited. Therefore LFP samples are suitable as probiotics for alternative use of antibiotic for animal raising.

  9. Luminescence and radiocarbon dating of raised beach sediments, Bunger Hills, East Antarctica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luminescence and radiocarbon dating of raised marine sediments from the Bunger Hills, East Antarctica, demonstrates that luminescence methods can be applied to such poorly bleached sediments as long as the luminescence behaviour of the sediments is understood. This is essential as the complete zeroing of the luminescence signal due to light exposure is required to allow an accurate age for the sediment accumulation. Unfortunately, independent checks on the luminescence ages are rare. In the present study, some independent age control is provided by AMS radiocarbon ages from shell obtained from and adjacent to the luminescence dated horizons, although the radiocarbon ages may suffer to some degree from variability in the marine reservoir effect. Application of the single aliquot luminescence technique to feldspar grains from the marine sediments demonstrated that the luminescence behaviour of the sediments was complex. For each sample, 18 replicate paleodose estimates were used to demonstrate whether the sediments were well bleached before deposition. Optically, well-bleached samples give younger luminescence ages, whilst poorly bleached samples often give excessively old ages compared to the associated radiocarbon-dated material. (author)

  10. Rope NDT as means to raise safety of crane and elevator use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steel rope NDT by magnetic flaw detectors is usual for mine hoist inspection through the world. But it is no ordinary by crane and especially by elevator inspection. However, magnetic NDT statistic data of 60 crane and 227 elevator ropes in use shows that about 23% of crane and 9% of elevator ropes should be discarded in accordance with actual discarding criterion in Russia. Russian State Rules for crane safe exploitation require the magnetic NDT while periodically inspection. But not all the inspecting companies meet it in Russia, contenting themselves by visual inspection only. This is not objective and does not provide rope inner faults detection. That is a reason of rope break rather high percentage in general statistics of crane accidents and damages. Investigation of accidents with crane ropes in Moscow region in 2001 shows that they would de prevented by the magnetic NDT fulfilled timely. The elevator rope NDT problem is not so sharp but attention should de attracted to it to raise safety of elevators. (author)

  11. Hyperglycemia raises the threshold of levosimendan- but not milrinone-induced postconditioning in rat hearts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matsumoto Shuhei

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The authors examined whether milrinone and levosimendan could exert cardiac postconditioning effects in rats under normoglycemia and hyperglycemia, and whether the effects could be mediated by mitochondrial permeability transition pore (mPTP. Methods Wistar rats underwent 30-min coronary artery occlusion followed by 2-h reperfusion. The rats received milrinone or levosimendan just before reperfusion under normoglycemic or hyperglycemic conditions with or without atractyloside, an mPTP opener. Results Under normoglycemia, both 30 ?g/kg milrinone (29 ± 12% and 10 ?g/kg levosimendan (33 ± 13% reduced infarct size compared with that in the control (58 ± 7%. Under hyperglycemia, milrinone (34 ± 13% reduced infarct size at the same dose as under normoglycemia. In contrast, neither 10 nor 30 ?g/kg levosimendan protected hyperglycemic hearts, and only 100 ?g/kg levosimendan (32 ± 9% reduced infarct size compared with that in the hyperglycemic control (58 ± 13%. All of these cardioprotective effects under normoglycemia and hyperglycemia are abolished by atractyloside. Conclusion Milrinone and levosimendan exert postconditioning effects via inhibition of mPTP opening. Hyperglycemia raises the threshold of levosimendan-induced postconditioning, while milrinone-induced postconditioning is not influenced by hyperglycemia.

  12. Paddy yield as affected by boron application directly sown on raised bed under saline sodic soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A field experiment was carried out to investigate the effect of different levels of boron (0.5, I, 1.5 and 2 kg B/ha) on growth, yield and ionic concentration of rice directly sown on raised beds under saline sodic soils (ECe=5.65 dS/m, pH=8.57 and SAR=17.38) at Malik Farm, Farooqabad during 2009. Treatments were arranged using randomized complete block design (RCBD) with three replications. The crop was harvested at maturity and data on tillering, plant height, spike length, number of grains/spike, 1000-grain weight, straw and paddy yields were recorded. Tillering, number of grains/spike, 1000 - grain weight and paddy yield significantly (Ps = 0.05) increased by different levels of B. 1000 grains weight (29 g) and grain yield was the maximum (4.65 t/ha) at the application of 1.5 kg B/ha and 31% more than control treatment. Maximum plant height (141 cm) and numbers of grains/spike (203) were recorded with B application at the rate of 1 kg/ha, B concentration in grain and straw increased with increasing the rate of boron application. Positive correlation (r = 0.856) was found between B contents in grain and paddy grain yield. Economical analysis showed that maximum value cost ratio (14.9:1) this achieved with the application of 1.5 kg B/ha. (author)

  13. Impact of legislation raising the legal drinking age in Massachusetts from 18 to 20.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hingson, R W; Scotch, N; Mangione, T; Meyers, A; Glantz, L; Heeren, T; Lin, N; Mucatel, M; Pierce, G

    1983-02-01

    On April 16, 1979, Massachusetts raised its legal drinking age from 18 to 20 years. Massachusetts was compared with New York State, exclusive of New York City and Nassau County. New York State retained an 18-year-old drinking age. Random telephone surveys with approximately 1,000 16-19 year olds in each state were undertaken prior to the law's enactment and twice at yearly intervals after the law to assess the law's impact on teenage drinking, driving after drinking, and non-fatal accident involvement. Fatal crash data reported to the US Department of Transportation by each state from April 16, 1976-April 15, 1981 were also analyzed. After the law, although the modes of procuring alcohol changed. No significant changes were observed in Massachusetts relative to New York in the proportion of surveyed teenagers who reported that they drank or in the volume of their consumption. The proportion of teenagers who drove after drinking heavily (six or more drinks at one time) did not decline in Massachusetts relative to New York. However, the frequency that teenagers reported driving after any drinking declined significantly in Massachusetts. Frequency of teenage driving after marijuana use and non-fatal teenage accidents declined at comparable rates in both states. The numbers of teenage nighttime single vehicle fatal accidents declined more in Massachusetts than New York, in the 18-19 year age group. Overall fatal accident trends among 16-19 year olds in the two states were similar. PMID:6849474

  14. PERFORMANCE, CARCASS YIELD AND LITTER QUALITY OF BROILERS RAISED ON LITTERS TREATED WITH MICRO-ORGANISMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dayane Prado da Cruz

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The present paper aimed at evaluating the effect of adding beneficial micro-organisms to the litters on litter quality, performance and carcass yield for broilers. A total of 240 one-day chicks were used, and randomly distributed in blocks with four treatments and four replications. The following treatments were carried out in the housing: Treatment 1 – Control with weekly spraying of water on the litters; Treatment 2 – Litter treated with a mixture of inoculated and fermented meal by micro-organisms and weekly spraying of water; Treatment 3 – Litter treated by weekly spraying of micro-organisms; Treatment 4 – Litter treated with the same mixture of meals from treatment two and weekly spraying of micro-organisms. Performance was evaluated by the feed consumption, weight gain, feed conversion, viability and carcass, breast and leg yield. From litter samples, pH, dry matter, ashes and nitrogen were evaluated. No differences were found among the treatments. In the conditions the animals were raised, it can be concluded that the treatment on the litter does not affect performance, carcass yield and quality of the litter for broilers.

  15. Studies on the reproductive performance of indigenous beef cattle breeds raised on-farm in Ghana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Studies were undertaken to investigate the reproductive performance of a mixture of N'dama and West African Shorthorn (N'dama/WASH) and Sanga cattle raised under traditional management conditions on four privately owned small-holder farms. The first study involved an analysis of reproductive records and the measurement of plasma progesterone concentration to delineate the onset of various reproductive phenomena, including age at puberty and first calving, post-partum resumption of ovarian activity and other abnormal events like abortions. The second study investigated the influence of dry-season feed supplementation on reproductive performance. In study 1 the ages at first plasma progesterone rise (puberty), first mating and first calving for N'dama/WASH cattle on three farms averaged 981, 1016 and 1296 days respectively. The calving interval, calving-to-progesterone rise and calving-to-mating averaged 412, 129 and 114 days respectively. Significant differences existed among farms with Farms 1 and 2 out-performing Farm 3. The respective mean ages at first progesterone elevation, first mating and first calving for Sanga cattle (Farm 4) were 964, 990 and 1271 days while calving-to-progesterone rise, calving-to-mating and calving intervals averaged 107, 150 and 431 days. In study 2, dry-season feed supplementation generally reduced ages at puberty and first calving as well as the interval of post-partum acyclicity. (author). 18 refs, 3 figs, 9 tabsefs, 3 figs, 9 tabs

  16. Does Raising the Early Retirement Age Increase Employment of Older Workers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staubli, Stefan; Zweimüller, Josef

    2013-12-01

    Two pension reforms in Austria increased the early retirement age (ERA) from 60 to 62 for men and from 55 to 58.25 for women. We find that raising the ERA increased employment by 9.75 percentage points among affected men and by 11 percentage points among affected women. The reforms had large spillover effects on the unemployment insurance program but negligible effects on disability insurance claims. Specifically, unemployment increased by 12.5 percentage points among men and by 11.8 percentage points among women. The employment response was largest among high-wage and healthy workers, while low-wage and less healthy workers either continued to retire early via disability benefits or bridged the gap to the ERA via unemployment benefits. Taking spillover effects and additional tax revenues into account, we find that for a typical birth-year cohort a one year increase in the ERA resulted in a reduction of net government expenditures of 107 million euros for men and of 122 million euros for women. PMID:24319299

  17. Anonymous or known donors? A brief discussion of the psychosocial issues raised by removing anonymity from sperm donors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burr, Jennifer A

    2013-03-01

    In spite of a trend towards open identity, the ethical issues raised by the removal of anonymity from sperm donors are still contentious and raise controversy about the significance of genetic inheritance and what are often seen as competing rights claims for the children born, for donors and for the parents of donor insemination (DI) offspring. This review provides a short discussion of the arguments for and against the disclosure of donor insemination status to offspring, which are at the heart of the controversy over anonymity as they relate to the stakeholders in the process. PMID:23548093

  18. In Romania, exposure to Toxoplasma gondii occurs twice as often in swine raised for familial consumption as in hunted wild boar, but occurs rarely if ever among fattening pigs raised in confinement

    Science.gov (United States)

    A wide range of swine husbandry practices prevail in Romania: pork for human consumption is derived from hunting wild boar, from household rearing of small numbers of backyard pigs, and from indoor, industrial production of swine raised in confinement indoors. Romania thus represents an instructive ...

  19. Soil fate of agricultural fumigants in raised-bed, plasticulture systems in the southeastern United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chellemi, Dan O; Ajwa, Husein A; Sullivan, David A; Alessandro, Rocco; Gilreath, James P; Yates, Scott R

    2011-01-01

    Soil concentrations and degradation rates of methyl isothio-cyanate (MITC), chloropicrin (CP), 1,3-dichloropropene (1,3-D), and dimethyl disulfide (DMDS) were determined under fumigant application scenarios representative of commercial raised bed, plastic mulched vegetable production systems. Five days after application, 1,3-D, MITC, and CP were detected at concentrations up to 3.52, 0.72, and 2.45 ?g cm, respectively, in the soil atmosphere when applications were made in uniformly compacted soils with a water content >200% of field capacity and covered by a virtually impermeable or metalized film. By contrast, DMDS, MITC, and CP concentrations in the soil atmosphere were 0.81, 0.02, and 0.05 ?g cm, respectively, 5 d after application in soil containing undecomposed plant residue, numerous large (>3 mm) clods, and water content below field capacity and covered by low-density polyethylene. Ranked in order of impact on the persistence of fumigants in soil were soil water content (moisture), soil tilth (the physical condition of soil as related to its fitness as a planting bed), the type of plastic film used to cover fumigated beds, and soil texture. Fumigants were readily detected 13 d after application when applied in uniformly compacted soils with water contents >200% of capacity and covered by a virtually impermeable or metalized film. By contrast, 1,3-D and MITC had dissipated 5 d after application in soils with numerous large (>3 mm) clods and water contents below field capacity that were covered by low-density polyethylene. Soil degradation of CP, DMDS, and MITC were primarily attributed to biological mechanisms, whereas degradation of 1,3-D was attributed principally to abiotic factors. This study demonstrates improved soil retention of agricultural fumigants in application scenarios representative of good agricultural practices. PMID:21712590

  20. Raising voices: How sixth graders construct authority and knowledge in argumentative essays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monahan, Mary Elizabeth

    This qualitative classroom-based study documents one teacher-researcher's response to the "voice" debate in composition studies and to the opposing views expressed by Elbow and Bartholomae. The author uses Bakhtin's principle of dialogism, Hymes's theory of communicative competence, as well as Ivanic's discussion of discoursally constructed identities to reconceptualize voice and to redesign writing instruction in her sixth grade classroom. This study shows how students, by redefining and then acting on that voice pedagogy in terms that made sense to them, shaped the author's understanding of what counts as "voiced" writing in non-narrative discourse. Based on a grounded-theory analysis of the twenty-six sixth graders' argumentative essays in science, the author explains voice, not as a property of writers or of texts, but as a process of "knowing together"---a collaborative, but not entirely congenial, exercise of establishing one's authority by talking with, against, and through other voices on the issue. As the results of this study show, the students' "I-Ness" or authorial presence within their texts, was born in a nexus of relationships with "rivals," "allies" and "readers." Given their teacher's injunctions to project confidence and authority in argumentative writing, the students assumed fairly adversarial stances toward these conversational partners throughout their essays. Exaggerating the terms for voiced writing built into the curriculum, the sixth graders produced essays that read more like caricatures than examples of argumentation. Their displays of rhetorical bravado and intellectual aggressiveness, however offsetting to the reader, still enabled these sixth graders to composed voiced essays. This study raises doubts about the value of urging students to sound like their "true selves" or to adopt the formal registers of academe. Students, it seems clear, stand to gain by experimenting with a range of textual identities. The author suggests that voice, as a dialogic process, involves a struggle for meaning---in concert, but also very much in conflict with---other speakers and their intentions.

  1. RUMINAL CONDITION BETWEEN MADURA CATTLE AND ONGOLE CROSSBRED CATTLE RAISED UNDER INTENSIVE FEEDING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Umar

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Each four young bulls of Madura cattle and Ongole Crossbred (OC cattle were used to study the efficiency of ruminal fermentation by comparing the proportion of Volatile Fatty Acid (VFA of these two breeds which were raised under intensive feeding. All the cattle were in about 1.5 years-old with an average body weight of 147.75 ± 14.57 kg and 167 ± 22.57 kg, for Madura and OC cattle, respectively. They were fed Napier grass (Pennisetum purpureum hay, and concentrate feeding consists of pollard, soybean meal and rice bran for 10 weeks. Parameters measured were concentration of VFA at 0, 3 and 6 h post-feeding and pH. The concentration of VFA in both Madura and OC cattle was peaked at 3 h post-feeding, being 136.1 mmol and 158.9 mmol, respectively, and then were decreased at 6 h post-feeding at a level of 58.1 and 98.2 mmol, respectively. The proportion of acetic acid in Madura and OC cattle were 53.33% and 52.0% of total VFA, respectively, while the proportion of propionic acid and butyric acid were 28.80% and 17.87% for Madura cattle, and 30.71% and 17.28% for OC cattle, respectively. In addition, the Acetic/Propionic ratios were 1.85 and 1.69 for Madura and OC cattle, respectively. Rumen pH conditions of both cattle breeds tended to be basic, i.e. Madura cattle was ranged at 8.0-8.4, while the PO cattle was ranged at 7.6-8.4. In conclusion, both cattle breeds (Madura and OC cattle have a similar efficiency to utilize the feeds in the rumen.

  2. Platelet-collagen interaction: inhibition by a monoclonal antibody raised against collagen receptor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors have previously reported that polyclonal antibody raised against the purified platelet collagen receptor cross reacted with glycoprotein IIb-IIIa complex of platelets. In order to study the receptor function further, the authors prepared a monoclonal antibody to the collagen receptor (65K). Platelet collagen receptor was purified as described previously by the authors. Mice were immunized by injection of purified 65K protein emulsified in complete Freund's adjuvant, and hybridomas were obtained from the fusion of spleen cells of immunized mice with myeloma cells (SP 2/0). The assay for antibody was performed with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The hybridoma cells producing specific anti-65K protein were subcloned and the subcloned cells were injected into peritoneal cavity of Pristane-Primed mice. Immunoglobulin G(IgG) was isolated from ascitic fluids by an Affigel Blue chromatography. The Fab' fragments were isolated from papain digested IgG followed by an Affigel Blue chromatography. Immunoblot experiments using the monoclonal IgG of solubilized platelet membrane proteins following NaDodSO4-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis showed that the monoclonal IgG reacted with the antigen specifically. It did not react with glycoprotein IIb-IIIa. The isolated IgG and Fab' fragments inhibited competitively the binding of radiolabelled ?1(I) to washed platelets and soluble collagen- as well as fibrillar collagen-induced but not ADP-induced platelet aggregation. This indicates that collagen-induced platelet aggregation is mediated through interaction of collagen with 65K platelet receptor

  3. Evaluation of the specificity of antibodies raised against cannabinoid receptor type 2 in the mouse retina

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cécyre, Bruno; Thomas, Sébastien

    2014-01-01

    Cannabinoid receptors (CB1R and CB2R) are among the most abundant G protein-coupled receptors in the central nervous system. The endocannabinoid system is an attractive therapeutic target for immune system modulation and peripheral pain management. While CB1R is distributed in the nervous system, CB2R has traditionally been associated to the immune system. This dogma is currently a subject of debate since the discovery of CB2R expression in neurons using antibody-based methods. The localization of CB2R in the central nervous system (CNS) could have a significant impact on drug development because it would mean that in addition to its effects on the peripheral pain pathway, CB2R could also mediate some central effects of cannabinoids. In an attempt to clarify the debate over CB2R expression in the CNS, we tested several commercially or academically produced CB2R antibodies using Western blot and immunohistochemistry on retinal tissue obtained from wild-type mice and mice lacking CB2R (cnr2 (-/-) ). One of the antibodies tested exhibited a valuable specificity as it marked a single band near the predicted molecular weight in Western blot and produced no staining in cnr2 (-/-) mice retina sections. The other antibodies tested detected multiple bands in Western blot and labeled unidentified proteins when used with their immunizing peptide or on cnr2 (-/-) retinal sections. We conclude that many commonly used antibodies raised against CB2R are not specific for use in immunohistochemistry, at least in the context of the mouse retina. Moreover, some of them tested presented significant lot-to-lot variability. Hence, caution should be used when interpreting prior and future studies using CB2R antibodies.

  4. A REPOSITORY DESIGNED TO RAISE THE STUDENTS’ KNOWLEDGE AND AWARENESS ON NANOSCIENCE AND NANOTECHNOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GABRIEL GORGHIU

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available As defined in the information technology area, a repository represents a digital collection in which data is preserved and maintained in an organized and structured manner. This comes helpful for many projects that envisage sharing specific databases, files or resources for being accessed or distributed. More, several free and open-source software solutions for designing open-access repositories are available at present, having features very similar to the systems built for document management. Trying to implement such digital collection, as extra-readings and references related to Nanoscience and Nanotechnology area, in the frame of the LLP KA3-ICT project no. 511787-LLP-1-2010-1-TR-KA3-KA3MP: “Nano-Tech Science Education”, it was set up a repository/database for being used by students, Science prospective teachers and teachers, as a part of a Virtual Lab, which represents the main project product - an experimental virtual aid created for Science education. The Lab mainly consists of experimental room, podcasting room and repository, and serves as a platform for Science lessons, as a database of teaching materials, and as a hub for science-learning-related graphic aids and recorded and illustrated appealing experiments on Nanoscience and Nanotechnology. Its repository includes articles, books, chapters, posters, videos, experiments, methodological documents which introduce in fact, actual findings and researches developed in different countries. Basically, the main role of the repository is to update the virtual lab users’ knowledge and to raise their awareness on Nanoscience and Nanotechnology. The paper presents the features of the designed repository, its main services, and specific developments. As this is an instrument under continuous updating, the paper offers also a status of its actual structure and content.

  5. A REAPPRAISAL OF MAPUCHE TEXTILE PRODUCTION AND SHEEP RAISING DURING THE NINETEENTH CENTURY

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    MANUEL, LLORCA-JAÑA.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo trata sobre la crianza de ovejas y la producción de lana de los mapuche durante gran parte del siglo XIX, y sobre la percepción que los compradores tenían de los productos lanares. Basado en reportes consulares británicos y diarios de viajeros, escritos después de la Independencia de C [...] hile, el artículo entrega nueva y consistente información que sostiene que la producción textil mapuche era de alta calidad y muy importante para toda la economía; que el comercio mapuche de lanas era comparable al europeo antes del año 1850; y que la industria lanar mapuche era, por cierto, más desarrollada que la existente en Chile, principal mercado de las exportaciones mapuche. También muestra que esta superioridad sobre la industria lanar chilena incluía la producción de materias primas para la producción textil, principalmente, lana sin procesar. Abstract in english This paper is about Mapuche sheep raising and woollens production during the first three quarters of the nineteenth century, as well as about the perception customers had of Mapuche wool manufactures. Based on the British consular reports and travellers' diaries written after Chile gained independen [...] ce, this article provides new and stronger evidence to support the case that Mapuche textile production was of high-quality and very important for their entire economy; that the Mapuche woollens trade was comparable to European industries before the 1850s; and that the Mapuche wool industry was certainly more developed than the one existing in Chile, the main market for Mapuche exports. This article also shows that this superiority over the Chilean woollens industry included the production of the main raw material used to produce woollens, namely raw wool.

  6. Reducing feather pecking when raising laying hen chicks in aviary systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huber-Eicher, B; Sebö, F

    2001-07-01

    Aviary systems for laying hens offer several advantages over battery cages. However, pecking the feathers of conspecifics remains a serious problem that negatively affects the welfare of the birds as well as the economy of a farm. From experimental studies with small groups, it has been shown that feather pecking and foraging behaviour are related and that both behaviour are influenced by early access to litter substrate. We, therefore, hypothesised, that feather pecking in aviaries can be reduced with an adequate management in the first 2 weeks of life.Each of seven pens on six commercial poultry farms, was divided into two identical compartments (matched pair design). In one of the compartments (experimental compartment) chicks were reared for the first 2 weeks of life with access to litter (wood shavings, in one case with additional straw), while the chicks in the other compartment (control) were kept on a plastic grid. Thereafter, all chicks had unrestricted access to litter and there were no differences between the two compartments neither in housing conditions nor in management procedures.Chicks in the experimental compartments spent significantly more time foraging (week 5), showed significantly less feather pecking (weeks 5 and 14) and significantly fewer birds had damaged tail feathers (weeks 5 and 14).The study demonstrates that in aviaries, under commercial conditions, early access to litter substrate has a significant effect on the development of feather pecking. In order to reduce feather pecking and to increase foraging behaviour, it is recommended that laying hen chicks raised in aviary systems do get access to litter from day 1 on. PMID:11356291

  7. Meat Quality of Thai Indigenous Chickens Raised Indoors or with Outdoor Access

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wittawat Molee

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine the effect of rearing system on meat quality of Thai indigenous chickens. Three hundred and sixty 1 day old chicks were randomly allocated into 2 treatments: indoor treatment, housing in an indoor pen (5 birds/m2 or outdoor access treatment, housing in an indoor pen (5 birds/m2 with access to a grass paddock (1 bird/m2 from 8 weeks of age until slaughter. All birds were provided with the same diet during the experimental period. At 16th weeks of age, 24 birds per treatment were slaughtered to evaluate the quality of breast and thigh meat. The results showed that there was no difference in nutrient composition of breast meat among treatments (p>0.05. However, thigh meat from outdoor access treatment had higher protein content than that of indoor treatment (p0.05. Breast and thigh meat from outdoor access treatment had a higher shear force value (p = 0.05 than from indoor treatment. Thigh meat from outdoor access treatment was higher in soluble, insoluble and total collagen contents compared with indoor treatment (p<0.05. Breast and thigh meat from outdoor access treatment was less red (a*; p<0.05 and more yellow (b*; p<0.05 than those from indoor treatment. Breast skin from outdoor access treatment had more yellow than that of indoor treatment (p<0.05. The data indicated that Thai indigenous chickens raised with outdoor access could significantly increase shear value and collagen content in meat and increase yellow color in breast skin.

  8. Gonadal differentiation in frogs, Rana japonica and R. brevipoda, raised from UV irradiated eggs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The gonadal differentiation of anurans, Rana japonica and R. brevipoda, was examined in animals raised from eggs which had been irradiated at the vegetal hemisphere with UV (9300 erg/mm2) at the 2-cell stage. In R. japonica about 70% of the larvae at stage I from the pressed and UV-irradiated eggs were germ cell free, but at a stage immediately after metamorphosis all animals had at least some germ cells, although their gonads often were extremely small and poorly differentiated. When male animals matured sexually, many of them had abnormal gonads. However, all of them were shown by artificial means to be capable of fertilization. In the nonpressed and irradiated group, no larvae were germ cell free and the animals immediately after metamorphosis showed nearly normal gonadal differentiation except for the presence of a few degenerate oocytes in the ovaries. The results in R. brevipoda were basically similar to those in R. japonica. In both species, sex ratios were determined at two stages, the first immediately after metamorphosis and the other when the animals matured, as based on gonad morphology and histology and on external sexually dimorphic characters as well. Sex ratios at these two stages in frogs from the pressed and irradiated eggs differed markedly in R. brevipoda. The ratio was normal at metamorphosis but high M/F ratios occurred when animals became mature. That sex reversal took place in this species as well as in R. japonica (in which sex-ratio deviation R. japonica (in which sex-ratio deviation was not statistically significant) was supported by the sex ratios of the progenies of these supernumerary males

  9. Utah Flooding Hazard: Raising Public Awareness through the Creation of Multidisciplinary Web-Based Maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castleton, J.; Erickson, B.; Bowman, S. D.; Unger, C. D.

    2014-12-01

    The Utah Geological Survey's (UGS) Geologic Hazards Program has partnered with the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers to create geologically derived web-based flood hazard maps. Flooding in Utah communities has historically been one of the most damaging geologic hazards. The most serious floods in Utah have generally occurred in the Great Salt Lake basin, particularly in the Weber River drainage on the western slopes of the Wasatch Range, in areas of high population density. With a growing population of 2.9 million, the state of Utah is motivated to raise awareness about the potential for flooding. The process of increasing community resiliency to flooding begins with identification and characterization of flood hazards. Many small communities in areas experiencing rapid growth have not been mapped completely by the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) Flood Insurance Rate Maps (FIRM). Existing FIRM maps typically only consider drainage areas that are greater than one square mile in determining flood zones and do not incorporate geologic data, such as the presence of young, geologically active alluvial fans that indicate a high potential for debris flows and sheet flooding. Our new flood hazard mapping combines and expands on FEMA data by incorporating mapping derived from 1:24,000-scale UGS geologic maps, LiDAR data, digital elevation models, and historical aerial photography. Our flood hazard maps are intended to supplement the FIRM maps to provide local governments and the public with additional flood hazard information so they may make informed decisions, ultimately reducing the risk to life and property from flooding hazards. Flooding information must be widely available and easily accessed. One of the most effective ways to inform the public is through web-based maps. Web-based flood hazard maps will not only supply the public with the flood information they need, but also provides a platform to add additional geologic hazards to an easily accessible format.

  10. Raising Process-Genre Awareness: A Proposal of ESP Writing Lesson Plan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bingqian Du

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Studies on EFL writing in the literature have shed light on process or genre approach of teaching writing to college or secondary EFL learners (Bhatia, 1999; Cheng, 2006; Chen & Su, 2012; Guo, 2005; Hyland, 2003, 2007; Swales, 1990. To date, scarce related works have centered on improv-ing the EFL writing of the Chinese visiting scholars, who have a strong motivation to publish articles in English. These scholars generally attend an ESP training program before living and conducting research in English-medium countries for one year. This proposed lesson plan is designed as a sample session of one core course, ESP Writing, of the training program, this proposed lesson plan is designed as one component of such training program, synthesizing the process approach and genre approach of teaching writing to a group of non-English majored Chinese visiting scholars. It is primarily aimed to raise these college teachers’ awareness of the significance of purposes, author-reader relationship, expectations, genre features and functions, cultural differences, and the impacts of how the author chooses to consider these factors. This sample lesson plan seeks to exemplify a synthesis of process-genre approach instead of traditional writing instruction in this writing course. This specific EFL writing lesson plan thus describes tasks and activities in great detail following a process-genre approach of teaching and learning. The scholars are assigned to write a request email in stages such as prewriting, co-construction, peer review, and proofreading. It employs innovative teaching methods to help students write purposely, appropriately, and ef-fectively. Various recourses are used as input such as online authentic data and native speakers’ testimonies to create an authentic specific context for students to recognize the significance of purposeful writing. Specific procedures are suggested for instructors to incorporate process-genre approach into their teaching experience.

  11. Community participation: a "must" for enabling HIV / AIDS prevention in Africa to "move beyond awareness raising".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orr, K; Lee, S; Edstrom, J

    1997-12-01

    The International HIV/AIDS Alliance, an international nongovernmental organization (NGO) established in 1993 to support community action on AIDS in developing countries, seeks to move beyond awareness-raising to face the challenge of addressing the factors that affect individual and community behavior and vulnerability. A major strategy of the Alliance is to join national NGOs with an independent NGO support program through a "linking organization" that channels a full range of services to the local level and fosters collaboration in order to improve the strategic and technical quality of community action against HIV/AIDS. The Alliance and linking organizations relies on participatory methodology to explore how local factors increase vulnerability and impede behavior change. The Alliance strategy, built upon experience gained in 1995 in Bangladesh, is now being applied in Morocco, Burkina Faso, and Senegal. The Alliance framework calls for needs assessments that are participatory, not limited to HIV/AIDS, not "research projects," fairly quick and practical, and considered a first step. This approach has been used by more than 30 local African NGOs who are now beginning to implement innovative, needs-based programs that seek behavior changes. The next step involves participatory prevention methods adapted to meet local needs. The lessons shared by the NGOs in international workshops include the following: 1) small NGOs can be effective if they have systematic technical support; 2) community participation is a continuing process; 3) the methodologies are not ends in themselves; 4) community action also requires participatory attitudes and behaviors by facilitators and staff; 5) the balance of power between NGOs and their communities is changed by community participation; 6) use of local technical support increases program sustainability; and 7) experiences can be shared, but local strategies are required. PMID:12348321

  12. Dark Skies Ahead? Activities to Raise Awareness during the International Year of Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Constance E.; Isbell, D.; Pompea, S.

    2007-12-01

    "Dark Skies as a Universal Resource” is one of 7 themes targeted for the International Year of Astronomy in 2009. The theme's goal is to raise public awareness of the impact of artificial lighting on local environments and the ongoing loss of a dark night sky as a natural resource for much of the world's population. To reach this goal, activities are being developed which highlight dark skies preservation issues 1) through new technology (e.g., programs at planetaria, blogging, podcasting); 2) at events such as star parties and observatory open houses; 3) in arts, entertainment and storytelling (e.g., art competitions, documentaries, lectures, native American traditions); 4) through unaided-eye and digital-meter star count programs involving citizen-scientists; and 5) by relating them to public health, economic issues, ecological consequences, energy conservation, safety and security. A centerpiece of the Dark Skies theme is the unaided-eye and digital-meter versions of the GLOBE at Night program. The unaided-eye version directs citizen-scientists on how to observe and record the brightness of the night sky by matching its appearance toward the constellation of Orion with one of 7 stellar maps of different limiting magnitudes. For the "digital” version, low-cost meters are used by citizen-scientists to measure the integrated sky brightness. Data sets and maps of both versions are supplied on-line for further capstone activities. In the presentation, we will outline the activities being developed as well as plans for funding, implementation, marketing and the connections to the global cornerstone IYA project, "Dark Skies Awareness".

  13. Nonthermal and advanced thermal processing technologies for improving the safety and shelf-life of aquaculture raised seafood

    Science.gov (United States)

    The volume of seafood raised by aquaculture has increased in recent years. This seafood can occasionally become contaminated with foodborne pathogens resulting in foodborne illness outbreaks and product recalls. In recent years a number of nonthermal and advanced thermal technologies have been devel...

  14. Consciousness-Raising as Collective Rhetoric: The Articulation of Experience in the Redstockings' Abortion Speak-Out of 1969

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubriwny, Tasha N.

    2005-01-01

    This essay offers a theory of collective rhetoric derived from a case study of a central rhetorical event of the second wave of feminism, the Redstockings' 1969 abortion speak-out. A central rhetorical function of consciousness-raising was the collective development of experiential knowledge, and I propose that collective rhetorics are…

  15. Coupling of soil solarization and reduced rate fumigation: Effects on methyl iodide emissions from raised beds under field conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Using field plots, we studied the effect on methyl iodide (MeI) emissions of coupling soil solarization (passive and active) and reduced rate fumigation (70% of a standard fumigation) in raised beds under virtually impermeable film (VIF). The results showed that for the standard fumigation and the p...

  16. INHIBITION OF IN VITRO FERTILIZATION IN THE HAMSTER BY ANTIBODIES RAISED AGAINST THE RAT SPERM PROTEIN SP22

    Science.gov (United States)

    INHIBITION OF IN VITRO FERTILIZATION IN THE HAMSTER BY ANTIBODIES RAISED AGAINST THE RAT SPERM PROTEIN SP22. SC Jeffay*, SD Perreault, KL Bobseine*, JE Welch*, GR Klinefelter, US EPA, Research Triangle Park, NC. SP22, a rat sperm membrane protein that is highly-correlated w...

  17. Compromised metamorphosis and thyroid hormone changes in wood frogs (Lithobates sylvaticus) raised on reclaimed wetlands on the Athabasca oil sands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hersikorn, Blair D., E-mail: blair.hersikorn@usask.c [Toxicology Centre, University of Saskatchewan, 44 Campus Drive, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, S7N 5B3 (Canada); Smits, Judit E.G., E-mail: judit.smits@ucalgary.c [Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Calgary, 3280 Hospital Drive NW, Calgary, Alberta, T2N 4Z6 (Canada)

    2011-02-15

    The wet landscape approach to oil sands tailings reclamation in the Athabasca Oil Sands region involves creating wetlands from fluid tailings in mined-out pits. We measured time to metamorphosis, thyroid hormone status, and detoxification enzyme (EROD) induction in Wood frog (Lithobates sylvaticus) tadpoles raised on reclaimed oil sands wetlands of different ages [young ({<=}7 yr) vs. old (>7 yr)] and compared data with tadpoles raised on reference (control) wetlands. Metamorphosis was delayed or never occurred in tadpoles raised in young tailings; those exposed to older tailings developed similarly to those in reference wetlands. Thyroid hormone disruption likely played an important role in the metamorphosis delay as the T3:T4 ratio was lowest in tadpoles raised in young, tailings-affected wetlands. Our findings suggest tailings wetlands become less toxic with age, and that these amphibians will be able to complete their life cycle in tailing wetlands that have sufficiently detoxified with age. - This work provides guidance for reclamation of oil sands tailings and shows the usefulness of frogs and caging studies in environmental toxicology.

  18. Cinta Senese and Large White x Cinta Senese raised on pasture in wood: sample join composition and meat quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Franci

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available During recent years animal welfare has received considerable attention in Europe. To satisfy the demand for better ethics and health regarding pigs, it has become popular to raise pigs outdoors. In Mediterranean area free-ranged system is carried out with indigenous breed. In Italy Cinta Senese is one of the main autochthonous breed...

  19. 1,3-dichloropropene and chloropicrin emissions following simulated drip irrigation to raised beds under plastic films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Using laboratory soil chambers a non-scaled representation of an agricultural raised bed was constructed. For a sandy loam soil, a drip application of 1,3-dichloropropene (1,3-D) and chloropicrin (CP) under both high density polyethylene (HDPE) and virtually impermeable film (VIF) was performed at 5...

  20. Searching for Enduring Donor Relationships: Evidence for Factors and Strategies in a Donor/Organization Integration Model for Fund Raising

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung-Hoon, Tanise L.; Hite, Julie M.; Hite, Steven J.

    2005-01-01

    Higher education relies upon private philanthropy as a significant source of outside revenue, yet competition for donor resources escalates annually. Competency for building enduring donor relationships may positively influence institutional fund-raising outcomes by addressing this problem. Qualitative data are presented examining the utility of…

  1. Factors Related to Annual Fund-Raising Contributions from Individual Donors to NCAA Division I-A Institutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, Douglas E.; Southall, Richard M.; Stotlar, David; Mundfrom, Daniel J.

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify selected factors related to annual fundraising program contributions at National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) Division I-A (D I-A) institutions and develop an equation for estimating an annual fund-raising goal. Based on a review of the literature, 15 potential predictor variables were selected…

  2. The Role of Faculty in Fund Raising at Black Colleges: What Is It and What Can It Become?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasman, Marybeth

    2005-01-01

    This article explores the role of faculty in fund raising at black colleges, asking what it has been and what it can become. In addition to an historical exploration of this role, the author draws upon qualitative interviews with both faculty and administrators to make recommendations for future faculty roles.

  3. Compromised metamorphosis and thyroid hormone changes in wood frogs (Lithobates sylvaticus) raised on reclaimed wetlands on the Athabasca oil sands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The wet landscape approach to oil sands tailings reclamation in the Athabasca Oil Sands region involves creating wetlands from fluid tailings in mined-out pits. We measured time to metamorphosis, thyroid hormone status, and detoxification enzyme (EROD) induction in Wood frog (Lithobates sylvaticus) tadpoles raised on reclaimed oil sands wetlands of different ages [young (?7 yr) vs. old (>7 yr)] and compared data with tadpoles raised on reference (control) wetlands. Metamorphosis was delayed or never occurred in tadpoles raised in young tailings; those exposed to older tailings developed similarly to those in reference wetlands. Thyroid hormone disruption likely played an important role in the metamorphosis delay as the T3:T4 ratio was lowest in tadpoles raised in young, tailings-affected wetlands. Our findings suggest tailings wetlands become less toxic with age, and that these amphibians will be able to complete their life cycle in tailing wetlands that have sufficiently detoxified with age. - This work provides guidance for reclamation of oil sands tailings and shows the usefulness of frogs and caging studies in environmental toxicology.

  4. Strategic Planning, Marketing & Public Relations, and Fund-Raising in Higher Education: Perspectives, Readings, and Annotated Bibliography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryans, Cynthia C.; Shanklin, William L.

    Perspectives on college and university strategic planning, marketing and public relations, and fund-raising are offered. Also included are previously published journal articles by experts in this area, annotated bibliographies of books and journal articles on these subjects, author/title and subject indexes, and a directory of publishers. Three…

  5. Entrevista/Interview: Q: How to Raise Money for Your Hispanic Students? A: Involve Your Alumni and Their Corporate Contacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Karla

    1983-01-01

    An interview with Raul Vargas, the director of the University of Southern California's Office for Mexican American Programs is presented. The office provides scholarships for some of USC's Hispanic undergraduates, raises scholarship money through alumni and corporate contacts, and acts as a liaison between the university and the Hispanic…

  6. Preliminary studies on the depuration of common off-flavors from fish raised in recirculating aquaculture systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    “Off-flavor” problems can adversely impact the growth of the aquaculture industry. Fish raised in recirculating systems have the potential to develop the common off-flavors “earthy” and “musty” due to accumulation of the microbial metabolites geosmin and 2-methylisoborneol (MIB) in the fish flesh. ...

  7. The Children Should Lead Us: Diane Ehrensaft's "Gender Born, Gender Made--Raising Healthy Gender-Nonconforming Children"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beemyn, Genny

    2013-01-01

    This article reviews Diane Ehrensaft's "Gender Born, Gender Made: Raising Healthy Gender-Nonconforming Children", a thoughtful and practical guide that can help parents, other family members, and therapists better understand and support children and youth whom the author refers to as "gender creative." Ehrensaft's work is at the forefront of a…

  8. Exemplifying a Continuum of Collaborative Engagement: Raising Literacy Achievement of At-Risk Students in New Zealand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parr, Judy M.; Timperley, Helen S.

    2015-01-01

    This article reports different ways researchers work with stakeholders in national projects targeted at raising achievement of students. Specifically, New Zealand has a persistent high performance-low equity profile in international tests, with indigenous Maori students and immigrants from the Pacific Islands most at risk of underachievement and…

  9. Raised serum TSH in morbid-obese and non-obese patients: effect on the circulating lipid profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotondi, Mario; Leporati, Paola; Rizza, Maria Ileana; Clerici, Alessandra; Groppelli, Gloria; Pallavicini, Cristina; La Manna, Antonella; Fonte, Rodolfo; Magri, Flavia; Biondi, Bernadette; Chiovato, Luca

    2014-02-01

    Morbid obesity is associated with a high rate of raised serum TSH associated with normal free thyroid hormones. The body repercussions of this thyroid abnormality, suggesting subclinical hypothyroidism, are still debated. In particular, it is unclear whether the raised serum TSH of obesity results in changes of circulating lipids typically observed in hypothyroidism. Aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of a raised serum TSH on the lipid profile in morbid-obese and non-obese patients. Serum TSH, FT4, FT3, Tg-Ab, TPO-Ab and lipids were measured in 55 morbid-obese (BMI > 40 kg/m(2)) and 55 non-obese (BMI TSH. Despite similar serum levels of TSH, FT4 and FT3, morbid-obese patients displayed significantly lower mean levels of total cholesterol (200.8 ± 35.6 vs. 226.9 ± 41.4 mg/dl, p TSH on the lipid profile differs in morbid-obese compared to non-obese patients, suggesting that obese patients might not be truly hypothyroid. Measuring total cholesterol could be a helpful tool for deciding whether a morbid-obese patient with a raised serum TSH should be given levothyroxine treatment. PMID:23526236

  10. The Methods Applied by Pre-School Teachers to Raise the Curiosity of Children and Their Views

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buyuktaskapu Soydan, Sema; Erbay, Filiz

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine the strategies used by pre-school teachers in order to raise curiosity in children. Based on this aim, sample is composed of 52 pre-school teachers working in kindergartens affiliated to Ministry of National Education. Study data were collected via qualitative research methods. Research data were gathered…

  11. Teacher as Inquiring Professional: Does This Help the Children To Raise Their Game? A Theoretical and Empirical Study; Preliminary Results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flecknoe, Mervyn; Saeidi, Saeideh

    This report argues that the most effective way to raise academic achievement is for teachers to become inquiring professionals with action-research and reflective-thinking skills. The report defines effectiveness and examines the views of various stakeholders about what qualities they value in school, arguing that effectiveness is a complex…

  12. Is the Week over yet? Insight for Educators about Social Network Support among Cyber Mothers Raising Children with ASD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanke, Jayme; Doktor, Judy; Shrestha, Sabita; Zeman, Laura Dreuth

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the motivation to participate in social networks maintained by mothers who blog and raise children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). The qualitative data analyzed in this study originated from a larger project that examined the perceptions, experiences, and meanings among mothers who maintained public blogs while parenting…

  13. Techno-economic optimization of level and raise spacing in Bushveld Complex platinum reef conventional breast mining

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    C., Musingwini.

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The Bushveld Complex is economically significant and strategically important to South Africa, thus it is imperative that optimal extraction of platinum group metal (PGM) resources on the Bushveld Complex is achieved. Optimal extraction broadly requires that the maximum amount of ore is extracted by [...] excavating and hauling the minimum amount of waste in the shortest possible time, at the least cost, and in the safest and most environmentally acceptable manner. In open-pit mine planning this entails among other things, minimizing the waste stripping ratio, whereas in underground mine planning it includes minimizing the metres of waste development. In conventional mining, the main development that is in waste or partly in waste and defines the mining grid pattern, includes levels and raises. It was prudent to consider optimizing level and raise spacing in conventional mining because the method is a prevalent mining method on the Bushveld Complex accounting for nearly 70% of platinum production. The techno-economic optimization of level and raise spacing is characteristically a multi-criteria decision analysis (MCDA) optimization process and should therefore be analysed using MCDA techniques. The analytic hierarchy process (AHP) was the most appropriate MCDA technique for this research study. By using an orebody code named OB1 based on real geological data that was typical of Bushveld Complex platinum reef deposits, the derived optimal range of vertical level spacing was 30 m-50 m, and the optimal range of raise spacing was 180 m-220 m. The research methodology used in this study and the results obtained were received positively by the South African platinum mining industry because for the first time in several decades, a holistic methodology and practically acceptable solution had been developed for the controversial debate of optimizing level and raise spacing for conventional mining.

  14. Microsatellite based genetic diversity and relationships among ten Creole and commercial cattle breeds raised in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Almeida Leonardo D

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Brazil holds the largest commercial cattle populations worldwide. Local cattle breeds can be classified according to their origin, as exotic or Creole. Exotic breeds imported in the last 100 years, both zebuine and taurine, currently make up the bulk of the intensively managed populations. Locally adapted Creole breeds, originated from cattle introduced by the European conquerors derive from natural selection and events of breed admixture. While historical knowledge exists on the Brazilian Creole breeds very little is known on their genetic composition. The objective of this study was to assess the levels of genetic diversity, phylogenetic relationships and patterns of taurine/zebuine admixture among ten cattle breeds raised in Brazil. Results Significant reduction of heterozygosity exists due both to within-population inbreeding and to breed differentiation in both subspecies (taurine and zebuine. For taurine breeds the number of markers that contribute to breed differentiation is larger than for zebuine. A consistently similar number of alleles was seen in both subspecies for all microsatellites. Four Creole breeds were the most genetically diverse followed by the zebuine breeds, the two specialized taurine breeds and the Creole Caracu. Pairwise genetic differentiation were all significant indicating that all breeds can be considered as genetically independent entities. A STRUCTURE based diagram indicated introgression of indicine genes in the local Creole breeds and suggested that occasional Creole introgression can be detected in some Zebuine animals. Conclusion This study reports on a comprehensive study of the genetic structure and diversity of cattle breeds in Brazil. A significant amount of genetic variation is maintained in the local cattle populations. The genetic data show that Brazilian Creole breeds constitute an important and diverse reservoir of genetic diversity for bovine breeding and conservation. The genetic data was able to shed light on a number of issues related to the local breeds origin and structure. The Brazilian Creole breeds are all important and viable targets for conservation for they display peculiar traits both phenotypic and of cultural and historical nature that deserve conservation efforts.

  15. Ovarian changes during the reproductive cycle of the Tupinambis merianae lizard raised in a temperate environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manes, Mario E.

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available El ciclo reproductor de hembras de Tupinambis merianae criadas en ambiente templado consiste de tres fases gonadales: previtelogénica, vitelogénica y postovulatoria o lútea. Durante la fase previtelogénica, que ocupa gran parte del verano, el otoño e invierno, los ovarios son pequeños, pesan menos de 4 g y contienen solamente folículos no vitelogénicos, los cuales se desarrollan lentamente a partir de los nidos germinales, alcanzando unos 5 mm de diámetro. Debido a una maduración gonadal asincrónica entre ambos sexos, las cópulas acontecen cuando los ovarios son aún previtelogénicos. Luego sobreviene una corta e intensa vitelogénesis, durante la cual los folículos crecen uniformemente incrementando unas 6 veces su diámetro (cerca de 30 mm, mientras que la masa ovárica total alcanza unos 400 g. El proceso culmina entre los 15 y 20 días, con una ovulación generalizada y la subsiguiente oviposición. Como consecuencia, los ovarios postovulatorios aparecen reducidos a unos 5 g, con una superficie casi enteramente cubierta de cicatrices foliculares, las cuales pronto desarrollan cuerpos lúteos. La detención del ciclo ovárico, con atresia folicular previtelogénica masiva, como resultado del aislamiento de las hembras, permite concluir sobre la existencia de estímulos sexuales promotores de la vitelogénesis. The reproductive cycle of Tupinambis merianae females raised in a temperate environment consists of three gonadal phases: previtellogenic, vitellogenic and postovulatory or luteal phases. During the previtellogenic phase, which takes great part of the summer, autumn and winter, the ovaries are small, weigh less than 4 g, and contain only nonvitellogenic follicles, which develop slowly from germinal beds, until they are almost 5 mm diameter. Due to an asynchronous gonadal maturation in both sexes, matings occur when ovaries are still previtellogenic. Then comes a short and intense vitellogenesis, during which follicles grow steadily increasing around 6 times their diameter (close to 30 mm, while the total ovarian mass reaches almost 400 g. The process culminates between the 15th and 20th day, with a widespread ovulation and a subsequent oviposition. As a consequence, postovulatory ovaries appear reduced to 5 g approximately, with a surface almost entirely covered with follicular scars, which soon developed luteal bodies. Blockade of the ovarian cycle, with a massive previtellogenic follicular atresia, as a result of females isolation leads to conclude on the existence of sexual stimuli promoting vitellogenesis.

  16. Grammatical consciousness-raising: a problem-solving, process-focused approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wendy R. Kilfoil

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available How can we address the teaching of English as a second language in South African secondary schools given what we know about the nature of language acquisition, learners' lack of exposure to mother tongue English speakers and their widely divergent language experience at primary school/eve!? This paper argues that grammatical consciousness-raising should be the basis of the secondary school syllabus. Current syllabuses do not adequately consider language acquisition processes. Although their aims are defined as 'communicative: syllabuses continue to focus on what language should be taught, with the result that they remain essentially lists of structures and functions. Syllabuses should be completely redesigned to develop a coherent process-focused, problemsolving approach to second language teaching. At the moment there is a distinct reluctance to make any definitive pronouncements about the place of language instruction in the classroom. This has a detrimental effect on both teachers and learners. The only way to cope with the developing language needs of the learner in the secondary school is through a more conscious study of how language is used in natural discourse. A more deliberate language control on the part of the learner will enhance the efficacy of extensive listening, speaking, reading and writing activities designed to supply input which is a necessary but not sufficient criterion for acquisition at this leveL Hoe kan ons die onderrig van Engels as 'n tweede taal in Suid-Afrikaanse sekondere skole aanspreek, gegee ons kennis van die aard van taalverwerwing, die leerders se gebrek aan blootstelling aan Engels-moederlaalsprekers en hul uiteenlopende taalondervinding op laerskoolvlak? Hierdie arlikel voer aan dat grammatikale bewustheidsopskerping die basis van die sekondere skoolleerplan behoorl te wees. Huidige leerplanne neem nie taalverwerwingsprosesse voldoende in ag nie. Alhoewel hulle doelstellings as kommunikatief beskryf word, fokus leerplanne steeds op wafter taalinhoude onderrig moet word. Gevolglik bly leerplanne hoofsaaklik lyste van strukture en funksies. Leerplanne behoorl heeltemal herontwerp te word om 'n samehangende proses-gefokusde, probleemoplossingsbenadering tot tweede taalonderrig te ontwikkel. Tans is daar 'n duidelike onwilligheid om enige definitiewe uitspraak te !ewer oor die plek van taalonderrig in die klaskamer. Dit het 'n nadelige uitwerking op onderwysers en ook die leerders. Die enigste manier waarop die ontwikkelende taalbehoeftes van die sekondere skoolleerling geakkommodeer kan word, is deur 'n meer bewuste studie te maak van hoe taal in 'n natuurlike diskoers gebruik word. 'n Meer doelbewuste taalbeheer aan die kant van die leerder sal die doeltreffendheid van ekstensiewe luister-, praat-, lees- en skryfaktiwiteite bevorder. Hierdie aktiwiteite verskaf die nodige taalinsette, maar is op sigself onvoldoende om taalverwerwing op hierdie vlak te verseker.

  17. Raising Awareness of Research Ethics in SoTL: The Role of Educational Developers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura-Lee Balkwill

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Does the subject of research ethics take you by surprise? Does it make you somewhat uncomfortable? Does itseem to have nothing to do with your research or your practice? These are the attitudes we have encounteredabout research ethics among some SoTL researchers at workshops and conferences. In many cases, theseresearchers had conducted research that should have undergone research ethics board (REB review, but didnot; that should have included a consent process for the use of student data or previous work, but did not; orthat started out as program evaluation and became research without meeting the criteria of ethicallyacceptable research conduct. In this essay, we will argue that familiarity with our national research ethicsPolicy: The Tri-Council Policy Statement: Ethical Conduct for Research Involving Humans, 2nd edition(TCPS 2 and how it applies to SoTL, is essential for researchers and for educational developers. We willpropose a role for Centre of Teaching and Learning staff in raising awareness of TCPS 2 and we will dispelsome of the most common myths and misconceptions that abound regarding SoTL and research ethics.Le sujet de l’éthique de la recherche vous surprend-il? Vous rend-il quelque peu mal à l’aise? Semble-t-il nerien avoir à faire avec votre recherche ou votre pratique? Ce sont des attitudes que nous avons rencontréesquant à l’éthique de la recherche chez certains chercheurs en ACEA dans des ateliers et des conférences. Dansde nombreux cas, les chercheurs ont effectué des recherches qui auraient dû être examinées par les conseilsd’éthique en recherche, mais qui ne l’ont pas été; qui auraient dû comprendre un processus de consentementpour l’utilisation de données sur les étudiants ou de travaux antérieurs et pour lesquelles mais ils n’en ont pas,ou qui ont commencé par être une évaluation de programme et qui sont devenues une recherche sanstoutefois respecter les critères relatifs à la conduite d’une recherche éthiquement acceptable. Dans cet essai,nous expliquons que la connaissance de notre politique nationale d’éthique en matière de recherche : l’Énoncéde politique des trois Conseils : Éthique de la recherche avec des êtres humains 2e édition (EPTC 2, estessentielle et nous montrons en quoi elle s’applique à l’ACEA. Nous proposons un rôle pour le personnel duCentre d’enseignement et d’apprentissage afin de mieux faire connaître l’EPTC 2 et dissipons les mythes etidées erronées les plus courants qui abondent concernant l’ACEA et l’éthique de la recherche.

  18. Anti-Tribbles homolog 2 (TRIB2) autoantibodies in narcolepsy are associated with recent onset of cataplexy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kawashima, Minae; Lin, Ling

    2010-01-01

    Recent studies have found increased autoantibodies against Tribbles homolog 2 (anti-TRIB2) and anti-streptolysin O (ASO) in narcolepsy. In this study, we replicated this finding with a primary focus on recent onset cases.

  19. The Soil Atlas of Africa: raising awareness and educate to the importance of soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewitte, Olivier; Jones, Arwyn; Bosco, Claudio; Spaargaren, Otto; Montanarella, Luca

    2010-05-01

    The richness of African soil resources need to be protected for future generations. A number of threats are affecting the functioning of African soils, not only for the purpose of agricultural production, but also for other important environmental services that soil delivers to all of us. This is of particular importance once we know that many health-related problems in Africa are indirectly related to the services of soils. To raise the awareness of the general public, policy makers and other scientists to the importance of soil in Africa, the Joint Research Centre of the European Commission is to produce the first ever Soil Atlas of Africa. This is in collaboration with the African Union Commission, the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO), the Africa Soil Science Society, ISRIC - World Soil Information and scientists from both Europe and Africa. The Atlas compiles existing information on different soil types as easily understandable maps (both at regional and continental scale) covering the African continent. The Soil Atlas of Africa intends to produce derived maps at continental scale with descriptive text (e.g. vulnerability to desertification, soil nutrient status, carbon stocks and sequestration potential, irrigable areas and water resources) as well as specific maps to illustrate threats such as soil erosion for instance. For each regional overview, large scale examples of soil maps and derived products are presented too. The Atlas will be published as a hardcover book containing 174 A3 pages, which will allow soils maps to be displayed at the A2 scale. Both French and English versions of the Atlas will be edited. The Atlas will be sold at a low cost and will be for free for educational purpose (Schools and Universities). A digital version on CD and eventually freely downloadable on internet will also be available. Together with the publication of the Atlas, associated datasets on soil characteristics for Africa will be made available. These datasets will be useful for making broad distinction among soil types and provide general trends at the global and regional scales. The datasets will be made accessible for free downloading from the portals of the SOIL Action (http://eusoils.jrc.ec.europa.eu/) and the ACP Observatory for Sustainable Development (http://acpobservatory.jrc.ec.europa.eu). The Atlas links the theme of soil with rural development and, at the same time, supports the goals of the EU Thematic Strategy for Soil Protection in conserving a threatened natural resource that is vital to human existence. Not only climate change, but also desertification and loss of biodiversity are strongly affecting soils globally, making the "Soil Atlas of Africa" relevant to a much larger community of stakeholders involved in the implementation of the three "Rio-Conventions" and allowing to explore possible synergies among international multilateral agreements towards global soil protection.

  20. Education and Raising Awareness of Seismic Risk in the Black Sea Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florin Balan, Stefan; Alcaz, Vasile; Trifonova, Petya; Uker, Nalan; Tataru, Dragos

    2014-05-01

    The Project "Black Sea Earthquake Safety Net(work)" ESNET has the intention to educate and raise awareness of seismic risk in the Black Sea Basin in four countries: Moldova, Romania, Bulgaria and Turkey. The project is financed through "The Black Sea Basin Joint Operational Programme", an EU operational programmes under European Neighborhood & Partnership Instrument (ENPI). The programme is financed by ENPI. The participation of Turkey is financed by Instrument for Pre-accession Assistance. It is implemented during the period 2007 - 2013. The project wants to contribute to the prevention of natural disasters generated by earthquakes in Black Sea Basin by developing a joint monitoring and intervention concept. All the countries involved in the project have their own studies, strategies, prevention and intervention systems in case of earthquakes, but until now there has not been an integrated approach so far in the Black Sea Basin. Given the cross-border character of seismic activity, it is necessary to have a cross-border approach on prevention, monitoring and intervention in case of earthquakes. Main objectives : 1. The assessment of the disaster potential, with accent on the seismic risk degree and the earthquakes effects in the intervention area. For achieving the main objective is to have an accurate and up-to-date assessment of the potential of disasters provoked by earthquakes in the project area/regions. This assessment will be carried out at national level and will be used in designing the common concept/approach for dealing with earthquakes at regional level, thus ensuring the cross-border character of the objective. 2.To develop an integrated seismic monitoring and intervention concept. This integrated concept, built on the basis of the previous objective, will have a cross-border relevance and is at the core of the action. The monitoring and intervention in case of earthquakes will be coordinated among the participating countries based on this, thus a more effective and efficient approach being ensured. 3. To increase the capacity of local institutions emergency intervention units for joint response activities in case of disasters. By involving the local emergency units and public administration in the project activities, especially in trainings, conferences and consultations, a better cooperation at cross-border level will be achieved. Step by step, the respective bodies will increase the cooperation and will benefit from each others expertise. Target groups : Research institutions and universities; Emergency intervention units; Local public authorities; NGOs. Final beneficiaries of the project: the population in the regions of the project. The project has a high educational perspective through its: a)training activities and b)training tools applied in the process. A) the training of 20 people from the emergency units from each country (80 in total) by experts in risk management. B) The Seismic Safety Web Portal of the project presenting all activities, maps and materials posted by members of the network agreement and not only. Also for changing expertise, opinions and long distance conferences is available a special software communication tool. An educational book is printed in 3 languages to be distributed in partner countries with main results.

  1. Inquiry into the Central Asia Institute's financials raises questions about oversight of charities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grinnell, Max

    2011-04-29

    Greg Mortenson and our false ideals about social changehttp://www.csmonitor.com/Commentary/Opinion/2011/0425/Greg-Mortenson-and-our-false-ideals-about-social-changeThe Greg Mortenson Scandal: One University's Bitter Cup of Teahttp://www.time.com/time/nation/article/0,8599,2066239,00.htmlThe Greg Mortenson We Knewhttp://www.newwest.net/topic/article/the_greg_mortenson_we_knew/C39/L39/Greg Mortenson: 60 Minuteshttp://www.cbsnews.com/video/watch/?id=7363068nCharity Navigatorhttp://www.charitynavigator.org/Several weeks ago, author Greg Mortenson found himself in a bit of an unwanted media firestorm. Mortenson wrote the tremendously popular book "Three Cups of Tea" about his time spent in Central Asia in the early 1990s. The work has inspired others to donate to his organization (the Central Asia Institute), which is dedicated to building girls' schools in Pakistan. Unfortunately, it appears that Mortenson may have fabricated some of the details of his original trek to the region, and many literary commentators are quite upset. The other thread of the story belongs to the world of charitable giving, and a number of people are even more upset by the concerns raised about Central Asia Institute's finances than by any unseemly fabrications in Mortenson's book. The USA Today's Sandra Block reported this week that Daniel Borochoff, founder of the American Institute of Philanthropy had requested financial information from the Central Asia Institute in 2009, and found out that the organization did not have any audited financial statements at that time. In a piece for the Christian Science Monitor, Courtney E. Martin and John Cary talk about the problems of "do gooder celebrity" which seem to have incredible influence on certain aspects of the non-profit world, including Mortenson's own organization. It is a story that is still very much playing out, and one that those in the non-profit world will be following closely. [KMG]The first link will take interested parties to the piece mentioned above, from the USA Today's Sandra Block, about the investigation into the Central Asia Institute. The second link leads to the other aforementioned piece in this Monday's Christian Science Monitor regarding "do gooder celebrity". Moving on, the third link will take users to a piece from last week's Time magazine about an award given to Mortenson by the University of Louisville which is now under review. The fourth link will whisk interested parties to an opinion piece by Dennis Higman (writing for the New West literary website) about his relationship and encounters with Mortenson. The fifth link leads to a recent investigative piece from 60 Minutes on Mortenson and the controversy surrounding his book "Three Cups of Tea" and the Institute. For those who might be considering a gift to a charitable organization, the sixth link leads to the Charity Navigator website. Here visitors can search for information about charities of interest and view top ten lists such as "10 Highly-Rated Charities with Low Paid CEOs".

  2. Titulação de aloanticorpos anti-a e anti-b em gatos domésticos sem raça definida em Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil Anti-a and anti-b alloantibodies titres in non-pedigree domestic cats in Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana de Almeida Lacerda

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available A probabilidade de ocorrência de reação transfusional em um felino depende da prevalência local dos tipos sanguíneos felinos e dos títulos de aloanticorpos. A determinação dos títulos de aloanticorpos auxilia na estimativa do risco e da severidade de reação transfusional, após transfusão não compatível, em uma população de gatos. O objetivo deste trabalho foi determinar a titulação de aloanticorpos e o risco de possível reação transfusional, em felinos domésticos sem raça definida, da cidade de Porto Alegre. Foram selecionados aleatoriamente 100 gatos clinicamente saudáveis, sem raça definida e sem parentesco entre si e sem histórico de transfusão prévia. Amostras de sangue foram coletadas da veia jugular e a titulação de aloanticorpos foi determinada no soro de gatos com tipo sanguíneo previamente definido. O risco estimado foi calculado de acordo com estudos prévios. No presente trabalho, 82,5 e 100% dos gatos do tipo A e B, respectivamente, apresentaram titulação variada de aloanticorpos. Com base nos títulos encontrados, verificou-se que uma transfusão de sangue, do tipo A ou AB, em gatos do tipo B apresenta risco de 33,3% de reação aguda severa e de 66,7% de reação aguda leve, nos receptores felinos. A transfusão de sangue do tipo AB ou B em gatos do tipo A apresenta risco de reação aguda severa em 1,0%; reação aguda leve em 37,1% e destruição prematura dos eritrócitos em 44,3% dos receptores felinos.The probability of occurrence of a transfusion reaction in a cat depends on the local prevalence of feline blood types and alloantibody titres. Determination of alloantibody titres assists in estimating the risk and the severity of transfusion reactions following an unmatched transfusion in a cat population. The objective of this study was to determine alloantibody titres and the risk of a possible transfusion reaction in non-pedigree domestic cats in Porto Alegre , Brazil. One hundred clinically healthy non-pedigree and non-related cats with no history of previous transfusion were randomly selected. Blood samples were collected from the jugular vein and the alloantibody titres were determined by tube serial dilution of the serum from cats with known blood types, the estimated risk was calculated according previous studies. In the present study, 82.5% and 100% of types A and B cats, respectively, showed varied alloantibodies titres. Based on the titres found in the present study, the risk of an acute severe reaction is 33.3% and an acute mild reaction is 66.7% in a type B cat transfused with blood type A or AB. In type A cats transfused with blood type AB or B, the risk of an acute severe reaction is 1.0%, an acute mild reaction is 37.1% and premature red cell destruction is 44.3%.

  3. Titulação de aloanticorpos anti-a e anti-b em gatos domésticos sem raça definida em Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil / Anti-a and anti-b alloantibodies titres in non-pedigree domestic cats in Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Luciana de Almeida, Lacerda; Simone Tostes de, Oliveira; Gisele Guiomara, Stein; Tatiana Amaral, Guerra; Félix, Gonzáles.

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available A probabilidade de ocorrência de reação transfusional em um felino depende da prevalência local dos tipos sanguíneos felinos e dos títulos de aloanticorpos. A determinação dos títulos de aloanticorpos auxilia na estimativa do risco e da severidade de reação transfusional, após transfusão não compatí [...] vel, em uma população de gatos. O objetivo deste trabalho foi determinar a titulação de aloanticorpos e o risco de possível reação transfusional, em felinos domésticos sem raça definida, da cidade de Porto Alegre. Foram selecionados aleatoriamente 100 gatos clinicamente saudáveis, sem raça definida e sem parentesco entre si e sem histórico de transfusão prévia. Amostras de sangue foram coletadas da veia jugular e a titulação de aloanticorpos foi determinada no soro de gatos com tipo sanguíneo previamente definido. O risco estimado foi calculado de acordo com estudos prévios. No presente trabalho, 82,5 e 100% dos gatos do tipo A e B, respectivamente, apresentaram titulação variada de aloanticorpos. Com base nos títulos encontrados, verificou-se que uma transfusão de sangue, do tipo A ou AB, em gatos do tipo B apresenta risco de 33,3% de reação aguda severa e de 66,7% de reação aguda leve, nos receptores felinos. A transfusão de sangue do tipo AB ou B em gatos do tipo A apresenta risco de reação aguda severa em 1,0%; reação aguda leve em 37,1% e destruição prematura dos eritrócitos em 44,3% dos receptores felinos. Abstract in english The probability of occurrence of a transfusion reaction in a cat depends on the local prevalence of feline blood types and alloantibody titres. Determination of alloantibody titres assists in estimating the risk and the severity of transfusion reactions following an unmatched transfusion in a cat po [...] pulation. The objective of this study was to determine alloantibody titres and the risk of a possible transfusion reaction in non-pedigree domestic cats in Porto Alegre , Brazil. One hundred clinically healthy non-pedigree and non-related cats with no history of previous transfusion were randomly selected. Blood samples were collected from the jugular vein and the alloantibody titres were determined by tube serial dilution of the serum from cats with known blood types, the estimated risk was calculated according previous studies. In the present study, 82.5% and 100% of types A and B cats, respectively, showed varied alloantibodies titres. Based on the titres found in the present study, the risk of an acute severe reaction is 33.3% and an acute mild reaction is 66.7% in a type B cat transfused with blood type A or AB. In type A cats transfused with blood type AB or B, the risk of an acute severe reaction is 1.0%, an acute mild reaction is 37.1% and premature red cell destruction is 44.3%.

  4. Evolução de títulos sorológicos, nas provas de soroaglutinação em placa, antígeno acidificado tamponado e fixação de complemento, em bezerras Nelore vacinadas aos 18 meses de idade com Brucella abortus amostra B 19 / Evolution of serological antibody titres by the plate agglutination, rose Bengal and complement fixation tests in Nelore heifers (Bos indicus) vaccinated at 18 months of age with Brucella abortus strain 19

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Luis A., Mathias; Lucila F., Chaves; Anne A., Chen; Raul J. S., Girio; Walter, Valério Neto.

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de estudar a persistência da resposta sorológica, através das provas de soroaglutinação em placa, rosa Bengala e fixação de complemento, 108 bezerras, com idade ao redor de 18 meses, foram vacinadas com uma dose padrão da vacina preparada com Brucella abortus amostra B 19. Foram obtid [...] as amostras de soro sangüíneo antes da vacinação e após 45 dias, 6, 12 e 18 meses. Antes da vacinação, todas as bezerras apresentaram resultados negativos nos três testes. Após 45 dias, todas apresentaram título a partir de 1/100 na prova de soroaglutinação em placa e todas apresentaram resultado positivo no teste rosa Bengala, ao passo que dois animais apresentaram título 1/2 e os demais apresentaram título a partir de 1/4 na reação de fixação de complemento. Após um ano de vacinação, a grande maioria das bezerras já não apresentava título sorológico significativo. Considerando o risco a que estão sujeitos animais que vivem em áreas endêmicas e em propriedades onde a doença ocorre, e considerando a acentuada redução de título sorológico observada na grande maioria dos animais, pode-se concluir que, no caso bezerras de raças zebuínas em áreas endêmicas e que não tenham sido vacinadas na idade regulamentar, é mais vantajoso vaciná-las com a amostra B 19 aos 18 meses de idade do que deixá-las expostas a um elevado risco de infecção por Brucella. Abstract in english One hundred and eight Nelore heifers (Bos indicus) about 18 months of age were vaccinated with a standard dosage (60-120 x 10(9) viable organisms) of Brucella abortus strain 19 vaccine, aiming at to study the persistence of serological antibody titres by the plate agglutination, rose Bengal and comp [...] lement fixation tests. Serum samples were collected just before vaccination and after 45 days, 6, 12 and 18 months. Before the vaccination, all the heifers showed negative results by the three tests. After 45 days, all the heifers had titres higher than or equal to 1/100 by the plate agglutination test and all of them showed positive results by the rose Bengal plate test, while 2 animals had titre 1/2 and 106 animals had titres higher than or equal to 1/4 by the complement fixation test. One year after the vaccination, most of the heifers did not show significant serological antibody titres. Considering the risk to which animals in endemic areas and infected herds are subjected, and considering the clear reduction of the serological antibody titres shown by most of the vaccinated heifers, one may assume that, in case of Nelore heifers in endemic areas and that were not vaccinated between 3 and 8 months of age, it would be more reasonable to vaccinate them at 18 months of age than to expose them to a high risk of Brucella infection.

  5. Effect of Antibodies Raised in Bovine and Guineapigs on The Genetic Characters of Seroytpe Asia1 FMD Virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Sanyal

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present work, the effect of antibodies (raised in Bovine against IND 63/72 and in Guineapigs against IND 63/72 and IND 491/97 on foot-and-mouth disease serotype Asia1 vaccine strain IND 63/72 was compared by analyzing the data obtained in nucleotide sequencing. The Nr viruses (neutralization resistant viruses which were selected by growing them in the presence of antibodies (Bovine Vaccinate Serum, BVS and Guineapig Serum, GPS showed certain characteristic features like common changes in the structural protein coding P1 region of this virus. This shows that the virus responds equally to the antibodies raised in both bovine (natural host and guineapig (experimental host. The result hereIn extends the finding that selection exerted by host antibody also plays a major role in the rapid evolution of FMD Virus serotype Asia1.

  6. Overview of raise boring and blind shaft drilling with practical applications and particular reference to design limits for accuracy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neudecker, J.W. Jr.

    1984-04-18

    The current excavation technology of raise boring and blind shaft drilling operations is reviewed. Examples are presented of recent applications of both downhole boring machines and surface-mounted rotary shaft drilling equipment, with comparisons made of operational characteristics, shaft sizes, and accuracy limits of each system. Raise-boring and box-drilling machines are described and current operating practices of these systems are reviewed. The increased interest in slant hole or inclined shaft construction is noted, and techniques and equipment for these special shafts are presented. Practical accuracy limits are discussed for each shaft drilling technique and trade-offs between accuracy, drilling rates, and shaft utilization factors are noted. Finally, the current status of ongoing research and development efforts will be described, and some predictions made regarding worthwhile improvement trends in shaft construction methods.

  7. Total Zinc Intake May Modify the Glucose-Raising Effect of a Zinc Transporter (SLC30A8) Variant

    OpenAIRE

    Kanoni, Stavroula; Nettleton, Jennifer A.; Hivert, Marie-France; Ye, Zheng; van Rooij, Frank J.A.; Shungin, Dmitry; Sonestedt, Emily; Ngwa, Julius S; Wojczynski, Mary K; Lemaitre, Rozenn N; Gustafsson, Stefan; Tanaka, Toshiko; Hindy, George; Saylor, Georgia; Renstrom, Frida

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Many genetic variants have been associated with glucose homeostasis and type 2 diabetes in genome-wide association studies. Zinc is an essential micronutrient that is important for ?-cell function and glucose homeostasis. We tested the hypothesis that zinc intake could influence the glucose-raising effect of specific variants. Research Design and Methods: We conducted a 14-cohort meta-analysis to assess the interaction of 20 genetic variants known to be related to glycemic traits a...

  8. Regression and stabilization of advanced murine atherosclerotic lesions: a comparison of LDL lowering and HDL raising gene transfer strategies

    OpenAIRE

    Van Craeyveld, Eline; Gordts, Stephanie C.; Nefyodova, Elena; Jacobs, Frank; Geest, Bart De

    2011-01-01

    Both reductions in atherogenic lipoproteins and increases in high-density lipoprotein (HDL) levels may affect atherosclerosis regression. Here, the relative potential of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) lowering and HDL raising gene transfer strategies to induce regression of complex murine atherosclerotic lesions was directly compared. Male C57BL/6 LDL receptor (LDLr)?/? mice were fed an atherogenic diet (1.25% cholesterol and 10% coconut oil) to induce advanced atherosclerotic lesions. A b...

  9. A COMPARISON BETWEEN MULLIGAN TRACTION STRAIGHT LEG RAISE TECHNIQUE VS MUSCLE ENERGY TECHNIQUE ON HAMSTRING TIGHTNESS IN ASYMPTOMATIC MALE

    OpenAIRE

    Jesudas Mazumdar; Jitendra Kumar Shriwas

    2014-01-01

    Background and Purpose: The Hamstring muscles of the back thigh are found to be the most prevalent for the tightness in the body. The purpose of this study is to compare effectiveness of Mulligan Traction Straight Leg Raise and Muscle Energy Technique methods in increasing range of motion and flexibility of knee joint. Methods: The 60 subjects (n = 60) with hamstring tightness randomly divided into two groups. Each group consist of 30 male subjects. However group A had 28 as two d...

  10. Does Privatization Raise Productivity? Evidence from Comprehensive Panel Data on Manufacturing Firms in Hungary, Romania, Russia and Ukraine

    OpenAIRE

    Brown, J. David; Earle, John S.; Telegdy, Álmos

    2004-01-01

    We analyze the impact of privatization on multifactor productivity (MFP) using long panel data for nearly the universe of initially stateowned manufacturing firms in four economies. Controlling for firm and industry-year fixed effects and employing a wide variety of measurement approaches, we estimate that majority privatization raises MFP about 28% in Romania, 22% in Hungary, and 3% in Ukraine, with some variation across specifications, while in Russia it lowers it about 4%. Privatization to...

  11. The costs of raising children and the effectiveness of policies to support parenthood in European countries: a Literature Review

    OpenAIRE

    Letablier, Marie-the?re?se; Luci, Angela; Math, Antoine; The?venon, Olivier

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to produce an overview of available knowledge about the following issues: ? the costs (to parents) of parenthood and of raising children in European Countries; ? the effectiveness, in the short and long term, of various policy measures in avoiding or compensating for those costs; 8 ? the impact of different policy instruments aimed at supporting families according to various policy objectives, e.g. achieving family projects, reconciling family and working l...

  12. Guided implant surgery with modification of the technique involving the raising of a semicircular miniflap: A preliminary study

    OpenAIRE

    Pen?arrocha, Mari?a; Vin?a, Jose?; Maestre, Laura; Pen?arrocha, David; Balaguer, Jose?

    2012-01-01

    Objective: An evaluation is made of pain, swelling and peri-implant attached mucosal width after implant-based rehabilitation involving guided surgery and a modification of the technique with the raising of a semicircular miniflap, in single and partial replacements. Study design: A case-control study was carried out. The study group consisted of 12 patients with the placement of 19 implants using a guided surgery and miniflap technique. The control group consisted of 12 patients with the ...

  13. Performance and organ morphology of broilers fed microbial or antimicrobial additives and raised in batteries or floor pens

    OpenAIRE

    Pedroso AA; Menten JFM; Racanicci AMC; Longo FA; JOB Sorbara; JB Gaiotto

    2003-01-01

    This study was conducted to determine the effect of microbial or antimicrobial additives on the performance and organ morphology of broilers raised in batteries or in floor pens. The effect of microbial additives on the presence of oocysts in the litter was also studied. Experiments 1 and 2 consisted of four treatments (non-supplemented control diet or diet supplemented with avilamycin, bacitracin methylene disalicylate or enramycin) and six repetitions in a randomized block design. In Experi...

  14. Gender-Bending in Virtual Space : Using Voice-Morphing in Second Life to Raise Sociolinguistic Gender Awareness

    OpenAIRE

    Deutschmann, Mats; Steinvall, Anders; Lagerström, Anna

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents further innovative use of virtual worlds under the pilot stages of ASSIS (A Second Step in Second Life), a project funded by Umeå University. One aim of the project is to make use of the affordances offered by Second Life in order to raise sociolinguistic language awareness among teacher trainees and other students studying sociolinguistics. Several experiments have been conducted where creative use of the avatar in combination with so-called “voice-morphing” allowed ...

  15. Should governments in Europe be more aggressive in pushing for gender equality to raise fertility? The first "YES"

    OpenAIRE

    Laurent Toulemon

    2011-01-01

    Together with three colleagues, I have been asked by the MPIDR to debate the following question: "Should governments in Europe be more aggressive in pushing for gender equality to raise fertility? Setting aside the "lighthearted" side of this "Rostocker Debate," (12 minutes for each speech, one minute for each comment), I saw this as a good opportunity to think about the stakes behind the question. In order to address this complex issue, it is necessary to think about the many "preliminary qu...

  16. Raised D-dimer levels in acute sickle cell crisis and their correlation with chest X-ray abnormalities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan, Imad S. A.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Quantitation of D-dimer level during a sickling crisis and its correlation with other clinical abnormalities. Design: Prospective longitudinal study. Setting: Armed Forces Hospital, Southern Region, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Patients: Adult patients (12 years and older admitted acutely with a sickle cell crisis who consent to taking part in the study. Candidates may re-participate if they are readmitted with a further acute painful crisis. Results: 36 patients with homozygous sickle cell disease consented to take part in the study. D-dimer levels were raised in 31 (68.9% of 45 episodes of painful crisis of whom 13 had an abnormal chest X-ray. Of those with a normal chest X-ray only one patient had a raised D-dimer level: sensitivity of 92.3%, specificity 40.6%, positive predictive value 38.7% and negative predictive value of 92.9% for an abnormal chest X-ray. Conclusion: D-dimer levels are frequently raised during an acute painful crisis. A normal level has a high negative predictive value for an abnormal chest X-ray.

  17. Behavior comparisons for whooping cranes raised by costumed caregivers and trained for an ultrallght?led migration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, G.H.

    2008-01-01

    The successful reintroduction program being run by the Whooping Crane Eastern Partnership using whooping cranes (Grus americana) trained to fly behind ultralight aircraft depends on a supply of these trained crane colts each year. The crane colts are hatched from eggs contributed by the various partners and trained to follow costume clad humans and ultralight aircraft at USGS Patuxent Wildlife Research Center, Laurel, Maryland, USA. After several seasons of raising small numbers of crane colts (7-14), we wanted to increase the number of birds being trained, but were restrained by limits in our facilities. By altering the established husbandry and training program to allow the use of a recently modified facility, we have increased the number of colts raised for this release program. However, we did not know whether the new facility and husbandry regime would significantly alter the behavior of the colts. Therefore, we have begun a two year study to determine if there are differences in the behavior of cranes raised by the two methods, and if any of the differences discovered relate directly to whooping crane survival and migration skills in the release program.

  18. Effect of pressure intensity of graduated elastic compression stocking on muscle fatigue following calf-raise exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyamoto, Naokazu; Hirata, Kosuke; Mitsukawa, Naotoshi; Yanai, Toshimasa; Kawakami, Yasuo

    2011-04-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine the effects of wearing a graduated elastic compression (EC) stocking, with different pressure profiles during a fatiguing calf-raise exercise session, on the torque generating capacity after exercise. Fourteen subjects performed 15 sets of 10 repetitions of calf-raise exercise, wearing one of three stockings of different compression pressure profiles: two kinds of EC stockings (one (EC30) with 30mmHg at the ankle, 21-25mmHg at the calf, and 10mmHg below the knee, and the other (EC18) with 18, 12-14, and 7mmHg at the same regions, respectively) and a non-EC sport stocking as a control (CON). Before and after the exercise, torque and electromyographic (EMG) signals of medial gastrocnemius and soleus muscles were recorded during an evoked triplet contraction and the maximal voluntary contraction (MVC). All stockings had no effect on the decline of the MVC torque whereas the reduction of the evoke triplet torque in EC30 stocking condition was significantly smaller compared with that in CON (-6.4±8.5% for EC30 and -16.5±9.0% for CON, Pcalf region relieves muscle fatigue of the triceps surae induced by calf-raise exercise. PMID:20843703

  19. Evolución del título de anticuerpos contra el receptor tipo M de la fosfolipasa A2 y respuesta clínica en pacientes con nefropatía membranosa idiopática tratados con tacrolimus / Evolution of antibody titre against the M-type phospholipase A2 receptor and clinical response in idiopathic membranous nephropathy patients treated with tacrolimus

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Alfons, Segarra-Medrano; Elias, Jatem-Escalante; Clara, Carnicer-Cáceres; Irene, Agraz-Pamplona; M. Teresa, Salcedo; Naiara, Valtierra; Elena, Ostos-Roldán; Karla V., Arredondo; Juliana, Jaramillo.

    Full Text Available Introducción y objetivos: Se ha descrito que el nivel de anticuerpos circulantes contra el receptor tipo M de la fosfolipasa A2 tiene correlación significativa con la actividad clínica de la enfermedad en la nefropatía membranosa idiopática (NMI). Sin embargo, la utilidad de la monitorización del tí [...] tulo de anticuerpos como predictor de respuesta clínica tras el inicio del tratamiento no ha sido formalmente analizada. En el siguiente estudio se analiza el valor predictivo de la evolución del título de anticuerpos anti-PLA2R sobre la respuesta clínica en enfermos con NMI tratados con tacrolimus. Pacientes y métodos: 36 enfermos con síndrome nefrótico secundario a NMI, con criterios de indicación de tratamiento inmunosupresor, fueron tratados con tacrolimus en monoterapia. Se determinó el nivel de anticuerpos anti-PLA2R antes del tratamiento y a los 3, 6, 9 y 12 meses tras su inicio. Se analizó el valor predictivo de la pendiente de reducción en el título de anticuerpos y de la reducción absoluta y relativa en el título de anticuerpos a los 3 y 6 meses sobre el tiempo hasta la remisión y sobre la probabilidad de remisión a los 6, 9 y 12 meses. Resultados: La reducción relativa en el título de anticuerpos anti-PLA2R fue significativamente mayor en los enfermos que presentaron remisión y precedió a la respuesta clínica. No se apreció asociación entre el título de anticuerpos previo al tratamiento con el tiempo medio de respuesta o la respuesta a los 12 meses. La pendiente de reducción en el título de anticuerpos se asoció significativamente con el tiempo hasta la evidencia de remisión. La reducción relativa en el título de anticuerpos anti-PLA2R a los 3 meses tuvo una elevada sensibilidad y especificidad para predecir la respuesta a los 6 y 9 meses, pero no a los 12 meses, mientras que la reducción relativa en el título de anticuerpos a los 6 meses tuvo una elevada sensibilidad y especificidad para predecir la respuesta a los 12 meses. Conclusión: En enfermos con NMI asociada a anticuerpos anti-PLA2R, la monitorización del título de anticuerpos tras el inicio del tratamiento es útil para estimar el período de tiempo hasta la remisión y para predecir la probabilidad de remisión a los 12 meses. Abstract in english Introduction and objectives: The level of circulating antibodies against M-type phospolipase A2 receptor has been reported as having a significant correlation with clinical activity in idiopathic membranous nephropathy. However, the usefulness of monitoring antibody titre as a predictor of clinical [...] response following the onset of treatment has not been formally analysed. The predictive value of the evolution of anti-PLA2R antibody titre on the clinical response of idiopathic membranous nephropathy patients treated with tacrolimus is analysed in the following study. Patients and method: 36 patients with nephrotic syndrome secondary to idiopathic membranous nephropathy with immunosuppressive treatment indication criteria were treated with tacrolimus in monotherapy. The level of anti-PLA2R antibodies was determined before treatment and at 3, 6, 9 and 12 months after the onset of treatment. The study analysed the predictive value of the reduction in antibody titre and the relative and absolute reduction in antibody titre at 3 and 6 months over the period until remission and on the probability of remission at 6, 9 and 12 months. Results: The relative reduction in the anti-PLA2R antibody titre was significantly greater in those patients with remission and it preceded the clinical response. No association was observed between the antibody titre prior to treatment and the mean response time or the response at 12 months. Reduction in antibody titre is significantly associated with the time until signs of remission. Relative reduction in anti-PLA2R antibody titre at 3 months had a high sensitivity and specificity to predict the response at 6 and 9 months, but not at 12 months; however the relative reduction in the antibody titre at 6 months had a hig

  20. Should governments in Europe be more aggressive in pushing for gender equality to raise fertility? The first "YES"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurent Toulemon

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Together with three colleagues, I have been asked by the MPIDR to debate the following question: "Should governments in Europe be more aggressive in pushing for gender equality to raise fertility? Setting aside the "lighthearted" side of this "Rostocker Debate," (12 minutes for each speech, one minute for each comment, I saw this as a good opportunity to think about the stakes behind the question. In order to address this complex issue, it is necessary to think about the many "preliminary questions" that we have to ponder before responding: Why should fertility be raised? Are political measures legitimate? Are they efficient? On what basis are we qualified to give "expert" opinions on such a topic? When the question comes to the fore, we as scholars are sometimes asked to provide an answer. It would, of course, be more comfortable not to answer, but our interlocutors (politicians, journalists, teachers, and also funding agencies often want a definite response one way or the other. Even though our position may be a matter of politics as well as a matter of science, we must give an answer. The empirical evidence shows that European countries where gender inequality is lower are also the countries where fertility is the highest. This is the evidence-based response that we can give to that question. European countries need to find a new equilibrium after the end of the baby boom period, when gender equality was very low. In all countries, the empowerment of women is underway, thanks to the economic independence given by work-related income. Increasing gender equality is an efficient way to reduce the opportunity costs of having and raising children, and thus to increase fertility. Finally, "pushing for gender equality" may have many positive effects other than raising fertility, and has few negative side effects. Gender equality is thus a convenient political aim per se; an institutional goal which leaves many political questions open. So, yes, we agree that governments in Europe should be more aggressive in pushing for gender equality to raise fertility!

  1. Study of the lateral raise in foot wear for the management of medial compartment degenerative joint disease of knee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A wide spread disease, which may lead the patient to severe outcomes e.g. pain, loss of joint motion, inflexibility and even disability, is Knee osteoarthritis (OA). It is most common among adults of older age and should not be ignored at all. Literature does not show any clear pathogenesis for occurrence of Knee OA, but most of the indications point toward biomechanical stresses which may influence the articular cartilage and sub chondral bone. Objective: The Aim of this study is to become aware of the effects of physical therapy with and without laterally raised footwear in the management of medial knee osteoarthritis. Methodology: We have used experimental comparative study in 35 patients which were randomly selected from Department of Physiotherapy, Fatima Memorial Hospital, Shadman, Lahore. The study consisted of 2 groups, Group I (Experimental Group): In experimental group, patients were treated with laterally raised foot wear and physical therapy both. Group II (Control Group): Whereas in control group patients were treated by physical therapy alone. Kellgren and Lawrence (KL) scale was used to assess radiograph of the knee joints after an anteroposterior weight-bearing standing. The assessment of disease in patients was done by using the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities (WOMAC) Index, Muscle flexibility, Muscle strengthening and Tolerance scales. Results: In group-I the mean age of patients observed was 59.52+-13.66 years and 65+-12.87 years in Group-II. In Group-I, 9 (52.9%) patients were males and 8 (47.1%) patients were females while in Group-II, 9 patients (50%) were male and 9 (50%) were female. In Group-I 2 (11.8%) patients used flat and open shoes, 6 (35.3%) used flat and close shoe, 3 (17.6%) patients used dress shoes and 2 (11.8%) used flat shoes. In Group-I, the frequency of patients wearing laterally raised foot wear in terms of duration was; 5 (29.4%) patients for 20 days, 4 (23.5%) for 24 days, 4 (23.5%) for 25 days, whilst 2 patients used it for 26 and 30 days respectively. Among 10 (58.8%) patients the use of lateral raised foot wear was intermittent wile in 7 (41.2%) patients the use of lateral raised foot wear was continuous. Overall Group-I presented better results compared to Group-II in this study. Conclusion: We have concluded in our study that the physical therapy with laterally raised footwear is a successful treatment in the management of medial knee OA. In laterally raised footwear the physical therapy is an effective method in terms of relief of pain in patient, improvement in function by stiffness reduction and. this treatment method is recommended for the management of medial knee OA. (author)

  2. 11 CFR 300.10 - General prohibitions on raising and spending non-Federal funds (2 U.S.C. 441i(a) and (c)).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...General prohibitions on raising and spending non-Federal funds (2 U.S.C. 441i...REGULATIONS NON-FEDERAL FUNDS National Party Committees...General prohibitions on raising and spending non-Federal funds (2 U.S.C....

  3. Effect of plastic tarps over raised-beds and potassium thiosulfate in furrows on chloropicrin emissions from drip fumigated fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Ruijun; Gao, Suduan; McDonald, Jason A; Ajwa, Husein; Shem-Tov, Shachar; Sullivan, David A

    2008-06-01

    Plastic tarps are commonly used in raised bed strawberry production to minimize emissions of preplant soil fumigants and are left in place throughout the growing season as part of the standard cultural practices. Soil amendments with chemicals such as thiosulfate (S2O3(2-)) can reduce fumigant emissions. A field study was conducted near Santa Maria, CA to determine the effects of low density polyethylene (LDPE) and virtually impermeable film (VIF) over raised-beds and applying potassium thiosulfate (KTS) in furrows on reducing chloropicrin (CP) emissions from a strawberry field. Four fields (or treatments) were tested with 224 kg ha(-1) CP drip-applied threecm under the soil surface. The CP flux from bed tops and furrows and gas-phase concentrations under the tarps were monitored for five d. The CP emission flux and concentration under tarp were highest immediately following application. Diurnal temperature change affected CP concentration and emission fluxes (higher values during the day and lower at night). Slightly higher CP cumulative emission occurred using LDPE tarp (19%) compared to VIF (17%). Normalized flux (CP emission flux from the beds divided by CP concentration under the tarp) being estimated from field measurement was slightly higher for LDPE than VIF indicating different tarp permeability in the field. Because of extremely low emissions from the furrows (<0.2% of total emission loss), KTS application to furrow treatments did not show further emission reductions than non-KTS treatments. This indicates that emission reduction should focus on the tarp above raised-beds when fumigant was drip-applied near bed-surface. PMID:18440581

  4. Sea-level standstill and dominant hermatypic coral from the holocene raised reef terraces at the Kikai Island, Ryukyu Islands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coral reef terraces are one of the best recorders of biological response to environmental change events (e.g., sea-level changes). Kikai Island provides a rare opportunity to show biological and ecological frameworks (e.g., competition, coexistence, and succession) during a recent geological period. The island is fringed by raised Holocene raised reef terraces, which formed as a result of periodic tectonic uplifts. This study aims to characterize the spatial and temporal changes of corals at this island during the Holocene. The analysis is based on topographical and biological data obtained for the three sites (Shidooke, Kadon, and Nakugama reefs). Three raised reef terraces (Terrace II, III, and IV) grew from 7300 to 4500 years ago (during 2800 years), from 4500 to 2900 years ago (during 1600 years), and from 2900 to 1800 years ago (during 1100 years), respectively. Terrace II and III were uplifted 1-2 m around 4500 years ago and around 2900 years ago. Terrace IV was uplifted 1-2 m around 1800 years ago. The modern reef has been composed of corals for 1800 years. Sixteen coral genera and 53 species were recorded from the reef terraces. Terrace III and IV were dominated by four coral species (A. digitifera, A. robusta, G. retiformis, and F. stelligera), but Terrace II was predominantly composed of A. digitifera and A. robusta. These biological and ecological variations between the terraces represent a growth strategy responding to differences of reef growth time and/og to differences of reef growth time and/or insolation. (author)

  5. Performance and organ morphology of broilers fed microbial or antimicrobial additives and raised in batteries or floor pens

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    AA, Pedroso; JFM, Menten; AMC, Racanicci; FA, Longo; JOB, Sorbara; JB, Gaiotto.

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to determine the effect of microbial or antimicrobial additives on the performance and organ morphology of broilers raised in batteries or in floor pens. The effect of microbial additives on the presence of oocysts in the litter was also studied. Experiments 1 and 2 consiste [...] d of four treatments (non-supplemented control diet or diet supplemented with avilamycin, bacitracin methylene disalicylate or enramycin) and six repetitions in a randomized block design. In Experiment 1, 288 day-old chicks were housed in heated batteries in a environmentally controlled room, 12 chicks per cage; in Experiment 2, 1,200 day-old chicks were housed in a curtain-sided experimental house, with concrete floor and rice hulls as litter material, 50 chicks per pen. Experiments 3 and 4 were carried out similarly to Experiments 1 and 2, respectively, but the treatments consisted of microbial additives (non-supplemented control diet or Bacillus subtilis added to the feed plus Lactobacillus reuteri and Lactobacillus johnsonii added to the water, undefined microflora added to the water or live yeast added to the feed). The antibiotics did not affect the performance of birds raised in batteries, but improved feed conversion, weight gain and live weight when chickens were kept on the floor pens. Microbial additives did not affect bird performance in any environment; however, treatments affected liver weight. Microbial agents increased intestinal weight in floor-raised broilers. No relationship was seen between the use of microbial additives and the presence of oocysts in the litter.

  6. Performance and organ morphology of broilers fed microbial or antimicrobial additives and raised in batteries or floor pens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedroso AA

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to determine the effect of microbial or antimicrobial additives on the performance and organ morphology of broilers raised in batteries or in floor pens. The effect of microbial additives on the presence of oocysts in the litter was also studied. Experiments 1 and 2 consisted of four treatments (non-supplemented control diet or diet supplemented with avilamycin, bacitracin methylene disalicylate or enramycin and six repetitions in a randomized block design. In Experiment 1, 288 day-old chicks were housed in heated batteries in a environmentally controlled room, 12 chicks per cage; in Experiment 2, 1,200 day-old chicks were housed in a curtain-sided experimental house, with concrete floor and rice hulls as litter material, 50 chicks per pen. Experiments 3 and 4 were carried out similarly to Experiments 1 and 2, respectively, but the treatments consisted of microbial additives (non-supplemented control diet or Bacillus subtilis added to the feed plus Lactobacillus reuteri and Lactobacillus johnsonii added to the water, undefined microflora added to the water or live yeast added to the feed. The antibiotics did not affect the performance of birds raised in batteries, but improved feed conversion, weight gain and live weight when chickens were kept on the floor pens. Microbial additives did not affect bird performance in any environment; however, treatments affected liver weight. Microbial agents increased intestinal weight in floor-raised broilers. No relationship was seen between the use of microbial additives and the presence of oocysts in the litter.

  7. How the Entrepreneurial Top Management Team Setup Influences Firm Performance and the Ability to Raise Capital: A Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantin Maschke

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews research findings on entrepreneurial top management teams within the last 20 years. It concentrates on team-based management factors and their influence on a new venture’s growth and ability to raise capital. This paper integrates recent findings and provides an overview of the current state of research. Moreover, it contributes to the overall topic by proposing five clusters of major team-specific influences, derives determinants of success and failure, and reveals recommendations for further research.

  8. Development of cross border gas transmission projects raise challenging issues. Case studies: The transmed and the Maghreb/Europe pipelines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Development of cross border gas transmission projects raise complex and interdependent issues whose successful resolution require not only technical and management strengths but also a close cooperation between the key players involved in the game. In this paper we shall attempt to explain some of the major issues encountered during the appraisal and construction of long distance gas pipeline schemes. The information used derive essentially from the experience gained during the development of the Trans-mediterranean and the Maghreb/Europe pipelines. Running through the various issues we shall also identify and then discuss a number of factors which contributed to the successful implementation of these two projects. (au)

  9. Problems raised by the application of the Conventions on nuclear third party liability to radioactive wastes repositories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The question has been raised of the application of the special nuclear third party liability and insurance regime to radioactive waste repositories. It was decided at Paris Conference that a repository is a nuclear facility, at least during a pre-closure phase whose duration was not defined. More, the following phase, if any, of the facility cannot be passive, at least to account for public opinion. As regards to the risk duration, the notion of nuclear operator may become meaningless and hence the responsibility might be transferred to the concerned state. (D.L.)

  10. Protozoan parasites in captive chinchillas (Chinchilla lanigera) raised in the State of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    ANA CLÁUDIA FAGUNDES GURGEL; AMANDA DOS SANTOS SARTORI; FLÁVIO ANTÔNIO PACHECO DE ARAÚJO

    2005-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to identify Giardia sp., Eimeria spp. and Cryptosporidium spp. in fecal samples of chinchillas, respectively raised on farms located in the cities of Gravataí and Porto Alegre (State of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil), Giardia sp. was detected in 8% of 250 samples. The variables age (p = 0.47) and gender (p = 0.07), submitted to Fisher's exact test, were not related to the results obtained through the method of Faust et al. (1939) apud Hoffmann (1987). Oocysts of ...

  11. Human anti-CD38 autoantibodies raise intracellular calcium and stimulate insulin release in human pancreatic islets.

    OpenAIRE

    Malavasi, Fabio

    2001-01-01

    CD38 is involved in transmembrane signaling in many cell types; anti-CD38 autoantibodies have been described in diabetic patients. We tested whether human anti-CD38 antibodies possess signaling properties by measuring their ability to raise intracellular calcium ([Ca2+]i) using the fluo-3-acetoxymethyl ester method in a human-derived T-cell line (Jurkat T-cells, expressing high levels of surface CD38) and in dispersed human islet cells from normal donors. In Jurkat T-cells, 11 of 19 anti-CD38...

  12. Effect of BCS at Mating on Some Reproductive Performance of Saanen Goat under Raised Semi Intensive Conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Tufan Altin; Turgay Taskin; Erbay Bardakcioglu, H.; Gunes Erdogan; Murat Yilmaz

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effects of the Body Condition Score (BCS) of 53 Saanen does on their reproductive performance 15 days before mating season and at the beginning of the mating season under raised semi intensive conditions. In this study, the does were synchronized in two different periods, one of which was 15 days before the other. Before the introduction of buck to the goats, the goats were weighed after measuring their BCS. Detailed records were kept for herd in yea...

  13. Rhoptry-Associated Protein 1-Binding Monoclonal Antibody Raised against a Heterologous Peptide Sequence Inhibits Plasmodium falciparum Growth In Vitro

    OpenAIRE

    Moreno, Rafael; Po?ltl-frank, Friederike; Stu?ber, Dietrich; Matile, Hugues; Mutz, Michael; Weiss, Niklaus A.; Pluschke, Gerd

    2001-01-01

    Monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) specific for Plasmodium falciparum rhoptry-associated protein 1 (RAP-1) were generated and tested for inhibition of parasite growth in vitro. The majority of indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA)-positive MAbs raised against recombinant RAP-1 positions 23 to 711 (rRAP-123–711) recognized epitopes located in the immunodominant N-terminal third of RAP-1. MAbs specific for the building block 35.1 of the synthetic peptide malaria vaccine SPf66 also yielded an IFA ...

  14. RAISING OF PEDAGOGICAL MASTERSHIP STANDARD BY E-LEARNING / Zvyšovanie úrovne pedagogického majstrovstva prostredníctvom e-learningu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teplická Katarína

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Raising of pedagogical mastership in school is inherently part of everyone's pedagogical process. Contribution oneself dealt with new form of teaching -e-learning and its using in pedagogical process. It gives some informations about using U lern as supporting tool by multimedial materials and documents creation for students, it describes general organizational process by using of these documents and by appraising students through electronic testing. In contribution has found visual demonstration of U lern assistances working-out educational documents, enviroment description and orientation on e- portale. General gain of contribution is in presentation of new simple tools for teachers for raising their pedagogical mastership and for enhancement and easement their works.Zvyšovanie pedagogického majstrovstva na školách je neodmyslite?nou sú?as?ou každého pedagogického procesu. Príspevok sa zaoberá novou formou výu?by – elearningom a jeho využitím v pedagogickom procese. Podáva informácie o možnosti využitia podporného nástroja U Lern pri tvorbe multimediálnych materiálov a dokumentov pre študentov, popisuje celkový organiza?ný proces pri využívaní týchto dokumentov a hodnotení študentov prostredníctvom elektronických testov. V príspevku sa nachádzajú názorne ukážky Ulern podpory vypracovaných u?ebných textov, popis prostredia a orientácia na e-portály. Celkový prínos príspevku spo?íva v prezentácií nových jednoduchých nástrojov pre u?ite?ov pre zvyšovanie ich pedagogického majstrovstva a skvalitnenie a u?ah?enie ich práce.

  15. Maternal stress and family quality of life in response to raising a child with autism: from preschool to adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McStay, Rebecca L; Trembath, David; Dissanayake, Cheryl

    2014-11-01

    While the impact of raising a child with an Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is well documented, with mothers reporting higher levels of stress than mothers of children with other disabilities, positive maternal outcomes have also been identified. What remains unclear, however, is the role of child age on maternal outcomes. We sought to clarify the role of child age in maternal stress and family quality of life (FQoL) in mothers raising a child with ASD. Participants included 140 mothers of children aged 3-16 years grouped to represent four key stages of childhood (preschool, early school years, middle school, early high school). Using a cross-sectional design, mothers completed questionnaires assessing potential risk (e.g., child problem behaviour, symptom severity) and protective (e.g., family characteristics) factors attributed to maternal outcomes. The results revealed significant age related group differences in child internalising behaviour and ASD symptomatology between the early and middle school years. Lower levels of adaptive social behaviour in older age groups were also found. Although mothers of older children reported significantly less support from professionals than mothers of younger children, no significant age effects were found to contribute to maternal reports of stress or FQoL. The current findings support the view that mothers appear to demonstrate stable levels of stress and FQoL despite fluctuations in key child variables and a reduction in supports, across age, highlighting the ongoing nature of maternal needs and heightened levels of child symptomatology during adolescence. PMID:25145805

  16. The development and use of geomechanical models for use in the raising of the Thirsk arch dam, Summerland, BC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schlotfeldt, P.; Palleske, C. [Golder Associates Ltd., Squamish, BC (Canada)

    2009-07-01

    The Thirsk Dam and spillway on the Trout River in Summerland, British Columbia were completed in 1941. The dam was recently upgraded to increase total storage capacity and to refurbish the ageing infrastructure to comply with more stringent safety requirements. The upgrades included raising the arch dam by 5.3 metres; constructing new anchored thrust blocks on each abutment; constructing a new 190 m long concrete gravity spillway dam with a maximum height of 14 m; constructing a new earth-fill saddle dam; constructing 7 anchored foundation plinths; and adding a new concrete skin to the downstream face to increase the thickness of the arch. This upgrade increased the storage capacity by 96 per cent and provided adequate support to meet current dam safety regulations. In order to complete the upgrades, it was necessary to develop an understanding of the geotechnical parameters for the site for use in the analysis and design of anchorage, reinforcement and foundations of the raised structures. This paper described how the geological model was first developed and how it was applied during the design of the arch and spillway dams. The geological model was modified for local anomalies and unforeseen rock mass conditions. The paper also described the methods used to characterize the foundation rock mass and estimate rock mass strength and deformability properties. The models provided a three-dimensional understanding of potential failure mechanisms. 9 refs., 1 tab., 6 figs.

  17. The role and importance of theatre in raising social awareness and developing and understanding of aesthetic arts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamile Akgül

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Theatre, which has served certain ends since it came into existence, mostly strives to make changes in the traditional structure through its effective power of expression. This branch of art has acquired a privilege with its educational priority in the realization of smooth and natural flow of the social transition which takes place during the journey from the traditional to the universal with political, religious as well as economic concerns.From the ancient times to the present, attempts to educate society through theatre have assumed a considerably potential role as a means employed in circumstances where dominant systems of thought were intended to be disseminated into broad areas. However, in spite of its unifying role within the social life, theatre has not only undertaken the appropriate messages, but it has also served the ends to impose some tendencies aimed to meet interests, leading to social hesitations against arts. This artistic activity, which has been sacrificed for the sake of conflicts of interest, has been isolated from the social life by the minds that regard enlightenment of the society through awareness-raising as a threat. This study, through “The Model of Vital Quality Acquisition by Investing in Arts”, puts an emphasis on the social tendency to display sensitivity to arts as a result of the communication between educational awareness and investment in arts as well as the development of understanding on aesthetic arts, and dwells on the role and importance of theatre in raising social awareness.

  18. Father's occupational exposure to radiation and the raised level of childhood leukemia near the Sellafield Nuclear Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The first indications that childhood leukemia rates may be raised near the Sellafield nuclear plant in West Cumbria, England, came from largely anecdotal evidence in a television program Windscale: The Nuclear Laundry shown during 1983. During subsequent years, various epidemiological studies have investigated the claim in more detail. Geographical analyses of childhood leukemia incidence in the northern region and mortality in England and Wales using routinely available data made the first contribution. As a result, it was confirmed that leukemia rates in the area, particularly the neighboring village of Seascale, were high compared to other districts, although not totally extreme. Cohort studies of children born in Seascale or attending schools in Seascale were carried out to resolve some of the difficulties of interpretation of geographical analysis. Cohort studies indicated that the excess of leukemia was concentrated among children born in Seascale and was not found among those moving in after birth and suggested that any causal factors may be acting before birth or very early in life. A case-control study of leukemia (and lymphoma) among young people in West Cumbria has examined potentially important individual factors in detail. The study demonstrated a relationship between the raised incidence of leukemia in children and father's recorded external radiation dose during work at Sellafield before his child's conception. The association can effectively explain stThe association can effectively explain statistically the observed geographical excess

  19. Raising the bar for reproducible science at the u.s. Environmental protection agency office of research and development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Barbara Jane; Sobus, Jon R; Phelps, Lara P; Rashleigh, Brenda; Simmons, Jane Ellen; Hines, Ronald N

    2015-05-01

    Considerable concern has been raised regarding research reproducibility both within and outside the scientific community. Several factors possibly contribute to a lack of reproducibility, including a failure to adequately employ statistical considerations during study design, bias in sample selection or subject recruitment, errors in developing data inclusion/exclusion criteria, and flawed statistical analysis. To address some of these issues, several publishers have developed checklists that authors must complete. Others have either enhanced statistical expertise on existing editorial boards, or formed distinct statistics editorial boards. Although the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Research and Development, already has a strong Quality Assurance Program, an initiative was undertaken to further strengthen statistics consideration and other factors in study design and also to ensure these same factors are evaluated during the review and approval of study protocols. To raise awareness of the importance of statistical issues and provide a forum for robust discussion, a Community of Practice for Statistics was formed in January 2014. In addition, three working groups were established to develop a series of questions or criteria that should be considered when designing or reviewing experimental, observational, or modeling focused research. This article describes the process used to develop these study design guidance documents, their contents, how they are being employed by the Agency's research enterprise, and expected benefits to Agency science. The process and guidance documents presented here may be of utility for any research enterprise interested in enhancing the reproducibility of its science. PMID:25795653

  20. Occurrence of heavy metals and antibiotic resistance in bacteria from internal organs of american bullfrog (Rana catesbeiana raised in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SW Lee

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available A total of 40 bacteria have been successfully isolated from internal organs of the American bullfrog (Rana catesbeiana raised in Malaysia, namely, eight isolates of Aeromonas spp., 21 of Edwardsiella spp., six of Flavobacterium spp. and five of Vibrio spp. In terms of antibiotic susceptibility testing, each isolate was tested against 21 antibiotics, resulting in 482 (57.3% cases of sensitivity and 61 (7.3% cases of partial sensitivity. Meanwhile, 297 (35.4% bacterial isolates were registered as resistant. The multiple antibiotic resistance (MAR index of each bacterial species indicated that bacteria from raised bullfrogs have been exposed to tested antibiotics with results ranging from 0.27 to 0.39. Additionally, high percentages of heavy metal resistance among these isolates were observed, with values ranging from 85.0 to 100.0%. The current results provided us information on bacterial levels of locally farmed bullfrogs exposed to copper, cadmium, chromium as well as 21 types of antibiotics.

  1. Comparison of vitamin D2 and vitamin D3 supplementation in raising serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D status: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    OpenAIRE

    Tripkovic, L; Lambert, H.; Hart, K.; Smith, CP; Bucca, G; Penson, S; Chope, G; Hyppönen, E.; Berry, J.; Vieth, R; Lanham-New, S

    2012-01-01

    Currently, there is a lack of clarity in the literature as to whether there is a definitive difference between the effects of vitamins D(2) and D(3) in the raising of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D].

  2. SiteChar. Characterisation of European CO2 storage. Deliverable D8.2. Trust building and raising public awareness

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brunsting, S.; Pol, M.; Mastop, E.A. [ECN Policy Studies, Energy research Centre of the Netherlands ECN, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Kaiser, M.; Zimmer, R. [Unabhaengiges Institut fuer Umweltfragen UfU, Berlin (Germany); Shackley, S.; Mabon, L.; Howell, R. [Scottish Carbon Capture and Storage SCCS, Edinburg, Scotland (United Kingdom)

    2012-08-15

    At local level, public support has proven crucial to the implementation of CO2 capture and storage (CCS) demonstration projects. Whereas no method exists to guarantee public acceptability of any project, a constructive stakeholder and community engagement process does increase the likelihood thereof. This deliverable is a follow-up to deliverable D8.1 'Social site characterisation'. Social site characterisation can be used as an instrument to explore, plan and evaluate a process of active and constructive local stakeholder and citizen engagement in a prospective CCS project as a parallel activity to technical site characterisation. It serves as an analytical tool to describe the local social circumstances in the area and to design and evaluate stakeholder and community engagement efforts with the aims of building trust and raising public awareness. Using results from the social site characterisation of the area, the present deliverable focuses on the second purpose. It presents results from public engagement activities designed to raise public awareness and inform public opinion of a prospective CCS site in Poland (onshore) and the UK (offshore): focus conferences. Furthermore, by initiating an enhanced cooperation in planning of new storage sites between project developers, authorities and the local public, focus conferences aim to serve as a 'hinge' between social site characterisation as a research effort and application to real-life project settings. The focus conferences are part of a range of public engagement activities including the setup of public information websites on generic and site-specific CCS, information meetings. A second survey eventually shall evaluate the results of the public engagement activities. The aim of the focus conferences was to raise public awareness and assist public opinion forming processes of a prospective CCS site in Poland (onshore) and the UK (offshore). At the same time, it aimed to present and test a format in which project developers, authorities, and the local public could enhance their cooperation in project planning. To this end, a group of 11-16 participants recruited from the local public gathered on two weekends to be informed about CCS technology, to discuss their perceptions of the rewards and risks of CCS technology, and to state their conditions for a socially acceptable implementation of CCS projects. Experts from research, politics, industry and NGOs were invited to participate in both weekends, during which they gave presentations and answered questions from the participants. This process resulted in a positioning paper written by the participants representing a statement on CCS technology from their perspective.

  3. Fungos aeróbios no intestino grosso de borregos e de ovelhas criados em pastagens tropicais Aerobic fungi in the large intestine of lambs and ewes raised on tropical pastures

    OpenAIRE

    Freitas, C. E. S.; Abra?o, F. O.; Silva, K. L.; Almeida, P. N. M.; Duarte, E. R.

    2012-01-01

    Fungi populations were evaluated in large intestine from sheep raised in the North of Minas Gerais, Brazil. The samples were from 39 Santa Inês crossbred ewes and 30 lambs raised on Tanzania grass (Panicum maximum cv. Tanzania), both supplemented with mineral mixtures. The clinical specimens were directly collected from rectal ampoule with sterile swabs. The development of fungal mycelium was observed in all lamb samples and positive cultures were observed in 34 ewe specimens (87.2%). After ...

  4. [Effects of empathy on fund-raising activities on behalf of victims of the 2011 Great East Japan Earthquake, focusinig on the residents in the South Kanto area].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Youichi; Yoo, Seonyoung; Matsui, Yutaka

    2015-02-01

    Fund-raising activities on behalf of victims of the 2011 Great East Japan Earthquake during the year after the earthquake were investigated in residents of the South Kanto area (N = 749), which is adjacent to the disaster area. The percentage of people that raised funds was 67.4%. We investigated the effects of the following on fundraising activities: demographic variables (sex, age, and educational background), trait empathy (empathic concern, perspective taking, and personal distress), former experience with fund-raising activities, effects of similarity to victims (e.g., experienced inconveniences because of the disaster, or had problems returning home), and psychological closeness to victims (e.g, have family members or acquaintances that suffered from the disaster, or that once lived in the disaster area). The results indicated that fund-raising activities were affected by former experience with fund-raising, similarity to victims, psychological closeness to victims, empathic concern, and being female. The relationship between fund-raising activities for victims and empathy are discussed. PMID:25799871

  5. Raising awareness and providing free screening improves cervical cancer screening among economically disadvantaged Lebanese/Armenian women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arevian, Mary; Noureddine, Samar; Kabakian-Khasholian, Tamar

    2006-10-01

    Women need to practice cervical screening regularly to reduce morbidity and mortality. The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of an intervention program on knowledge, attitude, and practice of cervical screening in the population of Lebanese/Armenian women. The design was a cross-sectional, quasi-experimental posttest survey following a year long intervention program. The sample included 176 women, who were members of the Armenian Relief Cross in Lebanon. Interventions consisted of educational classes, media messages, and free screening. The instrument was a self-administered questionnaire. Knowledge of women with intervention was higher (p > .05) and practice rate increased between intervention and comparison groups. No difference in attitude was noted. The study was successful in raising awareness and increasing screening in the sample. It is recommended to continue helping women to overcome barriers for cervical screening. PMID:16946118

  6. Forces and pressures beneath the saddle during mounting from the ground and from a raised mounting platform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geutjens, C A; Clayton, H M; Kaiser, L J

    2008-03-01

    The objective was to use an electronic pressure mat to measure and compare forces and pressures of the saddle on a horse's back when riders mounted from the ground and with the aid of a mounting platform. Ten riders mounted a horse three times each from the ground and from a 35 cm high mounting platform in random order. Total force (summation of forces over all 256 sensors) was measured and compared at specific points on the force-time curve. Total force was usually highest as the rider's right leg was swinging upwards and was correlated with rider mass. When normalized to rider mass, total force and peak pressure were significantly higher when mounting from the ground than from a raised platform (Psaddle during mounting. PMID:17572121

  7. Bridging the gap between farmers and consumers : Value creation and mediation in “pasture-raised beef” food networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bedoin, Florence; Kristensen, Troels

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this article is to explore how different quality dimensions (safety, aesthetics, ethics and rooted ness) are created in food networks; how these qualities are transferred until the consumers; and how this process is supported by the organisation of the food network. Our postulate is that combining the quality and organisation dimensions and exploring the link between them will provide an interesting perspective for improving the sharing of values in food networks. This framework is applied to five case studies of “pasture-raised beef” food networks in France, representing a diversity of organisations such as public label scheme, cooperate owned brand and direct sell from farmer to consumer. The results highlight the importance of the role of certification and personal commitment for the creation, and also for the mediation of added-value.

  8. [The WHO age-friendly cities program raises the issue of strategic planning, coordination and local political structure].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapon, Pierre-Marie

    2011-06-01

    In 2005 the World Health Organization initiated the «global age-friendly cities project» which encourages cities to be more inclusive of older people and to develop seniors' involvement by setting up a continuous cycle of assessment and improvement of urban living. The conclusions of the first french audit, which was made in Lyon in 2011, raise the issue of the capacity of cities to implement projects in all the areas fostering active aging. The question of strategic planning and of the level of intervention is relevant for the topics selected, and especially that of health. Is the present organization between the different actors satisfactory, or should large cities have more power? Co-ordination is necessary, and the creation of «gerontopoles» could bring an answer. PMID:21690022

  9. Free-range RSS feeds and farm-raised journals: what to expect when using RSS as a TOC service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fletcher, Adelaide Myers

    2009-01-01

    Anyone who has tried to set up RSS feeds with or for a patron knows that the RSS feeds for e-journals can behave wildly, like free-range cattle, while the e-journals that libraries subscribe to tend to be more like farm-raised cattle, because they are packaged for institutions rather than individuals. Because of this disconnect, the experience of teaching RSS feeds to one's patrons can be fraught with "oops" moments. Knowing what to expect can help librarians prepare to teach patrons to use RSS feeds without scaring them away from a powerful tool. This article will discuss some problems to expect and ways to work around them. PMID:19384718

  10. A radiographic study on the development of the antebrachium in Great Dane pups, raised under standardized conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiographic examination of the antebrachium was performed in 16 healthy Great Danes, raised under standardized conditions, at six-week intervals from 9 to 27 weeks of age. The dogs were fed according to the National Research Council's nutrient requirements of dogs (1974). The development of the secondary ossification centers and the growth in length of the radius and ulna were noted. In the majority of dogs changesin the shape and structure of the distal ulnar metaphysis resembled disturbances in cartilage maturation and bone maturation and remodelling. An improvement in the radiographic appearance of the distal ulnar metaphysis was noted at the age of 27 weeks. It is concluded that the delicate processes that are involved in skeletal development may be frequently disturbed in fast growing, giant-breed dogs, without causing clinical problems

  11. Fatty acid profiles in meat from Caiman yacare (Caiman crocodilus yacare) raised in the wild or in captivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vicente-Neto, João; Bressan, Maria Cristina; Faria, Peter Bitencourt; E Vieira, Josye Oliveira; Cardoso, Maria das Graças; Glória, Maria Beatriz de Abreu; da Gama, Luis Telo

    2010-08-01

    Chemical composition and fatty acid profiles were determined in Caiman yacare meat originating from the neck and tail cuts of animals raised in the wild (n=6) or in captivity (n=6), slaughtered at a live weight of approximately 6 kg. All experimental methods were approved by the appropriate environmental protection agencies. Most chemical components were affected by the origin-cut interaction, with the tail cut of wild animals having the highest amount of intramuscular fat (19.2% of DM) and the lowest of moisture (71.8%) and protein (77.0% of DM). Yacare meat had low amounts of SFA (35.1%), which were similar (P>0.05) in the cuts and origins studied. The total amount of PUFA was higher (Pyacare meat had a desirable PUFA/SFA ratio above 0.4. PMID:20435419

  12. Inhibition of pancreatic ribonuclease A aggregation by antibodies raised against the native enzyme and its N-terminal dodecapeptide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Younus, Hina; Ulbrich-Hofmann, Renate; Saleemuddin, Mohammad

    2006-01-01

    Pancreatic ribonuclease A (RNase A) has been shown to aggregate moderately and gradually at 65 degrees C. Antibodies raised against the dodecapeptide KETAAAKFERQG corresponding to the N-terminal 1-12 amino acid residues of RNase A (Npep) as well as native RNase A were effective in lowering RNase A aggregation at 65 degrees C. The antiRNase A antibodies were, however, more protective. The binding of antiNpep antibodies to the N-terminal region of RNase A may interfere with initiation of oligomerization of the enzyme and consequently its aggregation. The antiRNase A antibodies were presumably more effective in protecting RNase A against aggregation by binding to multiple epitopes of the enzyme including the N-terminal region and hence restricting the interaction of the monomers. PMID:17018009

  13. Radioactive contamination of a pig raised at a farm within 20 km of the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A mixed breed pig that was raised at a farm within 20 km of the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant on the day of the accident was moved to a clean area 17 days after the accident, slaughtered and sampled 41 days after arriving at the clean area. The ?-ray spectrum of belly, ham, loin, and heart were measured using a Ge semiconductor detector. Even though the animal had been kept in a clean area for 41 days, contamination with radioisotopic caesium was detected in pork. The pig had been kept inside a piggery and had been fed non-contaminated imported feed in both Fukushima and clean area of its all life. Broadcasts reported that feeding rice straw poses a risk of radioactive contamination of beef in Japan, but rice straw might not be the sole source of contamination. For the safety of future generations, it is necessary to monitor not only beef but also other animal products for food safety. (author)

  14. Cell motility in models of wounded human skin is improved by Gap27 despite raised glucose, insulin and IGFBP-5

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wright, Catherine S.; Berends, Rebecca F. [Department of Life Sciences, School of Health and Life Sciences, Glasgow Caledonian University, 70 Cowcaddens Road, Glasgow G4 0BA (United Kingdom); Flint, David J. [Strathclyde Institute of Pharmacy and Biomedical Sciences, University of Strathclyde, 161 Cathedral Street, Glasgow G4 0RE (United Kingdom); Martin, Patricia E.M., E-mail: Patricia.Martin@gcu.ac.uk [Department of Life Sciences, School of Health and Life Sciences, Glasgow Caledonian University, 70 Cowcaddens Road, Glasgow G4 0BA (United Kingdom)

    2013-02-15

    Reducing Cx43 expression stimulates skin wound healing. This is mimicked in models when Cx43 function is blocked by the connexin mimetic peptide Gap27. IGF-I also stimulates wound healing with IGFBP-5 attenuating its actions. Further, the IGF-I to IGFBP-5 ratio is altered in diabetic skin, where wound closure is impaired. We investigated whether Gap27 remains effective in augmenting scrape-wound closure in human skin wound models simulating diabetes-induced changes, using culture conditions with raised glucose, insulin and IGFBP-5. Gap27 increased scrape-wound closure in normal glucose and insulin (NGI) and to a lesser extent in high glucose and insulin (HGI). IGF-I enhanced scrape-wound closure in keratinocytes whereas IGFBP-5 inhibited this response. Gap27 overcame the inhibitory effects of IGFBP-5 on IGF-I activity. Connexin-mediated communication (CMC) was reduced in HGI, despite raised Cx43, and Gap27 significantly decreased CMC in NGI and HGI. IGF-I and IGFBP-5 did not affect CMC. IGF-I increased keratinocyte proliferation in NGI, and Gap27 increased proliferation in NGI to a greater extent than in HGI. We conclude that IGF-I and Gap27 stimulate scrape-wound closure by independent mechanisms with Gap27 inhibiting Cx43 function. Gap27 can enhance wound closure in diabetic conditions, irrespective of the IGF-I:IGFBP-5 balance. - Highlights: ? Human organotypic and keratinocyte ‘diabetic’ skin models were used to demonstrate the ability of Gap27 to improve scrape-wound closure. ? Gap27 enhanced scrape-wound closure by reducing Cx43-mediated communication, whereas IGFBP-5 retarded cell migration. ? IGF-I and IGFBP-5 did not affect connexin-mediated pathways. ? Gap27 can override altered glucose, insulin, IGF-I, and IGFBP-5 in ‘diabetic’ skin models and thus has therapeutic potential.

  15. Cell motility in models of wounded human skin is improved by Gap27 despite raised glucose, insulin and IGFBP-5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reducing Cx43 expression stimulates skin wound healing. This is mimicked in models when Cx43 function is blocked by the connexin mimetic peptide Gap27. IGF-I also stimulates wound healing with IGFBP-5 attenuating its actions. Further, the IGF-I to IGFBP-5 ratio is altered in diabetic skin, where wound closure is impaired. We investigated whether Gap27 remains effective in augmenting scrape-wound closure in human skin wound models simulating diabetes-induced changes, using culture conditions with raised glucose, insulin and IGFBP-5. Gap27 increased scrape-wound closure in normal glucose and insulin (NGI) and to a lesser extent in high glucose and insulin (HGI). IGF-I enhanced scrape-wound closure in keratinocytes whereas IGFBP-5 inhibited this response. Gap27 overcame the inhibitory effects of IGFBP-5 on IGF-I activity. Connexin-mediated communication (CMC) was reduced in HGI, despite raised Cx43, and Gap27 significantly decreased CMC in NGI and HGI. IGF-I and IGFBP-5 did not affect CMC. IGF-I increased keratinocyte proliferation in NGI, and Gap27 increased proliferation in NGI to a greater extent than in HGI. We conclude that IGF-I and Gap27 stimulate scrape-wound closure by independent mechanisms with Gap27 inhibiting Cx43 function. Gap27 can enhance wound closure in diabetic conditions, irrespective of the IGF-I:IGFBP-5 balance. - Highlights: ? Human organotypic and keratinocyte ‘diabetic’ skin models were used to demonstrate the ability of Gap27 to improve scrape-wound closure. ? Gap27 enhanced scrape-wound closure by reducing Cx43-mediated communication, whereas IGFBP-5 retarded cell migration. ? IGF-I and IGFBP-5 did not affect connexin-mediated pathways. ? Gap27 can override altered glucose, insulin, IGF-I, and IGFBP-5 in ‘diabetic’ skin models and thus has therapeutic potential

  16. The reliability of isokinetic testing of the ankle joint and a heel-raise test for endurance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Möller, Michael; Lind, Karin; Styf, Jorma; Karlsson, Jon

    2005-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the reliability of different methods used for isokinetic testing of calf muscle strength and endurance. The detailed evaluation of test-retest reliability serves the purpose of establishing reliable research tools when evaluating patients who have sustained an Achilles tendon rupture. The test-retest reliability of isokinetic measurements at the ankle for eccentric and concentric muscle action was calculated in ten healthy male volunteers using intra-class correlation (ICC) and coefficient of variation (CV). Three different positions were compared at the angular velocities of 30 degrees /s and 180 degrees /s for right and left ankles. The ICC for plantar flexion was 0.37-0.95, whilst it was 0.00-0.96 for dorsiflexion. The corresponding CVs were 4.0-19.9 and 2.4-19.8 respectively. The test-retest reliability of standardised heel-raises, Achilles tendon width, calf circumference and ankle range of motion revealed ICC values of 0.71-0.98 and CVs of 0.67-19.1. The test-retest interval was 5 to 7 days. We conclude that all three positions studied for the isokinetic evaluation of calf muscle function are equally reliable concerning plantar flexion at the ankle joint. The same level of reliability was also found in the evaluation of the standing heel-raise test and the isokinetic dorsiflexion test, except for dorsiflexion in the supine position. The reliability of the investigated methods was only fair despite the use of a detailed and standardised test protocol. PMID:14634720

  17. Reproductive status and synchronization of oestrus for predetermined insemination of Philippine carabaos (swamp buffalo) raised by smallholder farmers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There is an urgent need to improve size, and meat and milk productivity of the Philippine carabao, a swamp type of water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis), through crossbreeding with the riverine type. Studies were conducted to assess the reproductive status of carabaos raised by smallholder farmers, determine conception rates of buffaloes to artificial insemination (AI) through oestrus synchronization, and examine the patterns of plasma progesterone in cyclic and acyclic carabao heifers. Approximately 20% of carabaos raised by smallholder farmers were diagnosed pregnant by rectal palpation. This low pregnancy rate may be due to a combination of factors such as the failure to submit for examination carabaos exhibiting external signs of pregnancy, the deliberate postponement of breeding for working females, the inability of bulls to gain access to carabaos in oestrus which are tethered at night, or the high incidence of anoestrus or suboestrus. The reproductive problems in non-pregnant animals were cystic (19.5%), infantile (25.7%), and dormant ovaries (51.3%), and pathology of the uterus and cervix (3.5%). Both feeding and management practices in different locations influenced the nutritional status of female carabaos examined. Animals in good body condition were either cycling or pregnant. A 30-40% conception rate was achieved by synchronization of oestrus and insemination with frozen semen at 72 and 96 h later. Based on progesterone radioimmunoassay and rectal palpation of radioimmunoassay and rectal palpation of the ovaries, anoestrus in carabao heifers was due either to a failure of cycling animals to exhibit oestrus or those with inactive ovaries. (author)

  18. A conceptual lignocellulosic 'feed+fuel' biorefinery and its application to the linked biofuel and cattle raising industries in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It has been argued by some that the substitution of biofuels for gasoline could increase greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, rather than reduce them. The increase is attributed to the indirect land use change effects of planting new grain and corn crops around the world to replace those progressively being devoted to ethanol production. In this paper, indirect effects are minimised by allowing land to be used for both food and fuel, rather than for one or the other. We present a sugarcane 'feed+fuel' biorefinery, which produces bioethanol and yeast biomass, a source of single-cell protein (SCP), that can be used as a high-protein animal feed supplement. The yeast SCP can partially substitute for grass in the feed of cattle grazing on pasture and thereby potentially release land for increased sugarcane production, with minimal land use change effects. Applying the concept conservatively to the Brazilian ethanol and livestock industry our model demonstrates that it would be technically feasible to raise ethanol production threefold from the current level of 27 GL to over 92 GL. The extra ethanol would meet biofuel market mandates in the US without bringing any extra land into agricultural or pastoral use. The analysis demonstrates a viable way to increase biofuel and food production by linking two value chains as called for by industrial ecology studies. - Highlights: ? A proposed sugarcane 'feed+fuel' biorefinery producing bioethanol and yeast. ? Yeast used as a high-pol and yeast. ? Yeast used as a high-protein animal feed supplement. ? In cattle grazing, yeast substitutes for grass to release land for biomass production. ? In Brazil our model demonstrates ethanol production raised threefold.

  19. Raising mutants and transgenic Oryza sativa L. for salinity stress tolerance using gamma radiation and RNAi tools

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plant breeding efforts are being undertaken at warfoot at various National and International Laboratories to yield salinity tolerant genotypes. Random mutations, an approach that causes changes in nucleotide sequences, resulting in expression of genes conferring tolerance against stress has been utilized for generating gene pool for salinity tolerance. In our laboratory, mutations were induced in salt-sensitive rice variety - IR64 using mutagenic gamma radiations. Seeds for M3 populations were obtained and screened for salt stress sensitive/tolerant lines. Out of 1200 lines 23 putative salinity-tolerant have been identified and further multiplied in order to obtain M4 lines for screening at microplot levels. Details pertaining to these lines and their characterization will be presented. Employing contemporary tools of genetic engineering - development of novel stress- tolerant plants had so far been attempted by transfer of genes encoding protective protein or enzymes involved in stress responses and adaptation. Since the first step in the stress response is the perception of stress stimulus, we have aimed to clone and characterize an osmosensor or stress receptor gene from rice (Oryza sativa L cv IR64). This putative osmosensor (OsHkl) is actually a member of two component system inducible by various abiotic stresses like high and low temperature, salinity, drought as well as exogenous application of stress hormone ABA. We have raised transgenicess hormone ABA. We have raised transgenic indica rice plants which are altered in expression (either overexpression or underexpression) for this gene to understand the role of this putative osmosensor in salinity stress response. This understanding will be given another leap forward by the analysis of similar transgenic lines which have been created for the SOS2 gene - believed to play an important role as a component of the the initial signal transduction machinery of plants. The observations and detailed analysis pertaining to these mutants and transgenic plants will be presented. (author)

  20. Building bridges, raising dikes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The study evaluates the Dutch regime formation on climate change in the years around the Kyoto Protocol (1997) based on case studies on Burden sharing / the Triptych approach and North-South relations / the Clean Development Mechanism. For the analysis of the international negotiations, the policy science discipline and theories on regime formation were used. National policy development was analysed by means of the qualitative multi-actor Trinity model. The used data sources were interdepartmental archives, interviews and literature. In international climate policy, the Netherlands played a strong role as a broker and consensus builder and relied heavily on scientific knowledge. It used the EU to exert an influence on a global scale. This strategy suits the Netherlands, being a small country depending on global climate action. Results show that explicit attention is necessary for both content and process aspects of the negotiation process to avoid unclear mixing of responsibilities of parties. Full communication especially on any change of role should be provided to all parties involved nationally and internationally in order to keep support and credibility. Also, the use of issue linkages is recommended. The use of both national and international research on both content and process to support ad hoc policy should be continued. The Dutch industry should join the international industry and actively participate and influence the climate change policy development. The Ne climate change policy development. The NG0s in the field of development cooperation should recognise that climate change policy is important for economic development and financial aid for developing countries. 38 refs

  1. Fund Raising for Haiti

    CERN Multimedia

    Association du personnel

    2010-01-01

    Dear Colleagues, Following the devastating earthquake that hit Haiti on 12 January 2010, the CERN Management and the Staff Association are organizing a collection to help the victims. The money collected will be transferred to associations or bodies guaranteeing proper use of the funds, such as the Association Haïti Ecoles based in Cessy, which our Long Term Collections supported for several years. From today you can pay your donations into a special UBS account, indicating “Séisme Haïti” as the reason for payment . SWIFT : UBSWCHZH12B IBAN : CH85 0027 9279 HU10 6832 1 Account Holder : Association du personnel du CERN We are counting on the generosity of the CERN community to support the Haitian people at this very difficult time. Thank you on their behalf. Rolf Heuer Director-General Gianni Deroma President of the Staff Association

  2. Russia raises contract demands

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2010-01-01

    25. märtsil teatas Venemaa, et ostab Prantsusmaalt helikopterikandja Mistral ainult koos täisvarustusega - koos kõigi juhtimis- ja navigeerimisseadmete ja relvastusega. Kaitseväe juhataja Ants Laaneotsa, peaminister Andrus Ansipi, Läti kaitseministri Imants Liegise ja Leedu kaitseministri Rasa Jukneviciese arvamused

  3. Raising a Fit Preschooler

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... preschoolers learn to cooperate and interact during play. Helping Kids Learn New Skills Preschoolers develop important motor ... play, preschoolers often like to take on a gender-specific role because they are beginning to identify ...

  4. Raising a "Green Generation"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leger-Ferraro, Susan

    2010-01-01

    These days, "going green" is at the forefront of conversation in political, entertainment, and corporate circles. Yet to truly impact change, future generations must carry the torch of transformation. To ensure success, adults need to begin the practices with the fertile minds of young children in early education. Practicing sustainability is not…

  5. We Can Raise Standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walberg, Herbert J.

    1983-01-01

    Compares the educational productivity of the United States with that of Japan and explains how confusion of policies, lower standards, and demographic trends have contributed to this situation. States that, given the willpower, we can utilize research findings to increase our national achievement standards. (MLF)

  6. Raising Confident Kids

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... jelly hits the countertop. In fact, avoid any criticism that could discourage him from trying again. If ... Steps to More Effective Parenting Teaching Your Child Self-Control Developing Your Child's Self-Esteem Help Your ...

  7. Identical Twins Raised Apart

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farnsworth, David L.

    2015-01-01

    This article describes a bivariate data set that is interesting to students. Indeed, this particular data set, which involves twins and IQ, has sparked more student interest than any other set that I have presented. Specific uses of the data set are presented.

  8. High-resolution Record of Holocene Climate, Vegetation, and Fire from a Raised Peat Bog, Prince Edward Island, Canadian Maritimes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peros, M. C.; Chan, K.; Ponsford, L.; Carroll, J.; Magnan, G.

    2014-12-01

    Raised peat bogs receive all precipitation and nutrients from the atmosphere and are thus widely used archives for information on past environments and climates. In this paper we provide high-resolution multi-proxy data from a raised bog from northeastern Prince Edward Island, located in the Gulf of St. Lawrence, Canada. We studied testate amoeba (a proxy for water table depth), macrocharcoal (a proxy for local-scale fire), peat humification (a proxy for decomposition), plant macrofossils (indicative of local-scale vegetation), and organic matter content (yielding carbon accumulation rates) from a 5.5 m long core lifted from the center of Baltic Bog. Eleven AMS radiocarbon dates show that peat accumulation began before 9000 cal yr BP and continued almost uninterrupted until the present. The macrofossil data show that a transition from a sedge-dominated fen to a sphagnum-dominated bog occurred around 8000 cal yr BP, and sphagnum remained dominant in the bog throughout most of the Holocene. A testate amoeba-based reconstruction of water table depth indicates that conditions were drier during the early Holocene (~8000 to 5000 cal yr BP) and became gradually wetter into the late Holocene. In addition, a number of higher frequency shifts in precipitation are inferred throughout the Holocene on the basis of the testate amoeba and humification results. The macrocharcoal evidence indicates fire—probably in the surrounding forest—was relatively more common during the early Holocene, perhaps due to drier climate conditions. A large influx of charcoal at around 2000 cal yr BP suggests the presence of one or more major fires at this time, and a concurrent decrease in the rate of peat accumulation indicates the fire may have affected the bog itself. The data from Baltic Bog is broadly comparable to other proxy data (in particular pollen studies) from the Canadian Maritimes. This work is important because it: 1) helps us better understand the role of hydroclimatic variability in influencing peat bog ecosystems; and 2), represents one of the few peat-based records of Holocene paleoclimate from the region.

  9. Formal, Model-oriented Software Development Methods - From VDM to ProCoS & from RAISE to LaCoS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    BjØrner, Dines; Haxthausen, Anne Elisabeth

    1991-01-01

    The first author has been invited to reminisce over almost 20 years of his research into and application of formal methods in software development. The paper deals with model-oriented methods. The title of this paper mentions two methods: VDM (Vienna Development Method) and RAISE (Rigorous Approach to Industrial Software Engineering), the latter derived from the former, and two projects: ProCoS (Provably Correct Systems) and LaCoS (Large-scale Correct Systems). LaCoS is a follow-up on RAISE. ProCoS adheres to the same principles as VDM as VDM and RAISE, but with a twist! The paper will outline the technical/scientific essence of the VDM and RAISE methods, and explain the ProCos and LaCoS project structures. The paper will first outline five central roles of software developers: problem domain specialists, programmers, software engineers, resident computation scientists and managers. We will briefly illustrate examples of specifications in VDM and RAISE. The aim of the paper is to record that formal methods insoftware development are now well-developed and broadly accepted in Europe.

  10. In situ stress determination by the overcoring of large surface strain gauge rosettes on the walls of a raise-bored shaft at the Underground Research Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    AECL Research is conducting a series of experiments to examine the influence of scale on measured in situ stresses in granite rock. The ventilation raise rosette overcoring experiment is one such test. This experiment, modelled on a previous test conducted in Australia, consisted of overcoring four 120-mm strain gauge rosettes glued to the surface of a 1.8-m-diameter bored raise. The in situ stresses were calculated from the measured strains using the equations for stresses around a cylindrical excavation in an elastic material. The possibility of excavation disturbance around the ventilation raise was investigated using overcore stress measurements, elastic modulus tests on retrieved core, and visual inspection of thin sections obtained from removed core. The effect of a stress-dependent elastic modulus (referred to as non-linear elastic behaviour) is also addressed. Results from the ventilation raise rosette overcoring experiment suggest that rosette overcoring in a bored raise is an acceptable stress-measurement method. The effects of scale and excavation damage on the stress measurements were not considered to be significant; however, if the elastic modulus of the rock is strongly stress-dependent, non-linear elastic behaviour may have a small effect on the measured stresses

  11. Urea-molasses multi-nutrient block (UMMB) supplementation of dairy cows raised by smallholder farmers in Sariaya, Quezon, Philippines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An 'on-farm' study was conducted to determine the effects of urea-molasses-multi-nutrient block (UMMB) supplementation in Holstein-Friesian-Sahiwal dairy cows raised by smallholder farmers in the southern part of Luzon, Philippines. There were a total of 105 cows in the project. The basal diet of these animals was cut-and-carry forages (20-30 kg/head/d), obtained from cultivated and natural grasses, given with mixtures of trees and shrub leaves (1-2 kg/head/d). During the day, the cows were allowed to graze. In the summer months (March-April), rice straw and other agricultural by-products, e.g. corn stover, were provided. To assist with long-term sustainability of the project, a UMMB Production Centre was established through a micro-financing scheme. The calving interval of the UMMB supplemented cow group was 418 days, while that of the unsupplemented group was 504 days (P <0.05). The monthly milk yield of 343 kg of the treated animals was higher (P <0.05) than that of the untreated group (273 kg). The body weight of the supplemented group was 430 kg, and of the unsupplemented group was 400 kg. The supplemented cows had a better body condition score of 3.2, compared to 2.8 on a scale of 1 (very thin) to 5 (overfat), for the unsupplemented cows. (author)

  12. Performance and nutritional evaluation of beef cattle raised on pasture, castrated at different ages, with and without supplementation

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Anilza Andréia da, Rocha; Mário Fonseca, Paulino; Henrique Jorge, Fernandes; Lívia Vieira de, Barros; Sidnei Antonio, Lopes; Leandro, Galon; Aline Gomes da, Silva; Daniel Mageste de, Almeida.

    1016-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate performance and nutritional traits of beef cattle raised on pastures, castrated at different ages, with and without supplementation. Forty-four crossbred young bulls with predominance of Zebu breed at initial average age of 120±30 days were used in the exp [...] eriment. Animals were distributed in a completely randomized design in a factorial arrangement with four ages of castration and two supplementation systems. The animals were distributed into four groups and placed on Brachiaria decumbens Stapf pastures, where they were fed concentrate supplementation or mineral salt ad libtum (control). Animals were castrated at 120, 240 and 360 days of age with average body weight of 115, 175 and 276 kg, castrated or not, in each supplementation group. Concentrate supplement composition and the amount supplied to the animals varied according to the time of the year and development phase of the animals. Trials were carried out to evaluate nutritional variables in each of the following phases: suckling, growth in the dry season and growth in the dry/rainy transition season. Concentrate supplementation improved the use of pasture, although it may have caused substitutive effect in all seasons evaluated. Castration of the animals before the dry season impaired animal development until the following dry/rainy transition season, especially when carried out during weaning. Concentrate supply may reduce some effects of this stress.

  13. Mother Recognition and Preference After Neonatal Amygdala Lesions in Rhesus Macaques (Macaca mulatta) Raised in a Semi-Naturalistic Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goursaud, Anne-Pierre S.; Wallen, Kim; Bachevalier, Jocelyne

    2015-01-01

    Attachment to the caregiver, typically the biological mother, is crucial to young mammals' socio-emotional development. Although studies in nonprimate species suggest that the amygdala regulates social preference and attachment development, its role in primate filial attachment development has been little investigated and has produced mixed results. This study assessed the effects of neonatal amygdala- (Neo-A, N = 16) and sham- (Neo-C, N = 12) lesions on mother recognition and discrimination in macaques raised in species-typical social groups. Neonatal amygdalectomy did not affect social discriminative abilities and mother preference at 3 and 6 months of age, strongly suggesting that the amygdala is not involved in the cognitive processes underlying the development of filial attachment at least when the amygdala damage occurred after the third to fourth weeks of age. Nevertheless, as compared to shamoperated controls, amygdalectomized infants initiated physical contact with their mothers less frequently. The findings are discussed in relation to the known contribution of the amygdala to filial attachment in both rodents and humans. PMID:25042548

  14. Mesoscale Raised Rim Depressions (MRRDs) on Earth: A Review of the Characteristics, Processes, and Spatial Distributions of Analogs for Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burr, Devon M.; Bruno, Barbara C.; Lanagan, Peter D.; Glaze, Lori; Jaeger, Windy L.; Soare, Richard J.; Tseung, Jean-Michel Wan Bun; Skinner, James A. Jr.; Baloga, Stephen M.

    2008-01-01

    Fields of mesoscale raised rim depressions (MRRDs) of various origins are found on Earth and Mars. Examples include rootless cones, mud volcanoes, collapsed pingos, rimmed kettle holes, and basaltic ring structures. Correct identification of MRRDs on Mars is valuable because different MRRD types have different geologic and/or climatic implications and are often associated with volcanism and/or water, which may provide locales for biotic or prebiotic activity. In order to facilitate correct identification of fields of MRRDs on Mars and their implications, this work provides a review of common terrestrial MRRD types that occur in fields. In this review, MRRDs by formation mechanism, including hydrovolcanic (phreatomagmatic cones, basaltic ring structures), sedimentological (mud volcanoes), and ice-related (pingos, volatile ice-block forms) mechanisms. For each broad mechanism, we present a comparative synopsis of (i) morphology and observations, (ii) physical formation processes, and (iii) published hypothesized locations on Mars. Because the morphology for MRRDs may be ambiguous, an additional tool is provided for distinguishing fields of MRRDs by origin on Mars, namely, spatial distribution analyses for MRRDs within fields on Earth. We find that MRRDs have both distinguishing and similar characteristics, and observation that applies both to their mesoscale morphology and to their spatial distribution statistics. Thus, this review provides tools for distinguishing between various MRRDs, while highlighting the utility of the multiple working hypotheses approach.

  15. A COMPARISON BETWEEN MULLIGAN TRACTION STRAIGHT LEG RAISE TECHNIQUE VS MUSCLE ENERGY TECHNIQUE ON HAMSTRING TIGHTNESS IN ASYMPTOMATIC MALE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesudas Mazumdar

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Background and Purpose: The Hamstring muscles of the back thigh are found to be the most prevalent for the tightness in the body. The purpose of this study is to compare effectiveness of Mulligan Traction Straight Leg Raise and Muscle Energy Technique methods in increasing range of motion and flexibility of knee joint. Methods: The 60 subjects (n = 60 with hamstring tightness randomly divided into two groups. Each group consist of 30 male subjects. However group A had 28 as two dropout and group B had 26 as four dropout . Group A was treated with Mulligan TSLR and Group B had MET. The total treatment session was 3 times a week on alternate days for three consecutive weeks. The outcome measures were measured by active knee extension ROM by universal Goniometer. Results: Independent t-test and paired t- test were used to analyse the data. The inter group comparison ROM score showed high significant difference after 3 weeks between the groups. The results of the study showed that MET may increase Knee ROM significantly more then Mulligan TSLR when applied for 3 weeks. Conclusion: This study led to interference that Mulligan TSLR and MET are effective in reducing the hamstring tightness. When both groups are compared MET was found to be more effective than TSLR .

  16. Issues of Meaning and Interpretation Raised by Diagetic versus Non-diagetic Use of Music in Television and Film

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grund, Cynthia M.

    2008-01-01

    Issues of Meaning and Interpretation Rasied by Diagetic versus Non-diagetic Use of Music in Television and Film. When music occurs in the soundtrack of a film or television show, it can either be attributed to a source within the narrative, so that the characters can hear it, or it can be "background" music, available to the viewer, but not to the characters. In this presentation, we will explore the complex of issues related to meaning and interpretaiton raised by diagetic v non-diagetic use of music in television and film. Matters to be addressed include: How is it of significance to the interpretation of a scene whether or not music is used diagetically or non-diagetically? How important is the role of the presence or absence of a musical soundtrack to a correct understanding of a scene? Is it of consequence whether or not the music is written specifically for a scene or is antecedently available to the public as recorded music? Will the increasing fragmentation - bordering on balkanization - of shared public musical experience now on the rise due to increasingly differentiated listening venues and internet sites result in a growing impoverishment of audience ability to appreciate - and even to understand! - cinema and television narratives within an adequate intermedial context? Finally, to what extent do we structure the narrative of our own lived experience by means of a "soundtrack" wherein elements of diagetic and nondiagetic use of music are present?

  17. Ozone Bioindicator Gardens: an Educational Tool to Raise Awareness about Environmental Pollution and its Effects on Living Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapina, K.; Lombardozzi, D.

    2014-12-01

    High concentrations of ground-level ozone cause health problems in humans and a number of negative effects on plants, from reduced yield for major agricultural crops to reduced amounts of carbon stored in trees. The Denver Metro/Colorado Front Range is exceeding the National Ambient Air Quality Standard for ozone on a regular basis in summer and the efforts to reduce the ozone levels are hampered by the presence of diverse pollution sources and complex meteorology in the region. To raise public awareness of air quality in the Colorado Front Range and to educate all age groups about ground-level ozone, two ozone bioindicator gardens were planted in Boulder in Spring 2014. The gardens contain ozone-sensitive plants that develop a characteristic ozone injury when exposed to high levels of ozone. The ozone gardens are providing the general public with a real-life demonstration of the negative effects of ozone pollution through observable plant damage. Additionally, the gardens are useful in teaching students how to collect and analyze real-world scientific data.

  18. Thermal and stability considerations for a supercritical water-cooled fast reactor during power-raising phase of plant startup

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes thermal analyses and linear stability analyses of the Supercritical Water-cooled Fast Reactor with 'two-path' flow scheme during the power-raising phase of plant startup. For thermal consideration, the same criterion of the maximum cladding surface temperature (MCST) as applied to the normal operating condition is used. For thermal-hydraulic stability consideration, the decay ratio of 0.5 is applied, which is taken from BWRs. Firstly, we calculated the flow rate distribution among the parallel flow paths from the reactor vessel inlet nozzles to the mixing plenum below the core using a system analysis code. The parallel flow paths consist of the seed fuel assemblies cooled by downward flow, the blanket fuel assemblies cooled by downward flow and the downcomer. Then, the MCSTs are estimated for various reactor powers and feedwater flow rates with system analyses. The decay ratios are estimated with linear stability analyses. The available range of the reactor power and feedwater flow rate to satisfy the thermal and stability criteria is obtained. (author)

  19. Raising consciousness regarding the dignity and vocation of women in the Catholic Church in Zimbabwe: A historical developmental process

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Francisca, Chimhanda.

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Shona culture, Church tradition, and the Roman Catholic Church in particular, are very patriarchal. Thus culture and Church have the capacity at once to include and exclude, liberate and oppress, empower and disengage. The corollary is that just as these structures demonstrate a history of patriarch [...] y, so, in an agenda for an inclusive paradigm, they can be transformed. Since men in the Roman Catholic Church enjoy a monopoly on power, they are generally reluctant to liberate women from patriarchal marginalisation. In this article, the raising of consciousness regarding the dignity and vocation of women in the Roman Catholic Church in Zimbabwe is explored. The discussion is based on an important tenet of liberation theology that states that women themselves, as proactive agents of their own history, have the capacity for intentional or conscious becoming. Thus, women, in their historical situatedness, must respond to the imperative of their creation and baptismal status of imago Dei/Chrristi and the baptismal vocation to participate in all areas of church life.

  20. Effects of rigor status during high-pressure processing on the physical qualities of farm-raised abalone (Haliotis rufescens).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Brianna H; Greenberg, Neil J; Yang, Tom C; Skonberg, Denise I

    2015-01-01

    High-pressure processing (HPP) is used to increase meat safety and shelf-life, with conflicting quality effects depending on rigor status during HPP. In the seafood industry, HPP is used to shuck and pasteurize oysters, but its use on abalones has only been minimally evaluated and the effect of rigor status during HPP on abalone quality has not been reported. Farm-raised abalones (Haliotis rufescens) were divided into 12 HPP treatments and 1 unprocessed control treatment. Treatments were processed pre-rigor or post-rigor at 2 pressures (100 and 300 MPa) and 3 processing times (1, 3, and 5 min). The control was analyzed post-rigor. Uniform plugs were cut from adductor and foot meat for texture profile analysis, shear force, and color analysis. Subsamples were used for scanning electron microscopy of muscle ultrastructure. Texture profile analysis revealed that post-rigor processed abalone was significantly (P myofibrils. Post-rigor processed abalone meat was more tender than pre-rigor processed meat, and post-rigor processed foot meat was lighter in color than pre-rigor processed foot meat, suggesting that waiting for rigor to resolve prior to processing abalones may improve consumer perceptions of quality and market value. PMID:25471900

  1. Mesoscale raised rim depressions (MRRDs) on Earth: A review of the characteristics, processes, and spatial distributions of analogs for Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burr, D.M.; Bruno, B.C.; Lanagan, P.D.; Glaze, L.S.; Jaeger, W.L.; Soare, R.J.; Wan, Bun Tseung J.-M.; Skinner, J.A., Jr.; Baloga, S.M.

    2009-01-01

    Fields of mesoscale raised rim depressions (MRRDs) of various origins are found on Earth and Mars. Examples include rootless cones, mud volcanoes, collapsed pingos, rimmed kettle holes, and basaltic ring structures. Correct identification of MRRDs on Mars is valuable because different MRRD types have different geologic and/or climatic implications and are often associated with volcanism and/or water, which may provide locales for biotic or prebiotic activity. In order to facilitate correct identification of fields of MRRDs on Mars and their implications, this work provides a review of common terrestrial MRRD types that occur in fields. In this review, MRRDs by formation mechanism, including hydrovolcanic (phreatomagmatic cones, basaltic ring structures), sedimentological (mud volcanoes), and ice-related (pingos, volatile ice-block forms) mechanisms. For each broad mechanism, we present a comparative synopsis of (i) morphology and observations, (ii) physical formation processes, and (iii) published hypothesized locations on Mars. Because the morphology for MRRDs may be ambiguous, an additional tool is provided for distinguishing fields of MRRDs by origin on Mars, namely, spatial distribution analyses for MRRDs within fields on Earth. We find that MRRDs have both distinguishing and similar characteristics, and observation that applies both to their mesoscale morphology and to their spatial distribution statistics. Thus, this review provides tools for distinguishing between various MRRDs, while highlighting the utility of the multiple working hypotheses approach. ?? 2008 Elsevier Ltd.

  2. The pitfalls in arbitration and litigation of nuclear power plant disputes - issues raised by cases involving nuclear steam generator failures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Achilles' Heel for successful power plant operations for pressurized water nuclear reactors has been the performance of nuclear steam generators. Steam generators have been replaced or plans for replacement have been announced at nuclear plants in Belgium, France, Brazil, Korea, Japan, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Yugoslavia and the United States. The cost of replacing these massive components can exceed US $ 100 million for each plant. This problem of component failures has thus far spawned thirteen legal actions against the original equipment manufacturer, involving over 70 steam generators, in international arbitration and United States (U.S.) Federal Courts. Other claims by utilities, both in the United States and in Europe, have been settled short of litigation. The case for liability of the component designer and manufacturer involves issues of fact relating to materials, corrosion mechanisms, the effects of water purity and temperature on corrosion, system integration with the component, potential safety issues, predictions of component life based on corrosion rates, and the efficacy of remedial actions. The manner in which these issues are raised before an arbitral tribunal and before a U.S. District Court judge and jury are very different. This paper will discuss some of the competing considerations involved in the two different systems for dispute resolution. (author)

  3. Microwave-assisted derivatisation and LC-MS/MS determination of nitrofuran metabolites in farm-raised prawns (Penaeus monodon).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palaniyappan, Venkatesh; Nagalingam, Arun Kumar; Ranganathan, Hari Prasad; Kandhikuppam, Krishnamoorthy Bharathi; Kothandam, Hari Prasath; Vasu, Soumya

    2013-01-01

    A new microwave-assisted derivatisation and LC-MS/MS method has been developed for the analysis of nitrofuran metabolites - 3-amino-5-morpholino-methyl-1,3-oxa-zolidinone (AMOZ), 3-amino-2-oxazolidinone (AOZ), 1-aminohydantoin (AHD) and semicarbazide (SEM) - in farm-raised prawns (Penaeus monodon) from the coastal regions of South India. Analysis was carried out by reverse-phase column (Phenomenex Luna C18) with gradient elution using mobile phase A (0.02% acetic acid in water) and mobile phase B (0.02% acetic acid in acetonitrile), at a flow rate of 200 ?l min(-1) and an injection volume of 20 ?l. Microwave-assisted derivatisation was achieved in 6 min with good recovery. The results showed that the samples collected from Andhra Pradesh and Karnataka contained residues of nitrofuran metabolites in the range from 5.0 to 40 ng g(-1). This work emphasises the importance of ensuring the safety of seafood and that a new method of derivatisation is applicable for the analysis of nitrofuran metabolites in seafood. PMID:23883190

  4. Tick loads in cattle raised on sweet and sour rangelands in the low-input farming areas of South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marufu, Munyaradzi C; Chimonyo, Michael; Mapiye, Cletos; Dzama, Kennedy

    2011-02-01

    The objective of this study was to compare tick loads and prevalence in Nguni and non-descript cattle in the sweet (palatable throughout the year) and sour (palatable only in the rainy season) communal rangelands of the Eastern Cape Province, South Africa. Engorged adult female ixodid ticks were collected and identified seasonally from 144 cattle raised on sweet and sour rangelands from August 2007 to April 2008. Three tick species were identified in the sweet and sour rangelands namely Rhipicephalus appendiculatus, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) decoloratus, and Rhipicephalus evertsi evertsi with prevalences of 71.1%, 29.2%, and 40.2%, respectively. Hyalomma species (19.0%) occurred only in the sour rangeland. Higher tick counts were recorded in the hot-wet season than in the cool-dry season (P appendiculatus in the hot-wet and post-rainy season and Hyalomma species in all seasons than the non-descript cattle. The use of a tick-resistant Nguni breed in the integrated control of ticks on cattle in the communal areas of South Africa is recommended. PMID:20967568

  5. Genetic analysis of test day milk yields of brown swiss cattle raised at Konuklar State Farm in Turkey, using MTDFREML

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    U., Zülkadir; & #304; ., Aytekin.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available A total of 3696 Test Day Milk Yield (TDMY) records of Brown Swiss cows raised at Konuklar State Farm in the Konya Province of Turkey were used for estimating phenotypic and genetic parameters for TDMY. The phenotypic and genetic parameters were estimated by an MTDFREML programme using a Single Trait [...] Animal Model (STAM). The model included additive direct effects, maternal permanent environment and errors as random effects, parity, year and season of calving as fixed effects, and days in milk (DIM) as a covariate. Genetic parameters and breeding values for TDMY in kg were estimated. The TDMY least square mean was estimated as 15.64 ± 5.82 kg, and the direct heritability (h²a), maternal heritability (h²m) and the repeatability (r) of TDMY were calculated as being 0.28 ± 0.09, 0.04 ± 0.54 and 0.31 ± 0.01, respectively. The effects of parity and year-season of calving on TDMY were significant.

  6. Health implications of radionuclide levels in cattle raised near U mining and milling facilities in Ambrosia Lake, New Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study was conducted to determine radionuclide tissue levels in cattle raised near U mining and milling facilities. Ambrosia Lake, New Mexico, has been the site of extensive U mining for 30 y and contains several underground U mines, a processing mill, and two large U tailings piles. Ten cows were purchased from two grazing areas in Ambrosia Lake and ten control animals were purchased from Crownpoint, New Mexico. Muscle, liver, kidney, and bone tissue taken from these animals, and environmental samples, including water, grasses and soil collected from the animals' grazing areas, were analyzed for 238U, 234U, 230Th, 226Ra, 210Pb, and 210Po. Mean radionuclide levels in cattle tissue and environmental samples from Ambrosia Lake were higher in almost every comparison than those found in respective controls. Liver and kidney tissues were particularly elevated in 226Ra and 210Po. Radiation dose commitments from eating cattle tissue with these radionuclide concentrations were calculated. We concluded that the health risk to the public from eating exposed cattle is minimal, unless large amounts of this tissue, especially liver and kidney, are ingested

  7. Raise Boring of the ventilation shaft in Olkiluoto, 17. - 23.5.2006. Preliminary analysis of seismic signal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In Olkiluoto, Posiva Oy has operated a local seismic network since February 2002. The purpose of the microearthquake measurements at Olkiluoto is to improve understanding of the structure, behaviour and long term stability of the bedrock. The studies include both tectonic and excavation-induced microearthquakes. An additional task of monitoring is related to safeguarding of the ONKALO. The possibility to excavate an illegal access to the ONKALO, have been concerned when the safeguards are discussed. Therefore all recorded explosions in the Olkiluoto area and in the ONKALO are located. If a concentration of explosions is observed, the origin of that is found out. Also a concept of hidden illegal explosions, detonated at the same time as the real excavation blasts, has been examined. According to the experience gained in Olkiluoto, it can be concluded that, as long the seismic network is in operation and the results are analysed by a skilled person, it is practically impossible to do illegal excavation by blasts. In this report a possibility of seismic monitoring of illegal excavation done by tunnel boring machine has been investigated. Characteristics of the seismic signal generated by the raise boring machine are analysed. According to this study, it can be concluded that the generated seismic signal can be detected and the source of the signal can be located. However, this task calls for different kind of monitoring system than that, which is currently used for monitoring microearthquakes and explosions. (orig.)

  8. Investigating the Effect of Consciousness-raising Techniques on Learning the English Tense System by EFL Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir H. Abdalla

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This study explores the effect Consciousness-raising techniques (henceforth, C-R techniques can have on the learning of the English tense system. The sample of the study (n=100 was randomly drawn from beginning EFL students at Taif University, KSA. The experimental design was used to carry out the study. The sample was divided into an experimental group (n=50 and a control group (n=50. Data for the study was collected via a test the researcher designed and administered to the two groups of the study. In addition to that, a special treatment of learning tasks   and activities was given to the study's experimental group only. The data collection instrument (i.e. the test comprised six questions relating to the form and uses of the present and past simple tenses. Data was then analysed by SPSS. The results of the study were statistically significant in favour of the experimental group (t-test value 1.072, the two-tailed level of significance .006 and p < 05.

  9. Effect of BCS at Mating on Some Reproductive Performance of Saanen Goat under Raised Semi Intensive Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tufan Altin

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the effects of the Body Condition Score (BCS of 53 Saanen does on their reproductive performance 15 days before mating season and at the beginning of the mating season under raised semi intensive conditions. In this study, the does were synchronized in two different periods, one of which was 15 days before the other. Before the introduction of buck to the goats, the goats were weighed after measuring their BCS. Detailed records were kept for herd in year. It was found significant effects of mating period on body weight of does before mating and fecundity (p<0.05; effects of age on body weight of does before mating (p<0.001, body weight of does on birth (p<0.01, fecundity (p<0.01 and litter size (p<0.05, effect of BCS on body weight of does before mating (p<0.001, fecundity (p<0.01 and litter size (p<0.05. The BCS for the highest fecundity and litter size was determined =2.01 while the lowest rates for these traits were =1.50. Average of body weight of does before mating, body weight of does on birth, kid birth weigh, fecundity and litter size were 35.65, 42.71, 3.44, 0.65, 0.65 and 1.30 kg, respectively.

  10. 1,3-dichloropropene and chloropicrin emissions following simulated drip irrigation to raised beds under plastic films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashworth, D J; Luo, L; Xuan, R; Yates, S R

    2010-08-01

    Using laboratory soil chambers a nonscaled representation of an agricultural raised bed was constructed. For a sandy loam soil, 1,3-dichloropropene (1,3-D) and chloropicrin (CP) were applied at 5 cm depth with an excess of water (simulated drip irrigation). Application was made under both high density polyethylene (HDPE) and virtually impermeable film (VIF) covering the soil bed (the furrow was left uncovered). Soil gas distribution of the fumigants, together with emissions into the headspace above the bed, sidewall and furrow were determined over time. Total emissions from the HDPE treatment were cis 1,3-D 28%, trans 1,3-D 24%, and CP 8%. Due to its lower permeability, the values for VIF were 13%, 7%, and 1.5%, respectively. With HDPE, the majority (86-93%) of the emissions occurred from the bed, while for VIF the majority (92-99%) of the emissions was from the furrow. Compared to a range of literature values for shank injection, the use of drip application appears to offer a benefit in reducing 1,3-D and CP emissions. However, the most meaningful comparison is with our previous data for simulated shank injection where the same soil was covered (completely) with the same plastic films (1). In this comparison, only 1,3-D emissions under HDPE were lower with drip application; 1,3-D emissions under VIF and CP emissions under both films were greater with the drip application. PMID:20597537

  11. Temporal variation in depth to water table and hydrochemistry in three raised bogs and their laggs in coastal British Columbia, Canada

    OpenAIRE

    S. A. Howie; van Meerveld, H. J.

    2012-01-01

    The laggs of three raised bogs in coastal British Columbia were studied in 2010–2012 to determine the temporal variation in depth to water table and hydrochemistry. The lagg is an integral, but rarely studied, part of a raised bog that helps to maintain the water mound in the bog and provides a buffer for runoff from adjacent mineral areas. Depth to water table measurements in 25 piezometers displayed similar annual fluctuations, with the highest water table in winter and the lowest at ...

  12. Dietary energy level for optimum productivity and carcass characteristics of indigenous Venda chickens raised in closed confinement

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    O.J, Alabi; J.W, Ng' ambi; D, Norris.

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available A study was conducted to determine dietary energy levels for optimum productivity and carcass characteristics of indigenous Venda chickens raised in closed confinement. Four dietary treatments were considered in the first phase (1 to 7 weeks) on two hundred day-old unsexed indigenous Venda chicks in [...] dicated as EVS1, EVS2, EVS3 and EVS4 (11, 12, 13 and 14 MJ ME/kg DM, respectively) and each treatment was replicated five times. In the second phase (8 - 13 weeks), 160 indigenous Venda female chickens, aged eight weeks, were randomly allocated to four dietary treatments and each treatment was replicated five times in a completely randomized design. The diets used in both trials were isonitrogenous but with different energy levels. A quadratic equation was used to determine dietary energy levels for optimum feed intake, growth rate, FCR and ME intake at both the starter and grower phases and the carcass characteristics of the birds at 91 days. Dietary energy levels of 12.91, 12.42, 12.34 and 12.62 MJ ME/kg DM feed supported optimum feed intake, growth rate, FCR and ME intake, respectively, for the starter phase. At the grower phase, dietary energy levels of 12.56, 12.66, 12.62 and 12.71 MJ ME/kg DM feed supported optimum feed intake, growth rate, FCR and ME intake, respectively. Carcass, drumstick, thigh and wing had optimum weights at dietary energy levels of 13.81, 13.23, 13.43 and 13.18 MJ ME/ kg DM, respectively. Thus, dietary energy level for optimization depended on the particular production parameter in question.

  13. Regression and stabilization of advanced murine atherosclerotic lesions: a comparison of LDL lowering and HDL raising gene transfer strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Craeyveld, Eline; Gordts, Stephanie C; Nefyodova, Elena; Jacobs, Frank; De Geest, Bart

    2011-06-01

    Both reductions in atherogenic lipoproteins and increases in high-density lipoprotein (HDL) levels may affect atherosclerosis regression. Here, the relative potential of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) lowering and HDL raising gene transfer strategies to induce regression of complex murine atherosclerotic lesions was directly compared. Male C57BL/6 LDL receptor (LDLr)(-/-) mice were fed an atherogenic diet (1.25% cholesterol and 10% coconut oil) to induce advanced atherosclerotic lesions. A baseline group was killed after 6 months and remaining mice were randomized into a control progression (Adnull or saline), an apolipoprotein (apo) A-I (AdA-I), an LDLr (AdLDLr), or a combined apo A-I/LDLr (AdA-I/AdLDLr) adenoviral gene transfer group and followed-up for another 12 weeks with continuation of the atherogenic diet. Gene transfer with AdLDLr decreased non-HDL cholesterol levels persistently by 95% (p < 0.001) compared with baseline. This drastic reduction of non-HDL cholesterol levels induced lesion regression by 28% (p < 0.001) in the aortic root and by 25% (p < 0.05) in the brachiocephalic artery at 12 weeks after transfer. Change in lesion size was accompanied by enhanced plaque stability, as evidenced by increased collagen content, reduced lesional macrophage content, a drastic reduction of necrotic core area, and decreased expression of inflammatory genes. Elevated HDL cholesterol following AdA-I transfer increased collagen content in lesions, but did not induce regression. Apo A-I gene transfer on top of AdLDLr transfer resulted in additive effects, particularly on inflammatory gene expression. In conclusion, drastic lipid lowering induced by a powerful gene transfer strategy leads to pronounced regression and stabilization of advanced murine atherosclerosis. PMID:21249329

  14. A round table talk in Fukushima city about raising the child. Mothers having faced the radiation anxiety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The series is to report how general people, who are not at all radiological experts, have faced and understood the problems and tasks of radiation given by the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant Accident (Mar. 11, 2011). The section 3 is reported by a health nurse of Fukushima City, who joined the table talk in the title for discussing radiological problems in order to reduce the anxiety of mothers as a city project of mental health for raising children with cooperation of the prefectural clinical psychologist association and UNICEF. The City was 60 km distant from the Plant and the ambient dose rate of a region was 24.24 mc-Sv on Mar. 15 (cf. 0.32, on Oct. 17, 2013). Although the city was not involved in an evacuation indicated area, mothers having infants were particularly anxious, angry, and sad because of their feeling of isolation, which was the motivation of organizing the table talk. The purpose of the talk was defined to give the site of recovering the mental ease by expressing the negative emotion, of solving the isolation by close connection in the group and of obtaining the children's ease through mother's ease. Clinical psychologist, nursery nurse, child welfare volunteer, district welfare officer and others joined the talk as stuff. The author in a region of the city had meetings of 7 talks and 2 health lectures with total 73 mothers during one year from 1 year after the quake disaster. The talk subjects were concerned with the external exposure at the early period and thereafter the internal one due to food: the interest moved to the knowledge of radiation, which was the extreme purpose of the project. Psychologists said they felt mothers' positivism at the end of the project. In 11 city regions, total 404 mothers joined in 49 talk meetings in total: 86 and 96% of them answered their ease by and meaningfulness of, respectively, joining the talk. (T.T.)

  15. Genetic evidence that raised sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) levels reduce the risk of type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perry, John R B; Weedon, Michael N

    2010-01-01

    Epidemiological studies consistently show that circulating sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) levels are lower in type 2 diabetes patients than non-diabetic individuals, but the causal nature of this association is controversial. Genetic studies can help dissect causal directions of epidemiological associations because genotypes are much less likely to be confounded, biased or influenced by disease processes. Using this Mendelian randomization principle, we selected a common single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) near the SHBG gene, rs1799941, that is strongly associated with SHBG levels. We used data from this SNP, or closely correlated SNPs, in 27 657 type 2 diabetes patients and 58 481 controls from 15 studies. We then used data from additional studies to estimate the difference in SHBG levels between type 2 diabetes patients and controls. The SHBG SNP rs1799941 was associated with type 2 diabetes [odds ratio (OR) 0.94, 95% CI: 0.91, 0.97; P = 2 x 10(-5)], with the SHBG raising allele associated with reduced risk of type 2 diabetes. This effect was very similar to that expected (OR 0.92, 95% CI: 0.88, 0.96), given the SHBG-SNP versus SHBG levels association (SHBG levels are 0.2 standard deviations higher per copy of the A allele) and the SHBG levels versus type 2 diabetes association (SHBG levels are 0.23 standard deviations lower in type 2 diabetic patients compared to controls). Results were very similar in men and women. There was no evidence that this variant is associated with diabetes-related intermediate traits, including several measures of insulin secretion and resistance. Our results, together with those from another recent genetic study, strengthen evidence that SHBG and sex hormones are involved in the aetiology of type 2 diabetes.

  16. The effects of moderately raised classroom temperatures and classroom ventilation rate on the performance of schoolwork by children (RP-1257)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wargocki, Pawel; Wyon, David Peter

    2007-01-01

    Two independent field intervention experiments were carried out in school classrooms in late summer (in 2004 and 2005). The air temperature was manipulated by either operating or idling split cooling units installed for the purpose. In one of these experiments, the outdoor air supply rate was also manipulated. The conditions were established for one week at a time in a blind crossover design with repeated measures on two classes of 10- to 12-year-old children. Six to eight exercises exemplifying different aspects of schoolwork (numerical and language-based) were performed as part of normal lessons. Pupils indicated their environmental perceptions and the intensity of any symptoms on visual analogue scales. Their thermal sensation changed from slightly too warm to neutral, and the performance of two numerical and two language-based tests was significantly improved when the temperature was reduced from 25 degrees C to 20 degrees C (77 degrees F to 68 degrees F). When the outdoor air supply rate was increased from 5.2 to 9.6 L/s (11.0 to 20.3 cfm) per person, their performance of four numerical exercises improved significantly, confirming the results of previously reported experiments in the same series. The above improvements were mainly in terms of the speed at which tasks were performed, with negligible effects on error rate. Most school classrooms worldwide experience raised air temperatures during increased thermal loads, e.g., in warm weather; these results show that providing some means of avoiding elevated temperatures would improve educational attainment.

  17. Raised bogs, a Climate Shift, Cultural Change, and Reduced Solar Activity in the Early First Millennium BC

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Geel, B.

    2006-12-01

    Matching of a high resolution sequence of uncalibrated 14C datings with the dendro-calibration curve not only offers improved dating precision, but can also reveal relationships between atmospheric 14C variations and short-term climatic fluctuations caused by variations in solar output. Holocene shifts to cool and wet climate types in the temperate zones often correspond to phases of sharply increasing values of atmospheric radiocarbon, pointing to a link between changing solar activity and climate change. In northwest Europe at ca. 850 BC a sharp climatic shift to cooler, wetter conditions occurred. The shift is reflected in the species composition and decomposition of raised bog deposits and is chronologically linked to cultural changes and migrations at the Bronze Age/Iron Age transition. The temporary sharp rise of the atmospheric 14C content around 800 BC was caused by a sudden decline of solar activity. The solar wind declined, permitting more cosmic rays to penetrate into the atmosphere, and therefore the production of the cosmogenic isotope 14C increased. The climate shift was also recorded in Central and Eastern Europe, with rapid and total flooding of the Upper Volga region and a highstand of the Caspian Sea. In the Mississippi River basin, flooding frequencies greatly increased and there was an abrupt gap in the cultural transition from `Late Archaic' to `Early Woodland'. Paleoclimatological teleconnections point to a considerable role of solar UV in climate forcing. In the Central African rain forest belt and western India there was also a strong climate shift around 850 cal BC, but it was a shift to dryness (weakening of the summer monsoon). A possible palaeoclimatological explanation for the dry-wet transition in the temperate zones, and the contemporaneous wet-dry transition in the tropics (climatic teleconnections) will be given.

  18. Comparative Evaluation of Milk Yield and Compositions of West African Dwarf Goats Raised in the Village and University Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.C. Nwachinemere

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available A total of 6 lactating does of the West African Dwarf (WAD breed, in their first lactation stage and parity, were understudied in Michael Okpara University of Agriculture farm and in the village around the university campus for a period of 60 days.Total 3 animals in the university farm were fed cut-and-carry forages consisting mainly of Guinea grass (Panicum maximum while the 3 in the village grazed available forages and house wastes. The two groups of lactating does were supplemented daily with a concentrate formulation of 14.3% CP. The animals were hand milked daily from 6-8 am and yield determined for each group. Samples of milk were analysed for Total Solids (TS, Butterfat (BF, Crude Protein (CP, Solids-Not-Fat (SNF, lactose, total ash and Gross Energy (GE. Milk productions of both groups were also corrected for fat (FCM. The results showed that goats kept in the university farm were higher in yield and milk constituents than does raised in the village except for lactose, SNF, protein and ash contents. Milk yield and FCM values for the university and village does were 122.0 0.08; 137.4 14.51 and 102.0 0.03; 103.3 18.80 g, respectively; the differences between the two means were highly significant (p1 of both milks were also significantly different (p0.05 for both groups, were also 4.25 0.32; 4.57 0.34 and 4.37 0.50; 4.34 0.50% for the university and village does, respectively. High positive and significant correlation existed between BF and TS (r = 0.82; p0.05 and between lactose and TS (r = 0.38; p>0.05. Differences between the various milk constituents of the two groups of animals were minimal.

  19. Characterization of fungi from ruminal fluid of beef cattle with different ages and raised in tropical lignified pastures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrão, Flávia Oliveira; Duarte, Eduardo Robson; Freitas, Cláudio Eduardo Silva; Vieira, Edvaldo Alves; Geraseev, Luciana Castro; da Silva-Hughes, Alice Ferreira; Rosa, Carlos Augusto; Rodrigues, Norberto Mario

    2014-11-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the aerobic rumen mycobiota from three age groups of Nelore beef cattle reared extensively on lignified pasture. The experiment was randomized and sampled 50 steers, 50 cows, and 50 calves grazed on Brachiaria spp. pasture during the dry season. Rumen fluid in all animals was aromatic, slightly viscous, and greenish-brown in color. Microscopic examination revealed monocentric and polycentric anaerobic fungi in similar proportions (P > 0.05) in the rumen fluid of cows and steers. However, these microorganisms were not identified in any of the samples from calves. In culture exams, aerobic filamentous population was significantly higher for rumen fluid of cows compared to the other two groups. Microculture and rDNA sequence analyses showed Aspergillus spp. as the most frequent aerobic fungus among the isolates from the three bovine groups evaluated. Biochemical profiles were determined by the growth level of yeast isolates with 44 nutrient sources. Ten different yeast profiles were obtained, and yeast isolates from cow ruminal fluid showed ability to catabolize greater diversity of carbon and nitrogen sources. The differences in the fungal populations observed in this study could be explained by microbial and physiological interactions existing in the ruminal ecosystem of each age bovine group. The present study showed the fungal population of the rumen related with differences among age of cattle raised in lignified pastures. Metabolic capabilities of mycelial fungi or yeast identified in this study may be employed in new probiotics or microbial additives for different bovine categories. PMID:24962597

  20. Comparison of vitamin D2 and vitamin D3 supplementation in raising serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D status: a systematic review and meta-analysis123

    OpenAIRE

    Tripkovic, Laura; Lambert, Helen; Hart, Kathryn; Smith, Colin P.; Bucca, Giselda; Penson, Simon; Chope, Gemma; Hyppönen, Elina; Berry, Jacqueline; Vieth, Reinhold; Lanham-New, Susan

    2012-01-01

    Background: Currently, there is a lack of clarity in the literature as to whether there is a definitive difference between the effects of vitamins D2 and D3 in the raising of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D].

  1. Those Who Can Coach Can Teach: Collaborating With Athletic Coaches to Raise the Level of Students' Close Reading, Argumentation Skills, and Academic Agency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehrenworth, Mary; Minor, Cornelius; Federman, Mark; Jennings, James; Messer, Katherine; McCloud, Christopher

    2015-01-01

    Building on the work of John Hattie, Richard Kent, and Tom Newkirk, a think tank collaborative in New York City's high schools works to raise the level of students' close reading, argumentation, and agency across the curriculum by teaching students to analyze athletic competitions, to compose sports arguments, and to transfer and apply these…

  2. More Effective VET and Lifelong Learning Policies: Awareness Raising, Analysis and Advice--Cedefop's Achievements in 2012 and Plans for 2013. Briefing Note

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cedefop - European Centre for the Development of Vocational Training, 2013

    2013-01-01

    Reform of vocational education and training (VET) in Europe is complex, especially at a time of economic crisis. Cedefop raises awareness and provides analysis and advice to policy-makers at European level and in Member States to help them decide on policies and actions. Cedefop's work supports the European policy agenda for VET and lifelong…

  3. Layering Precision Land Leveling and Furrow Irrigated Raised Bed Planting: Productivity and Input Use Efficiency of Irrigated Bread Wheat in Indo-Gangetic Plains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. L. Jat

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Stagnating yield and declining input use efficiency in irrigated wheat of the Indo-Gangetic Plain (IGP coupled with diminishing availability of water for agriculture is a major concern of food security in South Asia. The objective of our study was to establish an understanding of how wheat yield and input use efficiency can be improved and how land leveling and crop establishment practices can be modified to be more efficient in water use through layering of precision-conservation crop management techniques. The “precision land leveling with raised bed” planting can be used to improve crop yield, water and nutrient use efficiency over the existing “traditional land leveling with flat” planting practices. We conducted a field experiment during 2002-2004 at Modipuram, India to quantify the benefits of alternate land leveling (precision land leveling and crop establishment (furrow irrigated raised bed planting techniques alone or in combination (layering precision-conservation in terms of crop yield, water savings, and nutrient use efficiency of wheat production in IGP. The wheat yield was about 16.6% higher with nearly 50% less irrigation water with layering precision land leveling and raised bed planting compared to traditional practices (traditional land leveling with flat planting. The agronomic (AE and uptake efficiency (UE of N, P and K were significantly improved under precision land leveling with raised bed planting technique compared to other practices.

  4. New Help for Children Raised by Grandparents and Other Relatives: Questions and Answers about the Fostering Connections to Success and Increasing Adoptions Act of 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annie E. Casey Foundation, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This publication is intended to help ensure full and prompt implementation of the improvements in the Fostering Connections to Success and Increasing Adoptions Act for children being raised by grandparents and other relatives. It was prepared by 18 organizations, many of whom have been working individually and together for a number of years to…

  5. Midazolam / ketamine induction and isoflurane maintenance of anaesthesia in a 2-month-old, hand-raised African buffalo (Syncerus caffer : clinical communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.F. Stegmann

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The use of a midazolam / ketamine combination for induction of anaesthesia in a 2-month-old, hand-raised buffalo calf (Syncerus caffer described to allow endotracheal intubation for the maintenance of anaesthesia with isoflurane and oxygen. Intraoperative complications were hypotension and hypothermia. For postoperative analgesia meloxicam and butorphanol was administered intramuscularly.

  6. "It's Going to Stop in This Generation": Women with a History of Child Abuse Resolving to Raise Their Children without Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Sioux

    2011-01-01

    In this article, Sioux Hall promotes using a strengths-based approach to examine the interruption of the intergenerational cycle of child abuse and explores the strategies that women who were abused by a parent as children used to raise their children without abuse. She documents the mothers' uses of strategies such as vowing to protect and…

  7. Clinical significance of sialic acid in acute rheumatic fever with and without carditis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maher H. Gomaa

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: In Egypt, acute rheumatic fever (ARF is the most common cause of acquired heart disease. ARF is a clinical syndrome without a specific diagnostic test or single pathognomonic feature, so the aim of this study is to investigate the utility of using serum total sialic acid (TSA in differentiation between children suffering from ARF with and without carditis. Methods: In the present study, 62 children were divided into three groups: first group, 16 healthy children; second group, 20 patients suffering from chronic rheumatic heart disease (RHD; and third group, 26 patients suffering from ARF, subdivided into three subgroups as (A 10 patients suffering from arthritis without carditis, (B 10 patients with carditis but without congestive heart failure (CHF, and (C 6 patients with carditis and CHF. Antistreptolysin O titre (ASOT by latex agglutination test, erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR by Westergren method, C-reactive protein (CRP by turbidimetric immunoassay method, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH activity by kinetic method, immunoglobulin levels by radial immunodifussion assay (RID, cardiac troponin I (cTnI by ELISA test kit and TSA by diphenylamine (DPA method were performed. Results: Significant elevated values of ESR, CRP, LDH, IgG and IgA were obtained in ARF as compared to both control and RHD groups; significant values of IgM were found between B and C as compared to control and RHD groups; cTnI showed insignificant difference between all groups; values of TSA showed highly significant difference between ARF as compared to both control and RHD groups as well as between RHD and control groups; significant difference was found between B and C groups as compared to group A. Conclusion: The results of the present study point out the possibility that the levels of TSA could be of help in differentiation between ARF patients with and without carditis. [J Exp Integr Med 2012; 2(4: 305-311

  8. A longitudinal study on growth and growth variables in dogs of four large breeds raised in domestic environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trangerud, C; Grøndalen, J; Indrebø, A; Tverdal, A; Ropstad, E; Moe, L

    2007-01-01

    The main objective of this study was to describe the growth patterns of 4 large dog breeds [Newfoundland (NF), Labrador retriever (LR), Leonberger (LEO), and Irish wolfhound (IW)] raised in domestic environments and concomitant changes in 2 growth-related clinical variables: total serum alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and the circumference of the distal radius and ulna (CDRU). The second objective was to investigate whether these measurements were affected by a range of independent variables like age, sex, litter number, and birth weight. Seven hundred dogs were included in the study, and BW data, separated by breed and sex, were fitted to the Gompertz function. Birth weight, adjusted for litter number, differed significantly between sexes for 3 breeds (LEO, P = 0.004; NF, P = 0.02; LR, P = 0.009) and approached significance for IW (P = 0.07). Estimated mean BW increased rapidly during the first 100 d after birth in all 4 breeds, then plateaued, with maturity being reached between 351 (female LR) and 413 d (male NF). Estimated mature BW ranged from 30.8 kg for the female LR up to 65.7 kg for the male IW. Weight gain, as expressed by the derivative of the Gompertz function, reached its peak in the smallest breed (LR) at the youngest age, 89 d for the females and 95 d for males. Log-transformed BW was significantly related to age, breed, and sex, and the age x sex and age x breed interactions. Within breeds, age, birth weight, and litter number had a significant effect on log-transformed BW. The estimated average CDRU increased from 90 d of age toward a peak at 180 d. Thereafter, CDRU declined and stabilized at about 1 yr of age. The estimated total ALP concentrations decreased from 90 to 360 d of age, after which they stabilized, at mean concentrations varying among breeds from 98 to 131 IU/L. Maximum least squares mean total ALP concentrations were found at 3 mo of age in all breeds, with the greatest least squares mean concentration in the IW breed (713 IU/L). In a mixed model analysis of the complete data set, total ALP was affected (P < 0.001) by age, breed, and the interaction of age x breed. This study described the main factors influencing growth and provided reference data for other studies, including those related to nutrition and disorders of growth. PMID:17179542

  9. Histopathological Study of transrectal ultrasound guided bi opsies of prostate in patients with raised serum prostate specific antigen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Nirav M. Hingrajia

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Transrectal ultrasound (TRUS-guided needle biopsies of prostate are considered as gold standard for the diagnosis of the prostatic cancer. Objectives To determine the spectrum of pathological lesions in TRUS-guided needle biopsies of prostate in men with increased serum prostatic specific antigen (PSA levels with or without symptoms of prostatism and also histopathological characteristics of carcinoma. Patients and methods A prospective study carried out at the Department of Pathology, B.J. Medical College, Ahmedabad from May 2013 to July 2013. 200 men underwent TRUS- guided prostate biopsies for suspected prostate cancer. Raised serum PSA levels were arbitrarily divided into mild ( ? 4 to 10ng/ml, moderate ( ? 10.1 to 20 ng/ml and marked elevations (20.1 ng/ml & more. In most cases, eight cores were taken. Each core were processed with routine paraffin method and stained with standard hematoxylin & eosin stain and for reporting of malignant cases Gleason's grade and score is used. Results The mean age of patients was 66±9 years (range: 57-75 years. The mean serum PSA was 13.6±11.2 ng/ml. Mean number of cores obtained per case was 7±2 (range: 5-9. In present study, 150 (75% cases showed benign lesions and 50 (25% were malignant. Benign lesions consisted of benign prostatic hyperplasia. 70 of benign cases (46.6% showed significant inflammatory changes. Among malignant lesions, most were of moderate to high Gleason grades and scores. Mild serum PSA rise was seen in 96 (48% patients; among these, 91 (94.7% cases showed benign lesions and 5(5.2%, malignant. Moderate serum PSA rise was seen in 51 (25.5% cases; among these 43 (84.4% were benign and 8(15.6% malignant. 53 (26.5% patients had serum PSA ? 20.1 ng/ml. Among these, 37 (70% had adenocarcinoma, 16 (30% hyperplasia, one of the later with nonspecific prostatitis. Conclusions The detection rate of prostate cancer is similar to that reported previously from around the world and rises with an increase in serum PSA level and correlate very well.

  10. Brochure on Programme of Action for Cancer Therapy (PACT): Building partnerships to stop the global cancer epidemic. Grant raising prospectus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Programme of Action for Cancer Therapy (PACT) was created within the IAEA in 2004. PACT builds upon IAEA's extensive experience in cancer therapy and was designed to strengthen the links between technology transfer for radiotherapy and national capacity building in cancer prevention and control. While the IAEA continues to focus on technology transfer in radiotherapy and nuclear medicine, PACT is aimed at integrating radiotherapy into the broader cancer prevention and control framework. This includes cancer prevention, early detection, treatment and palliative care as well as broader challenges such as capacity building in infrastructure development and surveillance (including cancer registries). Only through collaboration with a broad range of stakeholders in cancer prevention and control will low and middle income countries be able to build effective programmes that reduce avoidable cancers and cancer in its later stages, and therefore improve survival and quality of life for cancer patients. PACT is therefore building partnerships with leading cancer organizations worldwide. Each organization is making a significant contribution in their respective areas of expertise within the broader cancer control framework. Outreach to more international organizations continues. Together with these other agencies, PACT seeks to comprehensively support cancer control needs in low and middle income countries over the next 10 to 20 years and beyond. PACT is seeking to accelerate widespread and sustained access to all essential cancer care services, and make cancer therapy more effective. Such an approach is widely acknowledged to be the only viable way to attract major donors (including development banks, international health philanthropies and other charities) either directly or through the IAEA. Partnering with other organizations also raises, or in many cases, establishes the IAEA's profile within the international public health arena. To lay the groundwork for attracting major donor funds, PACT has adopted a three stage approach to address cancer in developing Member States. The fi rst stage constitutes a comprehensive needs assessment (imPACT review - integrated missions of PACT) for each of the Member States selected (currently six, one in each of the World Health Organisation's designated regions). The second stage is the phased implementation of measures to address cancer within all its components and all its forms in each Member State: Model Demonstration Sites (MDS). These will form the basis for incrementally increasing donations from development banks, foundations and other sources. Through this approach to date, PACT has secured over $2 million of in-kind donations and cash support to implement the fi rst phase of establishing basic operations and country needs assessments. PACT has also secured a donation of up to three radiotherapy machines from a leading manufacturer. Stage 3 is the implementation of Regional Cancer Training Networks

  11. READY: a web-based geographical information system for enhanced flood resilience through raising awareness in citizens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albano, R.; Sole, A.; Adamowski, J.

    2015-02-01

    As evidenced by the EU Floods Directive (2007/60/EC), flood management strategies in Europe have undergone a shift in focus in recent years. The goal of flood prevention using structural measures has been replaced by an emphasis on the management of flood risks using non-structural measures. One implication of this is that it is no longer public authorities alone who take responsibility for flood management. A broader range of stakeholders, who may experience the negative effects of flooding, also take on responsibility to protect themselves. Therefore, it is vital that information concerning flood risks are conveyed to those who may be affected in order to facilitate the self-protection of citizens. Experience shows that even where efforts have been made to communicate flood risks, problems persist. There is a need for the development of new tools, which are able to rapidly disseminate flood risk information to the general public. To be useful, these tools must be able to present information relevant to the location of the user. Moreover, the content and design of the tool need to be adjusted to laypeople's needs. Dissemination and communication influences both people's access to and understanding of natural risk information. Such a tool could be a useful aid to effective management of flood risks. To address this gap, a Web-based Geographical Information System, (WebGIS), has been developed through the collaborative efforts of a group of scientists, hazard and risk analysts and managers, GIS analysts, system developers and communication designers. This tool, called "READY: Risk, Extreme Events, Adaptation, Defend Yourself", aims to enhance the general public knowledge of flood risk, making them more capable of responding appropriately during a flood event. The READY WebGIS has allowed for the visualization and easy querying of a complex hazard and risk database thanks to a high degree of interactivity and its easily readable maps. In this way, READY has enabled fast exploration of alternative flood scenarios or past calamitous events. Combined also with a system of graphic symbols designed ad hoc for communication of self-protection behaviors, it is believed READY could lead to an increase in citizen participation, informed discussion and consensus building. The platform has been developed for a site-specific application, i.e. the Basilicata Region, Italy, has been selected as pilot application area. The goal of the prototype is to raise citizen awareness of flood risks, and to build social capacity and enhanced resilience to flood events.

  12. Raising cultural awareness of local traditions through festival tourism / A sensibilização cultural das tradições locais através do turismo de festivais

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Mariya, Stankova; Ivanka, Vassenska.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Em todo o mundo, festivais e eventos especiais locais são usados como elementos-chave no âmbito das estratégias de desenvolvimento regional. Festas e eventos especiais locais são amplamente reconhecidos como dando um importante contributo para o desenvolvimento económico das suas áreas locais, uma v [...] ez que proporcionam oportunidades para a promoção do turismo, resultados comerciais e aumento dos investimentos no interior das regiões de acolhimento (Getz, 2007; Van de Wagen, 2005), contribuindo ainda para o prolongar da estação turística (Huang, Li & Cai, 2010; Boo e Busser, 2006; Kotler, Haider e Rein, 1993; Mehmetoglu e Ellingsen, 2005). No entanto, a questão da sua contribuição para a conservação do património cultural e das tradições através de uma interpretação em turismo também requer atenção. No artigo, a abordagem de perfis culturais é implementada como uma ferramenta para aumentar a consciência das tradições locais apresentadas nos festivais. Neste sentido, com base numa pesquisa focalizada em organizadores de festivais, empresários locais que participam em festivais e turistas que os visitam, foi estimado o grau de autenticidade das tradições locais no sul da Bulgária. Com o objetivo principal - a identificação e criação de oportunidades para o desenvolvimento económico, social e cultural sustentável dessas regiões, preservando o património existente para as futuras gerações. Abstract in english Worldwide, festivals and local special events are used as key elements within regional development strategies. Festivals and local special events are widely acknowledged to make an important contribution to the economic development of their local areas, as they provide opportunities for tourism prom [...] otion, commercial outcomes and increased inward investment in host regions (Getz, 2007; Van de Wagen, 2005) and contribute to the extension of the tourism season (Huang, Li & Cai, 2010; Boo and Busser, 2006; Kotler, Haider & Rein, 1993; Mehmetoglu and Ellingsen, 2005). However, the question of their contribution to the conservation of cultural heritage and traditions through an interpretation in tourism also requires attention. In the paper, the approach of cultural profiles is implemented as a tool to raise the awareness for local tradition, being presented on local festival. In this regard, based on a survey among organizers of festivals, local entrepreneurs participating in festivals and tourists visiting them, the degree of authenticity of local traditions in South Bulgaria was estimated. With the main purpose - identification and establishment of opportunities for sustainable economic, social and cultural development of those regions, preserving and handing the existing heritage to future generations.

  13. KAZAN: Will you survive the next geodisaster? An educational game for raising awareness about geohazards and risk reduction strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mossoux, Sophie; Delcamp, Audray; Poppe, Sam; Kervyn, Matthieu

    2015-04-01

    Natural disasters remain too often presented in the media as the results from extreme natural phenomena affecting helpless people. School students and stakeholders, especially in developing countries, have a limited awareness of the different components of disasters and of the complementary strategies existing to mitigate their impacts. Using the specific example of the Ngazidja Island (Comoros), we developed and tested a new board game aiming at raising awareness about geohazards (i.e. earthquake, tsunami, lava flow, volcanic ash fall). This game highlights the various and spatially-variable geohazard impacts on the exposed population, the key role played by livelihood strategies and the access to natural resources in controlling long term impacts, and the capacity of a community to act in reducing its vulnerability to natural hazards. The target public of this game are 1. secondary school students, 2. scientists and stakeholders involved to some degree in risk management activities, and 3. people exposed to these hazards. For the first group, the aim is to allow them to better interpret the disaster to which they are confronted in the media, whereas for the second group, the objective is to generate discussion about the efficiency and complementarity of contrasted risk management strategies. The objective for the last group is to help them to understand the hazard to which they are confronted in order to be better prepared. In this contribution, we will present the game board and the implemented rules. This game was tested with several groups of secondary school students in Belgium and with geologists and risk managers in Tanzania and in the Comores. On the basis of the analysis of the game strategies developed by the players, their reactions during the game and their answers to a short questionnaire, we analyse the main learning outcomes that are conveyed by this game. We compare these outcomes with key elements of the risk management, focusing on geohazards in developing countries. Kazan game appears as an effective and activating learning tool to transfer important concepts and generate debate about natural disasters, focusing on the spatial competition for natural resources and the control of household's livelihood on their vulnerability to hazards.

  14. Raised marine terraces in the Northern Calabrian Arc (Southern Italy: a ~ 600 kyr-long geological record of regional uplift

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Cucci

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available The Sibari Plain in the Northeastern Calabrian Arc displays a well-developed suite of marine terraces. This paper deals with i the identification and correlation of the terraces; ii their age assignment and a tentative reconstruction of the uplift history of the area; iii the relationships between terraces and major faults in the study area and between uplift in the Plain and pattern of Quaternary uplift throughout the Calabrian Arc. Identifying wavecut platforms and inner-edge fragments over a linear extent of ~ 100 km was achieved by photo interpretation, 1:25 000 scale map analyses and field survey. Morphological evidence led to the correlation of the identified fragments into five complete strandlines (numbered #1 to #5 lowest to highest, at elevations ranging from 60 m to ~ 650 m. Analysis of two parameters of the emerged platform-cliff systems, namely the platform-cliff ratio and the dissection percentage, further testifies that the two lowest terraces are strongly correlative. A 130 kyr AAR age of in situ fossil samples of Glycymeris collected at 114 m elevation within the deposit of Terrace #2 indicates a key correlation of T#2 with MIS 5.5 (the peak of the last interglacial, 124 kyr, i.e. an uplift rate of ~ 0.98 mm/yr for this strandline. The other four terraces have been tentatively associated with MIS 5.3, 7, 9 and 15. Geological observations independent of geochronological evidence provide consistent lower age boundaries for the terraces and supply further constraints to this interpretation. Investigating the relations between setting of the terraces and location of major tectonic structures in the region is suggestive of no recent activity of two previously recognized faults, the «Sangineto Line» and the «Corigliano-Rossano Line». Instead, some limited anomalies that affect the terraces are tentatively associated with the activity of the Castrovillari Fault. Therefore, sustained uplift has been the long-term dominant process of tectonic deformation in the study area over the past 124 kyr, possibly 600 kyr. Rates and history of uplift in the Sibari Plain are largely comparable with those observed in the whole Calabrian Arc, confirming that the uplift driving mechanism is deep-seated and closely connected to the Tyrrhenian subduction as already pointed out by several authors. Despite a dearth of Holocene raised paleoshorelines, it is suggested that similarly to what was observed only few tens of kilometres north and south of the Sibari Plain, the Late Pleistocene rise is still active today and that without Holocene uplift the Plain should have been far less developed and attractive for human settlement.

  15. READY: a web-based geographical information system for enhanced flood resilience through raising awareness in citizens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Albano

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available As evidenced by the EU Floods Directive (2007/60/EC, flood management strategies in Europe have undergone a shift in focus in recent years. The goal of flood prevention using structural measures has been replaced by an emphasis on the management of flood risks using non-structural measures. One implication of this is that it is no longer public authorities alone who take responsibility for flood management. A broader range of stakeholders, who may experience the negative effects of flooding, also take on responsibility to protect themselves. Therefore, it is vital that information concerning flood risks are conveyed to those who may be affected in order to facilitate the self-protection of citizens. Experience shows that even where efforts have been made to communicate flood risks, problems persist. There is a need for the development of new tools, which are able to rapidly disseminate flood risk information to the general public. To be useful, these tools must be able to present information relevant to the location of the user. Moreover, the content and design of the tool need to be adjusted to laypeople's needs. Dissemination and communication influences both people's access to and understanding of natural risk information. Such a tool could be a useful aid to effective management of flood risks. To address this gap, a Web-based Geographical Information System, (WebGIS, has been developed through the collaborative efforts of a group of scientists, hazard and risk analysts and managers, GIS analysts, system developers and communication designers. This tool, called "READY: Risk, Extreme Events, Adaptation, Defend Yourself", aims to enhance the general public knowledge of flood risk, making them more capable of responding appropriately during a flood event. The READY WebGIS has allowed for the visualization and easy querying of a complex hazard and risk database thanks to a high degree of interactivity and its easily readable maps. In this way, READY has enabled fast exploration of alternative flood scenarios or past calamitous events. Combined also with a system of graphic symbols designed ad hoc for communication of self-protection behaviors, it is believed READY could lead to an increase in citizen participation, informed discussion and consensus building. The platform has been developed for a site-specific application, i.e. the Basilicata Region, Italy, has been selected as pilot application area. The goal of the prototype is to raise citizen awareness of flood risks, and to build social capacity and enhanced resilience to flood events.

  16. Levels and Types of Questions Raised by EFL Teachers in Southern Al-Mazar Directorate of Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I’timad Jamil Abdulraheem Al-Ja’freh

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available

    This study aimed at investigating the levels and types of questions raised by EFL teachers in Southern Al-Mazar directorate of Education. The study comprised (12 female/ male teachers. The results of the study showed that; male/female teachers asked (1603 questions; (1290 questions were within the low level and (313 questions were high level. Female/male teachers asked (1603 questions where (393 questions were open and (1210 were ended questions . The results also, showed that female teachers asked (729 questions whereas male teachers asked (874. Also, the results of the study showed that females/ males teachers with high experience asked questions more than those teachers with less experience. In light of the results of the study, the researcher had suggested some recommendations to the concern.

    Key words: Levels of questions; Types of questions; EFL teachers questions

    Résumé Cette étude visait à étudier les niveaux et types de questions posées par les enseignants EFL dans le sud de Mazar Al-Direction de l’éducation. L’étude comprenait (12 enseignants de sexe féminin/ masculin. Les résultats de l’étude a montré que, mâle/ femelle des enseignants a demandé (1603 des questions; (1290 des questions se situaient dans le bas niveau et (313 questions étaient de haut niveau. Les enseignants des femmes/ hommes a demandé (1603 questions où (393 des questions étaient ouvertes et (1210 ont été clos questions. Les résultats ont également, a montré que les enseignantes demandé (729 des questions alors que les enseignants masculins a demandé (874. En outre, les résultats de l’étude a montré que les femelles ou les mâles des enseignants ayant une expérience de haute posé des questions plus que ces enseignants ayant moins d’expérience. À la lumière des résultats de l’étude, le chercheur a suggéré quelques recommandations à la préoccupation.

    Mots clés: Niveaux de questions; Types de questions; EFL questions d’enseignant

  17. Post-release ranging behaviour of hand-raised black rhinoceros, Diceros bicornis, L. in Matusadona National Park, Zimbabwe with recommendations for management of introduction to the wild

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Matipano

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Hand-raised rhinos would preferentially settle at sites close to areas where human activity was significant. Hand-raised rhinos that attached themselves to sites of human activity tended to move less widely and to have smaller seasonal ranges than those that moved away from human settlements. These rhinos had no fear of humans and some animals would move along established roads into hostile areas outside the park. These factors made hand-raised rhinos more vulnerable to poaching than their wild counterparts. Management of hand-raised rhinos with regards to ranging behaviour is discussed in the text.

  18. Efecto de la arborización en la crianza de los búfalos de río / Arborisation effect on the raising of river buffaloes

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Leonel, Simón; Maykel, Galloso.

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available La crianza de los búfalos ha tenido un desarrollo satisfactorio a partir de su introducción en el país, desde hace relativamente poco tiempo, de ahí la necesidad de mejorar sus condiciones de manejo y explotación. Por este motivo se investigó el efecto de la arborización en la crianza de los búfalos [...] de río, para lo cual se seleccionaron dos unidades con 30 búfalas lecheras cada una y sus crías para comparar el efecto de la arborización utilizando la tecnología de silvopastoreo racional con Leucaena leucocephala comparado con un monocultivo de gramíneas sin arborización. Para la comparación se realizó un diagnostico inicial para conocer las características propias de cada unidad, determinándose la composición química de los suelos y florística de las áreas y mensualmente se determinó la disponibilidad de materia seca de los pastos para regular la carga animal en el pastizal. Se procedió de esta manera durante 4 años en la determinación de los indicadores productivos de leche por búfala, lactancia y área, el comportamiento reproductivo y los ingresos económicos. Los resultados obtenidos en el sistema arborizado fueron superiores en 0,72 kg leche/anim/d 279,8 kg/lactancia 1,49 kg/ha/d y 42 días más de lactancia, reflejándose positivamente en los ingresos por la venta de la leche por búfala, hectárea y lactancia en moneda nacional y peso cubano convertible. Todos los indicadores analizados favorecieron al sistema de producción arborizado con leucaena con la tecnología de silvopastoreo racional. Abstract in english The raising of buffaloes has been having a satisfactory development from its introduction in the country, since a relatively a short period of time, and there is the need to improve the conditions of handling and operation. For this reason, it was investigated the effect of the arborisation in the r [...] aising of river buffaloes, for which in two units were selected with 30 milk buffaloes each one and their young to compare the effect of the arborization using the technology of rational tree grazing with Leucaena leucocephala compared to a monoculture of grasses without arborization. To compare, an initial diagnostic was done to know the characteristics of each unit and determining both the soil chemical and floristic composition of the areas and monthly determined the availability of dry matter of the grass to regulate the animal rate in the pasture. We proceed this way for the next 4 years in the determination of the productive milk indicators by buffalo, lactancy and area, the reproductive behaviour, and the economic income. The results obtained in the arborizated system were superior in 0.72 kg milk/anim/d, 279.8 kg/ lactancy, 1.49 kg/ha/d and 42 days of lactancy, being reflected more positively in the income by the milk sale by buffalo, hectare, and lactancy in the national currency and convertible Cuban money. All the analyzed indicators favoured the tree production system with Leucaena, with the technology of rational tree grazing.

  19. cAMP can raise or lower cardiac actomyosin ATPase activity depending on alpha-adrenergic activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClellan, G; Weisberg, A; Winegrad, S

    1994-08-01

    Adenosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate (cAMP) or beta-adrenergic stimulation has been shown to increase actomyosin adenosinetriphosphatase (ATPase) activity in cardiac muscle. Because the major catecholamine transmitters have both alpha- and beta-adrenergic activity, the possibility of a role for alpha-adrenergic stimulation in the regulation of ATPase activity has been investigated. Histochemical measurement of actomyosin ATPase activity in quickly frozen rat hearts has been used as the assay of enzymatic function of the contractile proteins. The dose-response curve of ATPase activity to cAMP shows an increase in ATPase activity at a threshold concentration of 0.01 microM, a peak effect at 0.5-1.0 microM, and a decline beyond 1.5 microM to a level below control at 10 microM cAMP. Kinetic studies varying ATP concentration from 0.5 to 10 mM indicated the existence of multiple forms of actomyosin ATPase activity in the absence of cAMP and only one form with a higher maximum velocity in the presence of 1 microM cAMP. Apparently cAMP raises the enzymatic activity of the individual actomyosin molecule rather than increasing the number of active molecules. The addition of an alpha-adrenergic blocker had no significant effect in the absence of added cAMP, but in the presence of the cyclic nucleotide, 1 microM prazosin always produced a negative effect on ATPase activity. Over the entire range of 0.01-10 microM, cAMP lowered ATPase activity when the alpha-adrenergic antagonist was present. The integrity of the cAMP regulatory system was sensitive to the tissue oxygen tension at the time the heart was quickly frozen. At certain oxygen tension, the stimulatory component of the cAMP regulation was observed without any inhibitory component, suggesting that there are two relatively independent parts of the regulatory mechanism, an inhibitory and a stimulatory. In the presence of gamma-labeled [32P]ATP, 32P was incorporated into several proteins, including the inhibitory subunit of troponin (TNI), C protein, and the regulatory light chain of myosin. cAMP (1 microM) caused an increase in 32P labeling of TNI and C protein. The addition of prazosin with cAMP caused a decrease in the overall level of phosphorylation with specific dephosphorylation of C protein and TNI, the former to a degree similar to the decrease in actomyosin ATPase activity, the latter to a greater degree. These results indicate that alpha-adrenergic activity modulates the balance between kinase and phosphatase activity in the presence of cAMP, probably by inhibiting phosphatase activity.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) PMID:7915082

  20. In-vitro Immune Response of FMD Virus Serotype Asia1 Vaccine Strain (IND 491/97 to the Antibodies Raised in Bovine and Guineapigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Hemadri

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the response of Foot-and-Mouth Disease serotype Asia1 vaccine strain IND 491/97 to the immune pressure [antibodies raised in Bovine against IND 63/72 and in Guineapigs against IND 63/72 and IND 491/97] exerted in-vitro in BHK-21 cell culture system was analyzed in terms of genetic alterations at the nucleotide level. The Nr (neutralization resistant viruses which were selected by growing in the presence of antibodies (Bovine Vaccinate Serum, BVS and Guineapig Serum, GPS showed certain individual and also common changes in the structural protein coding P1 region. This shows that the virus responds to the antibodies raised in both bovine (natural host and guineapig (experimental host. The result herein further extends the role of the host antibody in the rapid evolution of FMD Virus.