WorldWideScience
 
 
1

On the Connection Between Autoimmunity, tic Disorders and Obsessive-Compulsive Disorders: A Meta-Analysis on Anti-Streptolysin O Titres.  

Science.gov (United States)

Anti-streptolysin O (ASO) titration is useful in the context of autoimmune pathologies, including specific cases of tic and obsessive-compulsive disorders occurring after streptococcal infections. There is currently a lack of consensus on the use of ASO titres; therefore we performed a meta-analysis to systematise available data and clarify the role of ASO titres in the context of neuropsychiatric disorders. A meta-analysis was performed on ASO titration in neuropsychiatric patients, including tic disorders and obsessive-compulsive disorders. Included studies reported numbers of positive subjects, depending on a chosen threshold, or detailed ASO titrations. Three hundred and twenty nine studies were identified, of which 13 were eligible for meta-analysis. Due to limited available data, only tic disorders were evaluated. The odds ratio of finding an abnormal ASO titre in patients was 3.22 (95 % C.I. 1.51-6.88) as compared to healthy controls and 16.14 (95 % C.I. 8.11-32.11) as compared to non-psychiatric patients. Studies using different thresholds were generally concordant. ASO titres were also compared quantitatively, finding an overall difference of the means of 70.50 U/ml (95 % C.I. 25.21-115.80) in favour of patients with tic disorders. Based on current evidence, tic disorders are associated with a significant increase in ASO titres, evident both in a threshold-level perspective and on a quantitative level. These results encourage the systematisation of ASO titration in the context of tic disorders. PMID:25091468

Pozzi, Marco; Pellegrino, Paolo; Carnovale, Carla; Perrone, Valentina; Antoniazzi, Stefania; Perrotta, Cristiana; Radice, Sonia; Clementi, Emilio

2014-12-01

2

Clinical comparison of psoriasis in Korean adults and children: correlation with serum anti-streptolysin O titers.  

Science.gov (United States)

Psoriasis is a relatively common disorder in children and can be triggered by an upper respiratory tract infection. The aim of this study was to compare the clinical features of psoriasis in children and adult. In addition, we evaluated the relationship between anti-streptolysin O (ASO) titers and the clinical features of psoriasis. A total of 30 childhood psoriasis patients and 30 adult psoriasis patients were evaluated. Childhood psoriasis had a facial predominance when compared with the adult psoriasis. The childhood psoriasis patients with high ASO titers had guttate psoriasis more frequently than patients with normal ASO titers. In children with plaque-type psoriasis, psoriasis area and severity index score was increased in the high ASO titer group than normal ASO titer group. In conclusion, if the children with psoriasis show increased ASO titer, the physician should pay attention to the worsening of the psoriasis. Furthermore, early treatment of streptococcal infections might be beneficial in childhood psoriasis. PMID:20063005

Kim, Sue Kyung; Kang, Hee Young; Kim, You Chan; Lee, Eun-So

2010-05-01

3

ASO: Antistreptolysin O titer  

Science.gov (United States)

... September). Streptococcal Disease, Group A - Group A, Strep. ARUP Consult [On-line information]. Available online at http:// ... November). Streptococcal Disease, Group A - Group A, Strep. ARUP Consult [On-line information]. Available online at http:// ...

4

Determinação de anti-estreptolisina "O" e proteína C reativa entre escolares do município de Laranjal, PR Determination of antistreptolysin "O" and C-reactive protein among school children of Laranjal, PR  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Para a determinação de anti-estreptolisina "O" e proteína C reativa, no município de Laranjal-PR, foram analisados soros de 411 escolares, entre 5 a 16 anos. Para anti-estreptolisina "O", 13,6% tiveram títulos elevados e 5,1% foram reativos para proteína C reativa. Não foram observadas diferenças em relação ao sexo e faixa etária.For antistreptolysin "O" and C-reactive protein determination, carried out in Laranjal-PR, we analyzed the serum of 411 school children aged from 5 to 16. For antistreptolysin O, 13.6% had elevated titers and 5.1% were reactive for C-reative protein. No differences related to age or sex were observed.

Luiz Euribel Prestes-Carneiro

2005-02-01

5

Relation of antinuclear fluorescence patterns and titres to autoantibody prevalence.  

Science.gov (United States)

Different profiles of antinuclear antibodies (ANAs) have been found to be associated with different connective tissue diseases. Though several techniques have been developed to detect ANA, indirect antinuclear immunofluorescence (ANF) continues to be the most widely used and accepted. This study assesses the role of ANF as a screening test. The ANF patterns of 428 patients were studied. About 23% of patients with homogenous ANF patterns and 13% with speckled patterns were eventually shown to have raised anti-dsDNA titres. The percentage of patients harbouring raised titres of anti-dsDNA and the absolute titres were both seen to rise with the ANF titres. None of the patients with low ANF titres (1:40) harboured antibodies to extractable nuclea antigens (ENAs) whereas with increasing ANF titres the incidence of these autoantibodies was also seen to rise. Finally, it was noted that more than 80% of patients with high ANF titres demonstrated autoantibodies to ENA and/or dsDNA. PMID:2679335

Mohan, T C; Nadarajah, M; Sng, E H

1989-07-01

6

Awareness Raising  

...Marine ConservationMarine Research and MonitoringMarine Awareness RaisingFurther Marine LinksBiodiversity Delivery Groups...Heritage Grant ProgrammePrioritised Action FrameworkAwareness RaisingLast updated: 25 January 2011We...

7

Serum bactericidal and inhibitory titres in the management of melioidosis.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A retrospective evaluation of the relationship between serum bactericidal and inhibitory titres and treatment outcome in 195 adult Thai patients with severe melioidosis was conducted. Drug regimens included ceftazidime (52% of patients), co-amoxiclav (24%), imipenem (11%) or the conventional four-drug combination (11%). Pre- and 1 h post-dose serum samples were collected after 48-72 h of therapy, and serum inhibitory and bactericidal titrations determined. Median post-dose titres were: bacter...

Simpson, Aj; Dance, Da; Wuthiekanun, V.; White, Nj

2000-01-01

8

EFFECT OF SELENIUM SUPPLEMENTATION ON ANTIBODY TITRES AGAINST INFECTIOUS BURSAL DISEASE VACCINE IN BROILER CHICKS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A total of 200 chicks were raised upto 43 days of age under controlled experimental conditions. The birds were randomly divided into four groups A, B, C and D of 50 birds each at the age of day one. Birds of groups A and B were not supplemented with selenium, while those of groups C and D were given selenium @ 0.06 mg/Kg of feed from day one to day 43. The birds of groups B and D were vaccinated against infectious bursal disease (IBD at the age of day 10 and boosted at the age of day 25. The effect of selenium on humoral immune response was evaluated by recording weekly serum antibody titres against IBD through indirect haemagglutination (IHA test. The cumulative mean titres (CMT recorded in groups A, B, C and D were 15, 53, 16 and 61, respectively (P<0.05. These results indicate that selenium supplementation may help to increase post vaccination humoral immune response against IBD in broiler chicks.

M. Arshad, M. Siddique, M. Ashraf and H. A. Khan

2005-10-01

9

Chronic bronchitis. IV--Antibody titres to bacterial antigens during acute exacerbations.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In 49 patients of chronic bronchitis with acute exacerbation, serum antibody titres were estimated against the respective pathogen isolated and cultured from sputum of individual patients. Antibody titres to Klebsiella and Staphylococcus coagulase positive organisms were found in 28 and 25 patients respectively. Paired serum samples from 21 patients showed rising antibody titres in 17 of them, whereas the antibody titres fell in the remaining 4 patients. Notably, only 2 patients demonstrated a four fold rise or fall in the antibody titres. The significance of these findings is discussed.

Dalvi S

1989-01-01

10

Baseline Titre of Widal amongst Healthy Blood Donors in Raichur, Karnataka  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background: Lack of proper knowledge ofbaseline titre of Widal test can lead to over di-agnosis of typhoid fever leading to mismanage-ment of patients. Rapid semiquantitative slideWidal test has replaced conventional tube Widaltest in many laboratories, but there is paucityof scientific data regarding how far the resultsof this rapid test correlate with that of conven-tional tube Widal test. Aims and Objectives:To evaluate baseline titre of widal using quanti-tative tube Widal test, to suggest the cut-offvalue for positive Widal test in this region, andto correlate the results obtained in quantitativetube Widal test with that of rapidsemiquantitative slide Widal test. Material andMethods: Sera of 107 apparently healthy blooddonors (AHDs were subjected to quantitativetube and semiquantitative slide Widal test toknow the titre. Results: Highest titre obtainedby tube Widal test for TO was 1:160, for TH -1:320, for AH- 1:20, and for BH- 1:80. TubeWidal titres of 1:160 were seen in 4(3.7% and 10 (9.3%respectively. TH titre of 1:320 was seen in1(0.93% and no such high titre was reportedin relation to TO. Highest titre obtained bysemiquantitative slide Widal for TO was 1:320,for TH- 1:320, for AH-1:40 and for BH- 1:160.Conclusion: We recommend TO and TH titreof > 1:320 as diagnostic of typhoid fever andfor AH and BH, titres of >1:40 and >1:160should be considered diagnostic respectivelyin our region. Because of high expected falsepositivity rate of slide Widal test even at thehigher cut-off titre of 1:320, single slide Widaltest appears to have little value in the diagnosisof typhoid fever in this region.

B. V. Peerapur

2013-07-01

11

Determination of Baseline Widal Titres Amongst Apparently Healthy Blood Donors in Ahmednagar, Maharashtra, India  

Science.gov (United States)

Background: Enteric fever is endemic in all parts of India. The Widal agglutination test is widely used for its diagnosis. But the interpretation of Widal test depends upon the baseline titre which is prevalent amongst healthy individuals in a particular geographical area. Aim: Present study was undertaken to establish the normal baseline titre in apparently healthy blood donors and also to determine cutoff values for the Widal test. Material and Methods: One hundred and three (103) sera were tested by the Widal tube agglutination test from January 2012 to February 2013. Results: Eighty four (81.55%) sera were positive for agglutinins (titre ? 1:20) and the remaining 19 were negative. 31.64% sera were positive for agglutinins of ‘O’ antigen of Salmonella typhi (TO) at a titre of 1:40, 33.87% sera were positive for ‘H’ antigen of Salmonella typhi (TH) at a titre of 1:40 and 38.46% and 36.84% sera were positive for ‘H’ antigen of Salmonella paratyphi A (AH) and Salmonella paratyphi B (BH) respectively, both at a titre of 1:80. Conclusion: Therefore, the baseline titre for TO and TH was noted to be 1:40 and that for AH and BH was noted to be 1:80 and therefore, the cutoff level for TO and TH was ? 1:80 and that for AH and BH was ? 1:160. PMID:24551619

Gunjal, Shraddha Prasad; Gunjal, Prasad Niranjan; Patil, Narendra Khandu; Vanaparthi, Nagaraju; Nalawade, Anil Vasant; Banerjee, Swati; Keshav, Kher Sudheer

2013-01-01

12

Thyroxine, methimazole, and thyroid microsomal autoantibody titres in hypothyroid Hashimoto's thyroiditis.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Ten hypothyroid patients with Hashimoto's thyroiditis were treated with methimazole 30 mg in addition to thyroxine 0.15 mg daily. Another 10 hypothyroid patients with Hashimoto's thyroiditis were given thyroxine 0.15 mg alone. After 22 weeks of treatment significant decreases in thyroid microsomal autoantibody titres were observed in both groups (p less than 0.01). There was no difference in the mean change in titre between the two groups. When the patients treated with methimazole were subse...

Jansson, R.; Karlsson, A.; Dahlberg, P. A.

1985-01-01

13

Evaluation of the baseline Widal titres in healthy blood donors of Uttarakhand  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Introduction: The interpretation of Widal test depends upon the baseline titre which is prevalent amongst healthy individuals in a particular geographical area. Aim and Objective: The aim of this study was to determine the baseline Widal titre of the apparently healthy population of a tertiary care centre of Uttarakhand. Material and Methods: Blood samples were collected from healthy blood donors (n=500 of the age group of 18-60 years, of both the sexes, who attended our blood bank from September 2013 to November 2013 and were analyzed for the presence of Salmonella antibodies by carrying out the Widal tube agglutination test. Results: Of the 500 serum samples which were tested, 255 (51% serum samples were positive for agglutinins (? 1:20 and 245 were negative. The most frequently recorded titre of the reactive sera was 1:40 for the anti-O antibodies and 1:80 for the anti-H antibodies for Salmonella enterica serotype typhi and this was the baseline titre. While the baseline titre of the ‘H’ agglutinins of Salmonella enterica serotype paratyphi A was 1:20 and of paratyphi B was also1:20. Conclusions: Based on the results of our study, it has been recommended that the significant titre of 1:80 for the anti-O antibodies and of 1:160 for the anti-H antibodies may be considered as diagnostic for enteric fever in the region of Uttarakhand, India.

Garima Mittal

2014-09-01

14

Raising the Titanic.  

Science.gov (United States)

Described is an activity in which groups of students investigate engineering principles by writing a feasibility study to raise the luxury liner, Titanic. The problem statement and directions, and suggestions for problem solutions are included. (CW)

Baker, Romona

1990-01-01

15

Characteristics of in-vitro phenotypes of glutamic acid decarboxylase 65 autoantibodies in high-titre individuals.  

Science.gov (United States)

Previous studies have indicated phenotypical differences in glutamic acid decarboxylase 65 autoantibodies (GADA) found in type 1 diabetes (T1D) patients, individuals at risk of developing T1D and stiff-person syndrome (SPS) patients. In a Phase II trial using aluminium-formulated GAD(65) (GAD-alum) as an immunomodulator in T1D, several patients responded with high GADA titres after treatment, raising concerns as to whether GAD-alum could induce GADA with SPS-associated phenotypes. This study aimed to analyse GADA levels, immunoglobulin (Ig)G1-4 subclass frequencies, b78- and b96·11-defined epitope distribution and GAD(65) enzyme activity in sera from four cohorts with very high GADA titres: T1D patients (n?=?7), GAD-alum-treated T1D patients (n?=?9), T1D high-risk individuals (n?=?6) and SPS patients (n?=?12). SPS patients showed significantly higher GADA levels and inhibited the in-vitro GAD(65) enzyme activity more strongly compared to the other groups. A higher binding frequency to the b78-defined epitope was found in the SPS group compared to T1D and GAD-alum individuals, whereas no differences were detected for the b96·11-defined epitope. GADA IgG1-4 subclass levels did not differ between the groups, but SPS patients had higher IgG2 and lower IgG4 distribution more frequently. In conclusion, the in-vitro GADA phenotypes from SPS patients differed from the T1D- and high-risk groups, and GAD-alum treatment did not induce SPS-associated phenotypes. However, occasional overlap between the groups exists, and caution is indicated when drawing conclusions to health or disease status. PMID:23379430

Chéramy, M; Hampe, C S; Ludvigsson, J; Casas, R

2013-03-01

16

Distracted Driving Raises Crash Risk  

Science.gov (United States)

... External link, please review our exit disclaimer . Subscribe Distracted Driving Raises Crash Risk Video technology and in-vehicle sensors showed that distracted driving, especially among new drivers, raises the risk for ...

17

Antibody titre against 3 doses of hepatitis B vaccine among preterm and term babies.  

Science.gov (United States)

This cross sectional study was conducted to assess seroprotection by completed 3 doses of hepatitis B vaccine in routine EPI schedule in preterm & LBW as well as term appropriate weight babies and to compare the immune response among them. The study was conducted in EPI centre of Dhaka Medical College Hospital where 50 preterm (VITROS anti HBs reagent pack). Seroprotectivity (anti HBs titres >10 mIU/ml) of hepatitis B vaccine after 3 doses were 94% and 98% in group A and B respectively (p>0.05). However, the preterm infants had a lower geometric mean titre of antibodies after 3 doses of vaccine than did the term infants (92.75 mIU/ml vs. 310.59 mIU/ml respectively; p10 mIU/ml) was ~96% irrespective of gestational age and birth weight but good antibody titre (i.e. >100 mIU/ml) was found among preterm babies having gestational age >34 weeks (73.6%) and birth weight >2000 gm (64%). PMID:22314464

Mollah, A H; Naher, N; Rahman, S; Chowdhury, A M

2012-01-01

18

Widal agglutination titre: a rapid serological diagnosis of typhoid fever in developing countries  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

To study the reliability of a single Widal test and to find out the diagnostic significance of 'O' and 'H' agglutinin titre in the diagnosis of typhoid fever. Community-based case-control study conducted from Jan 2001 to June 2007. The blood samples were collected from the medical and out door department of Sir Ganga Ram Hospitals, Lahore. The diagnostic value of an acute phase single Widal agglutination test for suspected typhoid fever was evaluated in 733 consecutive patients with fever lasting 6 or more days. In 733 patients with fever 84 (11.45%) were positive for Widal test. A noteworthy rise 1/320 of H and/or O agglutinin titre was observed in 86 (11.3%) of patients with typhoid fever. In the absence of vaccination an elevated level of H and/or O agglutinin titre of 1: 320 is of diagnostic value for typhoid fever especially in our setting where a single sample of serum is relied on for the diagnosis of typhoid fever. (author)

19

A solid-phase radioimmunoassay for measurement of circulating antibody titres to wheat gliadin and its subfractions in patients with adult coeliac disease  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A solid-phase radioimmunoassay for the measurement of circulating antibody titres to wheat gliadin is described. Using this assay, the authors have measured antibody titres to unfractionated gliadin in normal healthy controls, in coeliac patients on a gluten-free or a normal diet, and in patients with ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease. High titres of antibodies to unfractionated gliadin were observed only in the patients with untreated coeliac disease. Antibody titres to ?, #betta#, #betta# and #betta# gliadin subfractions were measured in patients with untreated coeliac disease and compared with titres in normal controls. Patients with untreated coeliac disease had higher antibody titres to the gliadin subfractions. No specific pattern of circulating antibody titres to gliadin subfractions was observed in the untreated coeliac patients which would provide a diagnostic profile. These results suggest shared antigenicity between the gliadin subfractions. (Auth.)

20

Raising Awareness in Science Education for Women (RAISE-W)  

Science.gov (United States)

Raising Awareness in Science Education for Women (RAISE-W) is a 501c non profit corporation whose mission is to aid in increasing and retaining the number of women - especially underrepresented females - engaged in scientific teaching and research. Initiated by a Protein Chemist and an Astronomer, our ultimate goal has been to develop informational tools and create innovative outreach programs for women across all STEM fields. At present RAISE-W is recruiting women at the undergraduate, graduate, and early career stages to participate in a unique, 1-year, executive coaching program modeled after those used in the business sector.

Faherty, Jacqueline K.; Holford, M.

2014-01-01

 
 
 
 
21

Ecdysteroid titres in a tenebrionid beetle, Zophobas atratus: effects of grouping and isolation.  

Science.gov (United States)

Metamorphosis in Zophobas atratus is dependent on isolation: when kept in grouped conditions, larvae undergo numerous supernumerary moults, growing in size, without pupating. This beetle thus represents an interesting model for the analysis of possible differences in the endocrine regulation of normal vs. supernumerary larval moults. In this study, the ecdysteroid titres have been analysed in this species, using enzyme immunoassay. The hormonal variations of larvae undergoing normal or supernumerary larval cycles were particularly examined, in either grouped or isolated conditions. Normal larval cycles presented very similar ecdysteroid variations in grouped as well as isolated conditions, showing a single hormonal peak (at about 1000pg/&mgr;l). Supplementary larval cycles, occurring in grouped conditions, also showed a similar single ecdysteroid peak, but after a longer period of basal levels. Isolation of such larvae triggered their larval-pupal transformation, which was characterized by more complex hormonal fluctuations, including a small ecdysteroid peak before the main one. Interestingly, the isolation of big larvae during a large part of their cycle induced this peculiar hormonal pattern synchronously, confirming the involvement of a complex neuroendocrine control between external conditions and ecdysteroid titres. PMID:12770493

Delbecque, J -P.; Pitoizet, N; Quennedey, A; Aribi, N

1997-09-01

22

O perfil da antiestreptolisina O no diagnóstico da febre reumática aguda / Antistreptolysin O titer profile in acute rheumatic fever diagnosis  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese OBJETIVO: estabelecer o perfil dos títulos de ASO, mediante o diagnóstico diferencial da FRA com outras afecções que também cursam com níveis elevados de ASO. MÉTODOS: foram estudados 78 casos de FRA na apresentação e seguimento, 22 de coréia isolada, 45 de infecções orofaringeanas recorrentes (IOR) [...] e 23 de artrites idiopáticas juvenis (AIJ), com início ou reativação recente. A determinação seqüencial de ASO (UI/ml) foi realizada por ensaio nefelométrico automatizado (Behring®-Germany) nos períodos de 0-7 dias, 1-2 semanas, 2-4 semanas, 1-2 meses, 2-4 meses, 4-6 meses, 6-12 meses, 1-2 anos, 2-3 anos, 3-4 anos e 4-5 anos após o diagnóstico. RESULTADOS: os títulos de ASO na fase aguda da FRA apresentaram elevação significante até o intervalo de 2- 4 meses (p 960 UI/ml. CONCLUSÃO: esta reavaliação do perfil da ASO indicou uma resposta exuberante na fase aguda da febre reumática indicou ainda que os seus níveis séricos podem diferenciá-la de outras afecções que também cursam com níveis elevados de ASO, como as infecções orofaringeanas recorrentes ou as artrites idiopáticas juvenis em atividade. Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: to determine ASO titer profile by establishing ARF differential diagnoses of other diseases with high levels of ASO antibodies. METHODS: we investigated 78 patients with ARF at onset and follow-up, 22 with isolated chorea at onset, 45 with recurrent oropharyngeal tonsillitis, and 23 with [...] recent flare of juvenile idiopathic arthritis. We tested ASO with automated particle-enhanced immunonephelometric assay (Behring®-Germany). The ASO (IU/ml) titers were assessed at the following time intervals: 0-7 days, 1-2 weeks, 2-4 weeks, 1-2 months, 2-4 months, 4-6 months, 6-12 months, 1-2 years, 2-3 years, 3-4 years, and 4-5 years after onset of ARF. RESULTS: ASO titers in patients diagnosed with ARF had a significant increase up to the 2-4-month time interval (P

Claudia Saad Magalhães, Machado; Katya, Ortiz; Alessandra de Lourenço Budin, Martins; Roberto Salvador, Martins; Nilton Carlos, Machado.

2001-04-01

23

O perfil da antiestreptolisina O no diagnóstico da febre reumática aguda Antistreptolysin O titer profile in acute rheumatic fever diagnosis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available OBJETIVO: estabelecer o perfil dos títulos de ASO, mediante o diagnóstico diferencial da FRA com outras afecções que também cursam com níveis elevados de ASO. MÉTODOS: foram estudados 78 casos de FRA na apresentação e seguimento, 22 de coréia isolada, 45 de infecções orofaringeanas recorrentes (IOR e 23 de artrites idiopáticas juvenis (AIJ, com início ou reativação recente. A determinação seqüencial de ASO (UI/ml foi realizada por ensaio nefelométrico automatizado (Behring®-Germany nos períodos de 0-7 dias, 1-2 semanas, 2-4 semanas, 1-2 meses, 2-4 meses, 4-6 meses, 6-12 meses, 1-2 anos, 2-3 anos, 3-4 anos e 4-5 anos após o diagnóstico. RESULTADOS: os títulos de ASO na fase aguda da FRA apresentaram elevação significante até o intervalo de 2- 4 meses (p 960 UI/ml. CONCLUSÃO: esta reavaliação do perfil da ASO indicou uma resposta exuberante na fase aguda da febre reumática indicou ainda que os seus níveis séricos podem diferenciá-la de outras afecções que também cursam com níveis elevados de ASO, como as infecções orofaringeanas recorrentes ou as artrites idiopáticas juvenis em atividade.OBJECTIVE: to determine ASO titer profile by establishing ARF differential diagnoses of other diseases with high levels of ASO antibodies. METHODS: we investigated 78 patients with ARF at onset and follow-up, 22 with isolated chorea at onset, 45 with recurrent oropharyngeal tonsillitis, and 23 with recent flare of juvenile idiopathic arthritis. We tested ASO with automated particle-enhanced immunonephelometric assay (Behring®-Germany. The ASO (IU/ml titers were assessed at the following time intervals: 0-7 days, 1-2 weeks, 2-4 weeks, 1-2 months, 2-4 months, 4-6 months, 6-12 months, 1-2 years, 2-3 years, 3-4 years, and 4-5 years after onset of ARF. RESULTS: ASO titers in patients diagnosed with ARF had a significant increase up to the 2-4-month time interval (P < 0.0001. Baseline levels were observed afterwards in patients under regular penicillin prophylaxis. The levels of ASO in ARF were also significantly higher than in patients with isolated chorea, recurrent oropharyngeal infections or juvenile idiopathic arthritis (P = 0.0025, when age-matched samples of these groups were compared. The test’s sensitivity was 73.3% and the specificity was 57.6%, and it was calculated taking into account the upper limit of normality at 320 IU/ml, as well as the established diagnosis of ARF. The test’s specificity and positive predictive value increased with rising or higher titers, being higher with titers above 960 UI/ml. CONCLUSION: this reappraisal of ASO profile in ARF patients indicates a remarkable response during the acute phase, and that points to the extent to which ASO levels may differentiate ARF from other diseases with high levels of ASO antibodies, as coincidental but unrelated streptococcal infection or chronic arthritis flareup.

Claudia Saad Magalhães Machado

2001-04-01

24

020 raising plants from mud  

...amazed at the variety of plants that spring up. You will...experiments, read: Gerald Durrell’s book The Amateur Naturalist (pub. Penguin...TRAY SEEDLINGS APPEAR EDUCATION RAISING PLANTS FROM MUD ..(2009) ...EDU 020...

25

Raising Public Awareness of Mathematics  

CERN Document Server

This collective book aims to encourage and inspire actions directed towards raising public awareness of the importance of mathematical sciences for our contemporary society in a cultural and historical perspective. Mathematical societies, in Europe and around the world, can find ideas, blueprints and suggestions for activities - including concerted actions with other international organizations - directed towards raising public awareness of science, technology and other fields where mathematics plays a strong role. The material is divided into four parts: * National experiences * Exhibitions /

Behrends, Ehrhard; Rodrigues, José Francisco

2012-01-01

26

Severe haemolysis after an ABO unmatched kidney transplant - a nonsecretor transplanted from a donor with high anti-A titre.  

Science.gov (United States)

A case of severe haemolysis following an ABO unmatched renal transplant is reported in a group A nonsecretor who received a kidney from a group O living related donor. Following the haemolytic episode, group A donor units were incompatible and the patient was transfused with group O blood. Serological investigation of the recipient revealed anti-A present in the serum and on the red cells. Investigation of the donor revealed the presence of high-titre anti-A. The association of such high-titre donor antibody with haemolysis in ABO unmatched grafts has not been reported before. We discuss the risk factors for developing haemolysis in an ABO unmatched organ transplant and explore the possible relevance of such high donor antibody titre to recipients who are nonsecretors. PMID:10760208

Sternberg, A J; Lee, G; Croxton, T; Mundy, N; Morris, P; Littlewood, T J; Murphy, M F

2000-03-01

27

Raising HDL cholesterol in women  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Danny J Eapen1, Girish L Kalra1, Luay Rifai1, Christina A Eapen2, Nadya Merchant1, Bobby V Khan11Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA, USA; 2University of South Florida School of Medicine, Tampa, FL, USAAbstract: High-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C concentration is essential in the determination of coronary heart disease (CHD risk in women. This is especially true in the postmenopausal state, where lipid profiles and CHD risk mimic that of age-matched men. Thus, interventions designed to reduce CHD risk by raising HDL-C levels may have particular significance during the transition to menopause. This review discusses HDL-C-raising therapies and the role of HDL in the primary prevention of CHD in women. Lifestyle-based interventions such as dietary change, aerobic exercise regimens, and smoking cessation are initial steps that are effective in raising HDL-C, and available data suggest women respond similarly to men with these interventions. When combined with pharmacotherapy, the effects of these lifestyle alterations are further amplified. Though studies demonstrating gender-specific differences in therapy are limited, niacin continues to be the most effective agent in raising HDL-C levels, especially when used in combination with fibrate or statin therapy. Emerging treatments such as HDL mimetic therapy show much promise in further raising HDL-C levels and improving cardiovascular outcomes.Keywords: high-density lipoprotein, HDL, women, cholesterol, heart disease

Danny J Eapen

2009-11-01

28

Anaplasmosis in dogs: the relation of haematological, biochemical and clinical alterations to antibody titre and PCR confirmed infection.  

Science.gov (United States)

Laboratory and clinical parameters of 149 dogs, exposed to Anaplasma phagocytophilum (A. phagocytophilum), and 19 control dogs were evaluated and compared retrospectively. The aim of our study was to determine statistically significant differences of selected parameters between groups of patients, divided according to the immunofluorescence (IFA) titres, in attempt to improve current diagnostic and treatment criteria. Exposure to A. phagocytophilum was confirmed by IFA and infection by PCR. Based on the results, the dogs were divided into 8 groups (6 groups of seropositive dogs according to the antibody titre, 1 group of PCR positive dogs, and a control group). Selected parameters were compared between groups. Thrombocytopenia was confirmed to be the most prominent haematological change in IFA and/or PCR positive dogs. There were no statistically significant differences in clinical and haematological observations between groups of different IFA titre but clear overall differences between each IFA and PCR positive groups compared to the control group. Our results showed the necessity of introducing additional diagnostic procedures in clinical practice, since antibody titre and haematological parameters are not sufficient to confirm the clinical relevance of exposure to A. phagocytophilum in a particular patient. PMID:21112165

Ravnik, Urska; Tozon, Natasa; Smrdel, Katja Strasek; Zupanc, Tatjana Avsic

2011-04-21

29

Low-speed centrifugation of retroviral vectors absorbed to a particulate substrate: a highly effective means of enhancing retroviral titre.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

For many gene therapy applications the effective titre of retroviral vectors is a limiting factor both in vitro and in vivo. Purification and concentration of retrovirus from packaging cell supernatant can overcome this problem. To this end we have investigated a novel procedure which involves complexing retrovirus to a dense and particulate substrate followed by a short low-speed centrifugation. The study reported here uses heat-killed, formaldehyde fixed Staphylococcus aureus (Pansorbin) ab...

Darling, D.; Hughes, C.; Galea-lauri, J.; Ga?ken, J.; Trayner, Id; Kuiper, M.; Farzaneh, F.

2000-01-01

30

Hepatitis B vaccination status of health care workers and their antiHBs titres - A cross sectional study  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Back ground: The risk from occupational exposure to HBV infection is 2-4 times higher in HCW’s. A protective vaccine with a reported efficacy of 95% is available. Yet many HCW’s in developing countries remain non vaccinated, incompletely vaccinated or if vaccinated unaware of their post vaccination anti HBs status. Estimation of protective immune response following vaccination is essential to clear the misconceptions regarding booster dose of vaccine and non responder state which prevails among the HCW’s. Objective: The present study is designed to assess the hepatitis B vaccination rates in HCW’s and their antiHBs titres. Material and methods: A cross sectional study on 87 subjects was carried out at a tertiary care hospital by testing their sera for HBsAg & anti HBs levels. Results: None of the HCW’s were found to be HBsAg positive. Vaccination rate observed was 79%. Most vaccinated were the doctors and least the paramedics. Among doctors variation within the occupational groups was noticed. More number of males and young subjects were vaccinated and protected. Only 49% of the vaccinated HCW’s were vaccine compliant and 35% of these were protected. Factors like age, sex and time since last dose of vaccine influenced the anti HBs titres. None were aware of their anti HBs titres post vaccination. Conclusion: The study group involves only a small number of HCW’s but the findings are significant. Keeping in mind the annual global hepatitis B infection rates in HCW’s in developing countries we recommend the health care authorities to strengthen the existing educational programmes on Hepattis B infection which improves the awareness levels and thereby increases the vaccine rates. Further to make essential post vaccination assessment of antiHBs titres and its documentation to clear misconceptions regarding booster dose of vaccine.

Sarwat Fatima

2014-07-01

31

Relationship between haemagglutination-inhibiting antibody titres and clinical protection against influenza: development and application of a bayesian random-effects model  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Antibodies directed against haemagglutinin, measured by the haemagglutination inhibition (HI assay are essential to protective immunity against influenza infection. An HI titre of 1:40 is generally accepted to correspond to a 50% reduction in the risk of contracting influenza in a susceptible population, but limited attempts have been made to further quantify the association between HI titre and protective efficacy. Methods We present a model, using a meta-analytical approach, that estimates the level of clinical protection against influenza at any HI titre level. Source data were derived from a systematic literature review that identified 15 studies, representing a total of 5899 adult subjects and 1304 influenza cases with interval-censored information on HI titre. The parameters of the relationship between HI titre and clinical protection were estimated using Bayesian inference with a consideration of random effects and censorship in the available information. Results A significant and positive relationship between HI titre and clinical protection against influenza was observed in all tested models. This relationship was found to be similar irrespective of the type of viral strain (A or B and the vaccination status of the individuals. Conclusion Although limitations in the data used should not be overlooked, the relationship derived in this analysis provides a means to predict the efficacy of inactivated influenza vaccines when only immunogenicity data are available. This relationship can also be useful for comparing the efficacy of different influenza vaccines based on their immunological profile.

Megas Françoise

2010-03-01

32

7 CFR 65.235 - Raised.  

Science.gov (United States)

...CONTINUED) COUNTRY OF ORIGIN LABELING OF BEEF, PORK, LAMB, CHICKEN, GOAT MEAT, PERISHABLE AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES, MACADAMIA NUTS, PECANS, PEANUTS, AND GINSENG General Provisions Definitions § 65.235 Raised. Raised means, in...

2010-01-01

33

Le premier élément du patrimoine maritime de Saint-Pierre-et-Miquelon protégé au titre des monuments historiques  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Ymac a été classé par arrêté du 14 février 2008 au titre des monuments historiques en raison de l’intérêt ethnologique lié à sa fonction de bateau-pilote. (fig. n° 1Figure 1Ymac, ex-Radar III. Photographie après 2003. © Yannick Lafourcade.Construit en 1965 à Mavilette (Nouvelle-Ecosse, Canada par le chantier Alfred Boudreau, ce bateau traditionnel de pêche à coque en bois avait été initialement armé pour la pêche aux poissons plats par Alex Doucet, d’où son premier nom Alex D. Après avoir p...

Herveline Delhumeau

2009-05-01

34

Effect of Corn or Sorghum in Combination with Soybean Meal or Mungbean as Feed Ingredients on the Serum Antibody Titres to NDV Vaccine in Broiler Chickens  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A research was carried out to study the effect of feed types in the diet based on corn or sorghum in combination with soybean meal or broken green beans on titre antibody to NDV vaccine of broilers. Three hundreds day old chicks broilers with initial body weight of 46.35 ± 4.66 grams were randomly assigned into four treatment groups i.e. T1 (diet based on corn and soybean meal, T2 (diet based on corn and green-bean, T3 (diet based on sorghum and soybean meal, T4 (diet based on sorghum and green-bean. Isoenergy and isoprotein diet and water were given ad libitum. NDV vaccines were given via eyedrop on day 4 and intramuscularly on day 21. Serum antibody titres were measured on day 38, 42 and 48 by Haemaglutination Inhibition Test and expressed as Geometric Mean Titre (log2. Antibody titre to NDV vaccine was already detectable on day 38 and the value was highest in T4, reaching 5.2 and lowest in T3 i.e. 3.6 (P < 0.05. On day 42 the titre of all groups were increased reaching a value of greater than 5.0 (protective except in T3 which remains lower than 5.0 (not protected. On day 48 the highest titre was reached in T2 (6.4, while T3 remained low below 5 (4.2. These results showed that the types of feed ingredients in the diet can influence antibody titre against NDV vaccination.

Retno Murwani

2008-01-01

35

Anti-alpha-Gal antibody titres remain unaffected by the consumption of fermented milk containing Lactobacillus casei in healthy adults.  

Science.gov (United States)

Alpha-Gal is a glycoconjugate present on cell membranes of non-primate mammals and bacteria, but not in humans, who display anti-Gal antibodies (ABs) in high titres. Probiotics contain bacterial strains which colonize the intestinal tract. In the present study, we investigated whether intake of fermented milk containing Lactobacillus casei (FML) affects anti-Gal AB titres. Serum was drawn from healthy probands (n = 19) for 6 weeks. After the second week, the probands consumed 125 ml of FML per day. Anti-Gal ABs of all isotypes and cytokines were measured. Bacterial cultures were bred from FML and bacteria were stained for alpha-Gal. Concentration of bacteria in FML was manifold higher than in conventional yoghurt (2 × 10(5)/g yoghurt vs. 1.1 × 10(7)/g FML). Both stained highly positive for Alpha-Gal. Alpha-Gal-specific ABs and cytokines remained unaffected by FML intake. Our results indicated that the consumption of FML does not elicit a humoral immune response in healthy adults. PMID:21970387

Mangold, Andreas; Hercher, David; Hlavin, Gerald; Liepert, Julia; Zimmermann, Matthias; Kollmann, Dagmar; Feichtinger, Georg; Lichtenauer, Michael; Mitterbauer, Andreas; Ankersmit, Hendrik Jan

2012-05-01

36

Significant rising antibody titres to influenza A are associated with an acute reduction in milk yield in cattle.  

Science.gov (United States)

Sporadic cases of an acute fall in milk production, "milk drop", were investigated in a Holstein Friesian dairy herd in Devon. The investigation was a case control study with two controls per case. Paired blood samples demonstrated that rising antibody titres to human influenza A/England/333/80 (H1N1) and human influenza A/Eng/427/88 (H3N2) were associated with an acute fall in milk production. Rising titres to bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV), bovine virus diarrhoea virus (BVD), infectious bovine rhinotracheitis (IBR) and parainfluenza virus 3 (PI3) were not associated with an acute fall in milk production. Cases with rises in antibody to influenza A had significantly higher respiratory scores and rectal temperatures than their controls. The mean loss of milk production for the cases with rises in antibody to influenza A compared to their controls was 159.9L. This study provides further evidence that influenza A persists in cattle and causes clinical disease. PMID:17851097

Crawshaw, Timothy R; Brown, Ian H; Essen, Steve C; Young, Stuart C L

2008-10-01

37

Research and practice of new raising method  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Traditional raising method, raising method currently used by uranium mines, and problems in use are described, and a new raising method is presented. The new method is summarized from aspects such as setting up methods of drilling platform, safety platform, pedestrian ladder,etc,the support of broken-rock zone, lighting and ventilation modes, and safety precautions. The practice has proved that the new method is safe and reliable, and can improve the drivage efficiency and reduce the cost. (authors)

38

Occurrence of relapsing polychondritis with a rising cANCA titre in a cANCA-positive systemic and cerebral vasculitis patient.  

Science.gov (United States)

Relapsing polychondritis (RP) is a relatively rare disorder, with a high death rate that affects cartilaginous structures. RP can be either primary or secondary as part of autoimmune syndromes. We present a case of RP in a 49-year-old man suffering from cytoplasmic antineurophil cytoplasmic antibodies (cANCA) positive vasculitis, admitted to our hospital with red swollen left ear and painful sternoclavicular joint and larynx. The patient was in remission from the vasculitis but manifested a high cANCA titre indicating vasculitis activity. With his high cANCA titre vasculitis, full manifestation of RP concomitantly occurred. After a successful cortisone treatment for RP, the patient received cyclophosphamide treatment for his vasculitis that resulted in a decrease in cANCA titre and full remission of his RP symptoms. PMID:23417970

Mattiassich, Georg; Egger, Markus; Semlitsch, Georg; Rainer, Franz

2013-01-01

39

The College President's Role in Fund Raising.  

Science.gov (United States)

The role of the college president as one of the chief actors in academic fund raising is examined against the background of today's period of financial caution and increased competition for philanthropic support. The paper first provides an overview of the state of the art of fund raising and some ways in which college and universities have…

Miller, Michael T.

40

A study to determine significant titre-values of widal test in the diagnosis of enteric fever for a population of north Kerala, India  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Objectives: To determine the baseline Widal titres of a study population and to propose titre-values of significance in the diagnosis of enteric fever. Background: Enteric fever is endemic in the Indian subcontinent with high prevalence rates. Etiological diagnosis of the condition is problematic due to several limitations implicit in the region. Singly run Widal test is often the only means available for a workable diagnosis. A knowledge of prevalent baseline titres is essential for its interpretation. Method: We performed the standard Widal tube agglutination test on the serum samples of 250 individuals of the local population selected by using appropriate criteria of inclusion and exclusion criteria. Results: A majority (74.8% of the subjects were non-reactive. Prevalence of anti-TO antibody was highest (25.2% followed by that of anti-TH antibody (15.2%, anti-AH antibody (6.8% and anti-BH antibody (0.8%. Based on the distribution of titre values, the baseline titres determined were 40 for anti-TO and anti-TH antibodies and <20 for anti-AH and anti-BH antibodies. Any value obtained in Widal test over and above these values, i.e., ?80 for anti-TO and anti-TH antibodies can be considered as significant. Similarly, for anti-AH and anti-BH antibodies, values of ?20 can be considered as significant for diagnosis in an appropriate clinical setting. Conclusion: The baseline Widal titres of the local population were lower than those found in most other parts of India.

Gufran Ahmed M. Bijapur

2014-01-01

 
 
 
 
41

Raised intracranial pressure not detected by ultrasound.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Two patients with raised intracranial pressure responding to ventriculoperitoneal shunting are described in whom ultrasound failed to show dilated ventricles. The importance of not equating absence of ventricular dilatation with normal pressure and ventricular dilatation with high pressure is emphasised.

Pilling, D. W.; Cudmore, R. E.

1985-01-01

42

Product Fund-Raising: A Practical Resource.  

Science.gov (United States)

Reviews critical issues in selecting a product fund-raising program for schools. Suggests that the most important considerations should be the quality of the product or service and its "fit" with the school. (JDI)

Lemieux, Russell A.

1997-01-01

43

The Logic of the RAISE Specification Language  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

This paper describes the logic of the RAISE Specification Language, RSL. It explains the particular logic chosen for RAISE, and motivates this choice as suitable for a wide spectrum language to be used for designs as well as initial specifications, and supporting imperative and concurrent specifications as well as applicative sequential ones. It also describes the logical definition of RSL, its axiomatic semantics, as well as the proof system for carrying out proofs.

Haxthausen, Anne Elisabeth

2003-01-01

44

Long-term survival in trial of medium-titre Edmonston-Zagreb measles vaccine in Guinea-Bissau : five-year follow-up  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

A trial of protective efficacy which compared medium-titre Edmonston-Zagreb (EZ) measles vaccine (10(4.6) p.f.u.) from the age of 4 months with the standard Schwarz (SW) measles vaccine given from the age of 9 months was started in an urban community in Guinea-Bissau in 1985. Because trials of high-titre measles vaccine have found increased mortality among female recipients, we examined whether EZ medium-titre vaccine was associated with any long-term impact on mortality, suppression of T-cells, or growth. The mortality rate ratio over 5 years of follow-up was 1.12 for EZ children compared with children in the standard group (P = 0.63). Seventy-five percent of the children still residing in the area at 5 years of age took part in an immunological and anthropometric examination. There was no difference in T-cell subsets between the two groups. There was no difference in mid-upper-arm circumference, but EZ children were significantly shorter than the children in the standard group. In conclusion, medium-titre EZ was not associated with reduced survival or persistent immunosuppression.

Aaby, Peter; Lisse, Ida

1994-01-01

45

Meeting the challenge of raising grandchildren.  

Science.gov (United States)

More grandparents are raising grandchildren than ever before. The predictable problems they experience include a revision of personal goals; learning how growing up has changed since they raised their own children; cooperating with the parent who shares responsibility for child care; monitoring social and academic progress of children; becoming aware of rights and available social services; and arranging periodic relief from the daily demands of their surrogate obligations. Full-time grandparents often rely on support groups for comfort and advice. The advantages and limitations of this approach are examined. Recommendations are made for ways to improve how support groups function so they can achieve their purposes. PMID:11197732

Strom, R D; Strom, S K

2000-01-01

46

Raising venture capital in the biopharma industry.  

Science.gov (United States)

Raising venture capital (VC) is both an art and a science. Future entrepreneurs should carefully consider the various issues of VC financing that have a strong impact on the success of their business. In addition to attracting the best venture capital firms, these issues include such subtle but important points as the timing of financing (especially of the first round), external support sources, desirable qualities of a VC firm, amount to be raised, establishing a productive interface between the founders and the venture capitalists, and most importantly the effects of well-executed VC funding on hiring senior executives and scientific leaders. PMID:12546855

Leytes, Lev J

2002-11-15

47

No influence of atopic diseases on antibody titres following tetanus, diphtheria and hepatitis B immunisation among adults.  

Science.gov (United States)

Several studies have reported associations between reduced humoral immune response to vaccine antigens and diseases with modified reactions of the immune system. We have investigated the influence of atopic diseases on specific IgG levels to tetanus, diphtheria and hepatitis B (HB), following immunisation, in a general adult population. From the Study of Health in Pomerania, a total number of 3,920 subjects aged 20 to 79 years were included in the analyses. Information on immunisation history, as well as behavioural and socio-demographic characteristics were collected. Anti-tetanus IgG, anti-diphtheria IgG and anti-HBs IgG were measured by indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals were calculated using logistic regression. Atopic diseases were reported by 14% of participants. Proportions of 67%, 34% and 10% had been vaccinated against tetanus, diphtheria and hepatitis B within the past ten years, respectively. Multi-variable analyses revealed no associations between the presence of atopic diseases and all of the three vaccine-specific antibody titres. We conclude that there is no reduced immune response related to antibody production following immunisations against tetanus, diphtheria and hepatitis B in adults with atopic diseases. PMID:17891427

Friedrich, N; Kramer, A; Mentel, R; Gürtler, L; John, U; Völzke, H

2007-12-01

48

Prevalence and titre of antibodies against Hepatitis A virus in HIV-infected men having sex with men in Greece.  

Science.gov (United States)

Hepatitis A remains a serious vaccine-preventable disease for HIV patients. We tested 897 HIV-infected men having sex with men (MSM) for antibodies against hepatitis A virus (anti-HAV) and measured the geometric mean antibody titres (GMTs) in a group of patients who received a hepatitis A vaccine and in patients with immunity to HAV due to infection in childhood. In all, 320 patients (35%) had positive anti-HAV antibodies. Multivariate analysis showed that only age (p 0.001) and ethnic origin (OR 20.029, p 0.001) had a statistically significant effect on the presence of antibodies. In addition, age was a fairly sensitive (68.4%) and specific (64.2%) marker, patients being separated by the 36.5 years cut-off point. The response rate of patients who get vaccinated (n 383), one month following the administration of the second dose of the vaccine, was 76%. The GMT of the vaccinated patients was 305 mIU/ml versus 7105 mIU/ml of patients with past infection. The vast majority of HIV-infected MSM patients in Greece is susceptible to HAV. Immunity to HAV in newly vaccinated patients, unlike patients with natural immunity, is low and probably requires monitoring. PMID:25269962

Kourkounti, Sofia; Paparizos, Vassilios; Leuow, Kirsten; Kyriakis, Kyriakos; Antoniou, Christina

2014-09-01

49

The Fundamentals of Community College Fund Raising.  

Science.gov (United States)

Presents a guide for community college fund raising. Discusses organizational principles and structural models; operational concerns such as stewardship of funds, information dissemination, and donor research; and the importance of presidential support, institutional reputation and environment, and experienced grants managers. Includes practical…

Brumbach, Mary A.; Bumphus, Walter G.

1993-01-01

50

The Power of the Raised Eyebrow  

Science.gov (United States)

The school counselor is in a unique position to help provide equal education for all students particularly when it comes to high school girls choosing high level mathematics courses. The counselor should encourage young women to take courses in mathematics and the sciences throughout their high school careers and never, never raise an eyebrow!…

Burton, Grace M.

1977-01-01

51

Raising Happy Kids on a Reasonable Budget.  

Science.gov (United States)

This guide shows parents how to cut expenses and save on the cost of raising a family. Chapter 1 offers many ways to stretch food dollars and discusses buying in bulk, eating out, using coupons, buying wholesale, and gardening. Cost-cutting clothing ideas covered in chapter 2 include buying at secondhand stores and consignment shops, outlet…

Gallagher, Patricia C.

52

People on the Farm: Raising Beef Cattle.  

Science.gov (United States)

This booklet provides information on raising beef cattle through profiles of two families, the Ritschards of Colorado and the Schuttes of Missouri. Through descriptions of daily life for these families, the booklet discusses the way of life on modern beef cattle farms and the problems and decisions faced by farmers. The booklet explains how…

Crain, Robert L.

53

50 CFR 14.23 - Live farm-raised fish and farm-raised fish eggs.  

Science.gov (United States)

...Fisheries 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Live farm-raised fish and farm-raised fish eggs. 14.23 Section 14.23 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR TAKING,...

2010-10-01

54

Influence of horn flies (Haematobia irritans) on teat skin condition, intramammary infection, and serum anti-S. aureus antibody titres in holstein heifers.  

Science.gov (United States)

Staphylococcus aureus remains a major mastitis-causing pathogen in growing dairy heifers, resulting in damage to developing milk secretory tissue. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the role of horn flies as vectors in the spread of S. aureus among dairy heifers immunized with a S. aureus bacterin. We analyzed the prevalence of mastitis among quarters, evaluated teat skin condition (as a result of biting flies) prior to and after insecticide administration, and measured serum anti-S. aureus antibody titres monthly after vaccination. Response to S. aureus immunization was poor; however, titres increased 2- to 3-fold during the period when fly populations increased drastically and teat skin condition worsened, especially front quarter teat condition. Presence of flies and the resulting teat lesions were associated with a high level of S. aureus mastitis. Use of an insecticidal pour-on reduced fly populations and healed teat lesions, but existing cases of mastitis required antibiotic therapy. PMID:23664017

Ryman, V E; Nickerson, S C; Hurley, D J; Berghaus, R D; Kautz, F M

2013-10-01

55

Neutralizing and cross-neutralizing antibody titres induced by bivalent and quadrivalent human papillomavirus vaccines in the target population of organized vaccination programmes.  

Science.gov (United States)

Aim of this investigator-initiated study was to evaluate and compare the titres of neutralizing and cross-neutralizing antibodies (NAbs) induced by the bivalent (Cervarix(®)) and quadrivalent (Gardasil(®)) HPV vaccines in a cohort of girls aged 11-13 years from organized vaccination programmes. To this aim, HPV16 and HPV18 NAbs were measured by pseudovirion-based neutralization assays in serum collected at 1-6 months after the third vaccine dose in 107 girls vaccinated with Cervarix(®) and 126 vaccinated with Gardasil(®), while HPV31 and HPV45 cross-NAbs were tested in the first 50 consecutive girls of both vaccine groups. The results of this study demonstrated that all vaccinated girls developed HPV16 and HPV18 NAbs, with the exception of two Gardasil(®) vaccinees with undetectable HPV18 NAbs. Geometric mean titres (GMTs) of both HPV16 and HPV18 NAbs were significantly higher in Cervarix(®) than in Gardasil(®) vaccinees [HPV16 NAb GMT 22,136 (95% CI, 18,811-26,073) vs 5092 (4230-6151), respectively; PGardasil(®) vaccinees (HPV45 NAb positivity rates 56% and 6%, respectively; PGardasil(®) vaccinees [HPV31 NAb GMT 157.2 (95% CI, 92-269) vs 13.0 (6.5-25.8), respectively; P<0.0001; HPV45 NAb GMT 4.7 (2.1-10.2) vs 1.3 (0.3-3.1), respectively; P<0.01]. In conclusion, in adolescent girls vaccinated within organized vaccination programmes, HPV vaccines drive the generation not only of NAbs to HPV vaccine types, but also of cross-NAbs. The bivalent vaccine induced significantly higher HPV16 and HPV18 NAb titres and more frequently and at higher titre HPV31 and HPV45 cross-NAbs than the quadrivalent vaccine. PMID:25045814

Barzon, Luisa; Squarzon, Laura; Masiero, Serena; Pacenti, Monia; Marcati, Giorgia; Mantelli, Barbara; Gabrielli, Liliana; Pascucci, Maria Grazia; Lazzarotto, Tiziana; Caputo, Antonella; Palù, Giorgio

2014-09-15

56

Effects of a Velogenic Newcastle Disease Virus on Packed Cell Volume, Total Protein and Hemagglutination Inhibition Antibody Titres of Vaccinated Shikabrown Cocks  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Fifty 20 week old Shikabrown cocks consisting of 22 red Shikabrown and 28 white Shikabrown cocks were purchased from the National Animal Production Research Institute, Shika and used for this study. Twenty-five of the cocks made up of 12 red and 13 white cocks selected on basis of weight were infected with 2 ml of 106.0 EID5.0 of a Velogenic Kudu 113 strain of Newcastle disease virus intranasally and orally. The remaining twenty-five cocks made up of 14 red and 11 white served as control. Blood samples were taken from the wing veins of both infected and control cocks and centrifuged in a Hermle Z364 centrifuge at 251.6 g for packed cell volume, total protein and Newcastle disease antibody titres. There was no significant difference in the packed cell volume of the control and infected red Shikabrown cocks. Similarly there was no significant difference in the packed cell volume of the control and infected white Shikabrown cocks, although the infected cocks had slightly lower values. Total protein did not show any significant difference between the control and infected red cocks and between the control and infected white cocks. The antibody titres of the control red and white cocks were significantly (p<0.05 lower than those of the infected red and white cocks. This finding showed that the challenged red and white cocks had high antibody titres and a slight drop in packed cell volume. The mean antibody titres of 1.9 ±0.7 to 4.6 ±0.4 log2 provided protection to the Shikabrown cocks against the velogenic Newcastle disease virus since none of the challenged cocks died. This study suggests that in an endemic environment like Zaria, poultry farmers keeping Shikabrown chickens should vaccinate them against Newcastle disease. Challenging the red and white Shikabrown cocks with the velogenic Newcastle disease virus increased their protection against the Newcastle disease.

J.S. Rwuaan

2009-01-01

57

X-ray sensititvity of embryonated Capillaria hepatica eggs and serum-GLDH activities and antibody titres in Mastomys natalensis infected with untreated or irradiated eggs  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

X-ray irradiation of embryonated Capillaria hepatica eggs using 0.5, 1, or 2 Krd resulted in a progressive decrease of egg production of the female nematodes which had developed from irradiated first stage larvae in Mastomys natalensis. Egg production did not occur after irradiation with 3, 4, 5, 10, 30, 50, or 70 Krd. The capacity of the parasites to invade the liver was not influenced. Infection of M. natalensis using unirradiated eggs was followed by an increase of serum-GLDH-activities between days 6 and 8 post infection reaching maximum values in this period of infection. Furthermore high values have been determined after the beginning of patency. Increased activity persisted up to the end of the experiment on day 36 post infection. After infection with eggs which had received 2.2 or 5 Krd the increase of serum-GLDH-activities was decreased and occurred later in the course of infection using 5 Krd irradiated eggs. Antibodies could be demonstrated as early as one week after infection with unirradiated eggs. Employing the indirect haemagglutination test, using an aqueous extract from non-embryonated eggs as antigen, maximum titres occurred at the beginning of patency. After a nearly plateau-like course titres began to drop about 7 weeks p.i., i.e. about the end of egg production by the female worms, but antibodies were still detectable 17 weeks p.i. (end of the observation period). After infection with eggs which had received 2.2 or 5 Krd antibody development was ded 2.2 or 5 Krd antibody development was delayed. Maximum titres were somewhat (2.2 Krd) or markedly (5 Krd) lower. Thereafter titres dropped to values comparable to those of uninfected M. natalensis. The results are compared with published reports on the pathohistology of capillariasis. (orig.)

58

Malpractice bill stirs discussion, raises moral questions.  

Science.gov (United States)

Catholic health care providers should raise a number of ethical considerations in the debate surrounding the Moore-Gephardt bill, which would establish an alternative malpractice liability system. The proposal encourages states to enact legislation under which providers and patients would reach settlements that compensate for economic losses resulting from negligent treatment. In states that do not enact such laws, HR 5400 would apply to federal program patients only. Under the proposal, if a health care provider who is potentially liable for malpractice offers to compensate for the patient's actual economic loss, the patient would be forever barred from bringing a malpractice suit against the provider. The recovery would be limited to the individual's net economic loss. Though the bill's sponsors have performed a considerable service in identifying a major problem and generating public discussion, the bill raises several important moral questions. How much "defensive medicine," for example, is actually prudent practice that is in patients' best interests? Will thorough and holistic care be sacrificed in the proposal's attempt to save money? If states do not enact an alternative liability system for all patients and the proposal affects only federal program patients, will the result be disproportionate treatment among categories of patients? And is it fair to deny persons recovery for their emotional distress, physical impairment, pain and suffering, and similar kinds of damages? These are but a few of the issues that Catholic providers should raise in the debate, which otherwise might well be oriented toward fiscal concerns only. PMID:10268334

Showalter, J S

1984-10-01

59

2titres_AS  

fique : la fixation des taux et les instruments de financement tiques transversales font l’objet d’un développement spéci- ...décret 2007-013 portant fixation du capital minimum des éta- tion au registre du commerce et des sociétés ainsi ...(2002), La gouvernance en microfinance : grille d’analyse et études de cas, CERISE, Paris,

60

Titre de la présentation  

des valeurs locatives en Ile-de-France sur la période 2000-S1 2013 (1) En € courants HT ...2013 S1 S2 « Prime » Paris Centre Ouest « Prime » La Défense Moyenne Ile-de-France ...S1 S2 S1 S2 S1 S2 S1 S2 S1 S2 S1 S2 2008 2008 2009 2009

 
 
 
 
61

Intestinal titres of anti-tissue transglutaminase 2 antibodies correlate positively with mucosal damage degree and inversely with gluten-free diet duration in coeliac disease.  

Science.gov (United States)

It has always been known that anti-tissue transglutaminase 2 (anti-TG2) antibodies are produced in the small intestine. Their serum titres correlate with mucosal damage degree and decrease on a gluten-free diet (GFD). We aimed to correlate intestinal anti-TG2 antibodies levels with degree of mucosal damage and GFD duration. Thirty-four active, 71 potential and 24 CD patients on GFD for at least 2 years were enrolled. Anti-TG2 deposits were detected in intestinal biopsies by double immunofluorescence. Biopsies were cultured for 24?h with medium, and with gliadin peptic tryptic digest (PTG) or A-gliadin peptide 31-43 (P31-43). Anti-TG2 antibodies secreted into supernatants were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). All active CD patients secreted high titres of anti-TG2 antibodies into culture medium that increased with the worsening of mucosal injury (Spearman's r?=?0·71; P?titres of anti-TG2 antibodies into supernatants, eight of nine negative treated patients being on GFD for more than 10 years. An inverse correlation between antibody titres and duration of GFD was found, (Spearman's r?=?-0·52; P?titres correlated positively with the degree of mucosal damage and inversely with the duration of GFD. PMID:24773630

Tosco, A; Auricchio, R; Aitoro, R; Ponticelli, D; Primario, M; Miele, E; Rotondi Aufiero, V; Discepolo, V; Greco, L; Troncone, R; Maglio, M

2014-09-01

62

Persistent limb pain and raised serum alkaline phosphatase the earliest markers of subclinical hypovitaminosis D in Kashmir.  

Science.gov (United States)

The present study was an attempt to assess the cause of persistent pain in lower limbs among children from Kashmir. The study was conducted on one hundred children attending Paediatric out-patient department of Sher-i-Kashmir Institute of Medical Sciences, Srinagar. All the children were in the age group of 5 to 14 years. They showed markedly raised levels of serum alkaline phosphatase, whereas serum phosphorus, serum calcium levels and antistreptolycin O-titres were normal in 93% cases. None of them had any rheumatic or rheumatoid pathology. Among 15 suspected clinical rickets only three were established radiologically. Dietary and socio-economic history revealed deficient vitamin D intake and less exposure to sun. It was hypothesized that sub-clinical vitamin D deficiency could be a major cause of persistent pain in lower limbs and raised serum alkaline phosphatase could be the earliest marker of vitamin D deficiency. It was confirmed by injecting single dose of vitamin D (3 lac I. U.) which relieved bone pain and lowered the levels of serum alkaline phosphatase to normal within 14 weeks of initiation of therapy. PMID:2620972

Masood, H; Narang, A P; Bhat, I A; Shah, G N

1989-01-01

63

Raising children in America: Korean parents' experiences.  

Science.gov (United States)

This qualitative description study was designed to describe Korean American parents' perceptions of challenges and difficulties they encounter while raising their children in the USA. A convenience sampling of 21 parents of adolescents aged 11-14 years recruited from the Midwest Korean American community participated in the study. Data were collected using in-depth, face-to-face interviews, which took place in agreed-upon, convenient locations. All interviews were audiotaped and transcribed in Korean and the transcripts were translated into English. Qualitative content analysis revealed that the main stresses that parents encountered while raising their children in the USA were inability to advocate for children, feeling uneasy and insecure about incompatible American culture, ambivalence towards children's ethnic identities, and feeling alienated. In relation to these stresses, parents often felt inadequate, ashamed, guilty, regretful and powerless. The findings demonstrated the importance of understanding parents' feelings that are deeply embedded in the conflicted parent-child relationships and their perceptions of being parents in the USA. The present study highlights the need for and importance of providing intervention programmes for parents, particularly programmes that would empower parents, strengthen parent-child relationships and address ways to integrate two very different cultures while upholding ethnic identity and pride. PMID:22295897

Choi, H; Dancy, B L; Lee, J

2013-08-01

64

A heuristic sublevel stope optimizer with multiple raises  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO South Africa | Language: English Abstract in english A new heuristic sublevel mining stope optimizer is presented. The optimizer seeks the best locations and lengths of a series of vertical raises that, together with the blocks linked to each raise, define a mining stope. Five design constraints - the footwall angle, the hangingwall angle, the number [...] of raises, the maximum distance of a block from a raise, and the minimum width required to move the farthest block towards the raise - allow the shape of the sub-stopes associated with each raise to be controlled. The optimization is done on the locations and lengths of raises using a genetic algorithm to efficiently sample the parameters' space. For each raise, a local network is defined in cylindrical coordinates around the raise such as to impose the design constraints. A maxflow algorithm on the local network is used to determine the optimal sub-stope for each raise. All sub-stopes are combined to define the global stope for the entire deposit. The best global stope is obtained using a genetic algorithm to find the raise parameters providing the best profit over the entire deposit. Two synthetic cases and one real deposit are used to evaluate the new algorithm and compare the results with the single-raise optimizer. The multiple raises approach leads to significantly improved economics compared with the single-raise stope optimizer, and the dilution is also substantially reduced compared to the single-raise case.

X, Bai; D, Marcotte; R, Simon.

65

A heuristic sublevel stope optimizer with multiple raises  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO South Africa | Language: English Abstract in english A new heuristic sublevel mining stope optimizer is presented. The optimizer seeks the best locations and lengths of a series of vertical raises that, together with the blocks linked to each raise, define a mining stope. Five design constraints - the footwall angle, the hangingwall angle, the number [...] of raises, the maximum distance of a block from a raise, and the minimum width required to move the farthest block towards the raise - allow the shape of the sub-stopes associated with each raise to be controlled. The optimization is done on the locations and lengths of raises using a genetic algorithm to efficiently sample the parameters' space. For each raise, a local network is defined in cylindrical coordinates around the raise such as to impose the design constraints. A maxflow algorithm on the local network is used to determine the optimal sub-stope for each raise. All sub-stopes are combined to define the global stope for the entire deposit. The best global stope is obtained using a genetic algorithm to find the raise parameters providing the best profit over the entire deposit. Two synthetic cases and one real deposit are used to evaluate the new algorithm and compare the results with the single-raise optimizer. The multiple raises approach leads to significantly improved economics compared with the single-raise stope optimizer, and the dilution is also substantially reduced compared to the single-raise case.

X, Bai; D, Marcotte; R, Simon.

2014-06-01

66

Determination of ANA specificity using multiplexed fluorescent microsphere immunoassay in patients with ANA positivity at high titres after infliximab treatment: preliminary results.  

Science.gov (United States)

To evaluate ANA specificity using the fully automated multiplexed fluorescent microsphere immunoassay in patients affected either by rheumatoid arthritis or ankylosing spondylitis who developed strong positivity for ANA as assessed by indirect immunofluorescent method on HEp-2 cells during infliximab treatment. Three men affected by ankylosing spondylitis and 12 women affected by rheumatoid arthritis who developed ANA positivity at high titres during infliximab treatment underwent the identification of ANA specificity by multiplexed fluorescent microsphere immunoassay; moreover anti-DNA and anti-ENA antibodies were tested by indirect immunofluorescence and ELISA method, respectively. In 4 out of 15 cases, the determination of ANA reactivity by multiplexed fluorescent microsphere immunoassay was also performed on the serum collected before infliximab administration. One patient affected by rheumatoid arthritis showed multiple ANA reactivities against SS-A, SS-B, RNP, Sm, Jo-1 and histones; one patient affected by ankylosing spondylitis resulted positive for the same autoantibodies, except for anti-Sm antibody. Moreover, two patients, one with rheumatoid arthritis and one with ankylosing spondylitis, showed single antibody specificity to SS-B and RNP, respectively. The remaining 11 cases did not show any positivity. Instead, all the patients resulted negative for anti-ENA antibodies by the ELISA method. In the four cases tested for ANA specificity by multiplexed fluorescent microsphere immunoassay before and after infliximab administration no difference was found. The search for anti-DNA antibody always resulted negative by both the traditional immunofluorescent assay and the novel technique. The use of multiplexed fluorescent microsphere immunoassay in patients treated with infliximab with ANA positivity at high titres allowed to find some ANA specificities which were not revealed by ELISA method. Nevertheless, the majority of patients resulted negative in spite of ANA positivity at high titres; the molecular target of ANA which develop after infliximab administration still remains to be identified. PMID:17136355

Caramaschi, Paola; Ruzzenente, Orazio; Pieropan, Sara; Volpe, Alessandro; Carletto, Antonio; Bambara, Lisa Maria; Biasi, Domenico

2007-05-01

67

Gene variant raises risk for colorectal cancer  

Science.gov (United States)

A common genetic variant that affects one in three people significantly increases the risk of colorectal cancer from the consumption of red meat and processed meat, according to a study presented by researchers from the Keck School of Medicine of USC (home of the USC Norris Comprehensive Cancer Center) at the annual American Society of Human Genetics meeting. In addition to identifying a gene that raises risk for colorectal cancer from eating red or processed meat, the study — the first to identify the interactions of genes and diet on a genome-wide scale — also revealed another specific genetic variation that appears to modify whether eating more fruits, vegetables and fiber actually lowers your colorectal cancer risk.

68

RAISED BOGS ON THE NORTH-EAST OF EUROPE  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In the Northeastern Europe 2 types of raised bogs are distinguished: coastal (Southern White Sea raised hogs and continental (Pechora-Onega raised bogs. They have been compared as to their flora, prevailing syntaxa, characteristics of their complexes, structure of mire massifs and composition of peat deposits.

T. K. YURKOVSKAYA

2004-01-01

69

Natural Radioactivity in a Raised Peat Bog  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Peatlands generally accumulate C because the rate of biomass production is greater than the rate of decomposition. The apparent long-term rate of carbon accumulation for boreal and subarctic regions is estimated to 15-30 g C m-2 year-1. Peatlands are archives of past diversity, climate, and other environmental conditions. The recently formed surface layers of peat land are an archive for recent environmental information and offer an opportunity to understand how environmental conditions have been recorded in peat profiles by relating the signals in the peat to recent historical records. Since they have not undergone the same decay and compression, the temporal resolution of surface peat can be considerably higher than deeper layers. Peatland has accumulated huge amounts of pollutants including radioactivity. The activity can be released by using peat as fuel for electricity and heat production or by the global warming causing higher decomposition. The activity can then either be released to the atmosphere or concentrated in ashes or be released to the water sheds. Of special interest are raised bogs since they receive pollutants only from the atmosphere. Natural radioactivity such as 210Po, 210Pb and Uranium isotopes have been studied in peat. Also anthropogenic radionuclides such as 137Cs and 239+240Pu were studied in the same samples. Peat cores, about 20 cm in length, were sampled from Axmar raised peat bog (61o01 N, 17o21 E), Sweden with a cylindrical steel corer (O = 8 cm). The cores were sliced in 1 cm sections and dried ( 60oC). 210Po was deposited spontaneously on Ag or Ni discs after mineral acid digestion. 210Pb was determined by ingrown 210Po and repeated deposition. Uranium isotopes and Plutonium were sequentially separated by anion exchange. As radiochemical yield determinants 209Po, 232U and 242Pu were used. The samples were measured by alpha spectrometry using ion implanted silicon detectors. 137Cs was measured by a HpGe well type detector. The results are shown. The activity concentrations of 210Po and 210Pb agree very well by the method used. This is also expected since analysis was carried out 1 year after sampling. Otherwise sometimes equilibrium has not been reached in the top-layer. The dating of the peat bog using unsupported 210Pb works very well and shows a growth rate of 1.5 mm per year corresponding to a net mass increase of 170 g m-2 per year. Uranium concentrations are increasing with depth from 4 to 25 Bq kg-1 (1-17 cm). Most of the uranium must have other origin than atmospheric deposition for example migrating from deeper layers. The 234U/238U activity ratio is generally smaller than one which is unusual for water and biological material. It is known that 234U has a higher solubility from mineral surfaces due to the alpha particle recoil. As can be seen there is a peak at 8 cm depth for 137Cs which then corresponds very well to the major nuclear tests 1962-1963 especially considering some overlapping from earlier tests 1957-1958. The peak from the Chernobyl accident, 1986, should be at about 3 cm depth but we have also observed that a large fraction of radiocaesium is found in the top layers where there is growing plant material. Plutonium has also a maximum at 8 cm depth but not as distinct as for 137Cs in this profile. The contribution of 239+240Pu from the Chernobyl accident was relatively much smaller than that for 137Cs. (author)

70

Malaria infection by sporozoite challenge induces high functional antibody titres against blood stage antigens after a DNA prime, poxvirus boost vaccination strategy in Rhesus macaques  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background A DNA prime, poxvirus (COPAK boost vaccination regime with four antigens, i.e. a combination of two Plasmodium knowlesi sporozoite (csp/ssp2 and two blood stage (ama1/msp142 genes, leads to self-limited parasitaemia in 60% of rhesus monkeys and survival from an otherwise lethal infection with P. knowlesi. In the present study, the role of the blood stage antigens in protection was studied in depth, focusing on antibody formation against the blood stage antigens and the functionality thereof. Methods Rhesus macaques were immunized with the four-component vaccine and subsequently challenged i.v. with 100 P. knowlesi sporozoites. During immunization and challenge, antibody titres against the two blood stage antigens were determined, as well as the in vitro growth inhibition capacity of those antibodies. Antigen reversal experiments were performed to determine the relative contribution of antibodies against each of the two blood stage antigens to the inhibition. Results After vaccination, PkAMA1 and PkMSP119 antibody titres in vaccinated animals were low, which was reflected in low levels of inhibition by these antibodies as determined by in vitro inhibition assays. Interestingly, after sporozoite challenge antibody titres against blood stage antigens were boosted over 30-fold in both protected and not protected animals. The in vitro inhibition levels increased to high levels (median inhibitions of 59% and 56% at 6 mg/mL total IgG, respectively. As growth inhibition levels were not significantly different between protected and not protected animals, the ability to control infection appeared cannot be explained by GIA levels. Judged by in vitro antigen reversal growth inhibition assays, over 85% of the inhibitory activity of these antibodies was directed against PkAMA1. Conclusions This is the first report that demonstrates that a DNA prime/poxvirus boost vaccination regimen induces low levels of malaria parasite growth inhibitory antibodies, which are boosted to high levels upon challenge. No association could, however, be established between the levels of inhibitory capacity in vitro and protection, either after vaccination or after challenge.

Thomas Alan W

2011-02-01

71

An outbreak of post-streptococcal reactive arthritis.  

Science.gov (United States)

We describe an outbreak of an illness with fever, mono-, pauci- or polyarticular arthritis, and high antideoxyribonuclease B (ADNB) titres in 11 patients. Two patients had concomitant non-purulent conjunctivitis and one had endogenous endophthalmitis. There was no clinical or echocardiographic (6 patients) evidence of carditis. Blood culture grew Group A beta haemolytic streptococci in one patient. A simultaneous synovial fluid culture in this patient and similar cultures in four more patients yielded no microorganism. Most patients recovered completely, but one developed rheumatoid factor negative spondyloarthropathy. Monoarticular arthritis in several patients, the absence of carditis, and the presence of high ADNB titres without high anti-streptolysin O titres indicate that this was not acute rheumatic fever but post-streptococcal reactive arthritis (PSRA). PMID:9277035

Madhuri, V; Mathai, E; Brahmadathan, K N; Korula, R J; John, T J

1997-06-01

72

Enti religiosi e fund raising: un binomio possibile (anzi, necessario  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Contributo sottoposto a valutazioniSOMMARIO: 1. Premessa - 2. Il fund raising: inquadramento concettuale - 3. (segue Strategie, strumenti e tecniche di fund raising - 4. Il fund raising come fattore di potenziale sviluppo delle organizzazioni non profit - 5. Enti religiosi e fund raising: un binomio che necessita di essere consolidato (e potenziato - 6. Peculiarità dell’azione di fund raising degli enti religiosi - 7. Fund raising e aspetti economici e gestionali degli enti religiosi - 8. Considerazioni conclusive.Abstract:Religious organizations and fundraising: a possible combination (indeed necessary Fund-raising activities represent the principal livelihood and sources of growth and development for non-profit organisations. Fund-raising is, also, an increasingly important part of religious organizations life. Almost each of them engages in some kind of fund-raising activity, with the purpose of generating income to sustain the organization’s programs and activities. The present study analyzes the relationship between religious organizations and fund-raising activities: a correlation that always existed, but now calls for consolidation and improvement in order to allow religious organizations to achieve economic sustainability. Therefore, religious organizations should develop competency and capacity to design and implement fund-raising activities, through appropriate policies, tools and methodologies. In this perspective, the author examines all the facets of fund-raising activities related to the religious organizations sector and, more in general, the possible applications of business administration principles to the management of religious bodies (so-called “church management”.Parole chiave: enti religiosi; fund raising; sostenibilità economica; management

Fabio Franceschi

2012-11-01

73

Mumps virus infection in vaccinated patients can be detected by an increase in specific IgG antibodies to high titres: a retrospective study.  

Science.gov (United States)

SUMMARY Mumps outbreaks in highly vaccinated populations with genotype G have been reported repeatedly. Detection of these outbreaks can be difficult in a setting with relatively high vaccination coverage when acute cases of mumps are routinely diagnosed by IgM serology since this marker is not reliable for diagnosis of mumps re-infection. To learn whether diagnostic tests performed in a large private laboratory may be useful to detect mumps outbreaks retrospectively, we reviewed the results of almost 7000 mumps tests. Two groups were compared: group 1 comprised of 3438 samples from patients submitted by physicians and clinicians (it was assumed that these patients visited their doctor due to acute disease). Group 2 comprised of 3398 samples submitted from company medical officers and occupational physicians. Since these patients usually attend for routine check-ups and certification of immunity to vaccine-preventable diseases, these samples comprised a control group. From July 2010 to May 2011, a mumps virus outbreak with more than 300 cases occurred in Bavaria, Southeast Germany. Our study includes samples received for serological mumps tests from January 2009 until December 2011 (36 months). The two groups were analysed with regard to the number of IgM-positive cases per month and the level of IgG titre. We found a marked increase for both parameters in group 1 during the time of the outbreak, while the samples submitted by the occupational medical physicians did not display significant alterations. These parameters reflect the outbreak with high accuracy, indicating that a retrospective analysis of IgG titres may be a useful tool for detection of mumps outbreaks when, as was the case in Germany, (i) a nationwide notification system has not been implemented and (ii) a highly vaccinated population is affected. PMID:24423404

Borgmann, S; Schwab, F; Santibanez, S; Mankertz, A

2014-11-01

74

Some remarks on right node raising in Romanian  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Coordinate clauses with a common constituent in final position give rise to an interesting construction (Mary likes, but John hates cats, in which the constituent at the right edge of the first conjunct is missing. This phenomenon, known in the literature as Right Node Raising, has been analyzed either as an instance of movement or as an instance of ellipsis in the first conjunct. Starting from Hartmann (2000, Abels (2004 and Ha (2006, who argue in favour of an in-situ analysis of Right Node Raising, we focus on the licensing conditions on Right Node Raising in Romanian. The paper is organized in two sections. First we outline the deletion/ellipsis analyses of Right Node Raising constructions in English. Then we present empirical data related to the pre-Right Node Raising elements, the types of right-peripheral constituents that can be elided and the contexts which allow or block Right Node Raising in Romanian.

Camelia Bejan

2008-01-01

75

Differences in female-male mortality after high-titre measles vaccine and association with subsequent vaccination with diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis and inactivated poliovirus : reanalysis of West African studies  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Females given high-titre measles vaccine (HTMV) have high mortality; diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis (DTP) vaccination might be associated with increased female mortality. We aimed to assess whether DTP or inactivated poliovirus (IPV) administered after HTMV was associated with increased female-male mortality ratio.

Aaby, Peter; Jensen, Henrik

2003-01-01

76

29 CFR 780.126 - Contract arrangements for raising poultry.  

Science.gov (United States)

... 2010-07-01 false Contract arrangements for raising poultry...Or Poultry § 780.126 Contract arrangements for raising poultry...contractual arrangements with farmers under which the latter...arrangement, the activities of the farmers and their employees in...

2010-07-01

77

Constructing an Engineering Model for Raising an Egyptian Obelisk  

Science.gov (United States)

One of the greatest mysteries of ancient times is how the Egyptians managed to raise huge obelisks using very simple technology. This remarkable task has puzzled engineers for thousand of years. After failing to raise an obelisk with simple machines, such as levers and pulleys, a team of modern engineers solved the mystery using a sandpit and the…

Beck, Charles R.

2009-01-01

78

Production of antibody fragment (Fab) throughout Escherichia coli fed-batch fermentation process: Changes in titre, location and form of product  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: English Abstract in english Background: Recombinant proteins, including antibodies and antibody fragments, often contain disulfide bond bridges that are necessary for their folding, stability and function. Production of disulfide-bond-containing proteins in the periplasm of Escherichia coli has been very useful, due to unique [...] characteristics of the periplasm, for obtaining fully active and correctly folded products and for alleviating downstream processing. Results: In this study, fed-batch cultivation of Escherichia coli (E. coli) for production of Fab D1.3, which is an anti-hen egg white lysozyme (HEWL) antibody fragment was carried out at 37ºC, and the bacterial cells were induced by adding 0.1 mM IPTG to the culture medium. Fermentor was sampled over the course of fermentation; the bacterial cells were centrifugally separated from the culture broth and subjected to osmotic shock (with excluding HEWL) and sonication procedures. The resulting fractions were analysed for Fab using a combination of ELISA, SDS-PAGE and Western blotting and changes in product titre, location, and form was assessed throughout growth. It was shown that osmotic shock released the Fab from the periplasm very efficiently and its efficacy was 20-45% more than sonication. This study demonstrates that, at high cell density cultivation in fermentor, target product can appear inside and outside the cells, depending on the time of induction. The maximum amount of Fab (47 mg/l) in the periplasm was reached at 14 hrs cultivation (4 hrs post induction), being suitable time for cell harvest, selective periplasmic extraction and downstream capture. The Fab increasingly leaked into the culture medium, and reached its maximum culture medium titre of ~78 mg/l after 6 hrs post induction. After 16 hrs cultivation (6 hrs post induction) the amount of Fab remained constant in different locations within and outside the cells. Western blot analysis of cell fractions showed that certain amount of the Fab was also produced in the cells as insoluble form. Conclusions: In this work we showed that the production of Fab in the periplasm during high cell density cultivation of E. coli in fermentor can be challenging as the product may appear in various locations within and outside the cells. To exploit the advantages of the periplasmic expression systems for purification in downstream processing, bacterial cells should be harvested when they maintain the majority of the target protein in their periplasmic space (i.e. 4 hrs post induction).

Reza, Jalalirad.

2013-05-15

79

Study: Rare Blood Type May Slightly Raise Dementia Risk  

Science.gov (United States)

... JavaScript. Study: Rare Blood Type May Slightly Raise Dementia Risk But lifestyle factors play a bigger role, ... Wednesday, September 10, 2014 Related MedlinePlus Pages Blood Dementia WEDNESDAY, Sept. 10, 2014 (HealthDay News) -- Your blood ...

80

Obesity During Pregnancy Linked to Raised Asthma Risk in Kids  

Science.gov (United States)

... sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Obesity During Pregnancy Linked to Raised Asthma Risk in ... Related MedlinePlus Pages Asthma Health Problems in Pregnancy Obesity TUESDAY, July 22, 2014 (HealthDay News) -- Women who ...

 
 
 
 
81

Smoking Before Fatherhood May Raise Asthma Risk in Kids  

Science.gov (United States)

... sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Smoking Before Fatherhood May Raise Asthma Risk in Kids: ... Related MedlinePlus Pages Asthma in Children Men's Health Smoking MONDAY, Sept. 8, 2014 (HealthDay News) -- Men who ...

82

Could Time Spent Outdoors Raise Cataract, Glaucoma Risk?  

Science.gov (United States)

... please enable JavaScript. Could Time Spent Outdoors Raise Cataract, Glaucoma Risk? Sunlight reflected up into the eyes ... Preidt Thursday, September 4, 2014 Related MedlinePlus Pages Cataract Glaucoma THURSDAY, Sept. 4, 2014 (HealthDay News) -- Outdoor ...

83

Job Worries Can Raise Asthma Risk, Study Says  

Science.gov (United States)

... sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Job Worries Can Raise Asthma Risk, Study Says Findings ... 23, 2014 (HealthDay News) -- Fear of losing your job can increase the risk for developing asthma, according ...

84

Raised Acne Scars: Treatment Can Ease Pain, Diminish Scars  

Science.gov (United States)

... can be applied to a raised scar. Applying tretinoin (a prescription medication used to treat acne) twice ... you can apply to the scar. Applying both tretinoin and a strong corticosteroid to a keloid seems ...

85

Psoriasis Tied to Raised Risk of Uncontrolled Blood Pressure  

Science.gov (United States)

... sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Psoriasis Tied to Raised Risk of Uncontrolled Blood Pressure ... 15, 2014 Related MedlinePlus Pages High Blood Pressure Psoriasis WEDNESDAY, Oct. 15, 2014 (HealthDay News) -- People with ...

86

High antibody titres against predicted Mycoplasma surface proteins do not prevent sequestration in infected lung tissue in the course of experimental contagious bovine pleuropneumonia.  

Science.gov (United States)

Contagious bovine pleuropneumonia (CBPP), a severe respiratory disease of cattle caused by Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides (Mmm) is endemic in many African countries due to fragmented veterinary services and the lack of an efficient vaccine and sensitive diagnostics. More efficient tools to control the disease are needed, but to develop the tools, a better understanding of host-pathogen interactions is necessary. The aim of this study was to characterize the kinetics of the humoral immune response against 65 Mmm surface antigens for an extended period in cattle that survived a primary infection with Mmm. We describe clinical and haematological outcomes, and dissect the humoral immune response over time, to specific antigens and compared the antibody responses between different pathomorphological outcomes. No antigen-specific antibodies correlating with protection were identified. Interestingly we found that animals that developed Mycoplasma-containing sequestra had significantly higher antibody levels against proteins comprising the surface proteome than the animals that cleared Mycoplasma from their lungs. Based on these data we suggest that high antibody titres might play a role in the establishment of pathomorphological changes, such as vasculitis, which should be investigated in future studies. Beneficial antibody specificities and cellular immune responses need to be identified in order to foster the development of an improved vaccine in the future. PMID:24880898

Schieck, Elise; Liljander, Anne; Hamsten, Carl; Gicheru, Nimmo; Scacchia, Massimo; Sacchini, Flavio; Heller, Martin; Schnee, Christiane; Sterner-Kock, Anja; Hlinak, Andreas; Naessens, Jan; Poole, Jane; Persson, Anja; Jores, Joerg

2014-08-01

87

A practice of advancing return shaft by raised shaft technique  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Advance of super-high raise has been a difficult problem in the underground construction of mines. A main return shaft of a uranium mine was advanced by raised shaft technique. The technique has advantages such as high efficience, safety and economy. Monthly shaft completion averaged 85 m, the highest was up to 120 m. Blasting efficience was above 92%. A reference is provided for similar projects. (authors)

88

The use of serological titres of IgA and IgG in (early) discrimination between rectal infection with non-lymphogranuloma venereum and lymphogranuloma venereum serovars of Chlamydia trachomatis  

Science.gov (United States)

Objectives To investigate whether serological titres of species?specific IgA and IgG antibodies in patients with rectal chlamydial infection could discriminate between infection with serovar L2 lymphogranuloma venereum (LGV) and infection with non?LGV serovars. Methods A total of 39 male patients with chlamydial infection of the rectum were tested for titres of IgA and IgG antibodies within 14?days after detection of the infection and 6 and 12?months after adequate treatment. Data were collected regarding demographics, sexual orientation, HIV serostatus, history of chlamydial infection, concomitant sexually transmitted infection (STI) or HIV infection, hepatitis C virus antibodies and new STIs during follow?up. Results Between May 2003 and November 2005, 24 men with confirmed L2 proctitis and 15 men with non?LGV rectal chlamydial infection were recruited. In multivariable analyses, both high titre of IgA within 14?days after detection of the infection and older age of the individual were found significantly associated with L2 proctitis (p<0.001 and p?=?0.001, respectively). A total sum score of seven times IgA titre and individual's age ?50?years resulted in an overall sensitivity of 92% and specificity of 100%. This total sum score was highly accurate for detection of LGV proctitis, with an area under the curve in a receiver operating characteristic curve of 0.989. Conclusions An increased IgA antibody response and the age of the infected individual are of possible diagnostic value for (early) detection of LGV proctitis. PMID:17475689

van der Snoek, Eric M; Ossewaarde, Jacobus M; van der Meijden, Willem I; Mulder, Paul G H; Thio, H Bing

2007-01-01

89

Mouse-specific antibody responses to a monoclonal antibody during repeated immunoscintigraphy investigations: Comparison of antibody titres and imaging studies in a rat model  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

As a model for human mouse-specific antibody responses in patients undergoing immunoscintigraphy, we have investigated in rats the production of mouse-specific antibodies (MA) to the mouse monoclonal antibody 791T/36. At intervals of between 5 and 16 weeks the rats were given repeated cycles of intravenous (IV) injections of antibody with or without a simultaneous intradermal (ID) injection. The IV dose was 60 ?g/kg, a dose similar to that used in many clinical immunoscintigraphy studies. The ID injection was 2 ?g, which mimicks the skin test dose often given in clinical imaging protocols. The study was carried out with both 131I-labelled antibody and with antibody labelled with 111In by DTPA chelation. MA was measured with a passive haemagglutination assay using sheep red blood cells coated with the monoclonal antibody. Of rats given ID injections of unlabelled antibody at the same time as the IV imaging doses, 9/20 produced MA during 4 cycles of injections. In contrast, only 2/16 rats given only the IV dose produced MA. Both 131I- and 111In-labelled antibody appeared equally immunogenic with 5/18 and 6/18 overall responders, respectively. The production of MA was associated with a significant perturbation in the biodistribution of the IV dose of labelled antibody as seen by gamma-camera imaging of the rats given 111In-labelled antibody. There was clearance of immune complexes to the liver, this organ accumulatlexes to the liver, this organ accumulating up to 90% of the whole body count rate of radiolabel. MA titres of between 1/100 and 1/78000 caused equal perturbation of biodistribution, although below 1/100 the effect was more variable. (orig.)

90

Raising Wages as a Strategy to Reduce Corruption  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper examines whether raising the salaries of government tax auditors reduces their incentive to accept bribes. It evaluates an optimal tax structure and economic welfare under conditions of perfect and imperfect information in relation to conditions for bribery. The major policy implication of this paper is that it is not necessarily desirable to increase salaries as an anticorruption measure. Even if government can reduce corruption by improving civil servants’ pay, obtaining funds to do so by raising the income tax will worsen economic welfare, based on the optimal tax structure.

Hideki Sato

2011-12-01

91

Radiosensitivity of tissue culture raised white marigold seeds  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

White marigold of the (Tagetes erecta L. compositae) is an important ornamental crop suited for pot and bed plants. It suffers from the problem of low seed viability and poor seed germination. The technique of in vitro regeneration has already been standardized for production of large scale quality planting materials of white marigold. For inducing greater genetic variability, seeds collected from in vitro raised plants were included in a gamma ray induced mutation breeding programme. The main objective of the present experiment was to study the radiosensitivity of tissue culture raised seeds

92

Toutes les publications par titre  

... The area is striving for ecosystem-sensitive management in which both agriculture and healthy wetlands can co-exist. The video was created for the ...SEED Winners Workshop: The Green Economy in Africa: Climate change and energy, agriculture and food security, and the role of grassroots entrepreneurs Année:...

93

Cognate Awareness--Raising in Late Childhood: Teachable and Useful  

Science.gov (United States)

This study is part of a larger investigation of the usefulness of instruction designed to raise cross-linguistic awareness in young Francophone learners of English in Quebec. In the research reported here, the focus is on cognates. Since previous research shows that learners typically fail to recognise many helpful similarities between words in a…

White, Joanna L.; Horst, Marlise

2012-01-01

94

Utilized Strategies by Urban Superintendents to Raise Student Achievement  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of this study was to identify the utilized strategies and practices that urban superintendents use to raise student achievement. This study examined the strategies, practices, and leadership skills that are applied by urban superintendents. Three research questions were used in this mixed-methods study. A survey instrument was used…

Aguilar-Nuno, Andrea Marie

2012-01-01

95

Untreated Sleep Apnea May Raise Risk of Surgical Complications  

Science.gov (United States)

... features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Untreated Sleep Apnea May Raise Risk of Surgical Complications: Study Researchers ... September 26, 2014 Related MedlinePlus Pages After Surgery Sleep Apnea FRIDAY, Sept. 26, 2014 (HealthDay News) -- Screening and ...

96

Stem Cell Success Raises Hopes of Type 1 Diabetes Cure  

Science.gov (United States)

... sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Stem Cell Success Raises Hopes of Type 1 Diabetes Cure ... 9, 2014 Related MedlinePlus Pages Diabetes Type 1 Stem Cells THURSDAY, Oct. 9, 2014 (HealthDay News) -- In what ...

97

Babbitt's Brothers & Sisters: Raising Ethical Issues in Business Literature.  

Science.gov (United States)

A college-level course in business literature is an ideal place to raise and discuss ethical issues. To be successful, a teacher of this course must engage student interest, help the students articulate and understand their own ethical attitudes, clarify the stance and artistry of the author, and refine student responses to ethical questions. When…

Halpern, Jeanne W.

98

A Conjecture about Raising Operators for Macdonald Polynomials  

Science.gov (United States)

A multivariable hypergeometric-type formula for raising operators of the Macdonald polynomials is conjectured. It is proved that this agrees with Jing and Jozefiak's expression for the two-row Macdonald polynomials, and also with Lassalle and Schlosser's formula for partitions with length three.

Shiraishi, Jun'Ichi

2005-07-01

99

Multiple Drug Use Raises Infection Risk for 'Swinging' Couples  

Science.gov (United States)

... Contact Us Search MedlinePlus Health Topics Drugs & Supplements Videos & Cool Tools ESPAÑOL To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Multiple Drug Use Raises Infection Risk for 'Swinging' Couples Researchers cite need for safe sex practices (*this news item will not be available ...

100

Raising Cultural Awareness in the English Language Classroom  

Science.gov (United States)

This article discusses how teachers can incorporate cultural knowledge into English language classes, exploring elements of culture, intercultural phenomena, and high-context and low-context cultures. Activities offered by the author to raise cultural awareness include web quests, role plays, cultural observations, and culture journals.

Frank, Jerrold

2013-01-01

 
 
 
 
101

A Consciousness-Raising Group for Obese Women  

Science.gov (United States)

This article describes three consciousness-raising groups for obese women which met to explore what it is like to be fat in a thin-oriented society, to enhance their self-esteem, and to help the women recognize that being fat is one of many choices a person may legitimately make for herself. (Author/EJT)

Flack, Ruth; Grayer, Elinor D.

1975-01-01

102

Community Mobilization Model Applied to Support Grandparents Raising Grandchildren  

Science.gov (United States)

This article discusses the application of a community mobilization model through a case study of one community's response to address the needs of grandparents raising grandchildren. The community mobilization model presented is one that is replicable in addressing diverse community identified issues. Discussed is the building of the partnerships,…

Miller, Jacque; Bruce, Ann; Bundy-Fazioli, Kimberly; Fruhauf, Christine A.

2010-01-01

103

Raising Standards through INQUIRE in Pre-Service Teacher Education  

Science.gov (United States)

Raising standards through inquiry-based science education (IBSE)--what are the challenges for pre-service teacher education? What do ongoing teachers and active teachers learn from each other when planning, conducting and evaluating minds-on and hands-on IBSE activities in the classroom? What do they learn "beyond" IBSE? The Bremen…

Elster, D.; Barendziak, T.; Haskamp, F.; Kastenholz, L.

2014-01-01

104

7 CFR 760.204 - Eligible livestock, honeybees, and farm-raised fish.  

Science.gov (United States)

...livestock, honeybees, and farm-raised fish. 760.204 Section 760.204 Agriculture...Livestock, Honeybees, and Farm-Raised Fish Program § 760.204 Eligible livestock, honeybees, and farm-raised fish. (a) To be considered...

2010-01-01

105

40 CFR 408.10 - Applicability; description of the farm-raised catfish processing subcategory.  

Science.gov (United States)

...Applicability; description of the farm-raised catfish processing subcategory. 408.10 ...POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Farm-Raised Catfish Processing Subcategory § 408.10 ...Applicability; description of the farm-raised catfish processing subcategory. The...

2010-07-01

106

Giambelli, Pieri, and tableau formulas via raising operators  

CERN Document Server

We give a direct proof of the equivalence between the Giambelli and Pieri type formulas for Hall-Littlewood functions using Young's raising operators, parallel to joint work with Buch and Kresch for the Schubert classes on isotropic Grassmannians. We prove several closely related mirror identities enjoyed by the Giambelli polynomials, which lead to new recursions for Schubert classes. The raising operator approach is applied to obtain tableau formulas for Hall-Littlewood functions, theta polynomials, and related Stanley symmetric functions. Finally, we introduce the notion of a skew element w of the hyperoctahedral group and identify the set of reduced words for w with the set of standard k-tableaux on a skew Young diagram.

Tamvakis, Harry

2008-01-01

107

Raising awareness of specific language impairment: The RALLI Internet campaign  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In this editorial, we discuss what is specific language impairment (SLI) and why it is a hidden disability that few people have heard about. We describe the impact on research, policy and practice of SLI being a neglected condition. We end by providing the background and rationale of a new Internet campaign, RALLI (. www.youtube.com/rallicampaign), aimed at changing this state of affairs and raising awareness of SLI. This YouTube channel has videoclips and information about SLI in Spanish. ©...

Conti-ramsden, G.; Bishop, Dvm; Snowling, MJ; Clark, B.; Frazier Norbury, C.

2013-01-01

108

Raising and Lowering Operators for Askey-Wilson Polynomials  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this paper we describe two pairs of raising/lowering operators for Askey-Wilson polynomials, which result from constructions involving very different techniques. The first technique is quite elementary, and depends only on the ''classical'' properties of these polynomials, viz. the q-difference equation and the three term recurrence. The second technique is less elementary, and involves the one-variable version of the double affine Hecke algebra.

Siddhartha Sahi

2007-01-01

109

Raising Wages as a Strategy to Reduce Corruption  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper examines whether raising the salaries of government tax auditors reduces their incentive to accept bribes. It evaluates an optimal tax structure and economic welfare under conditions of perfect and imperfect information in relation to conditions for bribery. The major policy implication of this paper is that it is not necessarily desirable to increase salaries as an anticorruption measure. Even if government can reduce corruption by improving civil servants’ pay, obtaining funds ...

Hideki Sato

2011-01-01

110

Soil information in support of policy making and awareness raising  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Soils play an important role in defining sustainable land-use options when facing major global environmental challenges such as food security, climate change, fresh water scarcity and biodiversity loss. Facing these problems, the 2006 EU Thematic Strategy for Soil Protection (TSSP), provides an important focal point for soil research and awareness raising. Unfortunately, the TSSP has not yet been followed up with a legally binding Framework Directive mainly because of political barriers. Two ...

Bouma, J.; Broll, G.; Crane, T. A.; Dewitte, O.; Gardi, C.; Schulte, R. P. O.; Towers, W.

2012-01-01

111

RAISE: a Product Supporting Industrial Use of Formal Methods  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

This paper gives an overview of RAISE, a product consisting of a method for developing software, an associated formal specification language and tools supporting the method and the language. The method is based on the notion of stepwise refinement and offers the possibility of formal verification. The specification language incorporates several specification styles in one uniform framework. The product is aimed at industry and is currently being used by several companies

Haxthausen, Anne Elisabeth; Prehn, SØren

1993-01-01

112

Retail impact of raising tobacco sales age to 21 years.  

Science.gov (United States)

The majority of tobacco use emerges in individuals before they reach 21 years of age, and many adult distributors of tobacco to youths are young adults aged between 18 and 20 years. Raising the tobacco sales minimum age to 21 years across the United States would decrease tobacco retailer and industry sales by approximately 2% but could contribute to a substantial reduction in the prevalence of youths' tobacco use and dependency by limiting access. PMID:25211755

Winickoff, Jonathan P; Hartman, Lester; Chen, Minghua L; Gottlieb, Mark; Nabi-Burza, Emara; DiFranza, Joseph R

2014-11-01

113

Fund-raising Tips for Nurse Leaders and Nurse Executives.  

Science.gov (United States)

Fund-raising may be new to most nurse leaders and executives. This article focuses on dispelling the myths and mystery that surrounds nursing philanthropy. Key myths are addressed with supporting information to dispel them. Several practical tips are presented to enhance nurse leaders' involvement in philanthropy. Two recent gifts to hospital nursing departments are described as exemplars of relationship building and of nurses investing in their own future and that of the profession. PMID:25208146

Fitzpatrick, Joyce J

2014-01-01

114

First detection of microsporidia in raised pigeons in Poland.  

Science.gov (United States)

Microsporidia are single-celled intracellular parasites which occur in a number of animals, both vertebrates and invertebrates. Several species of microsporidia can cause disease in humans in both immunocompromised and immunocompetent individuals. However, the sources of human infection and the routes of transmission of microsporidia have not yet been fully determined, although more and more researchers are of the opinion that microsporidia in humans is zoonotic. The aim of the presented study was to identify the most common microsporidial species in the droppings of raised and wild pigeons in Poland. A total of 139 collective samples of droppings (33 samples of droppings from feral pigeons and 106 samples from raised pigeons) were examined using conventional staining and molecular techniques. Using chromotrope staining and multiplex FISH techniques, the microsporidial spores were found in 12 (8.6%) of the 139 samples of droppings. The spores of Encephalitozoon hellem were detected in five samples of pigeon droppings (3.6%), spores of E. intestinalis in four samples of droppings (2.9%), while spores of E. cuniculi and E. bieneusi were only detected in two samples (1.4%). Furthermore, a mixed infection of E. bieneusi and E. cuniculi was found in a single sample of droppings (0.7%). The presence of microsporidial spores in droppings collected from raised pigeons indicates a risk of infection to humans, mainly pigeon fanciers. PMID:23540206

S?odkowicz-Kowalska, Anna; Graczyk, Thaddeus K; Nowosad, Andrzej; Majewska, Anna C

2013-01-01

115

Raising consciousness about the nuclear threat through music  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This dissertation examines the use of music, in particular topical collaborative group song writing, as a tool for raising consciousness about the threat of nuclear war. Consciousness raising is one way to overcome the phenomenon of denial and to increase discussion and social action in response to the nuclear threat. This dissertation measures the impact of a group song writing workshop on developing critical problem-solving in adult groups; it reviews how music is applied in psychological research and clinical work, has been used historically as a tool in social-change movements in America, and is used in the contemporary field of peace education. The perspectives of several theorists who discuss the potential of music to contribute to social change are presented. It is concluded that consciousness about the nuclear threat - in terms of naming and analyzing - can be raised by working with music's potential for developing affective, expressive, and collaborative capabilities in individuals and groups. Potential applications of the group song writing workshop are in schools, with peace organizations, music groups, and in relation to other social issues.

Ungerleider, J.H.

1987-01-01

116

Radiation protection issues raised in Korea since Fukushima accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

For the past 3 years since Fukushima accident, various issues related to nuclear safety and radiation safety were raised in Korea. This presentation focuses radiation protection (RP) issues among the various issues and has the purpose to share experiences and lessons-learned related to the RP issues. Special safety inspections on NPPs in Korea were performed immediately after Fukushima accident and 50 follow-up measures were established in May, 2011 to improve the nuclear safety. Some of them were related to radiation protection and emergency responses. Recently, in March, 2014, additional follow-up measures were decided to be taken in additionally strengthening safety-related equipment and emergency response organization. The 50 Fukushima-accident-follow-up measures include radiation protection for members of the public in emergency responses. Based on the follow-up measures, expansion of emergency planning zone (EPZ) is to be made according to the approval of legislation by National Assembly on May 2, 2014. For the past 3 years, the degree of the public concerns on radiation risk has been the highest. Spontaneous activities for radiation monitoring happened in the public. Some members of the public found some contaminated paved roads in November, 2011 and a contaminated kitchen ware in January, 2012. These findings suggest the importance of the management of recycled metal scraps imported from other countries. Fukushima accident gave much impact on Korean society all. The public gets very sensitive to issues about nuclear safety and radiation safety. Most parts of RP issues raised are related to the public. The lessons-learned are that as an issue is raised, it has a chance to be solved. However, RP issues related to radiation workers in accident conditions in NPPs are difficult to be raised enough to confirm and improve the robustness of radiation protection programs in accident conditions. It is necessary to share RP issues raised in each country as well as experiences and lessons-learned. Then, the shared information could help to enhance RP programs in each country in different conditions. (author)

117

Evaluación anátomo-histopatológica de bursa, timo y bazo de pollos de carne criados sobre cama reutilizada vs. cama nueva / Anatomical and histopathological evaluation of the bursa, thymus and spleen of broiler chickens raised in new or reused litter  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Peru | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Se evaluó el desarrollo anátomo-histopatológico de la bursa, timo y bazo de pollos de carne criados en cama nueva y cama reutilizada por cinco campañas. Se criaron 250 pollos machos de la línea Ross 308, la mitad en cama nueva y la otra mitad en cama reutilizada. Semanalmente, se determinaron los ín [...] dices morfométricos de bursa, timo y bazo, y la relación entre bursa y bazo por grupo. Los órganos linfoides fueron evaluados mediante histopatología, y los títulos de anticuerpos contra las enfermedades de Gumboro, Newcastle, Bronquitis Infecciosa, Anemia Infecciosa y Reovirus, al inicio y final de la crianza (49 días), se determinaron por la prueba de ELISA. Se encontró diferencia estadística (p Abstract in english The anatomo-histopathological development of the bursa, thymus and spleen of broiler chickens raised in new and reused litter through five campaigns was evaluated. Two hundred and fifty male chickens of the Ross 308 line were raised, half in new and half in reused litter. On a weekly basis, the morp [...] hometric indexes of bursa, thymus and spleen, and the relation bursa/spleen were recorded. The lymphoid organs were evaluated by histopathology and ELISA test was used to determine antibody titres for Gumboro, Newcastle, Infectious Bronchitis, Infectious Anemia, and Reovirus at the beginning and end of the study (49 days). Statistical difference was found (p

Antonio, Tambini A.; Mónica, Alba C.; Rosa, Perales C; Néstor, Falcón P.

118

Evaluación anátomo-histopatológica de bursa, timo y bazo de pollos de carne criados sobre cama reutilizada vs. cama nueva / Anatomical and histopathological evaluation of the bursa, thymus and spleen of broiler chickens raised in new or reused litter  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Peru | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Se evaluó el desarrollo anátomo-histopatológico de la bursa, timo y bazo de pollos de carne criados en cama nueva y cama reutilizada por cinco campañas. Se criaron 250 pollos machos de la línea Ross 308, la mitad en cama nueva y la otra mitad en cama reutilizada. Semanalmente, se determinaron los ín [...] dices morfométricos de bursa, timo y bazo, y la relación entre bursa y bazo por grupo. Los órganos linfoides fueron evaluados mediante histopatología, y los títulos de anticuerpos contra las enfermedades de Gumboro, Newcastle, Bronquitis Infecciosa, Anemia Infecciosa y Reovirus, al inicio y final de la crianza (49 días), se determinaron por la prueba de ELISA. Se encontró diferencia estadística (p Abstract in english The anatomo-histopathological development of the bursa, thymus and spleen of broiler chickens raised in new and reused litter through five campaigns was evaluated. Two hundred and fifty male chickens of the Ross 308 line were raised, half in new and half in reused litter. On a weekly basis, the morp [...] hometric indexes of bursa, thymus and spleen, and the relation bursa/spleen were recorded. The lymphoid organs were evaluated by histopathology and ELISA test was used to determine antibody titres for Gumboro, Newcastle, Infectious Bronchitis, Infectious Anemia, and Reovirus at the beginning and end of the study (49 days). Statistical difference was found (p

Antonio, Tambini A.; Mónica, Alba C.; Rosa, Perales C; Néstor, Falcón P.

2010-07-01

119

Issues Raised in Relation to Radioactive Waste Management  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Nirex has undertaken various consultations with different stakeholders to identify their issues and concerns about radioactive waste management in general and specific aspects of Nirex's work. This paper will outline what dialogue techniques Nirex has undertaken and the issues and concerns that people have raised during the events. It will outline some of the work that Nirex is undertaking to address stakeholders' issues and concerns. Nirex has used a variety of dialogue techniques co-ordinated under the Nirex Involvement Programme to engage with stakeholders about the work we undertake. We are now trying to address the issues, concerns, scenarios and questions raised in our work programme. Key lessons that we have learned in undertaking the dialogues include: The importance of appropriate facilitation and organisation of meetings; The need for a clear purpose for meetings; Being flexible to the needs of the attendees and the issues they raise; Providing feedback to those who participate and following up issues. Through engaging with the public Nirex has learned that: Radioactive waste is not an everyday concern for people; The public can, will and want to engage with the issue of radioactive waste management. This includes engaging with the ethical debate. To facilitate this Nirex and others need to: Provide information in a neutral form outlining the pros and cons and including various people's opinions; Use proactive techniques to allow access and space for people to discuss the issues; Demonstrate how people's opinions have been taken into account. People understand the issues very differently to the way institutions understand them. There is a need for institutions to learn to understand public concerns and the ways in which the public understand issues, as well as for the public to understand the institutional positions better. We are using these insights to develop our future work in this area

120

Some Aspects for Raising of Economic Competitiveness of Dairy Farming  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In Hungary the last decade the number of cattle stock practically hasdiminished 50% because of the unfavourable economic conditions. This fact and the nearing joining to EU reflect the important for developing dairy farming in the knew circumstances. Theoretically the over production is favourable for the profitability, because of the decreasing of the specific stable cost. Unfortunately, this way is closedfor the Hungarian dairy farming because of the quota system. Raising of the milk quality is more possible and real way for raising of the economic competitiveness in the milk farming, especially in lower classes. In connection profit, price and cost it can be said, that the production cost of milk is lower at the private farms, but the milk price is higher at company farms every year. This means, that private farms are responsive to cost (more economical production, adaptation to environment, etc., and the companies are responsive to price (higher milk quality, technical level, etc.. The two opposite tendencies result in higher income at private farms. The production cost, of course, depends on a lot of factors (labour, technology,keeping, etc. but the feed cost plays decisive role. The feed cost variation is 2-3 times more than the average milk cost variation, so we can say, that environmentally adapted milk production ? throw the feed cost will play decisive role in milk economics. This fact especially will be true in the next quota system and guaranteed price! Purpose of the investigation was to examine some opportunities for raising of competitiveness of dairy farming.

Sandor Kalmar

2003-09-01

 
 
 
 
121

Raising the Awareness of Development Progress in Distributed Agile Projects  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This article discusses a computer-based holistic approach to raise the awareness of development progress in distributed agile projects. The approach analyses how the technical activities (i.e. source code versioning, unit testing, acceptance testing, integration and releasing affects development progress and provides automatic mechanisms that help co-ordinate progress change with distributed team members. The approach has been evaluated through practical scenarios and has validated these through a research prototype. The result shows that the use of the holistic approach can provide better awareness of progress to team members than the traditional approach that relies on informal communications.

Sultan Alyahya

2013-12-01

122

Legal problems raised by the dissemination of information  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Dissemination of nuclear information presents specific aspects at the legal level which are explained by historical, political and technical connotations. Certain international agreements notably the Euratom Treaty or the Treaty on the non-proliferation of nuclear weapons determine legal frameworks for the dissemination of information that specialized international organizations also try to facilitate. Agreements concluded in this field include characteristic provisions (duration, definition of knowledge, guarantee clauses, protection of secrecy, the importance of technical assistance R and D, ...) which give them a complex legal nature. These problems are now raised in particular in the nuclear safety sector. (Auth)

123

Quaternary raised coral-reef terraces on sumba island, indonesia.  

Science.gov (United States)

A spectacular sequence of coral-reef terraces (six steps broader than 500 meters and many minor substeps) is developed near Cape Laundi, Sumba Island, between an ancient patch reef 475 meters high and sea level. Several raised reefs have been dated with the electron spin resonance and the uranium-series dating methods. The uplift trend deduced from these reefs is 0.5 millimeter per year; most terraces, although polycyclic in origin, appear to correspond to specific interglacial stages, with the oldest terrace formed 1 million years ago. This puts them among the longest and most complete mid-Quaternary terrace sequences. PMID:17753260

Pirazzoli, P A; Radtke, U; Hantoro, W S; Jouannic, C; Hoang, C T; Causse, C; Best, M B

1991-06-28

124

Tenneco raises $75 million for independents' E and P  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Tenneco Gas's ventures group, Houston, has raised $75 million to invest in gas exploration and production by independent operations on the U.S. Gulf Coast. Institutional investors committed $50 million to the fund and a group of industrial investors $25 million. Tenneco the the fund will expand to accommodate additional investors through this year. This paper reports that the company's ventures group is evaluating acquisition and drilling opportunities with independents. Ventures group capital will be invested in independent exploratory, development, and producing properties

125

School District Interests and Challenges Buying Chicken Raised without Antibiotics  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The overuse of antibiotics in animal agriculture is recognized as contributing to human antibiotic resistance. With large meat purchases, particularly chicken, school districts have an opportunity to leverage their buying power to engage with this issue. However, few school food service professionals have done so and little is known about their awareness, attitudes, or experiences. This research surveyed 36 school districts affiliated with School Food FOCUS, which works on procurement reform with many of the largest school districts in the country. Questions were designed to solicit familiarity with the issue of antibiotic use in poultry production, attitudes, and extent of relevant action taken. Motivations and barriers for purchasing poultry raised with minimal, safe and sustainable use of antibiotics as well as fresh (raw poultry, which has been found to be an affordable way to menu antibiotic-free chicken, were assessed. Results revealed that this issue is important to respondents but difficult to address due to more immediate concerns. Barriers are experienced with purchasing both chicken raised without antibiotics and preparing fresh chicken. Product cost was perceived as a particularly high barrier. Responding to concerns of parents and the community was a top motivation.

Kathryn J. A. Colasanti

2013-09-01

126

Raised Relief Mars Globe Brings the Red Planet Closer  

Science.gov (United States)

The Mars Globe 20x is the first digitally produced raised relief globe to be sold at retail establishments. The rises and dips of the Martian landscape have been multiplied by 20 to make the shapes more noticeable to human touch and sight. They make this globe, with its over 1 million elevation points, a visually stunning introduction to the planet. Spectrum 3D used the NASA digital land elevation data to aim lasers that then shaped and defined the master globe s surface. Subsequent copies were then made by creating a master globe mold. The molded copies are hand finished by workers who remove errant edges or lines that may appear on the raw globes and then paint the surfaces. The result is a globe that measures in at 18 inches in diameter, roughly 1:15,729,473 scale of the actual planet. The exaggerated raised relief is like having a 3-D digital microscope for planetary shapes. This makes the landmarks easier to learn and understand, as it provides easy visuals for orientation. People have a natural propensity for understanding 3-D shapes more easily than numbers or words. The 3-D globes appeal to both the kinetic and visual learning aspects of the brain, making it easy for people to readily memorize the landmarks and to make a mental model that they will remember for a long time.

2006-01-01

127

Exploring pig raising in Bangladesh: implications for public health interventions.  

Science.gov (United States)

Pigs are intermediate hosts and potential reservoirs of a number of pathogens that can infect humans. The objectives of this manuscript are to understand pig raising patterns in Bangladesh, interactions between pigs and humans, social stigma and discrimination that pig raisers experience and to explore the implications of these findings for public health interventions. The study team conducted an exploratory qualitative study by interviewing backyard pig raisers and nomadic herders (n=34), observing daily interactions between pigs and humans (n=18) and drawing seasonal diagrams (n=6) with herders to understand the reasons for movement of nomadic herds. Pig raisers had regular close interaction with pigs. They often touched, caressed and fed their pigs which exposed them to pigs' saliva and feces. Herders took their pigs close to human settlements for scavenging. Other domestic animals and poultry shared food and sleeping and scavenging places with pigs. Since pigs are taboo in Islam, a majority of Muslims rejected pig raising and stigmatized pig raisers. This study identified several potential ways for pigs to transmit infectious agents to humans in Bangladesh. Poverty and stigmatization of pig raisers make it difficult to implement health interventions to reduce the risk of such transmissions. Interventions that offer social support to reduce stigma and highlight economic benefits of disease control might interest of pig raisers in accepting interventions targeting pig borne zoonoses. PMID:23564585

Nahar, Nazmun; Uddin, Main; Sarkar, Rouha Anamika; Gurley, Emily S; Uddin Khan, M Salah; Hossain, M Jahangir; Sultana, Rebeca; Luby, Stephen P

2013-01-01

128

An Effective Method for Information Security Awareness Raising Initiatives  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Increasingly, all kinds of organizations and institutions are adopting the E-business model to conduct theiractivities and provide E-Services for their customers. In the process, whether they know it or not, thoseorganizations are also opening themselves up to the risk of information security breaches. Thereforeprotecting an organization’s ICT infrastructure, IT systems, and Data is a vital issue that is oftenunderestimated. Research has shown that one of the most significant threats to information security comesnot from external attack but rather from the system's users, because they are familiar with theinfrastructure and have access to its resources, but may be unaware of the risks. Moreover, using onlytechnological solutions to protect an organization’s assets is not enough; there is a need to consider thehuman factor by raising users’ security awareness. Our contribution to this problem is to propose anInformation Security Awareness Program that aims at raising and maintaining the level of users’ securityawareness. This paper puts forward a general model for an information security awareness program anddescribes how it could be incorporated into an organization’s website through the process of developmentlife cycle.

AliMaqousi

2013-05-01

129

Exploring pig raising in Bangladesh: implications for public health interventions  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Pigs are intermediate hosts and potential reservoirs of a number of pathogens that can infect humans. The objectives of this manuscript are to understand pig raising patterns in Bangladesh, interactions between pigs and humans, social stigma and discrimination that pig raisers experience and to explore the implications of these findings for public health interventions. The study team conducted an exploratory qualitative study by interviewing backyard pig raisers and nomadic herders (n = 34, observing daily interactions between pigs and humans (n = 18 and drawing seasonal diagrams (n = 6 with herders to understand the reasons for movement of nomadic herds. Pig raisers had regular close interaction with pigs. They often touched, caressed and fed their pigs which exposed them to pigs' saliva and feces. Herders took their pigs close to human settlements for scavenging. Other domestic animals and poultry shared food and sleeping and scavenging places with pigs. Since pigs are taboo in Islam, a majority of Muslims rejected pig raising and stigmatized pig raisers. This study identified several potential ways for pigs to transmit infectious agents to humans in Bangladesh. Poverty and stigmatization of pig raisers make it difficult to implement health interventions to reduce the risk of such transmissions. Interventions that offer social support to reduce stigma and highlight economic benefits of disease control might interest of pig raisers in accepting interventions targeting pig borne zoonoses.

Stephen P. Luby

2013-03-01

130

Civil engineering work to raise the level of Route Goward  

CERN Multimedia

Civil engineering work to raise the level of Route Goward will take place during Long Shutdown 1. The work will begin on 18 March 2013 and is expected to last around 5 months.   Route Goward runs over the top of the PS tunnel and is the only access route to the inside of the ring. The layer of shielding backfill beneath this road is the thinnest anywhere on the PS ring. As the purpose of this shielding is to protect against the ionising radiation emitted by the accelerator when in operation, this road has been classified as a “supervised radiation area” according to radiation protection regulations. This classification was merely a temporary solution and, on the recommendation of the PS Radiation Working Group (PSRWG), the decision has been taken to raise the surface level permanently by around 2 m in order to increase the thickness of the shielding and thus lower the dose rate to that of a non-designated area. As the PS tunnel itself is unable to withstand the weight of t...

2013-01-01

131

Raising the 3-d blocks production efficiency using expert evaluation  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The method of expert evaluation is used in the cases when there is lack of efficient formalized methods for choosing necessary measures for solving production or scientific problems. In construction industry the field of application of expert evaluation method is quite wide. In the article the method of expert evaluation is described, the data on the peculiarities of producing three-dimensional utility blocks on hypso-cement-trass concretes on the Khoroshevsky Concrete Products Plant DSK-1 is presented. The authors present pall results and expert evaluations on ten-point scale. Expert opinions were processed using mathematical statistics method. The results of statistical indicators calculation is presented and optimal ways of raising the production efficiency for three-dimensional utility blocks are chosen basing on them.

Efimenko Anatoliy Zakharovich

2014-05-01

132

Raise the management level of EPC contracting in six aspects  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Nuclear power construction develops rapidly today and EPC contracting for nuclear power projects, as a strategic decision of CNNC, has become a tendency. The target of engineering management can be smoothly realized or achieved by doing a good job in the following six aspects: effective communication between divisions of project department, high-degree consistency of managerial concepts for project management staff, clear objective for different divisions in the project department, presence of rules to be observed in construction management work, avoidance of human-initiated errors in the project, and clear distinction of management control concept. It is hoped that, through exchange and practice, management procedures and consciousness for EPC contracting can be further standardized and thus the level of management for EPC contracting will be raised finally. (authors)

133

Lexical consciousness-raising in the vicinity of target vocabulary  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study compared the effectiveness of three techniques for teaching English vocabulary to Persian native speakers: a traditional procedure, the classical cloze procedure, and an innovative procedure, which is dubbed here as vicinity technique, based on incidental learning, noticing and consciousness-raising. To do the comparison, 51 students, registered at a private language institute, were randomly assigned to three groups and were taught 40 vocabulary items in five sessions in the three procedures. To evaluate the vocabulary gain in the three conditions, immediate and delayed post-tests were administered and the obtained data were analyzed using ANOVA. The results revealed that the vicinity technique was more effective than the traditional procedure; both in immediate and delayed evaluations. It was also revealed that, although there was no significant difference between the vicinity technique and the classical cloze technique in short-term, the vicinity technique was more effective than the classical cloze one for long-term retention.

Hadi, Farjami

2013-01-01

134

It Takes a Library to Raise a Community  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Ontario Library Service-North is publishing a series of community development tools for public libraries, beginning with the Crime Prevention and Personal Safety for Your Library and Community tool kit that was e-published on the OLS-North website in 2004. This article introduces library boards and staff to community building principles and practices, and the language of community developers. The role of the library in community and capacity building is discussed, as was introduced at the Ontario Library Association Super Conference 2007 session and as described in the tool kit, It Takes a Library to Raise a Community: A Community Development Activities Tool Kit for Public Libraries. The tool kit is about to be released to libraries.

Marjatta Asu

2007-11-01

135

Nuclear space power systems for orbit raising and maneuvering  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Reference is made to recent studies which have shown that direct thrust nuclear rockets for routine orbit raising and near-earth space tug missions are probably not cost-effective. The need for additional trade-off studies and comparisons of direct-thrust nuclear systems with chemical systems to clarify the role of nuclear rockets in missions requiring rapid orbit maneuvering is stressed. Attention is confined here to nuclear electric propulsion considerations. Low-mass nuclear power plants are constructed to optimize nuclear electric propulsion systems. Electric power levels from 100 kilowatts to as much as several megawatts are desirable. The goals for the power plant specific mass are 20-30 kg/kW at the lower powers to 2-4 kg/kW at the higher powers

136

Does Stock Market Development Raise Economic Growth? Evidence from Nigeria  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper investigates whether stock market development raises economic growthin Nigeria, by employing the error correction approach. The econometric results indicate thatstock market development (market capitalization-GDP ratio increases economic growth.The recommendations therein include: removal of impediments to stock market developmentwhich include tax, legal, and regulatory barriers; development of the nation’s infrastructureto create an enabling environment for where business can strive; employment of policies thatwill increase the productivity and efficiency of firms as well encourage them to access capitalon the stock market; enhancement of the capacity of the Nigeria Security and ExchangeCommission to facilitate the growth of the stock market, restore the confidence of stockmarket participants and safeguard the interest of shareholders by checking sharp practicesof market operators (particularly speculators.

Abu Nurudeen

2009-12-01

137

Circle-to-circle constant-thrust orbit raising  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper provides simple graphical/analytical tools to determine the minimum elapsed time and associated fuel of a constant-thrust vehicle transferring between coplanar circular orbits. The rocket equation models the effects of continuous fuel expenditure while also serving to recast the solution in terms of accumulated velocity change. These orbit-raising solutions are globally mapped with no restrictions on initial thrust magnitude, intermediate eccentricity, or number of revolutions of the central body. Several examples are presented to verify the transfer charts/equations and familiarize the reader with their use. These are useful tools for mission planners and satellite designers to assess preliminary fuel requirements and transfer times for constant-thrust systems. They are also good for performing propulsion trade-off studies for various missions. A straight-edge and scientific calculator are the only tools needed.

Alfano, Salvatore; Thorne, James D.

1994-01-01

138

Microsoft Word - Lowland_Raised_Bog_Web_Version_April03.doc  

Northern Ireland Habitat Action Plan Lowland Raised Bog Final Draft – April 2003 1. Current status 1.1 Biological status 1.1.1 Lowland raised bogs are peatland ecosystems, which develop primarily in lowland areas ...

139

Raising Awareness in Society on Space at Bosscha Observatory  

Science.gov (United States)

S.D. Wiramihardja C. Kunjaya M. Raharto T. Hidayat Bosscha Observatory Department of Astronomy Institut Teknologi Bandung Beside main tasks in researches and teaching astronomy we at the Bosscha Observatory are obliged to bring astronomy to the society by giving public lectures to people in an organized program. Due to miscellanious education backgrounds of those visiting Bosscha Observatory observing assistants advanced year students are involved in the activities as well. The program mainly consists of popular astronomical lectures using slide or computer display with question-answer session and inspection to the main Zeiss 60cm-double refractor telescope. In dry season in the period of April-September a session to observe stars planets and moon with smaller telescopes is offered to the visitors two nights (no later than 8 pm) in a month. This session helps the visitors accomodating their curiosity how stars planets and moon may look like through the telescope. This is one of the ways to apply scientific approach to understand nature. Hopefully in the long run this program can raise an awareness of the community about space and will enhance their appreciation to science especially astronomy which is usually put in the low priority in developing countries like Indonesia

Wiramihardja, Suhardja D.

140

Neospora caninum prevalence in dogs raised under different living conditions.  

Science.gov (United States)

Neospora caninum is an important cause of abortion in dairy cattle worldwide. Dogs are important in the epidemiology of N. caninum because they act as definitive hosts shedding oocysts in the environment. Vertical transmission of the parasite is well recognized as an important aspect of the epidemiology of the parasite but the importance of horizontal transmission has been less studied. A N. caninum competitive ELISA was used to examine serum samples from 600 dogs that were raised under 4 different living conditions. Samples from 138 dogs living on 24 dairies with a prevalence (0-70%) of anti-N. caninum antibodies in the cattle, 294 pet dogs without neurological signs, 76 from pet dogs exhibiting neurological signs, and 92 stray dogs were examined. The overall seroprevalence of N. caninum was 23.5% (95% CI = ± 2.99) in the 600 dogs. Significant (P 0.05). The prevalence of N. caninum antibodies was not significantly (P>0.05) different in dogs based on breed. These findings suggest a relationship between N. caninum infection of dogs from dairies and cattle on these dairies. However, further research is required to determine what is the most important way dogs acquire infection and how to prevent dogs from shedding oocysts. PMID:24957000

Nazir, Muhammad Mudasser; Maqbool, Azhar; Akhtar, Masood; Ayaz, Mazhar; Ahmad, Atif Nisar; Ashraf, Kamran; Ali, Asif; Alam, Muhammad Azhar; Ali, Muhammad Amjad; Khalid, Abdur Rauf; Lindsay, David S

2014-08-29

 
 
 
 
141

Leptospirosis control on an intensive raising pig farm  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Leptospirosis is an infective disease which represents serious health and economic problems in pig raising. The disease is caused by bacteria from genus Leptospira interrogans, which has over 250 serotypes and is isolated from most animal species and also from humans in almost every country in the world. In farm conditions the disease is seldom manifested as a clinically apparent illness. More often is manifested as reduced conception rate increased abortion rate and increased birth of dead and non-vital piglets. The leptospirosis control and eradication program was made for a state owned farm with a capacity of about 1500 sows and over 30000 fattened animals per year. The farm had an on going endemic leptospirosis infection and subsequent progressive economic losses. We detected 29,80% seropositive sows and gilts in which serotypes pomona and icterhaemorrhagiae were isolated. Serologic examination of blood was performed again after program implementation, and no positive animals were found, while production and economic results were improved. The control of leptospirosis and the eradication program for a five-year period were based on detailed quantification of economics losses. Using cost-benefit analysis the necessary inputs and planned outputs were defined, and program evolution was made on the basis of net present value and benefit/cost ratio.

Teši? M.

2005-01-01

142

The Potential of Book Floods for Raising Literacy Levels  

Science.gov (United States)

The problem of raising literacy levels in developing countries is particularly challenging when pupils have their schooling in a non-native language. One promising strategy which has been tried and evaluated in the schools of several developing countries is the Book Flood approach. This article summarises the findings of Book Flood studies in Niue, Fiji, Singapore, Sri Lanka, South Africa, Solomon Islands, and several other countries. The evidence is now strong that it is possible to double the rate of reading acquisition of Third World primary school pupils with a "Book Flood" of about 100 high-interest books, per class, and short teacher training sessions. The benefits for reading skill and enthusiasm are consistent across diverse cultures, mother tongues and age levels, and they appear to generate corresponding improvements in children's writing, listening comprehension, and related language skills. Such skills are typically found to develop very slowly under traditional textbook styles of teaching. The problems of cost per school and cultural suitability of imported books are addressed. Several countries have adopted Book Flood programmes on a national scale, and others are currently planning to do so.

Elley, Warwick B.

2000-07-01

143

Raising antibodies against circulating foetal cells from maternal peripheral blood  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

OBJECTIVE: Cells of foetal origin circulating in the maternal peripheral bloodstream present a unique source for non-invasive prenatal diagnostics. The aims of this study were to raise antibodies against identified circulating foetal cells from the maternal blood, test the properties of these antibodies and to determine the foetal cell type recognised by the antibodies. METHOD: Cells from a male foetus were identified in a maternal blood sample by FISH analysis of the X- and Y- chromosomes. The identified cells were subjected to phage display selection using a novel single cell selection strategy. Selected antibodies were tested by immunocytochemistry on foetal and adult tissue arrays, an endothelial cell line, and peripheral blood mononuclear cells. RESULTS: Three identified foetal cells subjected to antibody selection, yielded a total of 12 antibodies. Three antibodies gave distinct staining patterns on tissue arrays, and endothelial cells. One antibody, SF1.3, shows specific staining of a subpopulation of peripheral blood mononuclear cells, including a fraction of CD34 positive cells. CONCLUSION: These findings indicate that the identified foetal cells could have been progenitor cells of haematopoietic origin. The antibody SF1.3 could be a potential tool toward non-invasive prenatal diagnostics.

SØrensen, Morten Dræby; Melchjorsen, Connie Jenning

2013-01-01

144

Raising the Higgs mass in supersymmetry with t -t' mixing  

Science.gov (United States)

In this article we propose a new strategy to address the little hierarchy problem. We show that the addition of a fourth generation with vectorlike quarks to the minimal supersymmetric standard model can raise the predicted value of the physical Higgs mass by mixing with the top sector. The mixing requires a larger top quark Yukawa coupling (by up to ˜6%) to produce the same top mass. Since loop corrections to mh go as ytop4, this will in turn increase the predicted value of the physical Higgs mass, a point not previously emphasized in the literature. In the presence of mixing, for A terms and soft masses around 900 GeV, a Higgs mass of 125 GeV can be generated while retaining perturbativity of the gauge couplings, evading constraints from electroweak precision measurements and recent LHC searches, and pushing the Landau pole for the top Yukawa above the GUT scale. Soft masses can be as low as 800 GeV in parts of parameter space with a Landau pole at ˜1010 GeV. However, the Landau pole can still be pushed above the GUT scale if one sacrifices perturbative unification by adding fields in a 5+5¯ representation. With a ratio of weak-scale vector masses ?1, soft masses may be slightly below 800 GeV. The model predicts new quarks and squarks with masses ?750 GeV. We briefly discuss potential paths for discovery or exclusion at the LHC.

Faroughy, Cyrus; Grizzard, Kevin

2014-08-01

145

Toward raising the higher level of radiological nursing  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The role and purpose of nursing in the radiological field are discussed with essentials of radiological nursing for raising its higher level and needed fundamental education. The discussion is from the thought that, at Fukushima Nuclear Power Plant Accident (Mar. 2011), general medical staff including nurses are rather insufficient of radiological knowledge like the exposure, radiation effect and risk. In the medical radiological field, nurses are expected to play roles of arranging the circumstance for patient's ease like explanation about health effect/risk, appropriate nursing of them after radiological diagnosis, radiation protection of nurses themselves, and of environment. At such an emergency as the Accident, care for the acutely exposed victims, their decontamination and responding to patient's concern are necessary. At the later phase, also needed are nursing of victims undergoing health management done by authorities and of radiological workers concerned as well as the third item above. Therefore, fundamentals of radiological knowledge such as physics, exposure, health effects, protection, contamination, legal rules and risk communication are required in the education of nurses. Otherwise, this education can be conducted as a part of safety security and physical assessment. The Accident also gives us the importance of radiological risk communication with its victims. (T.T.)

146

Parental Stress in Raising a Child with Disabilities in India  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available  Purpose: To determine the parenting stress and its determinants among parents of children with disabling conditions in India.Methods: The Parenting Stress Index – short form and a few open ended questions were administered to a convenience sample of sixty-six patient families in July, 2009 in the cities of New Delhi and Faridabad regions of Northern India through six non- governmental organizations (NGOs that serve children with disabling conditions. Results: Female sex of the child was associated with higher stress related to failure of the child to meet parent’s expectations and to satisfy the parents in their parenting role. Parents engaged in more lucrative and prestigious occupations had more stress than parents engaged in less prestigious and lucrative occupations irrespective of their income. Many parents reported receiving little support from their extended families in taking care of their child. Religion was found to be a common coping resource used by the parents.Conclusion and Implications: Higher parenting stress in parents of girls raises the possibility of abuse and neglect. Little support from informal family resources underscores the need for developing formal resources for supporting the parents. The specific resources of parenting stress among parents of different socioeconomic status should be explored in future studies so that appropriate interventions can be planned.doi 10.5463/DCID.v23i2.119

Naveen Mehrotra

2012-08-01

147

Haptic curvature contrast in raised lines and solid shapes.  

Science.gov (United States)

It is known that our senses are influenced by contrast effects and aftereffects. For haptic perception, the curvature aftereffect has been studied in depth but little is known about curvature contrast. In this study we let observers explore two shapes simultaneously. The shape felt by the index finger could either be flat or convexly curved. The curvature at the thumb was varied to quantify the curvature of a subjectively flat shape. We found that when the index finger was presented with a convex shape, a flat shape at the thumb was also perceived to be convex.The effect is rather strong, on average 20% of the contrasting curvature. The contrast effect was present for both raised line stimuli and solid shapes. Movement measurements revealed that the curvature of the path taken by the metacarpus (part of the hand that connects the fingers) was approximately the average of the path curvatures taken by the thumb and index finger. A failure to correct for the movement of the hand could explain the contrast effect. PMID:19756554

Wijntjes, Maarten W A; Kappers, Astrid M L

2009-11-01

148

Application of Program Life Cycle Concepts for Fund Raising Strategies in Higher Education.  

Science.gov (United States)

The concept of program life-cycle management is applied to college fund raising. Program life-cycle stages (introduction, take-off, maturation, saturation, decline) and fund-raising steps (identification of objectives, targeting of markets, estimate potential for contribution, organization, strategy development, fund-raising performance…

Hekmat, Firooz; Heischmidt, Kenneth A.

1993-01-01

149

Self-Study and Evaluation Guide; Section C-5; Public Relations and Fund-Raising.  

Science.gov (United States)

Public relations and fund-raising are those functions of management which engender public understanding and support for the agency's aims and services. These two functions are closely interrelated in that the agency's public relations effectiveness influences its ability to raise funds and, conversely, its fund-raising operations have a direct…

National Accreditation Council for Agencies Serving the Blind and Visually Handicapped, New York, NY.

150

Surveys and Studies on Tranditional Pig Raising in Guangxi  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Main studies were conducted on tranditonal pig raising( TPR fed with local feeds effected on reproductivities of sows and productivities of fattening hogs with the motheds of on-the -spot surveys,tests and consulting literatures for backgrounds of agriculture,livestock industry,feed resources and present situations of pig production. Through surveyed on reproductivities of 320 sows and on liveweight gains and feed consumed of 3109 hogs sold, it was shown that on an average,a live litter size of a sow was 10.57 heads with initial weight of 8.45 kg/litter when born and was 9.83 heads with the weight of 110.8 kg /litter when weaned at 57.50 days old. Delivery interval was 180-205 days. Duration of reproduction of the sows was 5-8 years. With TPR,it could save 20-30 percent concentrate stuff but time for slaughtering of hogs was extended to 2-5 months;it could save 50-60 percent concentrate with the sows. By tested on 41 fattening hogs,the experiment groups basically lived on green forages with a diet containing 12.15-18.05 percent crude fiber (CF per kg dry matter (DM gained 495g/head per day and 1.79 kg concentrate,1.41 kg roughage and 11.95 kg green forages should be consumed to gain one kg liveweight,which had 10.84 Mcal digestable energy (DE and 480 g crude protein (CP. On the basis of the investigation, the advantages and disadvantages of TPR were pointed out and some opions and suggestions on the improvement of TPR were put forward.

Huang Minrui

1999-01-01

151

Raise Management Standards of Property Tax on Transnational Corporations  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available
As China joined WTO, more and more foreign multinational companies will enter China. They run enterprises within the territory of China. This will inevitably play an active role in promoting the economic construction of China. But we should pay attention to some foreign multinational companies in China that often reduce the incomes of Chinese branch companies by utilizing transfer prices. Thus they achieve the goal of evading payment of duty. These make the tax revenue of Chinese Government fall sharply. So it is very important to raise management level of property tax to the multinational companies. This text explains the loss caused by the foreign businessmen using improper means to transfer prices. They import raw materials at a high price and export the products at a low price. Also the corresponding measures are made out in this paper.
Key words: Multinational companies, Import at a high price and export at a low price, Current capital, Transfer prices
Résumé: Avec l’adhésion de la Chine à l’OMC, de plus en plus nombreux sont les entreprises transnationales qui s’investiraient en Chine. Cela poussera inévitablement la construction économique de la Chine. Néanmoins, nons devons noter que, actuellement, des entreprises étrangères en Chine diminuent les profits des filiales chinoise en transférant les prix et atteint ainsi leur but d’éviter la taxe. De cet effet, les recettes fiscales de la Chine diminuent considérablement. Donc, il est très important d’améliorer le viveau de gestion fiscale à l’égard des entreprises transnationales. Cet article expose d’abord le déficit provoqué par les actions malhonnêtes de commerçants étrangers qui transfèrent les prix avec des moyens illégitimes pour acheter les ressources productives à haut prix et vendre les produits à bas prix, et propose ensuite des contre-mesures.
Mots-Clés: entreprise transnationale, acheter cher et vendre moins cher, fonds liquides

Ying-hui CUI

2006-12-01

152

Raising public awareness of nuclear science in action  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text: Department of Training and Consulting was created at the Soltan Institute for Nuclear Studies about 7 years ago. Its main goal consists in dissemination of knowledge of nuclear physics and its applications with special emphasis on the use of radiation in everyday life, its biological effects and the risks connected with the use of nuclear radiation. The second important goal is to counteract social radiophobia. Last but not least, is presentation of the scientific and technological achievements of the Institute. The main target groups are secondary-school teachers and their pupils who in spite of various obstacles in organisation of travels to Otwierk, are coming in mass. During last 4 years we accepted more than 20,000 visitors from all over Poland. In addition to lectures themselves and lectures with experimental demonstrations two permanent exhibitions are displayed permanently. One is called 'Nuclear Wastes: Problems, Solutions', the other one is displaying 1:10 model of nuclear power plant (VVER-440-type), both extremely useful in discussing the problems of nuclear wastes, and organisation and use of the nuclear power plants. Very specific place in the Department is quite unique Laboratory of Atomic and Nuclear Physics, dedicated to secondary schools' students although it is also used by university students and in teachers' trainings. Number of basic experiments from nuclear physics can be carried out by students, so the very basis of atomic and nucleats, so the very basis of atomic and nuclear physics can be learnt on experimental basis. The experimental park can also be used in any professional courses on e.g. radiation protection. The need of having this type of units at the otherwise research institute is clearly seen by the systematically growing number of visitors, and their demands for educational material. One can also see some direct results: the groups who visited our centre were winning in all-Poland conquest for a project from radioactivity (organised on 100th Anniversary of Nobel Prize for Maria Skodowska-Curie), the schools - after visiting us - try to organise their own minisymposia on the radioactivity, the visitors seem to receive proper message about the real risk connected with nuclear radiation. The latter is judged by the fact that very seldom we encounter typical symptoms of radio phobia after the visit to our Department. We are strongly convinced that our work will result in an increased interest of students in physics, and may regain the popularity of nuclear physics among the students. This is necessary if the nuclear energy is going to be developed and used safely in the country. We also believe that similar educational centres, if wherever absent, should be organised in other nuclear centres in Europe and all of them should form a network in which new didactical methods would be worked out and the experience could be easily evaluated and exchanged between the network's partners. The paper presents motivation, present status, methodology and results of our more than 5-years experience in raising public awareness of nuclear problems in various social groups. (author)

153

The lichen flora of Zadovskoye raised bog in the Slavsk district of the Kaliningrad region  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This article provides a historical overview of studies into the lichen flora of raised bogs of the Kaliningrad region. A list of the lichens of the Zadovskoye raised bog (Slavsk district, Kaliningrad region) as well as a taxonomic analysis and data on the ecology of lichens are presented. A schematic map of the occurrence of lichens on Zadovskoe bog is given. The article contains a comparative table of the lichen flora of raised bogs in the Kaliningrad region.

Mol K.; Pungin A.; Petrenko D.

2014-01-01

154

The lichen flora of Zadovskoye raised bog in the Slavsk district of the Kaliningrad region  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This article provides a historical overview of studies into the lichen flora of raised bogs of the Kaliningrad region. A list of the lichens of the Zadovskoye raised bog (Slavsk district, Kaliningrad region as well as a taxonomic analysis and data on the ecology of lichens are presented. A schematic map of the occurrence of lichens on Zadovskoe bog is given. The article contains a comparative table of the lichen flora of raised bogs in the Kaliningrad region.

Mol K.

2014-02-01

155

Factors Associated with the Empowerment of Japanese Families Raising a Child with Developmental Disorders  

Science.gov (United States)

We identified factors associated with the empowerment of Japanese families using the Family Empowerment Scale (FES) to contribute to the improvement of empowerment in Japanese families raising a child with developmental disorders (DDs). The study was conducted in 350 caregivers who raised children aged 4-18 years with DDs in urban and suburban…

Wakimizu, Rie; Fujioka, Hiroshi; Yoneyama, Akira; Iejima, Atsushi; Miyamoto, Shinya

2011-01-01

156

Joseph eleve des poissons au Gabon. Guide pour l'elevage des poissons (Joseph Raises Fish in Gabon. Guide for Raising Fish).  

Science.gov (United States)

A guide, in French, to raising fish for food and profit is designed to instruct and encourage Gabonese natives to establish family fisheries. It describes and illustrates in story form the process used to plan the fishery, clear the land, seek help from an agricultural agent, create a dam, make compost, plan and build the pond, feed the fish,…

Needham, Scott

157

Raising Generation Tech Preparing Your Children for a Media-Fueled World  

CERN Document Server

Today's children are being raised as 'digital natives' in a world dominated by popular culture and technology. TV shows, computers, video games, social networking sites, advertisements, and cell phones too often have an unnecessarily strong-and negative? influence on children.  But pulling the plug just isn't an option in a world where being connected is essential for success. In Raising Generation Tech,  noted parenting and new-media expert Dr. Jim Taylor explores how popular culture and technology shape children's lives. The essential message from Raising Generation Tech is that excessive

Taylor, Jim

2012-01-01

158

Weight-Loss Surgery May Raise Risk of Severe Headaches, Scientists Report  

Science.gov (United States)

... Weight-Loss Surgery May Raise Risk of Severe Headaches, Scientists Report But experts find the study too ... 2015) Wednesday, October 22, 2014 Related MedlinePlus Pages Headache Low Blood Pressure Weight Loss Surgery WEDNESDAY, Oct. ...

159

Report of geophysical raising of the amethyst and agate in two quarries in Artigas district Uruguay  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In a geophysical raising of amethyst and agate was studied the possibility to apply a better suitable geophysical method. The conclusion was that the electromagnetic VLF method was suitable to identify the zones.

160

Sources of Saturated Fat, Stearic Acid, & Cholesterol Raising Fat among the US Population, 2005–06  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of this research was to identify the contributions of specific foods to intake of saturated fat, stearic acid, and "cholesterol raising fat" (defined as saturated fat minus stearic acid) in the US population age 2 years and older.

 
 
 
 
161

Ocular sonography in patients with raised intracranial pressure: the papilloedema revisited  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Invasive devices are recommended for the early detection of raised intracranial pressure (ICP) after severe traumatic brain injury. Owing to contraindication or local issues, however, invasive ICP monitoring is not always possible. Moreover, a significant proportion of moderate traumatic brain injury patients (managed without invasive ICP) will develop raised ICP. Reliable noninvasive ICP techniques are therefore needed. Soldatos and colleagues report the usefulness of ocular sonography in th...

Geeraerts, Thomas; Duranteau, Jacques; Benhamou, Dan

2008-01-01

162

Chinese Food Safety: A Case Study of Pig-Raising Industry  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available

This paper introduces the Shuanghui scandal, which is affected Chinese food safety to some extend. On that base, the causes of the food safety problems in pig-raising industry in China are explained. Finally, some suggestion was presented to improve the safety in china.
Keywords: Food safety; Pig-raising industry; Chinese agricultural

Ge HE

2012-06-01

163

A Study of College English Writing Classes through Consciousness-raising  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available By consciousness-raising we mean the deliberate attempt to draw the learner’s attention specifically to the formal properties of the target language. It focuses its attention on teaching process and students’ activeness, so it can be well applied to teaching of college English writing. This study indicates that consciousness-raising provides a guideline for improving teaching of college English writing and plays a significant role in enhancing students’ writing ability.

Runjiang Xu

2011-03-01

164

The effect of emotional intelligence awareness-raising activities on L2 motivation  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This article reports a study investigating the effect of emotional intelligence (EI) awareness-raising on Iranian university students’ overall as well as variable-specific L2 motivation. The 136 participants (107 males, 29 females) were divided into a control group and an experimental group, both of which completed the same motivation questionnaire at the beginning and end of the study, with the latter receiving EI awareness-raising in seven sessions over a seven-week period....

Barzegar, Reza; Sadr, Sajjad Aref

2013-01-01

165

Application of raise-boring technique to ventilation engineering of a uranium mine  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The world-wide development status, application conditions and advantages of raise-boring construction technique are briefly introduced. Two air shafts (above 300 m depth) and a air inclined shaft (84 m depth) were advanced by raise-boring technique in a mine of Fuzhou Jin'an Uranium Corporation. These shafts form the ventilating system of the mine. Ventilation effect was obviously improved and the good economic benefits were obtained. (authors)

166

Raised Bed Rivers in Japan -historical scenery of the interaction between environmental changes and society-  

Science.gov (United States)

Raised bed river should be a typical artificial landforms caused by the environmental changes in the upstream region of rivers. Typical raised bed rivers have developed in the western part of Japan, especially Kyoto, Osaka, Nara, Shiga region, induced by artificial fixing of alluvial river channels and increasing of bed load in floods. Inter-disciplinal approach of archaeological and geological investigations in southern Kyoto region, Kizu River, revealed that the raising of river bed started from 14th century and accelerated the raising rate from 17th century. The development of upstream mountainous area, deforestation and keeping grass field in long term period, led to increasing landslides and topsoil erosion in the mountainous slope, so that the bare mountains were common scenery around the advanced developed region in Japan during the ages of raised bed rivers from 14th to 19th century. The backgrounds of the beginning of these exhaustive developments in mountainous slope surrounding of urban region should be reflected in the social changes going on 14th century. Social confusion continues to demise of ancient order forced to take the regional social and economic integration and generated the new integrated villages that they interested to increasing food production by cultivation needed to large quantity of grass supplied from surrounding grass (bare) mountains. The classic landscape of raised bed rivers in Japan initiated from the mediaeval ages shows the history of interaction between environmental changes and ancient society.

Toshitaka, Kamai

2010-05-01

167

Comparison of Performance Metrics for QPSK and OQPSK Transmission Using Root Raised Cosine and Raised Cosine Pulse shaping Filters for Applications in Mobile Communication  

CERN Document Server

Quadrature Phase Shift Keying (QPSK) and Offset Quadrature Phase Shift Keying (OQPSK) are two well accepted modulation techniques used in Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA) system. The Pulse Shaping Filters play an important role in digital transmission. The type of Pulse Shaping Filter used, and its behavior would influence the performance of the communication system. This in turn, would have an effect on the performance of the Mobile Communication system, in which the digital communication technique has been employed. In this paper we have presented comparative study of some performance parameters or performance metrics of a digital communication system like, Error Vector Magnitude (EVM), Magnitude Error, Phase Error and Bandwidth Efficiency for a QPSK transmission system. Root Raised Cosine (RRC) and Raised Cosine (RC) Pulse shaping filters have been used for comparison. The measurement results serve as a guideline to the system designer to select the proper pulse shaping filter with the appropriate valu...

Chattopadhyay, Sudipta

2009-01-01

168

Potential limitations for potato yields in raised soil field systems near Lake Titicaca  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available During the last two decades, various non-governmental organizations have strongly encouraged Bolivian farmers in the Altiplano region near Lake Titicaca to resume the ancestral agricultural practice of constructing raised fields. In addition to improved drainage and possibilities this practice affords for sub-irrigation, advocated benefits of this system traditionally include frost mitigation and high crop yields. Until recently, reliable data to assess the extent of these benefits were unfortunately lacking. In this context, field experiments on raised fields were designed and carried out at two locations in the Bolivian Altiplano to obtain reliable potato yield and temperature data. Observed yields ranged from 2.73 to 10.80 t ha-1 at the first site, where salinity caused significant yield variability (R² = 0.79. At the second site, yields per raised platform varied between 8.25 and 33.45 t ha-1. However, comparable yields were obtained in flat control plots in spite of a mid-season frost, and the minimum temperatures differed only by 1ºC in the conventional plots relative to the raised fields. These results suggest that, under the experimental conditions, the potential benefits of raised fields in terms of frost mitigation or increased yields might only be observable in exceptionally bad years, when extreme frosts wipe out entire potato crops on conventional fields. Nevertheless, it is argued that in spite of these marginally supportive observations, raised-field agriculture may still be a viable option for farmers to consider if the water-filled channels between the raised fields are managed for fish and fertilizer production.

Lozada Diego Sánchez de

2006-01-01

169

Raised fields in the Llanos de Moxos, Bolivia - description and analysis of their morphology  

Science.gov (United States)

The disturbance of Pre Columbian populations on Amazonian ecosystems is being actively debated. The traditional view of amazon being an untouched landscape because of its poor soils and harsh climate has been challenged and the extreme opposite idea of highly modified landscapes with complex societies is growing. Recent research has led to new impulses and issues requesting about the agricultural strategies people developed to survive in this climate. The Llanos de Moxos, situated in the Bolivian Lowlands in south-eastern Amazonia is one important region which was densely altered and where a great variety of earthworks can be found. One of the most impressive earth works are the raised fields, which are earth platforms for cultivation of differing shape and dimension that are elevated above the landscapes natural surface. In contrast to the "terra preta" formation where artefacts and amendments like charcoal and kitchen waste have been clearly identified, raised fields have shown to be artefact poor and studies up till now couldn't find any evidence of additional amendments which could have improved soil quality in the long term. As a result the function and productivity of raised fields is still not well understood and is being actively discussed. Detailed investigations on raised fields located in the indigenous community of Bermeo, in the vicinity of San Ignacio de Moxos provides data showing a novel explanation of the Pre-Columbian management of raised fields, and a chronological sequence of their utilization and abandonment. OSL dating has shown that the raised fields had been in use since as early as 600 AD. Comparison of Geochemistry with a reference profile, away from raised fields, showed that there is no evidence for manure amendments deriving from kitchen waste or animal residues suggesting a rather extensive use of those fields. Complementary the description of intern morphology and laboratory analysis of this raised fields, combined with radiocarbon dating of charcoal, points towards separate periods of management and use, indicating temporarily cultivation similar to shifting cultivation. This finding supports the idea that the construction of raised fields in the llanos de Moxos could have resulted from the need to extend the cultivation ground by draining land which is flooded during the rainy season.

Rodrigues, Leonor; Lombardo, Umberto; Veit, Heinz

2014-05-01

170

Some results on the isotope studies of water exchange in boreal raised bogs  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Raised bogs are rather common and one of the most exciting mire types of the boreal zone. They receive water and nutrients from precipitation and pore water stored in their domes (up to 10 m in height) is spaced above levels of regional ground water or streams draining them. Peatland hydrologists have long assumed that fluid flow occurs mainly in a peat layer near to the surface and water transport is negligible in deeper layers. The 'acrotelm/catotelm' paradigm on active and inert horizons for the peat above and below the lowest water level is still widely spread in peatland hydrology. However, recent studies have shown that deep water movement is much more dynamic in raised bogs than was previously thought. Based on geochemical studies and numerical simulations even temporal reverse of the vertical direction of water fluid flow through the peat as connected to climate fluctuations was assumed. Relying on isotope studies we consider only the mounded strata of the raised bogs to have relatively active water exchange. The study included two raised bogs, representing different local hydrological conditions (underlain by outwash sands and moraine clay) at the Zapadnaya Dvina Peatland Field Station of the Forest Research Institute located 400 km west of Moscow. Peatlands, among which raised bogs dominate, constitute >30% of the area, and maximum peat thickness exceeds 7 m

171

How different modes of child delivery influence abdominal muscle activities in the active straight leg raise.  

Science.gov (United States)

[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to examine the activities of the abdominal muscles of women who had experienced vaginal delivery in comparison with those who had experienced Cesarean childbirth. [Subjects and Methods] A total of 14 subjects (7 vaginal delivery, 7 Cesarean section) performed an active straight leg raise to 20?cm above the ground, and we measured the activities of the internal oblique abdominal muscle, the external oblique abdominal muscle, and the rectus abdominal muscle on both sides using electromyography. The effort required to raise the leg was scored on a Likert scale. Then, the subjects conducted maximum isometric contraction for hip joint flexion with the leg raised at 20?cm, and maximum torque and abdominal muscle activities were measured using electromyography. [Results] During the active straight leg raise, abdominal muscle activities were higher in the Cesarean section subjects. The Likert scale did not show a significant difference. The activities of the abdominal muscles and the maximum torque of the hip joint flexion at maximum isometric contraction were higher in the vaginal delivery subjects. [Conclusion] The abdominal muscles of Cesarean section subjects showed greater recruitment for maintaining pelvic stability during the active straight leg raising, but were relatively weaker when powerful force was required. Therefore, we consider that more abdominal muscle training is necessary for maintaining pelvic stability of Cesarean section subjects. PMID:25202194

Kwon, Yu-Jeong; Hyung, Eun-Ju; Yang, Kyung-Hye; Lee, Hyun-Ok

2014-08-01

172

Irreligious Socialization? The Adult Religious Preferences of Individuals Raised with No Religion  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Recent birth cohorts of Americans are more likely than previous cohorts to be raised outside of a religious tradition. In addition, those raised with no religion are increasingly likely to have no religious preference as adults. Despite their growing numbers, individuals raised with no religion have received little attention from scholars. The adult religious preferences of these individuals provide researchers with a unique opportunity to test theories of religion and social change. Using General Social Survey data, I examine the adult religious preferences and beliefs of individuals raised with no religion. I provide evidence of a shift in socialization and social influences experienced by those who report growing up with no religion. Compared with earlier cohorts raised with no religion, more recent cohorts have had more secular upbringings and tend to be more secular, liberal, and wary of organized religion as adults. They are also more likely to have a religiously unaffiliated spouse, if they marry at all. Results from a logistic regression analysis indicate that these trends explain much of the cohort differences in the likelihood of remaining unaffiliated as an adult.

Stephen M. Merino

2012-01-01

173

Raised land susceptibility of multifunctional epoxy/glass multilayer printed wiring boards  

Science.gov (United States)

Three multifunctional epoxy/glass printed wiring board (PWB) laminates, along with standard FR4 laminate from production stores, were evaluated for their susceptibility to raised lands around the plated through-holes of PWBs. However, after thermal stress tests, the angles of the lands were measured in relation to the PWB surface, and the results were surprisingly similar. None of the materials that were tested stood out as being far better than the others in regard to reduced raised land susceptibility. Judging from the Z-axis thermal expansion curves, the similar average and angles measured after thermal stress tests, and rework simulation tests, it was not evident that any of these multifunctional epoxy systems would resolve the recurring problem of raised lands on channel-plated PWB product at Allied-Signal Inc., Kansas City Division.

Lula, J. W.

1992-03-01

174

The relation between district raise in the multiple coal seams and its pillars  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Based on the geological condition of multiple coal seams mining in No.8 Colliery of Pingdingshan Coal Group, the behaviours of the front abutment pressure in each of the coal seams and the fixed abutment pressure are observed. The main cause of deformation and damage to the galleries is the increasing value of the valid load coefficient of the surrounding rock. The rational pillar width of the district raise is studied when its two side seams have been mined, and the layout question of district raise in the different set of seams is also studied. The conclusions derived from the study are useful guiding reference for the design of district raise layout in deep multiple coal seams mining. 6 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

Zhai, X. [Jiaozuo Institute of Technology, Jiaozuo (China). Dept. of Mining Engineering

2002-02-01

175

The Contribution of Io-Raised Tides to Europa's Diurnally-Varying Surface Stresses  

Science.gov (United States)

Europa's icy surface records a rich history of geologic activity, Several features appear to be tectonic in origin and may have formed in response to Europa's daily-varying tidal stress [I]. Strike-slip faults and arcuate features called cycloids have both been linked to the patterns of stress change caused by eccentricity and obliquity [2J[3]. In fact, as Europa's obliquity has not been directly measured, observed tectonic patterns arc currently the best indicators of a theoretically supported [4] non-negligible obliquity. The diurnal tidal stress due to eccentricity is calculated by subtracting the average (or static) tidal shape of Europa generated by Jupiter's gravitational field from the instantaneous shape, which varies as Europa moves through its eccentric orbit [5]. In other words, it is the change of shape away from average that generates tidal stress. One might expect tidal contributions from the other large moons of Jupiter to be negligible given their size and the height of the tides they raise on Europa versus Jupiter's mass and the height of the tide it raises on Europa, However, what matters for tidally-induced stress is not how large the lo-raised bulge is compared to the Jupiter-raised bulge but rather the differences bet\\Veen the instantaneous and static bulges in each case. For example, when Europa is at apocenter, Jupiter raises a tide 30m lower than its static tide. At the same time, 10 raises a tide about 0.5m higher than its static tide. Hence, the change in Io's tidal distortion is about 2% of the change in the Jovian distortion when Europa is at apocenter

Rhoden, Alyssa Rose; Hurford, Terry A,; Manga, Michael

2011-01-01

176

Ecology and hydrology of pristine and cutover lowland raised bogs: relationships and implications for restoration  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper will examine relationships in vegetation communities and hydrological conditions on areas of lowland raised bog in north west England, comparing damaged and relatively intact sites on two adjacent bogs in Cumbria. Walton Moss is a relatively pristine site whilst and Bolton Fell Moss has a small nature reserve area with remnant vegetation which is surrounded by commercial peat cutting. The intended outcome is to provide a mechanism to inform management decisions, with a view to assisting in the long-term protection and rehabilitation of lowland raised bogs.

Labadz, Jillian; Hart, Roger; Robbins, Jane; Butcher, David; Topliss, David

2013-04-01

177

A study on a systematic method for evaluating values of raised concerns  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The objective of this study is to develop a methodology that can externalise potential concerns and evaluate the values of the concerns raised in corporations. By implementing this methodology into corporate governance, it is expected to improve the work environment and enhance the capability for the corporate governance through supporting the internal autonomic purification. This study comprises of: case studies of past wrongdoings in corporations such as JCO and Tokyo Electric Power Company (TEPCO); identifying the viewpoints for evaluating values of raised concerns; developing a model to evaluate the values. (author)

178

CT changes in children with drained hydrocephalus and intermittently raised intracranial pressure  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Seven children with drained hydrocephalus are described who showed increasingly severe and frequent episodes of intermittently raised intracranial pressure. CT examinations during symptom-free intervals, or after conservative treatment, showed collapsed slit-like ventricles. Examination during attacks of raised pressure showed relative dilatation of the ventricles as compared with earlier examinations. Children with ventricular shunts of long duration may develop a shunt-dependent syndrome; CT may show normal or narrow ventricles and this does not exclude the possibility of a rise of intracranial pressure. These findings may help in making the diagnosis by means of CT without any further invasive procedure. (orig.)

179

Titulação de aloanticorpos anti-a e anti-b em gatos domésticos sem raça definida em Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil Anti-a and anti-b alloantibodies titres in non-pedigree domestic cats in Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A probabilidade de ocorrência de reação transfusional em um felino depende da prevalência local dos tipos sanguíneos felinos e dos títulos de aloanticorpos. A determinação dos títulos de aloanticorpos auxilia na estimativa do risco e da severidade de reação transfusional, após transfusão não compatível, em uma população de gatos. O objetivo deste trabalho foi determinar a titulação de aloanticorpos e o risco de possível reação transfusional, em felinos domésticos sem raça definida, da cidade de Porto Alegre. Foram selecionados aleatoriamente 100 gatos clinicamente saudáveis, sem raça definida e sem parentesco entre si e sem histórico de transfusão prévia. Amostras de sangue foram coletadas da veia jugular e a titulação de aloanticorpos foi determinada no soro de gatos com tipo sanguíneo previamente definido. O risco estimado foi calculado de acordo com estudos prévios. No presente trabalho, 82,5 e 100% dos gatos do tipo A e B, respectivamente, apresentaram titulação variada de aloanticorpos. Com base nos títulos encontrados, verificou-se que uma transfusão de sangue, do tipo A ou AB, em gatos do tipo B apresenta risco de 33,3% de reação aguda severa e de 66,7% de reação aguda leve, nos receptores felinos. A transfusão de sangue do tipo AB ou B em gatos do tipo A apresenta risco de reação aguda severa em 1,0%; reação aguda leve em 37,1% e destruição prematura dos eritrócitos em 44,3% dos receptores felinos.The probability of occurrence of a transfusion reaction in a cat depends on the local prevalence of feline blood types and alloantibody titres. Determination of alloantibody titres assists in estimating the risk and the severity of transfusion reactions following an unmatched transfusion in a cat population. The objective of this study was to determine alloantibody titres and the risk of a possible transfusion reaction in non-pedigree domestic cats in Porto Alegre , Brazil. One hundred clinically healthy non-pedigree and non-related cats with no history of previous transfusion were randomly selected. Blood samples were collected from the jugular vein and the alloantibody titres were determined by tube serial dilution of the serum from cats with known blood types, the estimated risk was calculated according previous studies. In the present study, 82.5% and 100% of types A and B cats, respectively, showed varied alloantibodies titres. Based on the titres found in the present study, the risk of an acute severe reaction is 33.3% and an acute mild reaction is 66.7% in a type B cat transfused with blood type A or AB. In type A cats transfused with blood type AB or B, the risk of an acute severe reaction is 1.0%, an acute mild reaction is 37.1% and premature red cell destruction is 44.3%.

Luciana de Almeida Lacerda

2011-02-01

180

Titulação de aloanticorpos anti-a e anti-b em gatos domésticos sem raça definida em Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil / Anti-a and anti-b alloantibodies titres in non-pedigree domestic cats in Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese A probabilidade de ocorrência de reação transfusional em um felino depende da prevalência local dos tipos sanguíneos felinos e dos títulos de aloanticorpos. A determinação dos títulos de aloanticorpos auxilia na estimativa do risco e da severidade de reação transfusional, após transfusão não compatí [...] vel, em uma população de gatos. O objetivo deste trabalho foi determinar a titulação de aloanticorpos e o risco de possível reação transfusional, em felinos domésticos sem raça definida, da cidade de Porto Alegre. Foram selecionados aleatoriamente 100 gatos clinicamente saudáveis, sem raça definida e sem parentesco entre si e sem histórico de transfusão prévia. Amostras de sangue foram coletadas da veia jugular e a titulação de aloanticorpos foi determinada no soro de gatos com tipo sanguíneo previamente definido. O risco estimado foi calculado de acordo com estudos prévios. No presente trabalho, 82,5 e 100% dos gatos do tipo A e B, respectivamente, apresentaram titulação variada de aloanticorpos. Com base nos títulos encontrados, verificou-se que uma transfusão de sangue, do tipo A ou AB, em gatos do tipo B apresenta risco de 33,3% de reação aguda severa e de 66,7% de reação aguda leve, nos receptores felinos. A transfusão de sangue do tipo AB ou B em gatos do tipo A apresenta risco de reação aguda severa em 1,0%; reação aguda leve em 37,1% e destruição prematura dos eritrócitos em 44,3% dos receptores felinos. Abstract in english The probability of occurrence of a transfusion reaction in a cat depends on the local prevalence of feline blood types and alloantibody titres. Determination of alloantibody titres assists in estimating the risk and the severity of transfusion reactions following an unmatched transfusion in a cat po [...] pulation. The objective of this study was to determine alloantibody titres and the risk of a possible transfusion reaction in non-pedigree domestic cats in Porto Alegre , Brazil. One hundred clinically healthy non-pedigree and non-related cats with no history of previous transfusion were randomly selected. Blood samples were collected from the jugular vein and the alloantibody titres were determined by tube serial dilution of the serum from cats with known blood types, the estimated risk was calculated according previous studies. In the present study, 82.5% and 100% of types A and B cats, respectively, showed varied alloantibodies titres. Based on the titres found in the present study, the risk of an acute severe reaction is 33.3% and an acute mild reaction is 66.7% in a type B cat transfused with blood type A or AB. In type A cats transfused with blood type AB or B, the risk of an acute severe reaction is 1.0%, an acute mild reaction is 37.1% and premature red cell destruction is 44.3%.

Luciana de Almeida, Lacerda; Simone Tostes de, Oliveira; Gisele Guiomara, Stein; Tatiana Amaral, Guerra; Félix, Gonzáles.

2011-02-01

 
 
 
 
181

Titulação de aloanticorpos anti-a e anti-b em gatos domésticos sem raça definida em Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil / Anti-a and anti-b alloantibodies titres in non-pedigree domestic cats in Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese A probabilidade de ocorrência de reação transfusional em um felino depende da prevalência local dos tipos sanguíneos felinos e dos títulos de aloanticorpos. A determinação dos títulos de aloanticorpos auxilia na estimativa do risco e da severidade de reação transfusional, após transfusão não compatí [...] vel, em uma população de gatos. O objetivo deste trabalho foi determinar a titulação de aloanticorpos e o risco de possível reação transfusional, em felinos domésticos sem raça definida, da cidade de Porto Alegre. Foram selecionados aleatoriamente 100 gatos clinicamente saudáveis, sem raça definida e sem parentesco entre si e sem histórico de transfusão prévia. Amostras de sangue foram coletadas da veia jugular e a titulação de aloanticorpos foi determinada no soro de gatos com tipo sanguíneo previamente definido. O risco estimado foi calculado de acordo com estudos prévios. No presente trabalho, 82,5 e 100% dos gatos do tipo A e B, respectivamente, apresentaram titulação variada de aloanticorpos. Com base nos títulos encontrados, verificou-se que uma transfusão de sangue, do tipo A ou AB, em gatos do tipo B apresenta risco de 33,3% de reação aguda severa e de 66,7% de reação aguda leve, nos receptores felinos. A transfusão de sangue do tipo AB ou B em gatos do tipo A apresenta risco de reação aguda severa em 1,0%; reação aguda leve em 37,1% e destruição prematura dos eritrócitos em 44,3% dos receptores felinos. Abstract in english The probability of occurrence of a transfusion reaction in a cat depends on the local prevalence of feline blood types and alloantibody titres. Determination of alloantibody titres assists in estimating the risk and the severity of transfusion reactions following an unmatched transfusion in a cat po [...] pulation. The objective of this study was to determine alloantibody titres and the risk of a possible transfusion reaction in non-pedigree domestic cats in Porto Alegre , Brazil. One hundred clinically healthy non-pedigree and non-related cats with no history of previous transfusion were randomly selected. Blood samples were collected from the jugular vein and the alloantibody titres were determined by tube serial dilution of the serum from cats with known blood types, the estimated risk was calculated according previous studies. In the present study, 82.5% and 100% of types A and B cats, respectively, showed varied alloantibodies titres. Based on the titres found in the present study, the risk of an acute severe reaction is 33.3% and an acute mild reaction is 66.7% in a type B cat transfused with blood type A or AB. In type A cats transfused with blood type AB or B, the risk of an acute severe reaction is 1.0%, an acute mild reaction is 37.1% and premature red cell destruction is 44.3%.

Luciana de Almeida, Lacerda; Simone Tostes de, Oliveira; Gisele Guiomara, Stein; Tatiana Amaral, Guerra; Félix, Gonzáles.

182

Evolução de títulos sorológicos, nas provas de soroaglutinação em placa, antígeno acidificado tamponado e fixação de complemento, em bezerras Nelore vacinadas aos 18 meses de idade com Brucella abortus amostra B 19 / Evolution of serological antibody titres by the plate agglutination, rose Bengal and complement fixation tests in Nelore heifers (Bos indicus) vaccinated at 18 months of age with Brucella abortus strain 19  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Com o objetivo de estudar a persistência da resposta sorológica, através das provas de soroaglutinação em placa, rosa Bengala e fixação de complemento, 108 bezerras, com idade ao redor de 18 meses, foram vacinadas com uma dose padrão da vacina preparada com Brucella abortus amostra B 19. Foram obtid [...] as amostras de soro sangüíneo antes da vacinação e após 45 dias, 6, 12 e 18 meses. Antes da vacinação, todas as bezerras apresentaram resultados negativos nos três testes. Após 45 dias, todas apresentaram título a partir de 1/100 na prova de soroaglutinação em placa e todas apresentaram resultado positivo no teste rosa Bengala, ao passo que dois animais apresentaram título 1/2 e os demais apresentaram título a partir de 1/4 na reação de fixação de complemento. Após um ano de vacinação, a grande maioria das bezerras já não apresentava título sorológico significativo. Considerando o risco a que estão sujeitos animais que vivem em áreas endêmicas e em propriedades onde a doença ocorre, e considerando a acentuada redução de título sorológico observada na grande maioria dos animais, pode-se concluir que, no caso bezerras de raças zebuínas em áreas endêmicas e que não tenham sido vacinadas na idade regulamentar, é mais vantajoso vaciná-las com a amostra B 19 aos 18 meses de idade do que deixá-las expostas a um elevado risco de infecção por Brucella. Abstract in english One hundred and eight Nelore heifers (Bos indicus) about 18 months of age were vaccinated with a standard dosage (60-120 x 10(9) viable organisms) of Brucella abortus strain 19 vaccine, aiming at to study the persistence of serological antibody titres by the plate agglutination, rose Bengal and comp [...] lement fixation tests. Serum samples were collected just before vaccination and after 45 days, 6, 12 and 18 months. Before the vaccination, all the heifers showed negative results by the three tests. After 45 days, all the heifers had titres higher than or equal to 1/100 by the plate agglutination test and all of them showed positive results by the rose Bengal plate test, while 2 animals had titre 1/2 and 106 animals had titres higher than or equal to 1/4 by the complement fixation test. One year after the vaccination, most of the heifers did not show significant serological antibody titres. Considering the risk to which animals in endemic areas and infected herds are subjected, and considering the clear reduction of the serological antibody titres shown by most of the vaccinated heifers, one may assume that, in case of Nelore heifers in endemic areas and that were not vaccinated between 3 and 8 months of age, it would be more reasonable to vaccinate them at 18 months of age than to expose them to a high risk of Brucella infection.

Luis A., Mathias; Lucila F., Chaves; Anne A., Chen; Raul J. S., Girio; Walter, Valério Neto.

183

Evolução de títulos sorológicos, nas provas de soroaglutinação em placa, antígeno acidificado tamponado e fixação de complemento, em bezerras Nelore vacinadas aos 18 meses de idade com Brucella abortus amostra B 19 / Evolution of serological antibody titres by the plate agglutination, rose Bengal and complement fixation tests in Nelore heifers (Bos indicus) vaccinated at 18 months of age with Brucella abortus strain 19  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Com o objetivo de estudar a persistência da resposta sorológica, através das provas de soroaglutinação em placa, rosa Bengala e fixação de complemento, 108 bezerras, com idade ao redor de 18 meses, foram vacinadas com uma dose padrão da vacina preparada com Brucella abortus amostra B 19. Foram obtid [...] as amostras de soro sangüíneo antes da vacinação e após 45 dias, 6, 12 e 18 meses. Antes da vacinação, todas as bezerras apresentaram resultados negativos nos três testes. Após 45 dias, todas apresentaram título a partir de 1/100 na prova de soroaglutinação em placa e todas apresentaram resultado positivo no teste rosa Bengala, ao passo que dois animais apresentaram título 1/2 e os demais apresentaram título a partir de 1/4 na reação de fixação de complemento. Após um ano de vacinação, a grande maioria das bezerras já não apresentava título sorológico significativo. Considerando o risco a que estão sujeitos animais que vivem em áreas endêmicas e em propriedades onde a doença ocorre, e considerando a acentuada redução de título sorológico observada na grande maioria dos animais, pode-se concluir que, no caso bezerras de raças zebuínas em áreas endêmicas e que não tenham sido vacinadas na idade regulamentar, é mais vantajoso vaciná-las com a amostra B 19 aos 18 meses de idade do que deixá-las expostas a um elevado risco de infecção por Brucella. Abstract in english One hundred and eight Nelore heifers (Bos indicus) about 18 months of age were vaccinated with a standard dosage (60-120 x 10(9) viable organisms) of Brucella abortus strain 19 vaccine, aiming at to study the persistence of serological antibody titres by the plate agglutination, rose Bengal and comp [...] lement fixation tests. Serum samples were collected just before vaccination and after 45 days, 6, 12 and 18 months. Before the vaccination, all the heifers showed negative results by the three tests. After 45 days, all the heifers had titres higher than or equal to 1/100 by the plate agglutination test and all of them showed positive results by the rose Bengal plate test, while 2 animals had titre 1/2 and 106 animals had titres higher than or equal to 1/4 by the complement fixation test. One year after the vaccination, most of the heifers did not show significant serological antibody titres. Considering the risk to which animals in endemic areas and infected herds are subjected, and considering the clear reduction of the serological antibody titres shown by most of the vaccinated heifers, one may assume that, in case of Nelore heifers in endemic areas and that were not vaccinated between 3 and 8 months of age, it would be more reasonable to vaccinate them at 18 months of age than to expose them to a high risk of Brucella infection.

Luis A., Mathias; Lucila F., Chaves; Anne A., Chen; Raul J. S., Girio; Walter, Valério Neto.

2001-12-01

184

Raising Children in Chinese Immigrant Families: Evidence from the Research Literature  

Science.gov (United States)

Children of Chinese culture are raised differently from children of other cultural groups. There is research evidence which contends that, regardless of where they live, the child-rearing practices within Chinese immigrant families are still influenced by Chinese traditional culture. Some studies also point out that Chinese immigrant parents…

Guo, Karen

2006-01-01

185

Raising production of pretonic mid vowels in Ouro Branco-MG  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper describes the results of a research about the raising production of the pretonic mid vowels, this was carried out at the city of Ouro Branco, Minas Gerais State, Brazil. For this study, we selected eight stratified informants distributed by gender (male and female and age (young and adults. Based on the Theory of Variation and Change, we analyzed the following linguistic factors: vowel of the stressed syllable, vowel between the vowel of the variable and the stressed one, manner of articulation of the preceding segment, place of articulation of the preceding segment, manner of articulation of the next segment and place of articulation of the next segment. We establish that in the city of Ouro Branco occurs vowel harmony triggered by the following high vowel, both for the raising of /e/, and for the raising of /o/. We conclude that for the raising of /o/, occurs also the process of vowel reduction. We also observed that there are lexical restrictions.

Melina Rezende Dias

2011-01-01

186

Swimming kinematics and respiratory behaviour of Xenopus laevis larvae raised in altered gravity  

Science.gov (United States)

We examined the respiratory behaviours and swimming kinematics of Xenopus laevis tadpoles hatched in microgravity (Space Shuttle), simulated microgravity (clinostat) and hypergravity (3 g centrifuge). All observations were made in the normal 1 g environment. Previous research has shown that X. laevis raised in microgravity exhibit abnormalities in their lungs and vestibular system upon return to 1 g. The tadpoles raised in true microgravity exhibited a significantly lower tailbeat frequency than onboard 1 g centrifuge controls on the day of landing (day0), but this behaviour normalized within 9 days. The two groups did not differ significantly in buccal pumping rates. Altered buoyancy in the space-flight microgravity tadpoles was indicated by an increased swimming angle on the day after landing (day1). Tadpoles raised in simulated microgravity differed to a greater extent in swimming behaviours from their 1 g controls. The tadpoles raised in hypergravity showed no substantive effects on the development of swimming or respiratory behaviours, except swimming angle. Together, these results show that microgravity has a transient effect on the development of locomotion in X. laevis tadpoles, most notably on swimming angle, indicative of stunted lung development. On the basis of the behaviours we studied, there is no indication of neuromuscular retardation in amphibians associated with embryogenesis in microgravity.

Fejtek, M.; Souza, K.; Neff, A.; Wassersug, R.

1998-01-01

187

Review of "Has Progress Been Made in Raising Achievement for English Language Learners?"  

Science.gov (United States)

The Center on Education Policy (CEP) report, "Has Progress Been Made in Raising Achievement for English Language Learners?", finds that some states have seen increases in the number of English language learners (ELLs) meeting proficiency standards under No Child Left Behind (NCLB), while others have seen decreases. The report notes some…

MacSwan, Jeff

2010-01-01

188

Stress and Coping in African American Grandparents Who Are Raising Their Grandchildren  

Science.gov (United States)

This study investigated the degree of stress in 50 African American grandparents ("M" = 63.12 years) who are raising their grandchildren and identified the importance of caregiver characteristics, the caregiving situation, and specific coping strategies that influence stress. Data were collected via interview at senior centers and churches in…

Ross, Mary Ellen Trail; Aday, Lu Ann

2006-01-01

189

Raising Awareness of Assistive Technology in Older Adults through a Community-Based, Cooperative Extension Program  

Science.gov (United States)

The Fashion an Easier Lifestyle with Assistive Technology (FELAT) curriculum was developed as a needs-based, community educational program provided through a state Cooperative Extension Service. The overall goal for participants was to raise awareness of assistive technology. Program evaluation included a postassessment and subsequent interview to…

Sellers, Debra M.; Markham, Melinda Stafford

2012-01-01

190

Raising the Bar on Faculty Productivity: Realigning Performance Standards to Enhance Quality Trajectories  

Science.gov (United States)

Many universities have observed needs and shared goals that include increasing faculty members' research productivity (in quantity or quality). Strategies for raising faculty performance include revising standards and supporting valued outcomes with rewards and incentives. One college at a research-extensive university received institutional…

Hardré, Patricia L.

2014-01-01

191

Noise, What Noise? Raising Awareness of Auditory Health among Future Primary-School Teachers  

Science.gov (United States)

We study the perception of acoustic contamination and its deleterious effects on students preparing to become school teachers and analyse their acoustic habits, with the aim of raising their awareness concerning this problem. We designed a number of activities, applied during a practical lesson, in which students evaluated some of their…

Jimenez-Tejada, M. -P.; Hodar, J. A.; Gonzalez-Garcia, F.

2012-01-01

192

A Coordinated Approach to Raising the Socio-Economic Status of Latinos in California.  

Science.gov (United States)

This report presents a collection of papers that focuses on a coordinated approach to raising the socioeconomic status of Hispanic Americans living in California. After presenting "The Need for a Coordinated Approach," the papers are: "Preschool Access" (Theresa Garcia, Sandra Gutierrez, and Giovanna Stark); "K-12 Performance" (Patricia de Cos,…

Lopez, Elias, Ed.; Puddefoot, Ginny, Ed.; Gandara, Patricia, Ed.

193

From Diapers to Dating. A Parent's Guide to Raising Sexually Healthy Children.  

Science.gov (United States)

This step-by-step program for raising sexually healthy children helps parents provide accurate information and communicate their own values to their children. Chapter 1, "The Basics"; includes "Sexually Healthy Families"; "The Key: Finding Teachable Moments"; and "Guidelines for Communication." Chapter 2, "Infants and Toddlers, Birth to Age 2,"…

Haffner, Debra W.

194

Results of a Test and Win Contest to Raise Radon Awareness in Urban and Rural Settings  

Science.gov (United States)

Background: Radon is a leading cause of lung cancer, but few test their homes to determine radon levels. Purpose: The study assessed feasibility and success of a Test and Win Contest to promote radon testing in rural and urban communities. Methods: The prospective, quasi-experimental study tested a novel contest to raise radon awareness. Paid and…

Hahn, Ellen J.; Rayens, Mary Kay; Kercsmar, Sarah E.; Robertson, Heather; Adkins, Sarah M.

2014-01-01

195

Augmentation du niveau pour U(3) (Level-Raising for U(3))  

CERN Document Server

We prove, for the form of unitary group in three variables attached to a CM extension which is compact at infinity, a level-raising theorem analogous to the one of Taylor (inv. math. 98, 265-280) in the case of a quaternion algebra. We give an application to non tempered automorphic forms.

Bellaiche, J; Bellaiche, Joel; Graftieaux, Philippe

2003-01-01

196

Effects of the ACT Raising Safe Kids Parenting Program on Children's Externalizing Problems  

Science.gov (United States)

Eighty-seven parents and primary caregivers of children aged 10 years or younger participated in a study examining the effects of the ACT Raising Safe Kids program on children's behavior. It was hypothesized that children of caregivers who complete ACT-RSK would demonstrate reduced behavior problems compared to children of caregivers in a…

Knox, Michele; Burkhart, Kimberly; Howe, Tasha

2011-01-01

197

A RAISE Specification Framework and Justification assistant for the Duration Calculus  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

RAISE is a product consisting of a development method, an associated formal specification language (RSL) and a collection of computer-based tools. RAISE has turned out to be useful in the development of many kinds of software systems.However, RSL has no ``real-time'' features, and hence, it is difficult to specify real-time applications using RSL. The Duration Calculus (DC) is aformalism which can be used for that. However, DC is ``just'' a logic,and for practical purposes it would be nice to have a richer language providing modules, facilities for declaring symbols to beused in DC formulas etc. The goal of our work is two-fold:(1) to extend RSL with real-time features, and (2) to provide a specification language and tools support (e.g. a syntax and type checker, a justification assistant, etc.) for DC. A first step towards this goal, could be to combine DC and RSL achieving the power of both.So far, we have encoded DC in RSL and set up a proof assistant tool to verify (encoded) DC formulas using the RAISE Justification tools. This paper first introduces a RAISE specification framework for DC, and then explains how the justification assistant is set up.

Haxthausen, Anne Elisabeth

1998-01-01

198

Investigation of Raising Burden of Children with Autism, Physical Disability and Mental Disability in China  

Science.gov (United States)

The family economic burden of raising autistic children, physical disabled children and mental disabled children were evaluated in China. 227 parents of children with autism, children with physical disability, children with mental disability and normal children were interviewed for children's costs, family income and economic assistance, etc. The…

Xiong, Nina; Yang, Li; Yu, Yang; Hou, Jiaxun; Li, Jia; Li, Yuanyuan; Liu, Hairong; Zhang, Ying; Jiao, Zhengang

2011-01-01

199

46 CFR 10.231 - Requirements for raises of grade or new endorsements.  

Science.gov (United States)

...endorsements or raises of grade of existing endorsements on an MMC under this section will not change the expiration date of the MMC unless the applicant renews all endorsements that appear on the MMC under § 10.227 of this part. (c) A complete...

2010-10-01

200

Navigating Interdependence: How Adolescents Raised Solely by Grandparents Experience Their Family Relationships  

Science.gov (United States)

This study examined how adolescents raised solely by grandparents navigated their relationships with their parents and grandparents and how these relationships were influenced by the caregiving context. Forty-one adolescents participated in qualitative, semistructured interviews. Findings suggest that relationships with parents were primarily…

Dolbin-MacNab, Megan L.; Keiley, Margaret K.

2009-01-01

 
 
 
 
201

"The Silence Itself Is Enough of a Statement": The Day of Silence and LGBTQ Awareness Raising  

Science.gov (United States)

This ethnographic study of a high school gay-straight alliance club examines unintended consequences of silence during the Day of Silence, a day of action aimed at addressing anti-LGBTQ bias in schools. While this strategy calls for students to engage in intentional silences to raise awareness of anti-LGBTQ bias, it does not necessarily lead…

Woolley, Susan W.

2012-01-01

202

Ruled by Hetero-Norms? Raising Some Moral Questions for Teachers in South Africa  

Science.gov (United States)

Thirty-eight countries in Africa regard homosexuality as punishable by law with South Africa remaining a standout country advancing constitutional equality on the basis of sexual orientation. In the context of homophobic violence, however, concerns have been raised about schools' potential to improve the educational, moral and social outcomes…

Bhana, Deevia

2014-01-01

203

How School Volunteers Can Help To Raise Standards and Enthusiasm for Literacy.  

Science.gov (United States)

Discusses findings from evaluation of national "School Friends" project set up by British Telecom (BT) in the United Kingdom, in which BT employees volunteered to assist with literacy learning in primary schools. Notes evaluation findings that industry role models raised students' confidence and enthusiasm for reading, especially among boys.…

Williams, Mary; Thorogood, Lynne; Jones, Deborah

2002-01-01

204

Math, Science, and Web-Based Activities to Raise Awareness about Nutrition and Obesity  

Science.gov (United States)

The incidence of child obesity in the United States is increasing at an alarming rate. This article provides information about nutrition, obesity, and related health conditions and suggests some classroom activities to raise awareness about these issues and empower students to live healthier, more active lives. A list of recommended health-related…

Zuercher, Deborah K.

2011-01-01

205

Loving without Spoiling: And 100 Other Timeless Tips for Raising Terrific Kids.  

Science.gov (United States)

Noting that raising well-behaved, considerate children requires learning how to balance firm discipline with equal doses of love and humor, this book provides parents with effective and realistic solutions to countless parenting challenges. The strategies are organized into the following categories: (1) "Avoid Power Struggles"; (2) "Minimize Daily…

Samalin, Nancy

206

Soldiers Hospitalized for Mental Illness Face Raised Suicide Risk, Study Shows  

Science.gov (United States)

... this page, please enable JavaScript. Soldiers Hospitalized for Mental Illness Face Raised Suicide Risk, Study Shows Most vulnerable period is the year after they are discharged from treatment, researchers report (*this news ... -- American soldiers hospitalized with mental health disorders have a significantly increased risk of ...

207

Does Raising the State Compulsory School Attendance Age Achieve the Intended Outcomes? REL 2014-005  

Science.gov (United States)

Maryland recently raised its compulsory school attendance age from 16 to 18 in two stages: from 16 to 17 at the beginning of the 2014-15 school year and from 17 to 18 at the beginning of the 2016-17 school year (Maryland Senate Bill 362, 2012). The Maryland State Department of Education, a member of Regional Educational Laboratory…

Mackey, Philip E.; Duncan, Teresa G.

2013-01-01

208

An Evaluation of the Adults and Children Together (ACT) against Violence Parents Raising Safe Kids Program  

Science.gov (United States)

This study evaluated the effectiveness of the Adults and Children Together (ACT) Against Violence Parents Raising Safe Kids program, developed by the American Psychological Association in collaboration with the National Association for the Education of Young Children, as an economical primary prevention intervention for child maltreatment. Using…

Portwood, Sharon G.; Lambert, Richard G.; Abrams, Lyndon P.; Nelson, Ellissa Brooks

2011-01-01

209

Scapulothoracic motion and muscle activity during the raising and lowering phases of an overhead reaching task.  

Science.gov (United States)

Scapulothoracic muscle activity is essential for normal scapulothoracic motion. While previous research has furthered the understanding of scapulothoracic motion and muscle activity during the raising phase of motion, a gap exists with respect to the lowering phase. The purpose of this study was to compare scapulothoracic motion and scapulothoracic muscle activity between the raising and lowering phases of an overhead reaching task. Twenty healthy subjects volunteered to participate in the study. Three-dimensional scapulothoracic motion was collected using an electromagnetic device. Surface electromyography (EMG) was used to assess muscle activity from the upper trapezius, lower trapezius, and serratus anterior muscles. Overall scapulothoracic motion was similar for the raising and lowering phases of the overhead reaching task. However, significantly lower EMG amplitude values existed during the lowering phase across all muscles. Less muscle activity during the lowering phase may reflect differing neuromuscular control strategies between arm raising and lowering. These findings suggest that scapulothoracic muscle activation levels during eccentric contractions may be closer to an activation threshold below which their ability to control scapulothoracic motion may be compromised subsequently leading to altered scapulothoracic motion (scapular dyskinesis). This provides a possible explanation for why scapular dyskinesis is more notable during the lowering phase of motion. PMID:19406665

Ebaugh, D David; Spinelli, Bryan A

2010-04-01

210

RAISING ENVIRONMENTAL AWARENESS OF STUDENTS THROUG RESEARCH ACTIVITIES AT THE UNVIERSITY MUSEUM  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The article looks at raising environmental awareness of students in the course of research performed at the university museum. The author assumes that environmental museum of a university can become the space for innovation and exploration that could raise environmental awareness of students. In order to ensure proper pedagogical conditions there was elaborated a concept of raising environmental awareness of students with the help of a university museum. The article follows the main stages of creation of the exposition by the students, which was devoted to the 5th year of environmental disaster, which was the result of a series of shipwrecks on the ‘black Sunday’ of 11 November, 2007 in the Kerch Strait.The author assumes that the exposition is essential to shed light on real events, present them more vividly, follow the history of certain exhibits and emphasize the unbearable living conditions for the birds dying in the oil slick. The exposition unveils core problems of oil contamination of the world ocean. The exhibits prove the actual fact and foster deeper understanding of the situation. They help to picture the tragic events of the black Sunday more vividly and evoke feelings and emotions, which make the students their witnesses and participants.The author follows the process of raising environmental awareness of students and looks at the results before and after their involvement in research at the environmental museum with the help of the method by E.V. Asafova and concludes that engaging students in research through creating ecological exposition can considerably raise their environmental awareness.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12731/2218-7405-2013-8-24

Elena Vasilevna Khrabrova

2013-09-01

211

Evolución del título de anticuerpos contra el receptor tipo M de la fosfolipasa A2 y respuesta clínica en pacientes con nefropatía membranosa idiopática tratados con tacrolimus / Evolution of antibody titre against the M-type phospholipase A2 receptor and clinical response in idiopathic membranous nephropathy patients treated with tacrolimus  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Spain | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Introducción y objetivos: Se ha descrito que el nivel de anticuerpos circulantes contra el receptor tipo M de la fosfolipasa A2 tiene correlación significativa con la actividad clínica de la enfermedad en la nefropatía membranosa idiopática (NMI). Sin embargo, la utilidad de la monitorización del tí [...] tulo de anticuerpos como predictor de respuesta clínica tras el inicio del tratamiento no ha sido formalmente analizada. En el siguiente estudio se analiza el valor predictivo de la evolución del título de anticuerpos anti-PLA2R sobre la respuesta clínica en enfermos con NMI tratados con tacrolimus. Pacientes y métodos: 36 enfermos con síndrome nefrótico secundario a NMI, con criterios de indicación de tratamiento inmunosupresor, fueron tratados con tacrolimus en monoterapia. Se determinó el nivel de anticuerpos anti-PLA2R antes del tratamiento y a los 3, 6, 9 y 12 meses tras su inicio. Se analizó el valor predictivo de la pendiente de reducción en el título de anticuerpos y de la reducción absoluta y relativa en el título de anticuerpos a los 3 y 6 meses sobre el tiempo hasta la remisión y sobre la probabilidad de remisión a los 6, 9 y 12 meses. Resultados: La reducción relativa en el título de anticuerpos anti-PLA2R fue significativamente mayor en los enfermos que presentaron remisión y precedió a la respuesta clínica. No se apreció asociación entre el título de anticuerpos previo al tratamiento con el tiempo medio de respuesta o la respuesta a los 12 meses. La pendiente de reducción en el título de anticuerpos se asoció significativamente con el tiempo hasta la evidencia de remisión. La reducción relativa en el título de anticuerpos anti-PLA2R a los 3 meses tuvo una elevada sensibilidad y especificidad para predecir la respuesta a los 6 y 9 meses, pero no a los 12 meses, mientras que la reducción relativa en el título de anticuerpos a los 6 meses tuvo una elevada sensibilidad y especificidad para predecir la respuesta a los 12 meses. Conclusión: En enfermos con NMI asociada a anticuerpos anti-PLA2R, la monitorización del título de anticuerpos tras el inicio del tratamiento es útil para estimar el período de tiempo hasta la remisión y para predecir la probabilidad de remisión a los 12 meses. Abstract in english Introduction and objectives: The level of circulating antibodies against M-type phospolipase A2 receptor has been reported as having a significant correlation with clinical activity in idiopathic membranous nephropathy. However, the usefulness of monitoring antibody titre as a predictor of clinical [...] response following the onset of treatment has not been formally analysed. The predictive value of the evolution of anti-PLA2R antibody titre on the clinical response of idiopathic membranous nephropathy patients treated with tacrolimus is analysed in the following study. Patients and method: 36 patients with nephrotic syndrome secondary to idiopathic membranous nephropathy with immunosuppressive treatment indication criteria were treated with tacrolimus in monotherapy. The level of anti-PLA2R antibodies was determined before treatment and at 3, 6, 9 and 12 months after the onset of treatment. The study analysed the predictive value of the reduction in antibody titre and the relative and absolute reduction in antibody titre at 3 and 6 months over the period until remission and on the probability of remission at 6, 9 and 12 months. Results: The relative reduction in the anti-PLA2R antibody titre was significantly greater in those patients with remission and it preceded the clinical response. No association was observed between the antibody titre prior to treatment and the mean response time or the response at 12 months. Reduction in antibody titre is significantly associated with the time until signs of remission. Relative reduction in anti-PLA2R antibody titre at 3 months had a high sensitivity and specificity to predict the response at 6 and 9 months, but not at 12 months; however the relative

Alfons, Segarra-Medrano; Elias, Jatem-Escalante; Clara, Carnicer-Cáceres; Irene, Agraz-Pamplona; M. Teresa, Salcedo; Naiara, Valtierra; Elena, Ostos-Roldán; Karla V., Arredondo; Juliana, Jaramillo.

212

Gizzard impaction in lesser rhea chicks (Pterocnemia pennata) raised on farms in Patagonia, Argentina.  

Science.gov (United States)

Impaction of the gizzard was diagnosed in 33 1-to-4-wk-old lesser rhea (Pterocnemia pennata) raised on farms in Patagonia, Argentina. The birds showed anorexia, lethargy, constipation, dehydration, weight loss, and weakness. Necropsy revealed gizzard impaction by fibrous material, sand, rocks, and rubbish. Also, excess fibrous material was observed in the small intestine, and intussusception was found in one chick. Impaction of the gizzard observed in the present study was similar to that reported in other ratite species and confirmed that this disease can affect lesser rhea chicks raised in captivity. This disease affected 33 out of 41 (80%) dead lesser rhea chicks submitted to the Animal Health Unit of The National Institute of Agricultural Technology, Bariloche, Argentina, during the study period, so it can be a significant cause of mortality in farmed rheas in Argentina. PMID:11332489

Reissig, E C; Robles, C A

2001-01-01

213

Active methodologies as strategies in nursing teaching: Raising awareness towards healthy habits  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Objective: To identify how the use of active methodology may influence healthy habits in nursing students. Method: A qualitative Assistential Convergent Research, undertaken with 43 students of the Nursing Graduation Course, at a Federal University in Southern Brazil. Data were collected with a semi-structured tool, from May to July 2008. Data were organized into categories and analysed according to scientific publications in the area. Results: Three study categories raised from the study: Characterization of Nursing Students from the study, Contributions of teaching-learning active methodologies in raising awareness towards healthy habits, and Healthy habits: feeding and physical exercising. They recognize healthy habits and practice it in their routine, it was detected that 16% are overweight, do not exercise regularly, consider their food, leisure, sleeping patterns and self-image to be adequate. Conclusion: The use of active methodologies may unfold new possibilities towards healthy habits practices.

Luciara Fabiane Sebold

2012-12-01

214

Could Zinc Whiskers Be Impacting Your Electronic Systems? Raise Your Awareness. Revision D  

Science.gov (United States)

During the past several decades electrical short circuits induced by "Zinc Whiskers" have been cited as the root cause of failure for various electronic systems (e.g., apnea monitors, telecom switches). These tiny filaments of zinc that may grow from some zinc-coated items (especially those coated by electroplating processes) have the potential to induce electrical shorts in exposed circuitry. Through this article, the authors describe a particular failure scenario attributed to zinc whiskers that has affected many facilities (including some NASA facilities) that utilized zinc-coated raised "access" floor tiles and support structures. Zinc whiskers that may be growing beneath your raised floor have the potential to wreak havoc on electronic systems operating above the floor.

Sampson, Michael; Brusse, Jay

2003-01-01

215

Fertility Traits of Holstein Cows Raised at Sar?msakl? State Farm  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The present research was carried out to determine some fertility traits in Holstein cows raised at Sarimsakli State Farm. Reproductive performance records within the period from 1983 to 2003 of 764 Holstein cows raised at the farm were constituted the research material. Effect of years on First Breeding Age (FBA, First Calving Age (FCA and Calving Interval(CI were significant(P0,05. Effects of Lactation Length (LL and FCA on CI was not significant(P>0.05. Effect of FBA on FCA was significant(P<0,01. Overall means for FBA, FCA and CI were found as; 18,98 ± 2,73 month, 28,15 ± 2,50 month and 407,07 ± 78,59 day, respectively.

E. K. Gurcan

2007-09-01

216

Device for testing and/or repair of steam raising unit pipes  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The device is introduced into the chamber of a steam raising unit. A pillar extends from the pipe floor to the floor. In order to hold the device, a tensile element with a spreader finger projects into a pipe of the pipe floor. So that the tensile element will be easily accessible during faults and will reduce the probability of the spreader finger sheath jamming, the tensile element and the pillar are connected by coupling, which can be undone outside the steam raising unit. The sheath formed by separate clamping jaws is guided by support elements at its ends. The support element moves the sheath to its unstressed position during the release movement of the spreader finger push rod. The device is mainly used in nuclear powerstations. (orig./HP)

217

Bored raise overcoring for in situ stress determination at the Underground Research Laboratory  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

As part of a programme investigating the effect of scale on measured in situ stress data from granite rocks in the Underground Research Laboratory, an experiment in bored raise rosette overcoring has been conducted. Four resistance strain guage rosettes were positioned in the wall of a ventilation raise in two pairs at right angles to each other. Each rosette consisted of four guages and was individually over-cored using a 300 mm diameter bit, the output from each guage being monitored continuously. When the response from all four guages had levelled off to a constant value overcoring was stopped. This happened typically at overcore depths of about 100 mm. The magnitude and directions of the principal stresses were derived from an analysis of these strain measurements. The results compared favourably with triaxial strain cell overcore tests obtained by the Council for Scientific and Industrial Research and with an under-excavation stress determination test (5 figures, 8 references) (UK)

218

Raising The Educational Standards Through Enhancing Children’s Thinking: Impl?cations For Teacher Education  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this study, the main aim is to raise a fundamental question of whether there is any possible way of raising the educational standards in order to meet the demands of society. In this respect, firstly, the changing function of education and the significance of teaching children how to think and learn will be emphasised, and the importance of science education in children’s learning processes and the gradual improvement of science education will be examined. Secondly, in the light of learning theories, the changing notion of the learning process will be indicated, and the cognitive acceleration intervention programme of the CASE (Cognitive Acceleration through Science Education project will be examined briefly. The necessity of instruction and intervention will be emphasised. Then, the programme and the findings of CASE will be debated. Finally, some suggestions for teacher education will be made.

Yasemin GÖDEK

2005-12-01

219

Raising Children in an Evangelical Family Environment: Biblical Principles Applied to the Family  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available As Creator, God designed the family and determined the standards and rules for living and functioning in the family. As a basic unit of society, the family is to reflect God’s glory. God’s plan for marriage and the family has not changed, only the human approach to this institution has changed. Therefore, it is vital to re-emphasize how important it is that the family functions according to biblical standards. This article deals with raising children in an evangelical environment which assumes God’s presence, the reading and keeping of God’s Word, love between the parents, prayer, and worship of God. Clear goals for raising children are presented. This work offers valuable and lived examples of biblical discipline. It discusses the topic of discipline from childhood to the teen ages, trust, responsibility, communication and relationship with God. Finally, the article points out the importance of times of family worship.

Ljubinka Jambrek

2009-10-01

220

Enhanced Rate of Multiplication of Tissue Cultured Raised Banana (MUSA Plants in the Field  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Multiplication rate of banana plants c.v. Basrai in the field was studied. The results showed that plants raised through culture produced 7.45 suckers plant-1 after 14 months of planting. On the other hand, number of suckers produced by banana plants propagated conventionally were 4015 in the same period of time. The results indicated that tissue culture plants produced 44% more suckers. This enhanced rate of multiplication may overcome the limited sucker production in the field.

Aish Muhammad

2003-01-01

 
 
 
 
221

Early detection of cystic fibrosis lung disease: multiple-breath washout versus raised volume tests  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Background: Lung clearance index (LCI), a measure of ventilation inhomogeneity derived from the multiple-breath inert gas washout (MBW) technique, has been shown to detect abnormal lung function more readily than spirometry in preschool children with cystic fibrosis, but whether this holds true during infancy is unknown.Objectives: To compare the extent to which parameters derived from the MBW and the raised lung volume rapid thoraco-abdominal compression (RVRTC) techniques identify diminishe...

Lum, S.; Gustafsson, P.; Ljungberg, H.; Hulskamp, G.; Bush, A.; Carr, S. B.; Castle, R.; Hoo, A. F.; Price, J.; Ranganathan, S.; Stroobant, J.; Wade, A.; Wallis, C.; Wyatt, H.; Stocks, J.

2007-01-01

222

Ethical and legal issues raised by cord blood banking - the challenges of the new bioeconomy.  

Science.gov (United States)

• Cord blood banking raises ethical and legal issues which highlight the need for careful regulatory approaches to the emerging bioeconomy. • Consent processes for both private and public banking should be inclusive and representative of the different familial interests in the cord blood. • Property law is a potentially useful way of understanding the mechanisms for donation to both public and private banks. • Increasing tensions between public and private models of banking may require the adoption of hybrid forms of banking. PMID:23984790

Stewart, Cameron L; Aparicio, Lorena C; Kerridge, Ian H

2013-08-19

223

Topics raised by the summary report of the first review meeting  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This document presents the fulfilling of the Brazilian obligations under the Convention on Nuclear Safety. The Chapter 7 of the document contains topics raised by the summary report of the first review meeting. The chapter covers status and position of the regulatory body, collective doses, effluents release trends, adoption of the ICRP 60 and basic safety standards, regulatory strategy, quality assurance, monitoring safety management, international cooperation, probabilistic safety assessment and safety improvement programmes

224

Measures to raise uranium content in pregnant solution from 'tails' of roll-type ore body  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Measures to raise uranium content in pregnant solution from 'tails' of roll-type ore body are discussed, including adjusting the pumping-injecting function of well, increasing the drop of water table of pumping well in high grade ore and thick ore for the built mining block; improving well structure, construction and well completion technology, and location of filter for the new mining block of be built, ect. (authors)

225

Partial underream is the way of raising well flowrate of in-situ leaching uranium  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The in-situ leaching drilling is a passage-way of lixiviant in and pregnant solution out. The pumping volume of underground water would directly affect economic benefit and operating cost of in-situ leaching mine, while drilling partial underream is the way of reducing drilling cost and raising flowrate of solution. The pilot test at Yining uranium Mine indicates that the flowrate of single well reaches 6.52 m3/h and increases by 156%

226

What Meaning does Raising a Child with Autism have for Parents? A Qualitative Exploration  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Introduction: Children with autism experience difficulties in social interaction and communication which are often manifested behaviourally. The nature of these difficulties means that the task of parenting is often challenging. This study therefore aims to explore which aspects of raising a child with autism are most meaningful for parents. It will also investigate what, if any, are the positive aspects related to the experience of having a child with autism. Method: A q...

Jardine, Kirsten Marie

2008-01-01

227

Enhanced Rate of Multiplication of Tissue Cultured Raised Banana (MUSA) Plants in the Field  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Multiplication rate of banana plants c.v. Basrai in the field was studied. The results showed that plants raised through culture produced 7.45 suckers plant-1 after 14 months of planting. On the other hand, number of suckers produced by banana plants propagated conventionally were 4015 in the same period of time. The results indicated that tissue culture plants produced 44% more suckers. This enhanced rate of multiplication may overcome the limited sucker production in the field.

Aish Muhammad; Iqbal Hussain; Muhammad Faheem Akbar; Hamid Rashid

2003-01-01

228

Specification, proof, and model checking of the Mondex electronic purse using RAISE  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

This paper describes how the communication protocol of Mondex electronic purses can be specified and verified against desired security properties. The specification is developed by stepwise refinement using the RAISE formal specification language, RSL, and the proofs are made by translation to PVS and SAL. The work is part of a year-long project contributing to the international grand challenge in verified software engineering.

Haxthausen, Anne Elisabeth

2008-01-01

229

Raising Students' Awareness of Cross-Cultural Contrastive Rhetoric Via an E-Learning Course  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This study investigated the potential impact of e-learning on raising overseas students' cultural awareness and explored the possibility of creating an interactive learning environment for them to improve their English academic writing. The study was based on a comparison of Chinese and English rhetoric in academic writing, including a comparison of Chinese students' writings in Chinese with native English speakers' writings in English and Chinese students' writings in English with the help o...

Jinghui Wang; Minjie Xing; Kenneth Spencer

2008-01-01

230

International Technology Mergers & Acquisitions and Raising the Competitiveness of China Equipment Manufacturing Industry  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Developing and strengthening the competitiveness of the equipment manufacturing industry is that needs solving the weighty problem. China equipment manufacturing enterprises could acquire the core technique with international tech-nology mergers & acquisitions. This is an important strategy that could facilitate raising innovation capital and R&D level of the enterprise by a wide margin. This paper analyses the problems of China equipment manufacturing industry, advantages of international technology mergers & acquisitions and puts forward appropriate proposals and measures.

Xiuling Liu

2012-02-01

231

Dolphin assisted therapy in Lithuania: expectations of families raising children with complex disability  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The article presents qualitative research on the expectations of families raising children with complex disability. The idea is to analyze the reflections of families who have waited for the Dolphin Assisted Therapy for more than three years. This kind of therapy is very popular in Lithuania and abroad. There exists various common understandings why families wish to participate in Dolphin Assisted Therapy. However, serious and systematic research focusing on family expectations concerning DAT...

Kreiviniene?, Brigita; Perttula, Juha

2012-01-01

232

Structural evaluation of WIPP disposal room raised to Clay Seam G.  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

An error was discovered in the ALGEBBRA script used to calculate the disturbed rock zone around the disposal room and the shear failure zone in the anhydrite layers in the original version. To correct the error, a memorandum of correction was submitted according to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Quality Assurance program. The recommended course of action was to correct the error, to repeat the post-process, and to rewrite Section 7.4, 7.5, 8, and Appendix B in the original report. The sections and appendix revised by the post-process using the corrected ALGEBRA scripts are provided in this revision. The original report summarizes a series of structural calculations that examine effects of raising the WIPP repository horizon from the original design level upward 2.43 meters. Calculations were then repeated for grid changes appropriate for the new horizon raised to Clay Seam G. Results are presented in three main areas: (1) Disposal room porosity, (2) Disturbed rock zone characteristics, and (3) Anhydrite marker bed failure. No change to the porosity surface for the compliance re-certification application is necessary to account for raising the repository horizon, because the new porosity surface is essentially identical. The disturbed rock zone evolution and devolution are charted in terms of a stress invariant criterion over the regulatory period. This model shows that the propagation of the DRZ into the surrounding rock salt does not penetrate through MB 139 in the case of both the original horizon and the raised room. Damaged salt would be expected to heal in nominally 150 years. The shear failure does not occur in either the upper or lower anhydrite layers at the moment of excavation, but appears above and below the middle of the pillar one day after the excavation. The damaged anhydrite is not expected to heal as the salt in the DRZ is expected to.

Park, Byoung Yoon (Sandia National Laboratories, Carlsbad, NM); Holland, John F. (Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM)

2007-09-01

233

Calculation of temperature raise InSb (PV) detector illuminated by laser beam  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Temperature Raise of the p-n joint in InSb(PV) Detector is obtained using a 1-D model of heat conduction. The effects of heat conductivity and thickness of glue on laser damage threshold and heat recovery time are calculated and discussed. It is pointed out that using the glue of high heat conductivity and making the thickness of the glue as thin as possible are effective for improving the protection of the detector

234

Raised bed technology for wheat crop in irrigated areas of punjab, pakistan  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The present paper analyzes the determinants of adoption of raised bed planting of wheat in irrigated areas of Punjab, Pakistan. Wheat is an important staple food of Pakistan. It contributes 13 % to the value added in agriculture and 2.6 % to the GDP. The agrarian economy of Pakistan is continuously under stress due to the low yield of almost all the crops and constrained with many problem. One of the most important issues of agriculture is water shortage which is increasing day by day and is a major challenge now a days. Therefore, water saving becomes the utmost need of the hour. The national research system is now putting their focus and efforts to manage the precious water through various modern/latest water saving models to draw some solid method of irrigation with less wastage. Raised bed planting method is also one of the modern methods of planting crop with significant water saving. The study was planned and conducted by the Social Sciences Research Institute, Faisalabad in 2011-12 to assess the determinants of the adoption of the raised bed technology for wheat crop in irrigated Punjab, Pakistan. The study was conducted at three sites of the districts Faisalabad and Toba Tek Singh where the Water Management Research Institute, University of Faisalabad promoted the raised bed technology for wheat crop. A sample of 63 farmers was interviewed in detail to understand the whole system and the factors contributing to the adoption of the technology. The study revealeption of the technology. The study revealed that adopters typically have a more favorable resource base and tend to variously outperform non-adopters. More access to education and other social indicators increases the chances to adopt new technologies by the farming community. However, the small farmers can also be benefited with the technology with proper education regarding the technology in the area with good social mobilization for the conservation of scarce and valuable farm resources. (author)

235

Your Genes, Your Choices: Exploring the Issues Raised by Genetic Research  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Your Genes, Your Choices provides accurate information about the ethical, legal, and social implications of the Human Genome Project and genetic research in an easy-to-read style and format. Each chapter in the book begins with a brief vignette, which introduces an issue within a human story, and raises a question for the reader to think about as the basic science and information are presented in the rest of the chapter.

Baker, C.

1999-05-31

236

How high the temperature of a liquid be raised without boiling?  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

How high the temperature of a liquid be raised beyond its boiling point without vaporizing (known as the limit of superheat) is an interesting subject of investigation. A new method of finding the limit of superheat of liquids is presented here. The superheated liquids are taken in the form of drops suspended in visco elastic gel. The nucleation is detected acoustically by a sensitive piezo-electric transducer, coupled to a multi channel scaler and the nucleation is observed...

Das, Mala; Chatterjee, B. K.; Roy, B.; Roy, S. C.

2000-01-01

237

Disentangling Ethnic and Contextual Influences Among Parents Raising Youth in High-Risk Communities  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This article reports on analyses examining contextual influences on parenting with an ethnically and geographically diverse sample of parents (predominantly mothers) raising 387 children (49% ethnic minority; 51% male) in high-risk communities. Parents and children were followed longitudinally from first through tenth grades. Contextual influences included geographical location, neighborhood risk, SES, and family stress. The cultural variable was racial socialization. Parenting constructs cre...

Hurley, Sean; Bierman, Karen L.; Coie, John D.; Dodge, Kenneth A.; Greenberg, Mark T.; Lochman, John E.; Mcmahon, Robert J.; Pinderhughes, Ellen E.

2008-01-01

238

Raising Awareness of Grey Literature in an Academic Community Using the Cognitive Behavioral Theory  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Cognitive skill training, part of cognitive behavior management, is based on the cognitive behavioral theory. The principle that thinking controls behavior has been widely used by educators to develop methods to improve the performance of students, while clinicians provide multifaceted health promotion and psychological counseling programs. The plan of our educational project is to raise awareness among students, faculty members, and researchers of material not produced via standard commercia...

Lin, Yongtao; Vaska, Marcus; Greynet, Grey Literature Network Service

2009-01-01

239

Chromosome comparison between populations of the collared peccary, Tayassu tajacu, raised in captivity  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Argentina | Language: English Abstract in english The collared peccary (Tayassu tajacu) is widely distributed over the American continent, being found from the south of the USA to the north of Argentina. In Brazil, it is spread all over the country, being one of the potential species to be raised in captivity. Therefore, the cytogenetic techniques [...] could be a potential tool for reproductive monitoring of animals raised in captivity, mainly when destined for commercial purposes. This study had the objective of determining the chromosome number of two populations raised in captivity and characterizing them by GTG banding. For this purpose, an analysis was made of mitotic metaphases obtained from lymphocyte cultures made from blood samples of 11 animals, six of which from the Northeast and five from the North of Brazil. The results of this analysis showed the same karyotype pattern for the species (2n=30 chromosomes and NF=48), besides corresponding to the South American pattern of the species, i.e., without a translocation between autosomes 1 and 8, chromosome X acrocentric, and no differences were found between the two populations studied. However, chromosomal polymorphisms were observed compared to data from the literature on populations from North and South America.

Patrícia, Carvalho de Souza; André, Salim Khayat; Igor, Chamon Seligmann; Rommel Mario, Rodríguez Burbano.

2008-08-01

240

Chromosome comparison between populations of the collared peccary, Tayassu tajacu, raised in captivity  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The collared peccary (Tayassu tajacu is widely distributed over the American continent, being found from the south of the USA to the north of Argentina. In Brazil, it is spread all over the country, being one of the potential species to be raised in captivity. Therefore, the cytogenetic techniques could be a potential tool for reproductive monitoring of animals raised in captivity, mainly when destined for commercial purposes. This study had the objective of determining the chromosome number of two populations raised in captivity and characterizing them by GTG banding. For this purpose, an analysis was made of mitotic metaphases obtained from lymphocyte cultures made from blood samples of 11 animals, six of which from the Northeast and five from the North of Brazil. The results of this analysis showed the same karyotype pattern for the species (2n=30 chromosomes and NF=48, besides corresponding to the South American pattern of the species, i.e., without a translocation between autosomes 1 and 8, chromosome X acrocentric, and no differences were found between the two populations studied. However, chromosomal polymorphisms were observed compared to data from the literature on populations from North and South America.

Patrícia Carvalho de Souza

2008-08-01

 
 
 
 
241

The apolipoprotein E polymorphism and the cholesterol-raising effect of coffee  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background The response of serum cholesterol to diet may be affected by the apolipoprotein E (APOE ?2/?3/?4 polymorphism, which also is a significant predictor of variation in the risk of coronary heart disease (CHD and CHD death. Here, we test the hypothesis that the APOE polymorphism may modulate the cholesterol-raising effect of coffee. Objective We determined the effect of a coffee abstention period and a daily intake of 600 mL coffee on serum cholesterol and triglycerides with respect to the APOE polymorphism. Design 121 healthy, non-smoking men (22% and women (78% aged 29–65 years, took part in a study with four intervention periods: 1 and 3 a coffee free period of three weeks, 2 and 4 600 mL coffee/day for four weeks. Results APOE ?2 positive individuals had significantly lower total cholesterol concentration at baseline (4.68 mmol/L and 5.28 mmol/L, respectively, p = 0.01, but the cholesterol-raising effect of coffee was not influenced significantly by APOE allele carrier status. Conclusions The APOE ? 2 allele is associated with lower serum cholesterol concentration. However, the APOE polymorphism does not seem to influence the cholesterol-raising effect of coffee.

Rymo Lars

2004-11-01

242

Communicating adaptation with emotions: the role of intense experiences in raising concern about extreme weather.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Adaptation to extreme weather is often considered as having a low urgency and being a low priority governance option, even though the intensity of extreme weather events is expected to increase as a result of climate change. An important issue is how to raise an adequate level of concern among individuals, policy makers, and broader decision makers in companies and organizations so that adaptation to extreme events becomes mainstream practice. We conducted 40 indepth interviews with individuals from different sectors in The Netherlands to identify the different types of experiences with extreme events, as well as the relationship between such experiences and the level of concern about extreme weather. Our results indicate that individuals who have experienced an intense, life-threatening event have a significantly higher level of concern than those without such an experience. Professional experience and secondhand experience through participating in information events do not significantly affect the level of concern about extreme events. This suggests limited intervention possibilities for communication of adaptation, as well as for raising support for adaptation measures. Framing adaptation measures in relation to personal circumstances and emotions during extreme events could help raise concern about extreme weather events, as well as societal support for adaptation measures.

Eleftheria Vasileiadou

2014-06-01

243

Self-assembled peptide nanofibers raising durable antibody responses against a malaria epitope.  

Science.gov (United States)

Biomaterials that modulate innate and adaptive immune responses are receiving increasing interest as adjuvants for eliciting protective immunity against a variety of diseases. Previous results have indicated that self-assembling ?-sheet peptides, when fused with short peptide epitopes, can act as effective adjuvants and elicit robust and long-lived antibody responses. Here we investigated the mechanism of immunogenicity and the quality of antibody responses raised by a peptide epitope from Plasmodium falciparum circumsporozoite (CS) protein, (NANP)(3),conjugated to the self-assembling peptide domain Q11. The mechanism of adjuvant action was investigated in knockout mice with impaired MyD88, NALP3, TLR-2, or TLR-5 function, and the quality of antibodies raised against (NANP)(3)-Q11 was assessed using a transgenic sporozoite neutralizing (TSN) assay for malaria infection. (NANP)(3)-Q11 self-assembled into nanofibers, and antibody responses lasted up to 40 weeks in C57BL/6 mice. The antibody responses were T cell- and MyD88-dependent. Sera from mice primed with either irradiated sporozoites or a synthetic peptide, (T1BT*)(4)-P3C, and boosted with (NANP)(3)-Q11 showed significant increases in antibody titers and significant inhibition of sporozoite infection in TSN assays. In addition, two different epitopes could be self-assembled together without compromising the strength or duration of the antibody responses raised against either of them, making these materials promising platforms for self-adjuvanting multi-antigenic immunotherapies. PMID:22695068

Rudra, Jai S; Mishra, Satish; Chong, Anita S; Mitchell, Robert A; Nardin, Elizabeth H; Nussenzweig, Victor; Collier, Joel H

2012-09-01

244

Chromosome comparison between populations of the collared peccary, Tayassu tajacu, raised in captivity.  

Science.gov (United States)

The collared peccary (Tayassu tajacu) is widely distributed over the American continent, being found from the south of the USA to the north of Argentina. In Brazil, it is spread all over the country, being one of the potential species to be raised in captivity. Therefore, the cytogenetic techniques could be a potential tool for reproductive monitoring of animals raised in captivity, mainly when destined for commercial purposes. This study had the objective of determining the chromosome number of two populations raised in captivity and characterizing them by GTG banding. For this purpose, an analysis was made of mitotic metaphases obtained from lymphocyte cultures made from blood samples of 11 animals, six of which from the Northeast and five from the North of Brazil. The results of this analysis showed the same karyotype pattern for the species (2n=30 chromosomes and NF=48), besides corresponding to the South American pattern of the species, i.e., without a translocation between autosomes 1 and 8, chromosome X acrocentric, and no differences were found between the two populations studied. However, chromosomal polymorphisms were observed compared to data from the literature on populations from North and South America. PMID:18825915

Carvalho de Souza, Patrícia; Khayat, André Salim; Seligmann, Igor Chamon; Rodríguez Burbano, Rommel Mario

2008-08-01

245

Developing a Translator from C Programs to Data Flow Graphs Using RAISE  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Describes how a translator from a subset of C to data flow graphs has been formally developed using the RAISE (Rigorous Approach to Industrial Software Engineering) method and tools. In contrast to many development examples described in the literature, this development is not a case study, but a real one, and it covers all development phases, including the code-generation phase. The translator is now one of the components of the LYCOS (LYngby CO-Synthesis) system, which is a software/hardware co-synthesis system under development at the Technical University of Denmark. The translator, together with the other components of LYCOS, provides a means for moving parts of C programs to dedicated hardware, thereby obtaining better performance. The translator was refined in steps, starting with an abstract specification and ending with a concrete specification from which C++ code was then automatically generated by the RAISE tools. In addition to illustrating the general methodology of RAISE, the paper also contributes with a specific method for refining set comprehensions

Haxthausen, Anne Elisabeth

1996-01-01

246

Structural evaluation of WIPP disposal room raised to Clay Seam G.  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report summarizes a series of structural calculations that examine effects of raising the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant repository horizon from the original design level upward 2.43 meters. These calculations allow evaluation of various features incorporated in conceptual models used for performance assessment. Material presented in this report supports the regulatory compliance re-certification, and therefore begins by replicating the calculations used in the initial compliance certification application. Calculations are then repeated for grid changes appropriate for the new horizon raised to Clay Seam G. Results are presented in three main areas: 1. Disposal room porosity, 2. Disturbed rock zone characteristics, and 3. Anhydrite marker bed failure. No change to the porosity surface for the compliance re-certification application is necessary to account for raising the repository horizon, because the new porosity surface is essentially identical. The disturbed rock zone evolution and devolution are charted in terms of a stress invariant criterion over the regulatory period. This model shows that the damage zone does not extend upward to MB 138, but does reach MB 139 below the repository. Damaged salt would be expected to heal in nominally 100 years. The anhydrite marker beds sustain states of stress that promote failure and substantial marker bed deformation into the room assures fractured anhydrite will sustain in the proximity of the disposal rooms.

Park, Byoung Yoon; Holland, John F.

2004-01-01

247

Potassium ion channels operated by receptor stimulation can be activated simply by raising temperature.  

Science.gov (United States)

Application of either dopamine (DA), acetylcholine (ACh), or histamine (HA) to the identified ganglion cells of Aplysia elicits a K(+)-dependent slow hyperpolarization. When temperature of the bathing solution was raised from 22 to 32 degrees C, these cells were also hyperpolarized with a marked increase in K+ conductance. The warm- and transmitter-induced current responses recorded under voltage clamp were not blocked by either 1 mM Ba2+ or 10 mM TEA. Intracellularly injected guanosine 5'-O-(2-thiodiphosphate) (GDP beta S) depressed both warm- and transmitter-induced K+ responses immediately after the injection. Intracellular application of guanosine 5'-O-(3-thiotriphosphate) (GTP gamma S) caused a gradual, irreversible increase in K+ conductance of the plasma membrane and occluded both responses. Transmitter-induced response markedly decreased when the temperature was raised from 22 to 32 degrees C, suggesting that the response to transmitter was occluded during the warm-induced response. These results suggested that the G-protein regulating the receptor-operated K+ channels could be activated simply by raising temperature. PMID:1649930

Tamazawa, Y; Matsumoto, M; Kudo, A; Sasaki, K

1991-01-01

248

An overview of the rangelands atmosphere hydrosphere biosphere interaction study experiment in northeastern Asia (RAISE)  

Science.gov (United States)

SummaryIntensive observations, analysis and modeling within the framework of the rangelands atmosphere-hydrosphere-biosphere interaction study experiment in northeastern Asia (RAISE) project, have allowed investigations into the hydrologic cycle in the ecotone of forest-steppe, and its relation to atmosphere and ecosystem in the eastern part of Mongolia. In this region, changes in the climate have been reported and a market oriented economy was introduced recently, but their impact on the natural environment is still not well understood. In this RAISE special issue, the outcome is presented of the studies carried out by six groups within RAISE, namely: (1) Land-atmosphere interaction analysis, (2) ecosystem analysis and modeling, (3) hydrologic cycle analysis, (4) climatic modeling, (5) hydrologic modeling, and (6) integration. The results are organized in five relevant categories comprising (i) hydrologic cycle including precipitation, groundwater, and surface water, (ii) hydrologic cycle and ecosystem, (iii) surface-atmosphere interaction, (iv) effect of grazing activities on soils, plant ecosystem and surface fluxes, and (v) future prediction. Comparison with studies on rangelands in other parts of the world, and some future directions of studies still needed in this region are also summarized.

Sugita, Michiaki; Asanuma, Jun; Tsujimura, Maki; Mariko, Shigeru; Lu, Minjiao; Kimura, Fujio; Azzaya, Dolgorsuren; Adyasuren, Tsokhio

2007-01-01

249

Exploring High Time Resolution Coronal Dynamics with the Rapid Acquisition Imaging Spectrograph (RAISE) Sounding Rocket Program  

Science.gov (United States)

The Rapid Acquisition Imaging Spectrograph (RAISE) is a next-generation high resolution imaging spectrograph to study the dynamics of the solar chromosphere and corona on time scales as short as 100 ms. High speed imaging from TRACE has shown that rapid motions and reconnection are central to the physics of the transition region and corona, but cannot resolve the differences between propagating phenomena and bulk motion. SoHO/CDS and SoHO/SUMER have yielded intriguing measurements of motion and heating in the solar atmosphere, and Solar-B/EIS will capture EUV spectra of flares in progress; but no currently planned instrument can capture spectral information in the chromosphere, transition region, or cool corona on the 1-10 Hz time scale required for few-second cadence spectral imaging or rapid wave motion studies. RAISE is uniquely suited to exploring this hard-to-reach domain. The first flight of RAISE is scheduled for Fall, 2009 (Flight 36.219) and will focus on the study of high frequency, small-scale dynamics of active region structures and the high frequency wave structure associated with these active regions. This work is supported under NASA Grant NNG04WC01G and NNX08AZ46G to the Southwest Research Institute.

Hassler, Donald M.

2009-05-01

250

Measuring Metacognition and Reaction Time: Further Findings on the Performances of General Education, Low-Achieving, and Institutionally Raised Students  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of this study was to use the picture format to examine in depth the metacognitive performances and reaction time in general education, low-achieving, and institutionally raised students. Results revealed that institutionally raised students, unlike low-achieving students, took significantly the longest reaction time to finish the test…

Al-Hilawani, Yasser A.; Abdullah, Ahmad A.

2010-01-01

251

Role of hypertonic saline and mannitol in the management of raised intracranial pressure in children: A randomized comparative study  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Objective : To compare the efficacy and side effects of 3% hypertonic saline and mannitol in the management of raised intracranial pressure in children. Design : Prospective randomized study. Setting : Pediatric intensive care unit (PICU) in a tertiary care hospital. Subject : 200 patients with raised intracranial pressure. Materials and Methods : Patients were randomized into two statistically comparable groups; Group A (n = 98) was treated with mann...

Upadhyay Piyush; Tripathi V; Singh R; Sachan D

2010-01-01

252

At the Roots of Finnish Elementary Education – How Were Children Raised in the First Finnish Elementary Schools?  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study dissects the history of Finnish elementary education and the way children were raised during the initial phase of Finnish education in the 18th century. The development of Finnish education was studied through contemporary decrees and laws and studies of Finnish school history. The preliminary aim was to focus on the principles and practices of raising children in Finnish schools. This study focuses on (1 describing the birth, goals, and practices of Finnish elementary education and development toward compulsory education, (2 describing the way children were raised toward the contemporary goals, and (3 dissecting the connection between teacher training and the goals of raising children in Finnish schools. All these viewpoints are discussed from the viewpoint of how the aspirations and objectives were realized and implemented in practice in raising children. As a conclusion, we discuss the influence of the past in today’s educational practices.

Satu UUSIAUTTI

2013-03-01

253

Effects of different raising systems on colour and quality characteristics of turkish pekin duck meats  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO South Africa | Language: English Abstract in english The current trial was conducted to determine the influence of different raising systems on the meat quality properties of male Turkish Pekin ducks. Ninety male ducklings were randomly allocated to three experimental groups: an animal-fish integrated farming group (IG), a non-animal-fish integrated f [...] arming group (NIG) and a poultry house group (PHG). All ducklings were fed a starter diet from weeks 2 to 6 and a finisher diet from weeks 6 to 10. Feed and water were offered ad libitum. At the end of the trial all ducks were slaughtered and the carcasses were stored at 3 °C for 24 hours, after which L*, a* and b* values of the carcass skins were measured. After standard dissection of carcasses, pectoralis muscles were obtained on which pH, colour (L*, a*, b*, C and H), total aerobic mesophilic, total aerobic psychrotrophic, lactic acid bacteria, Micrococcus/Staphylococcus, yeast-mould and Enterobacteriaceae counts were determined. The different raising systems of the ducks had significant effects on the pH, total aerobic mesophilic, Enterobacteriaceae, and L* and b* values of the pectoralis muscle. The lowest pH, total aerobic mesophilic and Enterobacteriaceae counts were found in the PHG group. The lowest L* values for the pectoralis muscle were found in the IG group while the highest a* value was recorded in the IG group. Significant differences in skin colour were observed between the experimental groups. For all production groups, all microbial counts were found to be within acceptable ranges. However, pH, total aerobic mesophilic and Enterobacteriaceae results were found to be lower in the PHG group than in the other groups. Different raising systems were thus found to affect the meat and skin colour of ducks, which may influence the preference of consumers.

E., Lacin; M.I., Aksu; M., Macit; A., Yildiz; M., Karaoglu; N., Esenbuga; M.A., Yoruk.

254

Growth curve of locally adapted pantaneiro cows raised under natural conditions  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english The objective of this study was to use morphometric and ultrasound evaluations to estimate the growth curve of the Pantaneiro cattle breed, raised in its natural habitat, aiming at the re-insertion of this breed in production systems. One hundred and three females, aging from months to 11 years, and [...] raised on native pastures, were evaluated. The animals belonged to the Conservation Nucleus of Embrapa Pantanal, located in the Pantanal of Mato Grosso do Sul (Brazil). Weight, thoracic perimeter (TP), body length (BL), rump height (RH), height at withers (HW), hip height (HH), depth (DP), distance between the ilia (DI) (cm) and rib-eye area (REA) were measured. To relate the measurements with the age of the animals, the univariate regression model was used, assigning the variable response to gamma distribution. The Pearson correlation between variables was also estimated. The inflection point of the growth curve was 37 months for HH; between 38 and 39 months for TP and HW; between 40 and 41 months for DI, HH and DP; and 45 months for BL. The REA results could not fit in a statistical model. The majority of the variables presented a correlation above 60% among themselves, except for REA × Age, of 15.81%; REA × HW, of 34.44%; HH × Age, of 46.19; HH × DI, of 58.07%; REA × HH, of 24.57%; and REA × TP, of 39.9%. The cows showed maturity age at 40 months, which may have occurred because they were raised in natural farming conditions. In Pantaneiro cows reared in extensive systems only on natural pastures, the use of ultrasound is not effective to estimate the curve of muscular development, perhaps because this breed was not selected for weight gain.

Eleonora Araújo, Barbosa; Andréa Alves do, Egito; Urbano Gomes Pinto de, Abreu; Raquel Soares, Juliano; Joseane Padilha da, Silva; Arthur da Silva, Mariante; Alexandre Floriani, Ramos.

2013-11-01

255

Effect of ultraviolet rays upon the productivity and adaptive possibilities of sows raised under industrial conditions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Two experiments, aimed at establishing the effect of treatment with UV-rays on productivity of sows, the growth rate of pigs up to weaning, their adaptive reactions, and the micro-climate on the premises were carried out with 60 sows, divided into two groups: group i (controls) raised on premises without treatment with UV-rays, and group ii (experimental) raised on premises under treatment with UV-rays. Both nursing sows and piglets until their weaning were raised under industrial conditions. Type PRK-2 mercury lamp of 120 V, 3.75 A, and 375 W was used as a source of UV-rays. Each animal was exposed to irradiation daily for a period of 2 min. The live weight of sows, prolificacy, live weight of pigs at weaning and number of culled pigs during the sucking period, were checked. The adaptive reactions of sows and pigs were examined by ACT-hormon testing. Before treatment and 3 h after treatment with this hormone leucocyte, eosinophile and erythrocyte count and the haemoglobin, Ca, blood sugar, total protein, albumin and globulin in the blood were checked. The temperature, moisture, velocity of movement and gas composition of air were measured prior to blood sampling. Under the conditions existing in industrial pig-breeding complexes ensuring complete feeding of animals UV-treatment did not produce essential effects on the productivity of sows and the growth rate of pigs as well as on the adaptive reactions of animals and the micro-climate on the premises

256

Bio-Economic Evaluation of the Performance of Rabbits Raised under Two Different Housing Systems  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study was conducted to evaluate the bio-economic performance of rabbits raised under two different housing systems: conventional hutch with cage system as control (A and the non-conventional floor housing system (B. Thirty six adult rabbits of medium size breed category of both sexes aged 5-6 months comprising Chinchilla (20, New Zealand White (10, Dutch (6 were used in the study which lasted 24 weeks. Fifteen does and 3 bucks were each randomly but equally assigned to both housing systems. Data on individual and group treatments were analysed with a one-way analysis of variance and students' ttest, employed in testing differences between the means. A benefit-cost analysis was used to evaluate the relative cost effectiveness of each housing option. Results obtained showed that rabbits raised on floor performed better (6 kittens < 0.05 biologically than those reared in hutched (3 kittens. For example, significant final weights (1.9 kg and weight gains (0.4 kg were observed in rabbits reared on floor as against those in hutch 1.6 kg and 0.09 kg. From an economic viewpoint, rabbits raised on floor contributed higher positive income (N 58.2 per unit of meat produced than rabbits reared in hutch or cage. Rate of return on investment in the former was estimated at about 50%. The floor housing system which is the cheaper, more productive and cost-effective is therefore recommended for farmers who are lacking the fundamental factors of production namely land and particularly capital as observed in the study location or environment.

Mobolaji-Bukola, PU.

2002-01-01

257

Raising students and educators awareness of radioactive materials transport through creative classroom materials and exhibits  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The public is concerned about how the shipping and handling of radioactive materials affects them and their environment. Through exhibit showings doing professional education conferences and smaller, focussed workshops, the United States Department of Energy (DOE) has found teachers and students to be an especially interested audience for hazardous and radioactive materials transportation information. DOE recognizes the importance of presenting educational opportunities to students about scientific and societal issues associated with planning for and safely transporting these types of materials. Raising students' and educators' awareness of hazardous and radioactive materials transport through creative classroom materials and exhibits may help them make informed decisions as adults about this often controversial and difficult issue

258

Hematology and serum chemistry values of the lesser rhea (Pterocnemia pennata) raised in Patagonian farms (Argentina).  

Science.gov (United States)

Hematologic and serum chemistry values were determined for chicks, juveniles, and adult farmed lesser rheas (Prerocnemia pennata). Blood samples were taken during March-April 1998 from the brachial veins of lesser rhea, including 64 chicks, 24 juveniles, and 36 adults, raised in Patagonian farms (Argentina). Lesser rhea chicks had significantly lower erythrocyte counts, hematocrit, hemoglobin, red cell indices, and copper than did the juveniles and adult individuals. No significant differences were observed between females and males. Most values were similar to those reported for other ratites. The data obtained provide hematologic and serum chemistry values for lesser rhea from farms. PMID:12564529

Reissig, Elizabeth Chang; Robles, Carlos A; Sager, Ricardo

2002-12-01

259

The Use of Consciousness-Raising Tasks in Learning and Teaching of Subject-Verb Agreement  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study investigates the use of two types of Consciousness-Raising (CR tasks in learning Subject-Verb Agreement (SVA. The sample consisted of 28 Form 2 students who were divided into two groups. Group 1 was assigned with Grammaticality Judgment (GJ tasks and Group 2 received Sentence Production (SP tasks for eight weeks. Learners were given a pretest before the treatment and a posttest once they completed the tasks. They were also required to answer questionnaires and some were interviewed. The findings show the two CR tasks promote SVA learning among students but SP tasks are descriptively better than GJ tasks in terms of gain scores.

Sirhajwan Idek

2013-05-01

260

Technique improvement of thoracoabdominal CT scan for patients with arm-raising disability  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Objective: To explore a new scanning technique to reduce and avoid image artifacts of thoracoabdominal CT and improve image quality for patients who cannot raise their arms. Methods: Sixty-one patients with arm-raising disability between March 2004 and May 2009 were enrolled in the study. Thirty-one cases before June 2007 were scanned with their arms beside their body (control group), 30 cases after June 2007 were scanned with their arms shifting to different imaging planes of the spine (study group), and another 30 patients who can raising their arms were taken as routine group. The images artifacts were blindly evaluated by 5-points scale (severe, less severe, moderate, minimum and no artifact) by 2 experienced CT technologists and one radiologist and compared between the three groups (X2 test). CT values and its noise of the liver with or without artifact of the three groups were measured and analyzed by one-way ANOVA test. Results: In the control group, 11 cases had severe, 15 cases had less severe, 5 cases had moderate. In the study group, 6 cases had moderate, 15 cases had minimum, 9 cases had no artifact. In the routine group, 8 cases minimum and 22 cases had no artifact. Image quality was significantly improved in the study group compared to the conventional group where X2=95.32 and P<0.01. CT value and the noise of the liver without artifact were (54.5 ± 3.0) HU and 10.7 ± 2.4 in the control group, (52.0 ± 3.5) HU and 10.7 ± 0.5 in tp, (52.0 ± 3.5) HU and 10.7 ± 0.5 in the study group, (53.7 ± 3.1) HU and 9.9 ± 0.5 in the routine group, respectively. CT value and noise of the liver with artifact were (41.7 ± 8.4) HU and 17.9 ± 2.6 in control group, (53.1 ± 6.9) HU and 11.0 ± 0.7 in the study group, (54.1 ± 2.4) HU and 9.9 ± 0.5 in the routine group, respectively. The CT value and its noise variation with artifact were significantly higher in the control group than the study group and the control group, where F=36.352, 235.848, respectively and P<0.01. Conclusion: The image quality can be improved and the artifact can be minimized for the patients with arm-raising disability by shifting their arm position to the different imaging planes of the spine. (authors)

 
 
 
 
261

Nuclear development strategic and policy issues raised by the transition from thermal to fast nuclear systems  

CERN Document Server

The renewed interest in nuclear energy triggered by concerns about global climate change and security of supply could lead to substantial growth in nuclear electricity generation and expanded interest in fast neutron reactors with closed fuel cycles. Moving from the current fleet of thermal neutron reactors to fast neutron systems will require many decades and extensive RD&D efforts. This book identifies and analyses key strategic and policy issues raised by such a transition, and provides guidance to decision makers on the best approaches for implementing transition scenarios.

2009-01-01

262

Raising the level of seismic protection of existing RC structures in seismically active regions  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available RC structural systems appeared in practice after 1950, but with relatively weak and non-earthquake resistant structural elements. Modern RC systems started to be built after 1980. With the coming into effect of modern regulations, there arises the need for raising the level of seismic protection of existing RC structures that are not seismically built. The procedure for analysis and design is similar to the procedure for analysis and design of masonry buildings. For the RC elements, there is a more sophisticated method for definition of the capacity of strength, stiffness and deformability as well as definition of characteristic points in the P-? working diagram.

Zivko Bozinovski

2014-07-01

263

Building America Case Study: Raised Ceiling Interior Duct System, New Smyrna, Florida (Fact Sheet)  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

One of BA-PIRC's longtime Habitat for Humanity partners, S.E. Volusia CO (SEVHFH), was interested in building a home to the new Challenge Home standards. SEVHFH routinely builds ENERGY STAR V3.1 homes. The only modification to their design needed to comply with the Challenge Home criteria was the interior duct requirement. Unwilling to incur the added costs of a foam roof deck or wall heights above 8 feet to accommodate a fur-down chase SEVHFH opted to build a fur-up or raised ceiling chase.

2014-09-01

264

Developing a Translator from C Programs to Data Flow Graphs Using RAISE  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Describes how a translator from a subset of C to data flow graphs has been formally developed using the RAISE (Rigorous Approach to Industrial Software Engineering) method and tools. In contrast to many development examples described in the literature, this development is not a case study, but a real one, and it covers all development phases, including the code-generation phase. The translator is now one of the components of the LYCOS (LYngby CO-Synthesis) system, which is a software/hardware...

Haxthausen, Anne Elisabeth

2006-01-01

265

Investigation of monoclonal antibodies raised to human ovarian carcinoma cell lines  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Monoclonal antibodies (MAb) were generated to multidrug resistant (MDR) and sensitive variants of the ovarian carcinoma cell line OAW42 which over-express the M D R associated protem LRP/MVP MAb 3/B6 was raised to the intrinsically resistant variant OAW42-SR Immunofluorescence and immunocytochemical analysis indicated that the antigen detected by MAb 3/B6 was expressed primarily on the external surface of the plasma membrane but was also found to be expressed in the cytoplasm of a series of h...

Blacoe-masterson, Allan

1998-01-01

266

Soil water flow dynamics on raised beds in an acid sulphate soil  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Soil water flows and soil moisture dynamics from raised bed system with and without sugarcane crops during the period January to October 1997 was studied. Measurements were made on soil water contents and ground water level. Soil samples were taken once-a week from the beds randomly. Meteorological conditions were collected at Can Tho meteorological station. Cumulative precipitation during the investigation period was of l377.6 mm. The SOIL model has been used as a tool to simulate the soil w...

Quang, Pham

1998-01-01

267

A scheme of raising beam blow-UP(BBU) threshold current of constant impedance structure  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper presents a scheme of design in constant impedance structure that raises the BBU threshold current but doesn't degrade the performances of the structure. Two holes opened on disks in certain position of the structure can stop EH11 wave that brings about BBU but have little effects on TM01 wave that accelerate electrons. Their function is equivalent to divide the whole structure into n segments (n is usually 2-4 depending on the length of the structure), so that BBU threshold current roughly increases by the same factor of n

268

Work performed by a Classical-"reversible"-Carnot cycle Raising's distribution for the small "driving weights"  

CERN Document Server

The expansions or the compressions of the ideal gas in the quasi-static Carnot cycle, can be performed (on adiabatic or isothermal way) by slowly increasing or decreasing the external pressure by means of small weights acting on the piston of the vessel containing the gas. We call them shortly the ``driving weights'' (dw). Let N be their number, a large one. To determine the work performed by the ideal gas in the cycle the ``driving weights'' must be handled carefully. If we let them move on-off the piston only horizontally, their vertical motions will be due only to the gas. Here we show that, at the end, while some of them will have moved down (will have negative raising) the remaining ones (the majority) will have moved up (will have positive raising) so that the total work performed by the ideal gas equals the total variation of the gravitational potential energy of the ``driving weghts''. The cycle is performed in 2N time-steps. For each step t_i, with i in 1,..,2N, we give H(t_i), and DH(t_{i-1},t_i), r...

Liberto, F

2000-01-01

269

Status of tuberculosis in bovine animals raised by tuberculosis infected patients in Western Chitwan, Nepal  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Bovine tuberculosis (bTB is an important public health concern worldwide. This study was conducted to determine the status of bTB in animals raised by tuberculosis patients in Western Chitwan, Nepal.MATERIALS AND METHODS: This cross-sectional study was conducted from August, 2011 to January, 2012. A total of 100 bovines (cattle and buffalo raised in 60 farms of tuberculosis patients were tested with single intradermal tuberculin test considering various animal factors. Well designed questionnaire survey was taken with 70 tuberculosis patients of same 60 families focusing knowledge, awareness and various practices related to bovine tuberculosis.RESULTS: Overall 15% bovines were positive for tuberculosis (13.6% cattle and 15.4% buffaloes. Age of animal was significantly associated with tuberculosis (p<0.05 while sex and species were not. 24% tuberculosis patients had raw milk consuming habit while very few of them (9% were aware of zoonotic aspect of bovine tuberculosis.CONCLUSIONS: There is high chance of tuberculosis transmission form animals to humans or vice versa. Further detailed study is needed in large scale with stronger intersectoral collaboration of medical and veterinary health sector to determine the scale of problem and find out prevention and control strategies against zoonotic tuberculosis.

Dhakal IP

2012-12-01

270

Development of survival skills in captive-raised Siberian polecats (Mustela eversmanni) I: locating prey  

Science.gov (United States)

Captive-raised mustelids appear to have a rudimentary capacity to kill prey, but the skills necessary for locating prey may be eroded during captivity. We tested the maturational component of prey-searching behavior with captive-raised Siberian polecats (Mustela eversmanni) by subjecting polecats to a simulated prairie dog colony of 6 burrows within a 200 m2 arena. Ten naive Siberian polecats at ages 2.5, 3.5, and 4.5 months (30 total) were deprived of food for 12 hours. A dead prairie dog was placed in 1 prairie dog burrow and the other 5 were empty. A single Siberian polecat was released onto the colony shortly before sunset and its movements monitored from an observation tower. Older Siberian polecats located prey significantly quicker than younger polecats, but all age groups spent a great deal of time in surface activity not directed toward a burrow. When Siberian polecats were about 10 months old, all burrows in the arena were plugged with dirt including the burrow with the prairie dog. In this winter test, Siberian polecats located the prey but still spent a great deal of time in non-burrow directed surface activity. Economical use of surface time, with a low amount of non-burrow directed behavior, would presumably reduce the risk of predation for hunting polecats.

Miller, Brian; Biggins, Dean; Wemmer, Chris; Powell, Roger; Hanebury, Lou; Horn, Deborah; Vargas, Astrid

1990-01-01

271

Hand-raising a spectral tarsier (Tarsius tarsier) at the Ueno Zoological Gardens.  

Science.gov (United States)

On February 10, 2008, a newborn male spectral tarsier (Tarsius tarsier) was found on the floor of the indoor exhibit room in the Small Mammal House of the Ueno Zoological Gardens. The dam showed no signs of providing maternal care and therefore we decided to hand-raise the infant. Its birth weight was 18.7?g. We placed the dam and infant in an incubator and gave 12.5-25% formula (for kittens), until the 145th day after birth. We limited the volume of formula intake to avoid excessive intake and to prevent diarrhea. For nutrition enrichment, we added a chicken liver homogenate to the formula 1-3 times per day. The infant was given a sunbath for 10?min on the 28th day. He showed no serious decline in health, except for diarrhea that occurred during the first few days after birth. He ate a small cricket for the first time on the 50th day and easily caught mealworms on his own on the 105th day. Gradual changes in feeding times, formula concentration, and the nutritionally enriched formula were essential for successfully hand-raising the tarsier. PMID:20717899

Hirota, Atsushi; Hara, Tatsuko; Hosoda, Takahisa; Hashizaki, Fumitaka

2011-01-01

272

ESR dating of raised coral reefs from Kish Island, Persian Gulf  

Science.gov (United States)

Electron spin resonance (ESR) dating of raised coral reefs from Kish Island, Persian Gulf, Iran, was used for the calculation of uplift rates. From the methodological point of view, it has been demonstrated that concentrations of uranium, as needed for the calculation of dose rates, determined by instrumental neutron activation analyses were significantly lower than the results of inductively coupled plasma—mass spectrometry and are probably systematically underestimated. The ESR ages for the corals show no increase with elevation as was expected due to field observations. This apparent discrepancy is explained by the dicyclic nature of the palaeo-reef. Average uplift rates for Kish Island are between ˜0.13 and ˜0.24 mm a -1. This is consistent with previous estimates based on 230Th/ 234U dating of raised marine deposits from the nearby Iranian mainland and Qeshm Island, Strait of Hormuz, but contrary to results based on 14C dating that predicted uplift rates as high as 3 mm a -1 in that area. It is once more demonstrated that 14C dates >20 ka from this context often have to be interpreted as minimum ages.

Preusser, F.; Radtke, U.; Fontugne, M.; Haghipour, A.; Hilgers, A.; Kasper, H. U.; Nazari, H.; Pirazzoli, P. A.

2003-05-01

273

Ochratoxin A in dried figs, raisings, apricots, dates on Iranian retail market  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Ochratoxin A (OTA is among the most important mycotoxins, and the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC classifies it as possibly carcinogenic to humans (group 2B. A total of 121 samples of dried fruits from the central zone of Iran were analyzed for OTA by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA technique. The recovery percentages of OTA in spiked dried fruit samples at concentrations of 5, 10 and 20 ng/g were found to be 84.9%, 89.3% and 90.4% as mean, respectively. OTA was found in 20.7% of the analyzed samples by average concentration of 6.7 ± 3.9 ng/g. The incidence rates of OTA contamination in dried fig, raising, apricots, and date samples were 10.4%, 44.7%, 6.7% and 10.0%, respectively. The concentrations of OTA in 7.9% of contaminated dried raising samples and 2.1% of dried fig samples were higher than maximum tolerance limit accepted by European Union (10 ng/g. This value reflects that the analyzed samples have a minimal contribution to toxicological risk. To our best knowledge, the present study is the first report of the presence of OTA by ELISA in dried fruit samples in Iran.  

Ebrahim Rahimi

2013-12-01

274

Increasing Public Participation through Awareness Raising Activities: A Case Study in Trao Reef Marine Reserve, Vietnam  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In the last few decades, community-based management has evolved to become an effective approach in managing natural resources and solving environmental problems around the world. In this approach, stakeholder participation is considered as a very important factor contributing to the success or failure of the management effort. To promote and enhance stakeholder participation, awareness raising activities could be conducted in various innovative forms. This is clearly illustrated in the case of Trao Reef, a locally-managed marine reserve in central Vietnam. The paper reviews the management approach applied to Trao Reef, focusing on analysis of stakeholder participation. The high level of environmental awareness of the local community contributed to the successful outcome of the project. Many communication activities and awareness raising campaigns were organized within the community to get them involved in all steps of the management process. The project enhanced the marine resources and ecosystem health, and helped to build a more sustainable livelihood and living lifestyle for the local community. Trao Reef has become a role model for effective environmental management that harmonizes the socio-economic benefits of the local community and nature conservation.

Hang Thi Minh Tran

2012-10-01

275

Caregiver burden and sibling relationships in families raising children with disabilities and typically developing children.  

Science.gov (United States)

Using family systems theory as a theoretical framework, we investigated direct and indirect associations between type of disability, caregiver burden, and sibling relationships with structural equation modeling. We recruited 172 families raising typically developing children or a child with a disability. Participants volunteered at meetings and workshops for families of children with disabilities and were also recruited through snowball sampling. Mothers and fathers independently completed self-report questionnaires on caregiver burden and perceptions of the sibling relationship. Mothers experienced higher levels of caregiver burden than fathers. Parents of children with autism reported higher levels of caregiver burden than parents of typically developing children. Mothers of children with Down syndrome and multiple disabilities reported more positive sibling relationships than mothers of typically developing children. Mothers' and fathers' perceptions of caregiver burden were negatively related to their perceptions of the sibling relationship. Caregiver burden mediated the relationship between having a child with autism and positive sibling relationships. Results indicate the benefits of using a systems framework in examining families raising children with disabilities. Future research should focus on interventions for families of children with disabilities that help alleviate parental burden and foster positive sibling relationships. PMID:24818514

Roper, Susanne Olsen; Allred, Diane W; Mandleco, Barbara; Freeborn, Donna; Dyches, Tina

2014-06-01

276

Thermal stress analysis of pipe flange connections with raised-face gasket subjected to heat conduction  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper deals with thermal stress analysis of a pipe flange connection with a raised-face gasket subjected to heat conduction. In the analysis, pipe flange, hubs of the flanges and a raised-face gasket are replaced by finite hollow cylinders. When the inner surface is subjected to heat conduction due to contained fluid and the outer surface are kept at a constant temperature, temperature distribution of the connection is analyzed. Using the temperature distribution, thermoelastic displacement potential is determined. Thermal stresses and displacements are analyzed by using the thermoelastic displacement potential and axisymmetrical theory of elasticity. Experiments are performed. The analytical results are in fairly good agreement with the experimental results concerning the variation of axial bolt force and the axial strain at the hubs of pipe flange. In the numerical calculations, the effects of the ratios of Young's modulus and the gasket thickness between the flanges and the gaskets on the contact stress distribution are examined. As the results, it is seen that the thermal stress at the inner surface increases with a decrease of the ratio of Young's modulus and that it increases with a decrease of the gasket thickness

277

Plasma cholesterol-raising potency of dietary free cholesterol versus cholesteryl ester and effect of ?-sitosterol.  

Science.gov (United States)

The present study (i) compared plasma cholesterol-raising activity of free cholesterol (FC) with that of cholesteryl palmitate (CP) and (ii) examined plasma cholesterol-reducing activity of ?-sitosterol in FC-induced and CP-induced hypercholesterolemia. Male hamsters were divided into five groups and fed one of the five diets containing no cholesterol (NC), 2.6mmol cholesterol (C), 2.6mmol cholesterol plus 2.6mmol ?-sitosterol (C+S), 2.6mmol cholesteryl palmitate (CP), and 2.6mmol CP plus 2.6mmol ?-sitosterol (CP+S), respectively, for 8weeks. Hamsters fed diet C had plasma TC of 317.5mg/dl whereas hamsters fed diet CP has plasma TC of 281.3mg/dl. ?-Sitosterol reduced plasma TC by 17.4% and 11.6%, respectively, in FC-induced and CP-induced hypercholesterolemia (not significant). It was concluded that plasma cholesterol-raising activity of dietary cholesterol was a function of its chemical forms in diet, and ?-sitosterol could similarly suppress the hypercholesterolemia induced by both dietary FC and CP. PMID:25236227

Liu, Yuwei; Lei, Lin; Wang, Xiaobo; Ma, Ka Ying; Li, Yuk Man; Wang, Lijun; Man, Sun Wa; Huang, Yu; Chen, Zhen-Yu

2015-02-15

278

Raising Climate Finance from International Transport Sectors. Identification and Analysis of Governance Structures  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Market based instruments (MBIs) for maritime transport have the potential to reduce emissions while at the same time raising funds for climate policies in developing countries. GHG emissions from international aviation and maritime transport accounted for approximately 5% of global anthropogenic emissions in 2005 and are rising rapidly. There is a clear need to address these emissions in order not to undermine policies for mitigating land based emissions. Developing countries need financial support to carry out climate policies, both adaptation and mitigation. The UN Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) makes policies by developing countries conditional on climate finance. In the current economic and financial circumstances, there is a need for new sources of finance. The governance of such MBIs should ensure that they are neither an international tax nor require hypothecation of fiscal revenues, while they should provide new and additional finance. MBIs which are in fact an international tax would not be politically feasible, and likewise hypothecation would be opposed by many states. This report finds that an emissions trading scheme (ETS) can satisfy these criteria, provided that: (1) it transfers a share of allowances directly to developing countries in order to ensure there is no net incidence on them; developing countries could auction these allowances in order to raise revenue; (2) it transfers allowances to the Green Climate Fund to support climate policies; auctioning these allowances would provide revenues for the Fund; (3) it transfers allowances to IMO or another organisation in order to finance fuel-efficiency improvements in international transport.

Faber, J. [CE Delft, Delft (Netherlands); Pahuja, N.; Garg, A. [The Energy and Resources Institute TERI, New Delhi (India)

2012-03-15

279

Raising of informative value of renal scintigraphy with 99mTc-DMSA  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A method of high frequency image filtration improving the quality of imaging, and more precise renometry with measurement of the total count and the level of RP kidney accumulation were used for raising the informative value of the results of renal scintigraphy with 99mTc-DMSA. 54 patients with unilateral pyelonephritis, 46 - with bilateral pyelonephritis, 15 - with nephroptosis, and 10 healthy persons were examined. Informative values were calculated on the basis of the results of these investigations. The sensitivity of routine renometry was 0.88, its specificity - 0.27 and precision - 0.78; the same indices for routine static scintigraphy were 0.88; 0.4 and 0.84 ; for modified renal investigations - 0.98; 0.77 and 0.96, respectively. The results of the investigations have shown that the use of scintigraphy with improved quality of kidney image in parallel with modified renometry raises the informative value of renal studies with 99mTc-DMSA and precision of diagnosis of renal parenchymal lesions

280

Frank-ter Haar syndrome associated with sagittal craniosynostosis and raised intracranial pressure  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Frank-ter Haar syndrome is a rare disorder associated with skeletal, cardiac, ocular and craniofacial features including hypertelorism and brachycephaly. The most common underlying genetic defect in Frank-ter Haar syndrome appears to be a mutation in the SH3PXD2B gene on chromosome 5q35.1. Craniosynostosis, or premature fusion of the calvarial sutures, has not previously been described in Frank-ter Haar syndrome. Case presentation We present a family of three affected siblings born to consanguineous parents with clinical features in keeping with a diagnosis of Frank-ter Haar syndrome. All three siblings have a novel mutation caused by the deletion of exon 13 of the SH3PXD2B gene. Two of the three siblings also have non-scaphocephalic sagittal synostosis associated with raised intracranial pressure. Conclusion The clinical features of craniosynostosis and raised intracranial pressure in this family with a confirmed diagnosis of Frank-ter Haar syndrome expand the clinical spectrum of the disease. The abnormal cranial proportions in a mouse model of the disease suggests that the association is not coincidental. The possibility of craniosynostosis should be considered in individuals with a suspected diagnosis of Frank-ter Haar syndrome.

Bendon Charlotte L

2012-11-01

 
 
 
 
281

DETERMINATION OF ZERDAVA DOG (KAPI KOPEGI RAISED IN NORTHEAST OF TURKEY  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This is the first document on Turkish Zerdava dogs raised in northeast of Turkey. This study was carried out to define the morphologic traits of the Turkish Zerdava dogs raised in east of Turkey comparing with some other native dog breeds of Turkey. To this end, a total of 39 (19 male and 20 female dogs was analyzed using the Minitab 15 statistical software program using ANOVA and Student’s t-Test. Descriptive statistics and comparison results were for height at shoulders 51.2±0.35, height at rump 51.6±0.28, body length 56.3±0.35, heart girth circumference 50±1.43, chest width 25.6±0.22, cannon circumference 9.4±0.14, and head length 19.4±0.17 cm respectively. The overall results of the study demonstrated that Turkish Zerdava dogs had a very close resemblance to the Turkish Kangal (Karabash and Akbash Shepherd dogs related with body measurements. The Zerdava dogs reach mature body weight and size at around 18 months of age.

Orhan YILMAZ

2012-01-01

282

Options for meeting the ecological Reserve for a raised Clanwilliam Dam  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO South Africa | Language: English Abstract in english A recent evaluation of the potential raising of Clanwilliam Dam included an assessment of whether the operation of the dam would meet the flow quality and quantity requirements for the protection of the downstream river and its estuary, taking Olifants/Doring River basin-level considerations into ac [...] count. The implications of meeting the ecological Reserve of the Olifants River downstream of Clanwilliam Dam to Bulshoek Weir, downstream of Bulshoek Weir to the confluence with the Doring River, and at the estuary, were assessed in terms of the impact on system yield. Some adjustments were made to the ecological Reserve to maximise the yield from a raised Clanwilliam Dam, in return for protection of the vitally important Doring River. Irrigation releases from Clanwilliam Dam were also restructured so that they met the ecological Reserve requirement for small floods of short duration to promote spawning in Clanwilliam yellowfish (Labeobarbus capensis). The assessments presented demonstrate that small adjustments in the requirements that form the ecological Reserve can greatly enhance the possibility, and reduce the costs, of successful implementation.

CA, Brown; E, van der Berg; A, Sparks; RN, Magoba.

283

Research Concerning the Economic Efficiency in Carabasa Sheep Breed Raising in Various Sized Farms  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The paper aimed to analyze the economic efficiency in two farms dealing with Carabasa Breed raising as follows:Farm1-86 sheep flock, of which 62 ewes, producing in average 146 liters milk/head/year and Farm 2-297 sheepstock, of which 255 ewes, with 140 liters/head milk yield. Economic efficiency was comparatively analyzed basedon: gross product, production cost, variable and fixed cost, gross margin, profit, profit rate, farm economic size. Theboth farms registered profit, but Farm 2, the largest one taking into account the number of sheep, recorded a highereconomic efficiency: 1.5 lambs/ewe, 22.50 kg cottage cheese/ewe, 1.17 Easter lambs/ewe, Euro 148 feedingcost/sheep, Euro 0.30/liter milk cost, Euro 233 income/ewe, Euro 61 profit/ewe, Euro 68 gross margin/ewe and a35.55% profit rate. With Euro 17,274 profit at farm level, Farm 2 was considered a commercial middle sized farm,ESU 7.19 and Farm 1 a very small farm, ESU 1.04. As a conclusion, breeders raising Carabasa Breed, an excellentbiological resource for milk and meat for Romanian sheep farming, have to increase farm size in order to go up theprofitability and competitiveness of their farms.

Agatha Popescu

2012-10-01

284

Evaluation of the performance of two strains of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis Niloticus in mixed raising systems  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the productive performance of two strains of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus in mixed raising systems. A total of 3600 fish-larvae species was used, 1800 belonging to Bouaké lineage, and 1800 to Chitralada. The experiment was carried out in three phases; Phase I in an incubator in 18 boxes, in which two treatments (Bouaké and Chitralada were tested by using nine repetitions; Phases II and III were performed in 18 cement tanks with the same treatments. In phase I, regarding the final weight and gain of weight, Chitralada strain showed the highest final weight values. In phase II, Chitralada showed the highest final weight value when compared with Bouaké, and, considering the gain of weight, Bouaké obtained the best result. In phase III, Chitralada showed better final weight results (104 days of raising, final weight, final length and gain of length/cm (152 days of raising; but, after 279 days of the cultivation, Bouaké showed a higher weight and length gain. These findings showed that Chitralada strain presented the best performance.O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o desempenho produtivo de duas linhagens de tilápia do Nilo (Oreochromis niloticus em sistemas de cultivo misto. Foram utilizados 3600 alevinos de tilápia, 1800 da linhagem Bouaké e 1800 da Chitralada. O experimento foi conduzido em três fases, a Fase I realizada em estufa em 18 caixas, nas quais foram testados dois tratamentos (Bouaké e Chitralada e nove repetições; e a Fase II e III realizadas em 18 tanques de alvenaria, com os mesmos tratamentos. Na fase I, a linhagem Chitralada apresentou os maiores valores para peso final e ganho em peso. Na fase II, a Chitralada apresentou o maior valor para peso final em relação à Bouaké, já para o ganho em peso a Bouaké obteve o melhor resultado. Na fase III, a Chitralada apresentou os melhores resultados para peso final (104 dias de cultivo; peso final, comprimento final e ganho em comprimento (152 dias de cultivo e aos 279 dias de cultivo, o ganho em peso e em comprimento foram maiores para a Bouaké. Estes resultados demonstraram que a linhagem de melhor desempenho foi a Chitralada.

Patrícia Ribeiro Neves

2008-06-01

285

Evaluation of the performance of two strains of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis Niloticus) in mixed raising systems  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o desempenho produtivo de duas linhagens de tilápia do Nilo (Oreochromis niloticus) em sistemas de cultivo misto. Foram utilizados 3600 alevinos de tilápia, 1800 da linhagem Bouaké e 1800 da Chitralada. O experimento foi conduzido em três fases, a Fase I realiza [...] da em estufa em 18 caixas, nas quais foram testados dois tratamentos (Bouaké e Chitralada) e nove repetições; e a Fase II e III realizadas em 18 tanques de alvenaria, com os mesmos tratamentos. Na fase I, a linhagem Chitralada apresentou os maiores valores para peso final e ganho em peso. Na fase II, a Chitralada apresentou o maior valor para peso final em relação à Bouaké, já para o ganho em peso a Bouaké obteve o melhor resultado. Na fase III, a Chitralada apresentou os melhores resultados para peso final (104 dias de cultivo); peso final, comprimento final e ganho em comprimento (152 dias de cultivo) e aos 279 dias de cultivo, o ganho em peso e em comprimento foram maiores para a Bouaké. Estes resultados demonstraram que a linhagem de melhor desempenho foi a Chitralada. Abstract in english The aim of this study was to evaluate the productive performance of two strains of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) in mixed raising systems. A total of 3600 fish-larvae species was used, 1800 belonging to Bouaké lineage, and 1800 to Chitralada. The experiment was carried out in three phases; Ph [...] ase I in an incubator in 18 boxes, in which two treatments (Bouaké and Chitralada) were tested by using nine repetitions; Phases II and III were performed in 18 cement tanks with the same treatments. In phase I, regarding the final weight and gain of weight, Chitralada strain showed the highest final weight values. In phase II, Chitralada showed the highest final weight value when compared with Bouaké, and, considering the gain of weight, Bouaké obtained the best result. In phase III, Chitralada showed better final weight results (104 days of raising), final weight, final length and gain of length/cm (152 days of raising); but, after 279 days of the cultivation, Bouaké showed a higher weight and length gain. These findings showed that Chitralada strain presented the best performance.

Patrícia Ribeiro, Neves; Ricardo Pereira, Ribeiro; Lauro, Vargas; Maria Raquel Marçal, Natali; Káttia Regina, Maehana; Nilton Garcia, Marengoni.

2008-06-01

286

Compromised metamorphosis and thyroid hormone changes in wood frogs (Lithobates sylvaticus) raised on reclaimed wetlands on the Athabasca oil sands.  

Science.gov (United States)

The wet landscape approach to oil sands tailings reclamation in the Athabasca Oil Sands region involves creating wetlands from fluid tailings in mined-out pits. We measured time to metamorphosis, thyroid hormone status, and detoxification enzyme (EROD) induction in Wood frog (Lithobates sylvaticus) tadpoles raised on reclaimed oil sands wetlands of different ages [young (? 7 yr) vs. old (> 7 yr)] and compared data with tadpoles raised on reference (control) wetlands. Metamorphosis was delayed or never occurred in tadpoles raised in young tailings; those exposed to older tailings developed similarly to those in reference wetlands. Thyroid hormone disruption likely played an important role in the metamorphosis delay as the T3:T4 ratio was lowest in tadpoles raised in young, tailings-affected wetlands. Our findings suggest tailings wetlands become less toxic with age, and that these amphibians will be able to complete their life cycle in tailing wetlands that have sufficiently detoxified with age. PMID:21036440

Hersikorn, Blair D; Smits, Judit E G

2011-02-01

287

25 CFR 1000.194 - When must BIA raise the issue of limitation or reduction of services, contracts, or funding?  

Science.gov (United States)

...or reduction of services, contracts, or funding? 1000.194 Section 1000.194 Indians OFFICE OF THE ASSISTANT SECRETARY...Reduction of BIA Services, Contracts, and Funds § 1000.194 When must BIA raise the issue of...

2010-04-01

288

40 CFR 124.13 - Obligation to raise issues and provide information during the public comment period.  

Science.gov (United States)

...provide information during the public comment period. 124.13 Section 124.13 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION...FOR DECISIONMAKING General Program Requirements § 124.13 Obligation to raise issues and provide...

2010-07-01

289

30 CFR 57.4660 - Work in shafts, raises, or winzes and other activities involving hazard areas.  

Science.gov (United States)

...or winzes and other activities involving hazard areas. 57.4660 Section 57.4660...or winzes and other activities involving hazard areas. During performance of an...shaft, raise, or winze could pose a fire hazard— (a) A multipurpose...

2010-07-01

290

A New Method for Raising Opening Velocity of Electromagnetic Actuated Vacuum Circuit Breaker  

Science.gov (United States)

Recently an electromagnetic actuator has been widely used as an operating mechanism for the vacuum circuit breaker (VCB). The opening velocity of the contact is supposed to be strongly related with current interruption performance. This paper presents a simple and new technique that raises opening velocity of the electromagnetic actuated VCB. In order to investigate this reason, we built a numerical simulator that predicts the dynamic characteristics of the VCB contact. It takes into account of the magnetic behavior in the actuator and is also coupled with the external control circuit. According to this simulation, it is shown that it is originated from the sharp rise in the electromagnetic thrust force due to the selective saturation of the magnetic yoke. As the result of our experiments, by this technique the opening velocity was verified to be 1.5 times faster than by the conventional way.

Tsukima, Mitsuru; Takeuchi, Toshie; Koyama, Kenichi; Yoshiyasu, Hajimu

291

Raise and peel models of fluctuating interfaces and combinatorics of Pascal's hexagon  

Science.gov (United States)

The raise and peel model of a one-dimensional fluctuating interface (model A) is extended by considering one source (model B) or two sources (model C) at the boundaries. The Hamiltonians describing the three processes have, in the thermodynamic limit, spectra given by conformal field theory. The probabilities of the different configurations in the stationary states of the three models are not only related but have interesting combinatorial properties. We show that by extending Pascal's triangle (which gives solutions to linear relations in terms of integer numbers), to an hexagon, one obtains integer solutions of bilinear relations. These solutions not only give the weights of the various configurations in the three models but also give an insight into the connections between the probability distributions in the stationary states of the three models. Interestingly enough, Pascal's hexagon also gives solutions to a Hirota's difference equation.

Pyatov, P.

2004-09-01

292

The dismantling of the Tokai 1 Steam Raising Units using remotely controlled techniques  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Tokai 1 gas cooled reactor 166 MW(e) reactor went into service in 1966 and was shut down in 1998. Since that date the Japan Atomic Power Company, the owner of the plant has been planning and implementing an ambitious programme which will lead to the first Level 3 decommissioning of a commercial power reactor in Japan. JPC's basic strategy is to manage and perform the decommissioning work with in-house resources, calling on the support of specialist companies as and when required. This paper describes the JPC programme and in particular the dismantling of the 4 steam raising units (SRU) which is to be performed using remotely controlled equipment. (authors)

Blight, J. [Business Development Manager Nuclear Business Unit Cybernetix SA, 13 - Marseille (France); Satoh, T. [General Manager Decommissioning Project Dept Japan Power Corporation, 13 - Marseille (France); Sawamoto, M. [General Manager Project Development Dept e-Energy Corp, SOJIZT Group, 13 - Marseille (France)

2008-07-01

293

Raising awareness of amphibian Chytridiomycosis will not alienate ecotourists visiting Madagascar.  

Science.gov (United States)

Chytridiomycosis (Bd) is contributing to amphibian extinctions worldwide but has so far not been detected in Madagascar. The high likelihood for Bd to spread to the island and efface this amphibian diversity and endemism hotspot requires respective conservation policies to be developed. Bd could be introduced by the large number of tourists that visit protected areas; therefore, increasing awareness among tourists and encouraging them to participate in safety measures should be a priority conservation action. However, concerns have been raised that tourists would not be able to distinguish between an amphibian disease harmless to humans and emerging diseases that would imply a danger for human health, invoking a negative image of Madagascar as an ecotourism destination. We evaluated whether informing tourists about this infectious animal disease would cause health scare and diminish trip satisfaction. Based on 659 respondents we found that most ecotourists favored to be informed about Bd and were proactive about participating in prevention measures, refuting previous concerns. PMID:20517634

Wollenberg, Katharina C; Jenkins, Richard K B; Randrianavelona, Roma; Ralisata, Mahefa; Rampilamanana, Roseline; Ramanandraibe, Andrianirina; Ravoahangimalala, Olga Ramilijaona; Vences, Miguel

2010-06-01

294

Most frequent nematode parasites of artificially raised pheasants (Phasianus colchicus L and measures for their control  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Helminthoses have an important role in the pathology of artificially raised game pheasants. During the period 1997-2002. we examined a total of 1893 pheasant poults aged from 4 to 14 weeks and 1432 adult birds at several pheasanteries in Serbia. The following nematode species were found: Syngamus trachea, Ascaridia galli, A. columbae, Heterakis gallinarum, H. isolonche Capillaria gallinae (sin. C. caudinflata, C. columbae (sin. C. obsignata and C. phasianis. The intensity of infection in total was not high, except for infection with ascaridata and gapeworms, and depended of age of the examined birds. Consisting of anthelmintic drugs mixed with meal gave the most favourable results in therapy on rhe medicated food.

Pavlovi? Ivan

2003-01-01

295

Mama `poma´, dad `apple´: Raising a Child with Catalan in Australia.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The decision to speak Catalan to my daughter came naturally to me. How else would I tell a story, sing a lullaby or make her laugh but in the language I was told stories, sung lullabies to and made to laugh since I was a new-born! However, whereas the choice to speak one’s mother tongue to your children is not questioned anymore in Spain, making this same choice when you live elsewhere seems to raise a lot of eyebrows. In this article I will reflect, from my own experience, on speaking a language of Spain other than Spanish in Australia. Catalan is one of 300 community languages in Australia, and it’s spoken by a small and ageing population. Keywords: Catalan, bilingualism, Australian community languages, first language, minority language, language policy.

Victòria Gras

2014-11-01

296

The Machinery for Raising Capital by Companies through Debt Finances in Nigeria  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study aimed at examining critically the legal machinery for creating debenture by companies, rights of the debentures holders and methods of enforcement of the debenture in Nigeria. The machinery for raising capital through debenture is not well articulated in the Companies and Allied Matters Act (CAMA 1990. The position of the law on the rights and duties of the parties to a floating charge is inadequate and reforms are urgently required as current edition of the law allows for fraud on unwary parties. This study’s submission was that the law be reviewed in such a way that many loopholes like the ninety day rule in Nigeria is changed, either reduced or changed to one of immediate notification of such transaction to the commission, to ensure some level of certainty in this area of the law.

Kunle Aina

2011-04-01

297

Raising energy efficiency and cutting greenhouse gas emissions : an analysis of publicly funded petroleum research  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

From the preface: This brochure is based on an analysis study that ascertained that since 2004 the Research Council's PETROMAKS and DEMO 2000 programmes have allocated funding to more than 80 projects carried out by the research community and private industry relating to climate challenges. Once these projects have been concluded, they will have received a total of over half a billion kroner in public funding. There is no doubt that many of the measures recommended by these projects will have positive impacts on the environment. Many of these research findings can contribute to making processes more energy efficient or to directly reducing emissions of greenhouse gases. The brochure presents a selection of these projects. A complete list of projects under the PETROMAKS and DEMO 2000 programmes which address raising energy efficiency may be found at the end of the brochure.(eb)

NONE

2012-11-01

298

Identification, Rearing, and Distribution of Stick Insects of Madeira Island: An Example of Raising Biodiversity Awareness  

Science.gov (United States)

Two species of stick insects are currently known to be present in the Macaronesian archipelagos: Clonopsis gallica (Charpentier) (Phasmatodea: Bacillidae) on the Canary Islands and in the Azores and Carausius morosus (Sinéty) (Phasmatidae) in the Azores. Here, we provide the first reliable records of the presence and distribution of C. gallica and C. morosus on Madeira Island. Egg and adult stages are briefly described along with some notes on the life history of these species in captivity. Data on island-wide distribution are based on specimens donated by the public in response to an article published in a daily newspaper. This method of data collection raised great popular interest in stick insects. The role of newspapers as a means of communicating awareness in biodiversity issues is discussed. PMID:25373196

Aguiar, Antonio M. F.; Pombo, Dora Aguin; Goncalves, Ysabel M.

2014-01-01

299

Strained-Si nMOSFET with a raised source/drain structure  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this paper, electrical characteristics for strained-Si n-channel metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect-transistors (nMOSFETs) combining raised source/drain (RSD) structure and cobalt silicide have been studied using the devices with various gate pattern areas (W × L). A strained-Si device with RSD structure provides an additional driving current enhancement (up to 12%) for large-area devices (W × L = 10 × 10 µm2) compared to a strained-Si device without RSD. Further improvement of 24% for device areas down to W × L = 0.15 × 0.15 µm2 indicates that obvious pattern effects exist in strained-Si without RSD case, which is mainly due to the formation of silicide agglomeration at the source/drain (S/D) region and is responsible for the increased S/D resistance

300

Leading beyond the bottom line, Part 4. The questions it has raised.  

Science.gov (United States)

The Leading Beyond the Bottom Line article series has received an overwhelming response from ACPE members, mostly in enthusiastic support of this new leadership concept. Some of the important questions raised by members are presented with answers from the authors. This article also explores the moral challenge of leadership and why health care is more than a business. In recent years, there's been confusion about the role of the health care enterprise, its leadership and its management. We have lost our way about the "moral" thing, the "right" thing, because we have no philosophy to guide us. To manage or lead in this "business" of health care, a philosophy is required that recognizes the multiple elements to which the leader has responsibility and obligations: the customers, community, employees, and, certainly, the financial assets. PMID:11291227

Schenke, R; Berkowitz, E; Ludden, J M; Gaintner, J R; Hickey, M E; Hodge, R H; Randolph, L M

2001-01-01

 
 
 
 
301

Molecular characterization and differentiation of five horse breeds raised in Algeria using polymorphic microsatellite markers.  

Science.gov (United States)

In this study, genetic analyses of diversity and differentiation were performed on five horse breeds raised in Algeria (Barb, Arab-Barb, Arabian, Thoroughbred and French Trotter). All microsatellite markers were highly polymorphic in all the breeds. A total of 123 alleles from 14 microsatellite loci were detected in 201 horses. The average number of alleles per locus was the highest in the Arab-Barb horses (7.86) and lowest in the thoroughbred breed (5.71), whereas the observed and expected heterozygosities per breed ranged from 0.71 (Thoroughbred) to 0.752 (Barb) and 0.71 (Thoroughbred) to 0.77 (Arab-Barb), respectively. The genetic differentiation between the breeds was significant (p horse populations and the other breeds. The Barb and Arab-Barb breeds seem to be the most genetically related and support the decision to consider the breeds as same population. PMID:24834806

Berber, N; Gaouar, S; Leroy, G; Kdidi, S; Tabet Aouel, N; Saïdi Mehtar, N

2014-10-01

302

Transfer of jacking up anchor for steam raising unit in Tokai Power Station  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Tokai power station was closed down in March 1998 and is being decommissioned. Removal works of steam raising unit (four units of heat exchangers) by jacking down method of construction started from August 2010 with decommissioning data accumulated. 'Tear 2' of heat exchanger shell was removed by April 2012 and transfer work of jacking up anchor firstly attached at 'tear 7' of heat exchanger shell was performed with newly installed anchor by welding and annealing at top head shell of heat exchanger outside controlled areas so as to avoid possible interference with support hoist of remote-operated primary cutting equipment with further removal work of heat exchanger. Jack system on the roof floor of heat exchanger area of reactor building was horizontally moved toward the center of heat exchanger and its strands were connected to new anchor. (T. Tanaka)

303

Raising Awareness about Water Issues: The Role of Water Symbolism and Proverbs  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Sustainable water management is one of the global grand challenges of our time. Tackling this challenge through corrective actions would require the participation of the general public, a public with sound awareness of the challenge and commitment. One such awareness raising intervention could be through the use of water symbolism and proverbs, targeted to particular society. Water has the different symbolism and levels of importance to people, depending of their personal characteristics and socio-demographic factors (e.g. gender, age, occupation, residence. Similarly, water proverbs can also demonstrate attitudes towards water among communities, ethnic groups and whole nations. Such meanings and symbolism could help determine attitude and be a powerful tool towards education. In this context, we describe and propose a psychological Health Belief Model (HBM as a way to explain behaviour and stimulate sustainable water management practice.

Joško Sindik

2013-04-01

304

Raising money with tax incentives: an overview of how U.S. tax credits are marketed  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This article outlines a method for using certain U.S. income tax credits to raise investment capital. With proper structuring, these tax credits can essentially be ''sold'' to outside investors. A project which may not have sufficient income to take advantage of tax benefits, such as the 29 alternative fuel credit, may sell an interest in the project to commercial investors who can use tax credits. The investors provide cash for the project in return for the tax credits, as well as a portion of the income generated by the project. This article outlines how this type of arrangement can be structured and which tax credits are available for ''sale''. It also identifies possible sources of investment money, issues that an investor will likely consider before investing in such a project, and the potential pitfalls of such a project. (author)

305

Antibodies raised against hemolymph of Anopheles culicifacies reduce the fecundity and malaria parasite development  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background & objectives: Several studies have been made to study the effect of antisera raisedagainst different tissues (hemolymh, ovary, midgut and salivary glands on the fecundity andmalaria parasite development in the different species of mosquitoes but there are no reports on theantisera raised against the hemolymph of Anopheles culicifacies, the principal malaria vector inIndia accounting for 65% of malaria cases. Hence, an attempt was made to study the same andevaluate its impact on malaria parasite development.Methods: Polyclonal and multifactorial antibodies were produced in rabbits against heterogenousmixture of hemolymph proteins. Antibodies against hemolymph proteins were screened for theirpotential to influence reproductive performance of mosquitoes. Antibody titer in rabbit serum wasdetermined by ELISA and putative candidate antigens were identified in the hemolymph of An.culicifacies by western blotting. Cross reactivity amongst various tissues vis-a-vis hemolymphprotein was also identified. In addition, a significant reduction in oocyst development was alsoobserved in An. culicifacies mosquitoes that ingested antihemolymph antibodies along withPlasmodium vivax.Results: The maximum reduction in fecundity (57% was observed during fourth week, after thelast booster and number of oocyts per infected mosquito reduced by 73.35% in the group ofmosquitoes that ingested antihemolymph antibodies along with the infected blood meal respectively.However, the ingestion of antibodies against hemolymph proteins did not have significant influenceon hatchability. Antisera raised against hemolymph proteins of An. culicifacies recognized 11polypeptides by western blotting.Interpretation & conclusion: During the present study, 11 putative candidate antigens were identifiedin the hemolymph of An. culicifacies, against which antibodies produced significantly reduced thefecundity by 57%. In addition, a significant reduction in oocyst development was also observed inAn. culicifacies that ingested antihemolymph antibodies along with P.vivax.

Amrita Kumari

2009-12-01

306

Mutagenic Potential and Nutritive Quality of Turnip Plants Raised over Chromium Amended Soils  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Use of waste water for irrigation has lead to an increase in the chromium content of agricultural soils in many areas and the plants grown over these soils are known to accumulate this heavy metal in their parts, thus paving way for its entry into the food chain. The present study aims at assessment of mutagenicity of turnip plants raised over soils amended with chromium as well as to study the effect of this heavy metal in soil on various biochemical constituents of this important food crop. Turnip plants were raised from seeds in pots filled with soils amended with chromium. Potassium dichromate was used as the source of chromium and final concentrations taken in pots were 1, 10, 50 and 100 ?gCr g-1 dry weight of the soil. The plants were uprooted on reaching edible stage and evaluated for their food quality. The chromium uptake by plants were found to increase with the chromium added to the soil and this was observed to have an adverse effect on the vitamin A, C and fibre content, the content of total soluble proteins and the carbohydrates was however, observed to be higher in roots of plants from chromium amended soils as compared to the control plants. The mutagenic potential of the water extracts of roots of turnip plants was tested using Ames assay on TA98 and TA100 strains of Salmonella typhimurium (Loeffler, 1892 with some modifications. The number of revertant colonies formed in spots containing test extracts bore a direct relationship with the chromium in the soil as well as that accumulated by the plants. The present study thus showed that the turnip plants harvested from chromium rich soils showed a decrease in the contents of vitamins and fibre and there is also possibility of such crops being mutagenic to the consumer.

M.I.S. Saggoo

2010-01-01

307

System for automatically preventing the raising of ash from dedicated landfills  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The paper presents a system for automatic prevention of raising of ashes from dedicated landfills based on a simple mathematical model which has modest entry requirements for meteorological data. Such an approach is efficient enough and enables fast information retrieval, i.e. zones with different concentrations of dust in the air, enabling quick start of counter measures to reduce emissions of ashes into the air. The system hardware consists of an automatic weather station, set of meters that determine moisture of ash, set of remotely managed sprinklers, computers, microprocessor and microcontroller based elements for the local acquisition and management of the executive elements and modules for wireless data transfer. An original software application for the system management has been developed. Within the application there is a module that allows entering of all data necessary to configure the system, as well as data about sensors and sprinklers. Based on the meteorological input data, measured moisture content of the ashes, and on the basis of determined functional dependencies, special software module operates sprinklers for soaking the surfaces from which the ashes is emitted into the air, in order to eliminate these emissions. The system, based on the developed mathematical model, predicts the propagation of ashes through the air, as well as dry and wet deposition, in real-time. The system automatically stores all the data relevant to the future analyses and reporting. The system is designed and implemented as modular and open. A custom developed graphical user interface serves as Man-Machine Interface (MMI. By using the TCP/IP connection it could be easily connected with the other information systems. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR-15005: Design and development of pilot system for preventing automatic raise of ashes from dedicated dumps

Milutinovi? Predrag

2012-01-01

308

At the Roots of Finnish Elementary Education – How Were Children Raised in the First Finnish Elementary Schools?  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This study dissects the history of Finnish elementary education and the way children were raised during the initial phase of Finnish education in the 18th century. The development of Finnish education was studied through contemporary decrees and laws and studies of Finnish school history. The preliminary aim was to focus on the principles and practices of raising children in Finnish schools. This study focuses on (1) describing the birth, goals, and practices of Finnish elementary education a...

Uusiautti, Satu; Paksuniemi, Merja; Ma?a?tta?, Kaarina

2013-01-01

309

Manipulator for inspection and possibly repair of heat exchanger tubes, particularly for steam raising units for nuclear reactors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The manipulator penetrates the shielding wall and the steam raising unit housing with a guide tube, and has a mouthpiece on its free end. Turbulence measuring probes, cleaning stoppers, opening stoppers etc., can be introduced into the steam raising unit at the mouthpiece. A flexible guide hose runs through the guide tube, which is connected to the movable hose for the measuring or repair equipment. (DG)

310

Contribution of caffeine to the homocysteine-raising effect of coffee : a randomized controlled trial in humans  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Background: A high plasma total homocysteine concentration is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease. Consumption of unfiltered or filtered coffee raises total homocysteine concentrations in healthy volunteers. The responsible compound, however, is unknown. Objective: The objective was to determine whether caffeine explains the homocysteine-raising effect of coffee. Design: Forty-eight subjects aged 19–65 y completed this randomized crossover study with 3 treatments, e...

Verhoef, P.; Pasman, W. J.; Vliet, T.; Urgert, R.; Katan, M. B.

2002-01-01

311

Performance of Seedling Ages and Seedling Raising Techniques on Yield and Yield Components of Transplant Aman Rice  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The experiment was carried out to investigate the effect of (a) three seedling ages viz. 21, 28 and 35 days and (b) four seedling raising techniques viz. normal wet, modified wet, floating and modified dapog on the yield and yield components of transplant aman rice cv. Binadhan 4. Except the number of non-effective tillers hill-1, weight of 1000-grains, harvest index and other characters were significantly influenced by both seedling ages and seedling raising techniques...

Alam, M. Z.; Ahmed, M.; Alam, M. S.; Haque, M. E.; Hossin, M. S.

2002-01-01

312

Analysis of Cattle Raising and Institutional Perspectives Regarding Collective Action in the El Ocote Biosphere Reserve, Chiapas, Mexico  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The objective of this study was to analyze the perceptions of representatives of government agencies and educational institutions regarding problems related to cattle raising in the El Ocote Biosphere Reserve. Through a structural analysis, we identified and prioritized problems which due to their joint relevance, require immediate attention in order to elaborate inter-institutional plans of action which would contribute to the sustainability of cattle raising systems in natural protected are...

Rodriguez-larramendi, L.; Nahed-toral, J.; Hernandez-lopez, M. H.; Guevara-hernandez, F.; Gomez-castro, H.; Pinto-ruiz, R.

2012-01-01

313

Comparison of Aviary, Barn and Conventional Cage Raising of Chickens on Laying Performance and Egg Quality  

Science.gov (United States)

This study intended to compare the productive performance of three different layer raising systems; conventional cage (CC), barn (BR) and aviary (AV). The AV is welfare bestowed housing that allows free locomotion for birds within the BR. The BR allows bird’s free locomotion inside BR but without multilevel structures. Both pullets and cockerels were housed together in both AV and BR, but only pullets in CC. Seventeen weeks old Lohmann Brown Lite (n = 800) pullets were housed in AV during this study. The same age layer pullets were simultaneously assigned to either at CC or BR to compare egg production performance with AV. The duration of experiment was 40 weeks (from 21st to 60th week). There were no remarkable differences in egg production, hen day egg production (HDEP) and average egg weight among three rearing systems. First 20 weeks (phase-1) average HDEP (%) of AV, CC, and BR were 85.9, 88.8, 87.1 and average egg weights (g) were 57.5, 59.9, and 56.9 respectively. Those of the remaining 20 weeks (phase-2) were 87.1, 87.9, 85.5 and 64.2, 63.0 62.1, respectively. Daily feed intakes (122 g, 110 g, 125 g); feed conversion ratio (2.4, 2.1, 2.5) and daily egg mass (53.9 g, 54.4 g, 52.8 g) data from AV, CC, and BR were not influenced significantly by the respective raising systems. Daily feed intake of layers in both AV (124 g) and BR (127 g) tended to be higher than that in CC (113 g) during phase-2. Overall, exterior egg quality (dirty and cracked eggs) in both phases was superior in BR compared with AV and CC, whereas CC generated intermediate results. This study indicated that the HDEP per se in AV and BR were not significantly different from that in CC. The study implied that the facility depreciation cost for AV and cost for increased feed intake in AV compared to CC are believed to be critical to evaluate the cost effectiveness of egg production in AV. PMID:25083115

Ahammed, M.; Chae, B. J.; Lohakare, J.; Keohavong, B.; Lee, M. H.; Lee, S. J.; Kim, D. M.; Lee, J. Y.; Ohh, S. J.

2014-01-01

314

Puberty and sexual maturity in Anglo-Nubian male goats raised in semi-intensive system  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The objective of this study was to characterize the sexual development in Anglo-Nubian male goats raised in semi-intensive system. Eight animals were monitored every fifteen days, from the 12th to the 44th week for age at penis detachment, live weight, scrotal circumference, seminal parameters (volume, aspect, concentration, wave motion, progressive individual motility, vigor and spermatic abnormalities and serum testosterone levels. Serum testosterone levels were determined in blood samples collected at the 20th, 28th and 38th weeks of age. Penis detachment occurred at 102.9 ± 15.4 days of age. Live weight and scrotal circumference at 20th and 44th weeks of age ranged from 25.9 ± 3.5 to 44.7 ± 4.7 kg and from 21.2 ± 1.6 cm to 26.0 ± 1.5 cm, respectively. The ejaculate volume ranged from 0.38 ± 0.05 to 0.96 ± 0.04 mL, concentration ranged from 1.33 ± 0.64 to 3.54 ± 0.14.10(9 mL-1 and the progressive individual motility varied from 48.0 ± 10.52% to 82.0 ± 3.74%, at the same age. The number of defective spermatozoa (major and minor was 32.2 ± 5.8% vs. 8.80 ± 2.9% at the 20th and the 44th week of age, respectively. Serum testosterone level was 2.70 ± 1.40 ng.mL-1 at the 20th week, 8.50 ± 4.66 ng.mL-1 at the 28th week and 2.21 ± 2.28 ng.mL-1 at the 38th week of age. Age showed a correlation with live weight, scrotal circumference, and all the qualitative parameters of semen except for volume, with all other qualitative parameters of semen, and the correlation among sperm abnormalities and the other traits was negative. Serum testosterone levels and andrological parameters of Anglo-Nubian goats raised in semi-intensive system are closely related to age. In those animals, puberty is reached at the 20th week and sexual maturity is reached at the 38th week of age.

Luiz Eduardo Barreto de Souza

2011-07-01

315

Puberty and sexual maturity in Anglo-Nubian male goats raised in semi-intensive system  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english The objective of this study was to characterize the sexual development in Anglo-Nubian male goats raised in semi-intensive system. Eight animals were monitored every fifteen days, from the 12th to the 44th week for age at penis detachment, live weight, scrotal circumference, seminal parameters (volu [...] me, aspect, concentration, wave motion, progressive individual motility, vigor and spermatic abnormalities) and serum testosterone levels. Serum testosterone levels were determined in blood samples collected at the 20th, 28th and 38th weeks of age. Penis detachment occurred at 102.9 ± 15.4 days of age. Live weight and scrotal circumference at 20th and 44th weeks of age ranged from 25.9 ± 3.5 to 44.7 ± 4.7 kg and from 21.2 ± 1.6 cm to 26.0 ± 1.5 cm, respectively. The ejaculate volume ranged from 0.38 ± 0.05 to 0.96 ± 0.04 mL, concentration ranged from 1.33 ± 0.64 to 3.54 ± 0.14.10(9) mL-1 and the progressive individual motility varied from 48.0 ± 10.52% to 82.0 ± 3.74%, at the same age. The number of defective spermatozoa (major and minor) was 32.2 ± 5.8% vs. 8.80 ± 2.9% at the 20th and the 44th week of age, respectively. Serum testosterone level was 2.70 ± 1.40 ng.mL-1 at the 20th week, 8.50 ± 4.66 ng.mL-1 at the 28th week and 2.21 ± 2.28 ng.mL-1 at the 38th week of age. Age showed a correlation with live weight, scrotal circumference, and all the qualitative parameters of semen except for volume, with all other qualitative parameters of semen, and the correlation among sperm abnormalities and the other traits was negative. Serum testosterone levels and andrological parameters of Anglo-Nubian goats raised in semi-intensive system are closely related to age. In those animals, puberty is reached at the 20th week and sexual maturity is reached at the 38th week of age.

Luiz Eduardo Barreto de, Souza; Jurandir Ferreira da, Cruz; Milton Rezende, Teixeira Neto; Rita de Cássia Santos, Nunes; Maria Helena Coelho, Cruz.

316

Puberty and sexual maturity in Anglo-Nubian male goats raised in semi-intensive system  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english The objective of this study was to characterize the sexual development in Anglo-Nubian male goats raised in semi-intensive system. Eight animals were monitored every fifteen days, from the 12th to the 44th week for age at penis detachment, live weight, scrotal circumference, seminal parameters (volu [...] me, aspect, concentration, wave motion, progressive individual motility, vigor and spermatic abnormalities) and serum testosterone levels. Serum testosterone levels were determined in blood samples collected at the 20th, 28th and 38th weeks of age. Penis detachment occurred at 102.9 ± 15.4 days of age. Live weight and scrotal circumference at 20th and 44th weeks of age ranged from 25.9 ± 3.5 to 44.7 ± 4.7 kg and from 21.2 ± 1.6 cm to 26.0 ± 1.5 cm, respectively. The ejaculate volume ranged from 0.38 ± 0.05 to 0.96 ± 0.04 mL, concentration ranged from 1.33 ± 0.64 to 3.54 ± 0.14.10(9) mL-1 and the progressive individual motility varied from 48.0 ± 10.52% to 82.0 ± 3.74%, at the same age. The number of defective spermatozoa (major and minor) was 32.2 ± 5.8% vs. 8.80 ± 2.9% at the 20th and the 44th week of age, respectively. Serum testosterone level was 2.70 ± 1.40 ng.mL-1 at the 20th week, 8.50 ± 4.66 ng.mL-1 at the 28th week and 2.21 ± 2.28 ng.mL-1 at the 38th week of age. Age showed a correlation with live weight, scrotal circumference, and all the qualitative parameters of semen except for volume, with all other qualitative parameters of semen, and the correlation among sperm abnormalities and the other traits was negative. Serum testosterone levels and andrological parameters of Anglo-Nubian goats raised in semi-intensive system are closely related to age. In those animals, puberty is reached at the 20th week and sexual maturity is reached at the 38th week of age.

Luiz Eduardo Barreto de, Souza; Jurandir Ferreira da, Cruz; Milton Rezende, Teixeira Neto; Rita de Cássia Santos, Nunes; Maria Helena Coelho, Cruz.

1533-15-01

317

25 CFR 1000.195 - When must an affected Tribe/Consortium or Tribal organization raise the issue of a limitation or...  

Science.gov (United States)

...Tribal organization raise the issue of a limitation or reduction of services, contracts...SELF-DETERMINATION AND EDUCATION ACT Limitation and/or Reduction of BIA Services...Tribal organization raise the issue of a limitation or reduction of services,...

2010-04-01

318

In vivo localization of antibodies raised against Eimeria maxima wall forming bodies during sexual intracellular development.  

Science.gov (United States)

SUMMARY Apicomplexan parasites cause devastating diseases in humans and livestock. Previously we demonstrated that antibodies targeting transmissible forms of the apicomplexan parasite, Eimeria, are effective at reducing parasite shedding thus preventing the transmission of the disease. However, the mechanisms responsible have not been fully defined. Moreover, there is no direct evidence that the parasite-specific IgG antibodies can reach the parasite developing in the enterocytes of the infected chicken host. This study summarizes our efforts using host immunity, parasite proteomics and 3D microscopy to provide a step forward in our understanding of how this immune response works. Eimeria maxima is an important pathogen of poultry and used as a surrogate for a number of human pathogens including Toxoplasma and Plasmodium. Our studies demonstrate that immunization with the purified wall forming bodies (WFBs) results in a production of parasite-specific IgG antibodies, which have the ability to reach in situ gametocytes in the intestinal lumen and permeate the enterocyte/parasite membranes in order to bind to the cytoplasmic Type 1 and Type 2 WFBs. This raises the intriguing possibility that via this process antibodies block the development of Eimeria maxima in vivo. PMID:25075563

Frölich, Sonja; Shahparee, Annisha; Wasinger, Valerie C; Wallach, Michael

2014-11-01

319

Intergenerational transmission of attachment for infants raised in a prison nursery.  

Science.gov (United States)

Within a larger intervention study, attachment was assessed with the Strange Situation Procedure for 30 infants who co-resided with their mothers in a prison nursery. Sixty percent of infants were classified secure, 75% who co-resided a year or more and 43% who co-resided less than a year, all within the range of normative community samples. The year-long co-residing group had significantly more secure and fewer disorganized infants than predicted by their mothers' attachment status, measured by the Adult Attachment Interview, and a significantly greater proportion of secure infants than meta-analyzed community samples of mothers with low income, depression, or drug/alcohol abuse. Using intergenerational data collected with rigorous methods, this study provides the first evidence that mothers in a prison nursery setting can raise infants who are securely attached to them at rates comparable to healthy community children, even when the mother's own internal attachment representation has been categorized as insecure. PMID:20582846

Byrne, M W; Goshin, L S; Joestl, S S

2010-07-01

320

Ethical issues raised by the new orientations in ergonomics and living labs.  

Science.gov (United States)

User Experience Theory (UXT) provides us with criteria for designing products and technical systems for everyday activities (playing, learning, working,…) so as to satisfy users. Living Labs (LL), are plateforms used for the design and evaluation of technical systems. As such, they constitute tools that bring to this process some constraints., However these constraints have to be articulated to the UXT. In other words, UXT should specify the place, the role and function LL should play in the design of new products, how it should contribute to satisfying UX, and how the methods and techniques should be conceived or borrowed from other disciplines. UXT also raises ethical issues: impartiality (independent, public, replicable) of research models in the context of economical constraints (dependant, private, secret prototypes) and of industrial pressure, the use of intrusive and persuasive techniques, even with the prior informed consent of participants, ergo-marketing, deontology codes, the use of specific participants, belonging of an UX innovative solution, confidentiality with ICT, and so on. Because the UX, as well as LL literature, have shown little concerns for ethical considerations, till now, we define LL-UX ethical issues as a new research topic, and we list a number of problems to be solved in order to have an ethical LL-UX methodology for open innovation. PMID:22317534

Barcenilla, Javier; Tijus, Charles

2012-01-01

 
 
 
 
321

Raising the Breast Health Awareness amongst Women in an Urban Slum Area in Alexandria, Egypt  

Science.gov (United States)

Background Breast Cancer (BC) is the most frequently occurring cancer among Egyptian women. This study aimed to determine the effectiveness of a health education program on raising the knowledge related to BC, its risk factors, and some related preventive practices among women living in an urban slum area in Alexandria. Patients and Methods A pre-/post-test interventional study was conducted during 2009–2010 on a random sample of women aged 30–65 years (n = 486) living in a slum area in Alexandria, Egypt. 20 health education sessions were carried out to educate the women on BC risk factors and some preventive practices. Previously trained nurses educated the sampled women on breast self-examination (BSE). The women's knowledge and opinion about BC and their practice of BSE were evaluated before and 3 months after the intervention. Results The findings indicated a significant increase in the mean knowledge score regarding BC and the mean opinion score regarding some BC risk factors. A significant increase in the practice of BSE was observed post intervention. Conclusion This study confirms the effectiveness of intervention programs in improving the knowledge about BC risk factors and practice of BSE even in a group of women with a low literacy rate living in a slum area. PMID:22619648

Kharboush, Ibrahim F.; Ismail, Hanaa M.; Kandil, Alaa A.; Mamdouh, Heba M.; Muhammad, Yasmine Y.; El Sharkawy, Omnia G.; Sallam, Hassan N.

2011-01-01

322

Escherichia coli contamination of fish raised in integrated pig-fish aquaculture systems in Vietnam.  

Science.gov (United States)

Integrated livestock-fish aquaculture utilizes animal excreta and urine as pond fertilizers to enhance growth of plankton and other microorganisms eaten by the fish. In Vietnam, pigs are commonly integrated with fish and horticulture in household-based VAC systems (vuon = garden; ao = pond; chuong = pigsty), but the level of fecal contamination in the fish produced is unknown. This study was carried out to assess the level Escherichia coli contamination of fish meat and gut contents of grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus), silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix), and rohu (Labeo rohita) cultured in randomly selected five VAC ponds (with pig manure) and five non-VAC ponds (without pig manure) at sites in periurban Hanoi, Vietnam. Fish muscle tissue samples contained E. coli at rohu, respectively, about 100 times higher than the contamination of fish from the control ponds. The results indicate that muscle tissue of fish raised in VAC systems has a low level of fecal contamination despite high levels of E. coli in their gut. Thus, a critical point to control food safety of such fish is the prevention of fecal cross-contamination during degutting and cleaning of the fish at markets and in the home. PMID:22980016

Dang, Son Thi Thanh; Dalsgaard, Anders

2012-07-01

323

IL-2-deficient mice raised under germfree conditions develop delayed mild focal intestinal inflammation.  

Science.gov (United States)

Interleukin-2 (IL-2) amplifies immune stimuli and influences B cell differentiation. IL-2-deficient mice spontaneously develop intestinal inflammation if raised under specific pathogen-free (SPF) conditions. We quantitatively determined the aggressiveness and kinetics of gastrointestinal and hepatic inflammation in the presence or absence of viable bacteria in IL-2-deficient mice. Breeding colonies were maintained under SPF and germfree (GF) conditions. Intestinal tissues, serum, and mesenteric lymph nodes were obtained from mice at different ages for blind histological scoring, immunoglobulin measurements, mucosal T cell infiltration, and cytokine secretion. GF IL-2 -/- mice developed mild, focal, and nonlethal intestinal inflammation with delayed onset, whereas the more aggressive inflammation in SPF IL-2 -/- mice led to their death between 28 and 32 wk. Periportal hepatic inflammation was equal in the presence or absence of bacterial colonization. Intestinal immunoglobulin secretion decreased significantly by 13 wk of age in IL-2 -/- mice in both GF and SPF environments. In contrast to other genetically engineered rodents, IL-2 -/- mice develop mild focal gastrointestinal and active portal tract inflammation in the absence of viable bacteria. PMID:10362650

Schultz, M; Tonkonogy, S L; Sellon, R K; Veltkamp, C; Godfrey, V L; Kwon, J; Grenther, W B; Balish, E; Horak, I; Sartor, R B

1999-06-01

324

[Problems raised by the gynaecologic management of women with BRCA 1 & 2 mutations].  

Science.gov (United States)

Breast and ovarian cancer occur more frequently in young women with BRCA 1 &2 mutations (respective cumulative risks from 37 to 85% and 10 to 20%), and raise specific gynaecologic problems as prophylactic surgery and hormonal treatments. Two medical files from 2 sisters with BRCA 1 mutation (exon 11) are presented and the authors discuss the therapeutic options chosen. BRCA 1 & 2 tumour suppressor genes seem to play a major role in the repair of cellular damages inducing by the estrogenic proliferative signal. The prophylactic mastectomy is effective for the breast cancer prevention but its acceptance is low. The oophorectomydecreases the ovarian risk (knowing the occurrence of peritoneal carcinomatosis in 1.8% of cases) and currently the breast cancer risk (RR = 0.47) by the hormonal privation: the hormone replacement therapy does not seem to increase the breast cancer risk in the small series published. The HRT is possible in women with BRCA mutation under medical supervision and if the doses of hormones are light. The first results concerning the chemoprevention by Tamoxifen are encouraging (RR = 0.38) in these patients, but more studies are needed. The oral contraception exerts an uncertain effect against ovarian cancer, but possibly enhances the breast cancer risk in this group of women (RR = 3.3). The management of women with BRCA mutation is varying according to their own priorities, which can change during their life. PMID:12821070

Cabaret, A S; Levêque, J; Dugast, C; Blanchot, J; Grall, J Y

2003-04-01

325

The Quality of Liquid Fermented Products for Alternative Use of Antibiotics for Animal Raising  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The chemical properties of liquid fermented products (LFP) as probiotics substance for alternative uses of antibiotic were studied. The LFP of 235 were sampling from markets and farmers during 2005-2006. The total count of bacteria, fungi, lactic acid bacteria (LAB), Actinomyces and coliform bacteria were conducted. Chemical analysis of LFP showed medium nitrogen (0.01- 0.55%), maximum sugar contents (0.02 - 19.40%), high lactic acid contents (0.34 - 13.01%) and low pH (2.9-5.0). LFPs were free from fecal coliform and Escherichia coil (Ec); but in LAB (1.0 - 1.25x107 cfu/ml) and high Actinomyces (1.0 - 7.5 x 106 cfu/ml). LFPs inhibited Staphylococcus aureus (Sa), Samonella typhimurium (STM), Escherichia coil (Ec) and Ec 0157 at maximum yield by using Minimal Inhibition Concentration (MIC). But Pseudomonas aeruginosa (Pa) could medium inhibited. Therefore LFP samples are suitable as probiotics for alternative use of antibiotic for animal raising.

326

Developing and disseminating a foodprint tool to raise awareness about healthy and environmentally conscious food choices  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This article describes the development and dissemination of an ecological footprint tool that provides a concise and scientifically grounded summary of the environmental impact of personal food choices. Developed to be easy to use and available to consumers via online social networking platforms, the tool aims to raise awareness and to provide an impetus for behavior change. The foodprint tool communicates scientifically informed and customized practical advice on how individuals can reduce their ecological footprint (EF (or “foodprint”. The first part of the article describes the process of developing this tool, the choice of indicator, the goals, and the results. Among other aspects, the tool enables users to understand that the largest contributors to their foodprint are sources of animal protein: dairy, meat, and fish. The second part of the article describes the strategy guiding the tool’s design and implementation, which is based on a combination of contextual communication, feedback from peers, and intrinsic motivation. In this footprint tool, a focus on food patterns, interactive feedback, and social media plays a key role. The tool consists of a survey with fifteen questions about personal food choice that allow users to receive individualized feedback, including five suggestions for reducing personal foodprints. Users can also share their results through customary social media. Due to an effective outreach campaign, a total of 90,000 Dutch consumers used this tool over a period of four months, with 1% indicating that they intended to change behavior.

Tine Bosschaert

2013-09-01

327

Increase of diesel car raises health risk in spite of recent development in engine technology  

Science.gov (United States)

Diesel exhaust particles (DEP) contain elemental carbon, organic compounds including Polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), metals, and other trace compounds. Diesel exhaust is complex mixture of thousands of chemicals. Over forty air contaminants are recognized as toxicants, such as carcinogens. Most diesel exhaust particles have aerodynamic diameters falling within a range of 0.1 to 0.25 ?m. DEP was classified as a definite human carcinogen (group 1) by the International Agency for Research on Cancer at 2012 based on recently sufficient epidemiological evidence for lung cancer. Significant decreases in DEP and other diesel exhaust constituents will not be evident immediately, and outworn diesel car having longer mileage still threatens health of people in spite of recent remarkable development in diesel engine technology. Policy change in South Korea, such as introduction of diesel taxi, may raise health risk of air pollution in metropolitan area with these limitations of diesel engine. To protect people against DEP in South Korea, progressive strategies are needed, including disallowance of diesel taxi, more strict regulation of diesel engine emission, obligatory diesel particulate filter attachment in outworn diesel car, and close monitoring about health effects of DEP. PMID:25318659

Leem, Jong Han; Jang, Young-Kee

2014-01-01

328

Raising Students' Awareness of Cross-Cultural Contrastive Rhetoric Via an E-Learning Course  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study investigated the potential impact of e-learning on raising overseas students' cultural awareness and explored the possibility of creating an interactive learning environment for them to improve their English academic writing. The study was based on a comparison of Chinese and English rhetoric in academic writing, including a comparison of Chinese students' writings in Chinese with native English speakers' writings in English and Chinese students' writings in English with the help of an e-course and Chinese students' writings in English without the help of an e-course. Five features of contrastive rhetoric were used as criteria for the comparison. The experimental results show that the group using the e-course was successful in learning about defined aspects of English rhetoric in academic writing, reaching a level of performance that equalled that of native English speakers. Data analysis also revealed that e-learning resources helped students to compare rhetorical styles across cultures and that the interactive learning environment was effective in improving overseas students' English academic writing.

Jinghui Wang

2008-06-01

329

Parametrization of organic nitrogen mineralization models in soil treated with swine raising wastewater  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Little is known about the mineralization dynamic of organic nitrogen contained in swine manure, so models need to be adjusted for its prediction. The objective of the present study was to parameterize and assess models of organic nitrogen mineralization in soil treated with swine raising wastewater (SRW at different temperatures and water contents. Samples of 57.3 cm3 of dystrophic Red-Yellow Latosol were mixed with SRW at the application dose of 400 kg ha-1 nitrogen, placed in plastic cups and incubated at four different temperatures (15, 20, 25 and 35°C and water contents corresponding to tensions of 10, 30, 200 and 1500 kPa. Samples were removed from the incubated soil after 3, 6, 12, 24, 48 and 96 days to quantify the ammonium and nitrate concentrations. The parameters of the soil organic nitrogen mineralization models were determined from the organic nitrogen mineralization values obtained over the different incubation periods. The value of the potentially mineralizable nitrogen (N0 in soil with application of SRW was superior that of the soil without application of SRW. The mineralization constant (k in soil with application of SRW was always superior that of the soil without application of SRW. There was a tendency for the simple exponential model to underestimate the values of the mineralized nitrogen concentration. In most of the situations the potential model was more efficient than the simple exponential model to predict the mineralization of the organic nitrogen.

Demétrius David da Silva

2010-08-01

330

Raising the Higgs Mass in Supersymmetry with t-t' Mixing  

CERN Document Server

In this article we propose a new strategy to address the Little Hierarchy problem. We show that the addition of a fourth generation with vector-like quarks to the minimal supersymmetric standard model (MSSM) can raise the predicted value of the physical Higgs mass by mixing with the top sector. The mixing requires a larger top quark Yukawa coupling (by up to $\\sim 6 %$) to produce the same top mass. Since loop corrections to $m_h$ go as $y_{top}^4$, this will in turn increase the predicted value of the physical Higgs mass, a point not previously emphasized in the literature. In the presence of mixing, for A-terms and soft masses around 900 GeV, a Higgs mass of 125 GeV can be generated while retaining perturbativity of the gauge couplings, evading constraints from electroweak precision measurements (EWPM) and recent LHC searches, and pushing the Landau pole for the top Yukawa above the GUT scale. Soft masses can be as low as 800 GeV in parts of parameter space with a Landau pole at $\\sim 10^{10}$ GeV. However,...

Faroughy, C

2014-01-01

331

Silicon on Raised Insulator Field Effect Diode Sori-Fed for Alleviating Scaling Problem in Fed  

Science.gov (United States)

One of the main shortcomings in a field effect diode (FED) is its scaling. Use of an oxide layer in the channel is proposed to enhance the control of the gate on the channel carriers. This is the so-called silicon on raised insulator FED (SORI-FFD) structure. The Shockley-Read-Hall (SRH) mechanism is one of the main components of leakage current in FED devices. The potential induced by the gates in the OFF-state of a SORI-FFD, is larger than that induced by the gates of a regular FED. This reduces, SRH recombination rate. Hence, OFF-state characteristics of the SORI-FED device improves. We evaluate the impact of band-to-band tunneling (BTBT) on the electrical characteristics of Modified FED (M-FED).We show that for channel lengths of 35 nm and lower this device does not turn off. While, the proposed structure makes device channel length scaling possible down to 15 nm. We will also compare electrical characteristics of SORI-FED and M-FED using three metrics: gate delay time versus channel length, gate delay time versus ION/IOFF ratio and energy-delay product versus channel length. Benchmarking results show the proposed FED structure provides improvement in ION/IOFF ratio and holds promise for future logic transistor applications.

Vadizadeh, Mahdi; Fathipour, Morteza; Darvish, Ghafar

2014-12-01

332

SCHOOL-BASED SAVINGS PROGRAMMES AS A METHOD OF RAISING FINANCIAL AWARENESS IN CHILDREN  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Saving money and budgeting concerns every one of us. One of the most famous ways of depositing money is the use of an account or a traditional piggy bank. Not only the last option is close to the youngest. It has long been known School-based Savings Programmes (SSP. We try to instill in the youngest ability and habit of depositing mon-ey. Bank goes out to meet the needs and continually improve the SSP. The first part of the article focuses on the notion of SSP. It was raised matter of passbook evolution into an online account, and thus describes the functions and capabilities of such an account. The article describes the operation and maintenance of accounts, SSP and its rules. At the end of the article, condensed results of a survey conducted at the school in Stare Juchy were placed. The result was to assess the awareness of the youngest in terms of saving and School-based Savings Programmes.

Joanna Lenkiewicz

2014-03-01

333

Rope NDT as means to raise safety of crane and elevator use  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Steel rope NDT by magnetic flaw detectors is usual for mine hoist inspection through the world. But it is no ordinary by crane and especially by elevator inspection. However, magnetic NDT statistic data of 60 crane and 227 elevator ropes in use shows that about 23% of crane and 9% of elevator ropes should be discarded in accordance with actual discarding criterion in Russia. Russian State Rules for crane safe exploitation require the magnetic NDT while periodically inspection. But not all the inspecting companies meet it in Russia, contenting themselves by visual inspection only. This is not objective and does not provide rope inner faults detection. That is a reason of rope break rather high percentage in general statistics of crane accidents and damages. Investigation of accidents with crane ropes in Moscow region in 2001 shows that they would de prevented by the magnetic NDT fulfilled timely. The elevator rope NDT problem is not so sharp but attention should de attracted to it to raise safety of elevators. (author)

334

Increase of diesel car raises health risk in spite of recent development in engine technology.  

Science.gov (United States)

Diesel exhaust particles (DEP) contain elemental carbon, organic compounds including Polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), metals, and other trace compounds. Diesel exhaust is complex mixture of thousands of chemicals. Over forty air contaminants are recognized as toxicants, such as carcinogens. Most diesel exhaust particles have aerodynamic diameters falling within a range of 0.1 to 0.25 ?m. DEP was classified as a definite human carcinogen (group 1) by the International Agency for Research on Cancer at 2012 based on recently sufficient epidemiological evidence for lung cancer. Significant decreases in DEP and other diesel exhaust constituents will not be evident immediately, and outworn diesel car having longer mileage still threatens health of people in spite of recent remarkable development in diesel engine technology. Policy change in South Korea, such as introduction of diesel taxi, may raise health risk of air pollution in metropolitan area with these limitations of diesel engine. To protect people against DEP in South Korea, progressive strategies are needed, including disallowance of diesel taxi, more strict regulation of diesel engine emission, obligatory diesel particulate filter attachment in outworn diesel car, and close monitoring about health effects of DEP. PMID:25318659

Leem, Jong Han; Jang, Young-Kee

2014-01-01

335

Growth patterns and reproductive strategies in the lizard, Calotes versicolor raised in captivity  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The paper describes the growth patterns and breeding strategies in the lizard, Calotes versicolor in captivity. The lizards were raised in laboratory from hatching. It was observed that these lizards attain sexual maturity at 7.42 ± 0.5 months of age. Growth rate in males is always higher than in females and sexual size dimorphism in C. versicolor is due to the difference in growth rate between the sexes. The study revealed that some females reproduce in the first year at smaller body size (snout-vent length-SVL ~ 8 cm with small clutch size while some skip reproduction in the first year, grow larger (SVL ~11.5 cm and reproduce in second year with larger clutch size, yet others reproduce in first year, skip reproduction in second year and reproduce in the third year and some skip reproduction in the first 2 years of life and reproduce in third year attaining larger body size (SVL >13.6 cm with greater clutch size. Thus, females exhibit different strategies of trade-off between growth and reproduction. In addition, the study showed that C. versicolor may lay as many as 3 clutches of eggs in a breeding season. Thus, the study provides information on growth, age at sexual maturity, relationship between growth and reproduction and reproductive strategies exhibited by the lizard in captivity.

S.K. Saidapur

2010-12-01

336

Study of the legal problems raised by the siting of nuclear power stations in artificial islands  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The creation and operation of a nuclear power station on an artificial island in French waters are governed by domestic law and are subject to two types of procedure: the first concerns erection of the artificial island and the second the control of the public authorities over creation and operation of the nuclear power station. At administrative level, the setting up of an artificial island requires that it be attached to a commune as well as permission for occupancy from the maritime authorities. Furthermore, setting up of a nuclear power station on an artificial island is subject to the licensing procedure for large nuclear installations and to delivery of the licenses required for release of gaseous and liquid radioactive effluents. Given the proximity of the high seas and eventually, the borders of other States, siting of a nuclear power station on an artificial island imposes obligations at international level. These requirements, which concern prevention of transfrontier pollution, stem from the London (1972) and Paris (1974) Conventions on marine pollution. The third party liability regime for a nuclear incident caused by an installation sited in territorial seas is that of the 1960 Paris Convention on third party liability in the nuclear field and the 1963 Brussels Supplementary Convention. Another problem likely to be raised is that of the right of innocent passage of ships near such installations

337

Luminescence and radiocarbon dating of raised beach sediments, Bunger Hills, East Antarctica  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Luminescence and radiocarbon dating of raised marine sediments from the Bunger Hills, East Antarctica, demonstrates that luminescence methods can be applied to such poorly bleached sediments as long as the luminescence behaviour of the sediments is understood. This is essential as the complete zeroing of the luminescence signal due to light exposure is required to allow an accurate age for the sediment accumulation. Unfortunately, independent checks on the luminescence ages are rare. In the present study, some independent age control is provided by AMS radiocarbon ages from shell obtained from and adjacent to the luminescence dated horizons, although the radiocarbon ages may suffer to some degree from variability in the marine reservoir effect. Application of the single aliquot luminescence technique to feldspar grains from the marine sediments demonstrated that the luminescence behaviour of the sediments was complex. For each sample, 18 replicate paleodose estimates were used to demonstrate whether the sediments were well bleached before deposition. Optically, well-bleached samples give younger luminescence ages, whilst poorly bleached samples often give excessively old ages compared to the associated radiocarbon-dated material. (author)

338

Hyperglycemia raises the threshold of levosimendan- but not milrinone-induced postconditioning in rat hearts  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background The authors examined whether milrinone and levosimendan could exert cardiac postconditioning effects in rats under normoglycemia and hyperglycemia, and whether the effects could be mediated by mitochondrial permeability transition pore (mPTP. Methods Wistar rats underwent 30-min coronary artery occlusion followed by 2-h reperfusion. The rats received milrinone or levosimendan just before reperfusion under normoglycemic or hyperglycemic conditions with or without atractyloside, an mPTP opener. Results Under normoglycemia, both 30 ?g/kg milrinone (29 ± 12% and 10 ?g/kg levosimendan (33 ± 13% reduced infarct size compared with that in the control (58 ± 7%. Under hyperglycemia, milrinone (34 ± 13% reduced infarct size at the same dose as under normoglycemia. In contrast, neither 10 nor 30 ?g/kg levosimendan protected hyperglycemic hearts, and only 100 ?g/kg levosimendan (32 ± 9% reduced infarct size compared with that in the hyperglycemic control (58 ± 13%. All of these cardioprotective effects under normoglycemia and hyperglycemia are abolished by atractyloside. Conclusion Milrinone and levosimendan exert postconditioning effects via inhibition of mPTP opening. Hyperglycemia raises the threshold of levosimendan-induced postconditioning, while milrinone-induced postconditioning is not influenced by hyperglycemia.

Matsumoto Shuhei

2012-01-01

339

Comparison of free range broiler chicken strains raised in confined or semi-confined systems  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The present study was carried out to compare the growth curve, performance and carcass yield of two broiler strains, Paraíso Pedrês (PP and ISA Label (ISA, raised in confined or semi-confined systems. It was used a completely randomized design with five replicates, consisting of 20 and 29 birds in semi-confined and confined systems, respectively. Semi-confined birds had free access to pasture at 28 days of age. Performance data were recorded weekly by building growth curves as well as calculating the growth rate. After reaching the recommended body weight (2.5 kg, male birds were slaughtered for physicochemical analysis of carcass, parts and organs. Semi-confined PP and ISA birds showed higher growth potential, higher weight gain, lower feed intake and better feed-to-gain ratio than confined birds. No interactions were observed for carcass yield and meat quality characteristics. Males presented higher yields of feet, drumstick, thigh, drumstick + thigh, and heart, while females presented higher breast and abdominal fat yield. Breast meat from ISA Label birds was more yellowish than from PP, whereas less soft meat was observed in semi-confined birds.

AL Santos

2005-06-01

340

What is the normal response to structural differentiation within the slump and straight leg raise tests?  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of the study was to assess the effect of structural differentiation or sensitising manoeuvres on responses of normal subjects to standard neurodynamic tests of straight leg raise (SLR) and slump test. Eighty-eight (39 males and 49 females) asymptomatic subjects were examined (aged 18-39 mean age 21.9+/-4.1 years). Knee flexion angle was measured using a goniometer during the slump test in two conditions cervical flexion and extension. Hip flexion angle was measured using a goniometer during SLR test in two conditions; ankle dorsi-flexion and neutral. The change in knee flexion, following addition of the structural differentiating manoeuvre to the slump test, was a significant increase in knee flexion angle for both males (change in knee angle; 6.6+/-4.7 degrees /18.7+/-17.5%, p0.05). During the SLR test, a significant reduction in hip flexion occurred following structural differentiation for both groups (change in hip angle; males = 9.5+/-8.3 degrees /21.5+/-18.8%, p0.05). Structural differentiating manoeuvres have a significant effect on test response in terms of range of movement even in normal asymptomatic individuals. These responses should be taken into account during the assessment clinical reasoning process. PMID:17395520

Herrington, Lee; Bendix, Katie; Cornwell, Catherine; Fielden, Nicola; Hankey, Karen

2008-08-01

 
 
 
 
341

Dams and displacement: Raising the standards and broadening the research agenda  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The World Commission on Dams provided an analytical overview of the cumulative effects of years of dam development. A lack of commitment or capacity to cope with displacement or to consider the civil rights of, or risks to, displaced people led to the impoverishment and suffering of tens of millions and growing opposition to dams by affected communities worldwide. However, after the WCD, little has changed for the better in terms of resettlement policies. In fact, the standards of key agencies, like the Asian Development Bank, have been lowered and diluted compared to prior policies. Dam-induced development and displacement are stifled by a 'managerialist' approach to planning, in which solutions are sought internally and subordinated to the economics that underpins the existence of the project. The aim of successful resettlement is to prevent impoverishment and to enable displaced people to share in the project’s benefits. Within the field of dam-induced resettlement, this is a lofty goal rarely achieved. However, in other fields of resettlement, such as refugee studies and adaptation to environmental change, such a goal is regarded as a minimum standard. In this paper we seek to broaden the research agenda on dam-induced resettlement and to raise the standards of development projects that entail resettlement. We do this by importing some of the considerations and concerns from practice and research from the fields of refugee studies and adaptation to environmental change.

Brooke McDonald-Wilmsen

2010-06-01

342

PERFORMANCE, CARCASS YIELD AND LITTER QUALITY OF BROILERS RAISED ON LITTERS TREATED WITH MICRO-ORGANISMS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The present paper aimed at evaluating the effect of adding beneficial micro-organisms to the litters on litter quality, performance and carcass yield for broilers. A total of 240 one-day chicks were used, and randomly distributed in blocks with four treatments and four replications. The following treatments were carried out in the housing: Treatment 1 – Control with weekly spraying of water on the litters; Treatment 2 – Litter treated with a mixture of inoculated and fermented meal by micro-organisms and weekly spraying of water; Treatment 3 – Litter treated by weekly spraying of micro-organisms; Treatment 4 – Litter treated with the same mixture of meals from treatment two and weekly spraying of micro-organisms. Performance was evaluated by the feed consumption, weight gain, feed conversion, viability and carcass, breast and leg yield. From litter samples, pH, dry matter, ashes and nitrogen were evaluated. No differences were found among the treatments. In the conditions the animals were raised, it can be concluded that the treatment on the litter does not affect performance, carcass yield and quality of the litter for broilers.

Dayane Prado da Cruz

2013-03-01

343

When ethical reform became law: the constitutional concerns raised by recent legislation in Taiwan.  

Science.gov (United States)

In an effort at ethical reform, Taiwan recently revised the Hospice Palliative Care Law authorising family members or physicians to make surrogate decisions to discontinue life-sustaining treatment if an incompetent terminally ill patient did not express their wishes while still competent. In particular, Article 7 of the new law authorises the palliative care team, namely the physicians, to act as sole decision-makers on behalf of the incompetent terminally ill patient's best interests if no family member is available. However, the law fails to provide guidance as to what constitutes the patient's best interests or what specific procedures the treating physicians should follow, and so has raised constitutional concerns. It may be difficult to translate ethical reform into law but it is not impossible if essential requirements are carefully followed. First, there must be substantial nexus between the purpose of the statute and the measures provided under the statute. Second, advocates need to convince the public that futility or waste has amounted to a public health emergency so as to justify lower procedural requirements. Third, a remedy or compensation should be available if the surrogate decisions have not been appropriately made. Fourth,minimum procedural safeguards are necessary even though the statute is intended to reduce the procedural burdens of making surrogate decisions on behalf of incompetent patients who lack family members and did not express their wishes while still competent. PMID:24131902

Su, Yi-Chen

2014-07-01

344

The New Ways to Raise Capital: An Exploratory Study of Crowdfunding  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Purpose – Paper aims is to describe, analyze and to increase the knowledge of the emerging crowdfunding phenomenon. This can be defined as the practice of funding a project or venture by raising a lot of small quantities of money from a huge number of people. Even though the number of academic studies has been increasing, the coverage of the population is relatively weak and not well understood by entrepreneurs and individual investors.Design/Methodology/Findings - The research can be classified as an exploratory research. It focuses on how the crowdfunding works. The research addresses the following research questions: What is crodwfunding? Which are the main characteristics of this phenomenon? Wihic are the principal strengths and the main weaknesses of crowdfunding? The findings expose purposes, characteristics, roles and tasks, and investment size of crowd-funding activity.Practical implications - The findings have implications for service managers interested in managing crowd-funding initiatives and to improve the activity of the consumers.Originality/value - The paper analyses a new emergent phenomenon. It aims to define the user/costuemr’s role from co-creation to investment.

Matteo Rossi

2014-04-01

345

Normative sciatic nerve excursion during a modified straight leg raise test.  

Science.gov (United States)

Minimal data exists on how much sciatic nerve motion occurs during straight leg raise (SLR). The purpose of this study was to report preliminary normative ranges of sciatic nerve excursion using real time ultrasound during a modified SLR. The sciatic nerve was scanned in the posterior thigh in sixteen asymptomatic participants (age range 19-68 years). Nerve excursion was measured in transverse and longitudinal planes during knee extension from 90° to 0°, with the hip flexed to 30° and 60°. The ultrasound data was analysed off-line using cross correlation software. Results demonstrated that most nerves moved superficially during knee extension, a large proportion (10/16) moved laterally. Longitudinal excursion ranged from 6.4 to 14.7 mm (mean (SD) 9.92 mm (2.2)) in 30° hip flexion, and 5.1-20.2 mm (mean (SD) 12.4 mm (4.4)) in 60° hip flexion. Mean nerve excursion was significantly greater in 60° hip flexion (p = 0.02). There is a large between-subject variation in sciatic nerve excursion during this modified SLR in asymptomatic subjects. Mean nerve excursion was found to be higher with the hip pre-positioned in greater flexion, suggesting that pre-loading may not consistently reduce excursion. PMID:24034944

Ridehalgh, Colette; Moore, Ann; Hough, Alan

2014-02-01

346

Peripheral and gastrointestinal immune systems of healthy cattle raised outdoors at pasture or indoors on a concentrate-based ration  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite an increasing preference of consumers for beef produced from more extensive pasture-based production systems and potential human health benefits from the consumption of such beef, data regarding the health status of animals raised on pasture are limited. The objective of this study was to characterise specific aspects of the bovine peripheral and the gastrointestinal muscosal immune systems of cattle raised on an outdoor pasture system in comparison to animals raised on a conventional intensive indoor concentrate-based system. Results A number of in vitro functional tests of immune cells suggested subtle differences between the animals on the outdoor versus indoor production systems. There was a decrease in the number of neutrophils and monocytes engaged in phagocytosis in outdoor cattle (P P P P P P P Conclusion Despite distinctly contrasting production systems, only subtle differences were identified in the peripheral immune parameters measured between cattle raised at pasture in comparison to animals raised on a conventional intensive indoor concentrate-based production system.

Reilly Petrina

2010-03-01

347

Performance of Seedling Ages and Seedling Raising Techniques on Yield and Yield Components of Transplant Aman Rice  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The experiment was carried out to investigate the effect of (a three seedling ages viz. 21, 28 and 35 days and (b four seedling raising techniques viz. normal wet, modified wet, floating and modified dapog on the yield and yield components of transplant aman rice cv. Binadhan 4. Except the number of non-effective tillers hill-1, weight of 1000-grains, harvest index and other characters were significantly influenced by both seedling ages and seedling raising techniques. Besides these, straw and biological yield showed non significant results in respect of seedling ages. The interaction between seedling ages and seedling raising techniques had significant effect on number of total tillers hill-1, number of effective tillers hill-1, grain, straw and biological yield.

M.Z. Alam

2002-01-01

348

A Comparison of Responses to Raised Extracellular Potassium and Endothelium-Derived Hyperpolarizing Factor (EDHF) in Rat Pressurised Mesenteric Arteries  

Science.gov (United States)

The present study examined the hypothesis that potassium ions act as an endothelium-derived hyperpolarizing factor (EDHF) released in response to ACh in small mesenteric arteries displaying myogenic tone. Small mesenteric arteries isolated from rats were set up in a pressure myograph at either 60 or 90 mmHg. After developing myogenic tone, responses to raising extracellular potassium were compared to those obtained with ACh (in the presence of nitric oxide synthase and cyclo-oxygenase inhibitors). The effects of barium and oubain, or capsaicin, on responses to raised extracellular potassium or ACh were also determined. The effects of raised extracellular potassium levels and ACh on membrane potential, were measured using sharp microelectrodes in pressurised arteries. Rat small mesenteric arteries developed myogenic tone when pressurised. On the background of vascular tone set by a physiological stimulus (i.e pressure), ACh fully dilated the small arteries in a concentration-dependent manner. This response was relatively insensitive to the combination of barium and ouabain, and insensitive to capsaicin. Raising extracellular potassium produced a more inconsistent and modest vasodilator response in pressurised small mesenteric arteries. Responses to raising extracellular potassium were sensitive to capsaicin, and the combination of barium and ouabain. ACh caused a substantial hyperpolarisation in pressurized arteries, while raising extracellular potassium did not. These data indicate that K+ is not the EDHF released in response to ACh in myogenically active rat mesenteric small arteries. Since the hyperpolarization produced by ACh was sensitive to carbenoxolone, gap junctions are the likely mediator of EDH responses under physiological conditions. PMID:25372386

Mathewson, Alastair M.; Dunn, William R.

2014-01-01

349

Platelet-collagen interaction: inhibition by a monoclonal antibody raised against collagen receptor  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The authors have previously reported that polyclonal antibody raised against the purified platelet collagen receptor cross reacted with glycoprotein IIb-IIIa complex of platelets. In order to study the receptor function further, the authors prepared a monoclonal antibody to the collagen receptor (65K). Platelet collagen receptor was purified as described previously by the authors. Mice were immunized by injection of purified 65K protein emulsified in complete Freund's adjuvant, and hybridomas were obtained from the fusion of spleen cells of immunized mice with myeloma cells (SP 2/0). The assay for antibody was performed with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The hybridoma cells producing specific anti-65K protein were subcloned and the subcloned cells were injected into peritoneal cavity of Pristane-Primed mice. Immunoglobulin G(IgG) was isolated from ascitic fluids by an Affigel Blue chromatography. The Fab' fragments were isolated from papain digested IgG followed by an Affigel Blue chromatography. Immunoblot experiments using the monoclonal IgG of solubilized platelet membrane proteins following NaDodSO/sub 4/-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis showed that the monoclonal IgG reacted with the antigen specifically. It did not react with glycoprotein IIb-IIIa. The isolated IgG and Fab' fragments inhibited competitively the binding of radiolabelled ..cap alpha..1(I) to washed platelets and soluble collagen- as well as fibrillar collagen-induced but not ADP-induced platelet aggregation. This indicates that collagen-induced platelet aggregation is mediated through interaction of collagen with 65K platelet receptor.

Chiang, T.; Jin, A.; Kang, A.

1986-05-01

350

Prevalence and risk factors for intestinal parasite infection in goats raised in Nakhon Pathom Province, Thailand.  

Science.gov (United States)

The objectives of this study were to determine the prevalence and risk factors for intestinal parasite infection in goats raised in Nakhon Pathom Province. Fecal samples from 190 goats in 12 herds were collected per rectum. Questionnaires focusing on the general information about the farm and farmers, and management practices on farms were completed. Modified McMaster counting technique was performed to detect eggs of intestinal parasites. Each egg found was classified into three groups of parasites based on its characteristics. Individual and herd prevalence were calculated. Multiple logistic regressions were performed to analyze risk factors of infection. Herd prevalence of intestinal parasite infection was 100%, while individual prevalence was 79.47%. Strongyle group was the most common intestinal parasite found in this study. Moniezia spp. (8/190) and Trichuris spp. (1/190) were also found. The average number of eggs found was 1,176 eggs per gram of feces. Risk factors for intestinal parasite infection were housing system, deworming interval, and type of goat in herd. Goats housed in groups had higher infection rates compared with goats housed individually (odds ratio (OR) = 6.34; P value = 0.009). Goats in herds in which anthelmintic drugs were administered in intervals of greater than 3 months were more likely to become infected with intestinal parasites (OR = 33.07; P value <0.001). Goats in herds that kept only dairy goats were less likely to become infected than herd that kept only meat goats or kept both dairy and meat goats (OR = 46.20 and 8.75; P value <0.001 and 0.011, respectively). PMID:21833677

Ratanapob, Niorn; Arunvipas, Pipat; Kasemsuwan, Suwicha; Phimpraphai, Waraphon; Panneum, Supachart

2012-04-01

351

Gonadal differentiation in frogs, Rana japonica and R. brevipoda, raised from UV irradiated eggs  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The gonadal differentiation of anurans, Rana japonica and R. brevipoda, was examined in animals raised from eggs which had been irradiated at the vegetal hemisphere with UV (9300 erg/mm2) at the 2-cell stage. In R. japonica about 70% of the larvae at stage I from the pressed and UV-irradiated eggs were germ cell free, but at a stage immediately after metamorphosis all animals had at least some germ cells, although their gonads often were extremely small and poorly differentiated. When male animals matured sexually, many of them had abnormal gonads. However, all of them were shown by artificial means to be capable of fertilization. In the nonpressed and irradiated group, no larvae were germ cell free and the animals immediately after metamorphosis showed nearly normal gonadal differentiation except for the presence of a few degenerate oocytes in the ovaries. The results in R. brevipoda were basically similar to those in R. japonica. In both species, sex ratios were determined at two stages, the first immediately after metamorphosis and the other when the animals matured, as based on gonad morphology and histology and on external sexually dimorphic characters as well. Sex ratios at these two stages in frogs from the pressed and irradiated eggs differed markedly in R. brevipoda. The ratio was normal at metamorphosis but high M/F ratios occurred when animals became mature. That sex reversal took place in this species as well as in R. japonica (in which sex-ratio deviation R. japonica (in which sex-ratio deviation was not statistically significant) was supported by the sex ratios of the progenies of these supernumerary males

352

Manipulation of Rumen Fermentation with Organic Acids Supplementation in Ruminants Raised in the Tropics  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Locals feed resources are prime importance for ruminants raised in the tropic particularly low-quality roughages and agricultural crop-residues. Manipulating rumen fermentation through treatment of roughage, concentrate and strategic supplementation with organic acids could improve rumen efficiency by maintaining higher pH, optimum ammonia-nitrogen (NH3-N, thus reducing methane (CH4 and increasing microbial protein synthesis and essential volatile fatty acid (VFAs, for enhancing ruminant productivity in the tropics. The manipulation of rumen efficiency through the use of organic acids especially malate with local feeds would be an advantage. Indeed, organic acids potentially provide an alternative to currently used antimicrobial compounds by stimulating rather than inhibiting specific ruminal microbial populations. At the same time, local feed resources especially cassava chip could be used effectively at high level as an energy source for ruminants especially for beef and lactating cows. More recently, the combined use of concentrates containing high level of cassava chip with supplementation of sodium dl-malate and urea could improve rumen ecology and subsequent performance in dairy steers receiving urea-treated rice straw as a roughage. In addition, the high level of cassava chip in the diet resulted in increase population of bacteria and fungi, decreasing protozoal populations, and improving microbial protein synthesis and efficient microbial nitrogen supply in the rumen. Under these circumstances, malate was also effective in reducing the drop in ruminal pH normally seen 1 to 2 h after feeding a high-grain diet and improved cows performance efficiency. In summary, supplementation of organic acid like malate with local feed resources especially cassava chip or other carbohydrate sources with high rumen degradation would be a desirable alternative because there is no risk of developing antibiotic resistance or having unwanted residues appear in either meat or milk products as well as improving ruminal fermentation efficiency and productivity in ruminants in the tropics.

Sittisak Khampa

2007-01-01

353

Soil fate of agricultural fumigants in raised-bed, plasticulture systems in the southeastern United States.  

Science.gov (United States)

Soil concentrations and degradation rates of methyl isothio-cyanate (MITC), chloropicrin (CP), 1,3-dichloropropene (1,3-D), and dimethyl disulfide (DMDS) were determined under fumigant application scenarios representative of commercial raised bed, plastic mulched vegetable production systems. Five days after application, 1,3-D, MITC, and CP were detected at concentrations up to 3.52, 0.72, and 2.45 ?g cm, respectively, in the soil atmosphere when applications were made in uniformly compacted soils with a water content >200% of field capacity and covered by a virtually impermeable or metalized film. By contrast, DMDS, MITC, and CP concentrations in the soil atmosphere were 0.81, 0.02, and 0.05 ?g cm, respectively, 5 d after application in soil containing undecomposed plant residue, numerous large (>3 mm) clods, and water content below field capacity and covered by low-density polyethylene. Ranked in order of impact on the persistence of fumigants in soil were soil water content (moisture), soil tilth (the physical condition of soil as related to its fitness as a planting bed), the type of plastic film used to cover fumigated beds, and soil texture. Fumigants were readily detected 13 d after application when applied in uniformly compacted soils with water contents >200% of capacity and covered by a virtually impermeable or metalized film. By contrast, 1,3-D and MITC had dissipated 5 d after application in soils with numerous large (>3 mm) clods and water contents below field capacity that were covered by low-density polyethylene. Soil degradation of CP, DMDS, and MITC were primarily attributed to biological mechanisms, whereas degradation of 1,3-D was attributed principally to abiotic factors. This study demonstrates improved soil retention of agricultural fumigants in application scenarios representative of good agricultural practices. PMID:21712590

Chellemi, Dan O; Ajwa, Husein A; Sullivan, David A; Alessandro, Rocco; Gilreath, James P; Yates, Scott R

2011-01-01

354

Children are costly, but raising them may pay: The economic approach to fertility  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Objective: This article provides a non-technical introduction to analyses of fertility which are based on a rational-choice paradigm and which acknowledge that raising children may have a strong impact on the well-being of parents that can be described in terms of costs and benefits. It surveys different types of economic fertility models which can be used to address a variety of research questions, and it also discusses some basic strengths and weaknesses of applying economic analyses in this particular field. Results: Starting from a seminal contribution by Becker (1960 which may have been of little use for applied research or for interdisciplinary work, the economic theory of fertility has unfolded a differentiated research programme with indispensable contributions to the broader field of fertility research. Important features are the inclusion of (i different bargaining positions and differing incentives of partners interacting in fertility choices; (ii simultaneous decisions regarding labour force participation (as well as education and fertility, and the role played by employers, labour market institutions, and other public interventions; (iii the idea that children (or their "human capital" are investment goods with various kinds of returns that may be dispersed over an extremely long period of time, are subject to enormous uncertainties, and are strongly influenced by the social context and, again, by public policies. Conclusions: Economic aspects and elements of economic models should be included in any large-scale attempt at understanding fertility behaviour through interdisciplinary research. Improvements in the data infrastructure, which are only partly underway thus far, would be an important pre-requisite.

Martin Werding

2014-01-01

355

RUMINAL CONDITION BETWEEN MADURA CATTLE AND ONGOLE CROSSBRED CATTLE RAISED UNDER INTENSIVE FEEDING  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Each four young bulls of Madura cattle and Ongole Crossbred (OC cattle were used to study the efficiency of ruminal fermentation by comparing the proportion of Volatile Fatty Acid (VFA of these two breeds which were raised under intensive feeding. All the cattle were in about 1.5 years-old with an average body weight of 147.75 ± 14.57 kg and 167 ± 22.57 kg, for Madura and OC cattle, respectively. They were fed Napier grass (Pennisetum purpureum hay, and concentrate feeding consists of pollard, soybean meal and rice bran for 10 weeks. Parameters measured were concentration of VFA at 0, 3 and 6 h post-feeding and pH. The concentration of VFA in both Madura and OC cattle was peaked at 3 h post-feeding, being 136.1 mmol and 158.9 mmol, respectively, and then were decreased at 6 h post-feeding at a level of 58.1 and 98.2 mmol, respectively. The proportion of acetic acid in Madura and OC cattle were 53.33% and 52.0% of total VFA, respectively, while the proportion of propionic acid and butyric acid were 28.80% and 17.87% for Madura cattle, and 30.71% and 17.28% for OC cattle, respectively. In addition, the Acetic/Propionic ratios were 1.85 and 1.69 for Madura and OC cattle, respectively. Rumen pH conditions of both cattle breeds tended to be basic, i.e. Madura cattle was ranged at 8.0-8.4, while the PO cattle was ranged at 7.6-8.4. In conclusion, both cattle breeds (Madura and OC cattle have a similar efficiency to utilize the feeds in the rumen.

M. Umar

2011-09-01

356

Gender Identity and Gender Role in DSD Patients Raised as Females: A Preliminary Outcome Study.  

Science.gov (United States)

Gender identity and gender role are expected to be consistent with gender assignment for optimal DSD management outcome. To our knowledge, our study is the first to attempt evaluation of gender related outcomes in Turkish DSD patients. After receiving institutional ethical board approval and subject (or parent) informed consent, subjects with DSD raised as girls (22 patients 46 XX DSD, 11 patients 46 XY DSD) answered 566 questions of the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI) questionnaire including 60-item Masculinity-Femininity (MF) subscale which was the focus in this study. Controls (n: 50) were females similar to the probands in age, level of education, relationship status, and having a job or not also answered all questions. The answers were evaluated by a trained psychologist (Derya Inceoglu) on MMPI. For statistical purposes, seven findings were obtained from the data related to the MF subscale from the patients and controls. Of these seven findings (S1-S7), two were associated with masculinity (S3-S4) and another two were associated with femininity (S5-S6). In DSD patients, the percentages of masculinity findings were significantly higher when compared to controls (p?

Ercan, Oya; Kutlug, Seyhan; Uysal, Omer; Alikasifoglu, Mujgan; Inceoglu, Derya

2013-01-01

357

Dark Skies Ahead? Activities to Raise Awareness during the International Year of Astronomy  

Science.gov (United States)

"Dark Skies as a Universal Resource” is one of 7 themes targeted for the International Year of Astronomy in 2009. The theme's goal is to raise public awareness of the impact of artificial lighting on local environments and the ongoing loss of a dark night sky as a natural resource for much of the world's population. To reach this goal, activities are being developed which highlight dark skies preservation issues 1) through new technology (e.g., programs at planetaria, blogging, podcasting); 2) at events such as star parties and observatory open houses; 3) in arts, entertainment and storytelling (e.g., art competitions, documentaries, lectures, native American traditions); 4) through unaided-eye and digital-meter star count programs involving citizen-scientists; and 5) by relating them to public health, economic issues, ecological consequences, energy conservation, safety and security. A centerpiece of the Dark Skies theme is the unaided-eye and digital-meter versions of the GLOBE at Night program. The unaided-eye version directs citizen-scientists on how to observe and record the brightness of the night sky by matching its appearance toward the constellation of Orion with one of 7 stellar maps of different limiting magnitudes. For the "digital” version, low-cost meters are used by citizen-scientists to measure the integrated sky brightness. Data sets and maps of both versions are supplied on-line for further capstone activities. In the presentation, we will outline the activities being developed as well as plans for funding, implementation, marketing and the connections to the global cornerstone IYA project, "Dark Skies Awareness".

Walker, Constance E.; Isbell, D.; Pompea, S.

2007-12-01

358

Courses for "Soil Practitioner" and other measures for raising soil awareness  

Science.gov (United States)

Today, unfortunately, little use is made of the findings of rhizosphere research in practice. Therefore the author, together with the organic farmers` associations Distelverein and Bio Austria, developed the education programme "Soil Practitioner" for organic farmers. The 9-days` course focuses on the topics nutrient dynamics in soil, plant-root interactions, soil management, humus management and practical evaluation of soil functions. A second series of courses developed by Bio Forschung Austria aims at improving organic matter management on farm level. In order to enable the farmers to estimate if the humus content of their fields is increasing or decreasing, they are familiarized with the humus balancing method. In a second step, humus balances of farmers' fields are calculated and the results are discussed together. Another activity to raise soil awareness is the "Mobile Soil Laboratory", which is presented at various events. The soil functions are demonstrated to the public using special exhibits, which illustrate for example infiltration rate in soils with and without earthworms, or water holding capacity of soils with and without earthworms or erosion intensity on soil blocks from adjacent plots which had been cultivated with different crop rotations. The habitat function of soil is illustrated with portable rhizotrons, which show the ability of plants to root surprisingly deep and to penetrate compacted soil layers. Another exhibit shows a habitat preference test between differently fertilized soils with earthworms as indicator organisms. In the "Mobile Soil Laboratory", visitors are also invited to watch live soil animals through the binocular microscope. They are supplied with information on the soil animals` habitat and behaviour and on how agriculture benefits from biologically active soil. And last but not least, the "Root Demonstration Arena" at our institute features a 3-m-deep excavation lined with large viewing windows into the soil profile, where visitors can observe the root growth of different plants.

Hartl, Wilfried

2014-05-01

359

BER Analysis of OFDM with Raised Cosine Window and Equalization using Rician Channel  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Wireless communications is emerging as the largest sectors of telecommunications industry. It is the one area that promises a lot of prospects for growth in the coming century. The major challenges for the future research and study in this field include utilizing the limited available spectrum efficiently and improved link reliability between communicating equipment. The environment in which the communication equipments are required to be operating suffers from fading and interference from other users. Frequency selective fading channels can model such hostile conditions that exist in the environment. The Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM technique that is a multi-carrier technique for data transmission is best suited for such channel models. OFDM is thus characterized by the presence of many sub-carriers. These sub-carriers among the different users bear an orthogonal relation with each other. Here the user spectrums have the flexibility to overlap thereby leading to an enhanced spectrum efficiency of the system. This flexibility is provided by this orthogonal relationship between the sub-carriers as it is necessary in overcoming deteriorating effects such as ICI or Inter-Carrier Interference which is responsible for reducing the BER (Bit Error Rate performance of the system. Here, it is observed that for the traditional OFDM system the SNR of 55 dB is achieved as compared to the simulated result (involving RC (Raised Cosine window and Equalization techniques of an SNR value of 31 dB; for the bit error rate value of 10?2.9 under Rician channel. So, an improvement of 24 dB is achieved with the proposed OFDM system. Thus, the BER performance of the system shows improvement.

Nikhil Bhardwaj*

2014-08-01

360

Birt-hogg-dubé syndrome: answering questions raised by a case report published in 1962.  

Science.gov (United States)

In 1962, J.J. Collins from the United States Naval Medical Research Laboratory published an unusual case of air embolism precipitated by decompression in The New England Journal of Medicine [1962;266:595-598]. The case was unusual because it was the first where multiple pulmonary cysts were discovered after a successful recompression treatment. Although various hypotheses were put forward by the author, it was thought that the diver might have had 'subclinical cysts' already present because of some disease phenomenon, which then became overinflated during decompression. Nearly 50 years have passed since these questions were raised. Interestingly, now the disease process is trying to unveil itself through various other clues. We present the case of the same diver who later developed a series of other medical problems, along with more than 5 admissions for spontaneous pneumothoraces, all falling into the constellation represented by the Birt-Hogg-Dubé syndrome. Birt-Hogg-Dubé syndrome is an autosomal dominant condition clinically characterized by skin fibrofolliculomas, pulmonary cysts, spontaneous pneumothorax, and renal cancer. It was first described in 1977 by Birt, Hogg and Dubé in a family with 'hereditary multiple fibrofolliculomas with trichodiscomas and acrochordons'. Spontaneous pneumothorax can be the first manifestation of this hereditary condition, and prevention in patients diagnosed with the syndrome is aimed at early diagnosis and treatment of the renal cell carcinoma. Physicians need to have a high index of suspicion when they see patients with the constellation of findings of this underdiagnosed syndrome, especially in patients with unexplained spontaneous pneumothoraces. PMID:21829400

Kasi, Pashtoon Murtaza; Dearmond, Daniel T

2011-05-01

 
 
 
 
361

Enhancement of oscillatory activity in the endopiriform nucleus of rats raised under abnormal oral conditions.  

Science.gov (United States)

Endopiriform nucleus (EPN) is located deep to the piriform cortex, and has neural connections with not only neighboring sensory areas but also subcortical areas where emotional and nociceptive information is processed. Well-balanced oral condition might play an important role in stability of brain activities. When the oral condition is impaired, several areas in the brain might be affected. In the present study, we investigated whether abnormal conditions of oral region influence neural activities in the EPN. Orthodontic appliance that generates continuous force and chronic pain-related stress was fixed to maxillary incisors of rats, and raised. Field potential recordings were made from the EPN of brain slices. We previously reported that the EPN has an ability to generate membrane potential oscillation. In the present study, we have applied the same methods to assess activities of neuron clusters in the EPN. In the case of normal rats, stable field potential oscillations were induced in the EPN by application of low-frequency electrical stimulation under the medium with caffeine. In the case of rats with the orthodontic appliance, stable field potential oscillations were also induced, but both duration of oscillatory activities and wavelet number were increased. The enhanced oscillations were depressed by blockade of NMDA receptors. Thus, impairment of oral health under application of continuous orthodontic force and chronic pain-related stress enhanced neural activities in the EPN, in which up-regulation of NMDA receptors may be concerned. These findings suggest that the EPN might be involved in information processing with regard to abnormal conditions of oral region. PMID:24406147

Yoshimura, Hiroshi; Hasumoto-Honjo, Miho; Sugai, Tokio; Segami, Natsuki; Kato, Nobuo

2014-02-21

362

A REAPPRAISAL OF MAPUCHE TEXTILE PRODUCTION AND SHEEP RAISING DURING THE NINETEENTH CENTURY  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: English Abstract in spanish Este artículo trata sobre la crianza de ovejas y la producción de lana de los mapuche durante gran parte del siglo XIX, y sobre la percepción que los compradores tenían de los productos lanares. Basado en reportes consulares británicos y diarios de viajeros, escritos después de la Independencia de C [...] hile, el artículo entrega nueva y consistente información que sostiene que la producción textil mapuche era de alta calidad y muy importante para toda la economía; que el comercio mapuche de lanas era comparable al europeo antes del año 1850; y que la industria lanar mapuche era, por cierto, más desarrollada que la existente en Chile, principal mercado de las exportaciones mapuche. También muestra que esta superioridad sobre la industria lanar chilena incluía la producción de materias primas para la producción textil, principalmente, lana sin procesar. Abstract in english This paper is about Mapuche sheep raising and woollens production during the first three quarters of the nineteenth century, as well as about the perception customers had of Mapuche wool manufactures. Based on the British consular reports and travellers' diaries written after Chile gained independen [...] ce, this article provides new and stronger evidence to support the case that Mapuche textile production was of high-quality and very important for their entire economy; that the Mapuche woollens trade was comparable to European industries before the 1850s; and that the Mapuche wool industry was certainly more developed than the one existing in Chile, the main market for Mapuche exports. This article also shows that this superiority over the Chilean woollens industry included the production of the main raw material used to produce woollens, namely raw wool.

MANUEL, LLORCA-JAÑA.

2014-06-01

363

Pizza Parties, Pep Rallies, and Practice Tests: Strategies Used by High School Principals to Raise Percent Proficient  

Science.gov (United States)

This study explores ways high school principals are responding to the demands of education reform to raise student test scores on achievement tests used for accountability purposes. Anecdotal evidence suggests administrators have instituted pizza parties and pep rallies to motivate students to do their best and practice tests to prepare students…

Hollingworth, Liz; Dude, David J.; Shepherd, Julie K.

2010-01-01

364

Raising Students' Awareness of Cross-Cultural Contrastive Rhetoric in English Writing via an E-Learning Course  

Science.gov (United States)

This study investigated the potential impact of e-learning on raising overseas students' cultural awareness and explored the possibility of creating an interactive learning environment for them to improve their English academic writing. The study was based on a comparison of Chinese and English rhetoric in academic writing, including a comparison…

Xing, Minjie; Wang, Jinghui; Spencer, Kenneth

2008-01-01

365

Changes in plasma concentrations of reproductive steroids in female Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica) raised on long or short photoperiods.  

Science.gov (United States)

Plasma concentrations of progesterone, testosterone, estradiol, and estrone were measured by radioimmunoassay in female Japanese quail 22 to 70 days of age. The birds were raised on long (16 hr light per day) or short (8 hr light per day) photoperiods. Only the birds raised on the long photoperiod layed eggs, starting between 42 and 49 days of age. The concentration of each reproductive steroid increased between 28 and 35 days of age, but the increases were more substantial in the birds raised on long days than in the birds raised on short days. Changes in plasma progesterone and testosterone concentrations showed similar trends: the concentrations increased before the onset of lay and were maintained at a high level in the laying birds. In contrast, plasma concentrations of estradiol and estrone increased to a peak at 35-42 days and declined once egg laying became established. The short-day birds also showed increased plasma estrogen levels, maximal at 35-42 days, with estrone being at a higher concentration than estradiol. The increases in plasma steroid levels occurred during the period of rapid growth of the ovaries and oviducts in the long-day birds, although in the short-day birds the growth of these organs was much less substantial. PMID:3366353

Brain, P C; Onagbesan, O M; Peddie, M J; Taylor, T G

1988-02-01

366

Adolescent Substance Use Outcomes in the Raising Healthy Children Project: A Two-Part Latent Growth Curve Analysis  

Science.gov (United States)

Raising Healthy Children (RHC) is a preventive intervention designed to promote positive youth development by targeting developmentally appropriate risk and protective factors. In this study, the authors tested the efficacy of the RHC intervention on reducing adolescent alcohol, marijuana, and cigarette use. Ten public schools, which comprised 959…

Brown, Eric C.; Catalano, Richard F.; Fleming, Charles B.; Haggerty, Kevin P.; Abbott, Robert D.

2005-01-01

367

Consciousness-Raising as Collective Rhetoric: The Articulation of Experience in the Redstockings' Abortion Speak-Out of 1969  

Science.gov (United States)

This essay offers a theory of collective rhetoric derived from a case study of a central rhetorical event of the second wave of feminism, the Redstockings' 1969 abortion speak-out. A central rhetorical function of consciousness-raising was the collective development of experiential knowledge, and I propose that collective rhetorics are…

Dubriwny, Tasha N.

2005-01-01

368

Subject-to-Subject Raising and the Syntax of Tense in L2 Spanish: A Full Access Approach  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper investigates the acquisition of syntax in L2 grammars. We tested adult L2 speakers of Spanish (English L1) on the feature specification of T(ense), which is different in English and Spanish in so-called subject-to-subject raising structures. We present experimental results with the verb parecer "to seem/to appear" in different…

Campos-Dintrans, Gonzalo; Pires, Acrisio; Rothman, Jason

2014-01-01

369

Empowering Grandparents Raising Grandchildren: A Training Manual for Group Leaders. Springer Series on Life Styles and Issues in Aging.  

Science.gov (United States)

Noting that grandparents in the parenting role are often overwhelmed by the problems of their children, grandchildren, and the social milieu in which they live, this manual presents a 14-session workshop series designed to empower grandparents who are raising their grandchildren alone. Designed to complement "To Grandmother's House We Go and…

Cox, Carole B.

370

Enhancing Tutorial Learning Experiences: A Programme to Develop Sessional-Tutor Teaching Skills by Raising Awareness about Learning  

Science.gov (United States)

This article outlines the trial of a programme to enhance tutorial learning experiences by raising sessional-tutor awareness about learning, and reflects on its results. The author developed the programme for an introductory undergraduate unit in finance with historically very large enrolments, diverse student populations, and high failure rates.…

Truuvert, Toomas

2014-01-01

371

Cinta Senese and Large White x Cinta Senese raised on pasture in wood: sample join composition and meat quality  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available During recent years animal welfare has received considerable attention in Europe. To satisfy the demand for better ethics and health regarding pigs, it has become popular to raise pigs outdoors. In Mediterranean area free-ranged system is carried out with indigenous breed. In Italy Cinta Senese is one of the main autochthonous breed...

O. Franci

2011-03-01

372

Does Raising the State Compulsory School Attendance Age Achieve the Intended Outcomes? Summary. REL 2014-005  

Science.gov (United States)

Maryland raised its compulsory school attendance age from 16 to 18 in two stages: from 16 to 17 at the beginning of the 2014/15 school year and from 17 to 18 at the beginning of the 2016/17 school year (Maryland Senate Bill 362, 2012). The Maryland State Department of Education (MSDE) sought technical assistance from the Regional Educational…

Mackey, Philip E.; Duncan, Teresa G.

2013-01-01

373

ACT against Violence Parents Raising Safe Kids Program: Effects on Maltreatment-Related Parenting Behaviors and Beliefs  

Science.gov (United States)

The ACT Against Violence Parents Raising Safe Kids program (ACT-PRSK) is an interactive violence prevention program developed by the American Psychological Association for parents of young children. The program teaches and supports parents in the areas of child development, roots and consequences of violence, anger management for adults and…

Knox, Michele S.; Burkhart, Kimberly; Hunter, Kimberly E.

2011-01-01

374

Is the Week over yet? Insight for Educators about Social Network Support among Cyber Mothers Raising Children with ASD  

Science.gov (United States)

This study examined the motivation to participate in social networks maintained by mothers who blog and raise children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). The qualitative data analyzed in this study originated from a larger project that examined the perceptions, experiences, and meanings among mothers who maintained public blogs while parenting…

Swanke, Jayme; Doktor, Judy; Shrestha, Sabita; Zeman, Laura Dreuth

2013-01-01

375

Raising awareness for research on earth walls, and earth scientific aspects  

Science.gov (United States)

A conference to raise awareness In the Netherlands, little research on earth walls has been done. To improve attention for earth walls, a number of organisations, including Geoheritage NL, organized a conference at the RCE, the Cultural Heritage Agency of the Netherlands. The conference* presented a state-of-the-art of research done. The book with the presentations, and extra case studies added, was published in December 2012. The book concludes with a research action list, including earth science research, and can be downloaded freely from the internet. It has English summaries. The earth science aspects Historical earth walls do not only add cultural value to a landscape, but also geodiversity value. Apart from geomorphological aspects, the walls contain information about past land- and climate conditions: - They cover up a former topography, a past landscape. A relevant source of scientific information where lands are levelled, as is the case in many parts of The Netherlands; - The soil formation under the earth wall is a reference soil. The soil formation in the top of the wall gives insight in the rate of soil formation in relationship with the age and parent material of the wall; - The soil profiles of different age have ecological significance. Older walls with a more pronounced soil formation often hold forest flora that has disappeared from the surrounding environment, such as historical bush or tree species, autogenetic DNA material or a specific soil fauna; - The materials in the earth walls tell about the process of wall-building. Paleosols and sedimentary structures in the earth walls, in the gullies and colluvial fans along the walls contain information about past land management and climate. - The eroded appearance of the earth walls is part of their history, and contain information about past management and land conditions, has ecological relevance, for example for insects, and is often visually more interesting. Insight in the rates of erosion are important for earth wall maintenance. A reconnaissance study of earth science aspects of earth walls in Ede The poster further presents a reconnaissance study in the municipality Ede describing differences in morphology, geology and soil profile development. E.g. totally black plaggen A-like horizons occur over 1 m thick, as well as differences in brown B-horizons from 0 cm, 2-3 cm to 15-20 cm. Inferred from cultural data, 2-3 cm B-horizons have an age of about two - three hundred years. Reference Henk Baas, Bert Groenwoudt, Pim Jungerius, Hans Renes (eds.), 2012. Tot hier toe en niet verder - historische wallen in het Nederlandse landschap., RCE - Cultural Heritage Agency of the Netherlands, Amersfoort (includes English summaries)

van den Ancker, Hanneke; Jungerius, Pieter Dirk; Baas, Henk; Groenewoudt, Bert; Peen, Charlotte

2013-04-01

376

Ovarian changes during the reproductive cycle of the Tupinambis merianae lizard raised in a temperate environment  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available El ciclo reproductor de hembras de Tupinambis merianae criadas en ambiente templado consiste de tres fases gonadales: previtelogénica, vitelogénica y postovulatoria o lútea. Durante la fase previtelogénica, que ocupa gran parte del verano, el otoño e invierno, los ovarios son pequeños, pesan menos de 4 g y contienen solamente folículos no vitelogénicos, los cuales se desarrollan lentamente a partir de los nidos germinales, alcanzando unos 5 mm de diámetro. Debido a una maduración gonadal asincrónica entre ambos sexos, las cópulas acontecen cuando los ovarios son aún previtelogénicos. Luego sobreviene una corta e intensa vitelogénesis, durante la cual los folículos crecen uniformemente incrementando unas 6 veces su diámetro (cerca de 30 mm, mientras que la masa ovárica total alcanza unos 400 g. El proceso culmina entre los 15 y 20 días, con una ovulación generalizada y la subsiguiente oviposición. Como consecuencia, los ovarios postovulatorios aparecen reducidos a unos 5 g, con una superficie casi enteramente cubierta de cicatrices foliculares, las cuales pronto desarrollan cuerpos lúteos. La detención del ciclo ovárico, con atresia folicular previtelogénica masiva, como resultado del aislamiento de las hembras, permite concluir sobre la existencia de estímulos sexuales promotores de la vitelogénesis. The reproductive cycle of Tupinambis merianae females raised in a temperate environment consists of three gonadal phases: previtellogenic, vitellogenic and postovulatory or luteal phases. During the previtellogenic phase, which takes great part of the summer, autumn and winter, the ovaries are small, weigh less than 4 g, and contain only nonvitellogenic follicles, which develop slowly from germinal beds, until they are almost 5 mm diameter. Due to an asynchronous gonadal maturation in both sexes, matings occur when ovaries are still previtellogenic. Then comes a short and intense vitellogenesis, during which follicles grow steadily increasing around 6 times their diameter (close to 30 mm, while the total ovarian mass reaches almost 400 g. The process culminates between the 15th and 20th day, with a widespread ovulation and a subsequent oviposition. As a consequence, postovulatory ovaries appear reduced to 5 g approximately, with a surface almost entirely covered with follicular scars, which soon developed luteal bodies. Blockade of the ovarian cycle, with a massive previtellogenic follicular atresia, as a result of females isolation leads to conclude on the existence of sexual stimuli promoting vitellogenesis.

Manes, Mario E.

2007-03-01

377

Microsatellite based genetic diversity and relationships among ten Creole and commercial cattle breeds raised in Brazil  

Science.gov (United States)

Background Brazil holds the largest commercial cattle populations worldwide. Local cattle breeds can be classified according to their origin, as exotic or Creole. Exotic breeds imported in the last 100 years, both zebuine and taurine, currently make up the bulk of the intensively managed populations. Locally adapted Creole breeds, originated from cattle introduced by the European conquerors derive from natural selection and events of breed admixture. While historical knowledge exists on the Brazilian Creole breeds very little is known on their genetic composition. The objective of this study was to assess the levels of genetic diversity, phylogenetic relationships and patterns of taurine/zebuine admixture among ten cattle breeds raised in Brazil. Results Significant reduction of heterozygosity exists due both to within-population inbreeding and to breed differentiation in both subspecies (taurine and zebuine). For taurine breeds the number of markers that contribute to breed differentiation is larger than for zebuine. A consistently similar number of alleles was seen in both subspecies for all microsatellites. Four Creole breeds were the most genetically diverse followed by the zebuine breeds, the two specialized taurine breeds and the Creole Caracu. Pairwise genetic differentiation were all significant indicating that all breeds can be considered as genetically independent entities. A STRUCTURE based diagram indicated introgression of indicine genes in the local Creole breeds and suggested that occasional Creole introgression can be detected in some Zebuine animals. Conclusion This study reports on a comprehensive study of the genetic structure and diversity of cattle breeds in Brazil. A significant amount of genetic variation is maintained in the local cattle populations. The genetic data show that Brazilian Creole breeds constitute an important and diverse reservoir of genetic diversity for bovine breeding and conservation. The genetic data was able to shed light on a number of issues related to the local breeds origin and structure. The Brazilian Creole breeds are all important and viable targets for conservation for they display peculiar traits both phenotypic and of cultural and historical nature that deserve conservation efforts. PMID:18067665

Egito, Andrea A; Paiva, Samuel R; Albuquerque, Maria do Socorro M; Mariante, Arthur S; Almeida, Leonardo D; Castro, Silvia R; Grattapaglia, Dario

2007-01-01

378

Microsatellite based genetic diversity and relationships among ten Creole and commercial cattle breeds raised in Brazil  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Brazil holds the largest commercial cattle populations worldwide. Local cattle breeds can be classified according to their origin, as exotic or Creole. Exotic breeds imported in the last 100 years, both zebuine and taurine, currently make up the bulk of the intensively managed populations. Locally adapted Creole breeds, originated from cattle introduced by the European conquerors derive from natural selection and events of breed admixture. While historical knowledge exists on the Brazilian Creole breeds very little is known on their genetic composition. The objective of this study was to assess the levels of genetic diversity, phylogenetic relationships and patterns of taurine/zebuine admixture among ten cattle breeds raised in Brazil. Results Significant reduction of heterozygosity exists due both to within-population inbreeding and to breed differentiation in both subspecies (taurine and zebuine. For taurine breeds the number of markers that contribute to breed differentiation is larger than for zebuine. A consistently similar number of alleles was seen in both subspecies for all microsatellites. Four Creole breeds were the most genetically diverse followed by the zebuine breeds, the two specialized taurine breeds and the Creole Caracu. Pairwise genetic differentiation were all significant indicating that all breeds can be considered as genetically independent entities. A STRUCTURE based diagram indicated introgression of indicine genes in the local Creole breeds and suggested that occasional Creole introgression can be detected in some Zebuine animals. Conclusion This study reports on a comprehensive study of the genetic structure and diversity of cattle breeds in Brazil. A significant amount of genetic variation is maintained in the local cattle populations. The genetic data show that Brazilian Creole breeds constitute an important and diverse reservoir of genetic diversity for bovine breeding and conservation. The genetic data was able to shed light on a number of issues related to the local breeds origin and structure. The Brazilian Creole breeds are all important and viable targets for conservation for they display peculiar traits both phenotypic and of cultural and historical nature that deserve conservation efforts.

Almeida Leonardo D

2007-12-01

379

Raising Awareness of Research Ethics in SoTL: The Role of Educational Developers  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Does the subject of research ethics take you by surprise? Does it make you somewhat uncomfortable? Does itseem to have nothing to do with your research or your practice? These are the attitudes we have encounteredabout research ethics among some SoTL researchers at workshops and conferences. In many cases, theseresearchers had conducted research that should have undergone research ethics board (REB review, but didnot; that should have included a consent process for the use of student data or previous work, but did not; orthat started out as program evaluation and became research without meeting the criteria of ethicallyacceptable research conduct. In this essay, we will argue that familiarity with our national research ethicsPolicy: The Tri-Council Policy Statement: Ethical Conduct for Research Involving Humans, 2nd edition(TCPS 2 and how it applies to SoTL, is essential for researchers and for educational developers. We willpropose a role for Centre of Teaching and Learning staff in raising awareness of TCPS 2 and we will dispelsome of the most common myths and misconceptions that abound regarding SoTL and research ethics.Le sujet de l’éthique de la recherche vous surprend-il? Vous rend-il quelque peu mal à l’aise? Semble-t-il nerien avoir à faire avec votre recherche ou votre pratique? Ce sont des attitudes que nous avons rencontréesquant à l’éthique de la recherche chez certains chercheurs en ACEA dans des ateliers et des conférences. Dansde nombreux cas, les chercheurs ont effectué des recherches qui auraient dû être examinées par les conseilsd’éthique en recherche, mais qui ne l’ont pas été; qui auraient dû comprendre un processus de consentementpour l’utilisation de données sur les étudiants ou de travaux antérieurs et pour lesquelles mais ils n’en ont pas,ou qui ont commencé par être une évaluation de programme et qui sont devenues une recherche sanstoutefois respecter les critères relatifs à la conduite d’une recherche éthiquement acceptable. Dans cet essai,nous expliquons que la connaissance de notre politique nationale d’éthique en matière de recherche : l’Énoncéde politique des trois Conseils : Éthique de la recherche avec des êtres humains 2e édition (EPTC 2, estessentielle et nous montrons en quoi elle s’applique à l’ACEA. Nous proposons un rôle pour le personnel duCentre d’enseignement et d’apprentissage afin de mieux faire connaître l’EPTC 2 et dissipons les mythes etidées erronées les plus courants qui abondent concernant l’ACEA et l’éthique de la recherche.

Laura-Lee Balkwill

2013-07-01

380

Milk yield and composition from Angus and Angus-cross beef cows raised in southern Brazil.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study assessed milk yield and composition of Angus and Angus-cross beef cows raised in southern Brazil. A total of 128 records were collected in 2 consecutive calving seasons from cows between 3 and 5 yr of age of 4 breed compositions: Angus (ANAN), Caracu × Angus (CRAN), Hereford × Angus (HHAN), and Nelore × Angus (NEAN). These cows were mated to Brangus (BN) or Braford (BO) bulls and managed under extensive grazing conditions in southern Brazil. Milk production of these cows was assessed by 2 procedures: indirectly by the calf weigh-suckle-weigh procedure (WD) and directly by machine milking (MM). Lactation curves were estimated using nonlinear regression and the following related traits were derived: peak yield (PY), peak week (PW), total yield at 210 d (TY210), and lactation persistence (PERS). Milk composition and calf weaning weight adjusted to 210 d (WW210) were also determined. The MM technique was considered more accurate because of lower standard errors of estimated means, greater statistical power, and greater correlation between TY210 and WW210 (0.50) compared to WD (0.36). Considering the more precise evaluation by MM, the CRAN and NEAN cows had greater TY210 (1070 and 1116 kg, respectively) and PY (8.1 and 7.8 kg, respectively) compared to ANAN and HHAN cows, which had 858 and 842 kg for TY210 and 6.6 and 6.3 kg for PY, respectively. The NEAN cows had the latest PW at 10.8 wk. Late-calving cows had 21% lower TY210 compared to cows that calved earlier. Milk composition was influenced by cow genotype, with CRAN and NEAN cows producing milk with greater fat (3.8 and 3.9%, respectively) and protein (3.2 and 3.1%, respectively) content compared to ANAN and HHAN cows. Regardless of the genotype, fat, protein, and total solids increased in concentration from beginning to end of lactation, while lactose content decreased. Crossbreeding of Angus with adapted breeds of taurine or indicine origin can be effective in increasing milk yield and nutrient content and, consequently, producing heavier calves at weaning under extensive grazing in southern Brazil and other similar subtropical climate regions. PMID:24753378

Rodrigues, P F; Menezes, L M; Azambuja, R C C; Suñé, R W; Barbosa Silveira, I D; Cardoso, F F

2014-06-01

 
 
 
 
381

Normal inter-limb differences during the straight leg raise neurodynamic test: a cross sectional study  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background The straight leg raise (SLR neurodynamic test is commonly used to examine the sensitivity of the lower quarter nervous system to movement. Range of motion during the SLR varies considerably, due to factors such as age, sex and activity level. Knowing intra-individual, inter-limb differences may provide a normative measure that is not influenced by such demographic characteristics. This study aimed to determine normal asymmetries between limbs in healthy, asymptomatic individuals during SLR testing and the relationship of various demographic characteristics. Methods The limb elevation angle was measured using an inclinometer during SLR neurodynamic testing that involved pre-positioning the ankle in plantar flexion (PF/SLR and neutral dorsiflexion (DF/SLR. Phase 1 of the study included 20 participants where the ankle was positioned using an ankle brace replicating research testing conditions. Phase 2 included 20 additional participants where the ankle was manually positioned to replicate clinical testing conditions. Results The group average range of motion during PF/SLR was 57.1 degrees (SD: 16.8 degrees on the left and 56.7 degrees (SD: 17.2 degrees on the right while during DF/SLR the group average was 48.5 degrees (SD: 16.1 degrees on the left and 48.9 degrees (SD: 16.4 degrees on the right. The range of motion during SLR was moderately correlated to weight (?0.40 to ?0.52, body mass index (?0.41 to ?0.52, sex (0.40 to 0.42 and self-reported activity level (0.50 to 0.57. Intra-individual differences between limbs for range of motion during PF/SLR averaged 5.0 degrees (SD: 3.5 degrees (95% CI: 3.8 degrees, 6.1 degrees and during DF/SLR averaged 4.1 degrees (SD: 3.2 degrees (95% CI: 3.1 degrees, 5.1 degrees but were not correlated with any demographic characteristic. There were no significant differences between Phase 1 and Phase 2. Conclusions Overall range of motion during SLR was related to sex, weight, BMI and activity level, which is likely reflected in the high variability documented. We can be 95% confident that inter-limb differences during SLR neurodynamic testing fall below 11 degrees in 90% of the general population of healthy individuals. In addition, inter-limb differences were not affected by demographic factors and thus may be a more valuable comparison for test interpretation.

Boyd Benjamin S

2012-12-01

382

Coal deposition in the Noric Depression (Eastern Alps). Raised and low-lying mires in Miocene pull-apart basins  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Pull-apart basins often form during the late stage of continental collision. Provided appropriate climatic conditions, these basins may contain thick coal seams. Two such examples are the Leoben and Fohnsdorf Basins in Austria, which formed in Miocene times during the post-collisional stage of the Alpine orogene. Both basins contain more than 10 m of sub-bituminous coal. Despite similar ages, tectonic settings, and similar stratigraphic position of the seams within the sedimentary sequence, the properties of the coals differ significantly. The Leoben coal is quite clean, whereas Fohnsdorf coal is rich in ash and sulfur. Petrographical and geochemical methods were applied to reconstruct the environmental factors that controlled coal properties in these basins. Coal formation in the Leoben Basin commenced in an eutrophic, low-lying mire. This was followed by deposition of the main body of coal, which formed in an ombrotrophic raised mire. Coal deposition was only shortly interrupted by deposition of volcanic ashes. Due to an acid paleo-environment, the volcanic material within the raised mire was altered to kaolinite. Thick vitrain bands representing large trees are found in the lower part of the seam only. Siderite is the main inorganic constituent in the main coal body. Lakes within the raised mire were present during late stages of peat accumulation and were filled with sapropelic coal. The high ash yields of this facies are due to abundant siliceous sponges, siliceous crusts, and tuffogenic minerals. Finally, high subsidence rates caused the flooding of the raised mire and sapropelic shales were deposited in the newly formed lake. The iron, which formed siderite in the raised mire, and biogenic and abiogenic silica present in the lakes within the raised mire, are derived from volcanic ashes. The high-ash Fohnsdorf coal was formed in a low-lying mire close to a brackish lake. The seam geometry is controlled by the progradation of a fluvio-deltaic system into the brackish lake, and its subsequent drowning. The roof of the seam is formed by coquinoidal limestones and sapropelic shales. The brackish influence reduced the acidity of the mire, which resulted in the transformation of volcanic glass into montmorillonite. The low acidity also promoted high bacterial activity, which together with the high sulfate content of brackish waters, explains the high sulfur and pyrite content of the coal. Its high content of biogenic (?) methane is probably another effect of bacterial activity. Low-ash, low-sulfur coal is restricted to thin layers. These might represent local raised mires, which formed after the withdrawal of a fluvial system.

Gruber, W.; Sachsenhofer, R.F. [Institut fuer Geowissenschaften, Montanuniversitaet Leoben, Peter-Tunner-Strasse 5, A-8700 Leoben (Austria)

2001-12-01

383

Inquiry into the Central Asia Institute's financials raises questions about oversight of charities  

Science.gov (United States)

Greg Mortenson and our false ideals about social changehttp://www.csmonitor.com/Commentary/Opinion/2011/0425/Greg-Mortenson-and-our-false-ideals-about-social-changeThe Greg Mortenson Scandal: One University's Bitter Cup of Teahttp://www.time.com/time/nation/article/0,8599,2066239,00.htmlThe Greg Mortenson We Knewhttp://www.newwest.net/topic/article/the_greg_mortenson_we_knew/C39/L39/Greg Mortenson: 60 Minuteshttp://www.cbsnews.com/video/watch/?id=7363068nCharity Navigatorhttp://www.charitynavigator.org/Several weeks ago, author Greg Mortenson found himself in a bit of an unwanted media firestorm. Mortenson wrote the tremendously popular book "Three Cups of Tea" about his time spent in Central Asia in the early 1990s. The work has inspired others to donate to his organization (the Central Asia Institute), which is dedicated to building girls' schools in Pakistan. Unfortunately, it appears that Mortenson may have fabricated some of the details of his original trek to the region, and many literary commentators are quite upset. The other thread of the story belongs to the world of charitable giving, and a number of people are even more upset by the concerns raised about Central Asia Institute's finances than by any unseemly fabrications in Mortenson's book. The USA Today's Sandra Block reported this week that Daniel Borochoff, founder of the American Institute of Philanthropy had requested financial information from the Central Asia Institute in 2009, and found out that the organization did not have any audited financial statements at that time. In a piece for the Christian Science Monitor, Courtney E. Martin and John Cary talk about the problems of "do gooder celebrity" which seem to have incredible influence on certain aspects of the non-profit world, including Mortenson's own organization. It is a story that is still very much playing out, and one that those in the non-profit world will be following closely. [KMG]The first link will take interested parties to the piece mentioned above, from the USA Today's Sandra Block, about the investigation into the Central Asia Institute. The second link leads to the other aforementioned piece in this Monday's Christian Science Monitor regarding "do gooder celebrity". Moving on, the third link will take users to a piece from last week's Time magazine about an award given to Mortenson by the University of Louisville which is now under review. The fourth link will whisk interested parties to an opinion piece by Dennis Higman (writing for the New West literary website) about his relationship and encounters with Mortenson. The fifth link leads to a recent investigative piece from 60 Minutes on Mortenson and the controversy surrounding his book "Three Cups of Tea" and the Institute. For those who might be considering a gift to a charitable organization, the sixth link leads to the Charity Navigator website. Here visitors can search for information about charities of interest and view top ten lists such as "10 Highly-Rated Charities with Low Paid CEOs".

Grinnell, Max

2011-04-29

384

Education and Raising Awareness of Seismic Risk in the Black Sea Basin  

Science.gov (United States)

The Project "Black Sea Earthquake Safety Net(work)" ESNET has the intention to educate and raise awareness of seismic risk in the Black Sea Basin in four countries: Moldova, Romania, Bulgaria and Turkey. The project is financed through "The Black Sea Basin Joint Operational Programme", an EU operational programmes under European Neighborhood & Partnership Instrument (ENPI). The programme is financed by ENPI. The participation of Turkey is financed by Instrument for Pre-accession Assistance. It is implemented during the period 2007 - 2013. The project wants to contribute to the prevention of natural disasters generated by earthquakes in Black Sea Basin by developing a joint monitoring and intervention concept. All the countries involved in the project have their own studies, strategies, prevention and intervention systems in case of earthquakes, but until now there has not been an integrated approach so far in the Black Sea Basin. Given the cross-border character of seismic activity, it is necessary to have a cross-border approach on prevention, monitoring and intervention in case of earthquakes. Main objectives : 1. The assessment of the disaster potential, with accent on the seismic risk degree and the earthquakes effects in the intervention area. For achieving the main objective is to have an accurate and up-to-date assessment of the potential of disasters provoked by earthquakes in the project area/regions. This assessment will be carried out at national level and will be used in designing the common concept/approach for dealing with earthquakes at regional level, thus ensuring the cross-border character of the objective. 2.To develop an integrated seismic monitoring and intervention concept. This integrated concept, built on the basis of the previous objective, will have a cross-border relevance and is at the core of the action. The monitoring and intervention in case of earthquakes will be coordinated among the participating countries based on this, thus a more effective and efficient approach being ensured. 3. To increase the capacity of local institutions emergency intervention units for joint response activities in case of disasters. By involving the local emergency units and public administration in the project activities, especially in trainings, conferences and consultations, a better cooperation at cross-border level will be achieved. Step by step, the respective bodies will increase the cooperation and will benefit from each others expertise. Target groups : Research institutions and universities; Emergency intervention units; Local public authorities; NGOs. Final beneficiaries of the project: the population in the regions of the project. The project has a high educational perspective through its: a)training activities and b)training tools applied in the process. A) the training of 20 people from the emergency units from each country (80 in total) by experts in risk management. B) The Seismic Safety Web Portal of the project presenting all activities, maps and materials posted by members of the network agreement and not only. Also for changing expertise, opinions and long distance conferences is available a special software communication tool. An educational book is printed in 3 languages to be distributed in partner countries with main results.

Florin Balan, Stefan; Alcaz, Vasile; Trifonova, Petya; Uker, Nalan; Tataru, Dragos

2014-05-01

385

Raising Energy Efficiency of High-Head Drinking Water Pumping Schemes in Hilly India – Massive Potential, Complex Challenges  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Investigations of energy efficiency of 25 pumps showed wire-to-water efficiencies ranging from 30% to 60%, with an average of 47%. Raising the efficiency of just 7 pumps to the realistic target of 60% would require an initial investment of 126 k€ and represent a net present value (profit of 446 k€ over a 10-year pump lifetime, saving 8.6 kt of CO2 emissions. The primary measures for raising efficiency are in order of priority: 1 improving pre-filtration of raw water to prevent rapid mechanical wear due to suspended particles during monsoon, 2 providing training, improved working conditions, and better tools and spare parts among pump operators and 3 replacing aging, oversized pumps with properly sized pumps operating close to peak efficiency. As of January 2014 the results have been confirmed by a Bureau of Energy Efficiency-certified energy auditor and the extent and funding of efficiency measures implementation is in planning.

Thomas J. Voltz

2014-06-01

386

Qualitative and quantitative analysis of anthraquinone derivatives in rhizomes of tissue culture-raised Rheum emodi Wall. plants.  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper presents quantification of five anthraquinone derivatives (emodin glycoside, chrysophanol glycoside, emodin, chrysophanol and physcion) in rhizomes of hardened micro-propagated Rheum emodi plants using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Aseptic shoot cultures were raised using rhizome buds. Shoot multiplication occurred in both agar gelled and liquid Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium supplemented with 10.0 microM 6-benzylaminopurine (BAP) and 5.0 microM indole-3-butyric acid (IBA). Rooted plantlets obtained on plant growth regulator (PGR)-free medium were transferred to soil with 92% survival. HPLC analysis revealed the presence of five anthraquinone derivatives: emodin glycoside, chrysophanol glycoside, emodin, chrysophanol and physcion in rhizomes of tissue culture-raised plants. Only emodin glycoside (1) and chrysophanol glycoside (2) were present in 6-month-old hardened tissue cultured plants. In addition, the other three derivatives (emodin (3), chrysophanol (4) and physcion (5)) were also detected after 9 months. PMID:20144491

Malik, Sonia; Sharma, Nandini; Sharma, Upendra K; Singh, Narendra P; Bhushan, Shashi; Sharma, Madhu; Sinha, Arun K; Ahuja, Paramvir S

2010-06-15

387

Comparison of lipid and fatty acid profiles of commercially raised pigs with laboratory pigs and wild-ranging warthogs  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO South Africa | Language: English Abstract in english The perception that commercial livestock meat products have adverse nutritional effects, especially from the point of view of lipids and cardiovascular disease, is linked to assumptions concerning their inherent lipid profile. However, when commercially reared domestic pig meat samples were compared [...] with those from laboratory pigs or wild-ranging warthogs, the warthog and laboratory pig samples shared similar lipid profiles, whereas the commercially reared pig samples were different. Pork is not inherently high in saturated fatty acids, unless this has been induced by the current intensive agricultural practices employed in raising the animal. We conclude that problems of high saturated fatty acid content in commercially raised pork could be ameliorated by appropriate changes to current intensive animal production methods.

L-B., Fine; B.C., Davidson.

388

Should governments in Europe be more aggressive in pushing for gender equality to raise fertility? The second "NO"  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper argues against the suggestion that governments should push for gender equality more aggressively in order to raise fertility. The paper presents a threefold "no" to this proposal. It takes issue with the goal of raising fertility, arguing that the claims that fertility must be increased are based on myths. It rejects a more aggressive pursuit of gender equality for demographic purposes, maintaining that this method preserves inequality. It warns against using gender equality for fertility purposes, stating that this narrows the realm of gender equality. The paper is based on a debate held at the Max Planck Institute for Demographic Research in Rostock, at which the author was asked to argue against the gender equality-fertility proposal. The other participants in the debate were Laurent Toulemon ("yes", Dimiter Philipov ("no", and Livia Oláh ("yes".

Gerda Neyer

2011-02-01

389

Comparison of lipid and fatty acid profiles of commercially raised pigs with laboratory pigs and wild-ranging warthogs  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO South Africa | Language: English Abstract in english The perception that commercial livestock meat products have adverse nutritional effects, especially from the point of view of lipids and cardiovascular disease, is linked to assumptions concerning their inherent lipid profile. However, when commercially reared domestic pig meat samples were compared [...] with those from laboratory pigs or wild-ranging warthogs, the warthog and laboratory pig samples shared similar lipid profiles, whereas the commercially reared pig samples were different. Pork is not inherently high in saturated fatty acids, unless this has been induced by the current intensive agricultural practices employed in raising the animal. We conclude that problems of high saturated fatty acid content in commercially raised pork could be ameliorated by appropriate changes to current intensive animal production methods.

L-B., Fine; B.C., Davidson.

2008-08-01

390

Father's occupational exposure to radiation and the raised level of childhood leukemia near the Sellafield nuclear plant.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The first indications that childhood leukemia rates may be raised near the Sellafield nuclear plant in West Cumbria, England, came from largely anecdotal evidence in a television program "Windscale: The Nuclear Laundry" shown during 1983. During subsequent years, various epidemiological studies have investigated the claim in more detail. Geographical analyses of childhood leukemia incidence in the northern region and mortality in England and Wales using routinely available data made the first...

Gardner, M. J.

1991-01-01

391

Determining the impact of community awareness-raising activities on the prevention of malaria transmission in Palawan, the Philippines.  

Science.gov (United States)

Palawan has the highest malaria endemicity in the Philippines, and malaria remains a major health burden in the region. In 1999, 344 microscopists were trained in Palawan. This allowed for early diagnosis and prompt treatment throughout the island. To take a significant step toward the elimination of malaria on the island, microscopists implemented community awareness-raising activities aimed at preventing transmission of malaria. The objective of the present study was to determine the impact of these activities on the self-implemented preventive measures against malaria by the ex-patients of the microscopists. Structured interviews were carried out from January to February in 2012, in 20 remote malaria-endemic villages throughout Palawan. In total, 141 ex-patients who had previously been diagnosed malaria-positive by the microscopists, volunteered to participate in the present study. Structural equation modeling was conducted to determine factors associated with self-implemented preventive measures against malaria, which included: (1) place of residence; (2) socio-demographic characteristics; (3) knowledge on malaria; (4) participation in community awareness-raising activities for malaria prevention; and (5) satisfaction with microscopists. Structural equation modeling identified six significant factors independently associated with self-implemented preventive measures against malaria; ethnicity, knowledge on malaria transmission, knowledge on vector species, knowledge on vector's most active time, participation in awareness-raising activities for malaria prevention by microscopists, and satisfaction with microscopists. Tagalog ethnicity (the predominant ethnic group) was positively related to better self-implemented preventive measures. In conclusion, aside from providing early diagnosis and treatment, microscopists played a significant role in self-implemented preventive measures against malaria. The strengthening of awareness-raising activities by microscopists was suggested to be an effective strategy for reducing malaria re-infection in Palawan. These activities should be strengthened to improve preventive measures implemented by ex-patients traveling to mountain areas and to enhance the knowledge on malaria transmission particularly among indigenous residents. PMID:24508869

Matsumoto-Takahashi, Emilie Louise Akiko; Tongol-Rivera, Pilarita; Villacorte, Elena A; Angluben, Ray U; Yasuoka, Junko; Kano, Shigeyuki; Jimba, Masamine

2014-06-01

392

The gut bacterial communities associated with lab-raised and field-collected ants of Camponotus fragilis (Formicidae: Formicinae).  

Science.gov (United States)

Camponotus is the second largest ant genus and known to harbor the primary endosymbiotic bacteria of the genus Blochmannia. However, little is known about the effect of diet and environment changes on the gut bacterial communities of these ants. We investigated the intestinal bacterial communities in the lab-raised and field-collected ants of Camponotus fragilis which is found in the southwestern United States and northern reaches of Mexico. We determined the difference of gut bacterial composition and distribution among the crop, midgut, and hindgut of the two types of colonies. Number of bacterial species varied with the methods of detection and the source of the ants. Lab-raised ants yielded 12 and 11 species using classical microbial culture methods and small-subunit rRNA genes (16S rRNAs) polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment-length polymorphism analysis, respectively. Field-collected ants yielded just 4 and 1-3 species using the same methods. Most gut bacterial species from the lab-raised ants were unevenly distributed among the crop, midgut, and hindgut, and each section had its own dominant bacterial species. Acetobacter was the prominent bacteria group in crop, accounting for about 55 % of the crop clone library. Blochmannia was the dominant species in midgut, nearly reaching 90 % of the midgut clone library. Pseudomonas aeruginosa dominated the hindgut, accounting for over 98 % of the hindgut clone library. P. aeruginosa was the only species common to all three sections. A comparison between lab-raised and field-collected ants, and comparison with other species, shows that gut bacterial communities vary with local environment and diet. The bacterial species identified here were most likely commensals with little effect on their hosts or mild pathogens deleterious to colony health. PMID:24748441

He, Hong; Wei, Cong; Wheeler, Diana E

2014-09-01

393

Discovery of XEN445: a potent and selective endothelial lipase inhibitor raises plasma HDL-cholesterol concentration in mice.  

Science.gov (United States)

Endothelial lipase (EL) activity has been implicated in HDL metabolism and in atherosclerotic plaque development; inhibitors are proposed to be efficacious in the treatment of dyslipidemia related cardiovascular disease. We describe here the discovery of a novel class of anthranilic acids EL inhibitors. XEN445 (compound 13) was identified as a potent and selective EL inhibitor, that showed good ADME and PK properties, and demonstrated in vivo efficacy in raising plasma HDLc concentrations in mice. PMID:24211162

Sun, Shaoyi; Dean, Richard; Jia, Qi; Zenova, Alla; Zhong, Jing; Grayson, Celene; Xie, Clark; Lindgren, Andrea; Samra, Pritpaul; Sojo, Luis; van Heek, Margaret; Lin, Linus; Percival, David; Fu, Jian-Min; Winther, Michael D; Zhang, Zaihui

2013-12-15

394

Should governments in Europe be more aggressive in pushing for gender equality to raise fertility? The first "NO"  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper takes the "no" side in the debate on the question posed in the title. The paper assumes that the dual-earner/dual-carer household model is the most likely aim of policies that push aggressively for gender equality in order to raise fertility. Five objections are discussed: the model does not necessarily lead to a fertility increase; aggressiveness will lead to an imbalance of labor supply and demand, and is likely to confront slowly changing cultural norms; similar polici...

Dimiter Philipov

2011-01-01

395

Numerical Solution of Three-Dimensional Flow over Angled Backward-Facing Step with Raised Upper Wall  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In the present study, results obtained from three-dimensional incompressible flow over backward-facing step in a rectangular duct using Realizable k-? turbulence model are reported. Effects of step inclination angle have been investigated for ?=30?, 45?, 90? while upper wall of duct kept parallel to the bottom wall and then rose to ?=6?. Reynolds number based on freestream velocity and step height is examined by varying its magnitude in the range of 15,000-64,000. Simulated results are presented for revealing the general flow features and reattachment lengths after a successful validation of the present work with the experimental data of Driver and Seegmiller (1985. It is found that turbulence kinetic energy increases suddenly after the step for both straight and raised upper walls and reaches its maximum at x/h=5 that consistent with the published literature. The size of reattachment lengths increases with the step inclination angle, i.e., maximum reattachment length occurs at 90? for both straight and raised upper walls. It is seen that raising the upper wall leads to longer reattachment lengths.

Seyfettin Bayraktar

2014-01-01

396

Exposure ethics: does hiv pre-exposure prophylaxis raise ethical problems for the health care provider and policy maker?  

Science.gov (United States)

The last few years have seen dramatic progress in the development of HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP). These developments have been met by ethical concerns. HIV interventions are often thought to be ethically difficult. In a context which includes disagreements over human rights, controversies over testing policies, and questions about sexual morality and individual responsibility, PrEP has been seen as an ethically complex intervention. We argue that this is mistaken, and that in fact, PrEP does not raise new ethical concerns. Some of the questions posed by PrEP are not specific to HIV prophylaxis, but simply standard public health considerations about resource allocation and striking a balance between individual benefit and public good. We consider sexual disinhibition in the context of private prescriptions, and conclude that only unjustified AIDS-exceptionalism or inappropriate moralism about sex supports thinking that PrEP raises new ethical problems. This negative conclusion is significant in a context where supposed ethical concerns about PrEP have been raised, and in the context of HIV exceptionalism. PMID:23796241

Venter, Francois; Allais, Lucy; Richter, Marlise

2014-07-01

397

Increased decomposition of subsurface peat in Swedish raised bogs:are temperate peatlands still net sinks of carbon?  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available An increased rate of decomposition has been observed in a large number of raised bogs in southern Sweden and elsewhere since the 1970s. The effect is manifest as a discoloured and mucous subsurface peat layer, and there is associated subsidence of mire surfaces. This paper reports the results of a systematic investigation of the phenomenon in 14 raised bogs in southern Sweden, which was carried out between 1997 and 2005. Degree of decomposition, bulk density and ash content were measured and evidence of surface subsidence over recent decades was collected. Shallow peat layers of ‘normal’ appearance could not be found anywhere within the study sites, and all showed the same signs of secondary decomposition. In particular, the ombrotrophic parts of the Komosse Bog Complex appeared to have subsided by at least 150 mm over the last 35 years, i.e. at a rate of approximately 4.3 mm per annum, which is more than four times the average rate of peat formation in circumboreal raised bogs. The changes observed could have been caused by change in any one of a number of factors, e.g. climate, hydrology and rate of nutrient supply; or by a combination of such factors. However it seems most likely that they are attributable to the heavy modern nutrient load, e.g. of dust from anthropogenic sources. There is cause for concern that many high-latitude peatlands may consequently have switched over from being net sinks, to net sources, of atmospheric carbon.

L.G. Franzén

2006-02-01

398

Behavior comparisons for whooping cranes raised by costumed caregivers and trained for an ultrallght?led migration  

Science.gov (United States)

The successful reintroduction program being run by the Whooping Crane Eastern Partnership using whooping cranes (Grus americana) trained to fly behind ultralight aircraft depends on a supply of these trained crane colts each year. The crane colts are hatched from eggs contributed by the various partners and trained to follow costume clad humans and ultralight aircraft at USGS Patuxent Wildlife Research Center, Laurel, Maryland, USA. After several seasons of raising small numbers of crane colts (7-14), we wanted to increase the number of birds being trained, but were restrained by limits in our facilities. By altering the established husbandry and training program to allow the use of a recently modified facility, we have increased the number of colts raised for this release program. However, we did not know whether the new facility and husbandry regime would significantly alter the behavior of the colts. Therefore, we have begun a two year study to determine if there are differences in the behavior of cranes raised by the two methods, and if any of the differences discovered relate directly to whooping crane survival and migration skills in the release program.

Olsen, G.H.

2008-01-01

399

Should governments in Europe be more aggressive in pushing for gender equality to raise fertility? The first "YES"  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Together with three colleagues, I have been asked by the MPIDR to debate the following question: "Should governments in Europe be more aggressive in pushing for gender equality to raise fertility? Setting aside the "lighthearted" side of this "Rostocker Debate," (12 minutes for each speech, one minute for each comment, I saw this as a good opportunity to think about the stakes behind the question. In order to address this complex issue, it is necessary to think about the many "preliminary questions" that we have to ponder before responding: Why should fertility be raised? Are political measures legitimate? Are they efficient? On what basis are we qualified to give "expert" opinions on such a topic? When the question comes to the fore, we as scholars are sometimes asked to provide an answer. It would, of course, be more comfortable not to answer, but our interlocutors (politicians, journalists, teachers, and also funding agencies often want a definite response one way or the other. Even though our position may be a matter of politics as well as a matter of science, we must give an answer. The empirical evidence shows that European countries where gender inequality is lower are also the countries where fertility is the highest. This is the evidence-based response that we can give to that question. European countries need to find a new equilibrium after the end of the baby boom period, when gender equality was very low. In all countries, the empowerment of women is underway, thanks to the economic independence given by work-related income. Increasing gender equality is an efficient way to reduce the opportunity costs of having and raising children, and thus to increase fertility. Finally, "pushing for gender equality" may have many positive effects other than raising fertility, and has few negative side effects. Gender equality is thus a convenient political aim per se; an institutional goal which leaves many political questions open. So, yes, we agree that governments in Europe should be more aggressive in pushing for gender equality to raise fertility!

Laurent Toulemon

2011-02-01

400

Study of the lateral raise in foot wear for the management of medial compartment degenerative joint disease of knee  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A wide spread disease, which may lead the patient to severe outcomes e.g. pain, loss of joint motion, inflexibility and even disability, is Knee osteoarthritis (OA). It is most common among adults of older age and should not be ignored at all. Literature does not show any clear pathogenesis for occurrence of Knee OA, but most of the indications point toward biomechanical stresses which may influence the articular cartilage and sub chondral bone. Objective: The Aim of this study is to become aware of the effects of physical therapy with and without laterally raised footwear in the management of medial knee osteoarthritis. Methodology: We have used experimental comparative study in 35 patients which were randomly selected from Department of Physiotherapy, Fatima Memorial Hospital, Shadman, Lahore. The study consisted of 2 groups, Group I (Experimental Group): In experimental group, patients were treated with laterally raised foot wear and physical therapy both. Group II (Control Group): Whereas in control group patients were treated by physical therapy alone. Kellgren and Lawrence (KL) scale was used to assess radiograph of the knee joints after an anteroposterior weight-bearing standing. The assessment of disease in patients was done by using the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities (WOMAC) Index, Muscle flexibility, Muscle strengthening and Tolerance scales. Results: In group-I the mean age of patients observed was 59.52+-13.66 years and 65+-12.87 years in Group-II. In Group-I, 9 (52.9%) patients were males and 8 (47.1%) patients were females while in Group-II, 9 patients (50%) were male and 9 (50%) were female. In Group-I 2 (11.8%) patients used flat and open shoes, 6 (35.3%) used flat and close shoe, 3 (17.6%) patients used dress shoes and 2 (11.8%) used flat shoes. In Group-I, the frequency of patients wearing laterally raised foot wear in terms of duration was; 5 (29.4%) patients for 20 days, 4 (23.5%) for 24 days, 4 (23.5%) for 25 days, whilst 2 patients used it for 26 and 30 days respectively. Among 10 (58.8%) patients the use of lateral raised foot wear was intermittent wile in 7 (41.2%) patients the use of lateral raised foot wear was continuous. Overall Group-I presented better results compared to Group-II in this study. Conclusion: We have concluded in our study that the physical therapy with laterally raised footwear is a successful treatment in the management of medial knee OA. In laterally raised footwear the physical therapy is an effective method in terms of relief of pain in patient, improvement in function by stiffness reduction and. this treatment method is recommended for the management of medial knee OA. (author)

 
 
 
 
401

Angiolymphoid hyperplasia with eosinophilia (epithelioid haemangioma) occurring within multiple deep lymph nodes and presenting with weight loss and raised CA-125 levels.  

Science.gov (United States)

We report a case of angiolymphoid hyperplasia with eosinophilia (epithelioid haemangioma) involving multiple deep mediastinal, abdominal and intramammary lymph nodes in a 52-year-old woman with weight loss and raised CA-125 levels. The unusual clinical presentation with raised CA-125 levels and its occurrence within multiple deep visceral lymph nodes has never been reported in literature. PMID:16315021

Hejmadi, R K; Gey van Pittius, D; Stephens, M; Chasty, R; Braithwaite, M

2006-03-01

402

Sea-level standstill and dominant hermatypic coral from the holocene raised reef terraces at the Kikai Island, Ryukyu Islands  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Coral reef terraces are one of the best recorders of biological response to environmental change events (e.g., sea-level changes). Kikai Island provides a rare opportunity to show biological and ecological frameworks (e.g., competition, coexistence, and succession) during a recent geological period. The island is fringed by raised Holocene raised reef terraces, which formed as a result of periodic tectonic uplifts. This study aims to characterize the spatial and temporal changes of corals at this island during the Holocene. The analysis is based on topographical and biological data obtained for the three sites (Shidooke, Kadon, and Nakugama reefs). Three raised reef terraces (Terrace II, III, and IV) grew from 7300 to 4500 years ago (during 2800 years), from 4500 to 2900 years ago (during 1600 years), and from 2900 to 1800 years ago (during 1100 years), respectively. Terrace II and III were uplifted 1-2 m around 4500 years ago and around 2900 years ago. Terrace IV was uplifted 1-2 m around 1800 years ago. The modern reef has been composed of corals for 1800 years. Sixteen coral genera and 53 species were recorded from the reef terraces. Terrace III and IV were dominated by four coral species (A. digitifera, A. robusta, G. retiformis, and F. stelligera), but Terrace II was predominantly composed of A. digitifera and A. robusta. These biological and ecological variations between the terraces represent a growth strategy responding to differences of reef growth time and/og to differences of reef growth time and/or insolation. (author)

403

Performance and organ morphology of broilers fed microbial or antimicrobial additives and raised in batteries or floor pens  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study was conducted to determine the effect of microbial or antimicrobial additives on the performance and organ morphology of broilers raised in batteries or in floor pens. The effect of microbial additives on the presence of oocysts in the litter was also studied. Experiments 1 and 2 consisted of four treatments (non-supplemented control diet or diet supplemented with avilamycin, bacitracin methylene disalicylate or enramycin and six repetitions in a randomized block design. In Experiment 1, 288 day-old chicks were housed in heated batteries in a environmentally controlled room, 12 chicks per cage; in Experiment 2, 1,200 day-old chicks were housed in a curtain-sided experimental house, with concrete floor and rice hulls as litter material, 50 chicks per pen. Experiments 3 and 4 were carried out similarly to Experiments 1 and 2, respectively, but the treatments consisted of microbial additives (non-supplemented control diet or Bacillus subtilis added to the feed plus Lactobacillus reuteri and Lactobacillus johnsonii added to the water, undefined microflora added to the water or live yeast added to the feed. The antibiotics did not affect the performance of birds raised in batteries, but improved feed conversion, weight gain and live weight when chickens were kept on the floor pens. Microbial additives did not affect bird performance in any environment; however, treatments affected liver weight. Microbial agents increased intestinal weight in floor-raised broilers. No relationship was seen between the use of microbial additives and the presence of oocysts in the litter.

Pedroso AA

2003-01-01

404

Slowed muscle oxygen uptake kinetics with raised metabolism are not dependent on blood flow or recruitment dynamics.  

Science.gov (United States)

Oxygen uptake kinetics (?VO2) are slowed when exercise is initiated from a raised metabolic rate. Whether this reflects the recruitment of muscle fibres differing in oxidative capacity, or slowed blood flow (Q) kinetics is unclear. This study determined ?VO2 in canine muscle in situ, with experimental control over muscle activation and Q during contractions initiated from rest and a raised metabolic rate. The gastrocnemius complex of nine anaesthetised, ventilated dogs was isolated and attached to a force transducer. Isometric tetanic contractions (50 Hz; 200 ms duration) via supramaximal sciatic nerve stimulation were used to manipulate metabolic rate: 3 min stimulation at 0.33 Hz (S1), followed by 3 min at 0.67 Hz (S2). Circulation was initially intact (SPON), and subsequently isolated for pump-perfusion (PUMP) above the greatest value in SPON. Muscle VO2 was determined contraction-by-contraction using an ultrasonic flowmeter and venous oximeter, and normalised to tension-time integral (TTI). ?VO2/TTI and ?Q were less in S1SPON (mean ± s.d.: 13 ± 3 s and 12 ± 4 s, respectively) than in S2SPON (29 ± 19 s and 31 ± 13 s, respectively; P < 0.05). ?VO2/TTI was unchanged by pump-perfusion (S1PUMP, 12 ± 4 s; S2PUMP, 24 ± 6 s; P < 0.001) despite increased O2 delivery; at S2 onset, venous O2 saturation was 21 ± 4% and 65 ± 5% in SPON and PUMP, respectively. VO2 kinetics remained slowed when contractions were initiated from a raised metabolic rate despite uniform muscle stimulation and increased O2 delivery. The intracellular mechanism may relate to a falling energy state, approaching saturating ADP concentration, and/or slowed mitochondrial activation; but further study is required. These data add to the evidence that muscle VO2 control is more complex than previously suggested. PMID:24469073

Wüst, Rob C I; McDonald, James R; Sun, Yi; Ferguson, Brian S; Rogatzki, Matthew J; Spires, Jessica; Kowalchuk, John M; Gladden, L Bruce; Rossiter, Harry B

2014-04-15

405

How the Entrepreneurial Top Management Team Setup Influences Firm Performance and the Ability to Raise Capital: A Literature Review  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper reviews research findings on entrepreneurial top management teams within the last 20 years. It concentrates on team-based management factors and their influence on a new venture’s growth and ability to raise capital. This paper integrates recent findings and provides an overview of the current state of research. Moreover, it contributes to the overall topic by proposing five clusters of major team-specific influences, derives determinants of success and failure, and reveals recommendations for further research.

Konstantin Maschke

2012-05-01

406

Reduction of vitrification in in vitro raised shoots of Chlorophytum borivilianum Sant. & Fernand., a rare potent medicinal herb.  

Science.gov (United States)

Reduction of vitrification in in vitro raised shoots derived from shoot bases and immature floral buds along with inflorescence axis used as explants of C. borivilianum, a rare medicinal herb is described. Shoot multiplication was obtained on MS medium with 2 mg l(-1) benzylaminopurine (BAP) + 0.1 mg l(-1) indole-3-butyric acid (IBA) and MS medium with 2 mg l(-1) kinetin (Kin) + 0.1 mg l(-1) 2,4-dichlorophenoxy acetic acid (2,4-D) from shoot bases and inflorescence axis respectively. Best multiplication rates were obtained from both the explants on MS medium with 2 mg l(-1) BAP. Vitrification of shoots in cultures appeared during the multiplication stage. Culture bottles with aerated caps reduced the vitrification to 80%. Reduction of BAP concentration from 2 mg l(-1) to zero during subsequent subcultures also minimized vitrification. Use of 0.5-2 mg l(-1) Kin produced healthy shoots when compared to BAP. In vitro raised shoots rooted on Knop salts containing iron and vitamins of MS medium, 2 mg l(-1) IBA and 0.1% activated charcoal. About 80% plantlets survived upon soil transfer. Scanning electron microscopic and image analyzer studies reveal the morphological structural differences between the leaves of normal and vitrified plantlets. PMID:16784122

Sharma, Urvashi; Mohan, J S S

2006-06-01

407

The role and importance of theatre in raising social awareness and developing and understanding of aesthetic arts  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Theatre, which has served certain ends since it came into existence, mostly strives to make changes in the traditional structure through its effective power of expression. This branch of art has acquired a privilege with its educational priority in the realization of smooth and natural flow of the social transition which takes place during the journey from the traditional to the universal with political, religious as well as economic concerns.From the ancient times to the present, attempts to educate society through theatre have assumed a considerably potential role as a means employed in circumstances where dominant systems of thought were intended to be disseminated into broad areas. However, in spite of its unifying role within the social life, theatre has not only undertaken the appropriate messages, but it has also served the ends to impose some tendencies aimed to meet interests, leading to social hesitations against arts. This artistic activity, which has been sacrificed for the sake of conflicts of interest, has been isolated from the social life by the minds that regard enlightenment of the society through awareness-raising as a threat. This study, through “The Model of Vital Quality Acquisition by Investing in Arts”, puts an emphasis on the social tendency to display sensitivity to arts as a result of the communication between educational awareness and investment in arts as well as the development of understanding on aesthetic arts, and dwells on the role and importance of theatre in raising social awareness.

Kamile Akgül

2011-02-01

408

Raised serum IgA to common cell envelope antigens supports enterobacterial inductive contribution to pathogenesis of secondary ankylosing spondylitis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Ankylosing spondylitis (AS) is closely associated with the histocompatibility antigen HLA-B27. Pathogenesis of AS is thought to involve interactions between B27 and certain enterobacterial antigens. However, enterobacterial involvement is uncertain and contested by some. The present paper demonstrates raised serum IgA to a common enterobacterial heat modifiable major outer membrane protein (h-momp; Mr 35,000) in active AS (N = 25; IgA = 1485 +/- 20) compared with controls, who were hospital patients without known arthropathies or gastro-intestinal disease (N = 12; IgA = 548 +/- 59). Serum IgG and IgM did not differ statistically. Raised serum IgA to h-momp might indicate enterobacterial antigenic stimulation from the gastro-intestinal tract and thus support an inductive contribution of enterobacterial antigens to the pathogenesis of secondary AS. It does not necessarily imply direct involvement in the pathogenesis of primary AS. H-momp appears to be a convenient tool for serological studies of AS and at present is likely to be more suitable than other bacterial antigens. PMID:3583323

van Bohemen, C G; Weterings, E; Nabbe, A J; Mulder, C J; Goei The, H S; Zanen, H C

1987-04-01

409

Transmission blocking immunity in Plasmodium vivax malaria: antibodies raised against a peptide block parasite development in the mosquito vector.  

Science.gov (United States)

One approach towards the development of a vaccine against malaria is to immunize against the parasite sexual stages that mediate transmission of the parasite from man to mosquito. Antibodies against these stages, ingested with the blood meal, inhibit the parasite development in the mosquito vector, constituting "transmission blocking immunity." Most epi