WorldWideScience
 
 
1

Survey of radiation protection programmes for transport  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The survey of radiation protection programmes for transport has been jointly performed by three scientific organisations I.P.S.N. (France), G.R.S. ( Germany), and N.R.P.B. (United kingdom) on behalf of the European Commission and the pertaining documentation summarises the findings and conclusions of the work that was undertaken with the principal objectives to provide guidance on the establishment, implementation and application of radiation protection programmes for the transport of radioactive materials by operators and the assessment and evaluation of such programmes by the competent authority and to review currently existing radiation protection programmes for the transport of radioactive materials. (N.C.)

2001-01-01

2

Chemical protection against ionizing radiation: a survey of possible mechanisms  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A comparative survey is given of the hypotheses which have been proposed to explain the protecting and sensitizing action of chemical substances towards ionizing radiation such as gamma radiation or x radiation

1977-01-01

3

A survey of research programs in radiation protection in Canada  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A survey of research programs in Canada concerned with radiation protection was conducted in 1991-92 by the Joint Subcommittee on Regulatory Research (JSCRR) of the Atomic Energy Control Board (AECB) Advisory Committees on Radiological Protection and on Nuclear Safety. The purpose of this survey was to determine the current state of funding for this type of research in Canada. Funding for health-related radiation research in Canada is critical to establishing and maintaining a supply of trained professionals who can provide competent advice on health-related problems in radiation protection. The present report is an analysis of the information received in this survey. This survey concludes with the recommendation that the organization and definition of subprograms for the AECB Regulatory Research and Support Program should be completed as soon as possible. In this report the JSCRR should assist AECB staff in preparing a report in which priorities for research related to radiation protection are indicated. The sources of information noted at the end of the Discussion section of this report should be considered for this purpose. (author). 15 refs., 3 tabs.

1995-01-01

4

Survey of Radiation Protection Education and Training in Finland in 2003  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The current state and need for radiation protection training in Finland have been surveyed by the Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority STUK. The survey sought to determine whether the current requirements for radiation protection training had been met, and to promote radiation protection training. Details of the scope and quality of present radiation protection training were requested from all educational institutes and organizations providing radiation protection training. The survey covered both basic and further training, special training of radiation safety officers, and supplementary training. The questionnaire was sent to 77 educational organization units, 66 per cent of which responded. Radiation workers and radiation safety officers were asked about radiation protection knowledge and needs for additional training. The questionnaire was sent to 880 radiation users and 170 radiation safety officers, 70 per cent of whom responded. The survey covered all professional groups and fields of the use of ionizing radiation except nuclear energy. The amount of radiation protection training in basic and further (specialization) training in the same vocational or academic degree varied remarkably by educational organization. The average amounts of radiation protection included in most professional degrees met the requirements. 32 per cent of workers considered their radiation protection training inadequate for their duties, and 48 per cent had completed no supplementary training in radiation protection over the last five years. Nurses working in public sector hospitals and physicians working in health centres had the greatest need for radiation protection training. 78 per cent of radiation workers in industry felt that they had sufficient radiation protection training. Co-operation between educational organizations is necessary to harmonize radiation protection training. Guidance of the Ministry of Education (the competent authority for education) is needed in this area, and the Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority STUK should also be involved. (Author)

2004-01-01

5

Survey of Radiation Protection Awareness among Radiation Workers in Shiraz Hospitals  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Introduction: Ionizing radiations are the hazardous agents in the workplace and all forms of ionizing radiation produce some type of injuries. Awareness of application of protection guidelines and knowledge of the principles of radiation protection can play an important role in health of employees. Survey of radiation employee’s levels of awareness and practical behavior is essential and should be standardized. Methods: The hospitals were visited to determine the number of radiation employees and to select the samples. Data was collected by questionnaire and analyses were performed by EPI6 software. Results: The employee’s awareness about protection in the radiation room was 70%, about application of film badge was more than 85%. The employee’s awareness of periodic inspection of atomic energy organization expert was 54% and their knowledge of long term and short term radiation effects were 98% and 95%, respectively. There was a meaningful relation concerning the level of education and awareness of the employees about MPD or principles of radiation protection (P<0.0007 and P<0.003 respectively). Conclusion: Our results reveal that the employees have acceptable knowledge about the use of film badges, however, they lack enough awareness concerning other issues of radiation protection. Proper and periodic educational courses for radiation workers are mandatory.

F. Amirzadeh; S.H.R. Tabatabaie

2005-01-01

6

Radiation protection  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

One usually thinks of radiation safety as keeping patient and personnel exposure as low as reasonably achievable; however, radiation protection activities play an important role in quality assurance for both the clinical and physical aspects. Radiation protection has several aspects: The first step is the design of the irradiation device and its shielding. Room shielding design is based on the leakage levels specified by the manufacturer and on levels of scatter and primary radiation impinging on the radiation barriers. Integrity and adequacy of shielding should be verified by survey after unit installation. Installation and periodic testing of interlocks are necessary to assure that nonirradiation conditions can be restored as soon as necessary. Personnel monitoring serves two purposes; to provide a record of personnel exposures and to alert one to unsuspected changes that may have taken place in procedure, shielding integrity, or source location. Area monitoring and survey on a periodic basis also provides knowledge of unsuspected changes in procedure, shielding integrity, or source location. Brachytherapy and the transport of small radiation sources require additional precautionary actions. Protection of patient anatomy not being treated reduces the chance of normal tissue damage and the possibility of carcinogenic effects.

Morton, R.J.

1984-06-01

7

Radiation protection  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This work define procedures and controls about ionizing radiations. Between some definitions it found the following topics: radiation dose, risk, biological effects, international radioprotection bodies, workers exposure, accidental exposure, emergencies and radiation protection.

1994-07-01

8

Knowledge in Radiation Protection: a Survey of Professionals in Medical Imaging, Radiation Therapy and Nuclear Medicine Units in Yaounde  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Medical use of ionizing radiation is now the most common radiation source of the population at the global level. The knowledge and practices of health professionals working with X-rays determine the level and quality of implementation of internationally and nationally recommended measures for radiation protection of patients and workers. The level of implementation and enforcement of international recommendations in African countries is an issue of concern due to weak laws and regulations and regulatory bodies. We report the results of a cross-sectional survey of health professionals working with ionizing radiation in Yaounde, the capital city of Cameroon. More than 50% of these professionals have a moderate level of knowledge of the norms and principles of radiation protection and more than 80% have never attended a continuing professional development workshop on radiation protection. (authors)

2013-01-01

9

Radiation protection  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Physical and radiological terms, quantities, and units. Basic principles of radiation protection (ICRP, IAEA, EURATOM, FRG). Biological effects of ionizing radiation. Objectives of practical radiation protection. (HP)[de] Physikalische und radiologische Begriffe, Mengen und Einheiten. Grundlagen des Strahlenschutzes (ICRP, IAEA, EURATOM, BRD). Biologische Folgen ionisierender Strahlung. Ziele des praktischen Strahlenschutzes. (HP)

1975-09-08

10

Radiation protection  

CERN Multimedia

This will be a simple explanation of the reasons why CERN has to be careful about radiation protections issues, a practical guide on how to recognize radiation dangers, the monitoring systems that make sure radiation levels are well tolerable norms, and a quick summary of what radiation levels mean in terms of personal risk.

CERN. Geneva

2001-01-01

11

Radiation Protection  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Major achievements of SCK-CEN's Radiation Protection Department in 2001 are described. The main areas for R and D of the department are enviromnental remediation, emergency planning, radiation protection research, low-level radioactvity measurements, safeguards and physics measurements, decision strategy research and policy support and social sciences in nuclear research. Main achievements for 2001 in these areas are reported.

2002-01-01

12

5. Radiation protection  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The problems, targets and principles of radiation protection are surveyed. The most important concepts, quantities and units used in radiation protection are listed. Attention is paid to biological radiation effects, external and internal irradiation, radiaton sources and dosimetric systems at nuclear power plants. Discussed are the basic methods of radiation protection based on the factor of time, distance from the radiation source and shielding, and the questions of the limit dose system which should comprise the justification of the respective human activity, optimization of radiation protection and annual dose equivalent limits. The limits are outlined of reducing exposure with respect to costs which society is willing to expend for the given purpose. (Z.M.)

1987-01-01

13

Survey of radiation protection programmes for transport; Etude des programmes de radioprotection pour les transports de matieres radioactives  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The survey of radiation protection programmes for transport has been jointly performed by three scientific organisations I.P.S.N. (France), G.R.S. ( Germany), and N.R.P.B. (United kingdom) on behalf of the European Commission and the pertaining documentation summarises the findings and conclusions of the work that was undertaken with the principal objectives to provide guidance on the establishment, implementation and application of radiation protection programmes for the transport of radioactive materials by operators and the assessment and evaluation of such programmes by the competent authority and to review currently existing radiation protection programmes for the transport of radioactive materials. (N.C.)

Lizot, M.T.; Perrin, M.L.; Sert, G. [CEA Fontenay-aux-Roses, Inst. de Protection et de Surete Nucleaire, Dept. de Protection et de Surete Nucleaire, 92 (France); Lange, F.; Schwarz, G.; Feet, H.J.; Christ, R. [Gesellschaft fur Anlagen-und Reaktorsicherheit, GRS, mbH, Cologne (Germany); Shaw, K.B.; Hughes, J.S.; Gelder, R. [National Radiological Protection Board (NRPB), Oxon, OX (United Kingdom)

2001-07-01

14

The Survey about the Degree of Damage of Radiation-Protective Shields in Operation Room.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Medical doctors who perform C-arm fluoroscopy-guided procedures are exposed to X-ray radiation. Therefore, radiation-protective shields are recommended to protect these doctors from radiation. For the past several years, these protective shields have sometimes been used without regular inspection. The aim of this study was to investigate the degree of damage to radiation-protective shields in the operating room. METHODS: This study investigated 98 radiation-protective shields in the operation rooms of Konkuk University Medical Center and Jeju National University Hospital. We examined whether these shields were damaged or not with the unaided eye and by fluoroscopy. RESULTS: There were seventy-one aprons and twenty-seven thyroid protectors in the two university hospitals. Fourteen aprons (19.7%) were damaged, whereas no thyroid protectors (0%) were. Of the twenty-six aprons, which have been used since 2005, eleven (42.3%) were damaged. Of the ten aprons, which have been used since 2008, none (0%) was damaged. Of the twenty-three aprons that have been used since 2009, two (8.7%) of them were damaged. Of the eight aprons used since 2010, one (12.3%) was damaged. Of the four aprons used since 2011, none (0%) of them were damaged. The most common site of damage to the radiation-protective shields was at the waist of the aprons (51%). CONCLUSIONS: As a result, aprons that have been used for a long period of time can have a higher risk of damage. Radiation-protective shields should be inspected regularly and exchanged for new products for the safety of medical workers.

Ryu JS; Baek SW; Jung CH; Cho SJ; Jung EG; Kim HK; Kim JH

2013-04-01

15

Protection against laser radiation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The brochure at hand gives a comprehensive survey of all the individual topics of protection against laser radiation. Often arising questions are dealt with in greater detail up to elaborated individual examples which are intended to inform the reader how to proceed resp. about relevant tables. The circle mainly addressed consists of the commissioner for protection against laser radiation, security personnel, inspectors of the industrial inspection boarrad and of the trade associations, and also of the operators of lasers in industry, laboratories, and in the field of medicine and professional training. The introductory section presents relevant technical rules, gives the names of competent advisory boards and of the supervisory authority for lasers and laser devices, followed by a section on personal protection outfits designed for protection against laser radiation, mainly spectacles against laser radiation. Then a statement is made on organisational and technical protection measures in factories and laboratories resp. on corresponding parts of the devices. The last section describes the classification of laser and embraces the preceeding sections by means of its explanations. Model safety instructions are presented for the purpose of supporting commissioners for protection against laser radiation in their training activities. (orig./HP)

1978-01-01

16

Atoms, radiation, and radiation protection  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This book describes basic atomic and nuclear structure, the physical processes that result in the emission of ionizing radiations, and external and internal radiation protection criteria, standards, and practices from the standpoint of their underlying physical and biological basis. The sources and properties of ionizing radiation-charged particles, photons, and neutrons-and their interactions with matter are discussed in detail. The underlying physical principles of radiation detection and systems for radiation dosimetry are presented. Topics considered include atomic physics and radiation; atomic structure and radiation; the nucleus and nuclear radiation; interaction of heavy charged particles with matter; interaction of beta particles with matter; phenomena associated with charged-particle tracks; interaction of photons with matter; neutrons, fission and criticality; methods of radiation detection; radiation dosimetry; chemical and biological effects of radiation; radiation protection criteria and standards; external radiation protection; and internal dosimetry and radiation protection.

Turner, J.E.

1986-01-01

17

Survey and analysis of radiation safety management systems at medical institutions. Second report. Radiation measurement, calibration of radiation survey meters, and periodic check of installations, equipment, and protection instruments  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] We carried out a questionnaire survey to determine the actual situation of radiation safety management measures in all medical institutions in Japan that had nuclear medicine facilities. The questionnaire consisted of questions concerning the evaluation of shielding capacity; radiation measurement; periodic checks of installations, equipment, and protection instruments; and the calibration of radiation survey meters. The analysis was undertaken according to region, type of establishment, and number of beds. The overall response rate was 60 percent. For the evaluation of shielding capacity, the outsourcing rate was 53 percent of the total. For the radiation measurements of ''leakage radiation dose and radioactive contamination'' and contamination of radioactive substances in the air'', the outsourcing rates were 28 percent and 35 percent of the total, respectively (p

2006-01-01

18

Radioactivity and radiation protection  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The book on radioactivity and radiation protection includes the following chapters: chemical elements and their smallest particles; nuclear transformations and radioactivity; energy of radiation particles and gamma quanta; interactions of radiation and matter; radiation measurement and measuring units; radiation effects on living cells; radionuclides in the human body; natural radiation sources - natural radiation exposure; artificial radiation sources - civilizing radiation exposure; radiation protection measures against external radiation effects; protection measures in nuclear power plants for radioactive materials retention; radiation protection for persons in a nuclear power plant.

2012-01-01

19

Radiation protection  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Basic guidelines for establishing a radiation safety program in an x-ray department are outlined. Major areas discussed include Federal and state regulations, department design considerations, personnel and patient safety, x-ray tube filtration and film processing. (KRM)

1980-11-01

20

The German Radiation Protection Ordinance of 2000: a survey and comparison with the former regulations  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The radiation protection standards defined by the European Union in May 1996, as well as the EU directive for the protection of patients, effective since June 1997, have to be incorporated into the law and administrative regulations of the Federal Republic of Germany by the 13th of May 2000. The German BMU, the ministry responsible for nuclear safety and radiation protection, presented the draft law for departmental consultation about the amendment of the StlSchV in December 1999. This draft law is the basis of the expert discussions of the meeting. One major change for instance is that for the first time, a broad classification system has been applied, which facilitates orientation. (orig./CB)

2000-01-01

 
 
 
 
21

Radiation protection calibration activities  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Philippines has two Secondary Standard Dosimetry Laboratories (SSDL), both of which are the members of IAEA/WHO network of SSDLs. The Radiation Health Service of the Department of Health and the Philippines Nuclear Research Institute of the Department of Science and Technology signed the agreement to avoid overlapping activities and to ensure complimentary development work programs. The Radiation Health Service was founded in 1974, and it is charged with the responsibility of regulating the production, import, export and use of the apparatuses emitting electrically produced radiation, the energy of which does not reach the threshold value, and non-ionizing radiation devices. The RHS SSDL performs two major activities, that is, the calibration of therapy level and protection level radiation detection and measuring instruments and personnel monitoring service. Those activities and the available facilities are reported. The calibration procedures for survey meters and thermoluminescent dosimeters are explained, and the specific problems are pointed out. (K.I.)

Otadoy-Lingatons, N.S. [Department of Health, Manila (Philippines)

1995-06-01

22

Radiation Protection: Basic Information  

Science.gov (United States)

... developed and produced nuclear weapons. Informing People About Radiation and Radiation Hazards EPA informs the public about radiation topics, ... to answer specific questions. Top of page EPA's Radiation Protection Program Strategic Goals Goal 1. Prepare for ...

23

On ethical issues in radiation protection  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] From an ethical viewpoint the author surveys existing international radiation protection recommendations and standards. After outlining previous work on the ethics of radiation protection, professional ethics, and the ethics of human radiation experiments, the author discusses ethical thinking on seven key issues related to radiation protection and ethics. (author)

1996-01-01

24

Ethical problems in radiation protection  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] In this report the authors survey existing international radiation-protection recommendations and standards of the ICRP, the IAEA, and the ILO. After outlining previous work on the ethics of radiation protection, professional ethics, and the ethics of human radiation experiments, the authors review ethical thinking on seven key issues related to radiation protection and ethics. They formulate each of these seven issues in terms of alternative ethical stances: (1) equity versus efficiency, (2) health versus economics, (3) individual rights versus societal benefits, (4) due process versus necessary sacrifice, (5) uniform versus double standards, (6) stake holder consent versus management decisions, and (7) environmental stewardship versus anthropocentric standards

2001-01-01

25

Ethical problems in radiation protection  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In this report the authors survey existing international radiation-protection recommendations and standards of the ICRP, the IAEA, and the ILO. After outlining previous work on the ethics of radiation protection, professional ethics, and the ethics of human radiation experiments, the authors review ethical thinking on seven key issues related to radiation protection and ethics. They formulate each of these seven issues in terms of alternative ethical stances: (1) equity versus efficiency, (2) health versus economics, (3) individual rights versus societal benefits, (4) due process versus necessary sacrifice, (5) uniform versus double standards, (6) stake holder consent versus management decisions, and (7) environmental stewardship versus anthropocentric standards.

Shrader-Frechette, K.; Persson, Lars

2001-05-01

26

Atoms, Radiation, and Radiation Protection  

CERN Document Server

Atoms, Radiation, and Radiation Protection offers professionals and advanced students a comprehensive coverage of the major concepts that underlie the origins and transport of ionizing radiation in matter. Understanding atomic structure and the physical mechanisms of radiation interactions is the foundation on which much of the current practice of radiological health protection is based. The work covers the detection and measurement of radiation and the statistical interpretation of the data. The procedures that are used to protect man and the environment from the potential harmful effects of

Turner, James E

2007-01-01

27

Radiation and radiation protection  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The brochure explains the major types of radiation, the radiation sources, effects, uses, and risks, as well as the regulatory system adopted by the government in order to keep the risks as low as possible. (orig./DG).

1992-01-01

28

Argentine radiation protection society  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Argentine Radiation Protection Society (SAR) is a non profit society, member of IRPA. It was originally launched in 1987 and a formal constitution was adopted in 1983. Presently, SAR has 220 active members, professionals and technicians dedicated to a variety of disciplines related to different radiation protection aspects: medicine, industry, research and teaching. The basic SAR objectives are: to promote research and knowledge exchange on radiation protection topics and related disciplines; to promote the comprehension of radiation protection criteria with regard to existence and handling of radioactive and fissile materials and any other radiation sources; to foster the conception of radiation protection as a professional discipline and to contribute to its permanent improvement; to promote the diffusion of the information related to all radiation protection and nuclear safety aspects, and radiation protection standards and recommendations, not only within the scientific, technical and academic areas, but also to general public

2001-01-01

29

Protective legislation, ionizing radiation and health: a new appraisal and international survey  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Restrictive regulations (protective legislation) on employment conditions of female workers limiting maximum hours of work and prohibiting certain toxic exposures have existed for decades. In some countries, such as the United States, Canada and the Nordic countries, the growth of civil rights and equal opportunity legislation has led to their elimination, either in fact or in practice, and only a small number of disparate regulations for male and female workers still exist. Most other industrialized countries, as well as the International Labour Office of the United Nations, still have active restrictive rules for women's employment. However, restrictive regulation is an area of active policy debate around the world. International examples of the debate on protective legislation are given here. A specific case study of the occupational health standards governing exposure to ionizing radiation is used and its technical rationale discussed as an illustration of the basic issues. These include: overbroad categorization of all women as potential childbearers, no matter what their childbearing intentions; failure to recognize the full range of potential adverse health effects to males; disparate application of the restrictive regulations, generally to occupations or areas of employment that are traditionally held by men, while traditional female jobs with the same exposures are excluded from the regulatory restriction

1987-01-01

30

Radiation protection research  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The objectives of the research in the field of radiation protection research performed at the Belgian Nuclear Research Centre SCK-CEN are (1) to elaborate and to improve methods and guidelines for the evaluation of restoration options for radioactively contaminated sites; (2) to develop, test and improve biosphere models for the performance assessment of radioactive waste disposal in near-surface or geological repositories; (3) to asses the impact of releases from nuclear or industrial installations; (4) to increase capabilities in mapping and surveying sites possibly or likely contaminated with enhanced levels of natural radiation; (5) to identify non nuclear industries producing NORM waste, to make an inventory of occurring problems and to propose feasible solutions or actions when required; (6) to maintain the know-how of retrospective radon measurements in real conditions and to assess radon decay product exposure by combining these techniques. Main achievements in these areas for 2001 are summarised.

2002-01-01

31

Radiation protection instrument 1993  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The Radiation Protection Instrument, 1993 (Legislative Instrument 1559) prescribes the powers and functions of the Radiation Protection Board established under the Ghana Atomic Energy Commission by the Atomic Energy Commission (Amendment) Law, 1993 (P.N.D.C. Law 308). Also included in the Legislative Instrument are schedules on control and use of ionising radiation and radiation sources as well as procedures for notification, licensing and inspection of ionising radiation facilities. (EAA)

1993-01-01

32

Radiation protection forum  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The National Director of the Nuclear Regulatory Authority and Radiation Protection of Uruguay in the first forum for radiation protection set out the following themes: activity of regulatory body, radiation safety, physical security, safeguards, legal framework, committed substantive program, use of radiation, risks and benefits, major sources of radiation, the national regulatory framework, national inventory of sources, inspections, licensing, import and export of sources control , radioactive transport, materials safety, agreements, information and teaching, radiological emergencies and prompt response.

2010-01-01

33

Radiation protection practices and related continuing professional education in dental radiography: A survey of practitioners in the North-east of England  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Purpose: To establish the level of implementation of recommendations from the National Radiological Protection Board, relating to best radiation protection practice in dental radiography within general dental practices in the North-east of England. To survey the opinion of practitioners on the availability of related post-graduate courses in the region. Methods: A postal survey in the form of a self-reported questionnaire was mailed to all practices in the North-east of England in November 2000. The questionnaire, consisting of closed and open-ended questions, was to be completed where possible by the resident radiation protection supervisor. Results: Two hundred and sixteen practices responded to the questionnaire, a response rate of 53%. The survey revealed variation in the standards of application of best radiation protection practice. Some 23% of practitioners had not attended any post-graduate courses on radiation protection since qualifying. Post-graduate education provision on radiation protection in the region was considered insufficient by 51% of respondents. Conclusions: It is concluded that a significant proportion of practices were not making full use of opportunities to reduce dose to their patients. In addition, a small number of practices had untrained staff acting as the Radiation Protection Supervisor. A significant proportion of practitioners had not been updated in radiation protection practices within a 5-year period, and this may account for the failure to implement best radiographic practice. Over half felt that there was insufficient availability of post-graduate courses in radiation protection. The regional provision of continuing professional education in this field may need development.

Davies, Ceri [Clinical Radiology, Bristol Royal Infirmary, Upper Maudlin Street, Bristol, BS2 8HW (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: ceri@2xclarks.clara.co.uk; Grange, Stuart [School of Allied Health Professions, Faculty of Health and Social Care, University of the West of England, Glenside Campus, Blackberry Hill, Stapleton, Bristol, BS16 1DD (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: stuart2.grange@uwe.ac.uk; Trevor, Margaret M. [School of Health and Social Care, University of Teesside, Middlesbrough, Tees Valley, TS1 3BA (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: m.trevor@tees.ac.uk

2005-11-01

34

Radiation Protection Dosimetry ???????  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Radiation Protection Dosimetry covers all aspects of personal and environmental dosimetry and monitoring, for both ionising and non-ionising radiations. This includes biological aspects, physical concepts, biophysical dosimetry, external and internal personal dosimetry and monitoring, environ...

35

Radiation protection to firemen  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The basic Knowledge about ionizing radiation oriented for firemen, are presented. The mainly damage and effects caused by radiation exposure as well as the method of radiation protection are described in simple words. The action to be taken in case of fire involving radiation such as vehicles transporting radioactive materials are emphasized. (author).

1985-01-01

36

Regulations in radiation protection  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] On the occasion of the twenty fifth anniversary of the Dutch Society for Radiation Protection, a symposium was held about Regulations in Radiation Protection. The program consisted of six contributions of which four are included in this publication. The posters presented are published in NVS-nieuws, 1985, vol. 11(5). (G.J.P.)

1985-08-30

37

Radiation protection in space  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The challenge for planning radiation protection in space is to estimate the risk of events of low probability after low levels of irradiation. This work has revealed many gaps in the present state of knowledge that require further study. Despite investigations of several irradiated populations, the atomic-bomb survivors remain the primary basis for estimating the risk of ionizing radiation. Compared to previous estimates, two new independent evaluations of available information indicate a significantly greater risk of stochastic effects of radiation (cancer and genetic effects) by about a factor of three for radiation workers. This paper presents a brief historical perspective of the international effort to assure radiation protection in space

1995-01-01

38

Radiation protection and monitoring  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The present paper deals with the following topics: - Radiological quantities and units - Principles of radiological protection - Limits of doses and activity uptake - Activity discharges and monitoring - Radiation exposure and its calculation - Environmental monitoring - Personnel dosimetry. (orig./RW)

1982-11-17

39

RADIATION PROTECTION IN IRAN  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper presents the current activities on radiation protection in Iran. According to the Atomic Energy Organization Law of Iran the radiological safety is ascribed to the Atomic Energy Organization of Iran (A E O I) and the Radiation Protection Department (R P D) is the responsible organ within AEOI. R P D since it's establishment in 1975, with the aim to ensure the protection of man and his environment against any harmful effects of radiations, has embarked on a national development and regulatory activity. The organization and the program of the R P D with an emphasis on the problems and achievements are described in this paper. The Iranian Radiation Protection Society and it's cooperation with the R P D for the dissemination of information and support for the educational institutions to cover the radiation protection topics are presented in this paper. It can be shown that countries envisaging institutions to cover the radiation protection topics are presented in this paper. It can be shown that countries envisaging to embark on a nuclear development have to start much earlier with a major educational and training activity for the personnel in radiological safety as well as other relevant fields.

R. Abedinzadih; H. Parnianpour

1980-01-01

40

Radiation protective glove  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Radiation protection gloves for surgical and medical use which have a layer of flexible polymer containing at least 25% by volume of particulate tungsten material and a radiation absorbing capacity equivalent to that of 0.13 mm of lead. The glove preferably comprises an elastomer such as ethylene propylene diene copolymer. (author)

1991-07-16

 
 
 
 
41

Radiation protection glossary  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The glossary is intended to be used as a terminology standard for IAEA documentation on radiation protection. An effort has been made to use definitions contained in internationally accepted publications such as recommendations of the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP), standards of the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) and of the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC), reports of the International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurements (ICRU), with only slight modifications in order to tailor them more closely to IAEA needs. The glossary is restricted to ionizing radiation

1986-01-01

42

Education in Radiation Protection  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text: This paper discussed the problem of the education in radiation protection. All aspects of education are included started with primary school and lasted with very specialised courses for the experts. In the last few years the lack of interest for education in radiation protection was recognised by many agencies included also IAEA and EU commission. In this paper the reasons for this situation will be presented and the way how to promote this subject again. It is not possible to prevent effects of radiation on environment and population if qualified and well educated experts do not exist. The situation in the field of education in radiation protection in Croatia will be presented, according to the new regulations in this field. (author).

2001-01-01

43

Project Radiation Protection - East  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The Swedish Government has allocated SEK 37.1 million for cooperation projects in radiation protection with countries in Central and Eastern Europe, particularly the Baltic states (Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania) and Russia. The Swedish Radiation Protection Inst. (SSI) is in charge of this program, which is often referred to as Radiation Protection - East. The general background of this cooperation program, its objectives, practical organization of the work etc. have been presented in the following reports: SSI Report No.93-08: Projekt Straalskydd Oest - Laegesrapport (March 1993); SSI Report No.93-29: Swedish Cooperation Program for Radiation Protection in Eastern and Central Europe (November 1993). The present report summarizes the work carried out up to and including September 1994. The more than 70 cooperation projects have been divided into the following categories: Upgrading of national authorities; Emergency preparedness, early warning; Nuclear power and research reactors; Instrumentation; Decommissioning, waste, environmental control; General radiation protection; Other projects; Project management and administrative support. Project criteria and a simple program for quality assurance and follow-up are presented briefly. A status report, including an economic overview, is given for all ongoing or already finished projects, together with future plans and a suggested budget for the next fiscal year

1994-01-01

44

Radiation protection optimization of workers  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report presents the contribution of CEPN (study center on protection evaluation in nuclear area) to the Days of the French Radiation Protection Society (SFRP) on optimization of workers radiation protection in electronuclear, industrial and medical areas

1994-01-01

45

Fundamentals of health physics for the radiation-protection officer  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The contents of this book on health physics include chapters on properties of radioactive materials, radiation instrumentation, radiation protection programs, radiation survey programs, internal exposure, external exposure, decontamination, selection and design of radiation facilities, transportation of radioactive materials, radioactive waste management, radiation accidents and emergency preparedness, training, record keeping, quality assurance, and appraisal of radiation protection programs

1983-01-01

46

Fundamentals of health physics for the radiation-protection officer  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The contents of this book on health physics include chapters on properties of radioactive materials, radiation instrumentation, radiation protection programs, radiation survey programs, internal exposure, external exposure, decontamination, selection and design of radiation facilities, transportation of radioactive materials, radioactive waste management, radiation accidents and emergency preparedness, training, record keeping, quality assurance, and appraisal of radiation protection programs. (ACR)

Murphy, B.L.; Traub, R.J.; Gilchrist, R.L.; Mann, J.C.; Munson, L.H.; Carbaugh, E.H.; Baer, J.L.

1983-03-01

47

Radiation protection - thirty years after  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this paper is discussed some questions in the field of Radiation Protection as like: historical prologue of radiations discovery and it's systematics; radiation and radiation protection; ALARA principle and 'de minimis' approach; radiation risks and dose limits and radiation and chemicals a risk comparison (author)

1989-01-01

48

Radiation protection for nurses  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Various aspects of radiation protection relevant to nurses are presented. The different radioisotopes used in internal radiotherapy and scintiscanning techniques and any necessary precautions which should be observed when nursing these patients are described. General information is also given on nuclear and atomic terminology, the physical half-life of radioisotopes, radiation dose as a function of distance, shielding, film badges and the maximum permissible dose. (U.K.)

1978-09-07

49

Radiation protective clothing  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Purpose: To obtain radiation protective clothings of excellent workability and durability. Constitution: Protective clothings of the present invention comprise shielding materials for the upper-half of the body having lead foils laminated on one surface and shielding materials for the lower-half of the body a resin sheet containing inorganic powders of high specific gravity. Such protective clothings have a flexibility capable of followings after the movement of the upper-half body and easily follow after the movement such as acute bending of the body near the waste in the lower-half body. (Kamimura, M.).

Fujinuma, Tadashi; Tamura, Shoji; Ijiri, Yasuo.

1988-08-12

50

Radiation protection in Qatar  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text: The State of Qatar has become a member State of IAEA since 1974. Later the Department of Industrial Development (DID) beam the focal point and the competent authority regarding all aspects of the peaceful application of Nuclear Technology. In July, 2000 the Supreme Council was established and charged with all matters related to environmental protection. The Supreme Council joined the IAEA Projects on upgrading protection infrastructure in West Asia region. A preliminary research was initiated to discover where radiation sources are being used, and the legal framework, if any, to regulate their use. The research indicated that radiation sources were being used in the industrial practices (well logging, industrial radiography and nuclear gauges) and in medical practices (mainly diagnostic radiology). The research also indicated that there was virtually no legal framework to regulate them. In less than five years, the State of Qatar was able to issue the radiation protection law, three sets of regulations, namely: Radiation Protection Regulations, Radioactive Waste Management Regulations and the Safe Transport of Radioactive Materials Regulations. In addition, several specific regulation work, dose limits and radiation protection officers were issued. A radiation Protection Department, comprising three sections was established. We are providing individual exposure monitoring for most of the radiation workers in the public sector and some in the private sector. We have set up a proper licensing and inspections procedures, where our inspectors are enforcing the law. More recently, we established an early warning network for nuclear of radiological emergencies, consisting of 6 transplantable stations, five mobile stations and two navigating stations. This year, the network was augmented with five fixed station and an advanced early warning centre, which provides early warning via multiple means (MMS, Fax, E-mail and audio alarms). Last year we signed a nuclear security agreement for cooperation with IAEA. Based on this agreement, the Agency assisted the state of Qatar to establish a very comprehensive boarder monitoring network, covering all land, sea and air ports. The information from all monitors is transferred in real time to two centres; one at the Ministry of Interior, while the being the early warning centre at the Supreme Council. The Supreme Council is currently considering, with the assistance of IAEA, establishing a regional training centre of excellence for radiation protection. (author)

2008-01-01

51

Environmental radiation protection standards  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The principles involved in the setting of radiological protection standards are reviewed, and the differences in procedures used by various countries in implementing them are outlined. Standards are taken here to mean the specific numerical limits relating to radiation doses to people or to amounts of radioactive material released into the environment. (author)

1978-01-01

52

Survey of the competent licensing and supervisory authorities in the radiation protection field, as provided for in the Atomic Energy Act. As of June 1987  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This survey on 22 pages lists the following: Allocation of competence in the execution of the atomic energy law and the radiation protection law; handling of radioactive substances, facilities for the generation of ionizing radiation, and activities in non-controlled areas; transport of radioactive substances; design approval authorities; imports and exports of radioactive substances; depots designated by the Land for the collection and storage of radioactive wastes; personnel dose monitoring stations; licensing and supervisory authorities for the treatment, processing, and other uses of nuclear fuels by virtue of section 9 Atomic Energy Act; scope of competence of the Federal Minister of Defence.

1987-09-25

53

Protection from space radiation  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The exposures anticipated for astronauts in the anticipated human exploration and development of space will be significantly higher (both annual and carrier) than for any other occupational group. In addition, the exposures in deep space result largely from galactic cosmic rays for which there is as yet little experience. Some evidence exists indicating that conventional linear energy transfer defined protection quantities (quality factors) may not be appropriate. The authors evaluate their current understanding of radiation protection with laboratory and flight experimental data and discuss recent improvements in interaction models and transport methods.

Tripathi, R.K.; Wilson, J.W.; Shinn, J.L. [and others

2000-07-01

54

Radiation protection in the dental profession  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] A survey, conducted by the Health and Safety Executive (HSE), on the standard of radiation protection in the dental profession in the United Kingdom is described. The results are compared with UK advisory standards. The preliminary survey results were reported in the professional press and each participating dental practitioner received comments and advice concerning the basic requirements for radiation protection. The method of survey has been broadened to form the basis of inspection of dental radiography by the HSE. (H.K.)

1980-03-14

55

Radiation protection following nuclear power accidents: a survey of putative mechanisms involved in the radioprotective actions of taurine during and after radiation exposure.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

There are several animal experiments showing that high doses of ionizing radiation lead to strongly enhanced leakage of taurine from damaged cells into the extracellular fluid, followed by enhanced urinary excretion. This radiation-induced taurine depletion can itself have various harmful effects (as will also be the case when taurine depletion is due to other causes, such as alcohol abuse or cancer therapy with cytotoxic drugs), but taurine supplementation has been shown to have radioprotective effects apparently going beyond what might be expected just as a consequence of correcting the harmful consequences of taurine deficiency per se. The mechanisms accounting for the radioprotective effects of taurine are, however, very incompletely understood. In this article an attempt is made to survey various mechanisms that potentially might be involved as parts of the explanation for the overall beneficial effect of high levels of taurine that has been found in experiments with animals or isolated cells exposed to high doses of ionizing radiation. It is proposed that taurine may have radioprotective effects by a combination of several mechanisms: (1) during the exposure to ionizing radiation by functioning as an antioxidant, but perhaps more because it counteracts the prooxidant catalytic effect of iron rather than functioning as an important scavenger of harmful molecules itself, (2) after the ionizing radiation exposure by helping to reduce the intensity of the post-traumatic inflammatory response, and thus reducing the extent of tissue damage that develops because of severe inflammation rather than as a direct effect of the ionizing radiation per se, (3) by functioning as a growth factor helping to enhance the growth rate of leukocytes and leukocyte progenitor cells and perhaps also of other rapidly proliferating cell types, such as enterocyte progenitor cells, which may be important for immunological recovery and perhaps also for rapid repair of various damaged tissues, especially in the intestines, and (4) by functioning as an antifibrogenic agent. A detailed discussion is given of possible mechanisms involved both in the antioxidant effects of taurine, in its anti-inflammatory effects and in its role as a growth factor for leukocytes and nerve cells, which might be closely related to its role as an osmolyte important for cellular volume regulation because of the close connection between cell volume regulation and the regulation of protein synthesis as well as cellular protein degradation. While taurine supplementation alone would be expected to exert a therapeutic effect far better than negligible in patients that have been exposed to high doses of ionizing radiation, it may on theoretical grounds be expected that much better results may be obtained by using taurine as part of a multifactorial treatment strategy, where it may interact synergistically with several other nutrients, hormones or other drugs for optimizing antioxidant protection and minimizing harmful posttraumatic inflammatory reactions, while using other nutrients to optimize DNA and tissue repair processes, and using a combination of good diet, immunostimulatory hormones and perhaps other nontoxic immunostimulants (such as beta-glucans) for optimizing the recovery of antiviral and antibacterial immune functions. Similar multifactorial treatment strategies may presumably be helpful in several other disease situations (including severe infectious diseases and severe asthma) as well as for treatment of acute intoxications or acute injuries (both mechanical ones and severe burns) where severely enhanced oxidative and/or nitrative stress and/or too much secretion of vasodilatory neuropeptides from C-fibres are important parts of the pathogenetic mechanisms that may lead to the death of the patient. Some case histories (with discussion of some of those mechanisms that may have been responsible for the observed therapeutic outcome) are given for illustration of the likely validity of these concepts and their relevance both for treatment of severe infections and n

Christophersen OA

2012-01-01

56

Ultraviolet radiation survey instrument  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] This paper describes a device designed for use as an ultraviolet radiation survey instrument. The instrument consists of an assemblage of mostly commercial components in such a manner as to result in a portable instrument that will measure ultraviolet radiations having wavelengths between 230 and 320 nanometers. The instrument responds to these radiations automatically correcting for the ACGIH photobiological response curve. This is accomplished through the use of a wide angle input optic followed by a dispersive section, a special adjustable parallel slot collimator, an array of bandpass filters and an inexpensive photomultiplier tube. It has been tested and operates satisfactorily in the conditions normally anticipated in occupational environments where very high intensity visible light is present along with ultraviolet radiations, such as from sunlight and electrical arc light sources. (author)

1978-01-01

57

Radiation safety and protection  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Often overlooked are the consequences of low-level radiation. This article increases awareness of the short- and long-term effects of x-rays on the podiatrist, his staff and patients. Protection can be achieved for all concerned by using the radiographic techniques, low-cost ways for dosage reduction, and monitoring devices discussed. A good x-ray examination should always provide the best diagnostic information while minimizing risk.7 references.

Grzywacz, R.B.

1988-10-01

58

Radiation protection in Italy  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] In the present report are underlined the problems and dearth of a proper radiation protection system in Italy, for the improvement of reliability and transparency[it] Il presente rapporto intende fare il punto sullo stato della radioprotezione in Italia. Si intende anche sottolineare i problemi e la carenza che il sistema radioprotezione in Italia pone in ordine alla sua efficacia, come primo passo nella direzione del miglioramento della affidabilita' e della trasparenza

1998-01-01

59

Some perspectives on radiation protection  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A brief review of the history and organizational structure of the NCRP is given. Summaries are given of a number of NCRP radiation protection guides dealing with hazards from 85Kr, radiation exposures from consumer products, basic radiation protection criteria, and doses from natural background radiation.

1979-01-01

60

Radiation protection medical care of radiation workers  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Radiation protection medical care for radiation workers is part of the extensive programme protecting people against dangers emanating from the peaceful application of ionizing radiation. Thus it is a special field of occupational health care and emergency medicine in case of radiation accidents. It has proved helpful in preventing radiation damage as well as in early detection, treatment, after-care, and expert assessment. The medical checks include pre-employment and follow-up examinations, continued long-range medical care as well as specific monitoring of individuals and defined groups of workers. Three levels of action are involved: works medical officers specialized in radiation protection, the Institute of Medicine at the National Board for Atomic Safety and Radiation Protection, and a network of clinical departments specialized in handling cases of acute radiation damage. An account is given of categories, types, and methods of examinations for radiation workers and operators. (author)

1988-01-01

 
 
 
 
61

MONTHLY RADIATION SURVEY TECHNICAL BASIS  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This document details the technical basis, analysis, and justification for rescheduling radiation surveys in occupied radiation areas within Tank Farm Facilities from a weekly to a monthly frequency. The purpose of this document is to provide the technical basis, analysis, and justification for seeking a technical equivalency determination (TED) to TFRCM Article 552.1.b. The scope of this document limited to radiation surveys in occupied areas, no equivalency is being sought for high radiation area boundary surveys, radiological buffer area surveys, active ventilations surveys, or work coverage surveys.

BROWN, R.L.

2003-06-13

62

Radiation protection code of practice  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] A collection of legal and regulatory material governing Jordan's radiation protection activities. The full text of Jordan's Nuclear Energy and Radiation Protection Law (No. 14 for 1987) is given, along with relevant regulations which are enforced in Jordan. The regulations cover the areas of shielding radiology rooms, defining radiation work, decontamination in the event of laboratory scale radiological accidents, radioactive waste disposal, personnel dosimetry, assigning radiation protection officers, licensing, and inspection. (A.M.H.). 12 tabs., 6 figs

63

Health protection of radiation workers  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This textbook is addressed to all those concerned with the protection of radiation workers. It provides full coverage of the implications of radiation in exposed workers, and, after a chapter outlining, in simple terms, the basic facts about radiation, deals with measurement of ionising radiation; radiation dosimetry; effectiveness of absorbed dose; general biological effects of ionising radiation; somatic effects of radiation; the acute radiation syndrome; other somatic effects; hereditary effects; radiation protection standards and regulations; radiation protection; medical supervision of radiation workers; general methods of diagnosis and treatment; metabolism and health problems of some radioisotopes; plutonium and other transuranium elements; radiation accidents; emergency plans and medical care; atomic power plants; medico-legal problems

1975-01-01

64

Quo vadis, radiation protection?  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The evaluation of potential health risks resulting from radiation exposures in the range of less than approx. 100 mSv is of major importance also for a broader acceptance of nuclear power. As a consequence of new draft reports and recommendations by renowned institutions, a fundamental debate has arisen about a necessary paradigm shift away from the linear dose-response hypothesis without any threshold level, and the so-called collective dose derived from it, in favor of a more meaningful radiobiological concept. Important insights can be gained from basic differences in the biological effects of low and high doses, but also from a conclusive assessment of the radiological consequences of the Chernobyl accident. Radiation protection in nuclear facilities is a routine service affair in the interest of strict observance of official limits and attempts to underrun, as far as possible, even restrictive boundary levels. If scientific developments in the field of the effects of low and very low radiation doses are to be taken into account, it is necessary instead to review critically the basic facts. In the light of this situation, it may be indicated to look at some recent developments in view of a clearly apparent paradigm shift in the evaluation of the risks of radiation exposure, and as a supplement to earlier reports. (orig.)

2006-01-01

65

Protection against enhanced radiation weapons  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

By means of the code ANISN extensive calculations of radiation protection against the neutron and gamma radiation of 'Enhanced Radiation Weapons' (Neutron Bombs) were performed. The shielding materials considered are: The air layer between the explosion centre and the earth surface, water, dry and wet earth, steel plates, normal concrete and concrete with boron and iron. The result is that tank crews can hardly be protected but for civil protection a two meter thick, rather wet layer of earth is a sufficient protection for men against the radiation of the 'Enhanced Radiation Weapon.'

Koehler, P.; Seifritz, W.; Stepanek, J.

1982-01-01

66

Protection against enhanced radiation weapons  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] By means of the code ANISN extensive calculations of radiation protection against the neutron and gamma radiation of 'Enhanced Radiation Weapons' (Neutron Bombs) were performed. The shielding materials considered are: The air layer between the explosion centre and the earth surface, water, dry and wet earth, steel plates, normal concrete and concrete with boron and iron. The result is that tank crews can hardly be protected but for civil protection a two meter thick, rather wet layer of earth is a sufficient protection for men against the radiation of the Enhanced Radiation Weapon. (orig.)

1982-01-01

67

Radiation protection Ordinance  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] This Ordinance lays down the licensing system for activities in Switzerland involving possible exposure to radiation, with the exception of nuclear installations, fuels and radioactive waste which, under the 1959 Atomic Energy Act, are subject to licensing. The Ordinance applies to the production, handling, use, storage, transport, disposal, import and export of radioactive substances and devices and articles containing them; and generally to any activity involving hazards caused by ionizing radiation. The Federal Public Health Office is the competent authority for granting licences. Provision is also made for the administrative conditions to be complied with for obtaining such licences as well as for technical measures required when engaged in work covered by the Ordinance. This consolidated version of the Ordinance contains all the successive amendments up to 26 September 1988. (NEA)[fr] La presente Ordonnance sur la protection contre les radiations etablit le regime d'autorisation pour les activites en Suisse susceptibles de comporter une exposition aux radiations, a l'exception d'installations et de combustibles nucleaires et de dechets radioactifs qui, en vertu de la Loi Atomique de 1959, sont sujet a autorisation. L'Ordonnance s'applique a la production, la manipulation, l'utilisation, l'entreposage, l'elimination, l'importation et l'exportation de substances radioactives et d'appareils ou objets en contenant. Elle s'applique en general a toute autre activite qui presente un danger du aux radiations ionisantes. L'Office federal de la sante publique est l'autorite competente pour la delivrance des autorisations. Sont egalement prescrites les conditions administratives pour l'obtention de ces autorisations ainsi que les mesures d'ordre technique a respecter dans le cadre des activites couvertes par l'Ordonnance. Cette version consolidee de l'Ordonnance contient toutes les modifications successives au 28 septembre 1988 inclus

1988-09-26

68

Radiation risks and radiation protection at CRNL  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Radiation exposure is an occupational hazard at CRNL. The predicted health effects of low levels of radiation are described and compared with other hazards of living. Data related to the health of radiation workers are also considered. Special attention is given to the expected effects of radiation on the unborn child. Measures taken to protect CRNL employees against undue occupational exposure to radiation are noted

1986-01-01

69

Applied radiation biology and protection  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This book grew out of a series of courses in radiobiology and radiation protection which were given to students in schools for radiology technicians, radiation safety officers and to medical students. Topics covered include the sources of ionizing radiation and their interactions with matter; the detection and measurement of ionizing radiation; dosimetry; the biological effects of ionizing radiation; the effects of ionizing radiation on the human body; natural radioexposure; medical radio-exposure; industrial radioexposure of electronuclear origin; radioexposure due to experimental nuclear explosions; radiation protection; and accidents with external and/or internal radio-exposure. (UK)

1990-01-01

70

National congress of radiation protection - SFRP 2003  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The different themes of this congress are the scientific bases of the radiation protection, the general principles of radiation protection and the regulation, the dosimetry the non ionizing radiations, the environmental exposures, the radiation protection and the radioactive waste management, the radiation protection in accidental situation, the radiation protection of workers and public. (N.C.)

2003-01-01

71

Radiation protection, measurements and methods  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The introductory lectures discuss subjects such as radiation protection principles and appropriate measuring techniques; methods, quantities and units in radiation protection measurement; technical equipment; national and international radiation protection standards. The papers presented at the various sessions deal with: Dosimetry of external radiation (27 papers); Working environment monitoring and emission monitoring (21 contributions); Environmental monitoring (19 papers); Incorporation monitoring (9 papers); Detection limits (4 papers); Non-ionizing radiation, measurement of body dose and biological dosimetry (10 papers). All 94 contributions (lectures, compacts and posters) are retrievable as separate records. (HP)

1983-01-01

72

Ethical issues in radiation protection  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Ethical theories are relevant to the current recommendations and standards for radiation protection. Radiation protection is not only a matter for science. It is also a problem of philosophy. In order for protection regulations to be respected, it must correspond to widely accepted ethical values among those who are affected by the regulations. The workshop covered the following issues: Problems in Present Protection Policy, ICRP Protection Policy - A Historical Perspective, Radiation Risk - What we know and what we believe, Present ICRP Recommendations, Ethical Values in the Context of ICRP Recommendations, Collective Responsibility for Invisible Harm, Environmental Protection - Ethical Issues, The Global Change of Values, and Procedural justice and Radiation Protection. Six workshop contributions and a workshop summary are presented in this report

1999-06-16

73

Ethical issues in radiation protection  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Ethical theories are relevant to the current recommendations and standards for radiation protection. Radiation protection is not only a matter for science. It is also a problem of philosophy. In order for protection regulations to be respected, it must correspond to widely accepted ethical values among those who are affected by the regulations. The workshop covered the following issues: Problems in Present Protection Policy, ICRP Protection Policy - A Historical Perspective, Radiation Risk - What we know and what we believe, Present ICRP Recommendations, Ethical Values in the Context of ICRP Recommendations, Collective Responsibility for Invisible Harm, Environmental Protection - Ethical Issues, The Global Change of Values, and Procedural justice and Radiation Protection. Six workshop contributions and a workshop summary are presented in this report.

Persson, Lars (ed.)

2000-03-15

74

Radiation Protection Infrastructure In Madagascar  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Radiation sources are widely used in medicine, industry, research and education in Madagascar. Safety and security of these sources are the main statutory functions of the Regulatory Authority as defined by the regulations in Radiation Protection in Madagascar. These functions are carried out through the system of notification, authorization and inspection, inventory of radiation source and emergency preparedness. The law no 97-041 on radiation protection and radioactive waste management in Madagascar was promulgated on 2nd January 1998. It governs all activities related to the peaceful use of nuclear energy in Madagascar in order to protect the public, the environment and for the safety of radiation sources. This law complies with the International Basic Safety Standards for protection against ionising Radiation and for the Safety of Radiation Sources (BSS, IAEA Safety Series no 115). Following the promulgation of the law, four decrees have been enacted by the Malagasy Government. With an effective implementation of these decrees, the ANPSR will be the Highest Administrative Authority in the Field of Radiation Protection and Waste Management in Madagascar. This Regulatory Authority is supported by an Executive Secretariat, assisted by the OTR for Radiation Protection and the OCGDR for Managing Radioactive Waste.The paper includes an overview of the regulatory infrastructure and the organizations of radiation protection in Madagascar

2008-01-01

75

Competence in radiation protection - acquisition, maintaining, extending  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A survey is given on current initiatives, supranational in the EU and national in Germany and Switzerland, for education and training in radiation protection with the aim of maintaining and enlarging professional competence. Successively, individual studying possibilities and courses as well as some experiences with guidelines for professional knowledge in Germany are described. (orig.)

2007-01-01

76

Radiation protection guidelines for radiation emergencies  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The system of dose limitation and present guidance for emergency workers and guidance for intervention on behalf of the public are discussed. There are three elements for the system of dose limitation: justification, optimization and dose limits. The first element is basically a political process in this country. Justification is based on a risk-benefit analysis, and justification of the use of radioactive materials or radiation is generally not within the authority of radiation protection managers. Radiation protection managers typically assess detriments or harm caused by radiation exposure and have very little expertise in assessing the benefits of a particular practice involving nuclear material

1986-01-01

77

Radiation protection guidelines for radiation emergencies  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The system of dose limitation and present guidance for emergency workers and guidance for intervention on behalf of the public are discussed. There are three elements for the system of dose limitation: justification, optimization and dose limits. The first element is basically a political process in this country. Justification is based on a risk-benefit analysis, and justification of the use of radioactive materials or radiation is generally not within the authority of radiation protection managers. Radiation protection managers typically assess detriments or harm caused by radiation exposure and have very little expertise in assessing the benefits of a particular practice involving nuclear material.

Lessard, E.T.; Meinhold, C.B.

1986-01-01

78

Radiation protection - theory and practice  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The proceedings of the Fourth International Symposium of the Society for Radiological Protection, held at Malvern in June 1989 contain both invited and contributed papers on a wide range of subjects in the broad field of radiation protection. The various sessions of the conference published cover such topics as radiation risks, discussions of specific accidents and emergencies in general, the latest developments in dosimetry, the impact of radiation on the environment and recent research on the biological effects of radiation. All applications of radiation are covered including reactors medical applications, fusion and accelerators, and varying electromagnetic fields from sources such as radiotransmitters, microwave equipment and powerlines. (author).

Goldfinch, E.P. (Central Electricity Generating Board, London (UK)) (ed.)

1989-01-01

79

Ethics in radiation protection  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Ethics is a branch of philosophy. Its object is the study of both moral and immoral behaviour in order to make well founded judgements and to arrive at adequate recommendations. The Collins English Dictionary provides the following definitions of the word ethic: Ethic: a moral principle or set of moral values held by an individual or group; Ethics(singular): the philosophical study of the moral value of human conduct and of the rules and principles that ought to govern it; Ethics(pleural): a social, religious or civil code of behaviour considered correct, especially that of a particular group, profession or individual; Ethics(pleural): the moral fitness of a decision, course of action, etc. Ethics has a two-fold objective: Firstly it evaluates human practices by calling upon moral standards; it may give prescriptive advice on how to act morally in a specific kind of situation. This implies analysis and evaluation. Sometimes this is known as Normative ethics. The second is to provide therapeutic advice, suggesting solutions and policies. It must be based on well-informed opinions and requires a clear understanding of the vital issues. In the medical world, we are governed by the Hippocratic Oath. Essentially this requires medical practitioners (doctors) to do good, not harm. There is great interest and even furore regarding ethics in radiation protection

2002-01-01

80

Radiation protective clothing  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

An external clothing as a main portion of the radiation protective clothing of the present invention is adapted to cover substantially the entire body of a wearer, comprises a moisture permeable material partially or entirely, and has an air supply device equipped with a filter for feeding air to a head portion of the wearer in the external clothing. Cleaned air filtered by the filter is supplied to the head portion of a wearer in the external clothing. The air passes through remarkably perspiratory head, face, shoulder, chest and back portions to remove heat and sweat at sensitively important upper portions of a body, so that humidity is released to remove fatigues and improve workability. In addition, since some extent of internal pressure is exerted to the inside of the external clothing by the air supply, contaminated air does not intrude from the outside to the external clothing. Since the air supply device is attached and carried to the external clothing, there is no air line hose which disturbs operation. (I.S.)

Watanabe, Choshin; Takaura, Katsutoshi

1998-07-31

 
 
 
 
81

Applied radiation biology and protection  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This book is a translation from a version revised in 1989 of the original French edition first published in 1985. The following topics are included in twelve chapters: Sources of ionizing radiation and their interactions with matter; Detection and measurement of ionizing radiation; Dosimetry; Biological effects of ionizing radiation (mechanism of action); Effects of ionizing radiation on the human body; Natural radiation exposure; Medical radiation exposure; Exposure to ionizing radiation from nuclear power plants and their associated installations; Radiation exposure to the general public from industrial sources other then power plants and medical uses; Radiation exposure due to experimental nuclear explosions; Radiation protection; and Accidents and incidents with external and/or internal radiation exposure.

Granier, R.; Gambini, D.J.

1990-01-01

82

An introduction to radiation protection  

CERN Multimedia

The sixth edition of this established text takes the reader through the general background to the subject, the technical principles underlying the control of radiation hazards, radiation detection and measurement and the biological effects of radiation. These are followed by a consideration of radiation protection issues in the nuclear industry, the non-nuclear sector and the medical field. Further specialised topics include risk assessment, waste management and decommissioning, radiological incidents and emergencies, relevant legislation and organizational issues.

Martin, Alan; Beach, Karen; Cole, Peter

2012-01-01

83

Radiation survey meters used for environmental monitoring  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Nordic dosimetry group set up the GammaRate project to investigate how its expertise could be used to assure appropriate usage of survey meters in environmental monitoring. Considerable expertise in calibrating radiation instruments exists in the Nordic radiation protection authorities. The Swedish, Finnish, Danish and Norwegian authorities operate Secondary Standard Dosimetry Laboratories (SSDLs) that provide users with calibration traceable to internationally recognised primary standards. These authorities together with the Icelandic authorities have formally cooperated since 2002 in the field of radiation dosimetry. Dosimetry is the base for assesment of risk from ionising radiation and calibration of instruments is an imported part in dosimetry. The Nordic dosimetry group has been focused on cancer therapy. This work extends the cooperation to the dosimetry of radiation protection and environmental monitoring. This report contains the formal, theoretical and practical background for survey meter measurements. Nordic standards dosimetry laboratories have the capability to provide traceable calibration of instruments in various types of radiation. To verify and explore this further in radiation protection applications a set of survey instruments were sent between the five Nordic countries and each of the authority asked to provide a calibration coefficient for all instruments. The measurement results were within the stated uncertainties, except for some results from NRPA for the ionchamber based instrument. The comparison was shown to be a valuable tool to harmonize the calibration of radiation protection instruments in the Nordic countries. Dosimetry plays an important role in the emergency situations, and it is clear that better traceability and harmonised common guidelines will improve the emergency preparedness and health. (Author)

Bjerke, H. (ed.) (Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority, NRPA (Norway)); Sigurdsson, T. (Icelandic Radiation Safety Authority, Geislavarnir Rikisins, GR (IS)); Meier Pedersen, K. (National Board of Health, Statens Institut for Straalebeskyttelse (SIS) (Denmark)); Grindborg, J.-E.; Persson, L. (Swedish Radiation Safety Authority, Straalsaekerhetsmyndigheten (SSM) (Sweden)); Siiskonen, T.; Hakanen, A.; Kosunen, A. (Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority, Saeteilyturvakeskus (STUK) (Finland))

2012-01-15

84

Radiation protection in civil defence  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The brochure contains the information given to the participants of an advanced training course in civil defence, on the subject of radiation protection. The course was held by teachers of Bundesverband fuer den Selbstschutz (BVS). (orig.).

85

Healing Arts Radiation Protection Act  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Healing Arts Radiation Protection Act is concerned with regulating the registration, installation, operation, inspection and safety of X-ray machines. The Act provides for the establishment of the Healing Arts Radiation Protection Commission which is responsible for reporting on all the above matters to the Ontario Minister of Health. In addition the board is responsible for the continuing development of an X-ray safety code and for the submission of an annual report of their activities to the minister

1984-01-01

86

Proceedings of Asia congress on radiation protection  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

203 articles were collected in the proceedings. The contents of the proceedings included the principle and practices of radiation protection, biological effects of radiation, radiation monitoring, protection in medical and other fields, radiation dosimetry, nuclear energy and the environment, natural radiation, radioactive waste management, and other radiation protection issues.

1993-01-01

87

Radiation protection, 1975. Annual EPA review of radiation protection activities  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The EPA, under its Federal Guidance authorities, is responsible for advising the President on all matters pertaining to radiation and, through this mechanism, to provide guidance to other Federal agencies on radiation protection matters. Highlights are presented of significant radiation protection activities of all Federal agencies which were completed in 1975, or in which noteworthy progress was made during that period, and those events affecting members of the public. State or local activities are also presented where the effects of those events may be more far-reaching. At the Federal level significant strides have been made in reducing unnecessary radiation exposure through the efforts of the responsible agencies. These efforts have resulted in the promulgation of certain standards, criteria and guides. Improved control technologies in many areas make it feasible to reduce emissions at a reasonable cost to levels below current standards and guides. This report provides information on the significant activities leading to the establishment of the necessary controls for protection of public health and the environment. Radiation protection activities have been undertaken in other areas such as medical, occupational and consumer product radiation. In the context of radiation protection, ancillary activities are included in this report in order to present a comprehensive overview of the events that took place in 1975 that could have an effect on public health, either directly or indirectly. Reports of routine or continuing radiation protection operations may be found in publications of the sponsoring Federal agencies, as can more detailed information about activities reported in this document. A list of some of these reports is included

1976-01-01

88

Chemical protection against ionizing radiation  

Science.gov (United States)

Some of the problems related to chemical protection against ionizing radiation are discussed with emphasis on : definition, classification, degree of protection, mechanisms of action and toxicity. Results on the biological response modifyers (BRMs) and on the combination of nontoxic (i.e. low) doses of sulphydryl radioprotectors and BRMs are presented.

Maisin, J. R.

89

Chemical protection against ionizing radiation.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Some of the problems related to chemical protection against ionizing radiation are discussed with emphasis on: definition, classification, degree of protection, mechanisms of action and toxicity. Results on the biological response modifyers (BRMs) and on the combination of nontoxic (i.e. low) doses of sulphydryl radioprotectors and BRMs are presented.

Maisin JR

1989-01-01

90

Introduction to radiation protection dosimetry  

CERN Document Server

One essential characteristic of life is the exchange of matter and energy between organisms and their environment. Radiation is a form of energy that has always been around in nature and will forever be the companion of human beings throughout life. In order to assess the impact of radiation exposures properly, it is essential to introduce appropriate quantities and units which can then be used for quantification of exposures from various sources. In principle, radiation protection is mainly aimed at controlling radiation exposure, while radiation dosimetry deals primarily with the measurement

Sabol, Josef

1995-01-01

91

Swedish Radiation Protection Goes East  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

For the past 13 years the Swedish Radiation Protection Authority (SSI) has pursued bilateral assistance co-operation in the field of radiation protection to countries of Central- and Eastern Europe. Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania and Russia have been prioritized countries for SSI, with Russia to some less extent compared with the Baltic countries. Initially the co-operation was directed to assistance the Baltic countries to remedy different acute radiation problems, which the new independent states had to face when the access to resources and experts in the field of radiation protection controlled from Moscow was lost. During the years the Baltic countries have developed new legislations and well-established national radiation protection authorities. The implementation of the EU Aquis Communautaire in the field of radiation protection into national legislation and its practical applications has been important tasks in the activities. The radiological emergency planning from the Soviet era has been renewed in all three countries, with the aim to achieve a western standard. Comprehensive support has also been given during the years of co-operation to develop the radiation protection work at the Ignalina Nuclear Power Plant (INPP) in Lithuania. The Swedish experience on management, storage and disposal of radioactive waste have been provided as complementary bilateral support in connection with international projects in Baltic countries and in Russia. The ongoing Swedish programme for co-operation with Russia comprise the federal authorities, the nuclear power plant in Sosnivy Bor and Polyarnie Zori and the specialized organisation RADON regarding two of their Solid Radioactive Waste Storage Sites. The priorities for the Swedish support in the field of radiation protection and radiological emergency planning will successively be changed to Russia with an effort also to extend the bilateral co-operation to Belarus and Ukraine. (Author)

2004-01-01

92

Research programs 1992/93 radiation protection  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Radiation protection research programs are summarized. The main fields are: ionizing and non-ionizing radiation, radioactive wastes, radiation accidents, dosimetry, epidemiology, radiobiology and radioecology

1992-01-01

93

Radiation protection and occupational health  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper examines trends in occupational and public health standard setting including those which apply to radiation protection practices. It is the authors' contention that while regulators, unions and employees demand higher standards of radiation protection and industry attempts to comply with tight controls of radiation exposure in the workplace, these standards are out of step with standards applied to health away from the workplace, recreational activity and other areas of industrial hygiene. The ultimate goal of an improvement in the health of the nation's workforce may no longer be visible because it has been submerged beneath the predominating concern for one aspect of health in the workplace. 35 refs., 5 tabs.

1992-01-01

94

A practical course in radiation protection physics  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The book deals with the fundamentals of radiation measurement techniques, the interactions of radiation with matter, the sources of ionizing radiations and their radiation fields, and the fundamentals and applications of radiation protection measurement techniques. An appendix contains constants and radiation units and the rules for ensuring radiation protection in conducting the course

1983-01-01

95

New trends in radiation protection  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The introduction of new concepts such as the effective dose equivalent, the collective dose and the dose commitment, and the application of the basic principles of justification, optimization and individual dose limitation has had a major impact on the planning and implementation of radiation protection during the last few years. The basic principles are summarized in ICRP Publication 26. It is a chalenge to research in radiobiology, genetics and health physics to explore the scientific foundation of the current principles of radiation protection. The most interesting trend to-day, however, is the observation that the principles applied in radiation protection have now been generally recognized and accepted to the extent that they become utilized in the protection of man against non-radioactive carcinogenic substances and environmental pollutants. (author)

1977-01-01

96

Radiation protection information  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] From the measurements and discussion presented in this report, the following conclusions may be drawn: The population doses from naturally occuring radiation is on average lower in Denmark and much lower in Iceland than in the other Nordic countries. In Sweden, Finland and Norway the largest contributors to the population doses from naturally occuring radiation are radon daughters in indoor air. For Denmark and Iceland, radon daughters contribute about the same to the total effective dose equivalent as the external gamma radiation. Some groups of people in the Nordic countries are highly exposed to radon daughters. In some cases, the received doses are very high (higher than the dose limit for radiation workers). From the conclusions above, the radon daughter problem should be given priority, at least in Sweden, Finland and Norway, especially regarding the search for population groups receiving the highest doses

97

Radioactivity and radiation protection  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Statistical data are given of the radiation exposure of the Hessian population from 1980 to 1982 in the surroundings of nuclear reactors and fuel fabrication plants through emissions and waste water. (BBR).

1992-01-01

98

The workers radiation protection  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report gives the situation of I.R.S.N. activities in 2004: agreements of dosimetry organisms and studies of working place relative to ionizing radiation and the situation in 2004 of occupational exposure to ionizing radiation. In an other part are studies the evolution of the analysis of the situation of working dosimetry and some thoughts about the possibilities of surveillance strategy. (N.C.)

2004-01-01

99

Radiation protection in nuclear medicine  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Addresses all aspects of radiation protection in nuclear medicine. Covers current technologies and principles. An ideal textbook for students and a ready source of information for nuclear medicine specialists and medical physics experts. One of a series of three books on the fundamentals of modern nuclear medicine (physics, safety, and imaging). This book explains clearly and in detail all aspects of radiation protection in nuclear medicine. After an introductory chapter on the general role of radiation protection, measurement quantities and units are discussed, and detectors and dosimeters, described. Radiation biology and radiation dosimetry are then addressed, with the inclusion of a chapter specifically devoted to biology and dosimetry for the lens of the eye. Discussion of radiation doses to patients and to embryos, fetuses, and children forms a central part of the book. Phantom models, biokinetic models, calculations, and software solutions are all considered, and a further chapter focuses on quality assurance and reference levels. Occupational exposure also receives detailed attention. Exposure resulting from the production, labeling, and injection of radiopharmaceuticals and from contact with patients is discussed and shielding calculations are explained. The book closes by considering exposure of the public and summarizing the ''rules of thumb'' for radiation protection in nuclear medicine. This is an ideal textbook for students and a ready source of useful information for nuclear medicine specialists and medical physics experts.

2013-01-01

100

Course on radiation protection: technical level  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The course handbook on radiation protection, technical level, prepared by scientists of the Nuclear Regulatory Authority (ARN) of the Argentina Republic, describes the subjects in 22 chapters and 5 annexes. These topics detailed in the text have the following aspects: radioactivity elements, interaction of the radiation and the matter, radio dosimetry, internal contamination dosimetry, principles of radiation detection, biological radiation effects, fundamentals of radiation protection, dose limits, optimization, radiation protection and its organization, radioprotection to the public, radiation protection fundamentals for interventions, radiation shielding, contamination protection systems, radioactive waste management, criticality accidents, safe transport of radioactive materials, X-rays, regulatory aspects, industrial and medical applications of radiation, quality systems

2004-01-01

 
 
 
 
101

Activities of Radiation Protection Centre in 2000  

CERN Multimedia

Description of the activities of Radiation Protection Centre in 2000 is presented. Radiation Protection Centre is responsible for radiation protection issues. Currently there are six departments at Radiation Protection Centre: two in Vilnius - Department of Radiation Protection Supervision and Control and Department of Programs and Expertise, and four in the districts. Brief information on subject controlled by each departments is provided focusing on main achievements and events.

Radiat. Prot. Cent. Vilnius

2001-01-01

102

IRPA initiative on radiation protection culture  

Science.gov (United States)

The concept of radiation protection culture, proposed by French Society for Radiation Protection (SFRP) and then launched by International Radiation Protection Association (IRPA) is presented. The paper is focused on the role of radiation culture in preventing unjustified fear associated with the use of radiation. Principles of RP culture and optimization of radiation protection, as well as the problems how RP culture can be learned and how to engage the stakeholders are considered.

Golnik, Natalia; Tulik, Piotr

2011-01-01

103

Problems of radiation protection  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A brief review is presented on the dose-dependent radiation injuries and possibilities of the classical chemical radioprotectors. Data are given on different substances of biological origin, including some natural for the body admixtures with a confirmed radioprotective action: biogenic amines (serotonin, mexamine), adenylic nucleotides, amino acids, polyamines, immunomodulators (bacterial endotoxines), prostaglandins, leucotrienes, antioxidants, vitamines (A, E, B2, B6, P, biotin, flavenoids), natural fats, plant oils and unsaturated fat acids, extracts from green seaweeds and adaptogens. 81 refs.

1991-01-01

104

Regulatory requirements for radiation protection  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Regulatory requirements for radiation protection have evolved and matured over several decades. Due to the wide adoption of recommendations of the International Commission on Radiation Protection (ICRP), there exists international agreement on the principles to be followed for radiation protection. This foundation will be increasingly important due to the growing need for international agreements and standards for radiation protection and radioactive materials management. During the infancy of the commercial nuclear industry, primary reliance was placed on the protection of the individual, both in the work force and as a member of the public. With the growth of nuclear power in the 1960's and 1970's, environmental impact assessments and expert reviews of bio-effects data have focused attention on statistical risks to large population groups and the use of the collective dose commitment concept to estimate potential effects. The potential release of long-lived radionuclides from the nuclear fuel cycle requires further consideration of radionuclide accumulation in the biosphere and calls for controls conceived and implemented at the international level. The initial development efforts for addressing these concerns already have been instituted by the ICRP and the IAEA. However, formal international agreements and a unified set of international standards may be required to implement the recommendations of these groups. Further international efforts in the field of radiation protection are also called for in developing waste management practices and radioactive effluent control technology, in site selection for fuel reprocessing plants and waste dispersal facilities, and for ensuring safe transport of high-level wastes in various forms. Since the regulation of very low dose rates and doses will be involved, it will be useful to reexamine dose-effect relationships and societal goals for health protection. Improved criteria and methodologies for ''as low as readily achievable'' will also be required

105

1993 Radiation Protection Workshop: Proceedings  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The 1993 DOE Radiation Protection Workshop was conducted from April 13 through 15, 1993 in Las Vegas, Nevada. Over 400 Department of Energy Headquarters and Field personnel and contractors from the DOE radiological protection community attended the Workshop. Forty-nine papers were presented in eleven separate sessions: Radiological Control Manual Implementation, New Approaches to Instrumentation and Calibration, Radiological Training Programs and Initiatives, External Dosimetry, Internal Dosimetry, Radiation Exposure Reporting and Recordkeeping, Air Sampling and Monitoring Issues, Decontamination and Decommissioning of Sites, Contamination Monitoring and Control, ALARA/Radiological Engineering, and Current and Future Health Physics Research. Individual papers are indexed separately on the database.

1993-12-31

106

Radiation protection/shield design  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Radiation protection/shielding design of a nuclear facility requires a coordinated effort of many engineering disciplines to meet the requirements imposed by regulations. In the following discussion, the system approach to Clinch River Breeder Reactor Plant (CRBRP) radiation protection will be described, and the program developed to implement this approach will be defined. In addition, the principal shielding design problems of LMFBR nuclear reactor systems will be discussed in realtion to LWR nuclear reactor system shielding designs. The methodology used to analyze these problems in the U.S. LMFBR program, the resultant design solutions, and the experimental verification of these designs and/or methods will be discussed. (orig.)

1977-04-22

107

Radiation protection in nuclear medicine  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] In the present report, the various scopes of the radiation protection measuring techniques particularly related to nuclear medical requirements are presented and the most modern and useful methods and equipment described. Particular importance is donated to the technique of contamination measurements as these represent the fundamentals of preventive radiation protection in nuclear medicine. (orig./LH)[de] Im vorliegenden Referat werden die verschiedenen Aufgabenbereiche der Strahlenschutzmesstechnik mit besonderem Bezug auf die nuklearmedizinischen Erfordernisse dargestellt und die jeweils modernsten und zweckmaessigsten Methoden und Geraete beschrieben. Besonderer Wert wird dabei auf die Technik der Kontaminationsmessungen gelegt, da diese die Grundlage des praeventiven Strahlenschutzes in der Nuklearmedizin darstellen. (orig.)

1976-05-05

108

Designing radiation protection signs  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Entry into hazardous areas without the proper protective equipment is extremely dangerous and must be prevented whenever possible. Current postings of radiological hazards at the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (RFETS) do not incorporate recent findings concerning effective warning presentation. Warning information should be highly visible, quickly, and easily understood. While continuing to comply with industry standards (e.g., Department of Energy (DOE) guidelines), these findings can be incorporated into existing radiological sign design, making them more effective in terms of usability and compliance. Suggestions are provided for designing more effective postings within stated guidelines.

Rodriguez, M.A.; Richey, C.L.

1995-03-01

109

Designing radiation protection signs  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Entry into hazardous areas without the proper protective equipment is extremely dangerous and must be prevented whenever possible. Current postings of radiological hazards at the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (RFETS) do not incorporate recent findings concerning effective warning presentation. Warning information should be highly visible, quickly, and easily understood. While continuing to comply with industry standards (e.g., Department of Energy (DOE) guidelines), these findings can be incorporated into existing radiological sign design, making them more effective in terms of usability and compliance. Suggestions are provided for designing more effective postings within stated guidelines.

1995-01-01

110

Radiation protection material  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The material, capable of being cast into the shape and thickness desired, is resistant to radiation (300 x 106 rad and 1 x 1017 n/cm2 while retaining its H2 content). It is composed of a silicon elastomer base material to which particles from BC, boric acid and/or boron oxide are homogeneously admixed with a volume percentage between 5 and 75. For each purpose the particles are of constant size respectively. The sizes lie between 0.18 mm (80 mesh) and 0.05 mm (300 mesh). (DG).

1978-01-01

111

Radiation protection in mines  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The main objective of the research project was to investigate and develop methods at the Muellenbach test mine which allow optimal protection against radon and its daughter products considering both economic and mining aspects. Theoretical models as well as investigations in the laboratory and underground have shown that good ventilation offers an effective protection against radon and its daughters. Other methods such as wetting of broken rock and variation of the blasting pattern as well as the application of positive ventilating pressure were of minor influence on radon emanation. The sealing of rock surfaces showed satisfactory results in laboratory tests (radon emanation rate was reduced up to 98%), however underground its application appears to be limited and unsuitable for stoping operations. The airstream helmet (type AH 1) tested underground proved to be effective as a dust filter but because of its ergonomic and safety disadvantages its application in uranium mining is limited. Its efficiency as far as the reduction of radon daughters is concerned should be tested after the ergonomic disadvantages have been eliminated. The research work done has shown that cavitation models developed are of practical value for the determination of radon and its daughter concentrations as well as for mine ventilation planning. The report presented emphasizes that the nuclide measurements carried out underground and the knowledge gained about the behaviour of radio nuclides in the mine atmosphere are transferable to other mining branches for instance to coal and fluorspar mining. (orig./HP).

1986-01-01

112

Radiation Protection Services Division: progress report for 1992-1993  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] This report describes the work of the Radiation Protection Services Division during 1993, for implementation of radiation safety in all institutions in India using radiation sources in medical, industrial and research applications. It gives information about personnel monitoring using photographic film and TLD badges, neutron monitoring badges, advisory and licensing services, regulation, transport of radioactive materials and periodic protection survey. About 33 publications by the staff of the Division are also listed. (author). 4 tabs

1994-01-01

113

Radiation protecting sheet  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

As protection sheets used in radioactivity administration areas, a thermoplastic polyurethane composition sheet with a thickness of less 0.5 mm, solid content (ash) of less than 5% and a shore D hardness of less than 60 is used. A composite sheet with thickness of less than 0.5 mm laminated or coated with such a thermoplastic polyurethane composition as a surface layer and the thermoplastic polyurethane composition sheet applied with secondary fabrication are used. This can satisfy all of the required properties, such as draping property, abrasion resistance, high breaking strength, necking resistance, endurance strength, as well as chemical resistance and easy burnability in burning furnace. Further, by forming uneveness on the surface by means of embossing, etc. safety problems such as slippage during operation and walking can be overcome. (T.M.).

Makiguchi, Hiroshi.

1989-11-08

114

Radiation protecting sheet  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

As protection sheets used in radioactivity administration areas, a thermoplastic polyurethane composition sheet with a thickness of less 0.5 mm, solid content (ash) of less than 5% and a shore D hardness of less than 60 is used. A composite sheet with thickness of less than 0.5 mm laminated or coated with such a thermoplastic polyurethane composition as a surface layer and the thermoplastic polyurethane composition sheet applied with secondary fabrication are used. This can satisfy all of the required properties, such as draping property, abrasion resistance, high breaking strength, necking resistance, endurance strength, as well as chemical resistance and easy burnability in burning furnace. Further, by forming uneveness on the surface by means of embossing, etc. safety problems such as slippage during operation and walking can be overcome. (T.M.).

1988-04-30

115

Radiation protection of medical staff  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The continuing increase in the worldwide use of X-ray imaging has implications for radiation protection of medical staff. Much of the increased usage could be viewed as simply a workload issue with no particular new challenges. However, advances in technology and developments in techniques have seen an increase in the number of X-ray procedures in which medical personnel need to maintain close physical contact with the patient during radiation exposures. The complexity of many procedures means the potential for significant occupational exposure is high, and appropriate steps must be taken to ensure that actual occupational exposures are as low as reasonably achievable. Further attention to eye protection may be necessitated if a lowering of the dose limit for the lens of the eye is implemented in the near future. Education and training in radiation protection as it applies to specific situations, established working procedures, availability and use of appropriate protective tools, and an effective monitoring programme are all essential elements in ensuring that medical personnel in X-ray imaging are adequately and acceptably protected.

2010-01-01

116

Radiation protection in veterinary medicine  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Diagnostic radiology is an essential part of present-day veterinary practice. The need for radiation protection exists because occupational exposure to ionizing radiation can result in deleterious effects that may manifest themselves not only in exposed individuals but in their descendants as well. These are respectively called somatic and genetic effects. Somatic effects are characterized by observable changes occurring in the body organs of the exposed individual. These changes may appear from within a few hours to many years later, depending on the amount and duration of exposure of the individual. In veterinary medicine, the possibility that anyone may be exposed to enough radiation to create somatic effect is extremely remote. Genetic effects are more a cause for concern at the lower doses used in veterinary radiology. Although the radiation doses may be small and appear to cause no observable damage, the probability of chromosomal damage in the germ cells, with the consequence of mutations, does exist. These mutations may give rise to genetic defects and therefore make these doses significant when applied to a large number of individuals. There are two main aspects of the problem to be considered. First, personnel working with X-ray equipment must be protected from excessive exposure to radiation during their work. Secondly, personnel in the vicinity of veterinary X-ray facilities and the general public require adequate protection

1991-01-01

117

Radiation protection in nuclear facilities  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Close ties exist between nuclear safety and radiation protection. Nuclear safety is made up of all the arrangements taken to prevent accidents occurring in nuclear facilities, these accidents would certainly involved a radiological aspect. Radiation protection is made up of all the arrangements taken to evaluate and reduce the impact of radiation on workers or population in normal situations or in case of accident. In the fifties the management of radiological hazards was based on the quest for minimal or even zero risk. This formulation could lead to call some activities in question whereas the benefits for the whole society were evident. Now a new attitude more aware of the real risks and of no wasting resources prevails. This attitude is based on the ALARA principle whose purpose is to maintain the exposure to radiation as low as reasonably achievable taking into account social and economic concerns. This document regroups articles illustrating different aspects of the radiation protection in nuclear facilities such as a research center, a waste vitrification workshop and a nuclear power plant. The surveillance of radiological impacts of nuclear sites on environment is examined, a point is made about the pending epidemiologic studies concerning La Hague complex. (A.C.)

1998-01-01

118

Research needs for radiation protection  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In answer to a request from the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission, the NCRP has issued Report No. 117, summarizing the Council`s suggestions for research to strengthen radiation protection. As might be expected, the basic question deals with the effects of low-LET radiations at low doses and low dose rates. Have present regulations for radiation protection already been set at, or even below, the practical limits at which significant research results can be obtained for epidemiological application? The NCRP`s answer consists of 63 biological and physical projects for investigation, each described by a paragraph or two, prefaced with a caveat that this list is neither complete or definitive. The 63 are grouped under five headings: Cellular and molecular biology; Dose determinations; Risk assessment; Prevention, intervention and perception; and, Resource requirements.

NONE

1993-12-31

119

Research needs for radiation protection  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In answer to a request from the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission, the NCRP has issued Report No. 117, summarizing the Council's suggestions for research to strengthen radiation protection. As might be expected, the basic question deals with the effects of low-LET radiations at low doses and low dose rates. Have present regulations for radiation protection already been set at, or even below, the practical limits at which significant research results can be obtained for epidemiological application? The NCRP's answer consists of 63 biological and physical projects for investigation, each described by a paragraph or two, prefaced with a caveat that this list is neither complete or definitive. The 63 are grouped under five headings: Cellular and molecular biology; Dose determinations; Risk assessment; Prevention, intervention and perception; and, Resource requirements

1993-01-01

120

Preliminary activities in quality control of radiation protection dosimetry  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In order to provide quality control of radiation dosimetry for radiation protection, a dosimetry laboratory was established in our Institute. Periodical calibration of radiation monitoring instruments and intercomparisons of personnel dosimetry were carried in the realm of x-ray protection monitoring, and survey of doses and effects in medical exposures and in roentgenological workers. In this paper the basic instrumentation and methods utilized by the laboratory, and the results of the first intercomparison of thermoluminescent personnel dosimetry and the first calibration of dose meters used in radiation protection monitoring are presented.

Zhang, Liangan; Yang, Heli; Huang, Xingguo; Yuan, Shuyu; Xin, Wangtang (Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, Tianjin. Inst. of Radiomedicines)

1984-04-01

 
 
 
 
121

Preliminary activities in quality control of radiation protection dosimetry  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In order to provide quality control of radiation dosimetry for radiation protection, a dosimetry laboratory was established in our Institute. Periodical calibration of radiation monitoring instruments and intercomparisons of personnel dosimetry were carried in the realm of x-ray protection monitoring, and survey of doses and effects in medical exposures and in roentgenological workers. In this paper the basic instrumentation and methods utilized by the laboratory, and the results of the first intercomparison of thermoluminescent personnel dosimetry and the first calibration of dose meters used in radiation protection monitoring are presented. (author)

1984-01-01

122

Development of radiation protection on TENORM  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Some of technologically enhanced naturally occurring radioactive material (TENORM), such as radon and monazite sand, gradually became a target for radiological protection. In order to regulate TENORM safely and economically, it is essential to consider the characteristics of TENORM such as ubiquity, huge volume, and very low activity levels. In this paper, radiation protection principles and standards for NORM/TENORM are summarized based on the reports published by the international organizations (e.g. ICRP and IAEA) to assist the development of national regulatory framework. The survey results on the present Japanese situations on industries related to NORM/TENORM are provided, and the categorization for NORM/TENORM, which is established by the Radiation Council of Japan, is explained how to control NORM/TENORM based on their exposure doses instead of their activity levels. Finally, basic processes to solve the problems related to NORM/TENORM are discussed. (author)

2005-01-01

123

Radiation surveys in contaminated communities  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Radiation surveys of uranium contamination in Uranium City and Port Hope, Canada, are described. Samples of soil, water, and crops grown in contaminated soil and air in homes were analyzed for radon content. Following decontamination, measurements were made of ? exposure rates both inside and outside of buildings

1977-01-01

124

Radioprotectors and Immunomodulators for Protection against Radiation  

International Science & Technology Center (ISTC)

Development of New Generation of Radioprotectors, Immunomodulators, and Radiation Sensitizers for Human Protection Against Ionizing Radiation and Efficiency Improvement of Radiotherapy of Malignant Cells

125

Report to the government of Zambia. Radiation protection  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] At the request of the Government of the Republic of Zambia, the International Atomic Energy Agency set up a technical assistance project to supply an expert plus some equipment, commencing 1 October 1971 and of one year's duration. The project was to expand Zambia's radiation protection service through monitoring of radiation doses, radiation sources, and premises, and provide advise related to the safe handling of sources of ionizing radiation. Upon arrival the expert found that some of these activities had been initiated. The key measures therefore were to establish channels of communication and authority, survey the state of radiation safety and protective measures, and coordination of protective and control measures. On these lines the Ionising Radiation Act is stated to show how its establishment and organizational structure could assist in the implementation of radiation protection measures. maps

1971-10-01

126

Applied radiation biology and protection  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Written by two eminent expects in the field with many years of teaching experience between them, this book presents a concise coverage of the physical and biological basics of radiation biology and protection. The book begins with a description of the methods of particle detection and dosimetric evaluation. The effects of ionizing radiation on man are treated from the initial physico-chemical phase of interaction to their conceivable pathological consequences. Regulations, limits and safeguards on nuclear power plants, radioisotope installations and medical centers which make use of ionizing radiation are given and the risks of exposure to natural, industrial and scientific radiation sources evaluated. The final chapter takes a look at some of the more important nuclear accidents, including Windscale, Three Mile Island, and Chernobyl, and describes basic procedures to be carried out in the eventuality of a nuclear emergency. Twelve chapters have been processed separately for inclusion in the appropriate data bases.

Granier, R.; Gambini, D.J.

1990-01-01

127

Radiation Protection Legislation in the Nordic Countries  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Recent alterations in the radiation protection laws of the Nordic countries are presented. The report amends the previous SS-report 87-37 with the title Radiation Protection and Atomic Energy Legislation in the Nordic Countries. (au)

1990-01-01

128

Radiation protection in hospital radiopharmacy  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Short-lived radiopharmaceuticals, such as 99mTc labelled compounds, are prepared in the in-house pharmacy of the hospital. In addition, preparation of smaller doses for administration from the bulk material of the finished product received from the manufacturers, also involves considerable work for the radiopharmacist in the hospital. Hence they should be well informed about the radiation hazards and should be aware of the protective measures to be taken while handling radioactive materials for keeping the radiation levels in the laboratory and their personnel doses well within the specified limits. 3 refs., 5 tabs.

1997-01-01

129

New materials for a local radiation protection  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Possibilities of the use of new composite materials for local radiation protection of the spacecraft electronic components from ionizing radiation action have been discussed. The characteristics of protective materials in the form of plates or pastes deposited on the protected elements are considered. The results of theoretical and experimental simulations of the materials radiation absorption properties are given. Examples of the local radiation protection efficiency for some specific situations of orbit flight have been presented

2003-01-01

130

Quality management in radiation protection  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Quality Management in Radiation Protection Quality management (QM) in the field of Radiation Protection was discussed in a previous issue (2/97) using the example of QMS at the Paul Scherrer Institut (PSI). The present article describes the major features involved in the establishment of a functional QMS. Establishment of the QMS lead to a deeper understanding of administrative and operational aspects of the working methods involved. (orig.)[de] Qualitaet im Umfeld des Strahlenschutzes wurde im Heft 2/97 am Beispiel einer Akkreditierung in der Abteilung Strahlenhygiene am Paul Scherrer Institut (PSI) dargelegt. Folgender Beitrag zeigt nun auf, welche Hauptaufgaben zu loesen waren. Das QMS fuehrte bei unseren Mitarbeitern zu einem tieferen Verstaendnis der administrativen und operationellen Belange unserer Dienstleistungen. (orig.)

1997-01-01

131

International standards for radiation protection.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

International standards for radiation protection are issued by many bodies. These bodies differ to a large extent in their organisation, in the way the members are designated and in the way the international standards are authorised by the issuing body. Large differences also exist in the relevance of the international standards. One extreme is that the international standards are mandatory in the sense that no conflicting national standard may exist, the other extreme is that national and international standards conflict and there is no need to resolve that conflict. Between these extremes there are some standards or documents of relevance, which are not binding by any formal law or contract but are de facto binding due to the scientific reputation of the issuing body. This paper gives, for radiation protection, an overview of the main standards issuing bodies, the international standards or documents of relevance issued by them and the relevance of these documents.

Ambrosi P

2011-03-01

132

State Supervision and Control of Radiation Protection  

CERN Document Server

Radiation Protection Centre is carrying state supervision and control of radiation protection. The main objective of state supervision and control of radiation protection is assessing how licensees comply with requirements of the appropriate legislation and enforcement. Summary of inspections conducted in 1999-2001 is presented.

2001-01-01

133

State Radiation Protection Supervision and Control  

CERN Document Server

Radiation Protection Centre is carrying state supervision and control of radiation protection. The main objective of state supervision and control of radiation protection is assessing how licensees comply with requirements of the appropriate legislation and enforcement. Summary of inspections conducted in 2002 is presented.

2002-01-01

134

Protection against radiations. EURATOM directive  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This directive gives the general principles of the protection of persons against ionizing radiations during medical exposures in following cases: exposure of patients in a diagnosis or therapy purpose, exposure in the field of professional medical surveillance, exposure in the case of medical screening programs, exposure of sane volunteer persons in the frame of medical research, exposure of persons in the case of medico-legal proceeding. (N.C.)

1997-01-01

135

Workstations studies and radiation protection  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This day on the workstations studies for the workers follow-up, was organised by the research and health section. Devoted to the company doctors, for the competent persons in radiation protection, for the engineers of safety, it presented examples of methodologies and applications in the medical, industrial domain and the research, so contributing to a better understanding and an application of regulatory measures. The analysis of the workstation has to allow a reduction of the exposures and the risks and lead to the optimization of the medical follow-up. The agenda of this day included the different subjects as follow: evolution of the regulation in matter of demarcation of the regulated zones where the measures of workers protection are strengthened; presentation of the I.R.S.N. guide of help to the realization of a workstation study; implementation of a workstation study: case of radiology; the workstation studies in the research area; Is it necessary to impose the operational dosimetry in the services of radiodiagnostic? The experience feedback of a competent person in radiation protection (P.C.R.) in a hospital environment; radiation protection: elaboration of a good practices guide in medical field; the activities file in nuclear power plant: an evaluation tool of risks for the prevention. Methodological presentation and examples; insulated workstation study; the experience feedback of a provider; Contribution of the ergonomics to the determiners characterization in the ionizing radiation exposure situations;The workstations studies for the internal contamination in the fuel cycle facilities and the consideration of the results in the medical follow-up; R.E.L.I.R. necessity of workstation studies; the consideration of the human factor. (N.C.)

2006-04-06

136

Radiation protection for human spaceflight  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Cosmic radiation exposure is one of the most significant risks associated with human space exploration. Except for the principles of justification and optimization (ALARA), the concepts of terrestrial radiation protection are of limited applicability to human spaceflight, as until now only few experimentally verified data on the biological effectiveness of heavy ions and the dose distribution within the human body exist. Instead of applying the annual dose limits for workers on ground also to astronauts, whose careers are of comparatively short duration, the overall lifetime risk is used as a measure. For long-term missions outside Earth's magnetic field, the acceptable level of risk has not yet been defined, since there is not enough information available to estimate the risk of effects to the central nervous system and of potential non-cancer radiation health hazards. (orig.)

2009-01-01

137

An introduction to radiation protection principles  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The purpose of the document is to outline the fundamentals of radiation protection, to describe methods that enable employees to work safely with radiation and to aquaint employees with CRNL's radiation and industrial safety organization.

1985-01-01

138

Radiation protection in hospitals of Equatorial Guinea  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] With a population of four hundred thousand (400.000) inhabitants and distributed in a territory of 28 thousand (28.000) km2, the use of ionizing radiations for medical practice in Equatorial Guinea is few and decreasing. It is used for diagnostic practices in the main hospitals of the country, where the work burden is not over 20 patients per day. The political, social and economical embryonic development of the country until recently had a negative influence on indicators and health organisations, so that even now the country does not have any radiological protection law, this shortness, in addition with the old architectural structure that x ray tools is lodging, as well as dosimetrical lack of employed staff, put this staff under risk of electromagnetic energy. This is to show the present survey of medical activities with ionizing radiation and to request technical support for implementing suitably the basic standards of radiation protection which will help us as basis for the elaboration outline law, on radiological protection in accordance with the new guidelines of the International Atomic Energy Agency. (author)

2001-01-01

139

Airborne cathodic-protection surveys  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Department of Defense submarine location technology has been applied to the specific need of monitoring of cathodic protection currents. A system has been developed and successfully tested which measures, from an airborne platform, the cathodic protection current in submerged transmission pipelines. Two independent systems are available from this technology. The first measures rectifier output, and the second measures the cathodic protection current to the electrical midpoint on both single and multiple pipelines.

Stamm, M.E.; Read, W.A.

1980-01-01

140

Radiation protection problems with dental radiological equipment  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] With the advent of the EC Patient Directive, the importance of surveying and optimising patient exposure for diagnostic imaging procedures is paramount. In the field of dentistry there has been a heightened interest in areas of equipment performance and patient exposure. This interest, coupled with a number of dental radiation safety incidents investigated by our department, and the issuing of a Code of Practice for Radiological Protection in Dentistry by the Department of Health, led to the establishment in our department, of an evaluation protocol for the performance and operation of dental X ray equipment. The protocol was used to perform a survey on over 100 dental X ray units in use in the Public Sector in Ireland. This presentation will report on the radiation incidents mentioned above. It will detail the protocol and furnish the results and conclusions of the survey. The survey has made it possible to establish clearly the necessary steps required to ensure compliance with requirements. In addition, the corrective steps taken by the dental authorities will be presented and the overall impact of the regulations and the programme consequent on them will be reviewed. (Author)

1993-10-01

 
 
 
 
141

SSDL for radiation protection of Thailand  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In Thailand, the Atomic Energy for Peace Act was enacted by the King in 1961, and Office of Atomic Energy for Peace was established to serve as the secretariat of the Atomic Energy for Peace Commission of Thailand. The import and export of radioactive materials, and the owners and users of radioactive materials must be licensed by the OAEP. The program for establishing the SSDL to calibrate radiation protection instruments started in 1981, and was completed in 1990. The calibration of survey meters and direct reading personnel dosimeters has been provided since 1986. The average number of the devices calibrated by the SSDL per month is shown. The categories of radiation utilization in Thailand are nucleonic gauging and control, nondestructive testing, oil and coal logging, radiation technology and research. The capability of the SSDL and the calibrated radiation measuring instruments for respective categories of utilization are reported. The number of the instruments used for radiography was 217, followed by 171 for nucleonic gauging and control. With the increasing use of radioactive materials, the work of radiation safety must be improved. Together with the license authority, the SSDL must expand its activity to assure the safe handling of radiation sources. (K.I.)

Wanitsuksombut, W. [Office of Atomic Energy for Peace, Bangkok (Thailand)

1995-06-01

142

IAEA programmes for radiation protection  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The present IAEA radiation protection programmes are described: the resources allocated to those contained within the Principal Programme on Technological Safety and on Physical Security amount to 105.429.000 US dollars for the biannual 2004-2005 period: that is: a specific radiological safety programme (radiological protection and safety of radiation sources) combined with a programme on radioactive materials transport safety, and another programme on the safe management of radioactive waste. The Programme on Radiological and Transport Safety contains sub-programmes on: improvements on radiological and transport safety infrastructures at national and global levels, information and communication networks on radiological safety, application of safety standards on IAEA's operations, occupational radiation protection, radiological protection of the patient, safety on the transport of radioactive materials and preparation and response to nuclear or radiological emergency situations. The Programme on Radioactive Waste also includes sub-programmes on: the improvement of radioactive waste infrastructures at national and global levels, networks of information and communication on radioactive waste management, safety policies and approaches for the final disposal of radioactive waste, technologies for the final disposal of radioactive waste, releases of radioactive materials to the environment under safe conditions, safe management of residual radioactive materials, technologies for the safe closure of installations and rehabilitation of sites and the safe management of sealed out-of-use sources. Finally, there are described the consultations with experts from IAEA Member States conducted during a great number of international Conferences, and the conversion of the received recommendations into Action plans, that approach the IAEA programmes to the changing needs of the world and to the scientific discoveries which are been produced. (Author)

2004-01-01

143

Measures of radiation protection in the operation of nuclear power plants in the German Democratic Republic  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] A survey is given on the provisions concerning (a) radiation protection at nuclear power plants in the GDR including the instructions applying within the plant, (b) the organization of radiation protection services, and (c) the measures of radiation protection surveillance inside and outside the plant during operation. (author)

1975-01-01

144

Fire protection survey Pinellas Plant Largo, Florida  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Fire protection personnel provide effective fire protection advice for all major aspects of fire protection, namely: (1) major construction projects, (2) test and maintenance of fire protection equipment, and (3) training of Plant Fire Brigade members. Interest in fire protection is excellent, as noted by completion of all applicable recommendations contained in the 1979 Fire Protection Survey. There are no fire areas where the loss potential would exceed $50,000,000 with protection out of service. There are two areas where a fire loss could exceed $1,000,000 with protection in service. Poor housekeeping in the Engineering VAX Cluster computer room in Building 100 could result in a large loss even with protection in service. Sprinkler protection for the off-site warehouse is presently not adequate for the fire loading. In addition, a fire involving one-of-a-kind product testers located in Buildings 100, 200, 400 and 800 could result in substantial delays to production due to the 1 to 1 1/2 year period needed to replace these testers. Internal protection is recommended for these units. There are eight other findings that would be made during a Highly Protected Risk survey.

Dobson, P.H.; Sharland, J.R.

1989-04-01

145

Radiation protection in radioiodine therapy  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Clinic of Nuclear Medicine and Endocrinology of the Motol City Hospital has had continuous tradition of I-131 treatment for almost 50 years. Nowadays the therapeutic part of the Clinic focuses on differentiated follicular and papillary thyroid cancers, rarely neuroendocrine tumors (neuroblastoma, pheochromocytoma, etc.). There is absolute necessity to comply with the rules of radiation protection which is especially important in the case when high activities are administered. This affects not only personnel but also other visitors (maintenance engineers, students, inspectors of the regulatory authorities). Radioiodine laboratory employees, who process and administer 131 1 are the most exposed group with the possibly highest radiation exposure. The investigation reference level for extemal exposure has been set 1 mSv , while the intervention level 20 mSv .During the last ten years, when the clinic has been located in the new building of Motol Hospital, the intervention level had not been reached, investigation level had been exceeded mostly by workers from the referred most exposed group by maximally 20 %. The extemal exposure of radioiodine laboratory workers is minimized by personal protective equipment and by using a special PC controlled pi petting device for preparing 1311 treatment activities. Every exposed ward worker undergoes according to official directives (Section 77 paragraph 6 of Regulation No. 307 /2002 Coll. implementing the Reg. No. 499/2005 Coll. and SUJB Requirements for thyroid radioiodine therapy) regular measuring of possible thyroid contamination. The investigation reference level of internal contamination is set to 1 kBq, the intervention level is 3 kBq. The investigation level was exceeded several times in the period from 1998. The intervention level was exceeded once (3,2 kBq) and concerned nurse was sent to the National Radiation Protection Institute (SURO). The committed effective dose was in this case determined to be E(50)=0.64 mSv. (authors)

2008-01-01

146

Radiation protection in newer imaging technologies  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Not even a week passes without a paper getting published in peer reviewed journals on radiation protection in newer imaging technologies that either did not exist 10 y ago or were not established for routine use. Computed tomography (CT) happens to be a common element in most of these technologies. Radiation protection is high on the agenda of manufacturers and researchers and that is becoming a driving force for users and international organisations. The media and thus the public have their own share in increasing the momentum. The slice war seems to be shifting to dose war. Manufacturers are now chasing the target of sub-mSv CT. The era of two digit mSv effective dose for a CT procedure is far from losing ground, although cardiac CT within 5 mSv seems possible. A few years ago the change in technology was faster than adoption of dose management but currently even the development of dose reduction techniques is faster than its adoption. There is dearth of large scale surveys of practice and lack of surveys with change in technology. (authors)

2010-01-01

147

Radiation protection in dental practice  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The radiation protection in the dental practice is discussed in the light of results of an investigation into the radiation burden in the Netherlands resulting from dental x-ray radiographs. Although it has appeared that the number of dental x-ray radiographs has increased strongly the past decennia ( up till now about 0.4 per inhabitant per annum), the average dose per annum has been reduced with respect to the one in 1920 with at least a factor 45. This dose reduction has been achieved in the dental practice voluntary by, among other things, optimization, filtration, enlarging of the distance between focus and skin, reduction of the beam surface and the use of sensitive x-ray films. (author). 1 fig

1989-01-01

148

Radiation protection in dental radiography  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] In considering the special provisions required in dental radiography, investigations were conducted in Iran. Radiation dose levels in dental radiography were found to be high. Patient exposure from intraoral radiographic examination was calculated, using 50kV X-ray. Thermoluminescent dosimeters were fastened to the nasion, eyes, lip, philtrum, thyroid, gonads and to the right and left of the supra-orbital, infra-orbital temporomandibular joints of live patients. The highest exposure value was for the lower lip. Recommendations concerning educational training and protection of staff and patients were included

1976-08-22

149

SI units in radiation protection  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In the field of radiation protection all hitherto used units for activity, activity concentrations, exposure, absorbed dose, and dose rates have to be replaced by SI units during the next years. For this purpose graphs and conversion tables are given as well as recommendations on unit combinations preferentially to be used. As to the dose equivalent, it is suggested to introduce a new special unit being 100 times greater than the rem, instead of maintaining the rem or using the gray for both absorbed dose and dose equivalent. Measures and time schedule relating to the gradual transition to SI units in measuring techniques, training, and publishing et cetera are explained. (author)

1976-01-01

150

New instruments for radiation protection  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Though a century old, the radiation protection is actual by its purpose: a dose as low as reasonable achievable is to be received either by involved professionals or population. This threshold is dependent on the technical progress. Some major developments like surface mounted device technology, consumer almost ideal operational amplifiers, microcontrollers and the news signal digital processing techniques, offer the opportunity to design improved instruments for radioprotection. To put in a light portable instrument both the whole measuring system and the 'intelligence' - a microcontroller and the associated software - are the main ideas applied by the authors. The result is presented: a family of eight members, at least, based on two parents. (authors)

2003-01-01

151

Radiation protection planning and management during revision  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

During the operation of nuclear power plants it is normally possible for the in-house personnel to take care of arising radiation protection problems. However, in the comparatively short revision phases, the duties of radiation protection become much more varied. Additional trained radiation protection crews are needed at short notice. This is also the time in which the largest contributions are made to the annual cumulated doses of the personnel. Recent guidelines and rules trying to reduce the radiation exposure of personnel concentrate on this very point. The article outlines the radiation protection activities performed by the service personnel in the course of a steam generator check. (orig.)

1984-01-01

152

78 FR 59982 - Revisions to Radiation Protection  

Science.gov (United States)

...Radiation Sources,'' Section 12.3 -12.4, ``Radiation Protection...Accession No. ML13151A413); Section 12.3-12.4, ``Radiation Protection...Accession No ML13151A453), Section 12.3--12.4, (ADAMS Accession No...

2013-09-30

153

XXX. Days of Radiation Protection. Presentations of the 30-th Days of Radiation Protection  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The publication was presented only on the Internet as proceedings of presentations presented on the conference dealing with health protection during work with ionizing radiation for different activities which involve the handling of ionizing radiation sources. The main conference topics are focused on current problems in radiation protection and radioecology. In this proceedings totally 97 presentations are published. The Conference consists of the following sections: Effects of ionizing radiation; Regulation of radiation protection; Dosimetry and Metrology of ionizing radiation; Radiation protection in nuclear Power plants; Medical exposure and radiation protection in diagnostic radiology, nuclear medicine and radiation oncology; Natural radioactivity issues in radiation protection; Education, societal aspects and public involvement in radiation protection, trends and perspectives

2009-01-01

154

Neutron dosimetry for radiation protection monitoring  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Neutron radiation is used for many purposes, such as power generation in nuclear reactors, cancer therapy in particle accelerators, industrial applications like radiography or activation analysis in connection with the use of radionuclide neutron sources. Neutron radiation is also widely employed in fundamental research. As handling neutron radiation is always associated with the risk of personnel exposure, special radiation protection measures must be taken to protect persons occupationally exposed to radiation, and methods of measuring neutron equivalent doses on the spot and on persons must be kept ready for use. The legal obligations to do so arise from the Radiation Protection Ordinance. (orig.).

1991-01-01

155

33. Days of Radiation Protection. Presentations  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The publication has been set up as presentations of the conference dealing with health protection during work with ionizing radiation for different activities which involve the handling of ionizing radiation sources. The main conference topics are focused on the current problems in radiation protection and radioecology. On the web-page totally 103 presentations or posters are published. The Conference consists of the following sections: (I) Effects of ionizing radiation (radiology, health effects, risk factors); (II) General aspects of radiation protection (recommendations and legislative in radiation protection); (III): Dosimetry and metrology of ionizing radiation (metrology, instrumentation, use of computational methods); (IV) Radiation protection in nuclear power industry (working environment in the nuclear industry, the impact on the environment, nuclear power shutdown management); (V) Emergency management (emergencies, accidents, waste); (VI) Radiation load and protection in diagnostics, nuclear medicine and radiation oncology (burden on patients, staff, size of population exposure from medical sources of ionizing radiation, security, and quality control, optimization); (VII) Natural sources of radiation in workplaces and the environment (radon and other radionuclides, the risk estimation, optimization); (VIII) Education (new trends in education of radiation experts, medical physicists and stake-holders).

2011-01-01

156

New general radiation protection training course  

CERN Multimedia

Some members of CERN personnel, including users, may have to work in supervised or controlled radiation areas, or may be involved in activities involving the use of radioactive sources. According to CERN Safety Rules all persons whose work may be associated with ionising radiation risk must be adequately trained. This training must ensure that workers are informed about the potential health risks which could result from radiation exposure, the basic principles of radiation protection and the relevant radiation protection regulations as well as safe working methods and techniques in radiation zones. Therefore the Organization organises mandatory general and work-specific radiation protection (RP) courses for its personnel. These courses are also open to contractors’ personnel, in addition to the RP training they must receive from their employers. Based on the results of a pilot project, an improved general radiation protection course has been prepared. This new ½ day cours...

2008-01-01

157

New general radiation protection training course  

CERN Multimedia

Some members of CERN personnel, users included, may have to work in supervised or controlled radiation areas, or may be concerned with activities involving the use of radioactive sources. According to CERN Safety rules all persons whose work may encounter ionising radiation risk must be adequately trained. This training must ensure that workers are informed about the potential health risks which could result from radiation exposure, about the basic principles of radiation protection and of the relevant radiation protection regulations as well as about safe working methods and techniques in radiation zones. Therefore the Organization organises mandatory general and work-specific radiation protection (RP) courses addressed to its personnel. These courses are also open to contractors’ personnel, in addition to the RP training they must receive from their employers. Based on the results of a pilot project, an improved general radiation protection course has been prepared. This...

2008-01-01

158

Current radiation protection activities in Vietnam  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The paper presents the current radiation protection activities in Vietnam, particularly personal radiation dosimetry. The dose calibration in term of new ICRU`s operational quality such as Hp(10) for personal dose is discussed. (author).

Dang Thanh Luong [Viet Nam National Atomic Energy Commission, Hanoi (Viet Nam)

1995-06-01

159

Nevada Test Site Radiation Protection Program  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Title 10 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) 835, 'Occupational Radiation Protection', establishes radiation protection standards, limits, and program requirements for protecting individuals from ionizing radiation resulting from the conduct of U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) activities. 10 CFR 835.101(a) mandates that DOE activities be conducted in compliance with a documented Radiation Protection Program (RPP) as approved by DOE. This document promulgates the RPP for the Nevada Test Site (NTS), related (onsite or offsite) DOE National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO) operations, and environmental restoration offsite projects.

2007-01-01

160

Nevada Test Site Radiation Protection Program  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Title 10 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) 835, 'Occupational Radiation Protection', establishes radiation protection standards, limits, and program requirements for protecting individuals from ionizing radiation resulting from the conduct of U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) activities. 10 CFR 835.101(a) mandates that DOE activities be conducted in compliance with a documented Radiation Protection Program (RPP) as approved by DOE. This document promulgates the RPP for the Nevada Test Site (NTS), related (onsite or offsite) DOE National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO) operations, and environmental restoration offsite projects.

Radiological Control Managers' Council, Nevada Test Site

2007-08-09

 
 
 
 
161

Status of radiation protection at different hospitals in Nepal  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Nepal has a long history of medical radiology since 1923 but unfortunately, we still do not have any radiation protection infrastructure to control the use of ionizing radiations in the various fields. The objective of this study was an assessment of the radiation protection in medical uses of ionizing radiation. Twenty-eight hospitals with diagnostic radiology facility were chosen for this study according to patient loads, equipment and working staffs. Radiation surveys were also done at five different radiotherapy centers. Questionnaire for radiation workers were used; radiation dose levels were measured and an inventory of availability of radiation equipment made. A corollary objective of the study was to create awareness in among workers on possible radiation health hazard and risk. It was also deemed important to know the level of understanding of the radiation workers in order to initiate steps towards the establishment of Nepalese laws, regulation and code of radiological practice in this field. Altogether, 203 radiation workers entertained the questionnaire, out of which 41 are from the Radiotherapy and 162 are from diagnostic radiology. The radiation workers who have participated in the questionnaire represent more than 50% of the radiation workers working in this field in Nepal. Almost all X-ray, CT and Mammogram installations were built according to protection criteria and hence found safe. Radiation dose level at the reference points for all the five radiotherapy centers are within safe limit. Around 65% of the radiation workers have never been monitored for radiation. There is no quality control program in any of the surveyed hospitals except radiotherapy facilities. (author)

2012-01-01

162

100 years of ionizing radiation protection  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The development of radiation protection from the end of 19. century and evolution of opinion about injurious effect of ionizing radiation were presented. Observations of undesirable effects of ionizing radiation exposition, progress of radiobiology and dosimetry directed efforts toward radiation protection. These activities covered, at the beginning, limited number of persons and were subsequently extended to whole population. The current means, goals and regulations of radiological control have been discussed

1999-01-01

163

Basic principles of radiation protection in Canada  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The major goal of radiation protection in Canada is to ensure that individuals are adequately protected against the harm that might arise from unwarranted exposure to ionizing radiation. This report deals with the basic principles and organizations involved in protection against ionizing radiation. Three basic principles of radiation protection are: 1) that no practice shall be adopted unless its introduction produces a positive net benefit for society, 2) that all exposures shall be kept as low as reasonably achievable, relevant economic and social factors being taken into account, and 3) that doses to individuals should not exceed specified annual limits. The limit for radiation workers is currently 50 mSv per year, and exposures of the general public should not exceed a small fraction of that of radiation workers. Other specific areas in radiation protection which have received considerable attention in Canada include limitations on collective dose (the sum of the individual doses for all exposed individuals), exemption rules for extremely small radiation doses or amounts of radioactive materials, occupational hazards in uranium mining, and special rules for protection of the foetus in pregnant female radiation workers. Implementation of radiation protection principles in Canada devolves upon the Atomic Energy Control Board, the Department of National Health and Welfare, provincial authorities, licensees and radiation workers. A brief description is given of the roles of each of these groups

1990-01-01

164

Radiation Protection Group annual report (1997)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Annual Report of the Radiation Protection Group is intended to inform the Host State Authorities, as well as the CERN Management and staff, about the radiological situation at CERN during the year 1997. The structure of the present report follows that of previous years and has five sections. It presents the results of environmental radiation monitoring, gives information about the radiation control on the sites of the Organization, describes the radiation protection activities around the CERN accelerators, reports on personnel dosimetry, calibration and instrumentation, and briefly comments on the non-routine activities of the Radiation Protection Group

1998-01-01

165

Radiation Protection Group annual report (1996)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Annual Report of the Radiation Protection Group is intended to inform the Host State Authorities, as well as the CERN Management and staff, about the radiological situation at CERN during the year 1996. The structure of the present report follows that of previous years and has five sections. It presents the results of environmental radiation monitoring, gives information about the radiation control on the sites of the Organization, describes the radiation protection activities around the CERN accelerators, reports on personnel dosimetry, calibration and instrumentation, and briefly comments on the non-routine activities of the Radiation Protection Group

1997-01-01

166

Radiation Protection Group annual report (1998)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Annual Report of the Radiation Protection Group is intended to inform the Host State Authorities, as well as the CERN Management and staff, about the radiological situation at CERN during the year 1998. The structure of the present report follows that of previous years and has five sections. It presents the results of environmental radiation monitoring, gives information about the radiation control on the sites of the Organization, describes the radiation protection activities around the CERN accelerators, reports on personnel dosimetry, calibration and instrumentation, and briefly comments on the non-routine activities of the Radiation Protection Group

1999-01-01

167

Radiation Protection Group annual report (1995)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The Annual Report of the Radiation Protection Group is intended to inform the Host State Authorities, as well as the CERN Management and staff, about the radiological situation at CERN during the year 1995. The structure of the present report follows that of previous years and has five sections. It presents the results of environmental radiation monitoring, gives information about the radiation control on the sites of the Organization, describes the radiation protection activities around the CERN accelerators, reports on personnel dosimetry, calibration and instrumentation, and briefly comments on the non-routine activities of the Radiation Protection Group

1996-01-01

168

Principles of radiation protection in medical thinking  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The authors consider the issue of principles of radiation protection in medicine as being of great interest for the following reasons: health care practitioners exposed to ionizing radiation represent 75% of all world-wide radiation exposed workers; they are also the ones who, by their radiological practice lead to medical exposure of the population (which represents the largest part among artificial exposure to ionizing radiation of the public - about 11%); the superior medical staff are the advisors and prescribers for radiological investigations and treatments. The authors' experience shows that training in radiation protection system is weak, leading sometimes to abusive use of ionizing radiation in both diagnostic and treatment. Medical staff's perception on the importance and role of radiation protection principles is sometimes distorted by unskilled backgrounds in the field. There are recommendations and regulations on radiation protection principles in the relevant legislation, but there are situations in which they are formally considered, or they are regarded as an obligation and not as a form of personal and patient protection. At a national level, the expansion of informing the public about the principles of radiation protection and its role is required by introducing a corresponding training since elementary school. A beneficial aspect that has developed recently is the introduction of radiation protection courses within university and postgraduate training. They are important for a correct and updated training on the principles of radiation protection, a field in which there are permanent updates and changes, and new concepts are set, such as the 'culture of radiation protection'. Medical thinking and medical research have had a contribution on developing and upgrading the radiation protection principles. (authors)

2011-10-18

169

Radiation protection of air crew at exposition with cosmic radiation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this presentation authors deals with radiation protection of air crew at exposition by cosmic radiation. Some results of measurements of dose equivalents on some air board from Slovakia are presented.

2009-01-01

170

Biological research for radiation protection  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The work scope of Biological research for the radiation protection had contained the search of biological microanalytic methods for assessing the health effect by {gamma}-radiation and toxic agents, the standardization of human T-lymphocyte cell culture and polymerase chain reaction, T-cell clonal assay, and the quantification of mutation frequency in the hypoxanthine (guanine) phosphoribosyl transferase (HPRT) gene locus by single exposure or combined exposure. Especially, the polymerase chain reaction methods using reverse transcriptase has been developed to analyze the mutant gene induced by {gamma}-radiation and chemical (pentachlorophenol) agent exposure, and to investigate the point mutations in the HPRT gene locus of T-lymphocytes. The HPRT T-cell clonal assay revealed that it could not differentiate {gamma}-irradiation from pentachlorophenol, because the frequency of somatic mutations induced by both damaging agents increased in a dose-dependent manner. The analysis of DNA sequence alterations of HPRT mutant clones clearly showed that both damaging agents induced different mutational spectra in the HPRT locus of T-cells. The large deletions, which account for 75 percent of the analyzed mutants, are characteristic mutations induced by {gamma}-irradiation. By contrast, point mutations such as base substitutions and insertion, come up to 97 percent in the case of pentachlorophenol-treated cells. The point mutation frequencies at 190 base pair and 444 base pair positions are 3-6 folds as high as in those at other mutation positions. It may be that these mutation sites are hot spots induced by pentachlorophenol. These results suggest that the HPRT mutation spectrum can be used as a potential bio marker for assessing a specific environmental risk. (author)

Kim, In Gyu; Kim, Kug Chan; Shim, Hae Won; Oh, Tae Jeong; Park, Seon Young; Lee, Kang Suk

2000-04-01

171

Project Radiation protection, Annual report 1994  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] According to the action plan for the period 1991-1995, the main objective of this project during 1994 was to provide operational basis, methods and procedures for solving the radiation protection problems that might appear under routine working conditions and handling of radiation sources. The aim was also to provide special methods for action in case of accidents that could affect the employed staff and the population. Overall activity was directed to maintaining and providing personnel, instrumentation, and methods for the following special radiation protection measures: operational control of the radiation field and contamination; calibration of the radiation and dosimetry instruments-secondary dosimetry metrology laboratory; instrumentation and measuring systems for radiation protection; control of environmental transfer of radioactive material; medical radiation protection

1994-01-01

172

Radiation protection laws in the Nordic countries  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Sweden has since 1988 a totally revised radiation protection law and Finland has recently enacted a new law. The legal situation of the Nordic countries in the radiation protection field is reviewed with the main emphasis on the Swedish law. (author)

1991-01-01

173

Radiation Protection in PET-CT  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The presentation is based on the following areas: radiological monitoring installations in the production of PET radiopharmaceuticals, personal dose, dosage advertising, nuclear medicine, PET, radiation protection of patients, requirements for medical practice, regulatory aspects, dose calculation, shields, quantities, center Cudim, cyclotron and synthesis of radiopharmaceuticals, biological effects of radiation protection practices.

2011-01-01

174

The radiation protection infrastructure in Madagascar  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Madagascar is participating in the Model Project RAF/9/024 on 'Upgrading Radiation Protection Infrastructure'. Its radiation protection legislation is based on the BSS. The efforts being made to upgrade the country's regulatory infrastructure and the problems encountered are described below, as is the national information and training programme for the authorities, the public, workers and students. (author)

2001-01-01

175

Radiation protection for physicians. 2. rev. ed.  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The book is focussed on the advanced training of physicians with respect to radiation protection in the context of modern radiological techniques and nuclear medicine. The book is structured in the following chapters: physics of radiation, X-ray diagnostics and quality of an X-ray image, X--ray devices and methods, radiation dosimetry, quality control, natural and man-made radiation exposures, organizational and legal measures, biological radiation effects, practical experiences, comments concerning regulations

2007-01-01

176

An introduction to radiation protection principles  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The fundamentals of radiation hazards and their control are outlined. This report is for use by all radiation workers at CRNL and copies are available for all who want one. The purposes of the document are to outline the fundamentals of radiation protection, to describe methods that enable employees to work safely with radiation and to acquaint employees with the CRNL radiation and industrial safety organization

1983-01-01

177

Radiation protection for nurses. Regulations and guidelines  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Rules and regulations of federal agencies and state radiation protection programs provide the bases for hospital policy regarding radiation safety for nurses. Nursing administrators should work with the radiation safety officer at their institutions to ensure that radiation exposures to staff nurses will be as low as reasonably achievable and that special consideration will be given to pregnant nurses. Nurses' fears about their exposure to radiation can be greatly reduced through education

1992-01-01

178

Regional radiation protection initiatives by Australia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Australia both through the auspices of the IAEA and from Government Aid Grants has contributed to the improvement of radiation protection throughout the Asia/Pacific region. The assistance has been in the form of training and improvement to radiation protection infrastructures. The presentation describes the objectives, scope and diversity of the radiation protection infrastructure program and the benefits to the large number of persons included in the program. An outline of the current IAEA program is also discussed together with an explanation of how the program will assist national regulators in the education of radiation workers, in hazardous operations such as industrial radiography.

1993-01-01

179

INES rating of radiation protection related events  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In the presentation, based on the draft Manual, a short review of the use of the INES rating of events concerning radiation protection is given, based on a new INES User's Manual edition. The presentation comprises a brief history of the scale development, general description of the scale and the main principles of the INES rating. Several examples of the use of the scale for radiation protection related events are mentioned. In the presentation, the term 'radiation protection related events' is used for radiation source and transport related events outside the nuclear installations. (authors)

2008-01-01

180

INES rating of radiation protection related events  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this presentation, based on the draft Manual, a short review of the use of the INES rating of events concerning radiation protection is given, based on a new INES User's Manual edition. The presentation comprises a brief history of the scale development, general description of the scale and the main principles of the INES rating. Several examples of the use of the scale for radiation protection related events are mentioned. In the presentation, the term 'radiation protection related events' is used for radiation source and transport related events outside the nuclear installations. (authors)

2009-01-01

 
 
 
 
181

Radiation protection guidelines for space missions  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The original recommendations for radiation protection guidelines were made by the National Academy of Sciences in 1970. Since that time the US crews have become more diverse in their makeup and much has been learned about both radiation-induced cancer and other late effects. While far from adequate there is now some understanding of the risks that high-Z and -energy (HZE) particles pose. For these reasons it was time to reconsider the radiation protection guidelines for space workers. This task was undertaken recently by National Council on Radiation Protection (NCRP). 42 refs., 2 figs., 9 tabs.

Fry, R.J.M.

1987-01-01

182

Radiation protection training course for health professionals  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

As the EURATOM regulations of 1996 and 1997 were implemented in German law, new amended versions of the Radiation Protection Ordinance (1 August 2001) and the X-Ray Ordinance (1 July 2002) came into force in Germany. Both ordinances require that persons authorized to use inionzing radiation must have expert knowledge in radiation protection. The extent of such knowledge is clearly specified, including practical experience and training courses, and will be tested and certified by the responsible authorities. This book intends to help provide the required knowledge in radiation protection and can also serve as a textbook during training courses. (orig.)

2005-01-01

183

Preparing the radiation protection worker to meet multiple needs  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

At the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) the radiation protection worker aids in protecting personnel and their surrounding environment from the hazards of radiation. These individuals use their technical knowledge, skills, and abilities to survey and monitor various project-related activities. They must also provide guidance in project design, development, and implementation. These combined efforts assure that protective measures are taken in accordance with applicable standards. The ORNL performance-based training program enhances the skills of the worker. The program incorporates job specific information on the diverse facilities and activities monitored with basic fundamentals of radiation protection. Successful completion of this program includes passing both a qualification exam and an on-the-job skills review. This paper details the structure of such a program and explains the strategies taken to reach the program's goals. 4 refs., 2 tabs.

Abercrombie, J.S.; Thorpe, B.C.

1987-01-01

184

Radiation protection also applies to natural background radiation and radon  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Exposure to natural background radiation must be monitored and, if necessary, reduced. The EU Member States must identify operations that expose workers or the population to considerable amounts of natural radiation. These operations include exposure to radon at workplaces and airline personnel's exposure to cosmic radiation. The new EU Directive on standard norms in radiation protection is the first of its kind to contain provisions on natural radiation, binding on all Member States. The necessary national statutes must come into force by May 2000. The Directive has no important effects on the radiation protection practices followed in Finland. The Finnish radiation legislation was revised early in 1992, and the dose limits recommended by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP 60) were adopted at the same time. The legislation was also supplemented with the necessary provisions concerning measures required by elevated exposure to natural background radiation. (orig.).

1997-01-01

185

The Radiation Protection Register in Germany  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A Radiation Protection Register is currently being established in Germany. It will compile all personal data from physical radiation protection control of occupationally exposed individuals, including control data from personal dose and incorporation measurements as well as data on the registration of radiation passes for persons working at alternating facility sites. The collected data will be used for long-term and transregional control of legally permissible exposure limits, as a source for radiological information on individuals, and for scientific evaluation. (orig.)

Nitschke, J. (Bundesamt fuer Strahlenschutz, Neuherberg (Germany). Inst. fuer Strahlenhygiene)

1993-08-01

186

Radiation protection procedures in Spain hospitals  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text: The Radiation Protection Handbook of any Spanish Hospital must contain a set of working procedures, some of them demanded by the Nuclear Security Council (those which are related to the radiation protection of exposed workers and to the installation radiation safety), while some others, which concern to the patient radiation protection, are dependent of the health authorities. The content of any procedure is written in an specific document that describes in a clear, accurate and sequential way the steps we must to follow to begin, develop and to conclude an activity, including the technical element to employ, the required working conditions, the scopes and fixed limitations, the number and characteristic of the personal, and so on, so that for each procedure the principles of justification, limitation and dose optimization can be fulfilled. In this work it is summarized our experience in the Radiation Protection Unit of the Hospital 'Infanta Cristina', in Badajoz (Spain), related with the implementation of a set of working radiation protection procedures that go from the 'Classification of radiological zones', to the 'radiation protection of the patients treated with I-131 or Sm-153', by telling some of them. As an example it is attached a wide summary of the radiation protection procedure for patient in treatment with Sm-153. (orig.)

2003-01-01

187

Radiation protection training in health care  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Guide presents the content and minimum amount of radiation protection training for health care staff with respect to the use of ionizing radiation. This Guide does not apply to training with respect to non-ionizing radiation and its use

2004-01-01

188

Radiation protection training in health care  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Guide presents the content and minimum amount of radiation protection training for health care staff with respect to the use of ionizing radiation. This Guide does not apply to training with respect to non-ionizing radiation and its use

2003-02-15

189

Rules and regulations of radiation protection  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The finality of this legislative text is to guarantee the radiation protection of the exposed personnel, of the people in general and the environment against the ionizing radiations risks. Its scope includes all the natural and juridical persons that work with ionizing radiation sources into the peruvian territory

1989-01-01

190

Role of the International Radiation Protection Association.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Global concerns over energy supply and climate change have given rise to an increase in uranium prospecting, mining and extraction. The changing world economy is spreading the use of advanced nuclear and radiation-related technologies to many parts of the world, giving rise to global initiatives on nuclear energy and operation of nuclear fuel cycle facilities. The emerging global nuclear safety regime promotes and encourages high standards of radiation safety worldwide. These developments call for increasing capacity and capabilities in radiation protection expertise and continue to present both challenges and opportunities to the International Radiation Protection Association (IRPA), an association of 46 societies representing 58 countries with an individual membership of approximately 17,000. IRPA's objectives include: (1) assisting the development of competent radiation protection programs; (2) fostering the exchange of scientific and technical information through its international and regional congresses; (3) promoting the scientific and professional recognition of the radiation protection expert; and (4) supporting continuing education programs at each IRPA congress. IRPA has adopted a Code of Ethics and Guiding Principles for the Conduct of Stakeholder Engagement. Recently work began to develop guidance for maintaining and improving current levels of radiation protection and transferring this culture to future radiation protection professionals. These IRPA projects are developed through the Associate Society Forum discussions that are held at each IRPA international and regional congress. Finally, IRPA maintains a close working relationship with various international organizations and is also represented on the Inter-Agency Committee on Radiation Safety.

Kase KR; Metcalf P

2011-01-01

191

SI units in radiation protection  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

International System of Units abbreviated as SI units has been adopted by most of the countries of the world. Following this development, the implementation of SI units has become mandatory with a transition period of about ten years. Some of the journals have already adopted the SI units and any material sent for publication to them must use only these. International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurement (ICRU) published letters in several journals including Physics in Medicine and Biology, Health Physics, British Journal of Radiology, etc. outlining the latest recommendations on SI units to elicit the reactions of scientists in the general field of radiological sciences. Reactions to the letters were numerous as can be seen in the correspondence columns of these journals for the last few years and ranged from great misgivings and apprehension to support and appreciation. SI units have also been the subject of editorial comments in several journals. On the basis of a survey of this literature, it may be said that there was general agreement on the long term advantage of SI units inspite of some practical difficulties in their use particularly in the initial stages. This report presents a review of SI units in radiological sciences with a view to familiarize the users with the new units in terms of the old. A time table for the gradual changeover to the SI units is also outlined. (auth.)

1978-01-01

192

Environmental radiation protection - a brief history  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The effects of ionising radiation on man has been studied intensely for decades, and the system of radiation protection for man has been continually refined in the light of those studies. That system assumes that if man is protected, non-human biota at the species level will also be adequately protected. However, an increasing recognition of the need to protect the environment, and international agreements signed in 1992, have resulted in that paradigm being questioned, with the onus shifting slowly towards demonstrating that the environment is protected. Further, radiation protection agencies and environmental protection agencies around the world have now started considering the issue of developing a system of radiation protection for the environment. The International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) and the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) are also active in this area. The purpose of this paper is to briefly outline some of the issues confronting environmental and radiation protection specialists, and to mention some of the initiatives being taken by the international community to resolve those issues

2003-01-01

193

Guideline for radiation protection in medicine  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Four years after the Radiation Protection Ordinance, the BMI has published the 'Guideline for radiation protection in medicine'. The guideline has been compiled by more than 30 official authorities, committees, and experts' associations, including the Federal Health Office and the Central Association of the Electrical Industry. The sparse legal regulations are explained, and much valuable information is given so that everyone responsible for radiation protection ought to refer to it although it is addressed primarily to the responsible Laender authorities. There is much information beyond the fields of radiology and nuclear medicine. In addition, the guideline informs on what knowledge is required to become a radiation protection expert and obtain a license to handle radioactive materials. This is of great importance to medical students and physicians in training as they are enabled to make early provisions for using radioactive materials and ionizing radiation in their future medical practice.

Maushart, R.

1980-08-01

194

Radiation protection instruction. Textbook with illustrations  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The material presented is intended as an aid for the radiation protection officer in fulfilling his task required by section 39 of the Radiation Protection Ordinance, to instruct the medical personnel of nuclear medicine departments at least twice a year on the hazards and safety measures to be observed. The Radiation Protection Officer has to select the appropriate subjects from the 23 chapters of this instruction unit. Records are to be kept of the subjects and times of instruction, and are to be signed by the person instructed. Persons occupationally exposed to ionizing radiation have to be informed that it is not only the Radiation Protection Officer who is responsible for damage or injury, but also the medical personnel can be made liable for damage due to negligence (as for instance delays in giving notice of a contamination). (orig./HP) With 40 slides

1985-01-01

195

Radiation protection in Spanish nuclear installations  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Radiation Protection was born as a discipline at the same time as the use of ionizing radiation, once the potential harmful effects on living beings of this new phenomenon was recognized. The evolution of the use of the nuclear energy at an industrial scale brought about the evolution of this discipline , initially in association with responsibilities relating to hygiene and safety at work and subsequently as an independent responsibility within organizations involved in nuclear electricity production. From the very beginning, in the year 1968, the Spanish nuclear plant organizations included specific resources for the radiation protection of both the plant workers and the general public living around the installations. Since that time, however, radiation protection organizations and technology have evolved considerably. The purpose of this article is to present a general overview of the current status of the radiation protection activities carried out at Spanish nuclear power plants. (Author).

1997-01-01

196

Training aspects contributing to radiation protection  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Radiation Protection assumes special significance with increasing use of radioactive materials and processes. Scientific and industrial organisations dealing with radioactive materials have prime responsibility of ensuring effective control of all activities which may lead to radiation exposure. Training of all the persons involved in the work associated with radioactivity is absolutely necessary to develop radiation protection skill, radiation measurement proficiency and special precautions to be taken in abnormal situations. NPCIL having responsibility for design, construction, operation and de-commissioning of nuclear power plants, employs about 10,000 workers on several project/station sites all over the country. NPCIL has developed a good training system to accurately control the exposure of workers to radiation. This paper covers the system and other relevant details of radiation protection training organised by NPCIL. (author)

2001-01-01

197

Improving patient radiation protection in medical practices  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A number of severe radiation protection accidents have occurred in France in recent months in radiotherapy departments, resulting in serious pathologies among the exposed patients and the death of one person. These accidents, allied to the fact that use of ionizing radiation for medical purposes is the leading source of human exposure, justify the priority the A.S.N. gives to radiation protection of patients and its supervision. This file gathers four parts in relation with radiation protection in the medical field. he first one concerns the radiation accidents and the lessons learned from them. The second part is devoted to the point of view of medical actors. The third part is in relation with the challenges of new techniques. The last part concerns the exposures and the radiation doses. (N.C.)

2006-01-01

198

Novel measured quantities in radiation protection  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The novel dose quantities as defined by ICRU: ambient dose equivalent, directional dose equivalent, individual dose equivalent penetrating and individual dose equivalent superficial, are introduced and commented in relation to: primarly limited dose quantities, secondarily limited dose quantities, primary field quantities, secondary field quantities and practically measured quantities. The same paper has been published under the title 'The novel ICRU equivalent dose quantities for radiation protection' in: Future developments and tasks of radiation protection, Annual Convention 1988 of the Austrian Association for Radiation Protection. (qui)

1989-04-05

199

Radiation protection research projects. Status report 2007  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In Behalf of the German Federal Environment Ministry (BMU) the BfS (Bundesamt fuer Strahlenschutz) assigns research contracts concerning radiation protection topics. The results of these research projects are supposed to provide decision support for the development of radiation protection regulations and other specific radiation protection tasks of the BMU. The BfS is basically charged for the planning, the technical and administrative prearrangements, the assignment, the expert monitoring and the technical evaluation of the results. The report is the compiled information on the results or intermediate results (status reports) of these research projects for the year 2007

2009-01-01

200

Radiation protection in occupational health  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The document is a training manual for physicians entering the field of occupational medicine for radiation workers. Part 1 contains the general principles for the practice of occupational health, namely health surveillance and the role of the occupational physician in the workplace, and Part 2 provides the essential facts necessary to understand the basic principles of radiation physics, radiobiology, dosimetry and radiation effects which form the basis for occupational radiation health

1987-01-01

 
 
 
 
201

Radiation protection in the hospital environment  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The hospital environment contains numerous sources of ionizing radiation that may contribute to public and occupational radiation exposure. Radiation exposure from x rays is minimized through engineering design, administrative controls, and quality control. Exposure from patients that contain therapeutic quantities is minimized by isolation in appropriately controlled private rooms. Administrative controls are relied on for controlling radiation exposure from diagnostic nuclear medicine patients. Hospital radiation installations must be planned and periodically reviewed to take advantage of the latest developments in radiation protection and to keep public and occupational exposure as low as reasonably achievable

1988-11-03

202

Radiation protection program for assistance of victims of radiation accidents  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The principles aspects of a radiological protection program for hospitals in case of medical assistance to external and internal contaminated persons are showed. It is based on the experience obtained at Centro Medico Naval Marcilio Dias during the assistance to the victims of Goiania accident in 1987. This paper describes the basic infrastructure of a nursery and the radiation protection procedures for the access control of people and materials, area and personal monitoring, decontamination and the support activities such as calibration of radiation monitors and waste management. Is is also estimated the necessary radiation protection materials and the daily quantity of waste generated. (author).

1991-01-01

203

Nuclear instrumentation for radiation protection [Paper No.:N1  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Instrumentation for radiation protection surveillance should be primarily geared to generate and process a complete set of data on the radiological status in and around the nuclear installations for controlling the internal and external exposure of workers and to ensure that the dose to members of the public are kept below the mandatory limits. The paper reviews the status of development of radiation protection instruments in the national context and projects the requirements. The various category of instruments discussed in the paper cover survey instruments, installed monitors, personal monitoring devices, neutron monitors, air monitoring instruments, environmental dose logging systems and detectors. The development efforts need to be translated into regular production with proper quality assurance for meeting the growing demands of the radiation protection profession in the country. (author). 30 refs.

1993-01-01

204

Strengthening the radiation protection culture: a priority of EDF radiation protection policy  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Full text of publication follows: In order to improve the management of radiation protection at EDF nuclear power plants, the Human Factors Group of the Research and Development Division of EDF has performed some studies on the appropriation process of the radiation protection requirements. These studies have notably shown that an efficient application of the radiation protection requirements lies on a comprehension by all workers of the meaning of these requirements. Furthermore, they should not be applied under the constraint or because of the fear of a sanction, but the workers need to perceive and understand the benefits in terms of protection associated with the radiation protection requirements. The strengthening of the radiation protection culture is therefore a key element of the radiation protection policy developed by EDF. This culture lies on an awareness of the health risks potentially associated with low levels of ionising radiations, as well as on the knowledge of tools, techniques and good practices developed to control the level of exposures and improve the radiation protection. Various type of actions have been undertaken to reinforce among the relevant players (exposed and non-exposed workers, contractors, all levels of management,... ) an awareness of radiation protection in order to integrate it in their day to day work: elaboration of a 'radiation protection system of reference' explaining how the radiation protection regulatory requirements are applied at EDF, publication of a 'radiation protection handbook' available for all workers (including contractors), training sessions, creation of networks of specialists from the various nuclear power plants on specific radiation protection issues, organisation of feed-back experience forum, etc. Beyond these specific actions, i t is also important to ensure a support and an assistance on the field by dedicated specialists. In this perspective, the health physicists have to play a key role in order to foster the appropriation of the radiation protection culture. For this reason, the structure and the skills of the health physics departments was reinforced and their presence on the field increased. The improvement of radiation protection performances at EDF nuclear power plants is strongly relying on a commitment of all the players involved. Their motivation and vigilance have to be sustained so that their involvement is not merely occasional, but fits into a continuous process. The sharing of a common radiation protection culture is essential as it develops individual and collective behaviours oriented towards a common objective: improving radiation protection and maintaining the levels of exposure as low as reasonably achievable. (author)

2006-01-01

205

Radiation protection regulatory authority in Lithuania  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The purpose of this presentation is to present the legislation system and radiation protection regulatory authority in Lithuania, its responsibilities and tasks, development, principles and priorities, experiences and etc.

Mastauskas, A.; Tumosiene, K. [Radiation Protection Centre, Vilnius (Lithuania)

2005-09-15

206

European Legalisation on Protection Against Cosmic Radiation  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Specific provisions on protection of aircrew against cosmic radiation have been laid down for the first time at EU level as part of the Basic Safety Standards for the Health Protection of the General Public and Workers against the Dangers of Ionizing Radiation (Council Directive 96/29/Euratom of 13 May 1996). These provisions, focusing mainly on health and radiological surveillance, are minimal requirements; therefore the Directive leaves significant discretion to the Member States as regards actions to be taken; Member States have to transpose these provisions into national law before 13 May 2000. Further harmonisation of Community regulations on civil aviation safety will be needed in the field of protection against cosmic radiation. This is to obtain a high level of radiation protection for the aircrew and to maintain fair competition under the common transport policy. Additionally, particular requirement are foreseen for detection and monitoring devices as well as for working instructions (Operations Manual). (author)

Courades, M

1999-07-01

207

Uncertainties of measurements in radiation protection  

CERN Multimedia

On September 1st, 2001, the Austrian standard OENORM S 5255-1 with the title 'Uncertainties of measurements and limiting values in radiation protection - Part 1: Basics' was published. A part 2 of the standard with the subtitle 'Assessment of measurements with regard to limiting values' was published on April 1st, 2002. Part 1 of the standard is a consequent application of the 'Guide to the expression of uncertainty in measurement' (GUM) for measurements in radiation protection. It contains a summary of the most important definitions and mathematical methods, which are relevant for measurements in radiation protection. An important prerequisite is the standardisation of the coverage factor k=1 for measurements in radiation protection. Finally, the use of the standard is demonstrated by a detailed example there (dose rate meter). First, the uncertainty of a dose rate meter is stated, using only information on tolerances available e.g. from instrument specifications. Additionally, the strategies to reduce the u...

Steurer, A; Gruen, K

2003-01-01

208

Radiation protection programme progress report 1988  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The progress report of the radiation protection programme outlines the research work carried out in 1988 under contracts between the Commission of the European Communities and research groups in the Member States. Results of more than 350 projects are reported. They are grouped into six sectors: Radiation dosimetry and its interpretation; Behaviour and control of radionuclides in the environment; Nonstochastic effects of ionizing radiation; Radiation carcinogenesis; Genetic effects of ionizing radiation; Evaluation of radiation risks and optimization of protection. Within the framework programme, the aim of this scientific research is to improve the conditions of life with respect to work and protection of man and his environment and to assure a safe production of energy, i.e.: (i) to improve methods necessary to protect workers and the population by updating the scientific basis for appropriate standards; (ii) to prevent and counteract harmful effects of radiation; (iii) to assess radiation risks and provide methods to cope with the consequences of radiation accidents

1988-01-01

209

Amendment of the guideline for physical radiation protection monitoring of internal exposure  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The paper deals with the current status of the revised version of the Guideline for Radiation Protection Surveillance. The consequences of the amended Radiation Protection Ordinance of July 20, 2001, especially the reduced dose limits and the protection of the unborn child in case of occupational radiation exposure are discussed in detail. Moreover, a general survey of the intended regulations is given and the new content of the guideline is explained. (orig.)

2002-01-01

210

Radiation protection for industrial radiography in the aerospace industry  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Boeing Company employs 80 industrial radiographers, operates 90 radiation sources, and takes 10,000 exposures per month. This paper describes the major components of Boeing's radiation protection program: hazard analysis, facilities and equipment design, program administration, and evaluation. In the hazard analysis, each source of radiation is analyzed to determine its hazard and relationship to both man and the environment around it. Once the degree of the hazard is known, facilities and equipment are designed to contain the hazard. This can be anything from a four foot concrete shielded room for an industrial radiographic accelerator, to a piece of rope that isolates an Iridium-192 source during a field radiographic inspection on an aircraft. The administrative functions provide the necessary records, command media, and a radiation source certification program. This certification authorizes the source of radiation to be used under specific conditions agreed upon by both the Radiation Protection Organization and Industrial Radiography Management. The radiation protection program is evaluated through medical exams, personnel monitoring, and area radiation surveys. (H.K.)

1980-03-14

211

Knowledge plus Attitude in Radiation Protection  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Since the introduction of the Basic Safety Standards recommendations, the scope of the radiation protection was broadening. On behalf of the incorporation of radiation protection of the patient in medical exposures, the different groups of professionals involved: physicians, medical physicists, radiation protection officers, regulators, etc., have to work together. The objective of radiation protection, that is, to reduces doses from practices, to prevent potential exposures, to detect its occurrence as well as to evaluate and spread such abnormal situations, will be obtained only if it were possible to joint two basic conditions: knowledge and attitude. It should be well known the differences between the backgrounds needed to be for example, a medical physicist or an R.P.O., However, their attitude to solve an eventual problem involving radiation protection should be the same; as well as the behavior of the specialized physician and regulators, in order to add towards common goals. In this work, we show as an example the curricula contents about radiation protection of the cancer of medical physics in the Universidad Nacional de San Martin (UNSAM), and the corresponding module on medical exposures from the Post-Graduate course on Radiation Protection and Nuclear Safety, held since the 80s in Buenos Aires by the National Commission of Atomic Energy, ARN, IAEA, and the Universidad de Buenos Aires. On the other hand, we describe different attitudes which leads or could start major radiological accidents, regardless the level of knowledge in radiation protection. We conclude that the larger numbers of accidents are due to problems in the attitude than in the level of knowledge of the person involved. Consequently; we suggest emphasizing the discussion on how to generate positive attitudes in every professional involucrated, independently of its cognitive profile or level. (Author) 2 refs

2003-01-01

212

Opportunities for fuzzy logic in radiation protection  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper points at applications of fuzzy logic currently under development at the radiation protection research unit at the nuclear research center SCK/CEN. The illustrated applications are snapshots of the wide research area of radiation protection and radiological optimization. As such, it is not the intention of this paper to give a complete overview of fuzzy logic applications in these fields, but rather to try to reveal future opportunities for further developing fuzzy logic in nuclear science.

Van de Walle, B.; Van Camp, M.

1994-12-31

213

ALARA in the radiation protection training  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This part treats especially the question of the training in radiation protection. The electro nuclear sector has given an ALARA principle culture and succeeded to sensitize each level of hierarchy, but for small industry, the research and the medical world the same method appears more difficult to use. It seems better to reinforce the importance of the competent person and to include a training in radiation protection on the initial formation in numerous professional categories. (N.C.)

1998-01-01

214

Operational radiation protection and monitoring programme  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

All the tasks of the Radiation Protection Department at the Nuclear Power Plant are mentioned and described. These tasks determine the necessary manpower and qualification of the personnel. Certain organizational structures are required to guarantee the effective work of this department. The Radiation Protection Department of the Biblis Nuclear Power Station and its tasks, manpower, organization etc. serves to illustrate the material covered by this lecture. (orig./RW)

1980-10-15

215

Proceedings of the Tenth Radiation Physics and Protection Conference  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The publication has been set up as proceedings of the Radiation Physics and Protection Conference.. The conference consists Natural Radiation Sources; Radiation Detection and Measurements; Applied Radiation Physics; Radiation Medical Physics and Biophysics; Radiation Dosimetry; Operational Radiation Protection; Radiation Shielding; Transport of Radioactive Materials; Nuclear and Radiation Physics; Medical Physics and Public Protection Against Radiological Attack. This conference consists of 402 p., figs., tabs., refs.

2011-01-01

216

Setting new protection standards for radiation  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The new recommendations of the International Commission on Radiological Protection for dose limits will be published this spring. The recommendations represent a comprehensive review of the state of knowledge of the effects of ionizing radiation, and incorporate this knowledge into a conceptual framework for radiological protection. The background to the recommendations is discussed. (author).

Clarke, R.H. (National Radiological Protection Board, Chilton (UK))

1991-02-01

217

Quantities and units in radiation protection  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] This lecture contains a short review of quantities and units used in radiation protection as well as units used in describing of nuclear reactions, LET values, and radiation length of the particles. The simulations of some radioactive decays are included

2004-01-01

218

25 years of medical radiation protection  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This volume contains 25 conference papers dealing with the following topics: yesterday's and today's radiation research; review of and prospects for radiation protection in radiology, in the working environment and in international recommendations; fundamentals and hazards of nuclear magnetic resonance. Papers were entered separately into the data base. (HP)

1985-01-01

219

Beagle dog studies in radiation protection  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Almost all research with Beagle dogs in DOE programs has aimed at supplying data for the purpose of strengthening the bases for radiation protection guidelines. The studies have provided information ranging from the very basics of dosimetry to the definitive description of the resulting radiological effects. Thus, they are defined as dose-response studies, that explore the causes of radiation damage from the molecular to the whole body levels of investigation. What will be reported in the oral presentation is a more detailed review of the use of results from Beagle dog studies that have played an important role in radiation protection

1988-01-01

220

Management information system on radiation protection  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Considering the flux complexity and the multi source information of all radiation protection activities on nuclear organizations, an effective management information system based on technology, information and people is necessary to improve the safety on all processes and operations subjected to radiation risks. An effective management information system is an essential tool to highlight the strengths and weaknesses and identify behaviors and trends on the activities requiring radiation protection programs. Such kind of distinct knowledge is useful to reach an effective management and support the human decision-making on nuclear organization. This paper presents a management information system based on Brazilian directives and regulations on radiation protection. Due to its generic characteristics, this radiation protection control system can be implemented on any nuclear organization by reediting the non restricted parameters which could differ considering all facilities and laboratories expected on-site with diverse technologies applications. This system can be considered as a powerful tool applied on the continuous management of radiation protection activities on nuclear organizations and research institutes as well as for long term planning, not only indicating how the safety activities are going, but why they are not going as well as planned where that is the case. (author)

Grossi, Pablo Andrade; Souza, Leonardo Soares de; Figueiredo, Geraldo Magela, E-mail: pabloag@cdtn.b, E-mail: lss@cdtn.b, E-mail: gmf@cdtn.b [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

2011-07-01

 
 
 
 
221

Radiation survey of the nuclear submarine Kursk  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Results of the radiation survey of the accidentally submerged nuclear submarine Kursk conducted in 2000 - 2001 provided with nuclear and radiation safety of works are presented. Obtained results demonstrated that reactors were shutdown and radionuclide migration to sea medium was absent[ru] ???????????? ?????????? ????????????? ???????????? ???????? ?????????? ??????? ????????? ????? ?????, ???????????? ? 2000 - 2001 ??. ? ??????????? ??????? ? ???????????? ???????????? ?????. ?????????? ?????????? ????????, ??? ???????? ????????? ? ??????????? ??????????? ????????????? ? ??????? ?????

2002-01-01

222

Aerial survey of radiation sources in Georgia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The document informs about the results of the first aerial radiological survey organized by the IAEA between 23 May-16 June 2000 to track down discarded radiation sources in the Republic of Georgia. A total area of about 1200 km2, with a population of approximately 1,5 million, was surveyed. The survey focussed on highly populated areas and on locations where there were abandoned military bases

2000-06-23

223

Radiation and heredity: genetic aspects of protection against radiation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Primary radiogenetic effects and delayed genetic radiation effects are considered. Experimental and published data on possibility to protect organisms and populations against single and long-term (during life of several generations) effect of ionizing radiation are given. Problem concerning population adaptation to low dose irradiation is discussed. 490 refs., 28 figs., 43 tabs

1990-01-01

224

Radiation protection program of Petrobras  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Risks present in oil industry require specific control programs, specialy when using radioactive sources. Main uses of ionizing radiation in oil industry are in process control systems, industrial radiography and oilwell logging. A comprehensive and sistemic program is presented in order to assure the safe use of ionizing radiation in these activities. Principal subjects of this program are the control of radioactive sources, personel training in order to difuse knowledge at operations level and procedures standardization. (author).

1988-01-01

225

Development of radiation protection and measurement technology  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Reference X-, gamma, beta and neutron radiation fields complying with the ISO and ANSI standards have been established and evaluated to provide a basic technical support in national radiation protection dosimetry program and to provide calibration measurement devices. Personal dose evaluation algorithm has been developed with these reference radiation fields, which comply well with both domestic and the new ANSI N13.11, to evaluate accurate personal dose equivalents. A personal internal dosimetry algorithm which can estimate the intakes of radionuclides from the results of in vivo bioassay and the resulting internal doses has been developed and verified its performance. It was also evaluated to be equality excellent compared with those being used in foreign countries and used to make a computer code for internal dose evaluation which can be run with PC under the Windows environment. A BOMAB phantom for precise calibration of in vivo system has been also designed, fabricated and test-evaluated. Based on the ALARA concept of the optimization principle of radiation protection, a method for estimating the cost for radiation protection has been studied and an objective monetary cost of detriment due to radiation exposure, called ? value ($/man-Sv) has been derived and proposed based on the Korean socio-economic situation and human risk factors to provide basic data for the radiation protection optimization study in Korea. (author). 100 refs., 104 tabs., 69 figs

1997-01-01

226

Radiation protection problems with sealed Pu radiation sources  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A brief outline of the production methods and most important properties of Pu-238 and Pu-239 is given, followed by an overview of possibilities for utilizing the different types of radiation emitted, a description of problems involved in the safe handling of Pu radiation sources, and an assessment of the design principles for Pu-containing alpha, photon, neutron and energy sources from the radiation protection point of view. (author)

1982-01-01

227

Birth survey in high background radiation area  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In order to find out the hereditary effects of high background radiation, we investigated, on the basis of previous survey, the birth status of 2,218 married women of child-bearing age in the high background area and that of 1,854 women in the control area, using registration form to be filled out once a month in 1979. The results of the survey were almost identical with those of previous survey, and no detrimental effect of high background radiation in investigated area on sex ratio, spontaneous abortion rate, multiple pregnancy rate, infertility rate and neonatal mortality rate was revealed.

Shaozhuang, D.

1980-04-01

228

Abstracts of 20. International Symposium Radiation Protection Physics  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

51 papers are presented as titles with abstracts which are processed individually for the INIS data base. They deal with general aspects of radiation protection physics, international activities in radiation protection, solid state dosimetry, models and calculation methods in radiation protection, and measuring techniques in radiation protection.

1988-01-01

229

Radiation Protection Elephants in the Room  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

As our system of radiological protection evolves, several significant issues loom within radiation protection discussions and publications. These issues influence the nature of epidemiological and radiobiological research and the establishment of radiation protection recommendations, standards, and regulations. These issues are like the proverbial ''elephants in the room''. They are large, and it is unwise to ignore them. This paper discusses the impact of three young elephants as they make their presence increasingly obvious: increased cancer susceptibility from early-life exposure to radiation, terrorism and fear of radiation, and patient safety. Increased cancer susceptibility from early-life exposure to radiation is emerging as a discussion topic related to the safety of computed tomography (CT) and other medical modalities. Shortly after publication of CT dose data, manufacturers were helping to reduce doses to children by increasing flexibility for adjustment of technique factors. Also, radiation epidemiological data are being used in the development of guidance on exposure to chemical carcinogens during early life. Re-emergence of public fear of radiation has been fueled by threats of radiological dispersion devises and confusing messages about personal decontamination, emergency room acceptance or rejection of contaminated victims, and environmental clean-up. Finally, several professional publications have characterized risk of medical radiation exposure in terms of patient deaths even though epidemiological data do not support such conclusions. All three of these elephants require excellent science and sophisticated data analysis to coax them from the room. Anecdotal communications that confuse the public should be avoided. These are not the only elephants in the room, but these three are making their presence increasingly obvious. This paper discusses the need for radiation protection professionals to rely on good science in the evolution of the system of radiological protection. (Author) 32 refs.

Vetter, R. J.

2004-07-01

230

Radiation Protection Elephants in the Room  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

As our system of radiological protection evolves, several significant issues loom within radiation protection discussions and publications. These issues influence the nature of epidemiological and radiobiological research and the establishment of radiation protection recommendations, standards, and regulations. These issues are like the proverbial elephants in the room. They are large, and it is unwise to ignore them. This paper discusses the impact of three young elephants as they make their presence increasingly obvious: increased cancer susceptibility from early-life exposure to radiation, terrorism and fear of radiation, and patient safety. Increased cancer susceptibility from early-life exposure to radiation is emerging as a discussion topic related to the safety of computed tomography (CT) and other medical modalities. Shortly after publication of CT dose data, manufacturers were helping to reduce doses to children by increasing flexibility for adjustment of technique factors. Also, radiation epidemiological data are being used in the development of guidance on exposure to chemical carcinogens during early life. Re-emergence of public fear of radiation has been fueled by threats of radiological dispersion devises and confusing messages about personal decontamination, emergency room acceptance or rejection of contaminated victims, and environmental clean-up. Finally, several professional publications have characterized risk of medical radiation exposure in terms of patient deaths even though epidemiological data do not support such conclusions. All three of these elephants require excellent science and sophisticated data analysis to coax them from the room. Anecdotal communications that confuse the public should be avoided. These are not the only elephants in the room, but these three are making their presence increasingly obvious. This paper discusses the need for radiation protection professionals to rely on good science in the evolution of the system of radiological protection. (Author) 32 refs.

2004-01-01

231

Results of environmental radiation monitoring during radioactive waste disposal at central radiation protection station  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Results of environmental radiation monitoring during radioactive waste processing and disposal are presented. It is carried out at the central radiation protection station (CRPS) using up-to-date dosemeters, radiometers and electron-physical equipment. As a rule the personnel external radiation dose is shown to exceed 0.01 J/kg per year. The radioactive fallout density is (4-6)x106 Bq/(km2xday) within the zone under monitoring. Radionuclide composition and specific activity of surface waters, soils and plants are given. Radiometric survey shows much difference in background values of ?-radiation dose rate only in some regions. Aerial gamma spectrometric survey shows high background gamma radiation just over CRPS

1985-01-01

232

Ionizing radiation, genetic risks and radiation protection  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

With one method of risk estimation, designed as the doubling dose method, the estimates of total genetic risk (i.e., over all generation) for a population continuously exposed at a rate of 0.01 Gy/generation of low LET irradiation are about 120 cases of Mendelian and chromosomal diseases/10[sup 6] live births and about the same number of cases for multifactorial diseases (i.e., a total of 240 cases/10[sup 6]). These estimates provide the basis for risk coefficients for genetic effects estimated by ICRP (1991) in its Publication 60. These are: 1.0%/Sv for the general population (which is 40% of 240/10[sup 6]/0.01 Gy), and 0.6%/Sv for radiation workers (which is 60% of that for the general population). The results of genetic studies carried out on the Japanese survivors of A-bombs have shown no significant adverse effects attributable to parental radiation exposures. The studies of Gardner and colleagues suggest that the risk of leukaemia in children born to male workers in the nuclear reprocessing facility in Sellafield, U.K., may be increased. However, this finding is at variance with the results from the Japanese studies and at present, does not lend itself to a simple interpretation based on radiobiological principles. In the light of recent advances in the molecular biology of naturally-occurring human Mendelian diseases and what we presently know about multifactorial diseases, arguments are advanced to support the thesis that (i) current risk estimates for Mendelian diseases may be conservative and (ii) an overall doubling dose for all adverse genetic effects may be higher than the 1 Gy currently used (i.e., the relative risks are probably lower). (author).

Sankaranarayanan, K. (Rijksuniversiteit Leiden (Netherlands). Lab. voor Stralengenetica en Chemische Mutagenese)

1992-01-01

233

Ionizing radiation, genetic risks and radiation protection  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

With one method of risk estimation, designed as the doubling dose method, the estimates of total genetic risk (i.e., over all generation) for a population continuously exposed at a rate of 0.01 Gy/generation of low LET irradiation are about 120 cases of Mendelian and chromosomal diseases/106 live births and about the same number of cases for multifactorial diseases (i.e., a total of 240 cases/106). These estimates provide the basis for risk coefficients for genetic effects estimated by ICRP (1991) in its Publication 60. These are: 1.0%/Sv for the general population (which is 40% of 240/106/0.01 Gy), and 0.6%/Sv for radiation workers (which is 60% of that for the general population). The results of genetic studies carried out on the Japanese survivors of A-bombs have shown no significant adverse effects attributable to parental radiation exposures. The studies of Gardner and colleagues suggest that the risk of leukaemia in children born to male workers in the nuclear reprocessing facility in Sellafield, U.K., may be increased. However, this finding is at variance with the results from the Japanese studies and at present, does not lend itself to a simple interpretation based on radiobiological principles. In the light of recent advances in the molecular biology of naturally-occurring human Mendelian diseases and what we presently know about multifactorial diseases, arguments are advanced to support the thesis that (i) current risk estimates for Mendelian diseases may be conservative and (ii) an overall doubling dose for all adverse genetic effects may be higher than the 1 Gy currently used (i.e., the relative risks are probably lower). (author)

1992-01-01

234

National congress of radiation protection; Congres national de radioprotection  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The congress of radiation protection tackled different areas of radiation protection. The impact of ionizing radiations on environment coming from radioactive activities. The biological radiation effects, the dosimetry, the different ways of doing relative to radiation protection,the risks analysis and the communications with populations, information about accidents and the lessons learned from them are included in this congress. (N.C.)

NONE

2001-07-01

235

Quality assurance in radiation therapy: clinical and physical aspects. Radiation protection.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

One usually thinks of radiation safety as keeping patient and personnel exposure as low as reasonably achievable; however, radiation protection activities play an important role in quality assurance for both the clinical and physical aspects. Radiation protection has several aspects: The first step is the design of the irradiation device and its shielding. While this step is out of the hands of the user, the location and level of leakage radiation must be verified by the user. Periodic leak testing of sealed sources is required. Room shielding design is based on the leakage levels specified by the manufacturer and on levels of scatter and primary radiation impinging on the radiation barriers. The addition of shielding for photoneutrons should be planned for accelerators producing photons above 10 MeV. Integrity and adequacy of shielding should be verified by survey after unit installation. Installation and periodic testing of interlocks are necessary to assure that nonirradiation conditions can be restored as soon as necessary. Personnel monitoring serves two purposes; to provide a record of personnel exposures and to alert one to unsuspected changes that may have taken place in procedure, shielding integrity, or source location. Area monitoring and survey on a periodic basis also provides knowledge of unsuspected changes in procedure, shielding integrity, or source location. Brachytherapy and the transport of small radiation sources require additional precautionary actions. Protection of patient anatomy not being treated reduces the chance of normal tissue damage and the possibility of carcinogenic effects.

Morton RJ

1984-06-01

236

Accreditation of ionizing radiation protection programs  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

There are over one million workers in the United States who have the potential to be exposed to ionizing radiation. Therefore, it is necessary to determine accurately the quantity of radiation to which they may have been exposed. This quantity if measured by personnel dosimeters that are carried by individuals requiring radiation monitoring. Accreditation of the organizations which evaluate this quantity provides official recognition of the competence of these organizations. Accreditation programs in the field of ionizing radiation protection have been in operation for a number of years, and their experience has demonstrated that such programs can help to improve performance.

McDonald, J.C.; Swinth, K.L.; Selby, J.M.

1991-10-01

237

Public understanding of radiation protection concepts  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Chernobyl accident in April 1986 clearly showed that communication with the public was one of the areas where there was a strong need for improvement, particularly concerning the nature and extent of the information provided by national authorities. The countermeasures adopted by public health authorities also raised difficulties in terms of public understanding and acceptance due, in part, to the perception of discrepancies in national, regional or local response to the accident, but also to a more basic lack of comprehension of the complex radiation protection considerations involved. In an attempt to help improve the situation, the NEA Committee on Radiation Protection and Public Health decided to organise a Workshop on public communication in the event of a nuclear accident, centered on radiation protection issues. The purpose of this Workshop was to analyse appropriate methods and language to be used when explaining to the public the scientific concepts underlying radiation risks and radiation protection, and the technical rationale for the choice of protective actions in an emergency. Separate abstracts were prepared for individual papers presented at the meeting

1987-12-02

238

The new German radiation protection ordinance  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

According to European law, the Basic Safety Standards (BSS) published by the European Council in 1996 and the Council Directive on health protection of individuals against dangers of ionising radiation in relation to medical exposure had to be transferred into national law within due time. In 2001 the new Ordinance for the Implementation of the Euratom Guidelines on Radiation Protection] was published, which replaces the old Radiation Protection Ordinance. The new German Ordinance adapts the European Directive to German law, covering the general principles but even giving more details in many fields of radiation protection. The BSS scope certainly is much broader than the prescriptions important for the field of radiation protection in nuclear power plants. According to the scope of this workshop on occupational exposure in nuclear power plants - and as the BSS most probably will be quite familiar to all of you - after a short general overview on relevant contents of the German Ordinance, this presentation will focus on the main issues important in the operation of NPP and especially on some areas which may give rise to necessary changes caused by the new Ordinance. (A.L.B.)

2003-01-01

239

IAEA occupational radiation protection programme: current status  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

As stated in Art.III.A.6 of its Statute, the International Atomic Energy Agency (commonly referred to as the Agency) is authorized to establish or adopt, in consultation and, where appropriate, in collaboration with the competent organs of the United Nations and with the specialized agencies concerned, standards of safety for protection of health and minimization of danger to life and property (including such standards for labour conditions), and to provide for the application of these standards to its own operation as well as to the operations making use of materials, services, equipment, facilities, and information made available by the Agency or at its request or under its control or supervision. The Agency s Occupational Radiation Protection Programme aims at harmonizing infrastructures for the control of radiation exposure of workers and for optimizing radiation protection in situation s of exposures due to external radiation and intakes of radionuclides from both artificial and natural sources of radiation. Under its regular and technical cooperation programmes, the Agency has been assigning high priority to both the establishment of safety standards for labour conditions and for the application of these standards through, Interalia, direct assistance under its technical cooperation (TC) programme, the rendering of services, the promotion of education and training, the fostering of information exchange and the coordination of research and development. The purpose of this paper is to present the current status and future IAEA activities in support of occupational radiation protection. (authors)

Deboodt, P.; Mrabit, K. [PPSS/NSRW/IAEA, Vienna (Austria)

2006-07-01

240

Abstracts of 21. International Symposium Radiation Protection Physics  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

45 papers are presented as titles with abstracts which are processed individually for the INIS data base. They deal with general aspects of radiation protection physics, chiefly problems of radiation detection and measuring techniques in radiation protection.

1989-01-01

 
 
 
 
241

Research priorities for occupational radiation protection  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Subpanel on Occupational Radiation Protection Research concludes that the most urgently needed research is that leading to the resolution of the potential effects of low-level ionizing radiation. This is the primary driving force in setting appropriate radiation protection standards and in directing the emphasis of radiation protection efforts. Much has already been done in collecting data that represents a compendium of knowledge that should be fully reviewed and understood. It is imperative that health physics researchers more effectively use that data and apply the findings to enhance understanding of the potential health effects of low-level ionizing radiation and improve the risk estimates upon which current occupational radiation protection procedures and requirements depend. Research must be focused to best serve needs in the immediate years ahead. Only then will we get the most out of what is accomplished. Beyond the above fundamental need, a number of applied research areas also have been identified as national priority issues. If effective governmental focus is achieved on several of the most important national priority issues, important occupational radiation protection research will be enhanced, more effectively coordinated, and more quickly applied to the work environment. Response in the near term will be enhanced and costs will be reduced by: developing microprocessor-aided open-quotes smartclose quotes instruments to simplify the use and processing of radiation data; developing more sensitive, energy-independent, and tissue-equivalent dosimeters to more accurately quantify personnel dose; and developing an improved risk assessment technology base. This can lead to savings of millions of dollars in current efforts needed to ensure personnel safety and to meet new, more stringent occupational guidelines

1994-01-01

242

Radiation protection in dental practice  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] This guide provides the dentist and dental support personnel with basic information on the safe use of x-rays in dental radiography. Included in this CODE are specific recommendations for eliminating unnecessary radiation exposure of both patients and staff

243

Radiation protection. Radioactivity and health  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] This booklet makes an attempt at elucidating the mutual influence of radioactivity and health in a way which is understandable to the non-expert. The basics of radioactivity are briefly explained by way of introduction, the next item to be described is exposure of man to natural and artificial radiation. Somatic and genetic effects of radiation on man are subsequently discussed. The whole area of radioecology - starting with radioactive discharge from nuclear plants and going on to the determination of man's exposure to radiation - is covered and supplemented by a description of the risks of radiation therapy. All this serves to describe the results of long-term research on questions of the radiobiological risks in an understandable way and provide useful information about this eminently important area. (orig./HP)[de] Die vorliegende Broschuere macht den Versuch, den Zusammenhang zwischen Radioaktivitaet und Gesundheit auch fuer den Nicht-Fachmann verstaendlich darzustellen. Nach einer kurzen Behandlung der Grundbegriffe der Radioaktivitaet befasst sie sich mit den natuerlichen und kuenstlichen Strahlenexpositionen, denen der Mensch im Industriezeitalter ausgesetzt ist. Die damit verbundenen Wirkungen auf den Menschen werden eingehend in bezug auf somatische und genetische Strahleneffekte behandelt. Die Erlaeuterung der radiooekologischen Zusammenhaenge, beginnend bei den radioaktiven Ableitungen aus kerntechnischen Anlagen bis zur Ermittlung der Strahlenexposition des Menschen, wird ergaenzt durch die Beschreibung der strahlenmedizinischen Risikobeziehungen. Die Ausfuehrungen sollen die Ergebnisse langjaehriger Forschungsarbeiten zur Beantwortung der Frage der strahlenbiologischen Risiken in verstaendlicher Form widerspiegeln und zur sachlichen Information ueber dieses so ausserordentlich bedeutsame Gebiet beitragen. (orig./HP)

1985-01-01

244

Radiation protection 1/87  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

There is a paper on medical first aid after radiation accidents and another on positive effects of low-dose irradiation which are treated separately. In addition there are four contributions on question of conventional X-ray diagnosis. (G.Q.)

1987-01-01

245

Questions concerning radiation protection in the field of radiometry  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Based on legal regulations, guidelines, and standards valid in the German Democratic Republic 105 questions concerning radiation protection are answered covering subjects indicated by the following key words and headings: radiometric gages, radiation protection measures, working within protected areas, legal provisions, responsible staff member, radiation protection officer, operating personnel, radiation protection instructions, safe keeping of radiation sources, leak testing, unusual occurrence, transport of radioactive materials, and ceasing of operation

1987-01-01

246

Viewing radiation protection in the framework of general environmental protection  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The author of the introductory contribution places the tasks of radiation protection within the framework of general environmental protection. He presents joint concepts - for instance, large-area measuring plans for radon in living-space and formaldehyde in building materials, and, for instance, protection of waters with corresponding recommendations for the chemicals industry - and sets out the political principles of the Federal German Government for the improvement of the environmental situation and, especially, for the protection of human health. He points out each citizen's own responsibility for his health, and the consumer's responsibility as regards his own consumer behaviour. As regards the protection of the population and the environment against ionizing radiation hazards, especially with regard to German nuclear power plants, the valid principle is 'safety first', and this includes the tasks with which radiologists are confronted in the event of nuclear accidents to assure transfrontier, preventive medical care. The Association of German Radiologists is requested to make special efforts to assess the radiation exposure of man. (TRV)

1987-01-01

247

Radiation protection of astronauts in LEO.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Radiological protection for space flights is often perceived as a technico-scientific problem. All this is the result of the effects of radiation encountered in space and manned flight conditions. The main characteristics of this radiation come from its complex composition and its large energy spectrum which must be taken into account as well as flux variations by both solar activity and the vehicle position on orbit. Inside a vehicle, structures constitute irregularly distributed shields and lead to a specific dose at each location. To be able to protect the crew, it is first necessary to understand the threat and therefore to identify the radiation environment: extraterrestrial and orbital. As the environment varies with both the orbit position and time, the dose received in each critical organ during missions must be determined and compared with acceptable limits. To counter the threat, which may exceed acceptable limits, a strategy is required, including the complementary aspects of prevention, detection, protection and possibly treatment.

Melkonian G; Bourrieau J

1989-06-01

248

2009 Canadian Radiation Oncology Resident Survey  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Purpose: Statistics from the Canadian post-MD education registry show that numbers of Canadian radiation oncology (RO) trainees have risen from 62 in 1999 to approximately 150 per year between 2003 and 2009, contributing to the current perceived downturn in employment opportunities for radiation oncologists in Canada. When last surveyed in 2003, Canadian RO residents identified job availability as their main concern. Our objective was to survey current Canadian RO residents on their training and career plans. Methods and Materials: Trainees from the 13 Canadian residency programs using the national matching service were sought. Potential respondents were identified through individual program directors or chief resident and were e-mailed a secure link to an online survey. Descriptive statistics were used to report responses. Results: The eligible response rate was 53% (83/156). Similar to the 2003 survey, respondents generally expressed high satisfaction with their programs and specialty. The most frequently expressed perceived weakness in their training differed from 2003, with 46.5% of current respondents feeling unprepared to enter the job market. 72% plan on pursuing a postresidency fellowship. Most respondents intend to practice in Canada. Fewer than 20% of respondents believe that there is a strong demand for radiation oncologists in Canada. Conclusions: Respondents to the current survey expressed significant satisfaction with their career choice and training program. However, differences exist compared with the 2003 survey, including the current perceived lack of demand for radiation oncologists in Canada.

Debenham, Brock, E-mail: debenham@ualberta.net [Department of Radiation Oncology, Cross Cancer Institute, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta (Canada); Banerjee, Robyn [Department of Radiation Oncology, Tom Baker Cancer Centre, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta (Canada); Fairchild, Alysa; Dundas, George [Department of Radiation Oncology, Cross Cancer Institute, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta (Canada); Trotter, Theresa [Department of Radiation Oncology, Tom Baker Cancer Centre, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta (Canada); Yee, Don [Department of Radiation Oncology, Cross Cancer Institute, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta (Canada)

2012-03-15

249

Understanding of radiation protection in medicine. Pt. 2. Occupational exposure and system of radiation protection  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Using a questionnaire we investigated whether radiation protection is correctly understood by medical doctors (n=140) and nurses (n=496). Although medical exposure is usually understood by medical doctors and dentists, their knowledge was found to be insufficient. Sixty-eight percent of medical doctors and 50% of dentists did not know about the system of radiation protection. Dose monitoring was not correctly carried out by approximately 20% of medical staff members, and medical personnel generally complained of anxiety about occupational exposure rather than medical exposure. They did not receive sufficient education on radiation exposure and protection in school. In conclusion, the results of this questionnaire suggested that they do not have adequate knowledge about radiation exposure and protection. The lack of knowledge about protection results in anxiety about exposure. To protect oneself from occupational exposure, individual radiation doses must be monitored, and medical practice should be reconsidered based on the results of monitoring. To eliminate unnecessary medical and occupational exposure and to justify practices such as radiological examinations, radiation protection should be well understood and appropriately carried out by medical doctors and dentists. Therefore, the education of medical students on the subject of radiation protection is required as is postgraduate education for medical doctors, dentists and nurses. (author)

Iida, Hiroji; Yamamoto, Tomoyuki; Shimada, Yasuhiro [Kanazawa Univ. (Japan). Hospital

1997-11-01

250

Understanding of radiation protection in medicine. Pt. 2. Occupational exposure and system of radiation protection  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Using a questionnaire we investigated whether radiation protection is correctly understood by medical doctors (n=140) and nurses (n=496). Although medical exposure is usually understood by medical doctors and dentists, their knowledge was found to be insufficient. Sixty-eight percent of medical doctors and 50% of dentists did not know about the system of radiation protection. Dose monitoring was not correctly carried out by approximately 20% of medical staff members, and medical personnel generally complained of anxiety about occupational exposure rather than medical exposure. They did not receive sufficient education on radiation exposure and protection in school. In conclusion, the results of this questionnaire suggested that they do not have adequate knowledge about radiation exposure and protection. The lack of knowledge about protection results in anxiety about exposure. To protect oneself from occupational exposure, individual radiation doses must be monitored, and medical practice should be reconsidered based on the results of monitoring. To eliminate unnecessary medical and occupational exposure and to justify practices such as radiological examinations, radiation protection should be well understood and appropriately carried out by medical doctors and dentists. Therefore, the education of medical students on the subject of radiation protection is required as is postgraduate education for medical doctors, dentists and nurses. (author)

1997-01-01

251

Radiation protection at workplaces with increased natural radiation exposure in Greece: recording, monitoring and protection measures  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Greek Atomic Energy Commission (GAEC) is the regulatory, advisory and competent authority on radiation protection matters. It is the authority responsible for the introduction of Radiation Protection regulations and monitoring of their implementation. In 1997, within the frame of its responsibilities the Board of the GAEC appointed a task group of experts to revise and bring the present Radiation Protection Regulations into line with the Basic Safety Standards (BSS) 96/29/Euratom Directive and the 97/43/Euratom Directive (on health protection of individuals against the dangers of ionising radiation in relation to medical exposure). Concerning the Title 7. of the new European BSS Directive, which refers to the Radiation Protection at work places with increased levels of natural radiation exposure, the Radiation Protection Regulations provides that the authority responsible for recording, monitoring and introducing protection measures at these places is the GAEC. Practices where effective doses to the workers due to increased natural radiation levels, may exceed 1mSv/y, have to be specified and authorised by the GAEC. The identification procedure is ongoing.

2002-01-01

252

Policy support on Radiation Protection  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The objective of SCK-CEN's R and D programme on decision strategy research are: (1) to support and advise the Belgian authorities on specific problems concerning existing and potential hazards from exposure to ionising radiation, both in normal and emergency situations; (2) to improve and support nuclear emergency response decisions in industrial areas from an economic point of view. Main achievements in this area in 1997 are described.

Hardeman, F

1998-07-01

253

Policy support on Radiation Protection  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The objective of SCK-CEN's R and D programme on decision strategy research are: (1) to support and advise the Belgian authorities on specific problems concerning existing and potential hazards from exposure to ionising radiation, both in normal and emergency situations; (2) to improve and support nuclear emergency response decisions in industrial areas from an economic point of view. Main achievements in this area in 1997 are described.

1998-01-01

254

Current Challenges in Radiation Protection in Medicine  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Radiation protection professionals in medical facilities and practices are being challenged by new imaging technologies that use x-rays or radioactive materials. These include faster computerized tomography (CT) scanners, new interventional techniques that use extended fluoroscopy time, increased use of positron emission tomography (PET), and digital imaging techniques. More frequently these technologies are being fused into a single procedure, such as combined CT and PET scanning. Radiation Protection professionals are challenged to (1) be aware of developing technologies and clinical techniques, (2) analyze the potential radiation risks to patients and staff, (3) initiate necessary radiation safety training for medical staff, and (4) be involved in planning, dose measurement and optimization of the procedure to achieve appropriate dose control and ALARA.

2008-01-01

255

Inspections by the Swedish Radiation Protection Authority  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Swedish Radiation Protection Authority, SSI, is the regulatory and supervisory authority in Sweden that is responsible for radiation protection on a national level. SSI employs 110 professionals with a broad and varied expertise; engineers, physicists, chemists, legal experts and press officers and is headed by a government-appointed director general. The budget is about 10 million Euro per year and is financed by taxes and fees. SSI is divided in to five different departments. This paper describes mainly the inspection activities performed by the Department of Occupational and Medical Exposures at SSI.

Cederlund, T.; Hofvander, P.; Staalnacke, C.G. [Swedish Radiation Protection Authority, Stockholm (Sweden). Dept. of Occupational and Medical Exposure

2005-09-15

256

Third conference on radiation protection and dosimetry  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This conference has been designed with the objectives of promoting communication among applied, research, regulatory, and standards personnel involved in radiation protection and providing them with sufficient information to evaluate their programs. To partly fulfill these objectives, a technical program consisting of more than 75 invited and contributed oral presentations encompassing all aspects of radiation protection has been prepared. General topics include external dosimetry, internal dosimetry, instruments, regulations and standards, accreditation and test programs, research advances, and applied program experience. This publication provides a summary of the technical program and a collection of abstracts of the oral presentations.

1991-01-01

257

Radiation protection and fuzzy set theory  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In radiation protection we encounter a variety of sources of uncertainties which are due to fuzziness in our cognition or perception of objects. For systematic treatment of this type of uncertainty, the concepts of fuzzy sets or fuzzy measures could be applied to construct system models, which may take into consideration both subjective or intrinsic fuzziness and objective or extrinsic fuzziness. The theory of fuzzy sets and fuzzy measures is still in a developing stage, but its concept may be applied to various problems of subjective perception of risk, nuclear safety, radiation protection and also to the problems of man-machine interface and human factor engineering or ergonomic

1993-01-01

258

New standards and regulations in radiation protection  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The EU directive 96/26/EURATOM was implemented in German law with the new radiation protection ordinance of August 2001 and the amended X-ray ordinance of June 2002. The contribution gives a status record of the secondary rules and regulations which will soon be completed to come into force. Some aspects of the new DIN54113-3 are presented in detail. Key aspects of German radiation protection regulations are compared on an international scale, and the standards of an internationally active producer (XYLON, Hamburg) are explained. (orig.)

2003-01-01

259

Radiation protection, public policies and education  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The objective of this paper is to inform about the aspects of radiation protection public policies concerning the public spheres and the ordinary population. It is known that information has been considered a very important good in several knowledge areas. However, the efficiency of their transmission mechanisms should be periodically evaluated, checking existing critical and stagnation points. Nuclear area can be mentioned as a historically typical case, where the public policies assume relevant importance as tool for promotion, control and education of the population in general. Considering the polemic nature of such subject, it is clear that there is a need for conducting the construction of educational contents taking in account the educator training necessities. The addressing of radiation protection aspects applied to nuclear techniques conducts, for example, to the awareness on the benefits of radiation and its industrial and medical applications, which are established considering the worldwide adopted basic principles of radiation protection. Such questions, concerned with (or related to) public policies, establish a link between radiation protection and education, themes explored in this article to provide a better view of the current Brazilian scenario. (author)

2011-01-01

260

Proceedings of the workshop on 'radiation protection in LINACs'  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The proceedings contain seven reports on electron and proton accelerators currently used in Japan. The first report describes the 'Present Condition of Linac Facilities in Japan -- Questionnaire Survey'. It summarizes results of a questionnaire survey on 400 facilities where accelerators are used for research, industrial or medical applications. The second one deals with 'Radiation Protection at Nuclear Physics Research Institute of Tohoku University'. Safety measures taken in the institute are described. The third report outlines 'Radiation Protection at Linac Facility in Tokai Laboratory of Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, focusing on equipment, radiation management, and safety measures. The fourth report, titled 'Proton Linac at High Energy Physics Research Institute', outlines major features of the facilities in the institute, radiation safety measures, etc. The fifth one describes the 'Safety Management at Electrotechnical Laboratory', centering on the equipment used, radiation management, and safety measures. The sixth one outlines major features of 'Electron Linac at Industrial Science Research Institute of Osaka University'. The seventh report describes the 'Present Condition of Neutron Generator (KURRI-LINAC)'. (N.K.)

1989-08-08

 
 
 
 
261

Evolution of Radiation Protection System in Kenya  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Promulgation of radiation protection legislation in Kenya dates back to 1982, was revised in 1985 and became operational in 1986. This law, the Radiation Protection Act, establishes the Radiation Protection Board as the National Regulatory Authority, with an executive Inspectorate headed by the Secretary to the Board. Subsidiary legislation on radiological practices and standards were subsequently published. The Inspectorate carries out the National programme for notification, authorization, inspection and enforcement. Nuclear applications for peaceful purposes in Kenya are on the increase in all major fields of socio-economic development. Provision of regulatory services, guidance and enforcement procedures, has had a net growth over the last fifteen years. However, staff retention has been declining over the years in a market where job opportunities, with relatively high incentives, are high either inside or outside the country. Human and equipment resource development has therefore not kept pace and this has hampered effective and efficient provision of services. The poor status of the economy has had its impact on delivery of quality, effective and efficient radiation protection services. Provision of radiation services and acquisition of radiation detection and measurement equipment in the country has been generally lacking dating as far back as 1995. During the period 1989 to present, Kenya's Regulatory Authority, the Radiation Protection Board, undertook to provide personal monitoring, quality assurance, radioanalysis, and equipment calibration. Over the years these services have stalled due to outdated equipment most of which have broken down. A maintenance and calibration service for nuclear equipment is an expensive cross-boarder issue. Budgetary constraints, insufficient human and equipment resources, and a perennial 'brain drain' has placed limitations to the effectiveness and efficiency of implementation of the National programmes and slowed the attainment of the objectives of the National policy on radiation protection and waste safety. The current Radiation Protection Act is limited in scope, regulatory independence and empowerment. A new draft of the revised Act was submitted to the IAEA for review and comments. The revised version is aimed, inter alia, at meeting the principal requirements of the International Basic Safety Standards and incorporating aspects of non-ionizing radiation. The revised draft is now under discussion with stakeholders for their input before enactment. Development of a sustainable national infrastructure requires years of national effort and government commitment. Over the last two years, there has been sufficient government commitment and there have been solid achievements. Kenya has placed the issue of human resource development high on her development agenda and has provided support for expanding technical staffing of the Regulatory Authority with an initial recruitment of ten (10) Radiation Protection Officers. Other factors impacting on quality, effectiveness and efficiency of radiation protection programmes, are being appropriately addressed in order to realize a fully sustainable radiation protection infrastructure. (Author)

2004-01-01

262

National congress of radiation protection - SFRP 2005  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The nine tutorial sessions are: first one, the new recommendations of the ICRP; second one, effects on health of ionizing radiations with the following subjects ( the dose-response relationship and the estimation of carcinogen effects of ionizing radiation low doses; effect of dose rate on the induction and repair of radioinduced DNA double strand break; interest of global approach in radiation protection; molecular signature of the radioinduction in the thyroid tumors: example of radioinduced thyroid tumors after radiotherapy; incidence of child leukemia near the nuclear facilities: results of a multi sites study in France; genome instability and mutations induction after ionizing irradiation: consequences for the progeny; D.T.P.A encapsulation, an efficient strategy for the plutonium decorporation among the rat); the third one, non-ionizing radiation with the following subjects (can the exposure to a magnetic field of 100 ? T at 50 Hz be detected in the human physiological shiver; evaluation of the population exposure to the magnetic fields of 50 Hz: what indicators to choose; experimental study of the immunity of implantable defibrillators to the low frequencies electro-magnetic perturbations; DNA damages induced by the Ar F laser; dosimetry with a phantom in gel of human head); fourth session concerns the regulatory aspects; the fifth one presents the radiation protection and the radioactive waste management; the sixtsion concerns the public and patients radiation protection; the seventh one treats the radiation protection in professional area with the following subjects ( optimization of radiation protection in the underground uranium mine of Cominak in Niger; revealing by multi parameters capillaroscopy, of micro vascular alterations of fingers among interventional radiologists; use of radioactive and chemical probes in biological research; uncertainties on doses and D.P.U.I.; monitoring of work areas. Evaluation of workers exposure towards a particular contamination; C.H.A.V.I.R., an interactive simulator for radiation protection; an ALARA engineering commune to the operating reactors; evolution of the radiological zoning and monitoring rules associated on the Cogema la Hague facility; an ambitious project for the nuclear park of EDF power plants : the purification project and its implementation for the Chinon B2 reactor - 2004); the eighth session concerns the environmental exposures and their consequences with the following presentations ( the concept of radioecological sensitivity and its interest in the risk management; phenomenal and analytical interpretation of the rain-deposit relationship used for the building of cesium 137 deposits in France consecutively to the Chernobyl accident; study of radioactivity source terms and transfer from medical origin in the purification network of the town of Toulouse; natural and artificial radioactivity in some marine species in manche. Case of polonium and plutonium alpha emitters. Synthesis of data acquired in the north Cotentin since 1990. elements of comparison; the role of local commissions of information (C.L.I.) in the follow up of release and monitoring of nuclear facilities); the ninth session concerns the dosimetry; the tenth session is divided in two parts radiation protection in accidental situations and radiation protection in post accidental situations with their respective presentations as follow ( evaluation of the dispersion of an aero contaminant in a ventilated area in field near an accidental source of emissions; study of the containment efficiency by gloveboxes in functioning accidental situations; the radiation protection and health; study by R.P.E. of the response of different materials in mixed field ( gamma, neutrons), application to the dosimetry reconstruction of an accident; nuclear or radiological events: organisation of medical intervention; and rehabilitation of life conditions in the contaminated territories: the contribution of radiation protection; management of post accidental situations: lessons from crisis exercises of Pierrelatt

2005-01-01

263

Radiation protection optimization and work management  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The influence quantification of bound factors to work management, and the obtained results when you apply the dosimetric economical evaluation model of the radiation protection experiments, prove that ALARA principle application musn't bound to actions on the radiation sources, but that you can find a wide act field in the irradiation work volume management topics. 53 refs., 5 tabs., 10 figs., 4 appendixes.

1994-01-01

264

The optimization (ALARA) principle of radiation protection  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Doses resulting from sources and activities involving exposure to ionizing radiation or to radioactive substances should be restricted by a system of dose limitation which shall include the regulation of the corresponding activity, optimization of radiation protection and annual dose equivalent limits. All exposures should be kept as low as reasonably achievable, economic and social factors being taken into account. The ways of implementation of these elements in nuclear practice in our country are presented in this report. (Author)

1994-01-01

265

Protective properties of radiation-modified polyethylene  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Mass transfer of aggressive liquids and gases through polyethylene films modified with radiation surface grafting was investigated. Nonstabilized grade A film with a grafted adhesive-active layer on the basis of polymethacrylic acid was used for the investigation. It is shown that radiation modification considerably increases polyethylene adhesion with respect to metals without deterioration of physicomechanical polymer properties which permits to use it as a protective coating for equipment operating in corrosive media

1986-01-01

266

Radiation Protection and Civil defence Department  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] This conference involves subjects of radiation protection, programming of civil defence, on the implementation of 1990 ICRP recommendation, thermoluminescence properties of bone equivalent calcium phosphate ceramics, potassium body burdens in occupational users of egyptian nuclear research centre, transport of radionuclides in fresh water stream, water treatment process for nuclear reactor, research activities related to internal contamination and bioassay and experience and environmental radiation monitoring in inshass. it contains of figures and tables

1991-01-01

267

Evaluation of radiation protection in interventional radiology  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The interventional radiology, relatively to the conventional radiology exposes particularly to ionizing radiations, because of the time of utilisation of the radioscopy. It is important to optimize the risk according to the ALARA principle. The efforts must be made on the following fields: the radiation protection means, the periodic and systematic monitoring of material, a regular evaluation of operators irradiation, the training of non radiologist operators, the respect of the legislation on the maximum permissible dose equivalents. (N.C.)

1998-01-01

268

Proceedings of the Ninth Radiation Physics and Protection Conference  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The publication has been set up as proceedings of the Radiation Physics and Protection conference, the conference contains of the following subjects: Radiation Sources and Radioactive Waste; Theoretical Radiation Physics; Experimental Radiation Physics; Radiation and Nuclear Emergency; Non Ionizing Radiation; Medical Physics; Environment; Natural Radioactivity; Radiation Effect; Dosimetry; Elemental Analysis; Radiation Instruments. This conference consists of one volume and 459 pages., figs., tabs., refs

2009-01-01

269

Radiation protection guidelines for space missions  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The National Aeronautics and Space Administration's current radiation protection guidelines were recommended in 1970. The career limit was set at 400 rem. Today, using the same approach as in 1970, but with the current risk estimates, a considerably lower career limit would obtain. Also, there is considerably more information about the radiation environments that will be experienced in different missions than previously. Since 1970 women have joined their ranks. For these and other reasons it was considered necessary to reexamine the radiation protection guidelines. This task has been undertaken by the National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements Scientific Committee 75 (NCRP SC 75). Below the magnetosphere the radiation environment varies with altitude and inclination of the orbit. In outer space missions galactic cosmic rays, with the small but important heavy ion component, determine the radiation environment. The new recommendations for career dose limits, based on lifetime excess risk of cancer mortality, take into account age at first exposure and sex. The career limits range from 100 rem (1.0 Sv) for a 24 year old female to 400 rem (4.0 Sv) for a 55 year old male compared to the previous single limit of 400 rem (4.0 Sv). The career limit for the lens of the eye has been reduced from 600 rem (6.0 Sv) to 400 rem (4.0 Sv). 20 refs., 1 fig., 7 tabs.

Fry, R.J.M.; Nachtwey, D.S.

1986-01-01

270

Radiation protection guidelines for space missions  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The current radiation protection guidelines of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) were recommended in 1970. The career limit was set at 4.0 Sv (400 rem). Using the same approach as in 1970 but current risk estimates, a considerably lower career limit would obtain today. Also, there is now much more information about the radiation environments that will be experienced in different missions. Furthermore, since 1970 women have joined the ranks of the astronauts. For these and other reasons, it was considered necessary to re-examine the radiation protection guidelines. This task has been undertaken by the National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements Scientific Committee 75. Within the magnetosphere, the radiation environment varies with altitude and inclination of the orbit. In outer space missions, galactic cosmic rays, with the small but important heavy-ion component, determine the radiation environment. The new recommendations for career dose limits, based on lifetime excess risk of cancer mortality, take into account age at first exposure and sex. The career limits range from 1.0 Sv (100 rem) for a 24-y-old female up to 4.0 Sv (400 rem) for a 55-y-old male, compared with the previous single limit of 4.0 Sv (400 rem). The career limit for the lens of the eye has been reduced from 6.0 Sv (600 rem) to 4.0 Sv (400 rem).

Fry, R.J.; Nachtwey, D.S.

1988-08-01

271

Radiation protection training and information for workers  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The meeting reported in these proceedings was organized to discuss the specific problems of providing information and training on radiation protection to workers exposed to radiation, intervention staff and workers likely to be affected by an activity involving ionizing radiation. Particular emphasis was placed on the need to harmonize basic training on radiation protection in the context of 1992. It seemed advisable for technical training on radiation protection to be introduced into secondary education. To this end, the Commission was asked to draw up a guide for apprentices and students. In view of the growing diversification of activities involving the use of radioactive substances, the Commission was called upon to intensify its efforts in order to ensure that relevant information and training was provided in all firms to workers exposed to ionizing radiation, and to produce guides for specific categories of workers, such as those responsible for the transport of radioactive materials or those likely to be involved in organizing measures in the event of a radiological emergency

1989-01-01

272

Radiation protection guidelines for space missions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The current radiation protection guidelines of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) were recommended in 1970. The career limit was set at 4.0 Sv (400 rem). Using the same approach as in 1970 but current risk estimates, a considerably lower career limit would obtain today. Also, there is now much more information about the radiation environments that will be experienced in different missions. Furthermore, since 1970 women have joined the ranks of the astronauts. For these and other reasons, it was considered necessary to re-examine the radiation protection guidelines. This task has been undertaken by the National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements Scientific Committee 75. Within the magnetosphere, the radiation environment varies with altitude and inclination of the orbit. In outer space missions, galactic cosmic rays, with the small but important heavy-ion component, determine the radiation environment. The new recommendations for career dose limits, based on lifetime excess risk of cancer mortality, take into account age at first exposure and sex. The career limits range from 1.0 Sv (100 rem) for a 24-y-old female up to 4.0 Sv (400 rem) for a 55-y-old male, compared with the previous single limit of 4.0 Sv (400 rem). The career limit for the lens of the eye has been reduced from 6.0 Sv (600 rem) to 4.0 Sv (400 rem).

273

Patients radiation protection in medical imaging. Conference proceedings  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This document brings together the available presentations given at the conference organised by the French society of radiation protection about patients radiation protection in medical imaging. Twelve presentations (slides) are compiled in this document and deal with: 1 - Medical exposure of the French population: methodology and results (Bernard Aubert, IRSN); 2 - What indicators for the medical exposure? (Cecile Etard, IRSN); 3 - Guidebook of correct usage of medical imaging examination (Philippe Grenier, Pitie-Salpetriere hospital); 4 - Radiation protection optimization in pediatric imaging (Hubert Ducou-Le-Pointe, Aurelien Bouette (Armand-Trousseau children hospital); 5 - Children's exposure to image scanners: epidemiological survey (Marie-Odile Bernier, IRSN); 6 - Management of patient's irradiation: from image quality to good practice (Thierry Solaire, General Electric); 7 - Dose optimization in radiology (Cecile Salvat (Lariboisiere hospital); 8 - Cancer detection in the breast cancer planned screening program - 2004-2009 era (Agnes Rogel, InVS); 9 - Mammographic exposures - radiobiological effects - radio-induced DNA damages (Catherine Colin, Lyon Sud hospital); 10 - Breast cancer screening program - importance of non-irradiating techniques (Anne Tardivon, Institut Curie); 11 - Radiation protection justification for the medical imaging of patients over the age of 50 (Michel Bourguignon, ASN); 12 - Search for a molecular imprint for the discrimination between radio-induced and sporadic tumors (Sylvie Chevillard, CEA)

2011-12-13

274

Applying radiation health effects data to radiation protection policies  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Data from the peer-reviewed scientific literature establish a sound basis to define a low-dose, low-dose-rate, dose-response. These data include human health dose-response studies; immunologically 'whole' animal studies; and cellular and molecular biological studies of complete biological systems for the relevant immunological and physiological responses. Initiatives are required to constructively apply these data to both radiation research and radiation protection policies. First, current low level radiation health effects research must apply existing data to define research projects to integrate and confirm existing dose-response data, with specific emphasis on the biological bases that exist in definitive and reproducible cellular and biological dose-response. Second, dose-response assessment must identify and incorporate all existing substantial and confirmed data, including natural radiation sources, to establish the bases for radiation protection policy for interventions to protect public health and safety. A preliminary assessment of these data is applied to: 1) Specify research that can be constructively applied to describe radiation health effects dose-response. 2) Apply health effects dose-response to radiation and radioactivity applications policies to maximize radiation health effects interventions for occupational applications, medical applications, and other radiation and radioactive materials applications controls to cost-effectively assure public health and safety. An assessment of the proposed revisions to ICRP radiation protection policies is provided that associates the basis for administrative limits with the previous proposal of the US NRC for a 'Below Regulatory Concern' (BRC) policy. This proposal ignores the context of the fact that very low levels of radiation exposure are far within the variations of natural radiation exposures, and therefore can have no gross net consequences. The equivalent failure of the BRC proposal resulted in quick political rejection of the proposed policy. It was seen as stating that, while very small radiation doses would in fact cause 'small' adverse health consequences (seen by the public and their political leaders as 'cancer deaths'), such consequences are seen as found 'acceptable' by the radiation protection authorities. Such implied but non-existent consequences are NOT seen as acceptable to the public and its political leaders. No explanation of 'context' or providing public education' can reasonably be expected to overcome the perception provided by the proposal that such trivial radiation produce 'a few deaths' that, because they are 'lost in cancer statistics' are perceived as accepted' by the radiation protection policy-makers, which results in the permanent loss of public acceptance and credibility of these organizations and individuals. This proposal considers the lack of adverse health effects from data at, e.g., variations in natural background, confirmed by medical and biological data, establish that radiation at low levels can have no relevant net adverse consequences. Such a basis can provide public assurance that appropriate radiation protection limits produce no residual public health and safety consequences. (author)

2000-01-01

275

Beta emitters and radiation protection  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Beta emitters, such as 90Y, are increasingly being used for cancer treatment. However, beta emitters demand other precautions than gamma emitters during preparation and administration, especially concerning shielding. Aim. To discuss practical precautions for handling beta emitters in general, and specifically determine proper shielding for 90Y, while comparing to 177Lu and 131I. The aim is achieved through the application of physical principles combined with results from practical experience. Material and methods. Typical and maximal electron ranges were calculated for 131I, 177Lu, and 90Y, using data from a freely available database. Bremsstrahlung yields were calculated for 90Y shielded by lead, aluminium, or perspex. Bremsstrahlung spectrum from 90Y shielded by perspex was measured, and attenuation of spectrum by lead was calculated. Whole-body and finger doses to persons preparing 90Y-Zevalin were measured. Conclusions. Good laboratory practice is important to keep radiation doses low. To reduce Bremsstrahlung, 90Y should not be shielded by lead but instead perspex (10 mm) or aluminium (5 mm). Bremsstrahlung radiation can be further reduced by adding a millimetre of lead on the outside of the primary shielding material. If suitable shielding is used and larger numbers of handlings are divided among several persons, then handling of beta emitters can be a safe procedure

2009-01-01

276

A new career path in radiation protection training. Certified power plant shift supervisor. Radiation protection  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Apart from theoretical knowledge, effective day-to-day radiation protection operations also require a certain measure of practical experience. Therefore, the professional degree of 'Certified Radiation Worker', issued by the Chamber of Industry and Commerce (CIC) Aachen, Germany, established at an early stage. In order to provide experienced radiation protection specialists with an attractive career path, POWERTECH TRAINING CENTER e.V., in co-operation with VGB PowerTech. e.V., the Paul Scherrer Institute (Switzerland) and the Swiss Atomic Energy Agency (ENSI), has devised a new power plant shift supervisor training course specialising in radiation protection. The vocational training degree called 'Certified Power Plant Shift Supervisor - Radiation Protection' is awarded after successful completion of the advanced training examination conducted by the CIC in Essen, Germany. (orig.)

2011-01-01

277

Seventh meeting of radiation protection skilled persons  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This document gathers the slides of the available presentations given during these conference days. Twenty-three presentations out of 25 are assembled in the document and deal with: 1 - the evolution of workers' international protection rules against ionizing radiation risks (C. Bardelay); 2 - presentation of the report of the working group on radiation protection (P. Barbey); 3 - position of the French nuclear safety authority and of the labor general direction about the position of permanent expert groups in radiation protection concerning the expected evolutions in the occupation and training of radioprotection skilled persons (RSP), (T. Lahaye); 4 - experience feedback: RSP in surgery operating theater - a sometimes delicate intervention (S. Balduyck); 5 - workplace analysis in dental surgery: constraints and specificities (D. Le Denmat); 6 - workplace analysis: tritium atmospheric contamination (S. Rigaud); 7 - revision of the NFC 15-160 standard relative to radiology facilities (J.L. Rehel); 8 - example of area tele-dosimetry usage - the Pitie Salpetriere hospital experiment (C. Chatellier and C. Barret); 9 - contribution of radio-attenuation lead gloves in interventional radiology (J. Guersen); 10 - zoning in the medical domain: encountered problems typology and evaluation of possible solutions (Degrange, J.P.); 11 - management of used sealed sources distributed by the CEA and CISBIO (B. Sevestre); 12 - how to perform a measurement in radiation protection - how about measurement uncertainty (M. Ammerich); 13 - national campaign of control about the application of workers radiation protection rules (T. Lahaye); 14 - transparency and inspection approach in local nuclear applications: gamma-graphy, research, nuclear medicine, interventional radiography and radiotherapy (S. Rodde and C. Marchal); 15 - local/regional networks of RSPs and radiation protection actors: 2008 audit results and recent evolutions (C. Lefaure); 16 - role and missions of the external RSP in dental surgery (H. Bouk'Il); 17 - status of radiation protection inspections at Paris social services and state-owned hospitals authority (D.J. Gambini); 18 - registered organisation and RSP: relations and exchanges (B. Auboiroux and P. Martel); 19 - interactions between EdF's RSP and contractor's RSP (A. Riedel); 20 - 2009 national status of workers' exposure (J. Feuardent); 21 - IRSN's Siseri system: relations with users (P. Scanff); 22 - communication as an integral part of RSP's role (M. Bof); 23 - the expected consequences of the publication no. 103 of the international commission of radiological protection (CIPR), (J. Lochard). (J.S.)

2011-01-01

278

Regulation on protection against ionizing radiations  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This regulation has as the objective to establish the criteria tending toward protecting the health of the population of the radiologic risks that can be derive from the employment of the ionizing radiations and similar activities. It establishes the requirements to comply with the radiactive installations, equipment transmitters of ionizing radiations, personal that works in them, operate the equipment and carry out any another similar activity such as: production, importation, exportation, transportation, transference of radioactive material or equipment generators of radiations ionizing. (S. Grainger)

1995-03-08

279

Electron microscopy - principles of radiation protection  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This 8 minute programme explains the nature of the possible radiation hazard in Electron Microscopy and outlines the ways in which modern equipment is designed and made so that in normal use the worker is not exposed to radiation. The interlock principle is explained and illustrated by an example from the field of X-ray crystallography. By filming machines while they were dismantled for servicing, details of several internal safety devices have been included. In this way workers who normally use the equipment as a 'black box' get some insight into the principles and practice of radiation protection in the field. (author).

1990-01-01

280

Relations between radiation risks and radiation protection measuring techniques  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Relations between radiation risks and radiation protection measuring techniques are considered as components of the radiation risk. The influence of the exposure risk on type and extent of radiation protection measurements is discussed with regard to different measuring tasks. Based upon measuring results concerning the frequency of certain external and internal occupational exposures in the GDR, it has been shown that only a small fraction of the monitored persons are subjected to a high exposure risk. As a consequence the following recommendations are presented: occupationally exposed persons with small exposure risk should be monitored using only a long-term desimeter (for instance a thermoluminescence desimeter). In the case of internal exposure, the surface and air contamination levels should be controlled so strictly that routine measurements of internal contamination need not be performed

 
 
 
 
281

Regulatory consideration in radiation protection  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A regulatory scheme is suggested that identifies regions labeled unacceptable and safe as the upper and lower bounds and operational region is identified as the continuum between the two extremes. These regions are associated with levels of annual risk of cancer death for a given level of lifetime exposure between 100 mrem/yr and 1 mrem/yr, upper and lower bounds, respectively. Concern is expressed with establishing public health standards at ALARA (as low as reasonably achievable) levels, which result in lower standards for reference, and views are presented on several issues of interest in regulations for protection of the public from radioactivity in drinking water. Based on the regulatory scheme suggested, the author concludes that existing standards for drinking water appear to be lower than necessary.

Mills, W.A.

1985-05-01

282

Current trends in radiation protection  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Organizers of the 11. IRPA International Congress have wished to take advantage of this occasion to launch a new series of books dedicated to review the current important problems of concerns in radioprotection. The four editors have combined their efforts to assemble within this book contributions from the worldwide and most famous specialists in their respective fields. Their signatures lead to the insurance of a first class information. all aspects of radioprotection are treated, through synthetic articles accessible to all. Very didactic, this book will be useful to radioprotection professionals willing to take the stake of all aspects within their profession, but also to engineers, physicists, physicians, researchers, and non-specialist people who will find here a thorough synthesis of all aspects of radiological protection. (author)

Metivier, H.; Arranz, L.; Gallego, E.; Sugier, A

2004-07-01

283

International regulations for radiation protection  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A review of the development of the IAEA Radiological Protection standards is given. The basic features of the latest revision recently adopted by the governing bodies of the sponsoring organizations, i.e. IAEA, WHO, ILO, NEA/OECD are discussed and some of the features of the future Agency programme for its implementation will be outlined. In particular, attention will be given to development of the basic principles for setting release limits of radioactive materials into the environment. An important aspect of this is when the release of radioactive materials into the environment crosses international boundaries. The Agency is best suited to try to reach a consensus on the minimum monetary value for the unit collective dose. (orig./RW).

1982-10-01

284

Work report 2001 of the Safety and Radiation Protection Department  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The tasks of the Department for Safety and Radiation Protection, the organization, and the work in the year under review are described. Headings of work were as follows: licensing and safety, operational radiation protection, environmental monitoring, measuring technology, industrial safety, and physical protection. Research and development work was done on environmental monitoring and on radiation protection. (MG)

2002-01-01

285

Work report 2002 of the Safety and Radiation Protection Department  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The tasks of the Department for Safety and Radiation Protection, the organization, and the work in the year under review are described. Headings of work were as follows: licensing and safety, operational radiation protection, environmental monitoring, measuring technology, industrial safety, and physical protection. Research and development work was done on environmental monitoring and on radiation protection. (MG)

2003-01-01

286

Polymer-composite materials for radiation protection.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Unwanted exposures to high-energy or ionizing radiation can be hazardous to health. Prolonged or accumulated radiation dosage from either particle-emissions such as alpha/beta, proton, electron, neutron emissions, or high-energy electromagnetic waves such as X-rays/? rays, may result in carcinogenesis, cell mutations, organ failure, etc. To avoid occupational hazards from these kinds of exposures, researchers have traditionally used heavy metals or their composites to attenuate the radiation. However, protective gear made of heavy metals are not only cumbersome but also are capable of producing more penetrative secondary radiations which requires additional shielding, increasing the cost and the weight factor. Consequently, significant research efforts have been focused toward designing efficient, lightweight, cost-effective, and flexible shielding materials for protection against radiation encountered in various industries (aerospace, hospitals, and nuclear reactors). In this regard, polymer composites have become attractive candidates for developing materials that can be designed to effectively attenuate photon or particle radiation. In this paper, we review the state-of-the-art of polymer composites reinforced with micro/nanomaterials, for their use as radiation shields.

Nambiar S; Yeow JT

2012-11-01

287

76 FR 50487 - Protected Critical Infrastructure Information (PCII) Stakeholder Survey  

Science.gov (United States)

...Infrastructure Information (PCII) Stakeholder Survey AGENCY: National Protection...Infrastructure Information (PCII) Stakeholder Survey. DHS previously published this...PCII Program oversees a community of stakeholders, including submitters of CII,...

2011-08-15

288

Monitoring radiation protection in dental practice  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Board has become a national point of reference for radiation protection standards in dental radiology. This arises out of 20 years of operating a postal assessment service to dental practitioners and latterly also to dental equipment companies. The currently available services are described, together with a review of the experience gained and a summary of what has been achieved to date. (author).

Hewitt, John; Hipkin, John; Hudson, Anthony (National Radiological Protection Board, Leeds (United Kingdom))

1994-03-01

289

Uncertainties of measurements in radiation protection  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

On September 1st, 2001, the Austrian standard OENORM S 5255-1 with the title 'Uncertainties of measurements and limiting values in radiation protection - Part 1: Basics' was published. A part 2 of the standard with the subtitle 'Assessment of measurements with regard to limiting values' was published on April 1st, 2002. Part 1 of the standard is a consequent application of the 'Guide to the expression of uncertainty in measurement' (GUM) for measurements in radiation protection. It contains a summary of the most important definitions and mathematical methods, which are relevant for measurements in radiation protection. An important prerequisite is the standardisation of the coverage factor k=1 for measurements in radiation protection. Finally, the use of the standard is demonstrated by a detailed example there (dose rate meter). First, the uncertainty of a dose rate meter is stated, using only information on tolerances available e.g. from instrument specifications. Additionally, the strategies to reduce the uncertainty and the necessary detailed knowledge of the dose rate meter are demonstrated. Part 2 of the standard gives a simple concept for interpretation of limits using the uncertainties calculated based on part 1 of the standard. (orig.)

Steurer, A.; Schmitzer, C. [ARC Seibersdorf Research GmbH (Austria); Gruen, K. [Oesterreichisches Normungsinstitut, Vienna (Austria)

2003-08-01

290

Medical radiation protection practice within the EEC  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Proceedings of this meeting give a comparative overview of current legislation and practice in the European Member States. This publication represents the most comprehensive collection of data on the legal and administrative aspects of medical radiation protection within the EEC. (author).

Fitzgerald, M.; Courades, J.-M. (eds.)

1991-01-01

291

Implication on future priorities in radiation protection  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

As a result of the consequences of the Chernobyl accident, the aspects of health effects from radiation as well as the protection norms are reviewed. In particular the radioprotection of the workers and the population, the emergency planning and the information of the public at national and international levels are discussed. (A.F.)

1986-10-07

292

Conditions for radiation protection in industrial radiography  

CERN Document Server

The leaflet specifies radiation protection requirements for industrial radiography in Norway. The regulations are directed towards companies using or distributing sealed radioactive sources, x-ray equipment or accelerators in non-destructive material testing (NDT). Technical requirements to the equipment, as well as administrative requirements for use, licensing, qualifications, handling of accidents etc. are given. (Author)

1999-01-01

293

Protective role of plants against harmful radiation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The rapid technological advancement has increased human exposure to ionizing radiations enormously. Ionizing radiations produces deleterious effects in the living organisms. Widespread use of radiation in diagnosis therapy, industry, energy sector and inadvertent exposure during air and space travel, nuclear accidents and nuclear terror attacks requires safeguard against human exposures. Lead shielding and other physical measures can be used in such situations but with difficulty to manage; thus pharmacological intervention could be the most prudent strategy to protect humans against the harmful effect of ionizing radiations. These pharmacological agents are radioprotectives; The development of radioprotective agents has been the subject of intense research in view of their potential for use within a radiation environment. However, no ideal, safe synthetic radio protectors are available to date, so the search for alternative sources including plants has been ongoing. In Ayurveda, the traditional Indian system of medicine, several plants have been used to treat free radical-mediated ailments and, therefore, it is logical to expect that such plants may also render some protection against radiation damage. This all is due to antioxidant enzymes, nitroxides, and melatonin, antiemetic, anti-inflammatory. haemopoitic and immunostimulant compounds. Some of the plants which are found to be radioprotective are Centella asiatica, Ginkgo biloba, Hippophae rhamnoides, Ocimum sanctum, Podophyllurn hexandrum, Tinospora cordifolia, Emblica officinalis, Phyllanthus amarus, etc. So there is an urgent need to identify and characterize the many of the plants in relation to the radioprotection. Besides these medicinal plants there are also some fruits and vegetables which are having good response against harmful radiations such as Kiwifruit Actinidia deliciosa (Actinidaceae), Cape Gooseberry Physalis peruviana (Solanaceae). They protect against the radiation-induced damage by scavenging of free radicals and increasing antioxidant status. Fractionation guided evaluation may result in the development of ideal radio protectors in the near future. (author)

2012-01-01

294

Technical evaluation of the capability of present instrumentation to meet the draft ANSI standard on performance specifications for radiation protection survey instrumentation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Existing standards and guides were reviewed. A survey of commercially available instruments determined information on types of instruments available and the manufacturers specifications. Users provided information regarding instrument preference and desired capability. Based on the above information and statistical criteria, procurement of 56 representative instrumentation was initiated. Instrument test and evaluation procedures are being developed that follow the existing, proposed, or draft standards and guides

1983-01-01

295

Radiation protection in exploitation of uranium ores  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The results are analyzed of the study of the radiation conditions in uranium mines, design and testing of protection means, improvement of methods and equipment for the dosimetric control in different countries since 1968 to 1975. There are outlined radiation hazards and their role in the formation of the radiation situation in mines, dispersive composition of aerosols of short-living daughter products of Rn(DPR) in the mine atmosphere. Among means of the radiation protection the following are dealt with: ventilation including the calculation of air requirements, design of ventilation systems, ventilation practices in working mines; lowering of the release of radon into the mine atmosphere by isolating non-exploited pits, application of gas-proof covers to cofferdams in faces of jointing zones, intensification of mining works in dangerous zones. Methods of air cleaning to remove Rn are suggested in brief. Apparatus are described for the individual control of the level of latent energy in the zone of miners' respiration: track dosimeters, thermoluminescent crystalls (TLC), photographic films, semiconductor systems and biophysical methods of the control for uranium mines. The efficient use of existing protection means provides the normal radiation situation in mines without significant additional investments

1976-01-01

296

The Law on Precautionary Radiation Protection prevents public health protection  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

On the occasion of the discussion by the German Bundesrat of the bill on Precautionary Radiation Protection, the Hessian Minister of Social Affairs denied his approval of the bill on the grounds that there are serious and numerous flaws. He considered the bill to be a more dummy put up for election propaganda, as he could not find any substantive provisions in it. The Minister in his speech explained this opinion, saying that the bill does not provide for the protection of public health, nor create the necessary conditions for an effective and coordinated emergency control in case of a radiation accident. He declared the bill to be just an instrument of warding off danger that in essence curtails important rights of participation of the Laender. (HSCH).

1986-01-01

297

Radiation risks : the ethics of health protection  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Since the inception of commercial uses of nuclear technology, radiation protection standards established by regulatory agencies have reflected moral concerns based on two assumptions: (1) that the linear, zero-threshold hypothesis derives from scientific data in radiobiology which are virtually conclusive; (2) it is morally better for public health protection to assume that any radiation exposure, no matter how small, has some harmful effect which can and ought to be prevented. In the past few years these beliefs and related assumptions have received closer scrutiny, revealing hidden reasons for regulatory selection of radiation risks as objects of paramount ethical concern, with the result that greater risks to health have escaped comparison and mitigation. Based on this scrutiny this brief paper explores two questions: Are presupposed assumptions ethically justified on grounds of scientific evidence and ethical consistency? and should moral objections claiming to invalidate comparative risk assessments be accepted or rejected?.

1988-01-01

298

Radon, radiation effects and radiation protection. Radon - Strahlenwirkung und Strahlenschutz  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Epidemiological studies among Rn-exposed miners revealed a significant increase in lung tumour occurrence with increased exposure to radon daughters. Radiation exposure of the lungs also is given through inhalation of Rn-decay products released from the building material of residential houses. The resulting lung cancer risk is one of the major issues of radiation protection of the population. Extensive data collections are available on Rn-concentrations in room air. Building planning and design should make better use of these data, particularly for selection of materials and design of the basement and foundation of buildings, as radon daughters are the major source of radiation exposure of the population. (DG).

Jacobi, W. (Gesellschaft fuer Strahlen- und Umweltforschung mbH Muenchen, Neuherberg (Germany, F.R.). Inst. fuer Strahlenschutz)

1989-11-01

299

Radiation protection surveillance of Agency operations 1998. A report to the Radiation Protection Committee  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Radiation Monitoring and Protection Services Section (RMPS) is responsible fro conducting the physical surveillance programme applicable to Agency operations involving the use of ionizing radiations or radioactive source. This covers, in particular, individual dosimetry of all individuals for whose radiation protection the Agency is responsible (Agency staff, experts, trainees, etc.) as well as, where applicable, the monitoring of the working environment. The IAEA Radiation Protection Rules and Procedures require the Radiation Health and Safety Officer to report annually to the Radiation Protection Committee on the activities carried out under this programme. The present Report covers activities performed and results obtained in this context. About 800 individuals were monitored, either routinely or on an ad-hoc basis. No case of overexposure was registered. The average annual personal dose equivalent, Hp(10), among Agency staff, was 0,735 mSv and the maximum annual individual dose was 4.52 mSv. As far as TC experts are concerned, the average dose received during assignment was 0.148 mSv, the maximum dose being 1.01 mSv. The Section continued to perform its duties in operational radiation protection at Agency premises. There was no evidence of increase over natural background radiation levels that could be attributed to the IAEA Laboratories' activities. 3 field missions were undertaken this year as support to Agency activities. (author)

2002-01-01

300

Survey of international personnel radiation dosimetry programs  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In September of 1983, a mail survey was conducted to determine the status of external personnel gamma and neutron radiation dosimetry programs at international agencies. A total of 130 agencies participated in this study including military, regulatory, university, hospital, laboratory, and utility facilities. Information concerning basic dosimeter types, calibration sources, calibration phantoms, corrections to dosimeter responses, evaluating agencies, dose equivalent reporting conventions, ranges of typical or expected dose equivalents, and degree of satisfaction with existing systems was obtained for the gamma and neutron personnel monitoring programs at responding agencies. Results of this survey indicate that to provide the best possible occupational radiation monitoring programs and to improve dosimetry accuracy in performance studies, facility dosimetrists, regulatory and standards agencies, and research laboratories must act within their areas of responsibility to become familiar with their radiation monitoring systems, establish common reporting guidelines and performance standards, and provide opportunities for dosimetry testing and evaluation. 14 references, 10 tables

1985-01-01

 
 
 
 
301

Sustainable development and justification in radiation protection  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The advantages and disadvantages of ionizing radiation must be listed in order to be able to justify the application of this technique, based on criteria by which ionizing radiation can be assessed. In this note the development of so-called sustainability criteria, by which environmental protection aspects can be assessed, is initiated. The sustainability criteria must include the subjects integrated chain management, energy extending, quality improvement and the perception of risks, as indicated in the memo Handling of Radiation Risks. The sustainability criteria can be applied absolute (testing of the marginal values), as well as relative (choice for the least hazardous effect). An overall outline is given of the impact of applying these criteria. The most discriminative criterion appears to be the waste criterion. Generally spoken, only ionizing radiation of instruments and applications of some short-living isotopes, produced by means of accelerators, can meet this criterion. 4 figs., 2 tabs., 1 appendix, 17 refs

1992-01-01

302

Intervention and sustainability in radiation protection  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The book includes two parts: (A): Intervention and sustainability in radiation protection; summary and assessment of the conference of the German radiation protection commission (Strahlenschutzkommission) in November 2008. (B): lectures: The question of sustainability in connection with long-living radionuclides. Principles for protecting individuals in a context of rehabilitation of living conditions in contaminated territories. The application of the basic principles of radiation protection in case of Wismut recultivation. Situation concerning radon and reduction of radon-induced exposure in Schlema and Schneeberg. International experiences in recultivation projects: Lermontov (Russia), Mailuu (Kirgistan), Kitwe (Zambia). Radiological burden of the past in Germany. Radiological industrial wastes: situation, intervention, sustainability. Radiological burden of the past in Switzerland. Recultivation and clearing procedure in the former fuel production plant NUKEM-A. Justification of the strong sustainability concept. Recultivation strategies for the areas contaminated through the Chernobyl accident. Traces of plutonium production in the Jenissei river. Results and assessment of the active storage for residues (ALfR) in Rheinsberg. Large-scale changes of environmental radioactivity: atmospheric radioactivity. Long-living radionuclides in the hydrosphere: the case of iodine-129. Long-term retention and behavior of radioactivity in the soils. Assessment of long-term behavior of recultivation areas and old environmental contamination. Long-term safety and sustainability for the final repository of radioactive waste. Assessment of the long-term behavior of radiological contaminated uranium mining sites in France - The GEP (Groupe d'expertise pluraliste) approach.

2010-01-01

303

Assessing the service provided by an institutional radiation safety survey program  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Routine radiation safety surveys are a required part of every institutional radiation protection program. Although mandated by regulation, surveys are really performed to help clinicians and researchers establish and maintain radiologically-safe working and learning environments. In some cases, however, the priorities established by a radiation protection program may not coincide with the needs perceived by the institution`s workers, leading to possible alienation, dissatisfaction, and non-compliance with policies, procedures, and regulations. To determine if a typical survey program was perceived as providing a good or valued service to workers, a simple questionnaire was created and utilized for a 6-mo period. The results obtained from this targeted assessment tool indicate that the radiation safety survey services were perceived as useful by most of the workers. In addition, the actual process of comment solicitation provided a positive feedback mechanism from the service recipients to the radiation safety staff, managers, committee members, and institution administrators. 5 refs., 2 tabs.

Emery, R.J.; Sawyer, R.L. [Univ. of Texas-Houston Health Science Center, TX (United States); Sprau, D.D. [East Carolina Univ., NC (United States)

1996-05-01

304

Days of Radiation Protection 2001. Conference Proceedings of the 24th Days of Radiation Protection  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Already the 24th annual international conference 'Days of Protection from Radiation' was taking place in Jan Sverma Hotel in Demaenova dolina on 26-29 November 2001. More than 180 participants from the Slovak Republic and the Czech Republic participated in the meetings of experts on protection from radiation. Representative of IAEA Division for Protection from Radiation and the representatives of several European companies securing the project, advisory and supplier's activities in dosimetry of ionising radiation also participated in the conference. The participants discussed in 7 expert panels the issue of protection from radiation in the legislative field, in the nuclear facilities operation and in medicine. The expert part of the other panels concerned the issues of ionising radiation impact on the environment and working environment, natural radio-nuclides, including radon and biologic impacts of radiation. One separate panel was dedicated to device techniques and methods of dosimetry of ionising radiation. More than 45 expert lectures and more than 40 poster presentations were presented at the conference during 3 days. The exhibition and presentation of measuring technique products and devices and of materials used in the area of radiation protection and nuclear medicine was prepared during the course of the conference. Participation in the conference showed that a great interest in problems of protection from radiation persists. This was proved by rich lecturing activity and wide discussions on the floor and during the poster presentations. Participants were satisfied since the organisers of the event prepared a worthy event with the rich expert themes at a good organisational and social level in a beautiful environment of Low Tatras.

2001-01-01

305

Radiation protection optimization. Advances in practical implementation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Within the Community, protection against the dangers of ionizing radiation is regulated in conformity with the provisions of two Council Directives. One is of general application for all activities involving a hazard arising from ionizing radiation and lays down the basic safety standards for the health protection of the general public and workers against the dangers of ionizing radiation. The other is derived from the abovementioned one and lays down the basic measures for the radiation protection of persons undergoing medical examination or treatment. The Commission, in collaboration with the Spanish Ministerio de Sanidad y Consumo, the Consejo de Seguridad Nuclear and the Centro de Investigaciones Energeticas, Medioambientales y Tecnologicas, organized on 12, 13 and 14 September 1988 in Madrid, the third scientific seminar on the optimization principle (Alara) which is a key element of the two abovementioned Council Directives. The seminar allowed an analysis of the progress made since the previous seminars of 1979 and 1983, in the practical implementation of the optimization principle, in relation to the design and operation of nuclear and industrial installations, natural radioactivity, medical practices and countermeasures. The report contains the 20 original contributions presented and some general considerations on the results of the seminar.

1988-09-14

306

radiation protection services and Norm procedures at Guoco-Rsh  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

coordinated service programs of radiation protection and NORM handling procedures are implemented at Gupco-Rsh according to a bilateral agreement between the gulf of suez petroleum company (Gupco) and the atomic energy authority (AEA) since august 1995. the services included under the domain of the agreement are carried out by an expert group during periodic visits to Gupco-Rsh site. the activities performed serving the purpose of the programs implemented are extensive. essentially aiming at instituting an integrated radiation protection services in petroleum industry, and procedures for safe handling of NORM and NORM- contaminated items; the safety of industrial sealed sources is also seriously addressed.the AEA expert group adopt the international recommendations for protection of workers and environmental preservation for all procedures implemented . however. modifications are made to harmonize the implementation to accord with current egyptian regulations.The main features of the programmes instituted include targeted training addressed to selected groups; radiological mapping surveys of Rsh area with periodic monitoring of selected onshore and offshore sites.Measurements of personnel radiation exposure, and medical surveillance of radiation workers is periodically carried out.

2004-01-01

307

The revised German radiation protection ordinance  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Since August 2001, German radiation protection law is governed by a new Radiation Protection Ordinance, implementing two new Euratom Directives and taking into account new scientific developments, which provides a comprehensive basis for the protection of man and the environment. The Ordinance has been completely restructured; however, it is still a very complex piece of legislation comprising 118 provisions and 14 annexes, some of them highly technical. Reduced dose limits for occupationally exposed persons and members of the public, a detailed provision on clearance of radioactive substances, a new part aiming at the protection of man and the environment against ionising radiation emanating from natural sources, and regulations dealing with the protection of consumers in connection with the addition of radioactive substances to consumer goods are some of the centre pieces of the new legislation which shall contribute significantly to the further prevention or at least minimisation of the adverse effects of radiation exposure. (orig.) [German] Seit August 2001 ist in Deutschland die neue Strahlenschutzverordnung in Kraft. Sie setzt neue Euratom-Richtlinien um und beruecksichtigt neuere wissenschaftliche Erkenntnisse. Der Schutz von Mensch und Umwelt gegen ionisierende Strahlung wird damit auf eine neue Grundlage gestellt. Die immer noch sehr komplexe Verordnung wurde neu gegliedert; sie umfasst 118 teilweise sehr technische Paragraphen und 14 Anhaenge. Absenkung der Dosisgrenzwerte fuer beruflich strahlenexponierte Personen und die Bevoelkerung, eine detaillierte Freigabebestimmung, ein neuer Teil mit Vorschriften zum Schutz von Mensch und Umwelt vor natuerlichen Strahlungsquellen, und Regelungen zum Schutz des Verbrauchers beim Zusatz radioaktiver Stoffe zu Produkten sind zentrale Bestimmungen der neuen Verordnung, die auf eine weitere Vermeidung oder Verminderung der nachteiligen Effekte ionisierender Strahlung abzielt. (orig.)

Palm, M. [Bundesministerium fuer Umwelt, Naturschutz und Reaktorsicherheit, Bonn (Germany)

2002-02-01

308

Decommissioning an uranium and thorium facility: a radiation protection approach  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Decommissioning means actions taken at the end of the useful life of a facility in retiring it from service with adequate regard for the health and safety of workers and members of the public. In the present work, we introduce a radiation protection approach for the removal of radioactive material to the extent that the facility or site becomes available for use without restriction. The facility to be decommissioned is a fuel cycle pilot plant that operated with natural uranium and thorium for almost two decades and then, kept inactive for about 10 years at the Nuclear and Energy Research Institute - IPEN. Even after this long period of inactivity, it has presented significant levels of radiation and contamination spread over the floor, walls, windows, doors and ceiling. The fuel cycle pilot plant was completely dismantled, remaining only the walls and the concrete structures. In this work we present the job done to restore the area. According to each step of dismantling a continuous monitoring of the contaminated surfaces was carried out including the survey of the deep material from the floor and walls. The material identified as radioactive waste was stored into appropriated metal drums. A radiation protection team guided this stage of the work, prescribing the tasks, and the amount of material that should be removed from floors, windows and ceiling. For this, repetitive surveys had to be done. The results of monitoring and contamination levels were analysed, thus guiding the next steps of the job. In this way radiation protection team took over the tasks, running the work with the purpose of achieving acceptable levels of radiation, restoring the area for unrestricted use. (author)

2008-01-01

309

Radiation protection organization in Guangdong Nuclear Power Station (GNPS)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The French way of radiation protection management has been adopted by Guangdong Nuclear Power Station (GNPS) but there are some differences. In this paper author describes radiation protection organization in GNPS, special measures having been taken and the present status.

1993-01-01

310

The development of Radiation Protection Training courses in the UK  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper considers use of modern training materials and aids in radiation protection training activities. The development in the UK of training courses to satisfy the training requirements for Radiation Protection Advisers is also discussed. (Author)

Paynter, R. A.

2003-07-01

311

Biological research for the radiation protection  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The work scope of 'Biological Research for the Radiation Protection' had contained the research about polyamine effect on cell death triggered ionizing radiation, H2O2 and toxic agents. In this paper, to elucidate the role of polyamines as mediator in lysosomal damage and stress(H2O2)- induced apoptosis, we utilized ?-DiFluoroMethylOrnithine (DFMO), which inhibited ornithine decarboxylase and depleted intracellular putrescine, and investigated the effects of polyamine on the apoptosis caused by H2O2, ionizing radiation and paraquat. We also showed that MGBG, inhibitor of polyamine biosynthesis, treatment affected intracellular redox steady states, intracellular ROS levels and protein oxidation. Thereafter we also investigated whether MGBG may enhance the cytotoxic efficacy of tumor cells caused by ionizing radiation or H2O2 because such compounds are able to potentiate the cell-killing effects. In addition, ceruloplasmin and thioredoxin, possible antioxidant proteins, were shown to have protective effect on radiation- or H2O2(or chemicals)-induced macromolecular damage or cell death.

2003-01-01

312

Chemical protection against ionizing radiation. Final report  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The scientific literature on radiation-protective drugs is reviewed. Emphasis is placed on the mechanisms involved in determining the sensitivity of biological material to ionizing radiation and mechanisms of chemical radioprotection. In Section I, the types of radiation are described and the effects of ionizing radiation on biological systems are reviewed. The effects of ionizing radiation are briefly contrasted with the effects of non-ionizing radiation. Section II reviews the contributions of various natural factors which influence the inherent radiosensitivity of biological systems. Inlcuded in the list of these factors are water, oxygen, thiols, vitamins and antioxidants. Brief attention is given to the model describing competition between oxygen and natural radioprotective substances (principally, thiols) in determining the net cellular radiosensitivity. Several theories of the mechanism(s) of action of radioprotective drugs are described in Section III. These mechanisms include the production of hypoxia, detoxication of radiochemical reactive species, stabilization of the radiobiological target and the enhancement of damage repair processes. Section IV describes the current strategies for the treatment of radiation injury. Likely areas in which fruitful research might be performed are described in Section V. 495 references

1984-01-01

313

Chemical protection against ionizing radiation. Final report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The scientific literature on radiation-protective drugs is reviewed. Emphasis is placed on the mechanisms involved in determining the sensitivity of biological material to ionizing radiation and mechanisms of chemical radioprotection. In Section I, the types of radiation are described and the effects of ionizing radiation on biological systems are reviewed. The effects of ionizing radiation are briefly contrasted with the effects of non-ionizing radiation. Section II reviews the contributions of various natural factors which influence the inherent radiosensitivity of biological systems. Inlcuded in the list of these factors are water, oxygen, thiols, vitamins and antioxidants. Brief attention is given to the model describing competition between oxygen and natural radioprotective substances (principally, thiols) in determining the net cellular radiosensitivity. Several theories of the mechanism(s) of action of radioprotective drugs are described in Section III. These mechanisms include the production of hypoxia, detoxication of radiochemical reactive species, stabilization of the radiobiological target and the enhancement of damage repair processes. Section IV describes the current strategies for the treatment of radiation injury. Likely areas in which fruitful research might be performed are described in Section V. 495 references.

Livesey, J.C.; Reed, D.J.; Adamson, L.F.

1984-08-01

314

Conceptual apparatus of radiation protection: a critique  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The conceptual apparatus developed by the International Commission for Radiological Protection for the formulation and expression of limits to protect the health of workers exposed to ionizing radiation is reviewed. The notion of dose and dose equivalent is developed, and the new ICRP index of effective (whole body) equivalent dose introduced. Metabolic models are used to develop Annual Limits to Intake and the Derived Air Concentrations which are the enforceable environmental standards. A critique is offered of the risk factors used by ICRP and the derivation of dose limits, and of the proposed organ dose limits and their corresponding DACs. The position of some overseas regulatory authorities is sketched.

Mathews, J.A. (ACTU/VTHC Occupational Health and Safety Unit, Melbourne (Australia))

1983-01-01

315

Carefully with revolution in radiation protection  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

International Commission of Radiological Protection presents the thesis that there are no evidence for existing the threshold dose in low LET radiations interacting with human organism. The rule 'as low as reasonable achievable' should be applied in dose limits elaboration. In every case that process should be preceded by optimisation of costs of protection and exposition consequences. The new term 'controllable dose' introduced by ICRP can be alternative for up to date used term 'dose limit'. As a result of such analysis the level of some mSv/y ear seems to be sufficient for professional hazard

2000-01-01

316

Requirements for gamma radiation survey meter calibration  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] This guide describes the minimum requirements for calibrating a portable analog gamma radiation survey meter by means of a beam calibrator, with a known calibration source. If an alternative method of calibration is to be used the licensee should make a written request to the Atomic Energy Control Board that describes the calibration method to be used, and request the Board's permission to use that method in place of the requirements contained in this guide. This guide explains: the responsibility for survey meter calibration if licensees calibrate their own survey meters, use the services of a Canadian calibration agency, and use the services of a non-Canadian calibration agency; the requirements for survey meter calibration and the supporting documentation; the requirements for record-keeping; and, a calibration certificate, a calibration sticker, and a notification of failure to calibrate form, with examples

1990-01-01

317

A survey of generator back-up protection practices  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper reports on and analyzes a survey of practices and experiences with time-delay back-up protection associated with unit-connected generators, predominantly rated 100 MVA and above. In addition, application and setting considerations are discussed. The survey covers phase back-up negative-sequence overcurrent and high-side neutral overcurrent protection.

Rockefeller, G.D.; Darlington, A.N.; Elmore, W.A.; Fernandez, R.J.; Gil-Berlinches, J.R.; Haas, R.W.; Landoll, L.E.; Marsh, W.J.; Nail, G.R.; Pierce, A.C.; Wagner, C.L.; Wright, L.S

1990-04-01

318

Cost-benefit analysis and radiation protection  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Cost-benefit analysis is recommended as a tool to justify radiation exposure practices and to keep exposures as low as is reasonably achievable, taking into account economic and social considerations. Value judgments that reflect the interests of society, and therefore require the participation of competent authorities and governmental bodies, must be included in cost-benefit analyses. To optimize radiation protection for a given practice, the incremental costs involved in reducing the collective dose from a given level to a range of lower levels are compared with the incremental health benefits that result.

Ahmed, J.U.; Daw, H.T.

1980-10-01

319

Radiation Protection in the Experimental Pile Marius  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Measurements made around the experimental pile 'Marius' made it possible to determine the valid characteristics of the slabs designed to improve the biological protection by covering the charge and discharge pits. These measurements also made it possible to evaluate the risks occurring when the pile is operating at various Powers and to make a reasonable estimate of the value of the ratio of the total danger due to neutrons (thermal and fast) and ? radiation and to the danger due only to the ? radiation. A knowledge of this ratio makes it possible to make satisfactory evaluations with a single apparatus which is really portable. (author)

1962-01-01

320

The gender problem in radiation protection  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Gender is a range of characteristics used to distinguish between males and females, particularly in the cases of men and women and the masculine and feminine attributes assigned to them. While the social sciences sometimes approach gender as a social construct, and some gender studies particularly do, research in the natural and medical sciences investigates whether biological differences in males and females influence the development of gender in humans. Radiation protection regulations also take into account the possibly different radiation risks of males and females. The following contribution investigates how far this is justified, and what are the consequences. (orig.)

Persson, Lars [Nobel Inst. of Physics, Stockholm (Sweden)

2012-07-01

 
 
 
 
321

Thermoluminescence dosimetry (TLD) in radiation protection  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A brief sequence of development of main thermoluminescence dosimetry (TLD) materials and their important properties are given. It has been a long way of developments in this field since the birth of LiF TLD-100 in 1963. Literature is now flooded with both theoretical aspects as well as applications of thermoluminescence. Presently, there is hardly any conference on radiation protection, radiation dosimetry and medical physics where papers related to TLD, either directly or indirectly, are not presented. In fact TLD system has become an integral part of health physics laboratories and medical physics departments

1998-12-18

322

Radiation protection of vitamins in aqueous systems  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] A study of the radiation induced decomposition of the B-group vitamins has been carried out in aqueous media at room temperature as well as in rigid matrices at low temperature. The detailed results on the effect of glucose and oxygen as protective additives at the different temperatures are presented in the case of Thiamine (Vitamin B1). Comparative data are given on the extent of decomposition of this and other vitamins of the B-group at room temperature and at 193 K. The importance of these results in connection with the radiation sterilization of pharmaceutical preparations is indicated. (author)

1976-01-01

323

Recommendations for a knowledge sharing in radiation protection. Expertise in radiation protection. Extract from ' propositions for a better protection of persons against the radiation risk'  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The group of priorities in radiation protection proposes the following recommendations: to carry on the researches in France to better know the radiation effects on man health and particularly the effects in relation with low doses; to create a national network of researchers working in the field of radiobiology; to create a plan of a scientific lookout; to strengthen the expertise in the field of action principles of radiation protection; to help the development of an organization allowing an interaction between each actor of radiation protection; to organize the production of notes on radiation protection for professionals. (N.C.)

2007-01-01

324

Radiation protection standards: a summary of the biological effects of ionising radiation and principles of radiation protection  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] This leaflet in the NRPB At-a-Glance-Series briefly summarises the biological effects of radiation, harm and sensitivity to radiation, radiation protection principles, acceptability of risk and the control of doses to workers, the public and in medical procedures in the UK. (UK)

1994-01-01

325

IRPA Regional Congress on Radiation Protection in Central Europe  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The Congress proceedings included 93 papers. The IRPA Congress materials deals with progress the various IRPA initiatives to implement new radiation protection concepts. In accordance to this actual trends the main topics of the congress are 'Clearance levels and material release' and 'Environmental impact assessment of workplaces resp. facilities with radiation sources'. Papers and posters in all traditional radiation protection subjects (general aspects, biological effects of radiation, radiation protection in medicine, dosimetry, instrumentation, quality assurance)

2003-01-01

326

Instruction and further training in stomatologic radiation protection  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Considering the importance of radiation protection in dental radiology and the respective legal regulations of the GDR, objectives and contents of basic and advanced training of responsible co-workers in radiation protection are described. Particular organisational aspects regarding training courses in the national Board for Atomic Safety and Radiation Protection are outlined. (author)

1990-01-01

327

Numerical experiments in radiation protection and dosimetry  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Numerical experiments have dominant place almost at all the regions of human creativity. They are preceding the physical experiment with the aim to direct it and they are following it in order to interpret it. Our backwardness compared to the world in performing numerical experiments in radiation protection and dosimetry, may be compensated exclusively by coordinated work mastering theory and techniques of numerical experiments. This paper is dedicated to those purposes. (author)

1997-01-01

328

Radiation protection aspects in importing metallic scraps  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The meeting deals with radiation protection problems caused by the possibility that radioactive metal scraps or radioactive sources hidden in the scraps, may arrive in a foundry. The importance of this issue and of rational and systematic solutions is showed by several accidents, happened in the past in numerous countries, by many signals in Italy and by some papers published in international scientific journals or reports issued by authorities and institutions in different countries.

1996-01-01

329

Monitoring radiation protection in dental practice  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The Board has become a national point of reference for radiation protection standards in dental radiology. This arises out of 20 years of operating a postal assessment service to dental practitioners and latterly also to dental equipment companies. The currently available services are described, together with a review of the experience gained and a summary of what has been achieved to date. (author)

1994-01-01

330

Training in Radiation Protection for Interventional Radiology  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Several potential problems have been detected in the safety aspects for the practice of interventional radiology procedures: a) An important increase in the number cases and their complexity and the corresponding increase of installations and specialists involved; b) New X ray systems more sophisticated, with advanced operational possibilities, requiring special skills in the operators to obtain the expected benefits;c) New medical specialists arriving to the interventional arena to profit the benefits of the interventional techniques without previous experience in radiation protection. For that reason, education and training is one of the basic areas in any optimisation programme in radiation protection (RP). the medical field and especially interventional radiology requires actions to promote and to profit the benefit of the new emerging technologies for training (Internet, electronic books, etc). The EC has recently sponsored the MARTIR programme (Multimedia and Audio-visual Radiation Protection Training in Interventional Radiology) with the production of two videos on basic aspects of RP and quality control and one interactive CD-ROM to allow tailored individual training programmes. those educational tools are being distributed cost free in the main European languages. To go ahead with these actions, the EC has decided to promote during 2002, a forum with the main Medical European Societies involved in these interventional procedures. (Author)

2002-01-01

331

Radiation Protection of patient in Latin America  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The Iberoamerican Forum of Regulatory Authorities (hereafter, the Forum) was created in 1997 with the aim of promoting in the region high safety standards in all practices utilizing radioactive or nuclear materials. From its foundation, this multi party Organism was integrated by argentina, Brazil, cuba Mexico and Spain. Uruguay joined the group last year. In recent years, regulatory aspects concerning Patient's Radiation Protection became considered of major interest to the Forum, to such an extent that a specific are of study, currently coordinated by the Brazilian representative, was created within the Technical Executive Committee. In this work, the general consideration of the Forum on Radiation Protection of Patients is explained and the contents of the first specific project in this area, proposed by Argentina, are presented. The project entitled Continuous improvement in the regulatory framework for the control of medical exposure in Iberoamerica starts this year and concurs with the IAEA priorities regarding the International Action Plan on the Radiation Protection of Patients. (Author)

2006-01-01

332

Ionizing radiation protection regulation in Canada: the role of the Federal Provincial Territorial Radiation Protection Committee  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Canada has one of the broadest and most mature nuclear industries in the world, and is a world leader in uranium mining, and in the production of medical radioisotopes. The Canadian nuclear industry also includes: uranium milling, refining, and fuel fabrication facilities; nuclear generating stations; research reactors and related facilities; waste management facilities; and the use of radioactive materials in medicine and industry. Regulation of this broad and dynamic industry is a complex and challenging task. Canada has a cooperative system for the regulation of ionizing radiation protection covering federal, provincial, territorial, and military jurisdictions. A Federal/Provincial/Territorial Radiation Protection Committee (FPTRPC) exists to aid in cooperation between the various agencies. Their mandate encompasses regulation and guidance on all aspects of radiation protection: federal and provincial; NORM and anthropogenic; ionizing and non-ionizing. The Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission (CNSC) is the federal nuclear regulator whose mandate includes radiation protection regulation of most occupational and public exposures. The CNSC does not regulate medical (patient) exposures, some aspects of NORM, or military applications. Provincial authorities are the primary regulators with respect to doses to patients and occupational doses arising from X-rays. Health Canada plays a role in X-ray device certification, development of national guidance (e.g. on radon) and direct regulation of certain federal facilities. NORM is regulated provincially, with varying regulatory mechanisms across the provinces and territories. Radiation protection regulation for National Defence and the Canadian Armed Forces is performed by the Director General Nuclear Safety. This paper gives an overview of the structure of the regulation of ionizing radiation protection in Canada, and shares lessons learned, particularly with respect to the usefulness of the FPTRPC in helping coordinate and harmonize radiation protection regulation nationally. (author)

2008-01-01

333

Data for radiation protection and nuclear data  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Various conversion coefficients have been used in external and internal dosimetry in radiation protection practices. Radiation doses in the human body cannot be directly measured in general situation and the conversion coefficient has been used to correlate the human body dose with physical quantities such as radioactivity, particle fluence and other dosimetric quantities to be used to describe the radiation field. Fluence-to-organ dose conversion coefficients have been calculated using Monte Carlo radiation transport codes in conjunction with an anthropomorphic mathematical phantom. Neutron and photon interaction cross-section libraries are indispensable for these calculations. ICRP Publication 74 gives tables of conversion coefficients for estimation of organ doses and effective dose for photons, neutrons and electrons. Based on these results, shielding calculation parameters have been prepared for simple and easy dose estimation in radiation facilities. Dose factors, organ doses and effective dose per unit intake of radionuclide, have been also calculated for internal dosimetry purpose. ICRP Publications 68 and 72 give tables of dose factors for a variety of radionuclides. Revision of radiation data library has been made to reflect updated information on radionuclides to internal dosimetry. (author)

Yamaguchi, Yasuhiro; Endo, Akira; Sakamoto, Yukio [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

2001-03-01

334

Radiation protection guidelines for the skin  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] With the exception of the function of cells in the skin associated with immunocompetence nonstochastic effects have been well characterized and threshold doses are known with a precision appropriate for setting radiation protection standards. A dose limitation of 0.5 Sv per year and a working lifetime dose limit of 20 Sv should protect the worker population adequately and therefore, the current protection standards are quite adequate. The risk estimate for skin cancer is very dependent on the selection of the projection model and on the mortality rate assumed. Based on the relative risk model, a mortality rate of 0.2% and summing risks for both UVR exposed and shielded skin the risk is about twice (1.94/10-4 Sv-1) that which ICRP derived in 1977. With the absolute model the risk is considerably less, about 0.5/10-4 Sv-1. 47 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab

1989-09-13

335

The ICRP protection policy. The conceptual framework of radiation protection  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Within twelve months of the discovery of X-rays in 1895, it was reported that large doses of radioation were harmful to living human tissues. The first radiation protection standards were set to avoid the early effects of acute irradiation. By the 1950s, evidence was mounting for late somatic effects -mainly a small excess of cancers - in irradiated populations. In the late 1980s, sufficient human epidemiological and had been accumulated to allow a comprehensive assessment of carcinogenic radiation risks following the delivery of moderately high doses. Workers and the public are exposed to lower doses and dose-rates that the groups from whom good data are available so that risks have had to be estimated for protection purposes. However, in the 1990s, some confirmation of these risk factors has been derived from occupationally exposed populations. If an estimate is made of the risk per unit dose, then in order to restrict the doses that people receive, levels of acceptable risk must be estabilished for both workers and the public. There has been and continues to be a debate about the definitions of 'acceptable', 'unacceptable' and 'tolerable' and the attributing of numerical values to these definitions. The values differ as between normal operations, the potential for accidents, recovery of contaminated land, and for workers or the public. This paper discusses the issues involved in the quantification of these terms and the way in which the International Commission on Radiological Protection has used acceptability of risk in setting its new standards for protection. (orig.).

1997-01-01

336

Estrogen Protects against Radiation-Induced Cataractogenesis  

Science.gov (United States)

Cataractogenesis is a complication of radiotherapy when the eye is included in the treatment field. Low doses of densely ionizing space radiation may also result in an increased risk of cataracts in astronauts. We previously reported that estrogen (17-?-estradiol), when administered to ovariectomized rats commencing 1 week before ? irradiation of the eye and continuously thereafter, results in a significant increase in the rate and incidence of cataract formation and a decreased latent period compared to an ovariectomized control group. We therefore concluded that estrogen accelerates progression of radiation-induced opacification. We now show that estrogen, if administered continuously, but commencing after irradiation, protects against radiation cataractogenesis. Both the rate of progression and incidence of cataracts were greatly reduced in ovariectomized rats that received estrogen treatment after irradiation compared to ovariectomized rats. As in our previous study, estradiol administered 1 week prior to irradiation at the time of ovariectomy and throughout the period of observation produced an enhanced rate of cataract progression. Estrogen administered for only 1 week prior to irradiation had no effect on the rate of progression but resulted in a slight reduction in the incidence. We conclude that estrogen may enhance or protect against radiation cataractogenesis, depending on when it is administered relative to the time of irradiation, and may differentially modulate the initiation and progression phases of cataractogenesis. These data have important implications for astronauts and radiotherapy patients.

Dynlacht, Joseph R.; Valluri, Shailaja; Lopez, Jennifer; Greer, Falon; DesRosiers, Colleen; Caperell-Grant, Andrea; Mendonca, Marc S.; Bigsby, Robert M.

2008-01-01

337

Occupational radiation protection dosimetry in Nigeria.  

Science.gov (United States)

The general features of occupational radiation protection dosimetry in Nigeria within the period 1990-1999 have been summarised. About 640 personnel, representing about 25% of the estimated number of radiation workers in Nigeria, were monitored by the TL dosimetry technique during the period, with the majority being the personnel of the teaching hospitals across the country. Most private establishments, especially the X ray diagnostic centres, operate without dosimetry coverage or supervision by a regulatory authority. The weighted mean of the annual effective dose ranged between 0 and 28.97 mSv with the upper limit of collective effective dose being 18.47 man.Sv per year. The individual risk estimate due to this is about 1.5 x 10(-3) per year and this was among the medical personnel. The value could be more if all radiation workers in the country were monitored. PMID:11468807

Farai, I P; Obed, R I

2001-01-01

338

Occupational radiation protection dosimetry in Nigeria.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The general features of occupational radiation protection dosimetry in Nigeria within the period 1990-1999 have been summarised. About 640 personnel, representing about 25% of the estimated number of radiation workers in Nigeria, were monitored by the TL dosimetry technique during the period, with the majority being the personnel of the teaching hospitals across the country. Most private establishments, especially the X ray diagnostic centres, operate without dosimetry coverage or supervision by a regulatory authority. The weighted mean of the annual effective dose ranged between 0 and 28.97 mSv with the upper limit of collective effective dose being 18.47 man.Sv per year. The individual risk estimate due to this is about 1.5 x 10(-3) per year and this was among the medical personnel. The value could be more if all radiation workers in the country were monitored.

Farai IP; Obed RI

2001-01-01

339

Occupational Radiation Protection Dosimetry in Nigeria  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The general features of occupational radiation protection dosimetry in Nigeria within the period 1990-1999 have been summarised. About 640 personnel, representing about 25% of the estimated number of radiation workers in Nigeria, were monitored by the TL dosimetry technique during the period, with the majority being the personnel of the teaching hospitals across the country. Most private establishments, especially the X ray diagnostic centres, operate without dosimetry coverage or supervision by a regulatory authority. The weighted mean of the annual effective dose ranged between 0 and 28.97 mSv with the upper limit of collective effective dose being 18.47 man.Sv per year. The individual risk estimate due to this is about 1.5x10{sup -3} per year and this was among the medical personnel. The value could be more if all radiation workers in the country were monitored. (author)

Farai, I.P.; Obed, R.I

2001-07-01

340

Occupational Radiation Protection Dosimetry in Nigeria  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The general features of occupational radiation protection dosimetry in Nigeria within the period 1990-1999 have been summarised. About 640 personnel, representing about 25% of the estimated number of radiation workers in Nigeria, were monitored by the TL dosimetry technique during the period, with the majority being the personnel of the teaching hospitals across the country. Most private establishments, especially the X ray diagnostic centres, operate without dosimetry coverage or supervision by a regulatory authority. The weighted mean of the annual effective dose ranged between 0 and 28.97 mSv with the upper limit of collective effective dose being 18.47 man.Sv per year. The individual risk estimate due to this is about 1.5x10-3 per year and this was among the medical personnel. The value could be more if all radiation workers in the country were monitored. (author)

2001-01-01

 
 
 
 
341

Neutron measuring instruments for radiation protection  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The present report deals with selected topics from the field of neutron dosimetry for radiation protection connected with the work of the subcommittee 6802 in the Standards Committee on Radiology (NAR) of the German Standards Institute (DIN). It is a sort of material collection. The topics are: 1. Measurement of the absorbed-energy dose by a) ionization chambers in fields of mixed radiation and b) recoil-proton proportional counting tubes. 2. Measurement of the equivalent dose, neutron monitors, combination methods by a) rem-meters, b) recoil-proton counting tubes, c) recombination method, tissue-equivalent proportional counters, activation methods for high energies in fields of mixed radiation, d) personnel dosimetry by means of ionization chambers and counting tubes, e) dosimetry by means of activation methods, nuclear track films, nonphotographic nuclear track detectors and solid-state dosimeters. (orig./HP)

1979-01-01

342

Antihistamine provides sex-specific radiation protection  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Rats suffer an early transient performance decrement immediately after a sufficiently large dose of ionizing radiation. However, it has been shown that males experience a more severe incapacitation than females. This sex difference has been attributed to the low estrogen levels in the male. In support of this notion, supplemental estrogens in castrated male rats have produced less-severe performance decrements post-irradiation. Antihistamines have also previously been shown to alleviate radiation's effect on behavior. The present study revealed that antihistamines are only effective in altering the behavioral incapacitation of sexually intact male subjects. This contrasts with previous work which indicates that estrogens can only benefit gonadectomized rats. These findings suggest that different mechanisms may underly antihistamine and estrogen radiation protection

1981-01-01

343

Antihistamine provides sex-specific radiation protection  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Rats suffer an early transient performance decrement immediately after a sufficiently large dose of ionizing radiation. However, it has been shown that males experience a more severe incapacitation than females. This sex difference has been attributed to the low estrogen levels in the male. In support of this notion, supplemental estrogens in castrated male rats have produced less-severe performance decrements post-irradiation. Antihistamines have also previously been shown to alleviate radiation's effect on behavior. The present study revealed that antihistamines are only effective in altering the behavioral incapacitation of sexually intact male subjects. This contrasts with previous work which indicates that estrogens can only benefit gonadectomized rats. These findings suggest that different mechanisms may underlie antihistamine and estrogen radiation protection

1981-01-01

344

Health physics/radiation protection enrollments and degrees, 1982  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report presents data on the number of students enrolled and the degrees awarded in academic year 1981 to 1982 from 61 US universities offering degree programs in radiation protection or related areas that would enable graduates to work as health physicists. The report includes historical survey data for the last decade and provides information about enrollment and degree trends, foreign national student participation, female and minority student participation, and placement of graduates. Also included is a listing of the universities by type of program and number of students

1983-01-01

345

Health physics/radiation protection enrollments and degrees, 1982  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report presents data on the number of students enrolled and the degrees awarded in academic year 1981 to 1982 from 61 US universities offering degree programs in radiation protection or related areas that would enable graduates to work as health physicists. The report includes historical survey data for the last decade and provides information about enrollment and degree trends, foreign national student participation, female and minority student participation, and placement of graduates. Also included is a listing of the universities by type of program and number of students.

1983-04-01

346

Proceedings of the symposium on molecular biology and radiation protection  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The symposium on molecular biology and radiation protection was organized in sessions with the following titles: Radiation protection and the human genome; Molecular changes in DNA induced by radiation; Incidence of genetic changes - pre-existing, spontaneous and radiation-induced; Research directions and ethical implications. The ten papers in the symposium have been abstracted individually

1995-04-25

347

Methodical recommendations for power unit comprehensive engineering and radiation survey  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The article describes power unit radiation survey methods developed and applied during conduction of Ch NPP unit I Comprehensive Engineering Radiation Survey. Special requirements for units under decommissioning, main survey principals, criteria for definition of volume and the order of survey for various systems of a NPP Unit are included.

2000-01-01

348

Radiation Protection During Cyclotron Production of Radiopharmaceuticals  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Positron emission tomography (PET) is a radiological diagnostic procedure very suitable for follow up of many oncologic diseases, but can also be efficiently used in diagnostic and follow up of some cardiologic and neurologic diseases too. The most often used radiopharmaceutical, fludeoxyglucose F-18, is produced in the 18 MeV cyclotron in RudJer Medikol Cyclotron d.o.o. (RMC) by the proton bombardment of enriched water H218O. During the whole production cycle the operatives in charge of producing FDG-RMC are, however, exposed to potentially harmful ?-radiation generated either by the operation of cyclotron (proton induced primary, and neutron induced secondary), or to the decay of generated radioisotope 18F, and for their full protection we have implemented the ALARA concept systematically. We have divided the cyclotron operators in three categories depending on the type of activities and the length of potential radiation exposure, and paid special attention to distribute their tasks in such a manner that the overall accumulated dose is approximately equal for all of them. Prior to full operation we have estimated the annual accumulated dose for each operator on the basis of maximum produced activity of 370 GBq (10 Ci) 18F, and dose rate measurements performed by the approved service for radiation protection and radiation monitoring - EKOTEH dosimetry d.o.o. (Thermo Radiameter FH 40-L10, Ser. No. 20268). In this work we report the actual measurements for the period of first three months of regular production (1.11.2010.-31.1.2011.) done by thermoluminescent LiF:Mg,Ti dosimeters Harshaw (TLD-100, type: BG0110). The readings have been done by two automatic personal dosimeter readers Harshaw 6600 by the Rudjer Boskovic Institute licensed service. The measured values were for the observed period much lower than the maximum estimated values, confirming our theoretical model and radiation protection scheme. We have also estimated the rise of absorbed doses due to probable increase in size of production, and concluded that the absorbed doses in these cases will also be within acceptable limits. Therefore, we conclude that the radiation protection at RMC is systematically kept well under legally allowed limits, and ALARA concept is fully implemented. (author)

2011-01-01

349

Radiation protection safety in Uganda -- Experience and prospects of the National Radiation Protection Service  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Uganda National Radiation Protection Service (NRPS) is a technical body under the Atomic Energy Control Board, established by Law - the Atomic Energy Decree of 1972, Decree No. 12, to oversee and enforce safety of radiation sources, practices and workers; and to protect the patients, members of the public and the environment from the dangers of ionizing radiation and radioactive wastes. The Ionizing Radiation Regulations (Standards) - Statutory Instruments Supplement No. 21 of 1996 -- back up the Law. The Law requires all users, importers and operators of radiation sources and radioactive materials to notify the NRPS for registration and licensing. The NRPS is responsible for licensing and for the regulatory enforcement of compliance to the requirements for the safety of radiation sources and practices. There are about 200 diagnostic X-ray units, two radiotherapy centres, one nuclear medicine unit, several neutron probes, about three level gauges and two non-destructive testing sources and a number of small sealed sources in teaching and research institutions. About 50% of these sources have been entered in our inventory using the RAIS software provided by the IAEA. There are about 500 radiation workers and 250 underground miners. The NRPS covers about 50% of the radiation workers. It is planned that by June 2001, all occupational workers will be monitored, bringing coverage to 100%. The Government of Uganda is making the necessary legal, administrative and technical arrangements aimed at establishing the National Radiation Protection Commission as an autonomous regulatory authority. The Atomic Energy Decree of 1972 and Regulations of 1996 are being revised to provide for the National Radiation Protection Commission and to make it comply with the requirements of the International Basic Safety Standards Safety Series No. 115. (author)

2001-01-01

350

Radiation protection during operation of nuclear power plants  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This Guide describes a Radiation Protection Programme for nuclear power plants. It includes: (1) An outline of the basic principles as well as practical aspects of the programme; (2) A description of the responsibilities of the operating organization to establish an effective programme based upon these principles; (3) A description of the administrative and technical measures to establish and implement the programme. This Guide also deals with the operational aspects to be considered by the operating organization in reviewing design in order to facilitate implementation of the Radiation Protection Programme. This Guide covers the requirements for a Radiation Protection Programme for all operational states of the nuclear power plant. It also includes guidelines for handling planned special exposures and for coping with unplanned exposures and contamination of personnel, areas, and equipment. Additional information concerning emergency situations involving releases of radioactive materials is given in Safety Guides 50-SG-O6, ''Preparedness of the Operating Organization (Licensee) for Emergencies at Nuclear Power Plants'', and 50-SG-G6, ''Preparedness of Public Authorities for Emergencies at Nuclear Power Plants''. This Guide covers the principles of dose limitation to site personnel and to the public, but it does not include detailed instructions on the techniques used for the actual measurement and evaluation of the exposures. This Guide does not include detailed instructions on environmental surveys, but it does mention principal steps in environmental monitoring which may be required for confirmation of the acceptability of radioactive discharges.

1983-01-01

351

Stakeholders and Radiation Protection in Today's World  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In looking forward the C.R.P.P.H.(Nea 's Committee on radiation protection and public health) identified three influences that will condition the way we address emerging issues, and will alter how we address ongoing issues. These are the involvement of stakeholders in decision making processes, the evolution of radiological protection science and its changing place in risk assessment and management, and the experience gained in implementing the current system of radiological protection. First among there is the growing importance of stakeholder involvement in radiation protection decision making. This has affected the way that the principles of justification, optimization and limitation are viewed, the way the role of the radiation protection professional in risk assessment and management is viewed, and the relative importance of case specific circumstances in relation to harmonized, internationally accepted criteria. In the wake of this change, the international system of radiological protection is being updated by the ICRP, and discussions of the most appropriate direction to take are nearing their end. Second, radiological protection science continues to identify specific aspects that do not fit the conventional linear non threshold model, and which us to consider that, at the very least, the risks from different exposures and exposure situations may not be as simply and universally comparable assumed. This will affect the way that risks are managed, and all relevant stakeholder involvement processes. In addition, decisions relating to public, worker and environmental health and safety are increasingly seen as judgement social choices. Although such choices must be guided by an understanding of state-of-the-art scientific and its uncertainties, the final, choice will generally be made by society, not scientists. Third, since the issuance of ICRP Publication 60 in 1990, and the International Basic Safety Standards in 1996, extensive experience has been amassed in implementing the principles and approaches described in these documents, and several areas have been shown to present significant implemental issues, broadly resulting from the involvement of stakeholders in decision-making processes. Two particular problem areas stick out, these being the segregation of situations into Practices and Interventions, and the application of the concepts of Exclusion and Exemption. Taking these three aspects together, it is clear that stakeholder involvement has had, and will continue to have a profound impact on the identification and management of radiological risks

2006-01-01

352

Radiation protection study of radiology medical workers in radiodiagnosis area  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Aspects related to radiological safety and its organization in radiodiagnosis were evaluated by means of scanning carried out in 18 hospitals of Mexico City, divided in 11 public institutions and 7 private ones. The population being studied was: hospital personnel that works in radiodiagnosis. The survey was made with 31 dichotomic variables, being obtained 132 surveys. The personnel characteristics are 83% works in public institutions, 49% works in radiodiagnosis, 3% has an academic degree, 13% is member of a hospital professional association, 13% has updated information on radiological protection, 36% was trained, 45% works for more than 2 years, 52% uses personal dosemeter, less than the 20% knows about the fundamentals of the radiological protection and 24% states to suffer from biological radiation effects, due to the exposure to x-rays. As result of the study, it was found that the main problems that the radiological protection has, are: lack of training programs in radiological protection and supervision, medical surveillance and the few number of persons that takes part in clinical meetings and professional associations. (authors). 7 refs., 3 tabs

1996-01-01

353

Phosphorus-32: practical radiation protection. Revised ed.  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Recently there has been a dramatic increase in the use of 32P in molecular biology research. The high specific activity nucleotides have made possible in vitro labelling as one of the principle techniques used by researchers undertaking studies involving genetic manipulation, cloning, hybridisation and the recognition of complex patterns of DNA base-pair sequences. This Handbook, first published as a Monograph in 1987, has now been revised to include the latest recommendations of the International Commission on Radiological Protection (Publication 60), and to recognise the improved availability of commercially produced workstations together with their associated shielding and handling facilities. Like its predecessor, the present Handbook gives practical advice (with detailed examples) on specific techniques for minimising the risks to health from 32P. It is hoped that it will again be of value to Radiation Protection Advisers, Radiation Protection Supervisors and Research Supervisors, and also to many of the individual researchers now using or about to start work with this radionuclide. (author)

1992-01-01

354

Radiation protection at decommissioning of ''hot cells''  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] One of VKTA's assignments is the decommissioning of numerous old nuclear plants in the area of the Research Center Rossendorf. Here highly active liquids of many different nuclides (e. p. Cs-137, Sr-90, U- and Pu-isotopes) were handled to produce radiopharmaceuticals. Industrial sources were generated on the basis of highly active solids like Na, Co, Cs and Ir irradiated in a power reactor. According to this there are various forms of contamination in these former isotope production plants also referred to as ''hot cells''. Thus the requirements on the planning and work-accompanying radiation protection service were high when decommissioning these plants. Avoidance of incorporations had to be brought in line with minimization of outer exposition. This has been achieved by using graduated material and person sluices monitored small meshed in terms of radiation protection to allow fast reactions for person's protection and safety and also by applying remote controlled measuring systems as well as teleguided decommission machines in a huge scale. (orig.)

2005-01-01

355

Radiation protection in Baden-Wuerttemberg  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The tasks of radiation protection and nuclear safety to be looked after by the land Baden-Wuerttemberg consist essentially in licensing and control activities carried out by the Federal Government. With regard to radiation protection the focal points of the second medium-term programme of the Laender Government Baden-Wuerttemberg are: 1. the technical development plan 'power plant sites', 2. construction of nuclear power plants in the borderline areas of neighbouring foreign countries, 3. disposal of radioactive waste, 4. pollution protection measures against nuclear power plants, 5. safety measures when dealing with radioactive materials outside nuclear power plants. (GL)[de] Die vom Land wahrzunehmenden Aufgaben des Strahlenschutzes und der kerntechnischen Sicherheit bestehen im wesentlichen in der staatl. Genehmigungs- und Ueberwachungstaetigkeit. Schwerpunkte des zweiten Mittelfristigen Programms der Landesregierung Baden-Wuerttemberg im Hinblink auf den Strahlenschutz sind: 1)Fachlicher Entwicklungsplan 'Kraftwerkstandorte'. 2) Bau von KKWs im grenznahen Bereich des benachbarten Auslandes. 3) Beseitigung radioaktiver Abfaelle. 4) Umweltschutzmassnahmen bei Kernenergieanlagen. 5) Schutzmassnahmen beim Umgang mit radioaktiven Stoffen ausserhalb von Kernenergieanlagen. (GL)

1978-01-01

356

Beta dosimetry problems in radiation protection  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] A comparison of the ?-dosimetry with ?-dosimetry makes the significance of ?-dosimetry clear and shows the difficulties arising with ?-dosimetry especially in radiation of small ranges. The calculated methods to determine the ?-dose rate are shown, and their applicability to practical radiation protection is tested. It is shown that although the exact measurement of the dose rate is possible, a sufficiently small and energy-independent dosemeter is missing for radiation protection practice. Furthermore, the more or less suitable measuring methods for ?-dosimetry are individually discussed. An extensive literature compilation is given for further introduction into the problems of ?-dosimetry. (orig./LH)[de] Ein Vergleich der ?-Dosimetrie mit der ?-Dosimetrie macht die Bedeutung der ?-Dosimetrie klar und zeigt die bei der ?-Dosimetrie auftretenden Schwierigkeiten vor allem bei Strahlung geringer Reichweite. Die Rechenverfahren zur Bestimmung der ?-Dosisleistung werden aufgefuehrt, und ihre Brauchbarkeit fuer den praktischen Strahlenschutz wird geprueft. Es zeigt sich, dass die genaue Messung der Dosisleistung zwar moeglich ist, dass aber fuer die Strahlenschutzpraxis ein hinreichend kleines und energieunabhaengiges Dosimeter noch fehlt. Anschliessend werden die zur ?-Dosimetrie mehr oder weniger gut geeigneten Messverfahren einzeln besprochen. Zur weiteren Einfuehrung in die Probleme der ?-Dosimetrie dient eine umfangreiche Literaturzusammenstellung. (orig./HP)

1975-01-01

357

Chernobyl accident: lessons learned for radiation protection  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Full text: The long-term nature of the consequences of the accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant, which was a major technological catastrophe in terms of its scope and complexity and created humanitarian, environmental, social, economic and health consequences. After more than twenty years we can conclude that Chernobyl accident was requested the big efforts of the national governments and international organisations for improvement new approaches to radiation safety, radiation protection, health care, emergency preparedness and response. During first years after accident some response actions did more harm than good because not based on international radiation protection principles, based on criteria developed during emergency and associated with mistrust, emotions, political pressure. As a result was inappropriate government reaction: unjustified relocation and decontamination - loss jobs, homes, billions of $ cost; unjustified compensation (high portion of annual national budgets). Non-radiological (e.g. detrimental economic, social and psychological) consequences was worse than direct radiological consequences. Psychological effects do not correlate with real exposure but with perception of risk. The affected people believe in threat to their health, doubt what has been reported about accident and resulted doses, got modification in life style, have somatic complains, got substance abuse (alcohol, tranquilizers, sleeping pills). The lack of accurate information and misperception of real radiation risk is believed also to have lead to change in behavior of some affected people. Possible long-term health effect due to the accidental exposure remains an issue. There is no doubt that excess thyroid cancer incidence results from exposure to radioactive iodines, mainly by iodine-131. Radiation induced thyroid cancer could easily be prevented by timely warning, effective thyroid blocking, timely restriction of consumption for contaminated food. The implementation of good known effective countermeasures at early stage could have substantially reduced the number of thyroid cancer cases after accident. U N Chernobyl Forum recommended long-term activity for mitigation Chernobyl's consequences - A Strategy for Recovery. For improvement this strategy must be create the modern system of the radiation protection based on the new international and national recommendations. The key issues of the Belarusian experience is discussed. (author)

2008-01-01

358

Educational programme on radiation protection for veterinary medicine specialists  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The education of radiation protection for veterinary medicine specialists on the University of Belgrade is integrated both in regular graduate studies and in postgraduate studies. Within the graduate studies, students attend courses in physics and biophysics and in radiation hygiene. During postgraduate or specialistic veterinary medicine studies, veterinary medicine specialists expand their knowledge in radiation protection through a number of courses on radiation biophysics, radioecology, nuclear instrumentation and environmental protection. (author)

1992-01-01

359

Radiation protection of aviation personnel at exposure by cosmic radiation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

For determination of radiation dose of aviation personnel we used the software EPCARD (European Program Package for the Calculation of Aviation Route Doses) developed by National Research Center for Environmental Health - Institute of Radiation Protection (Neuherberg, Germany) and the software CARI 6, developed by the FAA's Civil Aerospace Medical Institute (USA). Both codes are accomplished by the Joint Aviation Authorities. Experimental measurement and estimation of radiation doses of aviation personnel at exposure by cosmic radiation were realised in the period of lowered solar activity. All-year effective dose of pilots, which worked off at least 11 months exceeds the value 1 mSv in 2007. The mean all-year effective dose of member of aviation personnel at exposure by cosmic radiation is 2.5 mSv and maximal all-year effective dose, which we measured in 2007 was 4 mSv. We assumed that in the period of increased solar activity the all-year effective doses may by higher.

2008-01-01

360

Logic and ethics in radiation protection  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) continues to accept the assumption of a linear non-threshold dose-response relationship (LNT) as the most likely one. In that case, basic logic as well as widely accepted ethics require that the full collective dose be used for detriment assessments and in procedures for optimisation of radiation protection. This means that even the smallest doses must be taken into account in the assessment of the global collective dose if they contribute significantly together. However, in calculating collective doses over time, some reasonable restriction of the integration period has to be employed, mainly because of the uncertainties involved in the assessment of future detriment. There are also uncertainties in the LNT assumption, but the precautionary principle would not permit that this is taken as an excuse for neglecting small doses. (author)

2001-01-01

 
 
 
 
361

[Radiation protectants of the crystalline lens  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

During more than a half of century, numerous compounds have been tested in different models against radiation-induced cataract. In this report, we will review the radioprotectors that have been already tested for non-human crystalline lens protection. We will focus on the most important published studies in this topic and the mechanisms of cytoprotection reported in vitro and in vivo from animals. The most frequent mechanisms incriminated in the cytoprotective effect are: free radical scavenging, limitation of lipid peroxidation, modulation of cycle progression increase of intracellular reduced glutathion pool, reduction of DNA strand breaks and limitation of apoptotic cell death. Amifostine (or Ethyol) and anethole dithiolethione (or Sulfarlem), already used clinically as chemo- and radioprotectants, could be further tested for ocular radioprotection particularly for radiation-induced cataract.

Belkacémi Y; Pasquier D; Castelain B; Warnet JM; Lartigau E

2003-11-01

362

[Radiation protectants of the crystalline lens].  

Science.gov (United States)

During more than a half of century, numerous compounds have been tested in different models against radiation-induced cataract. In this report, we will review the radioprotectors that have been already tested for non-human crystalline lens protection. We will focus on the most important published studies in this topic and the mechanisms of cytoprotection reported in vitro and in vivo from animals. The most frequent mechanisms incriminated in the cytoprotective effect are: free radical scavenging, limitation of lipid peroxidation, modulation of cycle progression increase of intracellular reduced glutathion pool, reduction of DNA strand breaks and limitation of apoptotic cell death. Amifostine (or Ethyol) and anethole dithiolethione (or Sulfarlem), already used clinically as chemo- and radioprotectants, could be further tested for ocular radioprotection particularly for radiation-induced cataract. PMID:15124544

Belkacémi, Y; Pasquier, D; Castelain, B; Warnet, J M; Lartigau, E

2003-11-01

363

Value of some estimations in radiation protection  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Many problems in radiation protection require the use of sophisticated techniques for their solution. However, a large class of problems, particularly in the area of operations, can be addressed with suitable accuracy using approximate techniques. Approximate methods and extrapolation of empirical data can serve to scope the magnitude of a variety of problems. In fact, the authors believe that these approaches should be a necessary first step in determining what additional, more sophisticated analyses are required. Elimination of detail allows one the time to make a number of similar calculations varying the parameters to form an envelope of possible solutions. The advent of microcomputers has helped make engineering approximations even more valuable in both radiation shielding and dose projection calculations. Some examples of approximations and a list of useful references are provided in this paper

1986-01-01

364

Information on radiation protection: an anthropological approach  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

It is necessary to prepare the messages on radiation protection before a nuclear accident arises, i.e. in a normal radiological situation. The approach discussed in this paper is based on hypothesis that any communication is a relationship between different actors (such as a transmitter and a receiver) whose semantic frames of reference, mainly defined by social and cultural determinants of knowledge, cannot be completely identical. To work out messages correctly intended for a given receiver, one has consequently to bring out the common semantic references to both the transmitter and the receiver. (author).

Van Nuffelen, D. [Radiation Protection Service, Brussels (Belgium)

1996-12-31

365

The historical development of radiation protection limits  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The present internationally largely corresponding radiation protection limits are based on recommendations given by the ICRP in 1965. In order to better understand the underlying concepts, a historical sketch of the development is presented including actual discussions of trends to be excepted. Although exposure of healthy individuals by man-made sources up to these maximum levels is legally permissible, it should be emphasized again and again that any unavoidable exposure must be justified by the need for its associated cause. (author)

1976-01-01

366

Radiation protection technician job task analysis manual  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This manual was developed to assist all DOE contractors in the design and conduct of job task analysis (JTA) for the radiation protection technician. Experience throughout the nuclear industry and the DOE system has indicated that the quality and efficiency in conducting a JTA at most sites is greatly enhanced by using a generic task list for the position, and clearly written guidelines on the JTA process. This manual is designed to provide this information for personnel to use in developing and conducting site-specific JTAs. (VC).

1990-01-01

367

Radiation protection of vitamins in aqueous systems  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Thiamine and other vitamins of the B complex group are highly sensitive to ? radiation in aqueous solution owing to their high reactivity with the primary species formed by radiolysis of water, viz. hydrated electrons and hydroxyl radicals. In order to protect these compounds from radiolytic degradation, nitrous oxide and oxygen have been used as scavengers for the hydrated electrons and glucose for the hydroxyl radicals. By comparison of uv spectra it is shown that the above vitamins do not undergo radiolytic degradation in presence of nitrous oxide and glucose or oxygen and glucose. The importance of these results in connection with the sterilization of vitamin preparations is discussed. (author)

1976-01-01

368

Fundamentals of radiation protection measuring technique  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Stationary radiation protection measuring systems (local dose rate systems) are widely distributed. Since January 1sup(st), 1983 a number of these systems must be calibrated by a gauging office if they are used on the basis of legal regulations. The design type requirements made by the PTB in connection with the calibration duty as well as the transitional regulations for local dose rate systems already in operation have been prepared by a working committee including members of users, suppliers, gange supervising authorities, Technische Ueberwachungs-Vereine and the PTB. (orig./DG)

1982-01-01

369

Information on radiation protection: an anthropological approach  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

It is necessary to prepare the messages on radiation protection before a nuclear accident arises, i.e. in a normal radiological situation. The approach discussed in this paper is based on hypothesis that any communication is a relationship between different actors (such as a transmitter and a receiver) whose semantic frames of reference, mainly defined by social and cultural determinants of knowledge, cannot be completely identical. To work out messages correctly intended for a given receiver, one has consequently to bring out the common semantic references to both the transmitter and the receiver. (author)

1996-01-01

370

Swedish Radiation Protection Institute: information activities  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The purpose of SSI's Information and PR Service is to broaden public awareness of radiation and radiation risks as well as to fulfill other performance goals. SSI achieves this through its advisory, educational and informative activities. SSI publishes two external magazines, Stralskyddsnytt and SSI News. Stralskyddsnytt - which is available in Swedish only - has a circulation of 2,000 and is published four times a year. SSI News - which is in English - is published twice a year and has a circulation of about 1,800. Another important channel of communication is the web site (www.ssi.se). Taking advantage of PUSH technology, SSI also distributes, by e-mail, press releases and other important information on radiation to radiation protection professionals in Sweden. SSI continuously monitors news by subscribing to a press clipping service. SSI Training is a commercial unit within the Information and PR Service. A policy for mass media contacts exists as well as a policy for internal communication. SSI has a graphic profile. SSI has a specialized research library. (author)

Persson, Lars [Swedish Radiation Protection Institute, Stockholm (Sweden)

2000-05-01

371

Swedish radiation protection institute. Information activities  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The purpose of SSI's information and PR Service is to broaden public awareness of radiation and radiation risks as well as to fulfil other performance goals. SSI achieves this through its advisory, educational and informative activities. SSI publishes two external magazines, Straalskyddsnytt and SSI News. Straalskyddsnytt - which is available in Swedish only - has a circulation of 2,400 and is published four times a year. SSI News - which is in English - is published twice a year and has a circulation of about 1,500. Another important channel of communication is the web site (www.ssi.se). Taking advantage of PUSH technology, SSi also distributes, by e-mail, press releases and other important information of radiation to radiation protection professionals in Sweden. SSI continuously monitors news by subscribing to a press clipping service. SSI Training is a commercial unit within the Information and PR Service. A policy for mass media contacts exists as well as a policy for internal communication. SSI has a graphic profile. SSI has a specialised research library. (au)

1999-01-01

372

Quo vadis, radiation protection?; Quo vadis, Strahlenschutz?  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The evaluation of potential health risks resulting from radiation exposures in the range of less than approx. 100 mSv is of major importance also for a broader acceptance of nuclear power. As a consequence of new draft reports and recommendations by renowned institutions, a fundamental debate has arisen about a necessary paradigm shift away from the linear dose-response hypothesis without any threshold level, and the so-called collective dose derived from it, in favor of a more meaningful radiobiological concept. Important insights can be gained from basic differences in the biological effects of low and high doses, but also from a conclusive assessment of the radiological consequences of the Chernobyl accident. Radiation protection in nuclear facilities is a routine service affair in the interest of strict observance of official limits and attempts to underrun, as far as possible, even restrictive boundary levels. If scientific developments in the field of the effects of low and very low radiation doses are to be taken into account, it is necessary instead to review critically the basic facts. In the light of this situation, it may be indicated to look at some recent developments in view of a clearly apparent paradigm shift in the evaluation of the risks of radiation exposure, and as a supplement to earlier reports. (orig.)

Becker, K.

2006-01-01

373

Information as a part of radiation protection  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The increasing range of application of ionizing radiation in many different areas requires the needs for further education and training. Unfortunately, some aspects of application of ionizing radiation are not planed and announced for all involved personnel-like in military conflicts, when radiation and radioactivity are used as a new kind of ammunition. In that situation there is no time for formal and planned education. During the NATO strikes on Serbia and Montenegro in 1999. depleted uranium (D.U.) ammunition was used. Before that, it was used in Gulf War in 1991. for the first time. Faced with the health consequences of Gulf War for the soldiers of both sides, which were mainly attributed to D.U., Military Medical Service in the Army of Serbia and Montenegro, prepared educational material for the soldiers who could be employed in the area of the D.U. contamination. Considering the information/knowledge as very important part of radiation protection, booklet was prepared and distributed before the NATO strikes on Serbia and Montenegro. In this paper we present the booklet prepared for the military personnel. In the simplified way the nature of D.U. is explained. Some practical aspects of protection and prevention in D.U. contaminated area-how to avoid and minimize radiological hazard of D.U. in the battlefield, as well as how to avoid long-term hazards of D.U., are presented. It is also explained when to ask for medical care and what kind of examination would be necessary in the case of D.U. contamination. 5AUTHORS

2006-01-01

374

Information as a part of radiation protection  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The increasing range of application of ionizing radiation in many different areas requires the needs for further education and training. Unfortunately, some aspects of application of ionizing radiation are not planed and announced for all involved personnel-like in military conflicts, when radiation and radioactivity are used as a new kind of ammunition. In that situation there is no time for formal and planned education. During the NATO strikes on Serbia and Montenegro in 1999. depleted uranium (D.U.) ammunition was used. Before that, it was used in Gulf War in 1991. for the first time. Faced with the health consequences of Gulf War for the soldiers of both sides, which were mainly attributed to D.U., Military Medical Service in the Army of Serbia and Montenegro, prepared educational material for the soldiers who could be employed in the area of the D.U. contamination. Considering the information/knowledge as very important part of radiation protection, booklet was prepared and distributed before the NATO strikes on Serbia and Montenegro. In this paper we present the booklet prepared for the military personnel. In the simplified way the nature of D.U. is explained. Some practical aspects of protection and prevention in D.U. contaminated area-how to avoid and minimize radiological hazard of D.U. in the battlefield, as well as how to avoid long-term hazards of D.U., are presented. It is also explained when to ask for medical care and what kind of examination would be necessary in the case of D.U. contamination. 5AUTHORS.

Djurovic, B.; Misovic, M. [Military Medical Academy, Radiation Protection Dept., Belgrade Serbia and Montenegro (Serbia); Spasic-Jokic, V. [VINCA Institute of Nuclear Sciences, Lab. of Physics, Belgrade, Serbia and Montenegro (Serbia)

2006-07-01

375

The radiation protection officer in medicine and engineering; Der Strahlenschutzbeauftragte in Medizin und Technik  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Subjects: Function and tasks of the radiation protection officers; Behaviour in radiation protection areas; Radiation protection in practice; Staff training and motivation; Measuring equipment; Radiation protection plans - structural, apparative and staff-related; Explanations of radiation protection legislation. This practical guide makes the many requirements on radiation protection easier and more transparent. (orig.)

Wolf, H.

2006-08-15

376

The radiation protection officer in medicine and engineering; Der Strahlenschutzbeauftragte in Medizin und Technik  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Subjects: Function and tasks of the radiation protection officers; Behaviour in radiation protection areas; Radiation protection in practice; Staff training and motivation; Measuring equipment; Radiation protection plans - structural, apparative and staff-related; Explanations of radiation protection legislation. This practical guide makes the many requirements on radiation protection easier and more transparent. (orig.)

Anon.

2006-07-01

377

Overview of radiation protection at the Superconducting Super Collider Laboratory  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The radiation protection program at the Superconducting Super Collider Laboratory is described. After establishing a set of stringent design guidelines for radiation protection, both normal and accidental beam losses for each accelerator were estimated. From these parameters, shielding requirements were specified using Monte-Carlo radiation transport codes. A groundwater activation model was developed to demonstrate compliance with federal drinking water standards. Finally, the environmental radiation monitoring program was implemented to determine the effect of the facility operation on the radiation environment.

Baker, S.; Britvich, G.; Bull, J.; Coulson, L.; Coyne, J.; Mokhov, N.; Romero, V.; Stapleton, G.

1994-03-01

378

76 FR 17935 - Protected Critical Infrastructure Information (PCII) Stakeholder Survey  

Science.gov (United States)

...Infrastructure Information (PCII) Stakeholder Survey AGENCY: National Protection...PCII Program oversees a community of stakeholders, including submitters of CII, authorized...the PCII Program attractive to its stakeholders will allow the PCII Program to...

2011-03-31

379

Survey on radiation-induced xerostomia for head and neck malignancies by Japan radiation survey group  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

We conducted nationwide multi-center survey on radiation induced salivary gland dysfunction. A total of 59 patients with head and neck malignancies were surveyed and analysed. Patients were evaluated for symptom, oral condition, foods intake, body weight and 5 minutes flow of saliva. The patients complained of moderate or more severe symptoms including oral and/or pharyngeal dryness and pain, difficulty in eating, and dysphagia. Body weights were significantly redused. The decrease of saliva flow appeared in the first week of radiation therapy. By the analysis of saliva contents, decrease of amylase was the most important prognostic factor. (author)

Karasawa, Kumiko [Tokyo Women`s Medical Coll. (Japan)

1999-04-01

380

Guideline on helding intraplant radiation protection training courses  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The guideline which entered into force on 30 July 1987 regulates the acquisition of required knowledge in radiation protection by radiation workers and operators through intraplant radiation protection training courses and establishes recognized careers. Curricula examples for several nuclear fields are given in the appendix

1987-07-30

 
 
 
 
381

Providing Radiation Protection Experts in the United Kingdom  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The EEC Directive on Qualified Experts in Radiation Protection has been implemented in the United Kingdom by the Ionising Radiations Regulations 1999 (IRR99). These Regulations require Radiation Employers to appoint suitable Radiation Protection Advisers (RPA) who must be consulted in certain circumstances when starting work with, or using ionising radiations. Radiation Protection Advisers have to have a current certificate of competence and, to gain one of these, must have demonstrated their competence in one of two ways either by achieving a National Vocational Qualification in Radiation Protection Practice or by being Certificated by an Assessing Body. Assessing Bodies have to be recognised by the Health and Safety Executive, who undertake a rigorous assessment process to determine whether the proposed Assessing Body is fit to undertake RPA Assessments. By July 2003, only two such Assessing Bodies had been approved in the UK. These two Assessing Bodies are ? RPA 2000 a company established by the four leading Radiation Protection Professional Societies in the UK for assessing anyone in the UK as Radiation Protection Advisers, And ? BNFL established by BNFL to assess the competence of BNFL's own Radiation Protection Advisers. This paper will describe the standards against which Radiation Protection Advisers are assessed, the manner in which each of these two Assessing Bodies carry out the assessment process and their experience to date. The way in which Radiation Employers carry out the appointment process will also be described. Potential future developments of the Assessment Process and standards will also be discussed. (Author)

Partington, C.; Owen, D.

2004-07-01

382

A microprocessor based mobile radiation survey system  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A microprocessor-based system has been designed and constructed to enhance the performance of routine radiation surveys on roads within the Hanford site. This device continually monitors system performance and output from four sodium iodide detectors mounted on the rear bumper of a 4-wheel drive truck. The gamma radiation count rate in counts-per-second is monitored, and a running average computed, with the results compared to predefined limits. If an abnormal instantaneous or average count rate is detected, an alarm is sounded with responsible data displayed on a liquid crystal panel in the cab of the vehicle. The system also has the capability to evaluate detector output using multiple time constants and to perform more complex tests and comparison of the data. Data can be archived for later analysis on conventional chart recorders or stored in digital form on magnetic tape or other digital storage media.

1984-01-01

383

Protection from solar ultraviolet radiation by clothing  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The recently published Australia/New Zealand Standard AS/NZS 4399: l996 'Sun Protective Clothing - Evaluation and Classification' specifies an in vitro spectrophotometric method for the measurement of the ultraviolet (WR) transmission of textiles. Ultraviolet Protection Factors (UPF) are then calculated by convolving the UVR transmission data with standard CIE erythemal response data and ARL solar irradiance data. At the present time the scope of the standard is limited to loose fitting dry clothing. Virtually every textile parameter has an influence on the UPF of the finished garment and hence on the protection afforded to skin from the harmful effects of solar UVR radiation. Textile parameters such as fibre type, the method of spinning the yarn, fabric structure, cover factor, colorant, UVR absorbers and finishing methods determine the UPF of the fabric and hence must be controlled from batch to batch. Since garments generally shrink when washed, multiple wearing and washing cycles usually cause an increase in fabric UPF. Adventitious soiling of fabrics and the absorption of certain components of domestic laundry formulations, e g fluorescent whitening agents, increase fabric UPF ratings. Garments with a high degree of elasticity, e g nylon/lycra sportswear, that are stretched on to fit, will obviously have lower UPFs when stretched than when relaxed. In general fabrics worn in a wet state provide lower protection than when worn dry. On Australia's most extreme summer day it has been estimated that there are 30 MEDs (minimal erythemal doses) in a dawn to dusk exposure. Thus outdoor workers should be provided with UPF 30 clothing, or better. Results from recent experiments using SK-II hairless mice dressed in UPF 50 'sunsuits' have shown that the mice developed no sun induced skin cancers on the skin areas protected by the UPF 50 fabric whereas multiple tumours developed on the unprotected skin.

1996-01-01

384

Protection from solar ultraviolet radiation by clothing  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The recently published Australia/New Zealand Standard AS/NZS 4399: l996 `Sun Protective Clothing - Evaluation and Classification` specifies an in vitro spectrophotometric method for the measurement of the ultraviolet (WR) transmission of textiles. Ultraviolet Protection Factors (UPF) are then calculated by convolving the UVR transmission data with standard CIE erythemal response data and ARL solar irradiance data. At the present time the scope of the standard is limited to loose fitting dry clothing. Virtually every textile parameter has an influence on the UPF of the finished garment and hence on the protection afforded to skin from the harmful effects of solar UVR radiation. Textile parameters such as fibre type, the method of spinning the yarn, fabric structure, cover factor, colorant, UVR absorbers and finishing methods determine the UPF of the fabric and hence must be controlled from batch to batch. Since garments generally shrink when washed, multiple wearing and washing cycles usually cause an increase in fabric UPF. Adventitious soiling of fabrics and the absorption of certain components of domestic laundry formulations, e g fluorescent whitening agents, increase fabric UPF ratings. Garments with a high degree of elasticity, e g nylon/lycra sportswear, that are stretched on to fit, will obviously have lower UPFs when stretched than when relaxed. In general fabrics worn in a wet state provide lower protection than when worn dry. On Australia`s most extreme summer day it has been estimated that there are 30 MEDs (minimal erythemal doses) in a dawn to dusk exposure. Thus outdoor workers should be provided with UPF 30 clothing, or better. Results from recent experiments using SK-II hairless mice dressed in UPF 50 `sunsuits` have shown that the mice developed no sun induced skin cancers on the skin areas protected by the UPF 50 fabric whereas multiple tumours developed on the unprotected skin.

Pailthorpe, M. [New South Wales Univ., Kensington, NSW (Australia)

1996-12-31

385

Relations between radiation risks and radiation protection measuring techniques  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] 'Risk of damage' and 'exposure risk' are considered as components of the radiation risk. The influence of the 'exposure risk' on type and extent of radiation protection measurements is discussed with regard to different measuring tasks. Basing upon measuring results concerning the frequency of certain external and internal occupational exposures in the GDR, it has been shown that only a small fraction of the monitored persons are subjected to a high 'exposure risk'. As a consequence the following recommendations are given for discussion: (a) occupationally exposed persons with small 'exposure risk' should be monitored using only a long-term dosimeter (for instance a thermoluminescence dosimeter), (b) in the case of internal exposure the surface and, if necessary, air contamination should be controlled so strictly that routine measurements of internal contamination need not be performed. (author)

1975-01-01

386

Basic Safety Standards for Radiation Protection  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Pursuant to the provisions of its Statute relevant to the adoption and application of safety standards for protection against radiation, the Agency convened a panel of experts which formulated the Basic Safety Standards set forth in this publication. The panel met under the chairmanship of Professor L. Bugnard, Director of the French Institut National d'Hygiene, and representatives of the United Nations and of several of its specialized agencies participated in its work. The Basic Safety Standards thus represent the result of a most careful assessment of the variety of complex scientific and administrative problems involved. Nevertheless, of course, they will need to be revised from time to time in the light of advances in scientific knowledge, of comments received from Member States and of the work of other competent international organizations. The Agency's Board of Governors in June 1962 approved the Standards as a first edition, subject to later revision as mentioned above, and authorized Director General Sigvard Eklund to apply the Standards in Agency and Agency-assisted operations and to invite Governments of Member States to take them as a basis in formulating national regulations or recommendations on protection against the dangers arising from ionizing radiations. It is mainly for this last purpose that the Basic Safety Standards are now being published in the Safety Series; but it is hoped that this publication will also interest a much wider circle of readers.

1962-01-01

387

Radiobiology and radiation protection. Vol. 1. The significance of individual radiosensitivity with respect to radiation protection  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The papers deal with topics relating to two major subject areas: Present radiobiological knowledge and research objectives. The significance of radiobiological insight with respect to radiological protection. Some compact papers discuss specific radiation types and their effects. 27 papers have been analysed and prepared for separate retrieval from the ENERGY data base. (orig./CB)

2000-01-01

388

Radiation protection and communication. Sociology and communication impact in radiation protection  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Communication about nuclear energy was the subject of this conference. Different examples of communications are detailed in fields as different as impact of iodine 131 release in waste waters or public information about radiation protection, the north Cotentin radioecology group or what information to give to the patients in nuclear medicine. (N.C.)

2000-01-01

389

Radiation protection and effects of non-ionizing radiations - harmonization of protection measures  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper reviews radiation protection measures, their harmonization, and the basic principles for legislation in this respect. It makes an in-depth study of such measures in the context of itinerant radiological workers, food irradiation, consumer goods, building materials, etc (NEA).

1988-01-01

390

Radiation protection guidelines for the skin  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

With the exception of the function of cells in the skin associated with immunocompetence nonstochastic effects have been well characterized and threshold doses are known with a precision appropriate for setting radiation protection standards. A dose limitation of 0.5 Sv per year and a working lifetime dose limit of 20 Sv should protect the worker population adequately and therefore, the current protection standards are quite adequate. The risk estimate for skin cancer is very dependent on the selection of the projection model and on the mortality rate assumed. Based on the relative risk model, a mortality rate of 0.2% and summing risks for both UVR exposed and shielded skin the risk is about twice (1.94/10{sup {minus}4} Sv{sup {minus}1}) that which ICRP derived in 1977. With the absolute model the risk is considerably less, about 0.5/10{sup {minus}4} Sv{sup {minus}1}. 47 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

Fry, R.J.M.

1989-01-01

391

Radiation protection and safety of workers  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This section briefly reviews the principles applicable to radiation protection and safety of workers, and methods that could be used to minimise occupational exposure in reclamation work. In considering the clean up of areas shortly after an accident, a decision would have to be made whether to implement clean-up actions early and thus cause higher occupational doses, or wait until short-lived isotopes have decayed and/or weathering has reduced the radiation levels. For example, the decision may be to stabilise the contamination using sprays to prevent re-suspension followed by a delay before actual clean-up starts. The timing of such actions would depend on many factors, including weather conditions, the area involved, equipment available and the competence of the work force. Means of reducing occupational exposure while carrying out the tasks should, as far as possible, be clearly defined in `work procedures`. In general, reductions in occupational exposure during operational tasks can be accomplished by the use of shielding and limiting the time that workers spend exposed to radiation. (au). 10 refs.

Lindhe, J.C. [Swedish Radiation Protection Inst. (Sweden)

1997-10-01

392

Non-Ionizing Radiation: Nature and Protection  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Last century, the humanity witnessed a vast development, after the industrial revolution, in many aspects of life. There was a real revolution in world of communications, the electromagnetic waves were produced and used in many applications like wireless communications, radio and television transmissions, information transfer, medical diagnosis and many other useful applications. Non-ionizing radiation, the radiation which has no enough energy to remove an electron from an atom, becomes indispensable life necessity and currently it is a subject of public debate about its effects and hazards on human life and environments. The Arab Atomic Energy Agency recognized this fact and tried to raise the public awareness towards by organizing seminars, workshops and expert meetings in the Arab region in order to study the theoretical and applies aspects of this type of radiation as well as to shed the light on its possible hazards and effects on human life. This booklet came as a result of many expert meetings to be an Arabic simple and comprehensive guide line about the nature of and the different methods of protection from its possible effects and hazards.(author)

2011-01-01

393

Radiation protection and quality management; Strahlenschutz und Qualitaetsmanagement  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The book contains the following contributions: Radiation protection: an aspect of the governmental assignment to guarantee and regulate the public safety and law and order; the regulation amendment concerning X radiation and the new radiation protection ordinance; biological radiation effects; dosimetry; modern diagnostic radiology; the vindicatory indication; experiences of applied radiation protection in X-ray diagnostics: multislice computer tomography, X-ray examination and angiography; networking imaging; vindicatory indication in radiotherapy: for malign diseases and for benign diseases; medical appointments; quality management in health care; quality management in practice and clinics; personal management in health care - a challenging assignment under the aspects of resource control and quality. Appendices: Regulation concerning X radiation protection and remarks; regulation concerning ionising radiation protection: excerpts and remarks.

Fahrmer, Andreas; Haverkamp, Uwe; Pruemer, Benedikt A. (eds.)

2007-07-01

394

An occupational radiation protection guideline for nuclear facilities  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] French authorities are looking for general rules leading to optimum management of occupational radiation protection at nuclear facilities, not only because of their impact in terms of collective and individual doses, but also because new practices such as decommissioning may challenge the usual assessment of operational radiological protection. Radiation protection is increasingly involved in requests submitted to Authorities. Even though appropriate actions are often implemented in facilities, nuclear operators meet difficulties to demonstrate that radiological protection is being handled properly. Therefore, the Institute for Radiation protection and Nuclear Safety has established an occupational radiological protection guideline, based on its experience in radiation protection assessment, taking into account the diversity of facilities involved and their life status (conception, operation, decommissioning). This guideline is conceived to help operators to meet regulatory requirements but also to provide authorities with a methodology for assessing radiological protection. (author)

2003-01-01

395

XXXIII. Days of Radiation Protection. Conference Proceedings of Abstracts  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The publication has been set up as a proceedings of the conference dealing with health protection during work with ionizing radiation for different activities which involve the handling of ionizing radiation sources. The main conference topics are focused on current problems in radiation protection and radioecology. In this proceedings totally 120 abstracts are published. The Conference consists of following sections: (I) Effects of ionizing radiation (radiology, health effects, risk factors); (II) General aspects of radiation protection (recommendations and legislative in radiation protection); (III): Dosimetry and metrology of ionizing radiation (metrology, instrumentation, use of computational methods); (IV) Radiation protection in nuclear power industry (working environment in the nuclear industry, the impact on the environment, nuclear power shutdown management); (V) Emergency management (emergencies, accidents, waste); (VI) Radiation load and protection in diagnostics, nuclear medicine and radiation oncology (burden on patients, staff, size of population exposure from medical sources of ionizing radiation, security, and quality control, optimization); (VII) Natural sources of radiation in workplaces and the environment (radon and other radionuclides, the risk estimation, optimization); (VIII) Education (new trends in education of radiation experts, medical physicists and stake-holders).

2011-01-01

396

Watermarking Schemes For Copy Protection : A Survey  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available DIGITAL WATERMARKING IS THE PROCESS OF EMBEDDING INFORMATION INTO A DIGITAL SIGNAL, I.E. AUDIO,PICTURES, VIDEO, ETC. EMBEDDED MARKS IN THE MESSAGE ARE GENERALLY IMPERCEPTIBLE BUT CAN BE DETECTED OR EXTRACTED. THE EMBEDDING TAKES PLACE BY MANIPULATING THE CONTENT OF THE DIGITAL DATA, WHICH MEANS THE INFORMATION IS NOT EMBEDDED IN THE FRAME AROUND THE DATA. IF THE SIGNAL IS COPIED, THEN THE EMBEDDED INFORMATION IS ALSO IN THE COPY. BY IMPERCEPTIBLY HIDING INFORMATION INTO THE VIDEO CONTENT IT WILL BE POSSIBLE TO PREVENT COPYING OR PLAYBACK OF SUCH CONTENT. SO,WATERMARKING IS AN EMERGING TECHNOLOGY THAT IS CLAIMED TO HAVE AN IMPORTANT APPLICATION IN COPY PROTECTION. A VARIETY OF WATERMARKING TECHNIQUES HAVE BEEN PROPOSED BY RESEARCHERS FOR THE COPY-PROTECTION. THIS PAPER PRESENTS AN EXTENSIVE REVIEW OF THE PREVAILING LITERATURE IN WATERMARKING FOR COPY PROTECTION.

Dolley Shukla; Manisha Sharma

2012-01-01

397

77 FR 66650 - Proposed Revisions to Radiation Protection  

Science.gov (United States)

...Achievable,'' Section 12.2, ``Radiation Sources,'' 12.3-12.4, ``Radiation Protection Design Features...Revision 3 (ML070710496), Redline (ML12199A461); Section 12.3--12.4 Proposed Revision 5 (ML12191A219),...

2012-11-06

398

Nuclear technology in materials testing and radiation protection  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A report of the 1974 activities of the laboratories for physical and measuring technical fundamentals, radiation effects and radiation protection, application of radionuclides and testing of radioactive materials of the Bundesanstalt fuer Materialpruefung (BAM) is given. (RW/LH).

1975-01-01

399

Topics in radiation at accelerators: Radiation physics for personnel and environmental protection  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report discusses the following topics: Composition of Accelerator Radiation Fields; Shielding of Electrons and Photons at Accelerators; Shielding of Hadrons at Accelerators; Low Energy Prompt Radiation Phenomena; Induced Radioactivity at Accelerators; Topics in Radiation Protection Instrumentation at Accelerators; and Accelerator Radiation Protection Program Elements.

Cossairt, J.D.

1993-11-01

400

Topics in radiation at accelerators: Radiation physics for personnel and environmental protection  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report discusses the following topics: Composition of Accelerator Radiation Fields; Shielding of Electrons and Photons at Accelerators; Shielding of Hadrons at Accelerators; Low Energy Prompt Radiation Phenomena; Induced Radioactivity at Accelerators; Topics in Radiation Protection Instrumentation at Accelerators; and Accelerator Radiation Protection Program Elements.

1993-01-01

 
 
 
 
401

Radiation safety and protection on the nuclear power plants  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The main issues of the radiation safety and protection provision on the nuclear power plants are considered in this monograph. The description of the basic sources of the radiation danger on NPPs, the principles, the methods and the means of the safety and radiation monitoring provision are shown. The special attention is paid to the issues of the ionizing radiation regulation

2008-01-01

402

Radiation protection in laboratory work. Straalskydd vid laboratoriearbete  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This compendium is directed to persons working with ionizing radiation in laboratories, and is meant to give enough information on ionizing radiation for such work. The following subjects are treated: physical background, biological effects of radiation, laws, detectors and measuring instruments, radiation protection at X-ray equipment and at handling radioactive material. (L.E.).

Bergman, C.; Gauffin, U.; Johansson, K.J.; Karlberg, J.; Larsson, B.; Lundqvist, H.; Loefroth, P.O.; Rosander, K.; Staalnacke, C.G.

1986-01-01

403

Radiation protection in radioimmunotherapy with yttrium-90  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text: Unsealed sources of radioactive isotopes have widely used in the clinical practise. For therapeutic use and with oncological aims, Yttrium-90 has been implemented recently in our hospital. Isotope injection is made by intravenous way slowly at an approximated rate of ten microlitres per second. Low-volume injection, less than ten millilitres, entails the possibility that an important fraction of the prescribed activity could be retained and not incorporated into the patient if a pumping injection system controlled in the distance had been used. To avoid this adversity and in order to get the therapeutic effect, in our hospital the injection is applied directly using a syringe by infirmary personnel of the nuclear medicine department. This circumstance and the radiation emission scheme of Yttrium-90 entails a meticulous radiation safety plan. Measurement of the radiation levels in some different phases of the treatment and at its end, was made by the medical physics department. Also, and before the injection, this department made with the received dose other additional measurements, using ant not using shielding materials, to choose the best option of radiation protection. The use of a syringe protector made of plastic with a thickness between 12 and 17 mm in combination with the use of a leaded apron of 0.25 mm lead thickness worn by the nurse, has been the chosen option. In addition, it was evaluated the most optimized positions for the injection, moving away the nurse from the patient to prevent the risk of radioactive contamination; also the worker was wearing double gloves, glasses and additional protection covering the leaded apron and preventing any kind of accidental contamination. Once the isotope is administrated and bio distributed in the patient's organism, it could be verified that the dose rate around it fell rapidly. The involved personnel were wearing all the time two thermoluminescent dosimeters: for body and for wrist. A maximum of one patient per month has been treated. Once it was obtained the reading of both dosimeters by an authorized personal dosimetry service, it was reported that the body dosimeter did not receive any larger values than usually, and the wrist dosimeter globally presented a personal surface dose equivalent Hp (0.07) around 1 mSv per month. (author)

2008-01-01

404

Evolution of the radiation protection system; L'evolution du systeme de protection radiologique  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The evolution of the system of radiological protection: justification for new ICRP recommendations, thoughts of the SFRP work group about the evolution of the system of radiation protection proposed by the ICRP, protection of environment against ionizing radiations seen by the ICRP are the three parts of this chapter. (N.C.)

Clarke, R.H. [International Commission on Radiological Protection, Stockholm (Sweden); Schieber, C.; Cordoliani, Y.S. [Societe Francaise de Radioprotection, 92 - Fontenay aux Roses (France); Brechignac, F. [CEA Cadarache, Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire, Dept. de Protection de l' Environnement, 13 - Saint Paul Lez Durance (France)

2003-07-01

405

National congress of radiation protection - SFRP 2003; Congres national de radioprotection - SFRP 2003  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The different themes of this congress are the scientific bases of the radiation protection, the general principles of radiation protection and the regulation, the dosimetry the non ionizing radiations, the environmental exposures, the radiation protection and the radioactive waste management, the radiation protection in accidental situation, the radiation protection of workers and public. (N.C.)

Bourguignon, M.; Deboodt, P.; Le Guen, B. [and others

2003-06-01

406

Radiation protection of the public: Past, present, and future  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper discusses the historical development of radiation protection standards for the public, the present system in the United States for limiting radiation exposures of the public primarily by means of environmental radiation standards for specific practices or sources, and recent developments that may affect future standards and policies for radiation protection of the public. The radiobiological and epidemiological basis for radiation protection standards and policies is emphasized. Difficulties associated with the current regulatory framework are discussed, and proposal for addressing these difficulties are presented. 16 refs., 1 tab.

Kocher, D.C.

1990-01-01

407

Radiation protection of the public: Past, present, and future  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper discusses the historical development of radiation protection standards for the public, the present system in the United States for limiting radiation exposures of the public primarily by means of environmental radiation standards for specific practices or sources, and recent developments that may affect future standards and policies for radiation protection of the public. The radiobiological and epidemiological basis for radiation protection standards and policies is emphasized. Difficulties associated with the current regulatory framework are discussed, and proposal for addressing these difficulties are presented. 16 refs., 1 tab

1990-01-01

408

Chemical radiation protection in the mammal and in man  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Application of radiation protection substances centers around two major applications: radiotherapy with the aim to diminish the effect of radiation in healthy tissue; and protection of persons in the case of radiation accident or radiation desaster. Quantifiable biological responses are required for a comparison of the efficacy of various substances. To this end, the factors of dose reduction or dose modification are employed. Physicochemical, pharmacodynamic and biochemical action mechanisms are discussed in order to explain the efficacy of radiation protection substances. (MG)

1985-01-01

409

Application of Virtual Reality to Radiation Protection  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In order to optimize the operations and procedures in several aspects of a Nuclear Power Plants, Iberdrola Ingenieria y Consultoria (Iberinco) has been developed some projects with Virtual Reality: CIPRES, ACEWO, TILOS and SICOMORO. With the experience acquired in these projects, Iberinco has checked the utility and advantageous of Virtual Reality applications that could have a direct application to Radiation Protection. With Virtual Reality it is possible to optimize the procedures involved in several critical aspects of the Plant Management. A training program bases on Virtual Reality systems could be one of the most important application. In Emergency situations the time of reaction is very important and in order to reduce it and dose, Virtual Reality is a very important tool, that could be used for training and to guide response team actions. Finally, the reduction of dose to workers, in a NPP, and patients, in hospital, is one of the most important application of Virtual Reality. (Author) 5 refs.

2004-01-01

410

Results of radiation protection programmes on mammography  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this paper, we present the results of mammography quality control tests related to the work with Portuguese mammography equipment, either in conventional or in digital mammography computed radiography, showing the main differences in the tested equipments. Quality control in mammography is a very special area of quality control in radiology, which demands relatively high knowledge on physics. Digital imaging is changing the standards of the radiographic imaging. Regarding mammography, this is yet a controversial issue owing to some limitations of the digital detectors, like the resolution for instance. A complete set of results regarding radiation protection of the patients submitted to mammography diagnosis is presented. A discussion of the quality image parameters and its interpretation in conventional and digital mammography is presented. In conclusion, we present a sample of results that can be considered as characteristics of mammography equipment in Portugal. (authors)

2005-01-01

411

Protection of DNA damage by radiation exposure  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The SOS response of Escherichia coli is positively regulated by RecA. To examine the effects of polyamines on The SOS response of E. Coli, we investigated the expression of recA gene in polyamine-deficient mutant and wild type carrying recA'::lacZ fusion gene. As a result, recA expression by mitomycin C is higher in wild type than that of polyamine-deficient mutant, but recA expression by UV radiation is higher in wild type than of mutant. We also found that exogenous polyamines restored the recA expression in the polyamine-deficient mutant to the wild type level. These results proposed that polyamines play an important role in mechanism of intracellular DNA protection by DNA damaging agents.

Lee, Jeong Ho; Kim, In Gyu; Lee, Kang Suk; Kim, Kug Chan; Oh, Tae Jung

1998-12-01

412

The scientific bases of radiation protection  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Six articles constitute this chapter about radiation protection. Double strand breaks induced by K events on DNA, effects of dose rate on double strand breaks make the object of two first articles. The study of speciation can give information in the field of internal dosimetry, it is the subject of the third article. The fourth article relates the work about the distribution profiles of iodine 127 and iodine 129 among thyroid of young rats born of mother deprived in steady iodine but contaminated by iodine 129 in a period varying from 489 hours (new born) to 21 days (adolescents) after the birth. The fifth article studies the interest of the expansion in vivo of haematopoietic cells for the treatment of radioinduced aplastic anemia. The last text is devoted to the genotoxic effects of radio frequencies. (N.C.)

2003-01-01

413

SOAP BARS HAVING ULTRAVIOLET RADIATION PROTECTION  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The present invention is drawn to a soap bar that after the washing process leaves a residual deposit on a substrate that provides protection from ultraviolet radiation comprising (a) soap, a fatty carboxylic acid that has been saponified with either sodium hydroxide, potassium hydroxide, ammonium hydroxide, or mixtures thereof; (b) from greater than 10% to about 25% by weight red petrolatum; and (c) at least one surface-treated metal oxide. Optionally, compositions of the present invention may also include (d) at least one wetting agent having a log P value of greater than about 4.0 and/or (e) an organic sunscreen having a log P value of greater than about 4.0.

COCKERELL Clay J. M.D.; FRAUTSCHI Jack R.

414

Soap Bars Having Ultraviolet Radiation Protection  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The present invention is drawn to a soap bar that after the washing process leaves a residual deposit on a substrate that provides protection from ultraviolet radiation comprising (a) soap, a fatty carboxylic acid that has been saponified with either sodium hydroxide, potassium hydroxide, ammonium hydroxide, or mixtures thereof; (b) from greater than 10% to about 25% by weight red petrolatum; and (c) at least one surface-treated metal oxide. Optionally, compositions of the present invention may also include (d) at least one wetting agent having a log P value of greater than about 4.0 and/or (e) an organic sunscreen having a log P value of greater than about 4.0.

COCKERELL CLAY J

415

Radiation protection at hadron therapy facilities  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Italian National Centre for Oncological Hadron-therapy is currently under construction in Pavia. It is designed for the treatment of deep-seated tumours (up to a depth of 27 cm of water equivalent) with proton and C-ion beams as well as for both clinical and radio-biological research. The particles will be accelerated by a 7-MeV u-1 LINAC injector and a 400-MeV u-1 synchrotron. In the first phase of the project, three treatment rooms will be in operation, equipped with four fixed beams, three horizontal and one vertical. The accelerators are currently undergoing commissioning. The main radiation protection problems encountered (shielding, activation, etc.) are hereby illustrated and discussed in relation to the constraints set by the Italian national authorities. (authors)

2011-01-01

416

Radiation protection for particle therapy facilities  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An increasing number of cyclotron and synchrotron facilities for medical treatments are installed world wide. Proton and light ion beams are used for tumour irradiations. In this work an overview of radiation protection topics for particle therapy facilities is given. Beam loss distributions of cyclotron and synchrotron installations in combination with passive or active beam shaping methods are quoted. Examples for neutron source distributions are presented for both proton and carbon ion beams. Methods for shielding calculations (MC, line-of-sight models) are described with an emphasis on carbon ion beams. Dose values from three different line-of-sight models (Agosteo, Ipe, GSI) are compared with the results of the international measurement campaign CONRAD conducted at GSI-Cave A. Shielding requirements for therapy rooms operated with proton and carbon ion beams are compared by reference to the example HIT facility in Heidelberg. Finally, three examples for particle therapy facilities (Loma Linda University Medical Center, HIMAC, HIT) are described. (authors)

2010-01-01

417

Fifty years of radiation protection. Evolution of SPR (Services of Radiation Protection). Cinquante ans de radioprotection evolution des SPR  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The fifty years of radiation protection are presented in four periods: the first one with the pioneers from 1945 to 1957, the second one with the development of the SPR ( services of radiation protection) from 1958 to 1975, the third part with the changes from 1976 to 1989, the fourth and final one with the presentation of the radiation protection today from 1990 to 1997. (N.C.)

Descourt, S

1998-01-01

418

Fifty years of radiation protection. Evolution of SPR (Services of Radiation Protection); Cinquante ans de radioprotection evolution des SPR  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The fifty years of radiation protection are presented in four periods: the first one with the pioneers from 1945 to 1957, the second one with the development of the SPR ( services of radiation protection) from 1958 to 1975, the third part with the changes from 1976 to 1989, the fourth and final one with the presentation of the radiation protection today from 1990 to 1997. (N.C.)

Descourt, S

1998-12-31

419

Measurement of dose equivalent with personal dosemeters and instrumentation of radiological protection in the new operative magnitudes ICRU, for external fields of radiation beta. Part IV. Survey of the angular response of instruments used in radiological protection in secondary patron fields of beta radiation (90Sr/90Y (1850 MBq and 74 MBq), 204TI (18.5 MBq) and 147Pm (518 MBq)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Tests type were made (type test) in the following commercial instrumentation commonly used in radiological protection: Geiger-Mueller Counters (FH40 FE), Plastic Scintillators (NE-BP/6/4A), Ionization Chambers (RO-5) and Proportional Counters (HP-100A; gas:P-10). With object of checking the possibility that these they can carry out the new operative unit ICRU, H' (0.07; ?). The tests consisted on determining the energy and angular response of the detectors in secondary patron fields of beta radiation, for isotopes of 90Sr/90Y (1850 MBq and 74 MBq and 147Pm(518 MBq). The results show the inadequate of these commercial instruments for the realization of the H' operative unit (0.07; ?) in beta external fields. Due to flaws in the design, construction and calibration of the instruments for this type of radiation fields (Author)

1994-01-01

420