WorldWideScience
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Survey of radiation protection programmes for transport  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The survey of radiation protection programmes for transport has been jointly performed by three scientific organisations I.P.S.N. (France), G.R.S. ( Germany), and N.R.P.B. (United kingdom) on behalf of the European Commission and the pertaining documentation summarises the findings and conclusions of the work that was undertaken with the principal objectives to provide guidance on the establishment, implementation and application of radiation protection programmes for the transport of radioactive materials by operators and the assessment and evaluation of such programmes by the competent authority and to review currently existing radiation protection programmes for the transport of radioactive materials. (N.C.)

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Chemical protection against ionizing radiation: a survey of possible mechanisms  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A comparative survey is given of the hypotheses which have been proposed to explain the protecting and sensitizing action of chemical substances towards ionizing radiation such as gamma radiation or x radiation

3

Regulations concerning radiation protection and survey  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The many and always increasing applications of Atomic Energy for peaceful uses set many safety and security problems relatively to the workers, populations, and locating of the sites in general. A comparative study of the radiation hazards to which the people working in the 'Commissariat a l'energie atomique' installations were exposed during 1957 and the results obtained concerning individual and collective safety and security were extremely satisfactory owing to a continuous control and supervision. 2. However a few contamination and irradiation incidents - exposed subsequently as well as the way they were dealt with - show the necessity of a circumstantial regulation inside of an atomic center to establish the responsibility of the service in charge of the control of the radiation and the responsibility of the services using radioactive products with regard to contamination by radioactive materials. 3. Abstract of the different practical safety and security regulations concerning holding, manipulation, transport and stocking of radioactive materials. Pursuant to the recommendations of the International Commission on Radiologic Protection, the radioelements are classified according to the danger that can occur from them in comparison with the Pu with regard to: - radioactive noxiousness; specific activity per unit of mass; contamination hazards. 4. The service in charge of radiation protection plays the important part of a technical adviser for the construction of specialized laboratories and sees to the keeping of protection regulations. 5. Data essential to radiation protection are given to the people using radioactive materials; particularly: - a table of the radioisotopes and the hazards occurring from them; - radiation hazards regarding ? ray emitted by irradiated Pu; - radiation hazards regarding ? ray emitted by irradiated Th. 6. As the hazards occasioned by irradiated uranium have already been studied, the case of a low and total irradiation will only be considered with regard to recuperation of uranium after simple machining. (author)

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A survey of research programs in radiation protection in Canada  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A survey of research programs in Canada concerned with radiation protection was conducted in 1991-92 by the Joint Subcommittee on Regulatory Research (JSCRR) of the Atomic Energy Control Board (AECB) Advisory Committees on Radiological Protection and on Nuclear Safety. The purpose of this survey was to determine the current state of funding for this type of research in Canada. Funding for health-related radiation research in Canada is critical to establishing and maintaining a supply of trained professionals who can provide competent advice on health-related problems in radiation protection. The present report is an analysis of the information received in this survey. This survey concludes with the recommendation that the organization and definition of subprograms for the AECB Regulatory Research and Support Program should be completed as soon as possible. In this report the JSCRR should assist AECB staff in preparing a report in which priorities for research related to radiation protection are indicated. The sources of information noted at the end of the Discussion section of this report should be considered for this purpose. (author). 15 refs., 3 tabs

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A survey of radiation protection for particle accelerators in China  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper summarizes general aspects of radiation protection for 43 sets of particle accelerators in China, including radiation shielding, radiation safety system, radiation monitoring, radiation accidents and radiation safety administration etc. Some problems in radiation protection of particle accelerators are analysed and the attention must be paid to and solved soon

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Survey of Radiation Protection Education and Training in Finland in 2003  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The current state and need for radiation protection training in Finland have been surveyed by the Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority STUK. The survey sought to determine whether the current requirements for radiation protection training had been met, and to promote radiation protection training. Details of the scope and quality of present radiation protection training were requested from all educational institutes and organizations providing radiation protection training. The survey covered both basic and further training, special training of radiation safety officers, and supplementary training. The questionnaire was sent to 77 educational organization units, 66 per cent of which responded. Radiation workers and radiation safety officers were asked about radiation protection knowledge and needs for additional training. The questionnaire was sent to 880 radiation users and 170 radiation safety officers, 70 per cent of whom responded. The survey covered all professional groups and fields of the use of ionizing radiation except nuclear energy. The amount of radiation protection training in basic and further (specialization) training in the same vocational or academic degree varied remarkably by educational organization. The average amounts of radiation protection included in most professional degrees met the requirements. 32 per cent of workers considered their radiation protection training inadequate for their duties, and 48 per cent had completed no supplementary training in radiation protection over the last five years. Nurses working in public sector hospitals and physicians working in health centres had the greatest need for radiation protection training. 78 per cent of radiation workers in industry felt that they had sufficient radiation protection training. Co-operation between educational organizations is necessary to harmonize radiation protection training. Guidance of the Ministry of Education (the competent authority for education) is needed in this area, and the Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority STUK should also be involved. (Author)

Havukainen, R.; Korpela, H.; Vaisala, S.; Piri, A.; Kettunen, E.

2004-07-01

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Radiation protection  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

It includes outline of health physics, quantity and unit for radiation protection, base of radiological protection, principle of radiological protection, radiation monitoring, radiation safety handling, radiation waste management, storage and transportation and measures of accidents. It explains in detail radioactivity, interaction coefficients, philosophy and system of radiological protection, personal monitoring program, disposal of radiation air, liquid and solid waste, as well as measures in case of fire, earthquake and so on.

8

Radiation protection  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This work define procedures and controls about ionizing radiations. Between some definitions it found the following topics: radiation dose, risk, biological effects, international radioprotection bodies, workers exposure, accidental exposure, emergencies and radiation protection

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Data survey about radiation protection and safety of radiation sources in research laboratories  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In Brazil, different types of research using unsealed sources are developed with a variety of radioisotopes. In such activities, professionals and students involved are potentially exposed to internal contamination by 14C, 45Ca, 51Cr, 3H, 125I, 32P, 33P, 35S, 90Sr and 99mTc. The general objective of this work is to evaluate radiological risks associated to these practices in order to supply information for planning actions aimed to improve radiation protection conditions in research laboratories. The criteria for risk evaluation and the safety aspects adopted in this work were based on CNEN Regulation 6.02 and in IAEA and NRPB publications. The survey of data was carried out during visits to laboratories in public Universities located in the city of Rio de Janeiro where unsealed radioactive sources are used in biochemistry, biophysics and genetic studies. According to the criteria adopted in this work, some practices developed in the laboratories require evaluation of risk of internal contamination depending on the conditions of source manipulation. It was verified the need for training of users of radioactive materials in this type of laboratory. This can be facilitated by the use of basic guides for the classification of areas, radiation protection, safety and source security in research laboratories. It was also observed the need for optimization of such prerved the need for optimization of such practices in order to minimize the contact with sources. It is recommended to implement more effective source and access controls as a way to reduce risks of individual radiation exposure and loss of radioactive materials (author)

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Review of Various Survey Instruments Locally Developed for Radiation Protection Work  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper describes the various survey instruments developed in the Directorate of Radiation Protection for radiological protection surveys of medical and industrial institutions. These Instruments Include (a) survey meters: (i) ion-chamber and scintillation types for measuring X- and gamma-ray exposures, and (ii) proportional counter and scintillation types for measuring slow- and fast-neutron fluxes; and (b) an isotope calibrator for measuring the activity of gamma sources. Each of these Instruments was developed to meet specified operational requirements, taking into consideration various factors such as climatic conditions, availability of components and range of Intensities of radiation encountered during the survey. All the instruments discussed In this review are portable and battery powered. (author)

11

Radiation Protection  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper describes the following aspects: dose limitation system (adjustment, optimization, individual doses), regulations about radiation protection, annual limits for exposed personnel, annual limits for public, radiological protection criteria. (The author)

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Knowledge in Radiation Protection: a Survey of Professionals in Medical Imaging, Radiation Therapy and Nuclear Medicine Units in Yaounde  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Medical use of ionizing radiation is now the most common radiation source of the population at the global level. The knowledge and practices of health professionals working with X-rays determine the level and quality of implementation of internationally and nationally recommended measures for radiation protection of patients and workers. The level of implementation and enforcement of international recommendations in African countries is an issue of concern due to weak laws and regulations and regulatory bodies. We report the results of a cross-sectional survey of health professionals working with ionizing radiation in Yaounde, the capital city of Cameroon. More than 50% of these professionals have a moderate level of knowledge of the norms and principles of radiation protection and more than 80% have never attended a continuing professional development workshop on radiation protection. (authors)

13

Radiation Protection  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Major achievements of SCK-CEN's Radiation Protection Department in 2001 are described. The main areas for R and D of the department are enviromnental remediation, emergency planning, radiation protection research, low-level radioactvity measurements, safeguards and physics measurements, decision strategy research and policy support and social sciences in nuclear research. Main achievements for 2001 in these areas are reported

14

Radiation protection  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A NRPB leaflet in the 'At-a-Glance' series explains in a simple but scientifically accurate way what radiation is, the biological effects and the relative sensitivity of different parts of the human body. The leaflet then discusses radiation protection principles, radiation protection in the UK and finally the effectiveness of this radiation protection as judged by a breakdown of the total dose received by an average person in the UK, a heavy consumer of Cumbrian seafood, an average nuclear industry worker and an average person in Cornwall. (UK)

15

Radiation protection  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Personnel whose duties include the application of X-ray or the handling of radioactive material according to the statutory provisions of Germany have to attend a compulsory course in ''Radiation Protection''. The textbook in hand is a systematic compilation of all subjects of the course, with questions and answers. The subjects are: (1) Physical fundamentals and X-radiation. (2) Taking X-rays. (3) X-ray quality. (4) X-ray anatomy. (5) Biological effects of ionizing radiation. (6) Dosimetry. (7) Basic principles underlying radiation protection. (8) Examination instruments. (9) Examinations using contrast media. (10) Quality assurance. (11) Patient positioning and instrument handling. The textbook also presents the relevant texts of the Radiation Protection Ordinance and of the examination problems, and a glossary of terms. (orig.). 165 figs., 24 tabs

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Concepts of radiation protection  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This seventh chapter presents the concepts and principles of safety and radiation protection, emergency situations; NORM and TENORM; radiation protection care; radiation protection plan; activities of the radiation protection service; practical rules of radiation protection and the radiation symbol

17

Radiation protection  

CERN Multimedia

The section of the Radiation Protection Group in charge of shipping radioactive material would like to remind users that all radioactive material leaving CERN must be checked for radioactivity and must be shipped according to the procedure given at http://cern.ch/service-rp-shipping Do not hesitate to contact us for any question or control. Radioactive Shipping Service: service-rp-shipping@cern.ch Tel. 73171

2005-01-01

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Radiation protection  

CERN Multimedia

The section of the Radiation Protection Group in charge of shipping radioactive material would like to remind users that all radioactive material leaving CERN must be checked for radioactivity and must be shipped according to the procedure given at http://cern.ch/service-rp-shipping Do not hesitate to contact us for any question or control. Radioactive Shipping Service: service-rp-shipping@cern.ch Tél. 73171

2005-01-01

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Radiation protection  

CERN Multimedia

The section of the radiation protection group in charge of shipping radioactive material would like to remind users that all radioactive material leaving CERN must be checked for radioactivity and must be shipped according to the procedure given at http://cern.ch/service-rp-shipping Do not hesitate to contact us for any question or control. Radioactive Shipping Service: service-rp-shipping@cern.ch Tél. 73171

Radioactive Shipping Service

2005-01-01

20

Radiation protection  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This article presents the nuclear safety policy and the means dedicated to the radiation protection of the staff in the research centers of the French CEA (atomic energy commission). The ALARA (as low as reasonably achievable) principle is applied in order to minimize radiation doses received by employees in basic nuclear installations (INB). The staff is divided into 2 categories: the first category is made up of workers that may present a risk of being contaminated or irradiated during their work, the other employees constitute the second category. The employees of the first category have 2 medical checkups a year. The organization of the radiation protection in 3 CEA's installations is presented: the experimental pool reactor Osiris, the laboratory of study and fabrication of advanced nuclear fuels (LEFCA) and ICPE 312 which is in charge of dismantling contaminated great size objects coming from hot cells or other INB. The technological progress of dosimetry allows the use of dosimeters fitted with alarms and able to integrate the total radiation doses in real time. (A.C.)

21

Radiation protection  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Three main pillars underpin the IAEA's mission: Safety and Security - The IAEA helps countries to upgrade their infrastructure for nuclear and radiation safety and security, and to prepare for and respond to emergencies. Work is keyed to international conventions, the development of international standards and the application of these standards. The aim is to protect people and the environment from the harmful effects of exposure to ionizing radiation. Science and Technology - The IAEA is the world's focal point for mobilizing peaceful applications of nuclear science and technology for critical needs in developing countries. The work contributes to alleviating poverty, combating disease and pollution of the environment and to other goals of sustainable development. Safeguards and Verification - The IAEA is the nuclear inspectorate, with more than four decades of verification experience. Inspectors work to verify that nuclear material and activities are not diverted towards military purposes. Quantities and Units: Dose equivalent is the product of absorbed dose of radiation and quality factor (Q). For absorbed dose in rads, dose equivalent is in rems. If absorbed dose is in gray, the dose equivalent is in sievert. Quality factor is defined without reference to any particular biological end point. Quality factors are recommended by committees such as the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) or the National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements (NCRP), based on experimental RBE values but with some judgment exercised. Effective Dose Equivalent: It is the sum of the weighted dose equivalents for all irradiated tissues, in which the weighting factors represent the different risks of each tissue to mortality from cancer and hereditary effects. Committed dose equivalent: It is the integral over 50 years of dose equivalent following the intake of a radionuclide. Collective effective dose equivalent: It is a quantity for a population and is the sum of effective dose equivalents to all members of that population. Units are in person-sievert/person-rems. Aim of Radiation Protection: 1. Avoid the deterministic effects; and 2. Lower the probability of stochastic effects to an acceptable level. (author)

22

Radiation protection in Hesse  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A survey is given on the tasks of the administration of Land Hesse in the field of radiation protection. The responsible authorities are the Social Ministry and its subordinate agencies, in particular the Industrial Control Office and the Inspection Office for Industrial Administration. The measures taken by the authorities are subject to the Atomic Energy Act and its executive regulations such as the 1st Radiation Protection Ordinance governing the use of radioactive materials and radiation protection in nuclear facilities, the 2nd Radiation Protection Ordinance for the use of radioactive materials and X-ray equipment in schools, and the X-ray Ordinance for the use of X-ray installations and stray radiation. The competence for licensing and control of nuclear reactors and other applications of nuclear fuels is in the hands of the Ministry of Economy and Technology. The licences are granted in accordance with the Social Ministry and the Ministry of the Interior. (ORU/AK)

23

Proposal of a survey of radiation protection procedures during breast feeding  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Contamination can occur by breast milk ingestion involving mothers subjected to diagnostic procedures or treatment with radiopharmaceuticals, which can reach high concentrations in milk causing significant absorbed doses to the children organs. Besides internal dose, close contact between the baby and his mother give rise to external exposures. In Brazil, 7% of diagnostic procedures use 131I or 123I for thyroid imaging and 84% of these were hold by women. For 131I, 67Ga and 201Tl, is recommended breast feeding cessation. The present work proposes a survey of the state of the art of radiation protection to breast feeding infants. It was planned interviews with nuclear medicine staff applying a questionnaire in order to assess specific procedures to women in reproductive age. This is 'on progress work'. (author)

24

The use of roentgen diagnostics in chiropractor activities. Project based survey according to new regulations regarding radiation protection and use of radiation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An audit has been performed in 17 chiropractic enterprises according to new radiation protection legislation. Before the audits a survey of the use of diagnostic imaging in Norwegian chiropractic enterprises was carried out. This report summarizes the results of the survey and the findings at the audits. (Author)

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Survey and analysis of radiation safety management systems at medical institutions. Second report. Radiation measurement, calibration of radiation survey meters, and periodic check of installations, equipment, and protection instruments  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We carried out a questionnaire survey to determine the actual situation of radiation safety management measures in all medical institutions in Japan that had nuclear medicine facilities. The questionnaire consisted of questions concerning the evaluation of shielding capacity; radiation measurement; periodic checks of installations, equipment, and protection instruments; and the calibration of radiation survey meters. The analysis was undertaken according to region, type of establishment, and number of beds. The overall response rate was 60 percent. For the evaluation of shielding capacity, the outsourcing rate was 53 percent of the total. For the radiation measurements of ''leakage radiation dose and radioactive contamination'' and contamination of radioactive substances in the air'', the outsourcing rates were 28 percent and 35 percent of the total, respectively (p<0.001, according to region and establishment). For the periodic check of radiation protection instruments, the implementation rate was 98 percent, and the outsourcing rate was 32 percent for radiation survey meters and 47 percent for lead aprons. The non-implemented rate for calibration of radiation survey meters was 25 percent of the total (p<0.001, according to region and establishment). The outsourcing rate for calibration of radiation survey meters accounted for 87 percent of the total, and of these medical institutions, 72 percent undertook annual calibration. The implementation rate for patient expos The implementation rate for patient exposure measurement was 20 percent of the total (p<0.001, according to number of beds), and of these medical institutions 46 percent recorded measurement outcome. (author)

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Radiation protection of nuclear medicine workers in the Czech Republic in 2003 -some results of SONS and questionnaire survey II  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Our paper presents the most. important data concerning an equipment of 45 nuclear medicine departments (depts.) with radiation protection facilities and aids. The results of the questionnaire survey mentioned in our previous paper are briefly summarized here. A relatively low radiation burden of nuclear medicine staff suggests the standard of radiation protection measures to be relatively good in our country. However, our survey shows some shortcomings, especially the following ones: (1) some depts. need equipment for the preparation and dispensing of radiopharmaceuticals; (2) syringe shields for injection of beta-emitters such as 90Y are missing Iargely; (3) at some depts. shielding of staff from the patient containing a radiopharmaceutical is either missing or insufficient. Some deficiencies, including those not mentioned here, cannot be considered too significant. If syringe shields for beta-emitters are not available, Pb shields can be provisionally used. It would be desirable to replace the Pb shields by tungsten ones having the same effectiveness as Pb shields but smaller dimensions enabling a more comfortable injections (of course, tungsten syringe shields were available at four depts. which administered 18F-FDG in 2003). An acquaintance of depts. with the results of our survey is believed to stimulate nuclear medicine workers to improve further radiation protection in compliance with legislative requirements. (authors)

27

Radiation protection  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Basic guidelines for establishing a radiation safety program in an x-ray department are outlined. Major areas discussed include Federal and state regulations, department design considerations, personnel and patient safety, x-ray tube filtration and film processing

28

The German Radiation Protection Ordinance of 2000: a survey and comparison with the former regulations  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The radiation protection standards defined by the European Union in May 1996, as well as the EU directive for the protection of patients, effective since June 1997, have to be incorporated into the law and administrative regulations of the Federal Republic of Germany by the 13th of May 2000. The German BMU, the ministry responsible for nuclear safety and radiation protection, presented the draft law for departmental consultation about the amendment of the StlSchV in December 1999. This draft law is the basis of the expert discussions of the meeting. One major change for instance is that for the first time, a broad classification system has been applied, which facilitates orientation. (orig./CB)

29

Survey of radiation protection creiteria following the accident at the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

After the accident at Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant, various numerical criteria relevant to radiation protection were defined. We surveyed these criteria through internet. As a result of survey, the following 13 items were identified: (1) criteria for taking stable iodine tablets, (2) criteria for the screening of surface contamination, (3) evacuation area, sheltering area, etc., (4) activity concentrations in food, drinking water,etc., (5) dose limit for radiation workers engaged in emergency work, (6) guideline levels of radioactive substances in bathing areas, (7) criteria for use of school buildings and schoolyards, (8) restriction on planting rice, (9) acceptable activity concentrations in feedstuff, (10) acceptable activity concentrations in compost, (11) criteria for export containers and ships, (12) criteria for contaminated waste, (13) standards for radiation workers engaged in decontamination work. In this report, the basis of and issues on these criteria are summarized. (author)

30

On ethical issues in radiation protection  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

From an ethical viewpoint the author surveys existing international radiation protection recommendations and standards. After outlining previous work on the ethics of radiation protection, professional ethics, and the ethics of human radiation experiments, the author discusses ethical thinking on seven key issues related to radiation protection and ethics. (author)

31

Low-range dosimeter for radiation protection surveys in diagnostic radiology  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

For checking the adequacy of primary and secondary protective barriers and in measuring leakage radiation from the protective tube housing, the STRAD is a desirable dosimeter in the field of Diagnostic Radiology. Calibration of this instrument poses a big problem because it is highly sensitive with a full-scale range of only 1 milliroentgen. The full-scale has 50 divisions, permitting readings as low as 0.02 milliroentgen with a single exposure. Therefore, calibration of this dosimeter, using useful beam, is impracticable. Hence scattered radiation was utilized to calibrate this instrument for which it is specifically designed. Two methods of calibration are presented; one utilizing the inverse square law and the other utilizing the variation in exposure techniques

32

Survey and analysis of radiation safety management systems at medical institutions. Initial report. Radiation protection supervisor, radiation safety organization, and education and training  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this study, a questionnaire survey was carried out to determine the actual situation of radiation safety management systems in Japanese medical institutions with nuclear medicine facilities. The questionnaire consisted of questions concerning the Radiation Protection Supervisor license, safety management organizations, and problems related to education and training in safety management. Analysis was conducted according to region, type of establishment, and number of beds. The overall response rate was 60%, and no significant difference in response rate was found among regions. Medical institutions that performed nuclear medicine practices without a radiologist participating accounted for 10% of the total. Medical institutions where nurses gave patients intravenous injections of radiopharmaceuticals as part of the nuclear medicine practices accounted for 28% of the total. Of these medical institutions, 59% provided education and training in safety management for nurses. The rate of acquisition of Radiation Protection Supervisor licenses was approximately 70% for radiological technologists and approximately 20% for physicians (regional difference, p=0.02). The rate of medical institutions with safety management organizations was 71% of the total. Among the medical institutions (n=208) without safety management organizations, approximately 56% had 300 beds or fewer. In addition, it became clear that 35% of quasi-public organizations and 44% of private organizations diations and 44% of private organizations did not provide education and training in safety management (p<0.001, according to establishment). (author)

33

Ethical problems in radiation protection  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this report the authors survey existing international radiation-protection recommendations and standards of the ICRP, the IAEA, and the ILO. After outlining previous work on the ethics of radiation protection, professional ethics, and the ethics of human radiation experiments, the authors review ethical thinking on seven key issues related to radiation protection and ethics. They formulate each of these seven issues in terms of alternative ethical stances: (1) equity versus efficiency, (2) health versus economics, (3) individual rights versus societal benefits, (4) due process versus necessary sacrifice, (5) uniform versus double standards, (6) stake holder consent versus management decisions, and (7) environmental stewardship versus anthropocentric standards

34

Ethical problems in radiation protection  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In this report the authors survey existing international radiation-protection recommendations and standards of the ICRP, the IAEA, and the ILO. After outlining previous work on the ethics of radiation protection, professional ethics, and the ethics of human radiation experiments, the authors review ethical thinking on seven key issues related to radiation protection and ethics. They formulate each of these seven issues in terms of alternative ethical stances: (1) equity versus efficiency, (2) health versus economics, (3) individual rights versus societal benefits, (4) due process versus necessary sacrifice, (5) uniform versus double standards, (6) stake holder consent versus management decisions, and (7) environmental stewardship versus anthropocentric standards.

Shrader-Frechette, K.; Persson, Lars

2001-05-01

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Radiation protection standards  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The present paper deals with: Objectives and basic concepts of radiation protection, basic radiobiological considerations, the ICRP system of dose limitation and with operational radiation protection (limits, reference levels, occupational exposure). (RW)

36

Atoms, Radiation, and Radiation Protection  

CERN Document Server

Atoms, Radiation, and Radiation Protection offers professionals and advanced students a comprehensive coverage of the major concepts that underlie the origins and transport of ionizing radiation in matter. Understanding atomic structure and the physical mechanisms of radiation interactions is the foundation on which much of the current practice of radiological health protection is based. The work covers the detection and measurement of radiation and the statistical interpretation of the data. The procedures that are used to protect man and the environment from the potential harmful effects of

Turner, James E

2007-01-01

37

Radiation protection seminar  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Radiation Protection Seminar, was organized by the Argentina Association of Biology and Nuclear Medicine, and Bacon Laboratory, the 20 june 2012, in the Buenos Aires city of Argentina. In this event were presented some papers on the following topics: methods of decontamination, radiation protection of patients; concepts of radiation protection and dosimetry.

38

Argentine radiation protection society  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Argentine Radiation Protection Society (SAR) is a non profit society, member of IRPA. It was originally launched in 1987 and a formal constitution was adopted in 1983. Presently, SAR has 220 active members, professionals and technicians dedicated to a variety of disciplines related to different radiation protection aspects: medicine, industry, research and teaching. The basic SAR objectives are: to promote research and knowledge exchange on radiation protection topics and related disciplines; to promote the comprehension of radiation protection criteria with regard to existence and handling of radioactive and fissile materials and any other radiation sources; to foster the conception of radiation protection as a professional discipline and to contribute to its permanent improvement; to promote the diffusion of the information related to all radiation protection and nuclear safety aspects, and radiation protection standards and recommendations, not only within the scientific, technical and academic areas, but also to general public

39

Ethical issues in radiation protection  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this note the authors survey existing international radiation-protection recommendations of the ICRP, the IAEA, and the ILO. After outlining previous work on the ethics of radiation protection and risk assessment/management, the authors review ethical thinking on five key issues related to radiation protection and ethics. They formulate each of these five issues in terms of alternative ethical stances: (1) Equity vs. Efficiency, (2) Health vs. Economics, (3) Individual Rights vs. Societal Benefits, (4) Due Process vs. Necessary Sacrifice, and (5) Stakeholder Consent vs. Management Decisions (authors)

40

Radiation protection research  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The objectives of the research in the field of radiation protection research performed at the Belgian Nuclear Research Centre SCK-CEN are (1) to elaborate and to improve methods and guidelines for the evaluation of restoration options for radioactively contaminated sites; (2) to develop, test and improve biosphere models for the performance assessment of radioactive waste disposal in near-surface or geological repositories; (3) to asses the impact of releases from nuclear or industrial installations; (4) to increase capabilities in mapping and surveying sites possibly or likely contaminated with enhanced levels of natural radiation; (5) to identify non nuclear industries producing NORM waste, to make an inventory of occurring problems and to propose feasible solutions or actions when required; (6) to maintain the know-how of retrospective radon measurements in real conditions and to assess radon decay product exposure by combining these techniques. Main achievements in these areas for 2001 are summarised

41

Radiation protection forum  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The National Director of the Nuclear Regulatory Authority and Radiation Protection of Uruguay in the first forum for radiation protection set out the following themes: activity of regulatory body, radiation safety, physical security, safeguards, legal framework, committed substantive program, use of radiation, risks and benefits, major sources of radiation, the national regulatory framework, national inventory of sources, inspections, licensing, import and export of sources control , radioactive transport, materials safety, agreements, information and teaching, radiological emergencies and prompt response.

42

Radiation protection instrument 1993  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Radiation Protection Instrument, 1993 (Legislative Instrument 1559) prescribes the powers and functions of the Radiation Protection Board established under the Ghana Atomic Energy Commission by the Atomic Energy Commission (Amendment) Law, 1993 (P.N.D.C. Law 308). Also included in the Legislative Instrument are schedules on control and use of ionising radiation and radiation sources as well as procedures for notification, licensing and inspection of ionising radiation facilities. (EAA)

43

Radiation and safety surveys  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

During 1974, the radiation and safety surveys personnel of ORNL continued to assist the operating groups in keeping the contamination, air concentration, and personnel exposure levels below the established maximum permissible levels. They assisted in reducing or eliminating a number of problems associated with radiation protection at the Laboratory. Several man-months were devoted to off-area surveys. The major portion of this time was in assisting in decontamination efforts at the American Nuclear Corporation. Ten unusual occurrences involving radioactive materials were recorded during 1974. The number reported for 1973 was also 10, and the average number for the past five years (1970-1974) was 10.0. Of the 392,100 articles of wearing apparel monitored during 1974, about 13 percent were found contaminated. (auth)

44

Radiation protection of female patients of reproductive capacity: A survey of policy and practice in Norway  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The implementation of various policies related to female patients of reproductive capacity was investigated using a structured telephone interview of radiological departments in Norway. The findings suggest that 60% (n = 35/58) of radiological departments have written guidelines regarding female patients of reproductive capacity. The 10-day rule is implemented for a range of examinations in 12% (n = 7/58) of the radiological departments questioned, and in another 9% (n = 5/58) it is only implemented for hysterosalpingography. Forty percent (n = 23/58) of departments are familiar with rapid urine pregnancy tests and use them in certain circumstances. In conclusion, a lack of standardisation of approaches to radiation protection is apparent, and this raises concerns as national and international recommendations are not being correctly implemented. This may lead to confusion amongst patients and staff, and may have adverse consequences such as the accidental irradiation of the unborn child

45

Radiation protection of female patients of reproductive capacity: A survey of policy and practice in Norway  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The implementation of various policies related to female patients of reproductive capacity was investigated using a structured telephone interview of radiological departments in Norway. The findings suggest that 60% (n = 35/58) of radiological departments have written guidelines regarding female patients of reproductive capacity. The 10-day rule is implemented for a range of examinations in 12% (n = 7/58) of the radiological departments questioned, and in another 9% (n = 5/58) it is only implemented for hysterosalpingography. Forty percent (n = 23/58) of departments are familiar with rapid urine pregnancy tests and use them in certain circumstances. In conclusion, a lack of standardisation of approaches to radiation protection is apparent, and this raises concerns as national and international recommendations are not being correctly implemented. This may lead to confusion amongst patients and staff, and may have adverse consequences such as the accidental irradiation of the unborn child.

Krovak, Blanca [Abbediengveien 4, Oslo University College, 0275 Oslo (Norway); Nightingale, Julie [Directorate of Radiography, School of Health Care Professions, Allerton Building, University of Salford, Salford, Greater Manchester, M6 6PU (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: j.nightingale@salford.ac.uk

2007-02-15

46

Radiation protection in hospitals  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Hospitals contain a variety of sources that may contribute to occupational and public radiation doses. Engineering design, training, administrative controls, and quality control are used to minimize doses. Changes in consensus standards and regulations have reduced the annual permissible effective dose to members of the public and the lifetime occupational dose. Hospital radiation protection and monitoring programs must take advantage of the latest developments in radiation protection and radiation monitoring techniques to keep occupational and public doses as low as reasonably achievable. This paper will describe the radiation protection program of a broad scope medical licensee, describe efforts to reduce radiation doses, and discuss trends in doses to employees and the public

47

Protective legislation, ionizing radiation and health: a new appraisal and international survey  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Restrictive regulations (protective legislation) on employment conditions of female workers limiting maximum hours of work and prohibiting certain toxic exposures have existed for decades. In some countries, such as the United States, Canada and the Nordic countries, the growth of civil rights and equal opportunity legislation has led to their elimination, either in fact or in practice, and only a small number of disparate regulations for male and female workers still exist. Most other industrialized countries, as well as the International Labour Office of the United Nations, still have active restrictive rules for women's employment. However, restrictive regulation is an area of active policy debate around the world. International examples of the debate on protective legislation are given here. A specific case study of the occupational health standards governing exposure to ionizing radiation is used and its technical rationale discussed as an illustration of the basic issues. These include: overbroad categorization of all women as potential childbearers, no matter what their childbearing intentions; failure to recognize the full range of potential adverse health effects to males; disparate application of the restrictive regulations, generally to occupations or areas of employment that are traditionally held by men, while traditional female jobs with the same exposures are excluded from the regulatory restriction

48

Protective legislation, ionizing radiation and health: a new appraisal and international survey  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Restrictive regulations (protective legislation) on employment conditions of female workers limiting maximum hours of work and prohibiting certain toxic exposures have existed for decades. In some countries, such as the United States, Canada and the Nordic countries, the growth of civil rights and equal opportunity legislation has led to their elimination, either in fact or in practice, and only a small number of disparate regulations for male and female workers still exist. Most other industrialized countries, as well as the International Labour Office of the United Nations, still have active restrictive rules for women's employment. However, restrictive regulation is an area of active policy debate around the world. International examples of the debate on protective legislation are given here. A specific case study of the occupational health standards governing exposure to ionizing radiation is used and its technical rationale discussed as an illustration of the basic issues. These include: overbroad categorization of all women as potential childbearers, no matter what their childbearing intentions; failure to recognize the full range of potential adverse health effects to males; disparate application of the restrictive regulations, generally to occupations or areas of employment that are traditionally held by men, while traditional female jobs with the same exposures are excluded from the regulatory restriction.

Stellman, J.M.

1987-01-01

49

Radiation protection practices and related continuing professional education in dental radiography: A survey of practitioners in the North-east of England  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Purpose: To establish the level of implementation of recommendations from the National Radiological Protection Board, relating to best radiation protection practice in dental radiography within general dental practices in the North-east of England. To survey the opinion of practitioners on the availability of related post-graduate courses in the region. Methods: A postal survey in the form of a self-reported questionnaire was mailed to all practices in the North-east of England in November 2000. The questionnaire, consisting of closed and open-ended questions, was to be completed where possible by the resident radiation protection supervisor. Results: Two hundred and sixteen practices responded to the questionnaire, a response rate of 53%. The survey revealed variation in the standards of application of best radiation protection practice. Some 23% of practitioners had not attended any post-graduate courses on radiation protection since qualifying. Post-graduate education provision on radiation protection in the region was considered insufficient by 51% of respondents. Conclusions: It is concluded that a significant proportion of practices were not making full use of opportunities to reduce dose to their patients. In addition, a small number of practices had untrained staff acting as the Radiation Protection Supervisor. A significant proportion of practitioners had not been updated in radiation protection practices within a 5-year period, and this may account for the fear period, and this may account for the failure to implement best radiographic practice. Over half felt that there was insufficient availability of post-graduate courses in radiation protection. The regional provision of continuing professional education in this field may need development

50

Radiation protection to firemen  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The basic Knowledge about ionizing radiation oriented for firemen, are presented. The mainly damage and effects caused by radiation exposure as well as the method of radiation protection are described in simple words. The action to be taken in case of fire involving radiation such as vehicles transporting radioactive materials are emphasized. (author)

51

Radiation protection products  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The basic terms of radiation protection means, these means and their parts are defined. Radiation protection products are classified into nine groups and their outer appearance and design are described. The standard also gives equivalent terms in Czech, Russian, Polish, Hungarian, German, Bulgarian and Romanian. (E.S.)

52

Regulations in radiation protection  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

On the occasion of the twenty fifth anniversary of the Dutch Society for Radiation Protection, a symposium was held about Regulations in Radiation Protection. The program consisted of six contributions of which four are included in this publication. The posters presented are published in NVS-nieuws, 1985, vol. 11(5). (G.J.P.)

53

Radiation protection and environmental protection  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A collection of short papers is presented which review aspects of research in radiation and environmental protection carried out by the Chinese Institute of Atomic Energy in 1991. The topics covered are: the analysis of Po 210 in the gaseous effluent of coal-fired boilers; the determination of natural radionuclide levels in various industrial waste slags and management countermeasures; assessment of the collective radiation dose from natural sources for the Chinese population travelling by water; the preliminary environmental impact report for the multipurpose heavy water research reactor constructed by China for the Islamic Republic of Algeria. (UK)

54

Radiation protection law  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This article first reviews the general radiation protection law at international and national level, with particular reference to the recommendations of the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) which, although not mandatory, are nevertheless taken into consideration by international organisations establishing basic radiation protection standards such as the UN, IAEA, NEA and Euratom, at Community level, and by national legislation. These standards are therefore remarkably harmonized. Radiation protection rule applied in France for the different activities and uses of radioactive substances are then described, and finally, a description is given of the regulations governing artificial radioisotopes and radioactive effluents. (NEA)

55

Radiation protection survey of research and development activities initiated after the Chernobyl accident. Review report  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The compilation of research and development activities in the various fields of radiation protection in OECD Member countries which have been undertaken or planned specifically to address open questions arising from the Chernobyl reactor accident experience shows a potential for international cooperative arrangements and/or coordination between national programmes. Both the preliminary review of the answers, which only cover a part of the relevant activities in OECD Member countries, and a computerized literature search indicate that the multidisciplinarity of the research area under consideration will call for special efforts to efficiently implement new models and new quantitative findings from the different fields of activity to provide an improved basis for emergency management and risk assessment. Further improvements could also be achieved by efforts to initiate new activities to close gaps in the programmes under way, to enhance international cooperation, and to coordinate the evaluation of the results. This preliminary review of the answers of 17 Member countries to the questionnaire on research and development activities initiated after the Chernobyl accident is not sufficient as a basis for a balanced decision on those research areas most in need for international cooperation and coordination. It may however serve as a guide for the exploration of the potential for international cooperative arrangements and/or coordination between national programmes by the CRPPH. Even at this preliminary stage, several specific activities are proposed to the NEA/OECD by Member countries. Whole body counting and the intercomparison of national data bases on the behaviour of radionuclides in the environment did attract most calls for international cooperation sponsored by the NEA

56

Radiation protection infrastructure  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A prerequisite for the safe use of ionizing radiation in a country is the availability of an adequate infrastructure to achieve the desired degree of protection. The extent of such an infrastructure, generally comprising regulatory mechanisms and technical capabilities for application and enforcement of regulations, has to be commensurate with the stage of technological development. The expanding application of ionizing radiation in medicine, industry and research calls for vigorous promotion of effective radiation protection efforts, not only to prevent any unsafe practices but also to assess correctly and provide authoritative information on the safety of adopted practices. Experience reveals that radiation protection practices vary considerably from one country to another. The regulatory structures and type of organization with regard to radiation protection are very different, depending on a number of factors such as the constitutional framework, the legal and administrative systems of the country concerned, the state of technical development, the status of application of radiation sources, the existence of research and associated institutions, and the technical skills and financial resources available. Radiation protection principles evolve with time as further experience is gained and as new research evidence becomes available. Regulation of radiation protection has to take account of such changes and adapt to changing conditions. Forty-eight papers from 29 Member States and two International Organizations were presented in nine scientific sessions. Topics included radiation protection regulation and licensing notification, registration, inspection and control programmes, education and training, the role of supporting institutions such as national laboratories and research institutes, the role of professional associations, the contribution of radiation protection services, and international activities. A concluding panel addressed development strategies to strengthen radiation protection infrastructure and explored how the IAEA could best assist to overcome identified shortcomings. Refs, figs and tabs

57

Radiation protection and dosimetry  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The book covers the following topics: (1) radiation detectors: overview on the measuring tasks of radiation detectors; gas-filled detectors; theory of ionization chambers; solid-state detectors; other detectors; measurement series and measuring errors. (2) Dosimetry concepts and techniques: tasks and accuracy of medical dosimetry; radiation fields and radiation quality; radiation dose units; radiation field conditions during ionization dosimetry; dosimetric concepts, practical reference dosimetry using ionization chambers; dosimetric material equivalence, thermoluminescent dosimeters, remarks to the medical dosimetry. (3) Dose distributions: dose distribution of percutaneous photon radiation, dose distribution of percutaneous electron radiation, dose distribution around afterloading radiation sources; dose distribution of percutaneous neutron radiation, dose distribution of percutaneous proton radiation. (4) Other measuring tasks: spectrometry, activity and radiation protection measurements, measuring systems for X-ray imaging, problem solutions.

58

Radiation protection in space  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The challenge for planning radiation protection in space is to estimate the risk of events of low probability after low levels of irradiation. This work has revealed many gaps in the present state of knowledge that require further study. Despite investigations of several irradiated populations, the atomic-bomb survivors remain the primary basis for estimating the risk of ionizing radiation. Compared to previous estimates, two new independent evaluations of available information indicate a significantly greater risk of stochastic effects of radiation (cancer and genetic effects) by about a factor of three for radiation workers. This paper presents a brief historical perspective of the international effort to assure radiation protection in space

59

Optimisation of radiation protection  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Optimisation of radiation protection is one of the key elements in the current radiation protection philosophy. The present system of dose limitation was issued in 1977 by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) and includes, in addition to the requirements of justification of practices and limitation of individual doses, the requirement that all exposures be kept as low as is reasonably achievable, taking social and economic factors into account. This last principle is usually referred to as optimisation of radiation protection, or the ALARA principle. The NEA Committee on Radiation Protection and Public Health (CRPPH) organised an ad hoc meeting, in liaison with the NEA committees on the safety of nuclear installations and radioactive waste management. Separate abstracts were prepared for individual papers presented at the meeting

60

Radiation Protection Ordinance. 4. ed.  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This publication gives the full text of the new version of the Radiation Protection Ordinance as of May 22nd, 1981, including the appendices I-XIV, and presents a survey of the legal regulations relating to 1) licensing, permits concerning the design of equipment, obligation to notify; 2) competence, rights and duties of the supervisory authorities; 3) areas to be controlled in accordance with the current radiation protection ordinance, standard forms for the information of patients, and the second ordinance concerning the amendment of the ordinance on the implementation of the law on units and their definition in metrology. (HP)

61

RADIATION PROTECTION IN IRAN  

OpenAIRE

This paper presents the current activities on radiation protection in Iran. According to the Atomic Energy Organization Law of Iran the radiological safety is ascribed to the Atomic Energy Organization of Iran (A E O I) and the Radiation Protection Department (R P D) is the responsible organ within AEOI. R P D since it's establishment in 1975, with the aim to ensure the protection of man and his environment against any harmful effects of radiations, has embarked on a national development...

Abedinzadih, R.; Parnianpour, H.

1980-01-01

62

Radiation protection at CERN  

OpenAIRE

This paper gives a brief overview of the general principles of radiation protection legislation; explains radiological quantities and units, including some basic facts about radioactivity and the biological effects of radiation; and gives an overview of the classification of radiological areas at CERN, radiation fields at high-energy accelerators, and the radiation monitoring system used at CERN. A short section addresses the ALARA approach used at CERN.

Forkel-wirth, Doris; Roesler, Stefan; Silari, Marco; Streit-bianchi, Marilena; Theis, Christian; Vincke, Heinz; Vincke, Helmut

2013-01-01

63

Radiation Protection Group  

CERN Multimedia

The Radioactive Waste Section of the Radiation Protection Group wishes to inform you that the Radioactive Waste Treatment Centre will be closed on the afternoon of Tuesday 19 December 2006. Thank-you for your understanding.

2006-01-01

64

Radiation protection and monitoring  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The present paper deals with the following topics: - Radiological quantities and units - Principles of radiological protection - Limits of doses and activity uptake - Activity discharges and monitoring - Radiation exposure and its calculation - Environmental monitoring - Personnel dosimetry. (orig./RW)

65

Physics for radiation protection  

CERN Document Server

A much-needed working resource for health physicists and other radiation protection professionals, this volume presents clear, thorough, up-to-date explanations of the basic physics necessary to address real-world problems in radiation protection. Designed for readers with limited as well as basic science backgrounds, Physics for Radiation Protection emphasizes applied concepts and carefully illustrates all topics through examples as well as practice problems. Physics for Radiation Protection draws substantially on current resource data available for health physics use, providing decay schemes and emission energies for approximately 100 of the most common radionuclides encountered by practitioners. Excerpts of the Chart of the Nuclides, activation cross sections, fission yields, fission-product chains, photon attenuation coefficients, and nuclear masses are also provided.

Martin, James E

2013-01-01

66

Radiation Protection: introduction  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The abstract gives an overview and introduction to the activities of SCK-CEN's Radiation Protection department. Main strategic developments and achievements in the field of life sciences, policy supports and medical applications are summarised

67

The use of roentgen diagnostics in chiropractor activities. Project based survey according to new regulations regarding radiation protection and use of radiation; Bruk av roentgendiagnostikk i norske kiropraktorvirksomheter. Prosjektrettet tilsyn etter ny forskrift om straalevern og bruk av straaling  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

An audit has been performed in 17 chiropractic enterprises according to new radiation protection legislation. Before the audits a survey of the use of diagnostic imaging in Norwegian chiropractic enterprises was carried out. This report summarizes the results of the survey and the findings at the audits. (Author)

Raaum, Aud; Widmark, Anders

2005-12-15

68

Radiation protection of patients  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This book provides guidelines for all those medical personnel involved in the administration of radiation for diagnostic or therapeutic purposes. It covers the background material required by those taking approved training courses in radiation protection and summarizes the core of knowledge which forms the basis of the regulations aimed at reducing patient doses. Thirteen out of fifteen papers are selected and indexed separately. (UK)

69

Protection against radiation risks  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Some of the ways in which the Agency and other international bodies are working to ensure fullest protection of radiation workers and the public from possible hazards of radiation have been emphasized by recent conferences. These have provided opportunities for reports, discussions and recommendations based on research and experience in many parts of the world. (author)

70

Radiation protection glossary  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The glossary is intended to be used as a terminology standard for IAEA documentation on radiation protection. An effort has been made to use definitions contained in internationally accepted publications such as recommendations of the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP), standards of the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) and of the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC), reports of the International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurements (ICRU), with only slight modifications in order to tailor them more closely to IAEA needs. The glossary is restricted to ionizing radiation

71

Radiation protection type testing  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In the GDR, radiation protection type tests (type tests from the radiation protection point of view) are prescribed by law for the following groups of products: sealed sources; equipment containing sealed sources (such as teletherapy apparatus and flaw detectors); equipment in which charged particles are accelerated (such as x-ray machines and neutron generators); equipment in which ionizing radiation arises as an unwanted byproduct (such as television sets and electron microscopes). Based on the practical experience gained during the past seven years, several problems associated with type testing and licensing are discussed in detail. (author)

72

Radiation protection in Qatar  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The State of Qatar has become a Member State of IAEA since 1974. Later the Department of Industrial Development (DID) because the focal point and the competent authority regarding all aspects of the peaceful application of Nuclear Technology. Very little or no progress was made regarding improving the Radiation Protection Infrastructure during those years. In 1998, DID approached the Supreme Council, then called 'Department of Environment' to implement the model project on upgrading radiation protection infrastructure, the council agreed and work commenced immediately. In less than five years, we were able to issue the radiation protection law, draft three set of regulations, namely: Radiation Protection Regulations, Radioactive Waste Management Regulations and the Safe Transport of Radioactive Materials Regulation. A radiation Protection Section, comprising three units was established. We are providing individual exposure monitoring for most of the radiation workers in the public sector and some in the private sector. We have also started proper licensing and inspections procedures, where our inspectors are enforcing the law. (author)

73

ISO radiation protection standards  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

After a brief description of the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) and its Technical Committee (TC) 85 ''Nuclear Energy'', the work of its Sub-Committee (SC) 2 ''Radiation Protection'' is described in some detail. Several international standards on subjects closely related to radiation protection have already been published, for example ISO-361 (Basic radiation protection symbol), ISO-1757 (Photographic dosimeters), ISO-1758 and 1759 (Direct and indirect-reading pocket exposure meters), ISO-2889 (Sampling of airborne radioactive materials), ISO-4037 (X and gamma reference radiations for calibration) and ISO-4071 (Testing of exposure meters and dosimeters). TC 85/SC 2 has currently eight active Working Groups (WG) dealing with 14 standards projects, mostly in advanced stages, in such fields as neutron and beta reference radiations, and X and gamma radiations of high and low dose-rates and high energies for calibration purposes, reference radiations for surface contamination apparatus, ejection systems for gamma radiography apparatus, industrial and laboratory irradiators, lead shielding units, protective clothing, thermoluminescence dosemeters, radioelement gauges, and surface contamination and decontamination.

Becker, K. (DIN Deutsches Inst. fuer Normung e.V., Berlin (Germany, F.R.)); West, N. (Association Francaise de Normalisation (AFNOR), 92 - Paris-la-Defense)

1981-01-01

74

The SCPRI (Central Service of Protection against Ionizing Radiation) in France: its sampling and surveying network  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The SCPRI, organism placed under tutelage of Ministers in charge of Health and Work, has the mission to practice every measurement, analysis or dosage of radioactivity or ionizing radiation in media where their presence is a risk for health. This mission involves radioactivity measurement on sampling like waters, air, vegetables, food chain. There is an important network of sampling on the whole national territory with a distribution in different climatic areas and also near the nuclear sites. It makes about 50 000 sampling by year with, for each one, different analysis and measurement

75

Radiation protection optimization of workers  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report presents the contribution of CEPN (study center on protection evaluation in nuclear area) to the Days of the French Radiation Protection Society (SFRP) on optimization of workers radiation protection in electronuclear, industrial and medical areas

76

Project Radiation Protection - East  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Swedish Government has allocated SEK 37.1 million for cooperation projects in radiation protection with countries in Central and Eastern Europe, particularly the Baltic states (Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania) and Russia. The Swedish Radiation Protection Inst. (SSI) is in charge of this program, which is often referred to as Radiation Protection - East. The general background of this cooperation program, its objectives, practical organization of the work etc. have been presented in the following reports: SSI Report No.93-08: Projekt Straalskydd Oest - Laegesrapport (March 1993); SSI Report No.93-29: Swedish Cooperation Program for Radiation Protection in Eastern and Central Europe (November 1993). The present report summarizes the work carried out up to and including September 1994. The more than 70 cooperation projects have been divided into the following categories: Upgrading of national authorities; Emergency preparedness, early warning; Nuclear power and research reactors; Instrumentation; Decommissioning, waste, environmental control; General radiation protection; Other projects; Project management and administrative support. Project criteria and a simple program for quality assurance and follow-up are presented briefly. A status report, including an economic overview, is given for all ongoing or already finished projects, together with future plans and a suggested budget for the next fiscal year

77

National congress of radiation protection  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The congress of radiation protection tackled different areas of radiation protection. The impact of ionizing radiations on environment coming from radioactive activities. The biological radiation effects, the dosimetry, the different ways of doing relative to radiation protection,the risks analysis and the communications with populations, information about accidents and the lessons learned from them are included in this congress. (N.C.)

78

International radiation protection standards  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text: Today the recommendations of ICRP have a profound influence on radiation protection all over the world. The latest recommendations were issued as publication no 60 (ICRP 60 1991). This document elaborated a conceptual framework for radiation protection based on ethics, experimental work, and risk assessment. The justification principle prohibits practices involving additional radiation exposures unless they produce sufficient societal benefits. The three main principles of the ICRP for proposed or continuing radiation-protection practices are: 1) the justification principle; 2)the optimization principle; 3) the dose limitation principle.The optimization principle requires managers to keep radiation exposures as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA), taking into account economic and social factors. the dose-limitation principle limits exposure of individuals to radiation. The system of radiological protection recommended by CRP for intervention is based on two additional principles: the proposed intervention should do more good than harm; one should optimize the form, scale and duration of intervention. Although the ICRP does not employ the term precautionary principle it does use the concept, at least implicitly

79

Ethical aspects of radiation protection  

OpenAIRE

This aim of this thesis is to examine ethical aspects of radiation protection from ionizing radiation. Radiation protection is the professional field that deals with the protection of humans and the environment from the harmful effects of radiation. The field is based on scientific knowledge of the health effects of radiation, but also on ethical value judgements. This thesis consists of a summary and three essays. Essay 1 gives an overview of ethical issues in radiation protection. Based on ...

Wikman-svahn, Per

2006-01-01

80

Fundamentals of health physics for the radiation-protection officer  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The contents of this book on health physics include chapters on properties of radioactive materials, radiation instrumentation, radiation protection programs, radiation survey programs, internal exposure, external exposure, decontamination, selection and design of radiation facilities, transportation of radioactive materials, radioactive waste management, radiation accidents and emergency preparedness, training, record keeping, quality assurance, and appraisal of radiation protection programs. (ACR)

Murphy, B.L.; Traub, R.J.; Gilchrist, R.L.; Mann, J.C.; Munson, L.H.; Carbaugh, E.H.; Baer, J.L.

1983-03-01

81

Fundamentals of health physics for the radiation-protection officer  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The contents of this book on health physics include chapters on properties of radioactive materials, radiation instrumentation, radiation protection programs, radiation survey programs, internal exposure, external exposure, decontamination, selection and design of radiation facilities, transportation of radioactive materials, radioactive waste management, radiation accidents and emergency preparedness, training, record keeping, quality assurance, and appraisal of radiation protection programs

82

Foundations for radiation protection  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text; In 1996, the IAEA published the latest edition of the International Basic Safety Standards for Protection Against Ionizing Radiation and for the Safety of Radiation Sources (Basic Safety Standards or BSS) comprising basic requirements to be filled in all activities involving radiation exposure. The standards define internationally harmonized requirements and provide practical guidance for public authorities and services, employers and workers, specialized radiation protection bodies, enterprises and health and safety communities. In the same year, the IAEA, through the technical cooperation programme, launched the Model Project on Upgrading Radiation Protection Infrastructure, a global initiative designed to help Member States establish the infrastructure needed to adhere to the BSS. To address the complexity of this task, the radiation protection team identified key elements, known as Thematic Safety Areas. These are: 1. Legislative Framework and Regulatory Infrastructure, Draft and put into effect radiation protection laws and regulations and establish and empower a national regulatory authority. 2. Occupational Exposure Control Protect the health and safety of each individual who faces the risk of radiation exposure in the workplace through individual and workplace monitoring programmes, including dose assessment, record keeping of doses and quality management. 3. Medical Exposure Control: Develop procedures and activities to control the exposure of patiactivities to control the exposure of patients undergoing diagnosis and/or treatment via diagnostic and interventional radiology, nuclear medicine or radiotherapy through staff training, provision of basic quality control equipment, and the establishment of quality assurance programmes. 4. Public and Environmental Exposure Control: Develop means to protect both the public and the environment including: a) programmes to register, inventory and provide safe storage of unused radioactive sources and material; b) procedures to control and safely manage radioactive waste; c) mechanisms to ensure that foodstuffs and other consumer goods being exported/imported comply with national safety standards; and d) tools to monitor radiation levels in the environment (i.e., in air, soil and water). 5. Emergency Preparedness and Response: Mitigate the impact of radiological and/or nuclear emergencies by developing capabilities for preparedness and response through a national emergency plan. This includes training qualified personnel, ensuring technical capabilities are in place and allocating sufficient resources to facilitate an efficient response. (IAEA)

83

Environmental Radiation Protection in Medical Institutions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The study aimed to measure the levels of radiation protection for radiologists in medical institutions in three environmental categories (physical, administrative and social) and to establish a data base which can be used to increase awareness of environmental radiation protection in medical institutions within Korea. The study surveyed 10% of radiologists working in radiology departments in medical institutions which are supervised by the National Dose Registry overseen by the Korean Food and Drug Administration(KFDA). This study found that the level of environmental radiation protection was higher in the capital area and in larger hospitals. On the other hand, the study shows environmental radiation protection was lower in the Youngnam area and in clinics. Results from the questionnaires indicate the level of environmental radiation protection was higher when radiologists were given an individual dosimeter but lowest when the radiation protection apron quality test was conducted. Environmental radiation protection is an important factor for radiologists to conduct activities in a safe and protected environment. However, this study shows there are differences in the level of environmental radiation protection in medical institutions and location within Korea. In particular, the level of environmental radiation protection was lower in clinics, appropriate intervention strategies befitting these conditions are needed based on medical institution classification and location in order to improve the level of environmental protection

84

Radiation protection for nurses  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Various aspects of radiation protection relevant to nurses are presented. The different radioisotopes used in internal radiotherapy and scintiscanning techniques and any necessary precautions which should be observed when nursing these patients are described. General information is also given on nuclear and atomic terminology, the physical half-life of radioisotopes, radiation dose as a function of distance, shielding, film badges and the maximum permissible dose. (U.K.)

85

Radiation protection. 2. ed.  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The tasks presented by radiation protection in case of accidents and in nuclear disaster relief can only be solved using such concepts as will allow a coordinated response by fire brigades, the police, and disaster relief organizations. The entire subject of protection against radioactivity is summed up by the individual topics: basic physical and biological elements, basic elements of use, preventive fire protection, tasks and equipment of relief brigades, action planning and action theory. Particular reference is made to transport accidents in radioactive material haulage, and an overview is given of all accidents from the handling of radioactive materials in 1978. (DG)

86

Radiation protection in Qatar  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text: The State of Qatar has become a member State of IAEA since 1974. Later the Department of Industrial Development (DID) beam the focal point and the competent authority regarding all aspects of the peaceful application of Nuclear Technology. In July, 2000 the Supreme Council was established and charged with all matters related to environmental protection. The Supreme Council joined the IAEA Projects on upgrading protection infrastructure in West Asia region. A preliminary research was initiated to discover where radiation sources are being used, and the legal framework, if any, to regulate their use. The research indicated that radiation sources were being used in the industrial practices (well logging, industrial radiography and nuclear gauges) and in medical practices (mainly diagnostic radiology). The research also indicated that there was virtually no legal framework to regulate them. In less than five years, the State of Qatar was able to issue the radiation protection law, three sets of regulations, namely: Radiation Protection Regulations, Radioactive Waste Management Regulations and the Safe Transport of Radioactive Materials Regulations. In addition, several specific regulation work, dose limits and radiation protection officers were issued. A radiation Protection Department, comprising three sections was established. We are providing individual exposure monitoring for most of the radiation workers in the public sector and some in the private sector. We have set up a proper licensing and inspections procedures, where our inspectors are enforcing the law. More recently, we established an early warning network for nuclear of radiological emergencies, consisting of 6 transplantable stations, five mobile stations and two navigating stations. This year, the network was augmented with five fixed station and an advanced early warning centre, which provides early warning via multiple means (MMS, Fax, E-mail and audio alarms). Last year we signed a nuclear security agreement for cooperation with IAEA. Based on this agreement, the Agency assisted the state of Qatar to establish a very comprehensive boarder monitoring network, covering all land, sea and air ports. The information from all monitors is transferred in real time to two centres; one at the Ministry of Interior, while the being the early warning centre at the Supreme Council. The Supreme Council is currently considering, with the assistance of IAEA, establishing a regional training centre of excellence for radiation protection. (author)

87

Radiation survey of NPP  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The programs of the NPP complex radiation survey in the process of reactor decommissioning preparation is considered. The attention is paid to the origin (activation and contamination) and composition of radioactive nuclides in materials and structures of a dismounted unit. Some data on radiation survey of the Armenian NPP first unit are given as an example. Comparison of the absorbed dose for activation ? radiation in the point of maximum with the calculated value assuming that the main contribution into the dose rate is given by 60Co ? radiation, has shown their confirmity within the measurement and calculation error limits

88

Chemical radiation protection  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Data on organism protection from ionizing radiation effects by means of chemical compounds are presented. Mechanism of chemical compound radioprotective effect is considered. Possibilities of using radioprotective substances in extreme situations and in radiotherapy of malignant tumors are discussed. 498 refs.; 28 figs.; 49 tabs

89

Basic radiation protection procedures  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The recommendations of the International Commission on Radiological Protection are used as the basis for radiation protection. To implement these any radiation protection program must contain three elements: Proper hazard indication, monitoring and assessment of the working environment, and measurement of the dose received by personnel. Cognisance must be given to exposures from external sources and the internal exposures from the intake of radioactive material. From the primary dose limits secondary limits are derived for external exposure rate, air concentration, surface contamination and personal contamination to instigate control on the working environment and to define hazard levels. Techniques for monitoring the environment are described. Methods of personnel protection and for limiting the exposure to personnel, as determined by the hazard level of the work area, are given. The doses received by personnel are measured with appropriate physical techniques, and external exposure as well as the intake of material has to be assessed. The extent of the radiation protection program is determined by the level of exposure and the amount of material to be used

90

Radiation protecting glove  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The radiation protecting gloves of the present invention comprise a neutron shielding material made of natural or synthetic rubber incorporated with neutron shielding materials. For the neutron shielding materials, those having first neutron moderating effect and those having thermal neutron absorbing effect can be used properly. As the materials having first neutron moderating effect, gadolinium oxide power, zirconium hydride powder or the like is used. Further, as the thermal neutron absorbing material, boron carbide powder or the like is used. As the natural or synthetic rubber for the substrate, neoprene rubber, butadiene rubber or hyperlon rubber may be used for instance. Thus, a radiation protection gloves having neutron protecting function can be obtained. (I.N.)

91

Guidelines for radiation protection  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Guidelines for radiation protection originate from numerous federal, state, and local agencies. Guidelines in radiation protection can be either mandatory or advisory. Regulations by federal, state, and local governments for the use of radioactive materials define operating practices. Adherence to these regulations is required by law and there are penalties for noncompliance. Regulations generally constitute the minimum requirements for good practice and are usually supplemented by less formal recommendations from regulatory agencies and advisory groups. The regulatory guides published by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and by radiation control groups of agreement states are intended to assist the user of radioactive material in maintaining compliance with regulations. These guides recommend good practice but are not mandatory in that the user can propose alternatives to the regulatory agencies to meet the regulations. Many groups serve in an advisory capacity in formulating reports and recommendations for the safe use of radioactive material. The most prominent and influential among these are the National Council in Radiation Protection and Measurements (NCRP) and the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP). Often the recommendations of these advisory groups evolve into either regulatory guidelines or regulations for the use of radioactive materials. At the present time, the backbone of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission's regulations relatiRegulatory Commission's regulations relating to the medical use of radionuclides, Standards for Protection Against Radiation (10CFR20) and Human Use of Byproduct Material (10CFR35), are undergoing extensive review with major revisions anticipated within the very near future. These proposed changes could have a significant impact on the practice of nuclear medicine

92

Enhancing radiation protection  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

When a new radiotherapy center in Gezira, Sudan, delivers its first therapeutic dose to a cancer patient, two things happen: A young man begins to regain his health and looks forward to being better able to support his family and contribute to his community; and a developing nation realizes an important step toward deriving the social and economic benefits of nuclear science. The strategic application of nuclear technology in particular fields- human health, industry, food and agriculture, energy, water resources and environmental protection - has enormous potential to help shape the future of developing countries. But past radiological incidents, several of which involved high levels of exposure or death (Bolivia, Brazil, Cost Rica, Georgia, Ghana, Morocco, Panama and Thailand), underscore the inherent and very serious risks. For this reason, the IAEA's Departments of Technical Cooperation and Nuclear Safety and Security partner closely, particularly in the area of radiation protection. They strive to consider every minute detail in the equation that brings together radiation sources, modern technologies, people and the environment. Launched in 1996, the Model Project on Upgrading Radiation Protection Infrastructure (the Model Project) aimed to help Member States: achieve capacities that underpin the safe and secure application of nuclear technologies; establish a legislative framework and regulatory infrastructure; develop exposure control mechanisms to protect workxposure control mechanisms to protect workers, medical patients, the public and the environment; and achieve preparedness and planned response to radiological emergencies. In fact, the hospital scenario above typically marks several years of intense collaboration amongst scientists, legislators, regulators, politicians and administrators from both Member States and the IAEA, orchestrated and aided by regional managers and technical experts from the IAEA. As radiation protection team members can attest, every application of nuclear technology carries special considerations and unique challenges. And each country is equally distinct in terms of needs, technical capacity, availability of financial resources and adequately trained personnel (at both regulatory and user organizations), and overall infrastructure

93

Radiation Protection: Introduction  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

As a federal research Centre, SCK-CEN has the statutory assignment to give priority to research related to safety, radioactive waste management, protection of man and environment, management of fissile and other strategic materials and social implications as part of the pursuit of sustainable development and to develop and gather the necessary knowledge and spread this knowledge through formation and communication. At the Division of Radiation Protection at SCK-CEN we are therefore active to maintain and enhance knowledge and expertise in each aspect of radiation protection: we study the risk of exposure - the way that radioactive materials spread in the environment and the potential for human contact - and the risk from exposure - how radiation affects human health; we perform health physics measurements; we are involved in emergency planning and preparedness and support to risk governance and decision taking. These activities are supported by radiation specific analysis and measurement techniques. These activities are not performed in isolation but in context of national and international collaborations or demands

94

78 FR 59982 - Revisions to Radiation Protection  

Science.gov (United States)

...acceptability of the radiation protection program, including...generic radiation protection and groundwater program templates...12, ``Radiation Protection.'' Comments were...Comments on Draft Standard Review Plan...

2013-09-30

95

Radiation biology and radiation protection  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

For protection purposes, the biological effects of radiation are separated into stochastic effects (cancer, hereditary effects) presumed to be unicellular in origin, and tissue reactions due to injury in populations of cells. The latter are deterministic effects, renamed ‘tissue reactions’ in the 2007 Recommendations of the International Commission on Radiological Protection because of the increasing evidence of the ability to modify responses after irradiation. Tissue reactions become manifest either early or late after doses above a threshold dose, which is the basis for recommended dose limits for avoiding such effects. Latency time before manifestation is related to cell turnover rates, and tissue proliferative and structural organisation. Threshold doses have been defined for practical purposes at 1% incidence of an effect. In general, threshold doses are lower for longer follow-up times because of the slow progression of injury before manifestation. Radiosensitive individuals in the population may contribute to low threshold doses, and in the future, threshold doses may be increased by the use of various biological response modifiers post irradiation for reducing injury. Threshold doses would be expected to be higher for fractionated or protracted doses, unless doses below the threshold dose only cause single-hit-type events that are not modified by repair/recovery phenomena, or if different mechanisms of injury are involved at low and high doses.lved at low and high doses.

96

The 2014 radiation protection guide  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This guide describes the background and objectives of radiation protection, the different sources of ionizing radiation and their different uses. It presents the various actors involved in radiation protection (actors in nuclear activities, certified laboratories and bodies, national, international and European bodies), the legal framework (international standards, European directives, French law), the different administrative regimes (for medical activities, veterinarian activities, and industrial activities), and the approach to be followed to exert a nuclear activity. It describes the practical organization of radiation protection (workers protection, patient protection, public protection, case of augmented natural radiations, management of incidental or accidental situations), addresses the issue of transport of radioactive substances (regulation and regulation applicability, material classification, parcel design, requirements and control, accompanying documents, means of transportation, required training, radiation protection measures), the issue of management of radioactive wastes and effluents (according to the type of installation), and the organization of radiation protection control, and indicates the civil and criminal liabilities

97

The national radiation protection infrastructure  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The state system of radiation protection is still being created after Lithuania regained its independancy and in connection with recommendations laid in the ICRP-60 publication and requirements of legislation of European Community. A new regulation institutions was established and a number of laws and regulations related to radiation protection was prepared. The Radiation Protection Centre of Ministry of Health is the regulatory authority responsible for radiation protection of public and of workers using sources of ionizing radiation in Lithuania. A new Radiation Protection Law, Nuclear Energy Law, Radioactive Waste Management Law and different regulations was approved. Preparation of legislation, creation of state system of radiation protection and its upgrading allow to presume that the necessary level of radiation protection is to be achieved. (au)

98

Emerging radiation protection  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In recent years, a number of radiation protection issues have emerged into the public forum. The perceived high risks associated with radiation exposure, and disproportionate media attention to such issues, have contributed to heightened concerns by the public and the individual occupationally exposed worker. This paper examines the new and controversial radiation risk estimates of the National Research Council's BEIR V committee, which are based on the most current atomic-bomb survivor data and a revised dosimetry model. These risk estimates are somewhat higher than past values, and may eventually impact the legal framework in the United States through the regulations of the EPA, NRC, DOE, OSHA, and other agencies that set radiation exposure standards. Additionally, present regulations and standards are often based upon differing levels of acceptable risk, which have led to conflicting exposure and effluent release criteria. Further, due to inherent boundaries in legal authority, many potentially significant sources of radiation exposure to the public remain unregulated Radiation exposure scenarios such as medical x-ray, radon, and other technology enhanced sources have no legal limits. These issues and others are examined and analyzed with respect to regulatory policy

99

Radiation protection following nuclear power accidents: a survey of putative mechanisms involved in the radioprotective actions of taurine during and after radiation exposure.  

Science.gov (United States)

There are several animal experiments showing that high doses of ionizing radiation lead to strongly enhanced leakage of taurine from damaged cells into the extracellular fluid, followed by enhanced urinary excretion. This radiation-induced taurine depletion can itself have various harmful effects (as will also be the case when taurine depletion is due to other causes, such as alcohol abuse or cancer therapy with cytotoxic drugs), but taurine supplementation has been shown to have radioprotective effects apparently going beyond what might be expected just as a consequence of correcting the harmful consequences of taurine deficiency per se. The mechanisms accounting for the radioprotective effects of taurine are, however, very incompletely understood. In this article an attempt is made to survey various mechanisms that potentially might be involved as parts of the explanation for the overall beneficial effect of high levels of taurine that has been found in experiments with animals or isolated cells exposed to high doses of ionizing radiation. It is proposed that taurine may have radioprotective effects by a combination of several mechanisms: (1) during the exposure to ionizing radiation by functioning as an antioxidant, but perhaps more because it counteracts the prooxidant catalytic effect of iron rather than functioning as an important scavenger of harmful molecules itself, (2) after the ionizing radiation exposure by helping to reduce the intensity of the post-traumatic inflammatory response, and thus reducing the extent of tissue damage that develops because of severe inflammation rather than as a direct effect of the ionizing radiation per se, (3) by functioning as a growth factor helping to enhance the growth rate of leukocytes and leukocyte progenitor cells and perhaps also of other rapidly proliferating cell types, such as enterocyte progenitor cells, which may be important for immunological recovery and perhaps also for rapid repair of various damaged tissues, especially in the intestines, and (4) by functioning as an antifibrogenic agent. A detailed discussion is given of possible mechanisms involved both in the antioxidant effects of taurine, in its anti-inflammatory effects and in its role as a growth factor for leukocytes and nerve cells, which might be closely related to its role as an osmolyte important for cellular volume regulation because of the close connection between cell volume regulation and the regulation of protein synthesis as well as cellular protein degradation. While taurine supplementation alone would be expected to exert a therapeutic effect far better than negligible in patients that have been exposed to high doses of ionizing radiation, it may on theoretical grounds be expected that much better results may be obtained by using taurine as part of a multifactorial treatment strategy, where it may interact synergistically with several other nutrients, hormones or other drugs for optimizing antioxidant protection and minimizing harmful posttraumatic inflammatory reactions, while using other nutrients to optimize DNA and tissue repair processes, and using a combination of good diet, immunostimulatory hormones and perhaps other nontoxic immunostimulants (such as beta-glucans) for optimizing the recovery of antiviral and antibacterial immune functions. Similar multifactorial treatment strategies may presumably be helpful in several other disease situations (including severe infectious diseases and severe asthma) as well as for treatment of acute intoxications or acute injuries (both mechanical ones and severe burns) where severely enhanced oxidative and/or nitrative stress and/or too much secretion of vasodilatory neuropeptides from C-fibres are important parts of the pathogenetic mechanisms that may lead to the death of the patient. Some case histories (with discussion of some of those mechanisms that may have been responsible for the observed therapeutic outcome) are given for illustration of the likely validity of these concepts and their relevance both for treatment of severe infections and n

Christophersen, Olav Albert

2012-01-01

100

Radiation protection following nuclear power accidents: a survey of putative mechanisms involved in the radioprotective actions of taurine during and after radiation exposure.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available There are several animal experiments showing that high doses of ionizing radiation lead to strongly enhanced leakage of taurine from damaged cells into the extracellular fluid, followed by enhanced urinary excretion. This radiation-induced taurine depletion can itself have various harmful effects (as will also be the case when taurine depletion is due to other causes, such as alcohol abuse or cancer therapy with cytotoxic drugs, but taurine supplementation has been shown to have radioprotective effects apparently going beyond what might be expected just as a consequence of correcting the harmful consequences of taurine deficiency per se. The mechanisms accounting for the radioprotective effects of taurine are, however, very incompletely understood. In this article an attempt is made to survey various mechanisms that potentially might be involved as parts of the explanation for the overall beneficial effect of high levels of taurine that has been found in experiments with animals or isolated cells exposed to high doses of ionizing radiation. It is proposed that taurine may have radioprotective effects by a combination of several mechanisms: 1 during the exposure to ionizing radiation by functioning as an antioxidant, but perhaps more because it counteracts the prooxidant catalytic effect of iron rather than functioning as an important scavenger of harmful molecules itself, 2 after the ionizing radiation exposure by helping to reduce the intensity of the post-traumatic inflammatory response, and thus reducing the extent of tissue damage that develops because of severe inflammation rather than as a direct effect of the ionizing radiation per se, 3 by functioning as a growth factor helping to enhance the growth rate of leukocytes and leukocyte progenitor cells and perhaps also of other rapidly proliferating cell types, such as enterocyte progenitor cells, which may be important for immunological recovery and perhaps also for rapid repair of various damaged tissues, especially in the intestines, and 4 by functioning as an antifibrogenic agent. A detailed discussion is given of possible mechanisms involved both in the antioxidant effects of taurine, in its anti-inflammatory effects and in its role as a growth factor for leukocytes and nerve cells, which might be closely related to its role as an osmolyte important for cellular volume regulation because of the close connection between cell volume regulation and the regulation of protein synthesis as well as cellular protein degradation. While taurine supplementation alone would be expected to exert a therapeutic effect far better than negligible in patients that have been exposed to high doses of ionizing radiation, it may on theoretical grounds be expected that much better results may be obtained by using taurine as part of a multifactorial treatment strategy, where it may interact synergistically with several other nutrients, hormones or other drugs for optimizing antioxidant protection and minimizing harmful posttraumatic inflammatory reactions, while using other nutrients to optimize DNA and tissue repair processes, and using a combination of good diet, immunostimulatory hormones and perhaps other nontoxic immunostimulants (such as beta-glucans for optimizing the recovery of antiviral and antibacterial immune functions. Similar multifactorial treatment strategies may presumably be helpful in several other disease situations (including severe infectious diseases and severe asthma as well as for treatment of acute intoxications or acute injuries (both mechanical ones and severe burns where severely enhanced oxidative and/or nitrative stress and/or too much secretion of vasodilatory neuropeptides from C-fibres are important parts of the pathogenetic mechanisms that may lead to the death of the patient. Some case histories (with discussion of some of those mechanisms that may have been responsible for the observed therapeutic outcome are given for illustration of the likely validity of these concepts and their relevance both for treatment of severe infection

Olav Christophersen

2012-02-01

101

Radiation protection code of practice  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A collection of legal and regulatory material governing Jordan's radiation protection activities. The full text of Jordan's Nuclear Energy and Radiation Protection Law (No. 14 for 1987) is given, along with relevant regulations which are enforced in Jordan. The regulations cover the areas of shielding radiology rooms, defining radiation work, decontamination in the event of laboratory scale radiological accidents, radioactive waste disposal, personnel dosimetry, assigning radiation protection officers, licensing, and inspection. (A.M.H.). 12 tabs., 6 figs

102

Occupational radiation protection software  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper presents a reflection on the basic essentials of a Radiation Work Permit (RWP). Based on the latest WANO Recommendations, this paper considers the RWP as a complete process rather than a simple administrative procedure. This process is implemented via software which is also presented in this paper. The software has been designed to achieve the following objectives: - To configure the radiological map of the plant. To plan radiological surveillance, to input data, to update radiological signposting and mandatory protective clothing in each area of the station. All this information can be checked from any personnel computer connected to a network. - To collect radiological data by means of a palmtop (PDA) and to upload it to a personnel computer, thereby speeding up the job and reducing human errors. - To implement the RWP by allowing on-line consultation of the permitted individual doses of the workers and the planned collective dose for each job. The software also supplies the radiological information to the workers. - To collect and arrange pictures, maps and sketches of equipment placed in rooms or in areas of the plant. - To allow the software to be used in real time from different workstations. - High reliability and speed of working. - Flexible data enquiry. The software provides a number of standard data enquiries such as numbers of workers on each job and their individual dose received...etc. It also allows data to be exported to other well-known sofata to be exported to other well-known software applications such as Excel and Access for further data analysis. The software has been designed by radiation protection professionals and developed by computer programmers who were integrated into the radiological work environment. The software would fulfill Occupational Radiation Protection Department requirements. (author)

103

Health protection of radiation workers  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This textbook is addressed to all those concerned with the protection of radiation workers. It provides full coverage of the implications of radiation in exposed workers, and, after a chapter outlining, in simple terms, the basic facts about radiation, deals with measurement of ionising radiation; radiation dosimetry; effectiveness of absorbed dose; general biological effects of ionising radiation; somatic effects of radiation; the acute radiation syndrome; other somatic effects; hereditary effects; radiation protection standards and regulations; radiation protection; medical supervision of radiation workers; general methods of diagnosis and treatment; metabolism and health problems of some radioisotopes; plutonium and other transuranium elements; radiation accidents; emergency plans and medical care; atomic power plants; medico-legal problems

104

Survey and evaluation of the external research and development programme 1977-1983 of the Swedish Radiation Protection Institute  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A review of the external research programme of SSI is undertaken. The main research programme is in this report divided into five subprogrammes according to the main programmes of the Institute. This report covers research projects reported 1977-1983. An evaluation of the impact of the R and D programme is included in the report. The external R and D research programme of SSI has had an important impact on the radiation protection work in Sweden. The methods for evaluation of research programmes are also discussed in the report

105

Radiation protection and society  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The radiological protection of population, living on the contaminated territories, is actual 10 years after the Chernobyl accident. Eventually, the whole system of countermeasures application is aimed to protect society as a complex community of individuals . The variety of levels of society, i.e. family, settlement on the whole, can be considered as certain harmonic systems differing in their public consciousness levels and lifestyles, this explain the difference in their 'behaviour' in terms of radiation protection and attitude to the information obtained. Each level of society possesses a certain degree of liberty of choice, that finally influence the magnitude and the character of dose distribution within certain population groups. In general, the dose distribution in the settlement can be explained only on the bases of 'family' analysis. This concerns the rural settlement as a society too. All rural settlement can be divided into two or three classes: with low, high and intermediate social features. Small settlements (< 100 persons), where the advanced in age persons with low material income and high degree of natural economy are applied to the first class. This results in higher doses (2-3 fold), than in the settlements with higher social level. The analysis shows that in socially 'waning' settlements the countermeasures are less efficient and the term of their action is shorter. (this class is the largest, About 50% among all the rural settlements). Due to the deterioration of the economic situation in the Republic of Belarus after 1991-1992 resulted in the increase of doses mainly in the habitants first of all of this class of settlements. It seems problematic to increase countermeasures efficiency in this class of settlements without the refuse of the accustomed lifestyle and radical improvement of social-demographic and economic conditions. The present material shows the necessity of the differential approach based on 'society-analysis' in the determination of the strategy and tactics of radiological protection of the rural population. (authors)

106

National Sessions of Radiation Protection  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Radioprotection Argentine Society (SAR) was organized the National Sessions on Radiation Protection 2012 in order to continue the exchange in the radiation protection community in the country, on work areas that present a challenge to the profession. The new recommendations of the ICRP and the IAEA Safety Standards (2011), among others, includes several topics that are necessary to develop. The SAR wants to encourage different organizations from Argentina, to submit projects that are developing in order to strengthen radiation protection.

107

Health protection of radiation workers  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Essential information on the health protection of radiation workers which has accumulated since the advent of nuclear fission thirty years ago is presented in simple terms. Basic facts on ionizing radiation, its measurement, and dosimetry are presented. Acute and chronic somatic and genetic effects are discussed with emphasis on prevention. Radiation protection standards and regulations are outlined, and methods for maintaining these standards are described. Diagnosis and treatment of radiation injury from external radiation and/or internally deposited radionuclides is considered generally as well as specifically for each radioisotope. The medical supervision of radiation workers, radiation accidents, atomic power plants, and medicolegal problems is also covered. (853 references) (U.S.)

108

Applied radiation biology and protection  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This book grew out of a series of courses in radiobiology and radiation protection which were given to students in schools for radiology technicians, radiation safety officers and to medical students. Topics covered include the sources of ionizing radiation and their interactions with matter; the detection and measurement of ionizing radiation; dosimetry; the biological effects of ionizing radiation; the effects of ionizing radiation on the human body; natural radioexposure; medical radio-exposure; industrial radioexposure of electronuclear origin; radioexposure due to experimental nuclear explosions; radiation protection; and accidents with external and/or internal radio-exposure. (UK)

109

Pregnancy and Radiation Protection  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Several modalities are currently utilized for diagnosis and therapy, by appropriate application of x-rays. In diagnostic radiology, interventional radiology, radiotherapy, interventional cardiology, nuclear medicine and other specialties radiation protection of a pregnant woman as a patient, as well as a member of the operating personnel, is of outmost importance. Based on radiation risk, the termination of pregnancy is not justified if foetal doses are below 100 mGy. For foetal doses between 100 and 500 mGy, a decision is reached on a case by case basis. In Diagnostic Radiology, when a pregnant patient takes an abdomen CT, then an estimation of the foetus' dose is necessary. However, it is extremely rare for the dose to be high enough to justify an abortion. Radiographs of the chest and extremities can be done at any period of pregnancy, provided that the equipment is functioning properly. Usually, the radiation risk is lower than the risk of not undergoing a radiological examination. Radiation exposure in uterus from diagnostic radiological examinations is unlikely to result in any deleterious effect on the child, but the possibility of a radiation-induced effect can not be entirely ruled out. The effects of exposure to radiation on the foetus depend on the time of exposure, the date of conception and the absorbed dose. Finally, a pregnant worker can continue working in an x-ray department, as long as there is reasonable assurance that the foetal dose can be kept beurance that the foetal dose can be kept below 1 mGy during the pregnancy. Nuclear Medicine diagnostic examinations using short-lived radionuclides can be used for pregnant patient. Irradiation of the foetus results from placental transfer and distribution of radiopharmaceuticals in the foetal tissues, as well as from external irradiation from radioactivity in the mother's organ and tissues. As a rule, a pregnant patient should not undergo therapy with radionuclide, unless it is crucial for her life. In Radiotherapy, the patient, treating oncologist, other team and family members should carefully discuss for the decision of abortion. Important factors must be considered such as the stage and aggressiveness of the tumour, the location of the tumour, the stage of pregnancy, various therapies etc.

110

Pregnancy and Radiation Protection  

Science.gov (United States)

Several modalities are currently utilized for diagnosis and therapy, by appropriate application of x-rays. In diagnostic radiology, interventional radiology, radiotherapy, interventional cardiology, nuclear medicine and other specialties radiation protection of a pregnant woman as a patient, as well as a member of the operating personnel, is of outmost importance. Based on radiation risk, the termination of pregnancy is not justified if foetal doses are below 100 mGy. For foetal doses between 100 and 500 mGy, a decision is reached on a case by case basis. In Diagnostic Radiology, when a pregnant patient takes an abdomen CT, then an estimation of the foetus' dose is necessary. However, it is extremely rare for the dose to be high enough to justify an abortion. Radiographs of the chest and extremities can be done at any period of pregnancy, provided that the equipment is functioning properly. Usually, the radiation risk is lower than the risk of not undergoing a radiological examination. Radiation exposure in uterus from diagnostic radiological examinations is unlikely to result in any deleterious effect on the child, but the possibility of a radiation-induced effect can not be entirely ruled out. The effects of exposure to radiation on the foetus depend on the time of exposure, the date of conception and the absorbed dose. Finally, a pregnant worker can continue working in an x-ray department, as long as there is reasonable assurance that the foetal dose can be kept below 1 mGy during the pregnancy. Nuclear Medicine diagnostic examinations using short-lived radionuclides can be used for pregnant patient. Irradiation of the foetus results from placental transfer and distribution of radiopharmaceuticals in the foetal tissues, as well as from external irradiation from radioactivity in the mother's organ and tissues. As a rule, a pregnant patient should not undergo therapy with radionuclide, unless it is crucial for her life. In Radiotherapy, the patient, treating oncologist, other team and family members should carefully discuss for the decision of abortion. Important factors must be considered such as the stage and aggressiveness of the tumour, the location of the tumour, the stage of pregnancy, various therapies etc.

Gerogiannis, J.; Stefanoyiannis, A. P.

2010-01-01

111

Radiation risks and radiation protection at CRNL  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Radiation exposure is an occupational hazard at CRNL. The predicted health effects of low levels of radiation are described and compared with other hazards of living. Data related to the health of radiation workers are also considered. Special attention is given to the expected effects of radiation on the unborn child. Measures taken to protect CRNL employees against undue occupational exposure to radiation are noted

112

Fukushima: experiencing radiation protection  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The author describes his experience as a worker in charge of the radiation protection of the Areva teams that intervened on the Fukushima site to put into service a system to decontaminate water. The feedback experience highlights 4 main difficulties. First, the compliance to the French legislation and to Areva practical procedures (particularly in terms of maximal daily doses). Secondly, it was very difficult to get necessary technical information because of the language barrier but also because the Japanese staff was stressed and overworked by the accident. Thirdly, the constant changing state of the Fukushima site, the situation had not yet been stabilized so it happened that the teams had to change their work programs at the last minute. Fourthly, the differences in work practices of the Areva workers that came from different parts of the world, had to be overcome. The radioprotection account of the mission shows that it was a success despite the complexity of the task. (A.C.)

113

Ethical issues in radiation protection  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Ethical theories are relevant to the current recommendations and standards for radiation protection. Radiation protection is not only a matter for science. It is also a problem of philosophy. In order for protection regulations to be respected, it must correspond to widely accepted ethical values among those who are affected by the regulations. The workshop covered the following issues: Problems in Present Protection Policy, ICRP Protection Policy - A Historical Perspective, Radiation Risk - What we know and what we believe, Present ICRP Recommendations, Ethical Values in the Context of ICRP Recommendations, Collective Responsibility for Invisible Harm, Environmental Protection - Ethical Issues, The Global Change of Values, and Procedural justice and Radiation Protection. Six workshop contributions and a workshop summary are presented in this report.

Persson, Lars (ed.)

2000-03-15

114

Personal Radiation Protection System  

Science.gov (United States)

A report describes the personal radiation protection system (PRPS), which has been invented for use on the International Space Station and other spacecraft. The PRPS comprises walls that can be erected inside spacecraft, where and when needed, to reduce the amount of radiation to which personnel are exposed. The basic structural modules of the PRPS are pairs of 1-in. (2.54-cm)-thick plates of high-density polyethylene equipped with fasteners. The plates of each module are assembled with a lap joint. The modules are denoted bricks because they are designed to be stacked with overlaps, in a manner reminiscent of bricks, to build 2-in. (5.08-cm)-thick walls of various lengths and widths. The bricks are of two varieties: one for flat wall areas and one for corners. The corner bricks are specialized adaptations of the flat-area bricks that make it possible to join walls perpendicular to each other. Bricks are attached to spacecraft structures and to each other by use of straps that can be tightened to increase the strengths and stiffnesses of joints.

McDonald, Mark; Vinci, Victoria

2004-01-01

115

Plowshare radiation protection guidance  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The recommendations of the ICRP and the NCRP were developed primarily for occupational radiation exposures. They were later modified and applied to non-occupational exposures of populations. These, with appropriate interpretations, can be used to provide Plowshare radiation protection guidance. Exposures from Plowshare operations will tend to be acute, arising from radionuclides of relatively short half-life, but will have some chronic aspects due to small amounts of long-lived radionuclides generated. In addition, the neutron activation process of Plowshare technology will produce radionuclides not commonly encountered in routine nuclear energy programs. How these radionuclides contribute to personnel exposure is known for only a few situations that may not be representative of Plowshare exposure. Further complications arise from differences in radionuclide deposition and physiological sensitivity among individuals of different ages and states of health in the exposed population. All parameters necessary to evaluate such exposures are not available, even for good quantitative approximations, resulting in the need for interpretive experience. (author)

116

Radiation Protection Training in Lithuania  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Radiation Protection Training is an important component of Radiation Protection and serves for human radiation safety. According to the Lithuanian Law on Radiation Protection the legal persons and enterprises without the status of legal persons to conduct practices with sources or which workers work under exposure must organize at their own expenses a compulsory training and assessment of knowledge of the workers engaging in activities with the sources and radiation protection officers. Such training has been started in 1999. In Lithuania there are few institutions executing Radiation Protection training. Under requirements of legal act On Frequency and Procedure of Compulsory Training and Assessment Knowledge of the Workers Engage in Activities with the Sources of Ionising Radiation and Radiation Protection Officers these institutions have to prepare and coordinate training programs with the Radiation Protection Center. There are adopted different educating programs for Radiation Protection Training to the Workers and Radiation Protection Officers depending on character of work and danger of sources. The duration of Training is from 30 to 270 hours. The Training shall be renewed every five years passing 30 hors course. To ensure the adequate quality of training a great deal of attention is paid to qualifying the lectures. For this purpose, it was established an Evaluation commission to estimate the adequacy of lecturer's knowledge to requirements of Training programsledge to requirements of Training programs. After passing exams the lectures get the qualification confirming certificates. The main task of our days is to establish and arrange the National Training Centre on Radiation Protection Training that would satisfy requirements and recommendations of legal documents of IAEA and EU for such kind of institutions of institutions. (Author)

117

Radiation Protection Infrastructure In Madagascar  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Radiation sources are widely used in medicine, industry, research and education in Madagascar. Safety and security of these sources are the main statutory functions of the Regulatory Authority as defined by the regulations in Radiation Protection in Madagascar. These functions are carried out through the system of notification, authorization and inspection, inventory of radiation source and emergency preparedness. The law no 97-041 on radiation protection and radioactive waste management in Madagascar was promulgated on 2nd January 1998. It governs all activities related to the peaceful use of nuclear energy in Madagascar in order to protect the public, the environment and for the safety of radiation sources. This law complies with the International Basic Safety Standards for protection against ionising Radiation and for the Safety of Radiation Sources (BSS, IAEA Safety Series no 115). Following the promulgation of the law, four decrees have been enacted by the Malagasy Government. With an effective implementation of these decrees, the ANPSR will be the Highest Administrative Authority in the Field of Radiation Protection and Waste Management in Madagascar. This Regulatory Authority is supported by an Executive Secretariat, assisted by the OTR for Radiation Protection and the OCGDR for Managing Radioactive Waste.The paper includes an overview of the regulatory infrastructure and the organizations of radiation protection in Madagascar

118

The Radiation Protection Authority's air filter stations  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority currently has five air filter stations located at various sites throughout Norway. The stations are important for surveying airborne radioactivity, and for the assessment and composition of any emissions in the case of mishaps and accidents. There are similar stations throughout Europe, and the inter-state collaboration makes it possible to track any emissions of radioactive substances. (Author)

119

Mining and radiation protection law  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The following radiation protection recommendations, guidelines and standards under international law must be considered: - ICRP recommendations (in particular no. 24, 26, 32); - IAEA Safety series; - Euratom standards 1980/84. Investigations of the legal position in the Federal Republic of Germany must comprise: - AtG of 1959/1976; - Radiation Protection Ordinance in its wording of 1976 which is in force; - Federal Mining Act of 1980. Since both mining law and radiation protection law are involved, the homogeneity and possible concurrence of operative legal regulations must be investigated. The following problems must be discussed: - scope of application of the Radiation Protection Ordinance and of the Federal Mining Act with respect to the search for, production of, processing and transport, import and export as well as the possession of radioactive minerals; also waste disposal; - terminology, - application of protection regulations of the Radiation Protection Ordinance for mining activities (radiation protection policies, persons responsible for radiation protection, environmental protection, physical control, medical control etc.); - government supervision. (orig./HP)

120

Radiation protection in nuclear medicine  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In the present report, the various scopes of the radiation protection measuring techniques particularly related to nuclear medical requirements are presented and the most modern and useful methods and equipment described. Particular importance is donated to the technique of contamination measurements as these represent the fundamentals of preventive radiation protection in nuclear medicine. (orig./LH)

121

Radiation protection of the patient  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Every irradiation contributes to increasing the risk and cost-benefit considerations went into radiation protection work. The stochastic effect of cancer induction is the main concern in today's work on radiation protection of the patient. In radiation therapy, doses to the target volume (tumour and nearby healthy tissues) are part of the therapy and not a matter of radiation protection; doses to distant organs need, however, to be minimised to reduce the risk of developing radiation induced cancer later in life. The present recommendations by the ICRP are gathered in three publications for patients in diagnostic radiology, radiotherapy and nuclear medicine, respectively. This article discusses some of the social and economical aspects of diagnostic radiology, reviews its biological effects and gives risk estimates according to the ICRP 60. The concepts of radiation protection are also discussed and some of the strategies for dose reduction adopted by the European Union are outlined

122

Radiation protection policies to protect public health  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Scientific data from plant, animal, and human populations more strongly find radiation essential to life, i.e., suppressing background radiation is debilitating and that moderately enhanced radiation doses have positive effects, than that low-moderate radiation dose has adverse effects. close-quote Federal radiation protection policy will be in the public interest and save hundreds of billions of dollars at no public health cost when known dose effects to exposed populations are applied to ensure no adverse health effects, with safety margins, and when appropriate research is funded (and public benefits from new radiation and nuclear science and technology applications are enabled) at the sole cost of reduced federal power and influence

123

Radiation technology and environmental protection  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The problems of increasing radiation technology introduction in industry taking into account the aggravation of such problems as environmental protection, person health and food provisions, are studied. Radiation purification of industrial waste gases and deactivation of toxic wastes are analyzed. The considered examples of radiation technology application for environmental protection are tested in practice, they have high degree of engineering availability for integration in industry, and they possess of some important advantages, as compared with traditional methods

124

Ethics in radiation protection  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Ethics is a branch of philosophy. Its object is the study of both moral and immoral behaviour in order to make well founded judgements and to arrive at adequate recommendations. The Collins English Dictionary provides the following definitions of the word ethic: Ethic: a moral principle or set of moral values held by an individual or group; Ethics(singular): the philosophical study of the moral value of human conduct and of the rules and principles that ought to govern it; Ethics(pleural): a social, religious or civil code of behaviour considered correct, especially that of a particular group, profession or individual; Ethics(pleural): the moral fitness of a decision, course of action, etc. Ethics has a two-fold objective: Firstly it evaluates human practices by calling upon moral standards; it may give prescriptive advice on how to act morally in a specific kind of situation. This implies analysis and evaluation. Sometimes this is known as Normative ethics. The second is to provide therapeutic advice, suggesting solutions and policies. It must be based on well-informed opinions and requires a clear understanding of the vital issues. In the medical world, we are governed by the Hippocratic Oath. Essentially this requires medical practitioners (doctors) to do good, not harm. There is great interest and even furore regarding ethics in radiation protection

125

Obligatory Radiation Protection Course  

CERN Multimedia

Since February 2008, participation in the radiation protection course has been a prerequisite for obtaining a CERN personal dosimeter for all Staff Members and Users. All Staff and Users holding a personal dosimeter were informed by the Bulletin and by a personal e-mail sent in February 2008 that they were required to participate in the course before the annual exchange of their dosimeter. Many people had not done so by that time and the Dosimetry Service exceptionally classified them for 2 months as short-term visitors (VCT), a category of monitored personnel to whom the training requirement does not presently apply. As all personnel concerned have since had time to participate in an RP course, this "grace period" will no longer be granted as of 1 October 2008 and the RP course must be completed before the personal dosimeter is exchanged. For newcomers to CERN, and for those returning to CERN after an absence of more than 1 year, one registration as a VCT for two months ...

SC Unit

2008-01-01

126

New Approaches to Radiation Protection  

Science.gov (United States)

Radioprotectors are compounds that protect against radiation injury when given prior to radiation exposure. Mitigators can protect against radiation injury when given after exposure but before symptoms appear. Radioprotectors and mitigators can potentially improve the outcomes of radiotherapy for cancer treatment by allowing higher doses of radiation and/or reduced damage to normal tissues. Such compounds can also potentially counteract the effects of accidental exposure to radiation or deliberate exposure (e.g., nuclear reactor meltdown, dirty bomb, or nuclear bomb explosion); hence they are called radiation countermeasures. Here, we will review the general principles of radiation injury and protection and describe selected examples of radioprotectors/mitigators ranging from small-molecules to proteins to cell-based treatments. We will emphasize agents that are in more advanced stages of development. PMID:25653923

Rosen, Eliot M.; Day, Regina; Singh, Vijay K.

2015-01-01

127

European Radiation Protection Course - Basics  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Radiation protection is a major challenge in the industrial applications of ionising radiation, both nuclear and non-nuclear, as well as in other areas such as the medical and research domains. The overall objective of this textbook is to participate to the development of European high-quality scheme and good practices for education and training in radiation protection (RP), coming from the new Council Directive 2013/59/Euratom laying down basic safety standards for protection against the dangers arising from exposure to ionising radiation. These ERPTS (European Radiation Protection Training Scheme) reflects the needs of the Radiation Protection Expert (RPE) and the Radiation Protection Officer (RPO), specifically with respect to the Directive 2013/59/Euratom in all sectors where ionising radiation are applied. To reflect the RPE training scheme, six chapters have been developed in this textbook: Radioactivity and nuclear physics; Interaction of ionising radiation with matter; Dosimetry; Biological effects of ionising radiation; Detection and measurement of ionising radiation; Uses of sources of ionising radiation. The result is a homogeneous textbook, dealing with the ERPTS learning outcomes suggested by ENETRAPII project (European Network on Education and Training in Radiological Protection II) from the 7. Framework Programme. A cyber-book is also part of the whole training material to develop the concept of 'learning more' (http://www.rpe-training.eu). The production of this first module 'basics' training material, in the combined form of a textbook plus a cyber-book as learning tools, will contribute to facilitate mutual recognition and enhanced mobility of these professionals across the European Union. (authors)

128

Safety Culture on radiation protection  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

It can be defined radiation protection culture as the set of technical and social standards applied to the management of the operation of a nuclear facility concerning the reduction of the exposure to radiation of workers and members of the public, together with the behaviour and attitudes of the individuals from the organization towards that objective. Because the basic principles of radiation protection are self-evident and are totally justified, and the thesis drawn from the article is that no effective radiation protection culture yet exists within the organization, it must be concluded that what is wrong from the system are the attitudes and behavior of the individuals. In this article some factors and elements needed to motivate all persons within the organization towards the creation of a radiation protection culture are delineated and presented. (Author)

129

Radiation control area protection clothes database program  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Radiation protection personnel sets have been classified into a recycle and a disposal by the process of rad-survey and laundry. Most of all, a large number of protection clothes have been accompanied with some difficulties in making an inventory. To improve the problem, we have a plan to employ a database program to keep track of those information such as contamination, inventories, daily logs ets.. We could expect the program to make the process simple as well as promote the radiation safety management work in more effective way

130

76 FR 20489 - Occupational Radiation Protection  

Science.gov (United States)

...1992-AA-45 Occupational Radiation Protection AGENCY...to its Occupational Radiation Protection requirements...835), Occupational Radiation Protection, are designed...exposure of workers to radioactive material dispersed in...organs of the body, levels of contamination...

2011-04-13

131

76 FR 4258 - Occupational Radiation Protection; Revision  

Science.gov (United States)

...its Occupational Radiation Protection requirements...Occupational Radiation Protection, are...exposure of workers to radioactive material dispersed...organs of the body, levels of contamination...Cloud of Airborne Radioactive Material. The...safety and health, Radiation protection,...

2011-01-25

132

An introduction to radiation protection  

CERN Document Server

The sixth edition of this established text takes the reader through the general background to the subject, the technical principles underlying the control of radiation hazards, radiation detection and measurement and the biological effects of radiation. These are followed by a consideration of radiation protection issues in the nuclear industry, the non-nuclear sector and the medical field. Further specialised topics include risk assessment, waste management and decommissioning, radiological incidents and emergencies, relevant legislation and organizational issues.

Martin, Alan; Beach, Karen; Cole, Peter

2012-01-01

133

Optimization of radiation protection in diagnostic radiology  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Radiation protection in diagnostic radiology has high priority in most countries. Doses to patients are relatively high, although many possibilities for dose reduction have been suggested. Less effort is needed to reduce patient doses than reducing doses to persons involved in many other uses of radiation. As in many other fields, the rapid development of techniques continuously provides new problems for radiation protection in diagnostic radiology. But there are more basic reasons for the difficulties encountered: (a) Reduction of dose is usually considered beneficial unless the cost is too high. In diagnostic radiology, however, an easily obtained dose reduction might destroy diagnostic quality and cause more harm than the dose would do. (b) Assessments of collective patient dose have heavy uncertainties, owing to differences in age, anatomy, etc. It is difficult to verify trends by such measurements. (c) Too much emphasis on patient protection might cause exaggerated anxiety resulting in refusals to undergo necessary examinations. (d) Protection measures must be compatible with the intense workload and need for quick decisions during X ray examinations. These and other difficulties imply that normal tools of the radiation protection trade are more blunt than usual. For the optimization procedures recommended by the ICRP, new modes could be useful. In Sweden, a systematic use of the width of the distribution of doses from certain examinations has been tested with sortain examinations has been tested with some success in so-called 'investigational surveys'. So far, only dental X ray units, full size chest units and mammography screening units have been surveyed, but further work is planned. Although the surveys often give information about national collective patient dose, this is not the primary purpose. Instead, the width of the interval observed for a certain parameter indicates its priority in radiation protection. Additionally, the position of an individual value in the interval is useful in the planning of local quality assurance activities. (author). 12 refs, 2 figs, 2 tabs

134

Geothermal energy and radiation protection  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The thermal ground waters used for geothermal energy production contain natural radionuclides. The thereby required radiation protection measures during the operation of a geothermal plant and at the disposal of the resulting radioactive residues are described. (orig.)

135

IAEA Occupational Radiation Protection Programme  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The objective of the IAEA Occupational Protection Programme is to promote and assist in establishing an internationally harmonised approach for optimising occupational radiation protection. Guidance for IAEA Member States is provided through the hierarchical Safety Standards Series: Safety Fundamentals, Safety Requirements and Safety Guides. A set of three Safety Guides on occupational radiation protection has been published, jointly sponsored by the IAEA and the International Labour Office. Complementary advice, either topic specific or practice specific, is published as Safety Reports in other IAEA publications. In view of the technical difficulties associated with the introduction of the new radiation quantities for measurements and reporting, the IAEA assists its Member States by offering annual dosimetry intercomparisons. The purpose of this paper is to present the current and future IAEA activities in support of occupational radiation protection in the IAEA Member States. (author)

136

Radiation protection in civil defence  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The brochure contains the information given to the participants of an advanced training course in civil defence, on the subject of radiation protection. The course was held by teachers of Bundesverband fuer den Selbstschutz (BVS). (orig.)

137

Radiation protection regulations in Chile  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The aim of the paper is to describe Chile's experience with the regulation and standardization of radiation protection, to show its place in national legislation, and to demonstrate how these regulations and standards meet the country's own requirements, on the one hand, and, on the other, serve to transfer the experience to other countries which, under more or less similar circumstances, wish to set up and implement a system of standards for radiation protection and safety to protect the lives and health of the population, property and the environment. The authors attempt to show how the system of standards has fully incorporated the recommendations of the International Commission on Radiological Protection and the Basic Safety Standards for Radiation Protection of the International Atomic Energy Agency, and how the system can be applied to any activity involving the peaceful uses of nuclear energy throughout the country. (author). 15 refs

138

Healing Arts Radiation Protection Act  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Healing Arts Radiation Protection Act is concerned with regulating the registration, installation, operation, inspection and safety of X-ray machines. The Act provides for the establishment of the Healing Arts Radiation Protection Commission which is responsible for reporting on all the above matters to the Ontario Minister of Health. In addition the board is responsible for the continuing development of an X-ray safety code and for the submission of an annual report of their activities to the minister

139

Proceedings of Asia congress on radiation protection  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

203 articles were collected in the proceedings. The contents of the proceedings included the principle and practices of radiation protection, biological effects of radiation, radiation monitoring, protection in medical and other fields, radiation dosimetry, nuclear energy and the environment, natural radiation, radioactive waste management, and other radiation protection issues

140

Protective prostheses during radiation therapy  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Current applications and complications in the use of radiotherapy for the treatment of oral malignancy are reviewed. Prostheses are used for decreasing radiation to vital structures not involved with the lesion but located in the field of radiation. With a program of oral hygiene and proper dental care, protective prostheses can help decrease greatly the morbidity seen with existing radiotherapy regimens

141

Radiation protection training resources guide  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Guide contains inhouse and externally produced training resurces that are used by DOE contractors in training their employees: e.g., radiation protection technicians, radiation workers, instructors, and first line supervisors. It includes inhouse courses, external resources, training contacts, TRADE activities, and regulations, standards, and guidelines

142

Radiation protection in pediatric radiology  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The book covers all the basic concepts concerned with minimizing the radiation dose to patients, parents, and personnel, while producing radiographic studies of diagnostic quality. Practical information about tissues at risk, radiation risks specific to children, performance of radiographic and fluoroscopic examination, gonadal protection, pregnancy, immobilization of children, mobile radiography, and equipment considerations including those pertaining to computed tomography and dental radiography are given

143

Swedish Radiation Protection Goes East  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

For the past 13 years the Swedish Radiation Protection Authority (SSI) has pursued bilateral assistance co-operation in the field of radiation protection to countries of Central- and Eastern Europe. Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania and Russia have been prioritized countries for SSI, with Russia to some less extent compared with the Baltic countries. Initially the co-operation was directed to assistance the Baltic countries to remedy different acute radiation problems, which the new independent states had to face when the access to resources and experts in the field of radiation protection controlled from Moscow was lost. During the years the Baltic countries have developed new legislations and well-established national radiation protection authorities. The implementation of the EU Aquis Communautaire in the field of radiation protection into national legislation and its practical applications has been important tasks in the activities. The radiological emergency planning from the Soviet era has been renewed in all three countries, with the aim to achieve a western standard. Comprehensive support has also been given during the years of co-operation to develop the radiation protection work at the Ignalina Nuclear Power Plant (INPP) in Lithuania. The Swedish experience on management, storage and disposal of radioactive waste have been provided as complementary bilateral support in connection with international projects in Baltic countries and in Russia. The ongoing Swedish proies and in Russia. The ongoing Swedish programme for co-operation with Russia comprise the federal authorities, the nuclear power plant in Sosnivy Bor and Polyarnie Zori and the specialized organisation RADON regarding two of their Solid Radioactive Waste Storage Sites. The priorities for the Swedish support in the field of radiation protection and radiological emergency planning will successively be changed to Russia with an effort also to extend the bilateral co-operation to Belarus and Ukraine. (Author)

144

Introduction to radiation protection dosimetry  

CERN Document Server

One essential characteristic of life is the exchange of matter and energy between organisms and their environment. Radiation is a form of energy that has always been around in nature and will forever be the companion of human beings throughout life. In order to assess the impact of radiation exposures properly, it is essential to introduce appropriate quantities and units which can then be used for quantification of exposures from various sources. In principle, radiation protection is mainly aimed at controlling radiation exposure, while radiation dosimetry deals primarily with the measurement

Sabol, Josef

1995-01-01

145

Radiation protection principles  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) recommends a system of radiological protection that is in use worldwide. This paper describes the elements of that system, identifying the central assumptions and principles. A key assumption for protection at low doses is that there is a simple proportionate relationship between increments in dose and increments in risk. The system focuses on changes to the level of peoples' exposure, recommending that any change is justified (i.e., the benefit is clear) and protection is then optimised (i.e., improvement in dose reduction is promoted when possible and reasonable). In doing so, the system considers the amenability of the source of exposure to control and the acceptability of the exposure to individuals or society . (note)

146

Radiation protection measures  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

National law and its relation to international recommendations, in the Netherlands and the authorised bodies responsible for making the law, control and inspection of its execution are surveyed in this chapter. (G.H.)

147

Radiation protection in veterinary practice  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

It is suggested that those using radiographic equipment in veterinary practice should have a greater awareness of the hazards of radiation, the potential sources of exposure and the basic methods of radiation protection, but it is also emphasised that if the rules are observed and the potential danger appreciated, then the risks are quite acceptable. The effects of x-rays on living tissues, and the special implication of these to the veterinarian, safety aspects of x-ray machines, protective clothing and ancillary equipment requirements, suitability of premises, radiographic procedures and their supervision, monitoring of potential radiation hazards and staff training, are discussed. (U.K.)

148

Instructions for radiation protection purposes  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A complete series of instructions is collected in this ring folder, providing the information to be passed on to persons who for reasons of their occupation are handling X-ray equipment or radioactive substances. The material is intended as an aid to persons who are responsible for carrying through the at least semi-annual instruction of the personnel in accordance with section 39 Rad. Prot. Ordinance, and section 41 of the X-ray Ordinance. The short texts deal with the main subjects of radiation protection. Instruction sheets no. 1-3 present the fundamental knowledge every person handling radioactive substances must have: Radiation effects and hazards; definitions and units of doses and their significance in radiology and radiation protection; dose limits and legal provisions defining maximum permissible exposure. Instruction sheet no. 7 - on radiation protection in industry and trade - provides additional information on special applications. The illustrations are also available as slides. (HSCH)

149

Radiation protection information  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

From the measurements and discussion presented in this report, the following conclusions may be drawn: The population doses from naturally occuring radiation is on average lower in Denmark and much lower in Iceland than in the other Nordic countries. In Sweden, Finland and Norway the largest contributors to the population doses from naturally occuring radiation are radon daughters in indoor air. For Denmark and Iceland, radon daughters contribute about the same to the total effective dose equivalent as the external gamma radiation. Some groups of people in the Nordic countries are highly exposed to radon daughters. In some cases, the received doses are very high (higher than the dose limit for radiation workers). From the conclusions above, the radon daughter problem should be given priority, at least in Sweden, Finland and Norway, especially regarding the search for population groups receiving the highest doses

150

Radiation protection in nuclear medicine  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Addresses all aspects of radiation protection in nuclear medicine. Covers current technologies and principles. An ideal textbook for students and a ready source of information for nuclear medicine specialists and medical physics experts. One of a series of three books on the fundamentals of modern nuclear medicine (physics, safety, and imaging). This book explains clearly and in detail all aspects of radiation protection in nuclear medicine. After an introductory chapter on the general role of radiation protection, measurement quantities and units are discussed, and detectors and dosimeters, described. Radiation biology and radiation dosimetry are then addressed, with the inclusion of a chapter specifically devoted to biology and dosimetry for the lens of the eye. Discussion of radiation doses to patients and to embryos, fetuses, and children forms a central part of the book. Phantom models, biokinetic models, calculations, and software solutions are all considered, and a further chapter focuses on quality assurance and reference levels. Occupational exposure also receives detailed attention. Exposure resulting from the production, labeling, and injection of radiopharmaceuticals and from contact with patients is discussed and shielding calculations are explained. The book closes by considering exposure of the public and summarizing the ''rules of thumb'' for radiation protection in nuclear medicine. This is an ideal textbook for students and a ready source of useful ior students and a ready source of useful information for nuclear medicine specialists and medical physics experts.

151

Radiation protection in nuclear medicine  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Addresses all aspects of radiation protection in nuclear medicine. Covers current technologies and principles. An ideal textbook for students and a ready source of information for nuclear medicine specialists and medical physics experts. One of a series of three books on the fundamentals of modern nuclear medicine (physics, safety, and imaging). This book explains clearly and in detail all aspects of radiation protection in nuclear medicine. After an introductory chapter on the general role of radiation protection, measurement quantities and units are discussed, and detectors and dosimeters, described. Radiation biology and radiation dosimetry are then addressed, with the inclusion of a chapter specifically devoted to biology and dosimetry for the lens of the eye. Discussion of radiation doses to patients and to embryos, fetuses, and children forms a central part of the book. Phantom models, biokinetic models, calculations, and software solutions are all considered, and a further chapter focuses on quality assurance and reference levels. Occupational exposure also receives detailed attention. Exposure resulting from the production, labeling, and injection of radiopharmaceuticals and from contact with patients is discussed and shielding calculations are explained. The book closes by considering exposure of the public and summarizing the ''rules of thumb'' for radiation protection in nuclear medicine. This is an ideal textbook for students and a ready source of useful information for nuclear medicine specialists and medical physics experts.

Mattsson, Soeren [Lund Univ., Skane Univ. Hospital Malmoe (Sweden). Medical Radiation Physics; Hoeschen, Christoph (eds.) [Helmholtz Zentrum Muenchen Deutsches Forschungszentrum fuer Gesundheit und Umwelt GmbH, Neuherberg (Germany)

2013-07-01

152

Actual global problems of radiation protection  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Personal views on some actual problems in radiation protection are given in this paper. Among these problems are: evolution methodology used in radiation protection regulations; radiation protection, nuclear energy and safety, and new approaches to the process of the hazardous substances management. An interesting fact relating to the X-ray, radiation protection and Nikola Tesla are given also. (author)

153

Radiation protection training and education in Europe; Strahlenschutzausbildung in Europa  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

First, a comprehensive survey is given on the development and the present situation of radiation protection education and training, followed by exemplary reports from the individual countries Germany, Switzerland, Austria and the Netherlands. (orig.)

Boersma, Hielke Freerk [Groningen Univ. (Netherlands). Office of the Univ. Health, Safety and Environment; Ham, Ulla [GNS Gesellschaft fuer Nuklear-Service mbH, Essen (Germany); Holl, Matthias [Strahlenschutzschulung, Andernach (Germany); Jahn, Swen-Gunnar [Eidgenoessisches Nuklearsicherheitsinspektorat (ENSI), Villigen (Switzerland); Neuwirth, Johannes [Seibersdorf Laboratories (Austria); Schmitt-Hannig, Annemarie [Bundesamt fuer Strahlenschutz, Oberschleissheim (Germany). Fachbereich Strahlenschutz und Gesundheit; Schoenhacker, Stefan [Bundesministerium fuer Inneres, Traiskirchen (Austria). Abt. 1/9 - Zivilschutzschule; Vahlbruch, Jan-Willem [Leibniz Univ. Hannover (Germany). Inst. fuer Radiooekologie und Strahlenschutz (IRS)

2013-09-01

154

Semiconductor spectrometer for radiation protection  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The radiation fields on aircraft board and for other radiation protection application are complexes they contain the particles with energies up to few hundreds MeV. Obviously, one distinguishes the components with low resp. high linear energy transfer (LET). Recently, we have acquired a new measuring instrument, MDU-LIULIN, an energy deposition spectrometer base on a Si-detector. The spectrometer was originally developed and largely tested onboard of cosmic vehicles, its sensitive element is a Si-diode. The spectrometer has been calibrated in photon, neutron and high-energy radiation reference fields (CERN). The energy deposited in the detector by a particle is analysed by a 256-channel spectrum analyser, it permits to distinguish the contribution of different types of radiation to integral dosimetry quantities. The spectrometer has been, since April 2000 used for some radiation protection applications, mostly on aircraft board. Results obtained are presented, discussed and analysed. Materials and methods. (authors)

155

Biological Research for Radiation Protection  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The work scope of 'Biological Research for the Radiation Protection' had contained the research about ornithine decarboxylase and its controlling proteins, thioredoxin, peroxiredoxin, S-adenosymethionine decarboxylase, and glutamate decarboxylase 67KD effect on the cell death triggered ionizing radiation and H{sub 2}O{sub 2}(toxic agents). In this study, to elucidate the role of these proteins in the ionizing radiation (or H{sub 2}O{sub 2})-induced apoptotic cell death, we utilized sensesed (or antisensed) cells, which overexpress (or down-regulate) RNAs associated with these proteins biosynthesis, and investigated the effects of these genes on the cytotoxicity caused by ionizing radiation and H{sub 2}O{sub 2}(or paraquat). We also investigated whether genisteine(or thiamine) may enhance the cytotoxic efficacy of tumor cells caused by ionizing radiation (may enhance the preventing effect radiation or paraquat-induced damage) because such compounds are able to potentiate the cell-killing or cell protecting effects. Based on the above result, we suggest that the express regulation of theses genes have potentially importance for sensitizing the efficiency of radiation therapy of cancer or for protecting the radiation-induced damage of normal cells.

Kim, In Gyu; Kim, Kug Chan; Jung, Il Lae; Choi, Yong Ho; Kim, Jin Sik; Moon, Myung Sook; Byun, Hee Sun; Phyo, Ki Heon; Kim, Sung Keun

2005-04-15

156

Biological Research for Radiation Protection  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The work scope of 'Biological Research for the Radiation Protection' had contained the research about ornithine decarboxylase and its controlling proteins, thioredoxin, peroxiredoxin, S-adenosymethionine decarboxylase, and glutamate decarboxylase 67KD effect on the cell death triggered ionizing radiation and H2O2(toxic agents). In this study, to elucidate the role of these proteins in the ionizing radiation (or H2O2)-induced apoptotic cell death, we utilized sensesed (or antisensed) cells, which overexpress (or down-regulate) RNAs associated with these proteins biosynthesis, and investigated the effects of these genes on the cytotoxicity caused by ionizing radiation and H2O2(or paraquat). We also investigated whether genisteine(or thiamine) may enhance the cytotoxic efficacy of tumor cells caused by ionizing radiation (may enhance the preventing effect radiation or paraquat-induced damage) because such compounds are able to potentiate the cell-killing or cell protecting effects. Based on the above result, we suggest that the express regulation of theses genes have potentially importance for sensitizing the efficiency of radiation therapy of cancer or for protecting the radiation-induced damage of normal cells

157

Radiation survey meters used for environmental monitoring  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Nordic dosimetry group set up the GammaRate project to investigate how its expertise could be used to assure appropriate usage of survey meters in environmental monitoring. Considerable expertise in calibrating radiation instruments exists in the Nordic radiation protection authorities. The Swedish, Finnish, Danish and Norwegian authorities operate Secondary Standard Dosimetry Laboratories (SSDLs) that provide users with calibration traceable to internationally recognised primary standards. These authorities together with the Icelandic authorities have formally cooperated since 2002 in the field of radiation dosimetry. Dosimetry is the base for assesment of risk from ionising radiation and calibration of instruments is an imported part in dosimetry. The Nordic dosimetry group has been focused on cancer therapy. This work extends the cooperation to the dosimetry of radiation protection and environmental monitoring. This report contains the formal, theoretical and practical background for survey meter measurements. Nordic standards dosimetry laboratories have the capability to provide traceable calibration of instruments in various types of radiation. To verify and explore this further in radiation protection applications a set of survey instruments were sent between the five Nordic countries and each of the authority asked to provide a calibration coefficient for all instruments. The measurement results were within the stated uncertainties, except for some results from NRPA for the ionchamber based instrument. The comparison was shown to be a valuable tool to harmonize the calibration of radiation protection instruments in the Nordic countries. Dosimetry plays an important role in the emergency situations, and it is clear that better traceability and harmonised common guidelines will improve the emergency preparedness and health. (Author)

158

Radiation survey meters used for environmental monitoring  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Nordic dosimetry group set up the GammaRate project to investigate how its expertise could be used to assure appropriate usage of survey meters in environmental monitoring. Considerable expertise in calibrating radiation instruments exists in the Nordic radiation protection authorities. The Swedish, Finnish, Danish and Norwegian authorities operate Secondary Standard Dosimetry Laboratories (SSDLs) that provide users with calibration traceable to internationally recognised primary standards. These authorities together with the Icelandic authorities have formally cooperated since 2002 in the field of radiation dosimetry. Dosimetry is the base for assesment of risk from ionising radiation and calibration of instruments is an imported part in dosimetry. The Nordic dosimetry group has been focused on cancer therapy. This work extends the cooperation to the dosimetry of radiation protection and environmental monitoring. This report contains the formal, theoretical and practical background for survey meter measurements. Nordic standards dosimetry laboratories have the capability to provide traceable calibration of instruments in various types of radiation. To verify and explore this further in radiation protection applications a set of survey instruments were sent between the five Nordic countries and each of the authority asked to provide a calibration coefficient for all instruments. The measurement results were within the stated uncertainties, except for some results from NRPA for the ionchamber based instrument. The comparison was shown to be a valuable tool to harmonize the calibration of radiation protection instruments in the Nordic countries. Dosimetry plays an important role in the emergency situations, and it is clear that better traceability and harmonised common guidelines will improve the emergency preparedness and health. (Author)

Bjerke, H. (ed.) (Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority, NRPA (Norway)); Sigurdsson, T. (Icelandic Radiation Safety Authority, Geislavarnir Rikisins, GR (IS)); Meier Pedersen, K. (National Board of Health, Statens Institut for Straalebeskyttelse (SIS) (Denmark)); Grindborg, J.-E.; Persson, L. (Swedish Radiation Safety Authority, Straalsaekerhetsmyndigheten (SSM) (Sweden)); Siiskonen, T.; Hakanen, A.; Kosunen, A. (Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority, Saeteilyturvakeskus (STUK) (Finland))

2012-01-15

159

Radiation Protection Research: Radiobiology  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The main objectives of research in the field of radiobiology and epidemiology performed at the Belgian Nuclear Research Centre SCK-CEN are (1) to study cancer mortality in nuclear workers in Belgium; to document the feasibility of retrospective cohort studies in Belgium; (2) to participate in the IARC study; (3) to elucidate the molecular basis of the effects of ionising radiation in the mammalian embryo during the early phases of its development; (4) to assess the genetic risk of maternal exposure to ionizing radiation; (5) to elucidate the cellular mechanisms leading to brain damage after prenatal irradiation; (6) to advise authorities and to provide the general population with adequate information concerning the health risk arising from radiation exposure. Progress and major achievements in these topical areas in 1999 are reported

160

Radiation Protection Research: Radiobiology  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The main objectives of research in the field of radiobiology and epidemiology performed at the Belgian Nuclear Research Centre SCK-CEN are (1) to study cancer mortality in nuclear workers in Belgium; to document the feasibility of retrospective cohort studies in Belgium; (2) to participate in the IARC study; (3) to elucidate the molecular basis of the effects of ionising radiation in the mammalian embryo during the early phases of its development; (4) to assess the genetic risk of maternal exposure to ionizing radiation; (5) to elucidate the cellular mechanisms leading to brain damage after prenatal irradiation; (6) to advise authorities and to provide the general population with adequate information concerning the health risk arising from radiation exposure. Progress and major achievements in these topical areas in 1999 are reported.

Desaintes, C

2000-07-01

161

Radiation Protection. Chapter 3  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Medical exposure is the largest human-made source of radiation exposure, accounting for more than 95% of radiation exposure. Furthermore, the use of radiation in medicine continues to increase worldwide — more machines are accessible to more people, the continual development of new technologies and new techniques adds to the range of procedures available in the practice of medicine, and the role of imaging is becoming increasingly important in day to day clinical practice. The introduction of hybrid imaging technologies, such as positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) and single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT)/CT, means that the boundaries between traditional nuclear medicine procedures and X ray technologies are becoming blurred. Worldwide, the total number of nuclear medicine examinations is estimated to be about 35 million per year

162

10 CFR 39.67 - Radiation surveys.  

Science.gov (United States)

...2010-01-01 false Radiation surveys. 39...67 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION LICENSES AND RADIATION SAFETY REQUIREMENTS...the logging tool detector or by using a survey...shall conduct a radiation survey,...

2010-01-01

163

Radiation protection - the unions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A brief report is given of a paper presented at the symposium on 'Radiation and the Worker - where do we go from here' in London 1983. The paper concerned trade union viewpoints on the draft of the proposed Ionising Radiations Regulations in the Health and Safety Commission Consultative Document. The main contentious issue was that the 5 rem dose limit might have been lower if ICRP had agreed to involve employers and the trade union movement in their considerations. However, it was concluded that, on balance, the trade union movement would welcome the proposed Regulations. (U.K.)

164

Encouraging the radiation protection practice  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The radiological protection of workers occupationally exposed to ionizing radiation (X-ray diagnoses, Nuclear Medicine, Radiotherapy and Dental) is essential to minimize the appearance of radiation effects. The ways to reduce the potential for exposure of workers are: Time, Distance , and Shielding. The most important purpose of radiation protection is to provide safe conditions for activities involving ionizing radiation, basic safety conditions that must be observed in professional practice. The professional must have full knowledge of the subject and deepen in the revision of norms and guidelines related to radiation protection establish by the Vigilancia Sanitaria - ANVISA, and Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear - CNEN, Brazil. The study was conducted in a technical school for the Technical Training Course in Radiology, where the students are invited to think deeply about the radiation protection of themselves, the patients and the environment. Developed since July 2012, with the participation of 30 students, with a leading class -three teachers assisting in the development of the project . With this project there was an awareness of both students, as instructors stage accompanying the daily lives of students and their own colleagues. Following the same objective in 2013 the project continues with more adept at radioprotection

165

ICRP-Radiation protection principles and practice  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A brief survey is given of the history of ICRP, its basic standards and recommendations and their rationale, from its foundation in 1928 to the latest major review of its recommendation in 1977. In this time the basic radiation standard for whole body irradiation of a radiation worker has dropped from the equivalent of 50 r per year (in 1934) through 15 rem per year (1954) to 5 rem per year in 1958. ICRP recommendations include maximum permissible doses for particular organs and a comprehensive list of derived limits governing the intake of radionuclides into the body, and dose limits for members of the public. Emphasis in current radiation protection practice is on avoiding all unnecessary exposures and keeping doses as far below dose limits as is reasonably achievable. The use of cost-benefit analysis to optimize protection and some of its inherent difficulties, is discussed

166

Units of radiation protection  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this chapter, the unit of exposure to ionizing radiation is defined according to the International System (SI) of units and is based upon the amount of charge released by photons as they pass through a specified mass of air. In addition, the unit of dose is defined and related to biologic damage in humans

167

Radiation protection calibration activities in Pakistan  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The calibration of radiation protection instruments is carried out in the Secondary Standard Dosimetry Laboratory (SSDL). This SSDL was established in Health Physics Division of Pakistan Institute of Nuclear Science and Technology (PINSTECH) in 1981. First, only therapy dose level calibration services were carried out, but later on, the calibration of radiation protection instruments was started in 1991. During about three years, 92 types of radiation survey instruments were calibrated. Film badge dosimeters, thermoluminescent dosimeters and pocket dosimeters are used. The calibration certificates containing all the details are issued. At present, calibration service is provided free of charge. The protection level secondary standard dosimetry system available with the laboratory, gamma ray irradiation facilities and X-ray irradiation facility, and the instruments for measuring pressure, temperature, humidity, distance and so on are described. The calibration of radiation survey instruments, the problems and experiences of calibration and ICRU operational quantities are reported. The minor repair of instruments is done at the SSDL, though it is not responsibility. (K.I.)

168

Protection against solar ultraviolet radiation.  

Science.gov (United States)

Interest in protection against solar ultraviolet radiation (UVR) among the general public in Australia has been increasing steadily as a result of the 'SunSmart' campaigns run by the various state cancer councils. This increasing awareness is due in part to the requirements for occupational protection of outdoor workers and to provision of UVR protection for the recreational market. Behaviour outdoors can significantly affect exposure to solar UVR and use of items of personal protection can provide a substantial reduction in the UVR dose received. The protective properties of sunscreens, sunglasses, hats and clothing against UVR have been the subject of considerable research for some time, and over the last few years interest has extended to the provision of shade structures and the UVR protection provided by various commonly used materials. These materials include shadecloth, plastics, glass, windscreens and applicable tints. Australia has rigorous standards covering protection and UVR, in particular for sunscreens [Standards Australia/Standards New Zealand, Sunscreen products-evaluation and classification, Report No. AS 2604, Sydney/Wellington, 1993.], sunglasses [Standards Australia, Sunglasses and fashion spectacles-nonprescription types, Report No. AS 1067.1, Sydney, 1990.], protective eyewear [Standards Australia/Standards New Zealand, Eye protectors for industrial applications, Report No. AS/NZS 1337, Sydney/Wellington, 1992.] and shadecloth [Standards Australia, Synthetic shadecloth, Report No. AS 4174, Sydney, 1994.]. Compliance with the sunglass standard became mandatory in 1988 and UVR protection provided by sunglasses has increased substantially since then. In July 1996 a standard on 'sun protective textiles' [Standards Australia/Standards New Zealand, Sun protective clothing-evaluation and classification, Report No. AS/NZS 4399, Sydney, 1996.] incorporating ultraviolet protection factors (UPFs) and a rating scheme with protection categories, was introduced; this was the first of its kind in the world. Australian Radiation Laboratory (ARL) UPF swing tags with UVR protection advice from the Australian Cancer Society on the reverse side are used to denote the amount of protection against solar UVR provided by clothing. To date in excess of 5 million ARL swing tags have been issued. Work on the various standards is continuing. The maximum allowed 'sun protection factor' (SPF) limit for sunscreens may be increased to SPF 30 + in the near future, and additions to the sun protective textiles standard are also planned. This paper discusses measurement methods, results, the rationale used in formulating the Australian Standards and the current state of UVR protection in Australia. PMID:9920424

Gies, P H; Roy, C R; Toomey, S; McLennan, A

1998-11-01

169

Indium 111. Radiation protection  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The radiopharmaceutucal 111In-oxine is used in labelling of different blood cells and proteins. Due to its liquid state, there is always a risk for contamination during handling procedures. The aim of the project was to evaluate the contamination risks, when using this radiopharmaceutical. The investigation includes calculations of the absorved dose to the skin after a contamination of 111In-oxine, including the radionuclide impurity 114Inm/114In. Investigations of 288 protection gloves shows that there is always a risk for contamination, when working with 111In-oxine. On the protection gloves, we found activities normally ranging from a 100 Bq up to a few kBq. Noticeable is the contamination on the vials, already before their use. Besides 111 In we found most of the radionuclides used in nuclear medicine, with activities up to tens of kBq. The radionuclide impurity was cleary detectable but below the recommended value. The penetration of 111In-oxine protection gloves of latex was negligible. Measurements of penetration in skin was evaluated with two independent methods; in vivo using a surface barrier detector, and by autoradiography. The measured penetration was less than a few micrometers. Calculation from the experimental contamination values show that the absorbed dose to the basal cell layer could be in order of several Gy. (authors)

170

Regulatory requirements for radiation protection  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Regulatory requirements for radiation protection have evolved and matured over several decades. Due to the wide adoption of recommendations of the International Commission on Radiation Protection (ICRP), there exists international agreement on the principles to be followed for radiation protection. This foundation will be increasingly important due to the growing need for international agreements and standards for radiation protection and radioactive materials management. During the infancy of the commercial nuclear industry, primary reliance was placed on the protection of the individual, both in the work force and as a member of the public. With the growth of nuclear power in the 1960's and 1970's, environmental impact assessments and expert reviews of bio-effects data have focused attention on statistical risks to large population groups and the use of the collective dose commitment concept to estimate potential effects. The potential release of long-lived radionuclides from the nuclear fuel cycle requires further consideration of radionuclide accumulation in the biosphere and calls for controls conceived and implemented at the international level. The initial development efforts for addressing these concerns already have been instituted by the ICRP and the IAEA. However, formal international agreements and a unified set of international standards may be required to implement the recommendations of these groups. Further international efforts in the field of radiation protection are also called for in developing waste management practices and radioactive effluent control technology, in site selection for fuel reprocessing plants and waste dispersal facilities, and for ensuring safe transport of high-level wastes in various forms. Since the regulation of very low dose rates and doses will be involved, it will be useful to reexamine dose-effect relationships and societal goals for health protection. Improved criteria and methodologies for ''as low as readily achievable'' will also be required

171

Radiation protection Ordinance  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This Ordinance lays down the licensing system for activities in Switzerland involving possible exposure to radiation, with the exception of nuclear installations, fuels and radioactive waste which, under the 1959 Atomic Energy Act, are subject to licensing. The Ordinance applies to the production, handling, use, storage, transport, disposal, import and export of radioactive substances and devices and articles containing them; and generally to any activity involving hazards caused by ionizing radiation. The Federal Public Health Office is the competent authority for granting licences. Provision is also made for the administrative conditions to be complied with for obtaining such licences as well as for technical measures required when engaged in work covered by the Ordinance. This consolidated version of the Ordinance contains all the successive amendments up to 26 September 1988. (NEA)

172

1993 Radiation Protection Workshop: Proceedings  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The 1993 DOE Radiation Protection Workshop was conducted from April 13 through 15, 1993 in Las Vegas, Nevada. Over 400 Department of Energy Headquarters and Field personnel and contractors from the DOE radiological protection community attended the Workshop. Forty-nine papers were presented in eleven separate sessions: Radiological Control Manual Implementation, New Approaches to Instrumentation and Calibration, Radiological Training Programs and Initiatives, External Dosimetry, Internal Dosimetry, Radiation Exposure Reporting and Recordkeeping, Air Sampling and Monitoring Issues, Decontamination and Decommissioning of Sites, Contamination Monitoring and Control, ALARA/Radiological Engineering, and Current and Future Health Physics Research. Individual papers are indexed separately on the database

173

1993 Radiation Protection Workshop: Proceedings  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The 1993 DOE Radiation Protection Workshop was conducted from April 13 through 15, 1993 in Las Vegas, Nevada. Over 400 Department of Energy Headquarters and Field personnel and contractors from the DOE radiological protection community attended the Workshop. Forty-nine papers were presented in eleven separate sessions: Radiological Control Manual Implementation, New Approaches to Instrumentation and Calibration, Radiological Training Programs and Initiatives, External Dosimetry, Internal Dosimetry, Radiation Exposure Reporting and Recordkeeping, Air Sampling and Monitoring Issues, Decontamination and Decommissioning of Sites, Contamination Monitoring and Control, ALARA/Radiological Engineering, and Current and Future Health Physics Research. Individual papers are indexed separately on the database.

1993-12-31

174

Radiation protection for human population  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Are given the results of researches carried out in Belarus in 1996 on the following directions: study of features of formation of the population irradiation doze; definition of collective irradiation dozes of the population of Belarus for 10 years after the Chernobyl accident and forecast of risk of radiation induced diseases; study of influence of the radioactive contamination on agricultural ecosystems; development of technologies of manufacture on the contaminated soils of plant and cattle-breeding production and food products with the permissible contents of radionuclides in according to the requirements of radiation protection; development and perfection of complex technologies, ways and means of decontamination, processing and burial of radioactive wastes; development and substantiation of actions for increase of radiation security of the population of Belarus; development of combined system of an estimation on problems of radiation protection of the population living on contaminated territories

175

Nordic society for radiation protection  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The key themes of teh 12th ordinary general meeting of the Nordic Society for Radiation Protection were: RADIATION - ENVIRONMENT - INFORMATION. A number of outstanding international experts accepted to contribute on the meetings first day with invited presentations, which focussed on these themes. In all 38 oral presentations and 28 posters are included in the present Proceedings, which furthermore contains a resume of discussions from the special session on 'Controllable Dose'. (EHS)

176

Radiation protection in mines  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The main objective of the research project was to investigate and develop methods at the Muellenbach test mine which allow optimal protection against radon and its daughter products considering both economic and mining aspects. Theoretical models as well as investigations in the laboratory and underground have shown that good ventilation offers an effective protection against radon and its daughters. Other methods such as wetting of broken rock and variation of the blasting pattern as well as the application of positive ventilating pressure were of minor influence on radon emanation. The sealing of rock surfaces showed satisfactory results in laboratory tests (radon emanation rate was reduced up to 98%), however underground its application appears to be limited and unsuitable for stoping operations. The airstream helmet (type AH 1) tested underground proved to be effective as a dust filter but because of its ergonomic and safety disadvantages its application in uranium mining is limited. Its efficiency as far as the reduction of radon daughters is concerned should be tested after the ergonomic disadvantages have been eliminated. The research work done has shown that cavitation models developed are of practical value for the determination of radon and its daughter concentrations as well as for mine ventilation planning. The report presented emphasizes that the nuclide measurements carried out underground and the knowledge gained about the behaviour of radio nuclides ind about the behaviour of radio nuclides in the mine atmosphere are transferable to other mining branches for instance to coal and fluorspar mining. (orig./HP)

177

Advances in radiation protection monitoring  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The requirement to keep radiation exposure as low as reasonably achievable, linked with the growing number of workers whose exposure to radiation must be strictly controlled, requires intensified efforts directed towards the provision of adequate radiation monitoring programmes. This symposium was intended to review the advances that have been made in methods, techniques and instrumentation for radiation protection monitoring. Thus the symposium complemented the detailed consideration that had already been given to two closely related topics, that of environmental monitoring and of monitoring radioactive airborne and liquid discharges from nuclear facilities. The first topic had been dealt with in detail in an Agency symposium held in November 1973 in Warsaw and the second was treated in an Agency symposium held in September 1977 in Portoroz. The present symposium covered a broad range of topics under the following main headings: Monitoring of external exposure (three sessions),Contamination monitoring (three sessions), Radiation monitoring programmes (one session), Calibration, and use of computers (two sessions). An introductory paper described the purpose of radiation protection monitoring and its historical development. It drew attention to the gradual change from the threshold dose hypothesis to the hypothesis of direct proportionality between dose and effect and discussed practical implications of the recommendations recently issued by the International Commissiently issued by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP). It became apparent that guidance on the application of these recommendations is urgently needed. This guidance is presently being prepared by ICRP

178

Radiation protection material  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The material, capable of being cast into the shape and thickness desired, is resistant to radiation (300 x 106 rad and 1 x 1017 n/cm2 while retaining its H2 content). It is composed of a silicon elastomer base material to which particles from BC, boric acid and/or boron oxide are homogeneously admixed with a volume percentage between 5 and 75. For each purpose the particles are of constant size respectively. The sizes lie between 0.18 mm (80 mesh) and 0.05 mm (300 mesh). (DG)

179

On ethical issues in radiation protection. Radiation protection recommendations and standards seen from an ethical perspective  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

International radiation protection recommendations and standards of the ICRP, the IAEA, the European Union and the ILO are surveyed from an ethical perspective. The authors come to the conclusion that the insights of ethical theories provide a number of ways in which current recommendations and standards for radiation protection could improve. (orig.) [German] Internationale Strahlenschutzstandards und Empfehlungen von ICRP, IAEA, EU und ILO werden unter Gesichtspunkten der Ethik ueberprueft. Die Autoren kommen zu dem Schluss, dass die Kenntnis von Ethik-Theorien eine Reihe von Moeglichkeiten eroeffnet, wie die gegenwaertigen Standards und Empfehlungen fuer den Strahlenschutz verbessert werden koennten. (orig.)

Corbett, R.H. [Hairmyres Hospital, Glasgow (United Kingdom). 2. Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology; Persson, L.

2004-07-01

180

Environmental damage valuation as radiation protection tool  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Environmental radiation protection procedures do not have global consensus. In researching mechanisms to guide environmental radiation protection procedures consensus searching, the approaches used by non-radioactive environmental protection are very promising. Among the approaches, environmental valuation procedures are commonly employed, and are very proper for environmental radiation protection. (author)

181

Environmental damage valuation as radiation protection tool  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Environmental radiation protection procedures do not have global consensus. Aiming the development of consensus mechanisms to guide environmental radiation protection procedures, it appears that the approaches used by non-radioactive environmental protection are very promising. Among these approaches, environmental valuation procedures are commonly employed, and are very proper for environmental radiation protection. (author)

182

Radium organisation and radiation protection  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In India, the brachytherapy sources used are mostly 226Ra, 137Cs and 60CO. Radiotherapy of patients with these sources may also result in some degree of radiation exposure of radiologists, technologists, radiation source porters and even other workers in rooms around radiotherapy unit. Proper organization of radiotherapy unit leads to accuracy in treatment and protection to patients as well as medical and paramedical personnel. With this objective in view, a set of instructions to be followed while working with radiation sources, particularly radium; guidelines for the physical layout of the unit and staffing and a list of essential monitoring instruments are given. (M.G.B.)

183

Introduction of Japan radiation protection supervisor system  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The radiation protection supervisor system, which has been established based on Japanese law, is playing an important role in the field of radiation protection in Japan. For the reference of domestic radiation safety professionals, this paper introduces the Japan radiation protection supervisor system in more detail

184

Radiation protection in veterinary radiology  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This Code of Practice is designed to give guidance to veterinary surgeons in ensuring that workers and members of the public are adequately protected from the hazards of ionising radiation arising from the use of x-ray equipment in veterinary practice. (author)

185

The German radiation protection standards  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The German Standards Institute (DIN Deutsches Institut fuer Normung, Berlin) is engaged in health physics standards development in the following committees. The Nuclear Standards Committee (NKe), which deals mainly with nuclear science and technology, the fuel cycle, and radiation protection techniques. The Radiology Standards Committee (FNR), whose responsibilities are traditionally the principles of radiation protection and dosimetry, applied medical dosimetry, and medical health physics. The German Electrotechnical Commission (DKE), which is concerned mostly with instrumentation standards. The Material Testing Committee (FNM), which is responsible for radiation protection in nonmedical radiography. The current body of over one hundred standards and draft standards was established to supplement the Federal German radiation protection legislation, because voluntary standards can deal in more detail with the specific practical problems. The number of standards is steadily expanding due to the vigorous efforts of about thirty working groups, consisting of essentially all leading German experts of this field. Work is supported by the industry and the Federal Government. A review of the present status and future plans, and of the international aspects with regard to European and world (ISO, etc.) standards will be presented

186

Antioxidants and biological radiation protection  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Antioxidants and antioxidant enzymes, by combatting oxygen radical-mediated radiation-induced oxidative stress, may prevent the accumulation of damage involved in tumor initiation, promotion and progression, and thus serve to protect us against ionizing radiation. We are testing the possible role of dietary antioxidants, and other biological response modifiers, in determining individual radiation response. These experiments use the fluorescent protein beta-phycoerythrin as a target and biomolecular marker for radiation-induced oxidative stress. Antioxidants are ranked according to their radioprotectiveness by their ability to compete with beta-phycoerythrin for radiolytic oxygen radicals. Samples of blood serum from cancer patients have been analyzed using this technique. There is a trend towards decreasing antioxidant levels with increasing donor age, and this is consistent with data showing an increasing radiosensitivity with age. We are presently monitoring antioxidant and antioxidant enzyme levels in atomic radiation workers and the general public, in order to assess whether they influence individual radiosensitivity. Knowledge of this source of biological response modification will be useful in applying radiation protection practices to those individuals or groups most at risk, and for estimating individual risks associated with radiation exposure. (author)

187

Radiation protection in veterinary medicine  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Diagnostic radiology is an essential part of present-day veterinary practice. The need for radiation protection exists because occupational exposure to ionizing radiation can result in deleterious effects that may manifest themselves not only in exposed individuals but in their descendants as well. These are respectively called somatic and genetic effects. Somatic effects are characterized by observable changes occurring in the body organs of the exposed individual. These changes may appear from within a few hours to many years later, depending on the amount and duration of exposure of the individual. In veterinary medicine, the possibility that anyone may be exposed to enough radiation to create somatic effect is extremely remote. Genetic effects are more a cause for concern at the lower doses used in veterinary radiology. Although the radiation doses may be small and appear to cause no observable damage, the probability of chromosomal damage in the germ cells, with the consequence of mutations, does exist. These mutations may give rise to genetic defects and therefore make these doses significant when applied to a large number of individuals. There are two main aspects of the problem to be considered. First, personnel working with X-ray equipment must be protected from excessive exposure to radiation during their work. Secondly, personnel in the vicinity of veterinary X-ray facilities and the general public require adequate protection

188

Radiation protection organization and radiation protection education in Europe  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Education in Radiation Protection varies considerably in the different European Countries. As there is free movement of staff and services in between these European Countries one of the main objectives of the European Union is to compare the different implementations and to identify similarities. Therefore, in this paper the German and different European Systems are explained shortly and the relevant topics of the Revision of the European Basic Safety Standard are presented. (orig.)

189

Epistemological basis of radiation protection  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text: Regarding natural phenomena understood or not, the absolute truth must be somewhere. In fact, there is no evidence that neither nature nor the phenomena that it includes were 'created' to be understood. Except for the fact that Man appeared through the same process, with his curiosity, capacity to perceive and manipulate, his greed for power and fears. In general, the attitude towards questions for which the absolute truth has not been reached varies from ignorance/indifference to the search of knowledge through scientific methodology, and may even be based on beliefs. The fact that the interaction between ionizing radiations and living beings results in biological effect is true. That the biological effect of high doses of radiation, absorbed outside the context of medicine, is hazardous for the irradiated individuals also seems to be true. That any dose is dangerous, or not, is debatable: the available information and knowledge are not consistent enough to end the question; and so, the absolute truth remains hidden. Radiological Protection is founded on the principle that any increase of dose results in an increase in the risk of cancer, and that this risk must be kept as low as possible. It is therefore based on this 'belief' that the international organisms of radiological protection emit recommendations aiming the protection of people and the environment. What is interesting about this question is that because of restrictions imposed by regulating agencies, populations, members of the public and the environment are properly protected against harmful effects of ionizing radiations, which makes the truth no longer interesting. Radiological Protection is a requirement associated to all activities involving nuclear energy. It satisfies several interests and opposes others. The greater the opposed interests and the perception that the absolute truth can represent dialectic advantage to one of the parts, the greater the perception of the importance of its revelation. In the present study, two initiatives of search for the truth were analyzed: the initiative of the Brazilian National Congress, through the creation of a working group in charge of evaluating the radiological protection in the country; and WONUC's initiative to create a publication focused exclusively on the effect of low doses of ionizing radiation. In relation to the understanding of the biological effects of the radiations, the document underlines the difficulty of all those involved in accepting the evidence that the truth related to this question was not reached. In respect to the initiative of the WONUC, the International Journal of Low Radiation is now in its 4th volume; publishing works that oppose the official belief that any dose is harmful. (author)

190

Radiation protection and reactor safety  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Chernobyl reactor accident caused bewilderment, fear and anxiety among the population. How safe are reactors? Which precautions to protect lives and health have been taken? These questions are posed particularly in the areas of radiation protection, reactor safety, supply and waste management of nuclear power plants and other nuclear installations. For all these areas the present report contains an analysis of facts; it informs about political measures during the 11th legislative period of the German Bundestag, and shows prospects of future developments. (orig.)

191

Radiation Protection Legislation in the Nordic Countries  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Recent alterations in the radiation protection laws of the Nordic countries are presented. The report amends the previous SS-report 87-37 with the title Radiation Protection and Atomic Energy Legislation in the Nordic Countries. (au)

192

Radiation Protection in Paediatric Radiology  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Over the past decade and a half, special issues have arisen regarding the protection of children undergoing radiological examinations. These issues have come to the consciousness of a gradually widening group of concerned professionals and the public, largely because of the natural instinct to protect children from unnecessary harm. Some tissues in children are more sensitive to radiation and children have a long life expectancy, during which significant pathology can emerge. The instinct to protect children has received further impetus from the level of professional and public concern articulated in the wake of media responses to certain publications in the professional literature. Many institutions have highlighted the need to pay particular attention to the special problems of protecting paediatric patients. The International Commission on Radiological Protection has noted it and the IAEA's General Safety Requirements publication, Radiation Protection and Safety of Radiation Sources: International Basic Safety Standards (BSS), requires it. This need has been endorsed implicitly in the advisory material on paediatric computed tomography scanning issued by bodies such as the US Food and Drug Administration and the National Cancer Institute in the United States of America, as well as by many initiatives taken by other national and regional radiological societies and professional bodies. A major part of patient exposure, in general, and paediatric exposure, in particuleral, and paediatric exposure, in particular, now arises from practices that barely existed two decades ago. For practitioners and regulators, it is evident that this innovation has been driven both by the imaging industry and by an ever increasing array of new applications generated and validated in the clinical environment. Regulation, industrial standardization, safety procedures and advice on best practice lag (inevitably) behind industrial and clinical innovations. This Safety Report is designed to consolidate and provide timely advice on dealing with the special problems involved. The approach adopted is developed within the IAEA framework of statutory responsibility to establish standards for the protection of people against exposure to ionizing radiation and to provide for the application of these standards. The BSS issued by the IAEA require the radiation protection of patients undergoing medical exposures through justification of the procedures involved and optimization of protection and safety. This challenge is taken up here by adding paediatric radiology to the areas dealt with in recent IAEA publications. These are specifically Safety Reports Series Nos 39 and 40 on diagnostic radiology and nuclear medicine, respectively, and Safety Reports Series Nos 58-61 and 63 on newer medical imaging techniques and other initiatives in justification of procedures and optimization of protection and safety. The advice of the IAEA is intended in particular for professionals, practitioners, and teachers and trainers in the area, as well as physicians referring children for examinations. Resource materials and training materials are available cost free on the IAEA's Radiation Protection of Patients web site (http://rpop.iaea.org).

193

10 CFR 36.57 - Radiation surveys.  

Science.gov (United States)

...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Radiation surveys. 36.57 Section...REGULATORY COMMISSION LICENSES AND RADIATION SAFETY REQUIREMENTS FOR IRRADIATORS...Operation of Irradiators § 36.57 Radiation surveys. (a) A...

2010-01-01

194

The upside down radiation protection  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Today, the radiation protection is in an illogical situation: even the greatest efforts to pass on a message that the actual ionizing radiations levels are without sanitary risks for the workers and the population will never convince the nuclear opponents, while the majority of population stays silent. The atmosphere relative to these questions is generally unhealthy because the words like radioactive, contamination or cancer create a subliminal feeling of fear for the public. A strong advantage in the information work is the openness. with this card one can remain on good terms with the public but one should never forget they must be well looked after. (N.C.)

195

Radiation protection of employees safeguarded  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Commission on Radiation Protection issues a statement on the state of matters in personal dosimetry of professionally exposed persons. The safety of that group pf persons is safeguarded by a cluster of measures completing one another. These include measurements at the place of work and measurement of the radiation exposure of each person employed by gauged personnel dosemeters, by whole-body counters, measurement of bodily excreta, and measurement of clothing for contamination. The measuring methods used are suited to establish with sufficient accuracy the exposure of individual persons. Eight figures indicate the results of comparative measurements with personnel dosemeters from 1986. (HSCH)

196

Radiation protection handbook for laboratory workers  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This handbook provides a source of information on radiation protection for workers involved in the use of ionising radiations in laboratories. Topics covered include radioactivity and properties of radiation, biological effects of radiation, legislation, monitoring radiation and radioactivity, practical radiation protection, standards of laboratories, closed sources, training and registration, waste disposal, transport of radioactive materials and machine sources of radiation. The Appendices provide information on units and exposure limits, data for radionuclides, monitoring, spillages and emergencies and working with some particular radionuclides. (UK)

197

Protection against cosmic radiation exposure  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Aircraft crew and astronauts are exposed to elevated levels of cosmic-ray particles, that is, galactic-or solar-origin particles and their secondary radiation. The average dose level of aircraft crew is generally higher than that of radiation workers at nuclear facilities. The International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) has thus recommended in 1990 (Publ. 60) that cosmic radiation exposure of crew involved in operation of jet aircraft and space flight should be part of occupational exposure. This view is maintained in the 2007 recommendations (Publ. 103). About 10 years late from the EU directive, the Radiation Council of the Japanese government has established a guideline on April 2006 for the management of cosmic radiation exposure of aircraft crew. The guideline requests the domestic airlines to keep the annual crew doses below 5 mSv and also gives some advice and policies relating to this issue. The voluntary management by airlines started on-8-the 2007 fiscal year and has continued so far. NIRS has supported this task, particularly in regard to cosmic radiation dosimetry using an originally developed software called ''JISCARD''. Regarding radiation exposure in space, guidelines have been issued in each country or by each agency. For Japanese astronauts, the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) is voluntarily carrying out the management on the basis of the own guidelines including dose limitation values. (author). (author)

198

Biological protection against nuclear radiation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This monograph is addressed to physicists, chemists, engineers, under-, graduated and enrolled towards PhD degree students, wishing to orient their activity towards research, design, education or production in nuclear power and nuclear technology field. Specifically, the work deals with the biological protection against nuclear radiations. The chapter 1 presents selectively the nuclear radiation types, the interaction of neutrons, gamma radiations and charged particles with matter. Particularly focused is the issue of biological effects of nuclear radiations and the implied permissible limits of irradiation. Chapter 2 describes one of the most intense sources of nuclear radiation, namely, the reactor core; reviewed are the reactor neutron spectra, as well as, the spectra of primary and secondary radiations. Chapter 3 deals with the activation process as a source of nuclear radiations; analyzed are the processes of activation of coolant, structural elements and soils, as well as the tritium production. Chapter 4 treats the nuclear fission process and formation of fission products, another major source of radiations. The principal features of fission products are mentioned such as: decay characteristics, fission yields, fission product activity, decay heat. Chapter 5 tackles the problem of influence of geometric form of the source upon radiation flux spatial distribution. In chapter 6 briefly are described the elements of neutron transport theory, diffusion equation, nen transport theory, diffusion equation, neutron slowing-down, age theory, i.e. all the knowledge implied in neutron attenuation calculation in shields. Chapter 7 deals with gamma radiation attenuation in shields, namely, spatial distribution of gamma-ray dose rates from point-like sources in an infinite medium, gamma radiation build-up factors, etc. In chapter 8 the phenomenon of heating of biological shields due to nuclear radiation is described. Calculation of heat rate generated by gamma and neutron radiation is sketched. Chapter 9 treats the non-homogeneities in biological shields at nuclear reactors and several methods for calculating non-homogeneous shields are presented. Chapter 10 describes the principal materials used as biological shielding against nuclear radiations, such as steel, lead, light water, concrete, etc. as well as, their behaviour in radiation fields. In the chapter 11 several examples of evaluating the dose rates and designing biological shieldings are given. Finally, chapter 12 gives definition of nuclear safety, events and nuclear accidents. Here also aspects of the Chernobyl accident are presented. Six appendices are added containing data of general use such as level and decay schemes, attenuation coefficients, data referring to U-235 fission products, etc. The work represents a compact and coherent synthesis of the main shielding calculation methods offering at the same time the necessary numerical data. An up-date comprehensive reference list completes this monograph

199

Basic standards for radiation protection  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The basic standards for radiation protection have been based, for many years, on the recommendations of the International Commission of Radiological Protection. The three basic standards recommended by the Commission may be summarized as ''justification, optimization of protection and adherence to dose limitations. The applications of these basic principles to different aspects of protection are briefly summarized and the particular ways in which they have been applied to waste described in more detail. The application of dose limits, both in the control of occupational exposure and in regulating routine discharges of radioactive effluents is straight forward in principle although the measurement and calculational requirements may be substantial. Secondary standards such as derived limits may be extremely useful and the principles underlying their derivation will be described. Optimization of protection is inherently a more difficult concept to apply in protection and the various techniques used will be outlined by with particular emphasis on the use of cost benefit analysis are recommended by the ICRP. A review will be given of the problems involved in extending these basic concepts of the ICRP to probabilistic analyses such as those required for assessing the consequences of accidents or disruptive events in long term repositories. The particular difficulties posed by the very long timescales involved in the assessment of waste management practices will be discussed in some detail. (orig./RW)

200

Workstations studies and radiation protection  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This day on the workstations studies for the workers follow-up, was organised by the research and health section. Devoted to the company doctors, for the competent persons in radiation protection, for the engineers of safety, it presented examples of methodologies and applications in the medical, industrial domain and the research, so contributing to a better understanding and an application of regulatory measures. The analysis of the workstation has to allow a reduction of the exposures and the risks and lead to the optimization of the medical follow-up. The agenda of this day included the different subjects as follow: evolution of the regulation in matter of demarcation of the regulated zones where the measures of workers protection are strengthened; presentation of the I.R.S.N. guide of help to the realization of a workstation study; implementation of a workstation study: case of radiology; the workstation studies in the research area; Is it necessary to impose the operational dosimetry in the services of radiodiagnostic? The experience feedback of a competent person in radiation protection (P.C.R.) in a hospital environment; radiation protection: elaboration of a good practices guide in medical field; the activities file in nuclear power plant: an evaluation tool of risks for the prevention. Methodological presentation and examples; insulated workstation study; the experience feedback of a provider; Contribution of the ergonomics to the determiners characterization in the ionizing radiation exposure situations;The workstations studies for the internal contamination in the fuel cycle facilities and the consideration of the results in the medical follow-up; R.E.L.I.R. necessity of workstation studies; the consideration of the human factor. (N.C.)

201

Chemical radioprotectors in radiation protection  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The different demands for the ways of the administration of chemical radioprotectors as a cystamine or WR-2721 (amifostine, gammaphos, Ethyol) e.g. S-containing compounds, their distribution and further pharmacological properties of protective agents in mentioned indications are discussed in presented lecture. A special attention is concerned on the practical use of chemical radioprotectors in the emergency and clean-up workers after a radiation accident or nuclear catastrophes. (author)

202

Ethical aspects of radiation protection  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The conflicting interests of technology and mostly prevent technicians and scientists from orientating themselves by clearly formulated rules of ethical acting. The many attempts which have been made therefore at introducing a binding 'Hippocratic oath' failed without exception. Based on many years of experience the author tries to derive some simple ethical principles from the maxims of action which apply to radiation protection, thus contributing a new aspect to the ethics discussion. (orig.)

203

Radiation protection enrollments and degrees, 1979 and 1980  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Public concern over the effects of low-level radiation and other aspects of the use of nuclear energy has grown in recent years, and the demand for radiation protection has continued to increase. Radiation Protection Enrollments and Degrees presents the results of the latest survey of institutions offering degree programs in this field. Students obtaining such degrees are vital to the development of industry, medicine, research, power production, construction, and agriculture. These surveys assist state and federal governments in their search for such personnel.

Gove, R.M.; Little, J.R.; Shirley, D.L.

1981-07-01

204

Radiation protection enrollments and degrees, 1979 and 1980  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Public concern over the effects of low-level radiation and other aspects of the use of nuclear energy has grown in recent years, and the demand for radiation protection has continued to increase. Radiation Protection Enrollments and Degrees presents the results of the latest survey of institutions offering degree programs in this field. Students obtaining such degrees are vital to the development of industry, medicine, research, power production, construction, and agriculture. These surveys assist state and federal governments in their search for such personnel

205

Radiation protection facing difficult problems  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Six months after the major reactor accident of Chernobyl it might seem as if radiation protection as well as the public in the countries concerned, except for the main victims in the Soviet Union, had escaped disaster by the skin of their teeth. The waves of public discussion have calmed down more or less. However, observing only the surface of things is apt to generate a wrong impression. The uncertainties, which have become apparent, still need to be cleared up fundamentally, and that process of clarification will take a long time and a lot of effort. The lost confidence of the public must be regained, and also the uncertainty created in the minds of insiders must be removed. The only possible way of achieving this is by clearing inconsistencies in the radiation protection recommendations and philosophies. This clarification is urgently required. It refers less to medical or biological findings or the amounts of basic levels, but more to a reconsideration of risk assessments and radiation protection evaluations previously regarded as unassailable, which have meanwhile been doubted even by the ICRP. (orig.)

206

The IAEA radiation protection laboratories  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

During the reported period, the activities of the Radiation Protection Laboratory Unit (RPLU) have been considerably extended. Being foreseen, at the beginning, as dealing only with internal matters, its responsibilities are now covering outside work, allowing to accumulate a great deal of expertise. Its staff has now reached a very high technical level, largely recognized. It is to expect that RPLU activities will continue to expand, for the following reasons, among which: The implementation of the new ICRP recommendations will most probably lead to monitor larger groups of people, and to look for new dosimetry concepts, the probable increase of practical training needs, specially in developing countries where national radiation protection infrastructures are being developed. In this field, the RPLU could certainly do more than it presently does, taking advantage of the Seibersdorf Training Center facilities, the increase of external interventions. The RPLU should also put more efforts on activities related to radiation protection monitoring equipment. Since frequently requested to give advices in this field, in the frame of Technical Cooperation programmes, it seems logic to develop comparison and test works in this matter

207

Operational radiation protection: A guide to optimization  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The purpose of this publication is to provide practical guidance on the application of the dose limitation system contained in the Basic Safety Standards for Radiation Protection to operational situations both in large nuclear installations and in much smaller facilities. It is anticipated that this Guide will be useful to both the management and radiation protection staff of operations in which there is a potential for occupational radiation exposures and to the competent authorities with responsibilities for providing a programme of regulatory control. Contents: Dose limitation system; Optimization and its practical application to operational radiation protection; Major elements of an effective operational radiation protection programme; Review of selected parts of the basic safety standards with special reference to operational radiation protection; Optimization of radiation protection; Techniques for the systematic appraisal of operational radiation protection programmes. Refs and figs

208

General rules for radiation protection within the CEA  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report first describes the organisation, scope of application and principles of radiation protection within the CEA. The second part proposes an overview of rules applicable to workers exposed to ionizing radiation. These rules concern the personnel classification, exposure limits, individual control, and training of workers in radiation protection. The third part addresses the technical rules for premise laying-out: protection zoning, indicators aimed at controlling the compliance of premise classification, radiological survey and control of premise classification. The fourth part addresses the modalities of access, stay and operation in regulated zone. The next part indicates and comments arrangements specific to ionizing radiation sources and to ionizing radiation emitting equipment (authorization and possession modalities, training, certification, controls, operation zoning, etc.), specific orders (radiological control of wastes, hardware, tools and equipment management), rules related to abnormal occupational situations (alarms, contamination event, radiological events), and the different studies and analysis of radiation protection implemented during the different phases of an installation lifetime

209

New Radiation Protection training room  

CERN Multimedia

From now on, the theory and practical components of the Radiation Protection training, developed by the RP Group and offered by the HSE Unit’s Safety Training team to people working in a Controlled Radiation Area, will take place in a dedicated teaching room, designed specifically for this kind of training.   The new room is in the Safety Training Centre on the Prévessin site and has been open since 16 October. It has an adjoining workshop that, like the room itself, can accommodate up to 12 people. It is also equipped with an interactive board as well as instruments and detectors to test for ionising radiation. This room is located near the recently inaugurated LHC tunnel mock-up where practical training exercises can be carried out in conditions almost identical to those in the real tunnel. To consult the safety training catalogue and/or sign up for Radiation Protection training, please go to: https://cta.cern.ch For further information, please contact the Safety Trainin...

HSE Unit

2013-01-01

210

Units for radiation protection work  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

ICRU has defined special measurable (operational) quantities for radiation protection. A consequence of using the operational quantities is that hand-held and personal dosemeters can give different measuring results in the same radiation situation. The differences vary and are caused by the geometry of the radiation field. The units have well documented relations to e.g. the ICRP effective dose and equivalent dose to an organ or tissue. Therefore, it is possible to estimate these doses from a measured value of e.g. the ambient dose equivalent. ICRU and ICRP have recently reviewed these relations in two important commonly issued reports (Report 57 and Publication 74). This report tries to show the value of understanding these units and their relations and is primarily meant to be used for educational purposes. 11 refs

211

Radiation protection in hospitals of Equatorial Guinea  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

With a population of four hundred thousand (400.000) inhabitants and distributed in a territory of 28 thousand (28.000) km2, the use of ionizing radiations for medical practice in Equatorial Guinea is few and decreasing. It is used for diagnostic practices in the main hospitals of the country, where the work burden is not over 20 patients per day. The political, social and economical embryonic development of the country until recently had a negative influence on indicators and health organisations, so that even now the country does not have any radiological protection law, this shortness, in addition with the old architectural structure that x ray tools is lodging, as well as dosimetrical lack of employed staff, put this staff under risk of electromagnetic energy. This is to show the present survey of medical activities with ionizing radiation and to request technical support for implementing suitably the basic standards of radiation protection which will help us as basis for the elaboration outline law, on radiological protection in accordance with the new guidelines of the International Atomic Energy Agency. (author)

212

An introduction to radiation protection principles  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The purpose of the document is to outline the fundamentals of radiation protection, to describe methods that enable employees to work safely with radiation and to aquaint employees with CRNL's radiation and industrial safety organization

213

Radiation protection technologist training and certification program  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The purpose of this program is to establish training requirements and methods for certifying the technical competence of Radiation Protection Technologists. This manual delineates general requirements as well as academic training, on-the-job training, area of facility training, and examination or evaluation requirements for Radiation Protection Trainees (Trainees), Junior Radiation Protection Technologists (JRPT), Radiation Protection Technologists (RPT), and Senior Radiation Protection Technologists (SRPT). This document also includes recertification requirements for SRPTs. The appendices include training course outlines, on-the-job training outlines, and training certification record forms

214

IAEA programmes for radiation protection  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The present IAEA radiation protection programmes are described: the resources allocated to those contained within the Principal Programme on Technological Safety and on Physical Security amount to 105.429.000 US dollars for the biannual 2004-2005 period: that is: a specific radiological safety programme (radiological protection and safety of radiation sources) combined with a programme on radioactive materials transport safety, and another programme on the safe management of radioactive waste. The Programme on Radiological and Transport Safety contains sub-programmes on: improvements on radiological and transport safety infrastructures at national and global levels, information and communication networks on radiological safety, application of safety standards on IAEA's operations, occupational radiation protection, radiological protection of the patient, safety on the transport of radioactive materials and preparation and response to nuclear or radiological emergency situations. The Programme on Radioactive Waste also includes sub-programmes on: the improvement of radioactive waste infrastructures at national and global levels, networks of information and communication on radioactive waste management, safety policies and approaches for the final disposal of radioactive waste, technologies for the final disposal of radioactive waste, releases of radioactive materials to the environment under safe conditions, safe management of residual radioactive materials, technologiresidual radioactive materials, technologies for the safe closure of installations and rehabilitation of sites and the safe management of sealed out-of-use sources. Finally, there are described the consultations with experts from IAEA Member States conducted during a great number of international Conferences, and the conversion of the received recommendations into Action plans, that approach the IAEA programmes to the changing needs of the world and to the scientific discoveries which are been produced. (Author)

215

[Radiation protection in radiation oncology. Yesterday, today, and tomorrow].  

Science.gov (United States)

Publications about radiation protection issues are not very frequent in the 100-year-old history of Strahlentherapie und Onkologie. While at the beginning of the last century the problems of radiation protection were determined by the technical development of radiation therapy, the importance of radiation protection measures and knowledge about radiation protection by the persons involved has clearly increased. A new challenge is treating patients according to radiation safety issues to avoid the risk of stochastic late effects, such as radiation-induced secondary tumors. PMID:22907582

Herrmann, Th; Müller, R

2012-11-01

216

Radiation protection - radiographer's role and responsibilities  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Ever since discovery of x-rays, radiographers has been the prime user of radiation. With the passage of time, the harmful effects of radiation were detected. Some of radiographers, radiologists and public were affected by radiation, but today with enough knowledge of radiation, the prime responsibility of radiation protection lies with the radiographers only. The radiologist and physicist are also associated with radiation protection to some extent

217

Examination of fabric of protective clothing suitable for sweltering radiation work. Influence on survey of contamination (MOX) in wet condition with sweat  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In the Plutonium Fuel Technical Development Center, protective clothing suitable for sweltering radiation work was examined. Since in a wet protective clothing with sweat, alpha ray is absorbed with moisture it was worried that of MOX powder by alpha measurement might be influenced the situations of alpha detection, the diffusion of contamination, and the osmosis and penetrability to wet protective clothing were examined for the present fabric and other new fabrics by MOX powder. As a result of examination, it was confirmed that the influence of detection on alpha ray in the wet condition of new fabrics was smaller than the current fabric. This report Summarized the result of examination and points in the fabric selection suitable for protective clothing. (author)

218

77 FR 66650 - Proposed Revisions to Radiation Protection  

Science.gov (United States)

...4, ``Radiation Protection Design Features...Operational Radiation Protection Program.'' DATES...5 of the current Standard Review Plan (SRP...acceptability of the radiation protection program, including...radiation protection and groundwater program...

2012-11-06

219

Radiation surveys in contaminated communities  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Radiation surveys of uranium contamination in Uranium City and Port Hope, Canada, are described. Samples of soil, water, and crops grown in contaminated soil and air in homes were analyzed for radon content. Following decontamination, measurements were made of ? exposure rates both inside and outside of buildings

220

Radiation protection guidelines for the practicing orthodontist.  

Science.gov (United States)

This article summarizes the most recent (December 2003) dental x-ray guidelines from the National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements report #145. The guidelines are intended for all dental health-care providers. They address radiation dose limits for occupational and nonoccupational exposure and radiation protection for operators, patients, and the public. Equipment design can play an important role in radiation protection, and recommendations from the guidelines are discussed. PMID:16102399

Mupparapu, Muralidhar

2005-08-01

221

Radiation protection in radioiodine therapy  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Clinic of Nuclear Medicine and Endocrinology of the Motol City Hospital has had continuous tradition of I-131 treatment for almost 50 years. Nowadays the therapeutic part of the Clinic focuses on differentiated follicular and papillary thyroid cancers, rarely neuroendocrine tumors (neuroblastoma, pheochromocytoma, etc.). There is absolute necessity to comply with the rules of radiation protection which is especially important in the case when high activities are administered. This affects not only personnel but also other visitors (maintenance engineers, students, inspectors of the regulatory authorities). Radioiodine laboratory employees, who process and administer 131 1 are the most exposed group with the possibly highest radiation exposure. The investigation reference level for extemal exposure has been set 1 mSv , while the intervention level 20 mSv .During the last ten years, when the clinic has been located in the new building of Motol Hospital, the intervention level had not been reached, investigation level had been exceeded mostly by workers from the referred most exposed group by maximally 20 %. The extemal exposure of radioiodine laboratory workers is minimized by personal protective equipment and by using a special PC controlled pi petting device for preparing 1311 treatment activities. Every exposed ward worker undergoes according to official directives (Section 77 paragraph 6 of Regulation No. 307 /2002 Coll. implementing the Reg. No. 499/2005 Coll. and SUJB Requirements for thyroid radioiodine therapy) regular measuring of possible thyroid contamination. The investigation reference level of internal contamination is set to 1 kBq, the intervention level is 3 kBq. The investigation level was exceeded several times in the period from 1998. The intervention level was exceeded once (3,2 kBq) and concerned nurse was sent to the National Radiation Protection Institute (SURO). The committed effective dose was in this case determined to be E(50)=0.64 mSv. (authors)

222

Distributed radiation protection console system  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Radiation exposure control is one of the most important aspects in any nuclear facility . It encompasses continuous monitoring of the various areas of the facility to detect any increase in the radiation level and/or the air activity level beyond preset limits and alarm the O and M personnel working in these areas. Detection and measurement of radiation level and the air activity level is carried out by a number of monitors installed in the areas. These monitors include Area Gamma Monitors, Continuous Air Monitors, Pu-In-Air Monitors, Criticality Monitors etc. Traditionally, these measurements are displayed and recorded on a Central Radiation Protection Console(CRPC), which is located in the central control room of the facility. This methodology suffers from the shortcoming that any worker required to enter a work area will have to inquire about the radiation status of the area either from the CRPC or will get to know the same directly from the installed only after entering the area. This shortcoming can lead to avoidable delays in attending to the work or to unwanted exposure. The authors have designed and developed a system called Distributed Radiation Protection Console (DRPC) to overcome this shortcoming. A DRPC is a console which is located outside the entrance of a given area and displays the radiation status of the area. It presents to health physicist and the plant operators a graphic over-view of the radiation and air activity levels in the particular area of activity levels in the particular area of the plant. It also provides audio visual annunciation of the alarm status. Each radioactive area in a nuclear facility will have its own DRPC, which will receive as its inputs the analog and digital signals from radiation monitoring instruments installed in the area and would not only show those readings on its video graphic screen but will also provide warning messages and instructions to the personnel entering the active areas. The various DRPCs can be integrated into a Local Area Network, where the host computer can receive and process the data from all the DRPCs to form an alternative or additional Central Radiation Protection Console. The DRPC is essentially a small Computerized Data Acquisition System(CDAS) built around a panel PC. The panel PC serves as the host while an I/O system comprising a processor and I/O modules serves as the slave data acquisition system. The panel is a LCD Video monitor, which serves as the Graphical User Interface. The application software is developed on a Visual Basic 6.0 and MS Windows platform. The DRPC also includes a relay based alarm annunciation system, which provides redundancy to ensure availability of alarm status in the event of non-availability of the CDAS. (author)

223

20th international symposium on radiation protection physics  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The 20th international symposium on radiation protection physics was held on April 25-29, 1988 in the GDR with the participation of 70 specialists from the GDR, Czechoslovakia, Poland, USSR, Hungary and Yugoslavia. The programme of the symposium was organized in five sessions devoted respectively to the general aspects of the physics of radiation protection, to international and national activities in this area, to solid phase dosimetry, to mathematical models and calculation methods in radiation safety and to measurement techniques in radiation protection. The symposium provided a survey of the present state of the solution of physical problems in the field of radiation protection, especially in the GDR and in Czechoslovakia. (Z.M.)

224

Special problems of radiation protection  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This review discusses in detail the specific radiological protection aspects in connection with: (1) The cyclotron (2) exposure of the cyclotron operating personnel during operation and maintenance, and of the radiochemical personnel and the medical personnel (3) activation of ambient air by neutrons in the target and accelerator area, stray radiation during cyclotron operation or patient examination, as well as contamination and incorporation (4) dosage of short-lived radiopharmaceuticals and determination of the organ dose to adults according to the MIRD concept. (HP) With 9 figs., 4 tabs

225

Radiation protection in dental radiography  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In considering the special provisions required in dental radiography, investigations were conducted in Iran. Radiation dose levels in dental radiography were found to be high. Patient exposure from intraoral radiographic examination was calculated, using 50kV X-ray. Thermoluminescent dosimeters were fastened to the nasion, eyes, lip, philtrum, thyroid, gonads and to the right and left of the supra-orbital, infra-orbital temporomandibular joints of live patients. The highest exposure value was for the lower lip. Recommendations concerning educational training and protection of staff and patients were included

226

New instruments for radiation protection  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Though a century old, the radiation protection is actual by its purpose: a dose as low as reasonable achievable is to be received either by involved professionals or population. This threshold is dependent on the technical progress. Some major developments like surface mounted device technology, consumer almost ideal operational amplifiers, microcontrollers and the news signal digital processing techniques, offer the opportunity to design improved instruments for radioprotection. To put in a light portable instrument both the whole measuring system and the 'intelligence' - a microcontroller and the associated software - are the main ideas applied by the authors. The result is presented: a family of eight members, at least, based on two parents. (authors)

227

Radiation protection - an overview of the concept for radiation protection at work and the concept for environmental radiation protection  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This book gives an overview of the entire field of radiation protection with the subject areas radioactivity, X-rays, UV radiation, laser beams and high-frequency electromagnetic fields. It deals graphically with the most important physical notions, the incidence, origin, properties and biological effects of types of radiation, administrative and practical protection measures and the code of rules governing them. Apart from fundamentals of radiation protection the emphasis on the following: natural radiation exposure, radiation exposure to radon, disaster relief plans in the environment of nuclear plant, the precautionary radiation protection system evolved after Chernobyl, radiation exposure through UV radiation devices, radio, RF communication, radar, microwave ovens and high-voltage transmission lines as well as computer work-places. (orig.)

228

Radiation protection of non-human species  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The effects of radiation on non-human species, both animals and plants, have long been investigated. In the disposal of radioactive wastes, the protection of non-human species has been investigated. Yet no radiation protection standard for exposure of animals and plants per se has been agreed. The International Commission on Radiological Protection has long taken the view that, if human beings are properly protected from radiation, other species will thereby be protected to the extent necessary for their preservation. However, the International Atomic Energy Agency has found it necessary to investigate the protection of non-human species where radioactivity is released to an environment unpopulated by human beings. It is proposed that the basis of such protection, and the knowledge of radiation effects on non-human species on which it is based, suggest a practical radiation protection standard for non-human species. (1 tab.)

229

Radiation protection planning and management during revision  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

During the operation of nuclear power plants it is normally possible for the in-house personnel to take care of arising radiation protection problems. However, in the comparatively short revision phases, the duties of radiation protection become much more varied. Additional trained radiation protection crews are needed at short notice. This is also the time in which the largest contributions are made to the annual cumulated doses of the personnel. Recent guidelines and rules trying to reduce the radiation exposure of personnel concentrate on this very point. The article outlines the radiation protection activities performed by the service personnel in the course of a steam generator check. (orig.)

230

An introduction to radiation protection. Fourth edition  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This book provides a comprehensive account of the nature of the hazards presented by ionizing radiation and the methods of protection. It covers the general background of the subject, the underlying principles applied to the control of radiation hazards, including chapters on human physiology, the biological effects of radiation and radiation detection and measurement. The more specialized topics are discussed such as radiation protection in the nuclear power industry and in medicine. It also covers radioactive waste management and radiological emergencies. (UK)

231

XXVII. Days of Radiation Protection. Conference Proceedings  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The publication has been set up as a proceedings of the conference dealing with health protection during work with ionizing radiation for different activities which involve the handling of ionizing radiation sources. The main conference topics are focused on current problems in radiation protection and radioecology. In this proceedings totally 83 papers are published

232

XXX. Days of Radiation Protection. Presentations of the 30-th Days of Radiation Protection  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The publication was presented only on the Internet as proceedings of presentations presented on the conference dealing with health protection during work with ionizing radiation for different activities which involve the handling of ionizing radiation sources. The main conference topics are focused on current problems in radiation protection and radioecology. In this proceedings totally 97 presentations are published. The Conference consists of the following sections: Effects of ionizing radiation; Regulation of radiation protection; Dosimetry and Metrology of ionizing radiation; Radiation protection in nuclear Power plants; Medical exposure and radiation protection in diagnostic radiology, nuclear medicine and radiation oncology; Natural radioactivity issues in radiation protection; Education, societal aspects and public involvement in radiation protection, trends and perspectives

233

Radiation protection issues for EPR reactor  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

As part of the EPR (European Pressurized Reactor) project being deployed at Flamanville, EDF has pro actively made the decision to focus on radiation protection Radiation Protection aspects right from the start of the design phase, as it has done with nuclear safety. The approach adopted for managing Radiation Protection-significant activities has been to include all involved stakeholders - designers, licensee and contractor companies - in the three successive phases, starting with a survey among workers and designers, followed by a proposal review, and finally ending with the decision-making phase entrusted to an ALARA committee. The Radiation Protection target set by EDF for this new reactor is to engage in an effort of continuous improvement and optimisation, through benchmarking with the best performing plants of the fleet. The collective dose target is currently set at 0.35 Man Sv/year per unit. In addition to other aspects, efforts will focus on shortening the duration of the highest-dose jobs, with a new challenge being set for work performed in the reactor building during normal operations, the aim being to improve plant availability. The plan is for work to be performed 7 days prior to shutting down the reactor and 3 days afterwards, in order to make logistical arrangements for forthcoming jobs. Without this reduction, the estimated drop is currently 4.5% of annual dose. For this purpose, two areas have been set up in the E.P.R.'s reactor building: one no-go the E.P.R.'s reactor building: one no-go area for containing leaks from the primary circuit, and one accessible area for normal operations, separated from the no-go area by purpose-built ventilation equipment and facilities. To offer protection against radioactive flux (neutrons and high energy), Radiation Protection studies have resulted in the installation of a concrete floor and of nuclear shielding at the outlets of primary circuit pipes. Steam generator bunkers and pumps have also been reinforced. All these measures will ensure that the accessible area can be posted as a green area (dose rate < 25 ?Sv/h), with a neutron dose rate of less than 2.5 ?Sv/h. In order to optimise radiation exposure on the EPR, efforts have focused on two parameters factored into dose calculation: dose rate and work volume exposed to radiation. The main R.P. design upgrades are improvements upon the most recent N4 plant series. In order to ensure radiological cleanliness, contamination must be contained as close to the source as possible on working units. This type of zoning is essentially aimed at enabling the plant to generate conventional waste from the radiologically controlled area in order to reduce the quantity of nuclear waste produced, to reduce nuclear waste volumes during the dismantling phase and to reduce the number of areas with a contamination risk, thereby preventing the transfer of contamination to areas outside the plant. In total, this optimisation effort has resulted in a saving of 21% when comparing the reference dose with the optimised EPR dose. A strategic priority for the EDF Group, radiation protection is gradually becoming less and less confined to the happy few, and is becoming a cross-functional area where multi-disciplinary team work is of paramount importance from the very start of the design phase. (authors)

234

Device for the radiation shield in radiation protection wall penetrations  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The invention has been aimed at a device for the radiation shield in radiation protection wall penetrations. Within a misaligned tube a protective barrier is arranged through which at least one channel opening is guided on the principle of gap area lapping. The invention renders possible to use much less absorber material for the protective barrier

235

Occupational radiation protection legislation in Israel  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Various governmental agencies, including the Ministry of Health, the Ministry of Labor and the Israel AEC are responsible for the control of the use of radioactive materials and medical X-ray machines in Israel. Present legislation deals mainly with the legal aspects of the purchase, transport and possession of radioactive materials and the purchase and operation of medical X-ray machines. No legislation refers explicitly to the protection of the worker from ionizing (and non-ionizing) radiation. A special group of experts appointed by the Minister of Labor recently worked out a comprehensive draft law concerning all legal aspects of occupational radiation protection in Israel. Among the main chapters of the draft are: general radiation protection principles, national radiation protection standards, medical supervision of radiation workers, personal monitoring requirements. The present situation with regard to radiation hazard control in Israel and details of the proposed radiation protection law is discussed. (Author)

236

Radiation protection in nuclear energy. V.1  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The conference was convened to provide a forum for the exchange of international views on the principles of radiation protection for regulators and practitioners, to highlight issues of current importance, to examine the problems encountered in applying the principles of radiation protection, and, where possible, to identify generic solutions. A special session entitled ''The dose-response relationship: implications for nuclear energy'', and a panel on ''Radiation protection education and training'' were included in the conference programme. Refs, figs and tabs

237

Manual on radiation protection in hospitals and general practice. Basic protection requirements  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The manual as a whole deals with the radiation protection of patients, occupationally exposed persons, and the public. Volume 1, on basic protection requirements, is a general review common to all medical applications of ionizing radiation and radionuclides. Radiation protection is required for patients and staff, and with regard to medical research and chemical trials of new methods; radiation equipment and operating procedures are discussed in connection with diagnostic x-ray installations, x-ray beam therapy, gamma-ray installations for teletherapy, brachytherapy, unsealed sources for therapeutic use, and the diagnostic use of unsealed sources in nuclear medicine. In planning of radiation facilities, attention is paid to levels at which medical care is given, the centralization and decentralization of radiation facilities, diagnostic x-ray facilities and therapy facilities, and nuclear medicine and therapy with unsealed sources. Shielding design is discussed applicable to diagnostic radiology, radiotherapy, nuclear medicine and the therapeutic use of radionuclides. Assignment of responsibilities, legal responsibilities, safety checks, refresher courses and symposia are discussed in the context of organizing radiation protection. Radiation surveys are necessary, and such surveys are described for x-ray and gamma-ray beams, sealed radioactive sources and nuclear medicine. A whole section is devoted to personnel monitoring and health surveillance. An annex gives a lis health surveillance. An annex gives a list of commonly used radionuclides, another deals with the design of protective shielding

238

A Model for Protective Behavior against the Harmful Effects of Radiation based on Medical Institution Classifications  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This study surveyed a total of 1,322 radiation technologist in health care institutions throughout Korea. This is a comparative study conducted on the levels of protective behavior against the harmful effects of radiation in heath care institutions which indicated that university hospitals and general hospitals showed higher level of protective behavior than for medical practitioners. This study found university hospitals have the following 7 characteristics to manage protective behavior against the harmful effects of radiation, protective environment, self-efficacy by distinction of task , self-efficacy, expectation of the protective behavior, the number of patients, level of the education related to the protection of the harmful effects of radiation and protective attitude. While general hospitals have the following 3 characteristics protective environment, expectation of the protective behavior and protective attitude. Hospitals have the following 4 characteristics protective environment, expectation of the protective behavior, protective attitude and self-efficacy and medical clinics have characteristics protective environment

239

Course of instruction in radiation protection for physicians  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The textbook is meant to be a foundation for the radiation protection course for medical personnel for the acquisition of technical knowledge according to the regulations of the X-ray ordinance. In the first part, the fundamentals of radiation physics and radiobiology are gone into as well as the national and international laws and guidelines in the field of radiation protection. Furthermore, the tasks and duties of those responsibles for radiation protection are given. The second part serves as a foundation of a special course in radiation protection when doing X-ray investigations. In addition to a brief survey on X-ray equipment as well as indications about apparative and constructive radiation protection, the radiation protection of personnel and patients is gone into in detail. The significance of radiation injuries and their recognition is indicated. The laws, standards and authoritative measures are also dealt with. At the end of each part, there are practical tasks as a basis for practical exercises. (ORU/LH)

240

Nevada Test Site Radiation Protection Program  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Title 10 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) 835, 'Occupational Radiation Protection', establishes radiation protection standards, limits, and program requirements for protecting individuals from ionizing radiation resulting from the conduct of U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) activities. 10 CFR 835.101(a) mandates that DOE activities be conducted in compliance with a documented Radiation Protection Program (RPP) as approved by DOE. This document promulgates the RPP for the Nevada Test Site (NTS), related (onsite or offsite) DOE National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO) operations, and environmental restoration offsite projects.

Radiological Control Managers' Council, Nevada Test Site

2007-08-09

241

The new operational quantities for radiation protection  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Philosophies and quantities for radiation protection have often been subjected to changes, and some of the developments are traced which ultimately led to recent proposals by ICRU. Development in the past has largely been towards clarification and generalisation of definitions. The present changes, however, reflect a more fundamental issue, the transition from the limitation system to the assessment system in radiation protection. The index quantities were suitable tools to ascertain compliance with the limitation system of radiation protection. The new quantities proposed by ICRU are suitable estimators for effective dose equivalent, which is an essential quantity in the assessment system of radiation protection. A synopsis of the definitions is given. (author)

242

Upgrading radiation protection infrastructure in Cameroon  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This article present the steps towards establishing a national radiation protection infrastructure in Cameroon. The legislation component is still being completed. Difficulties arise mainly from project management and insufficient government commitment at the project beginning. However the country participation in AFRA activities and the strengthening of the technical cooperation with the IAEA have allowed a significant progress highlighted by a recent decree creating the Regulatory Authority for Radiation Protection, the National Radiation Protection Agency. This Agency is seen as the control lever for the promotion of the radiation protection in the country. (author)

243

Radiation protection activities and status in Asia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The status of radiation protection practices in Asian countries is monitored by different means, e.g. the IAEA technical cooperation activities, by an overall assessment of conditions in a country by RAPAT missions, and on the basis of data collected through various regional activities. The radiation protection situation in Asia is very heterogeneous. There is a group of countries with very well developed radiation protection practices and advanced in the application of the Basic Safety Standards, but the majority of Asian member states still need improvement, several lacking the necessary fundamental infrastructure for radiation protection

244

33. Days of Radiation Protection. Presentations  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The publication has been set up as presentations of the conference dealing with health protection during work with ionizing radiation for different activities which involve the handling of ionizing radiation sources. The main conference topics are focused on the current problems in radiation protection and radioecology. On the web-page totally 103 presentations or posters are published. The Conference consists of the following sections: (I) Effects of ionizing radiation (radiology, health effects, risk factors); (II) General aspects of radiation protection (recommendations and legislative in radiation protection); (III): Dosimetry and metrology of ionizing radiation (metrology, instrumentation, use of computational methods); (IV) Radiation protection in nuclear power industry (working environment in the nuclear industry, the impact on the environment, nuclear power shutdown management); (V) Emergency management (emergencies, accidents, waste); (VI) Radiation load and protection in diagnostics, nuclear medicine and radiation oncology (burden on patients, staff, size of population exposure from medical sources of ionizing radiation, security, and quality control, optimization); (VII) Natural sources of radiation in workplaces and the environment (radon and other radionuclides, the risk estimation, optimization); (VIII) Education (new trends in education of radiation experts, medical physicists and stake-holders).

245

Scientific communication and radiation protection  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

It is important that the population has correct knowledge about nuclear energy to protect oneself against ionizing radiations and to reduce the subjective perception that the public has about the nuclear and the risk itself. The public information is vital and we should make tremendous efforts to improve the information as well as this one to reduce the accident risk. The local commissions of information have been created by the government to inform the public about the risk linked to each energy equipment (hydroelectric engineering works, underground gas works, power plants over 1000 megawatts) and naturally nuclear power plants. We find here the description of the Cadarache local commission of information. (N.C.)

246

Basic principles of radiation protection in Canada  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The major goal of radiation protection in Canada is to ensure that individuals are adequately protected against the harm that might arise from unwarranted exposure to ionizing radiation. This report deals with the basic principles and organizations involved in protection against ionizing radiation. Three basic principles of radiation protection are: 1) that no practice shall be adopted unless its introduction produces a positive net benefit for society, 2) that all exposures shall be kept as low as reasonably achievable, relevant economic and social factors being taken into account, and 3) that doses to individuals should not exceed specified annual limits. The limit for radiation workers is currently 50 mSv per year, and exposures of the general public should not exceed a small fraction of that of radiation workers. Other specific areas in radiation protection which have received considerable attention in Canada include limitations on collective dose (the sum of the individual doses for all exposed individuals), exemption rules for extremely small radiation doses or amounts of radioactive materials, occupational hazards in uranium mining, and special rules for protection of the foetus in pregnant female radiation workers. Implementation of radiation protection principles in Canada devolves upon the Atomic Energy Control Board, the Department of National Health and Welfare, provincial authorities, licensees and radiation workers. A brief description is given of the roles of each of these groups

247

100 years of ionizing radiation protection  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The development of radiation protection from the end of 19. century and evolution of opinion about injurious effect of ionizing radiation were presented. Observations of undesirable effects of ionizing radiation exposition, progress of radiobiology and dosimetry directed efforts toward radiation protection. These activities covered, at the beginning, limited number of persons and were subsequently extended to whole population. The current means, goals and regulations of radiological control have been discussed

248

Radiation Protection Group annual report (1996)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Annual Report of the Radiation Protection Group is intended to inform the Host State Authorities, as well as the CERN Management and staff, about the radiological situation at CERN during the year 1996. The structure of the present report follows that of previous years and has five sections. It presents the results of environmental radiation monitoring, gives information about the radiation control on the sites of the Organization, describes the radiation protection activities around the CERN accelerators, reports on personnel dosimetry, calibration and instrumentation, and briefly comments on the non-routine activities of the Radiation Protection Group

249

Radiation Protection Group annual report (1998)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Annual Report of the Radiation Protection Group is intended to inform the Host State Authorities, as well as the CERN Management and staff, about the radiological situation at CERN during the year 1998. The structure of the present report follows that of previous years and has five sections. It presents the results of environmental radiation monitoring, gives information about the radiation control on the sites of the Organization, describes the radiation protection activities around the CERN accelerators, reports on personnel dosimetry, calibration and instrumentation, and briefly comments on the non-routine activities of the Radiation Protection Group

250

Radiation Protection Group annual report (1997)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Annual Report of the Radiation Protection Group is intended to inform the Host State Authorities, as well as the CERN Management and staff, about the radiological situation at CERN during the year 1997. The structure of the present report follows that of previous years and has five sections. It presents the results of environmental radiation monitoring, gives information about the radiation control on the sites of the Organization, describes the radiation protection activities around the CERN accelerators, reports on personnel dosimetry, calibration and instrumentation, and briefly comments on the non-routine activities of the Radiation Protection Group

251

Radiation Protection Group annual report (1995)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Annual Report of the Radiation Protection Group is intended to inform the Host State Authorities, as well as the CERN Management and staff, about the radiological situation at CERN during the year 1995. The structure of the present report follows that of previous years and has five sections. It presents the results of environmental radiation monitoring, gives information about the radiation control on the sites of the Organization, describes the radiation protection activities around the CERN accelerators, reports on personnel dosimetry, calibration and instrumentation, and briefly comments on the non-routine activities of the Radiation Protection Group

252

Application of microprocessors to radiation protection measurements  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In radiation protection measurements signals from radiation detectors or dosemeters have to be transformed into quantities relevant to radiation protection. In most cases this can only be done by taking into account various parameters (e.g. the quality factor). Moreover, the characteristics of the statistical laws of nuclear radiation emission have to be considered. These problems can properly be solved by microprocessors. After reviewing the main properties of microprocessors, some typical examples of applying them to problems of radiation protection measurement are given. (author)

253

Principles of radiation protection in medical thinking  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The authors consider the issue of principles of radiation protection in medicine as being of great interest for the following reasons: health care practitioners exposed to ionizing radiation represent 75% of all world-wide radiation exposed workers; they are also the ones who, by their radiological practice lead to medical exposure of the population (which represents the largest part among artificial exposure to ionizing radiation of the public - about 11%); the superior medical staff are the advisors and prescribers for radiological investigations and treatments. The authors' experience shows that training in radiation protection system is weak, leading sometimes to abusive use of ionizing radiation in both diagnostic and treatment. Medical staff's perception on the importance and role of radiation protection principles is sometimes distorted by unskilled backgrounds in the field. There are recommendations and regulations on radiation protection principles in the relevant legislation, but there are situations in which they are formally considered, or they are regarded as an obligation and not as a form of personal and patient protection. At a national level, the expansion of informing the public about the principles of radiation protection and its role is required by introducing a corresponding training since elementary school. A beneficial aspect that has developed recently is the introduction of radiation protection courses within university and postgraduate traini within university and postgraduate training. They are important for a correct and updated training on the principles of radiation protection, a field in which there are permanent updates and changes, and new concepts are set, such as the 'culture of radiation protection'. Medical thinking and medical research have had a contribution on developing and upgrading the radiation protection principles. (authors)

254

Tripartism and radiation protection - the way forward  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Radiation protection with its highly sophisticated conceptual framework and technical complexity, is an issue on which it is sometimes difficult to achieve consensus among the social partners, particularly as the subject evokes emotional responses. A functional difficulty arises when the agencies charged with providing broad policy direction in occupational health have little or no expertise in radiation protection. This arrangement seriously constrains the process of expert scientific input to the tripartite bodies. In this paper, experiences with tripartism and radiation protection in Western Australia are exampled to illustrate the type of problems which can arise. Suggestions are made for improving tripartite consideration of radiation issues. It is concluded that the radiation protection community needs to be aware of the socio-political environment in which it operates, if it is to contribute effectively to future policy and standards for radiation protection. 12 refs

255

Radiation protection. 2. rev. ed.  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This direction specifies how to perform the Radiation Protection Ordinance-StrlSchV of October 13th, 1976 with respect to the state of science and technique in the field of medicine. In order to answer to the special organizing conditions in hospitals and doctor's consulting rooms this direction is disposed as follows: 1) Handling with unsealed radioactive material for diagnostic and therapy purposes in the field of nuclear medicine. 2) Handling with sealed radioactive material for interstitial and intra-cavitary therapy as well as for contact therapy and implantation. 3) Operation of plants for ionizing radiation production in radiotherapy (electron accelerators and other accelerators used in medicine. 4) Handling with sealed radioactive material in irradiation devices with radioactive sources for radiotherapy. This direction also concerns the handling with unsealed radioactive material in laboratory diagnostic including clinical chemistry for detecting and quantifying human disease as far as diagnostic at patients is effected (in-vivo-diagnostic). It also concerns the planning of devices considered for the above mentioned handling or operation, respectively. (orig./HP)

256

Radiation protection and safety infrastructures in Albania  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The paper intends to present the evolution and actual situation of radiation protection and safety infrastructure in Albania, focusing in its establishing and functioning in accordance with BBS and other important documents of specialized international organizations. There are described the legal framework of radiation safety, the regulatory authority, the services as well the practice of their functioning. The issue of the establishing and functioning of the radiation safety infrastructure in Albania was considered as a prerequisite for a good practices development in the peaceful uses of radiation sources . The existence of the adequate legislation and the regulatory authority, functioning based in the Basic Safety Standards (BSS), are the necessary condition providing the fulfilment of the most important issues in the mentioned field. The first document on radiation protection in Albania stated that 'for the safe use of radiation sources it is mandatory that the legal person should have a valid permission issued by Radiation Protection Commission'. A special organ was established in the Ministry of Health to supervise providing of the radiation protection measures. This organization of radiation protection showed many lacks as result of the low efficiency . The personnel monitoring, import, transport, waste management and training of workers were in charge of Institute of Nuclear Physics (INP). In 1992 an IAEA RAPAT mission visited Albania and proposed some recommendations for radiation protection improvements. The mission concluded that 'the legislation of the radiation protection should be developed'. In 1995 Albania was involved in the IAEA Model Project 'Upgrading of Radiation Protection Infrastructure'. This project, which is still in course, intended to establish the modern radiation safety infrastructures in the countries with low efficiency ones and to update and upgrade all aspects related with radiation safety: legislation and regulations, regulatory authority, radiation sources control, occupational, medical and public exposures, emergency response and preparedness, etc. (author)

257

Radiation protection in radio-oncology. Yesterday, today, tomorrow  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Shortly after the discovery of ionizing radiation the damage potential of this new radiation was observed besides obvious positive effects. The contribution reviews the historical development of radiation protection, covering the following issues: the history of the practical radiation protection in radiotherapy; the development of radiation protection legislation; radiation protection in Germany - from reaction to action; publications with radiation protection relevant content in the journal radiotherapy; radiation protection in today's radio-oncology.

258

New Croatian Act on Ionizing Radiation Protection  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

According to the new Croatian Act on ionizing radiation protection which is in a final stage of genesis, Ministry of Health of the Republic of Croatia is the governmental body responsible for all aspects relating sources of ionizing radiation in Croatia: practices, licenses, users, transport, in medicine and industry as well, workers with sources of ionizing radiation, emergency preparedness in radiological accidents, storage of radioactive wastes, x-ray machines and other machines producing ionizing radiation and radioactive materials in the environment. Ministry of Health is responsible to the Government of the Republic of Croatia, closely collaborating with the Croatian Radiation Protection Institute, health institution for the performance of scientific and investigation activities in the field of radiation protection. Ministry of Health is also working together with the Croatian Institute for the Occupational Health. More emphasis has been laid on recent discussion among the world leading radiation protection experts on justification of the last recommendations of the ICRP 60 publication. (author)

259

Radiation protection of air crew at exposition with cosmic radiation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this presentation authors deals with radiation protection of air crew at exposition by cosmic radiation. Some results of measurements of dose equivalents on some air board from Slovakia are presented

260

Course of radiation protection: technical level  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The course handbook on radiation protection and nuclear safety, technical level prepared by scientists of the Nuclear Regulatory Authority (ARN) of the Argentina Republic, describes the subjects in 19 chapters and 2 annexes. These topics detailed in the text have the following aspects: radioactivity elements, interaction of the radiation and the matter, radio dosimetry, internal contamination dosimetry, principles of radiation detection, biological radiation effects, fundamentals of radiation protection, dose limits, optimization, occupational exposure, radiation shielding, radioactive waste management, criticality accidents, safe transport of radioactive materials, regulatory aspects

261

Radiation protection in handling ionizing radiation sources  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The basic stages of ionizing radiation interaction with live matter are summed up. The effects are described of radiation on cells and tissues, the relationship is described of the dose (threshold, threshold-free) and the response in organisms, early and delayed radiation effects. The system has been laid down of limiting radiation doses and its basic principles are described. Concrete radiation dose limits have been adopted for planning and controlling work safety in handling radiation sources. Consistent inspection is implemented of work safety, controlled areas defined and personnel and workplace monitoring provided. An emergency plan is designed for the case of a radiation accident. (J.C.)

262

New radiation protection calibration facility at CERN  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The CERN radiation protection group has designed a new state-of-the-art calibration laboratory to replace the present facility, which is >20 y old. The new laboratory, presently under construction, will be equipped with neutron and gamma sources, as well as an X-ray generator and a beta irradiator. The present work describes the project to design the facility, including the facility placement criteria, the 'point-zero' measurements and the shielding study performed via FLUKA Monte Carlo simulations. This paper describes the project, the shielding study and the background measurements performed for the new CERN RP calibration facility. The neutron measurements show that the chosen location is well suited for the laboratory. The shielding study and the design met the RP area classification requirements as well as the calibration needs. The neutron and gamma irradiator configuration will also allow the gamma sensitivity of neutron survey meters to be tested in a mixed field. (authors)

263

Summary of radiation protection in exploitation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This document proposes a large and detailed overview of notions and practices regarding radiation protection in relationship with an NPP exploitation framework. It presents the main notions: matter structure, radioactivity, interactions between matter and radiations, types of ionizing radiation, magnitudes and measurement units, exposure modes, main principles of radiation protection, means of protection against internal and external exposures. The second part proposes an overview of the origin of radiological risks in a nuclear power plant. This origin can be found in fission products, activation products, actinides, designed protections, or circuit contaminations. These radiological risks are more precisely identified and described in terms of detection and prevention (internal exposure risk, contamination risk, iodine-related risk, alpha radiation-related risk, access to the reactor building). The next part addresses the medical and radiological follow-up of exposed workers by a special medical control, by an individual exposure control, by a specific control of female personnel, and by attention to exceptional exposures. Measurement means are presented (detection principles, installation continuous control, workspaces control, personnel contamination control, follow-up of individual dose) as well as collective and individual protection means. The management of radiation protection is addressed through a presentation of decision and management structures for radiation protection, and of EDF objectives and ambitions in this domain. The organization of radiation protection during exploitation is described: responsibilities for radiation protection in a nuclear power station, requirements for workers, preparation of interventions in controlled zone, work execution in controlled zone, zone controls and radiological cleanness of installations. The two last chapters address issues and practices of radiation protection in the case of deconstruction or dismantling, and in the case of transportation of radioactive materials and objects. Appendices contain information of biological effects of ionizing radiations, main regulatory texts, and involved international and French bodies

264

Radiation protection laws in the Nordic countries  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Sweden has since 1988 a totally revised radiation protection law and Finland has recently enacted a new law. The legal situation of the Nordic countries in the radiation protection field is reviewed with the main emphasis on the Swedish law. (author)

265

The radiation protection infrastructure in Madagascar  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Madagascar is participating in the Model Project RAF/9/024 on 'Upgrading Radiation Protection Infrastructure'. Its radiation protection legislation is based on the BSS. The efforts being made to upgrade the country's regulatory infrastructure and the problems encountered are described below, as is the national information and training programme for the authorities, the public, workers and students. (author)

266

Radiation Protection in PET-CT  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The presentation is based on the following areas: radiological monitoring installations in the production of PET radiopharmaceuticals, personal dose, dosage advertising, nuclear medicine, PET, radiation protection of patients, requirements for medical practice, regulatory aspects, dose calculation, shields, quantities, center Cudim, cyclotron and synthesis of radiopharmaceuticals, biological effects of radiation protection practices.

267

Manual for medical problems of radiation protection  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The manual deals comprehensively and topically with the theoretical and practical fundamentals of radiation protection of the population considering the present knowledge in the fields of radiobiology and radiation protection medicine. The subject is covered under the following headings: (1) physics of ionizing radiations, (2) biological radiation effects, (3) the acute radiation syndrome, (4) medical treatment of the acute radiation syndrome, (5) combined radiation injuries, and (6) prophylaxis and therapy of injuries caused by fission products of nuclear explosions. The book is of interest to medical doctors, medical scientists, and students in medicine who have to acquire special knowledge in the field of radiation protection and it is of value as a reference book in daily routine

268

Educational system in the radiation protection  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A general characteristic of the existing university plans and programs is a partial approach to radiation protection without a unique frame on the basis of which, certain colleges could adjust their distinctive characteristics and could analyze this multidisciplinary field which is present in our contemporary lives. We must seriously take into account the consequences of our 'ignorance' towards this field. The present 'disorganized state' in the educational system concerning radiation protection, when many professions are 'fighting' for leading roles and 'exclusive rights' in applying measures for radiation protection: physicians, chemists, doctors and others, must be regulated on international and national scales by applying powerful authority of international organizations. The key to solving this problem is found in defining minimal common bases of educational plans and programs from the field of radiation protection that would be unique for all colleges that are directly or indirectly connected to this domain. The following step could be made towards organizing specialist and graduate studies at university levels for all schools that have incorporated basis for radiation protection into their plans and programs. Lastly, as special form of continuous education in the field of radiation protection , multidisciplinary basic and specialized courses should be organized internationally intended to solve specific problems of utilization of ionising radiation sources and ization of ionising radiation sources and integral radiation protection. (author)

269

Regional radiation protection initiatives by Australia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Australia both through the auspices of the IAEA and from Government Aid Grants has contributed to the improvement of radiation protection throughout the Asia/Pacific region. The assistance has been in the form of training and improvement to radiation protection infrastructures. The presentation describes the objectives, scope and diversity of the radiation protection infrastructure program and the benefits to the large number of persons included in the program. An outline of the current IAEA program is also discussed together with an explanation of how the program will assist national regulators in the education of radiation workers, in hazardous operations such as industrial radiography

270

Radiation protection training course for health professionals  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

As the EURATOM regulations of 1996 and 1997 were implemented in German law, new amended versions of the Radiation Protection Ordinance (1 August 2001) and the X-Ray Ordinance (1 July 2002) came into force in Germany. Both ordinances require that persons authorized to use inionzing radiation must have expert knowledge in radiation protection. The extent of such knowledge is clearly specified, including practical experience and training courses, and will be tested and certified by the responsible authorities. This book intends to help provide the required knowledge in radiation protection and can also serve as a textbook during training courses. (orig.)

271

An introduction to radiation protection principles  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The fundamentals of radiation hazards and their control are outlined. This report is for use by all radiation workers at CRNL and copies are available for all who want one. The purposes of the document are to outline the fundamentals of radiation protection, to describe methods that enable employees to work safely with radiation and to acquaint employees with the CRNL radiation and industrial safety organization

272

Preparing the radiation protection worker to meet multiple needs  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

At the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) the radiation protection worker aids in protecting personnel and their surrounding environment from the hazards of radiation. These individuals use their technical knowledge, skills, and abilities to survey and monitor various project-related activities. They must also provide guidance in project design, development, and implementation. These combined efforts assure that protective measures are taken in accordance with applicable standards. The ORNL performance-based training program enhances the skills of the worker. The program incorporates job specific information on the diverse facilities and activities monitored with basic fundamentals of radiation protection. Successful completion of this program includes passing both a qualification exam and an on-the-job skills review. This paper details the structure of such a program and explains the strategies taken to reach the program's goals. 4 refs., 2 tabs

273

Occupational radiation protection. IAEA functions and policies  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The paper describes the functions and polices of the IAEA with regard to occupational radiation protection, which in fact reflect the international approach of the United Nations family to this problem. An international regime on occupational radiation protection has been growing on the bases of international legally binding conventions, international standards and international provisions for the application of these standards. The IAEA has been instrumental in establishing a corpus of occupational radiation protection standards that has a long and fructiferous history. The corpus now comprises one set of basic policy fundamentals on radiation protection, one basic international requirement, the International Basic Safety Standards for Protection against Ionizing Radiation and for the Safety of Radiation Sources, one basic guide on general occupational radiation protection, and several supporting guides establishing procedures, inter alia, for monitoring for external radiation and for internal contamination. The United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation provides the global scientific estimates of the biological effects attributable to radiation exposure and the International Commission on Radiological Protection the basic recommendations on radiation protection that are taken into account in the formulation of the international standards. The International Labour Organization (ILO) harmonizes the interests of governments, workers and emplinterests of governments, workers and employers and provides this essential input into the standards. The IAEA establishes the international standards in co-operation with the ILO and other specialized United Nations organizations. The paper finally describes a number of controversial occupational protection issues which are still being discussed internationally and the author considers that the Conference presents an ideal forum in which to tackle these issues and search for a consensual approach to their solution. (author)

274

The Radiation Protection Law (StrVG)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The law for the prevention of radiation exposure of the population (Radiation Protection Law - StrVG) of December 12, 1986, given that appropriate dose and contamination values as well as the pertaining calculation methods will be laid down in the legal regulations yet to be issued, for which this law provides the autherization basis, is suited to assure the protection of the population from harmful radiation exposure. (orig./HP)

275

Comments to the German society's for radiation protection (Gesellschaft fur Strahlenschutz) proposed principles for radiation protection  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The German Society for Radiation Protection (in German Gesellschaft fur Strahlenschutz) is a separate society for radiation protection in Germany in addition to the leading society named Association of German and Swiss Radiation Protection Specialists (in German Fachverband fur Strahlenschutz). The Society is an international professional society. There are several hundreds members of the German Society for Radiation Protection. The German Society for Radiation Protection is not a member of IRPA (the International Radiation Protection Society). The IRPA member is the Association of German and Swiss Radiation Protection Specialists. According to information given on the web site of the Society for Radiation Protection (www.gfstrahlenschutz.de) the Society was founded in 1990 because in the opinion of the founding members the older professional societies and associations have not adequately considered and implemented the present knowledge of radiation risks and radiation protection. In accordance with its statutes the society pursues besides other aims the best possible protection of humans and the environment from the detrimental action of ionising and non-ionising radiation. The dealing with ionising and non-ionising radiation can according to the Society only be justified on the basis of biological and medical state of the art knowledge

276

Compartment models in radiation protection  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text: This paper presents a brief review of the use of compartment models in radiation protection. These models are widely used for modelling the transport of radionuclides in plants, crops, man and animals. Special models are used for the human respiratory tract, gastro-intestinal tract and skeleton, and for particular radionuclides (e.g. transport of strontium, caesium and iodine in sheep and cattle) or groups of radionuclides (e.g. the actinides). Compartment models are also used for assessing the effects of intakes of radionuclides by man in the natural environment, in the workplace, as a result of medical treatment, or as a result of planned or accidental releases of radionuclides to the environment. They are also used for modelling the transport of radionuclides in rivers, estuaries and enclosed seas. Examples of compartment models currently used for some of these applications are presented, and their limitations are discussed. The methods and assumptions used in solving the equations associated with these models are briefly discussed, with particular reference to the problem of assessing the effects of intakes of radionuclides by man

277

Role of the International Radiation Protection Association.  

Science.gov (United States)

Global concerns over energy supply and climate change have given rise to an increase in uranium prospecting, mining and extraction. The changing world economy is spreading the use of advanced nuclear and radiation-related technologies to many parts of the world, giving rise to global initiatives on nuclear energy and operation of nuclear fuel cycle facilities. The emerging global nuclear safety regime promotes and encourages high standards of radiation safety worldwide. These developments call for increasing capacity and capabilities in radiation protection expertise and continue to present both challenges and opportunities to the International Radiation Protection Association (IRPA), an association of 46 societies representing 58 countries with an individual membership of approximately 17,000. IRPA's objectives include: (1) assisting the development of competent radiation protection programs; (2) fostering the exchange of scientific and technical information through its international and regional congresses; (3) promoting the scientific and professional recognition of the radiation protection expert; and (4) supporting continuing education programs at each IRPA congress. IRPA has adopted a Code of Ethics and Guiding Principles for the Conduct of Stakeholder Engagement. Recently work began to develop guidance for maintaining and improving current levels of radiation protection and transferring this culture to future radiation protection professionals. These IRPA projects are developed through the Associate Society Forum discussions that are held at each IRPA international and regional congress. Finally, IRPA maintains a close working relationship with various international organizations and is also represented on the Inter-Agency Committee on Radiation Safety. PMID:21399420

Kase, Kenneth R; Metcalf, Phil

2011-01-01

278

Radiation protection standards and dose calculations  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This chapter deals with both the sources of radiation to which the general public is exposed and with the standards for protection against ionizing radiation. Sources of radiation include background radiation (cosmic rays, terrestrial sources, internally deposited radionuclides) and man-made exposures. Standards for protection are discussed in the following contexts: Occupational Exposure Limits; Nonoccupational Exposure Limits; and ALARA. Calculations involving exposures and dose and Internal Sources of Radiation, sections which include numerous in-text calculations and examples, and brief perspective on occupational health risks conclude the chapter. A 10-problem set is included. 11 refs., 2 figs., 6 tabs

279

Rules and regulations of radiation protection  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The finality of this legislative text is to guarantee the radiation protection of the exposed personnel, of the people in general and the environment against the ionizing radiations risks. Its scope includes all the natural and juridical persons that work with ionizing radiation sources into the peruvian territory

280

Concepts and units in radiation protection  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

After a brief general introduction to ionising radiation and its effect on human tissues a detailed treatment of the physics and biology determining the acceptable dose levels is provided. Finally radiation protection regulations and radiation environments are discussed. (J.H.)

281

Radiation and radiation protection. 2. enlarged and rev. ed.  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The book reviews the history of research on radiative matter, methods of detecting ionizing radiation, quantities and units in radiation protection, measurement of radiation intensity and radiation dose, determination of radiation energy. One chapter deals with the natural radiation environment, another with man-made radiation sources and their application and purpose. Effects on man and radiobiology as an important field of research are discussed, as well as methods and problems of risk assessment as a prerequisite for defining and recommending radiation protection principles and measures. The dose limits determined so far as a result of this research work are explained. The book finally presents explanations of technical terms in physics and dosimetry that are helpful in understanding the subjects discussed. An additional chapter presents and evaluates the radiation exposure of the population of the Federal Republic of Germany after the Chernobyl accident and the resulting hazard potential. (orig./HP) With 44 figs., 39 tabs

282

From regulations towards radiation protection culture  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Compliance with the technical standards and specifications is a necessary but not sufficient condition for quality in radiation protection. Reaching this quality objective is not a matter of forcing improvements by a regulatory policy of reducing dose limits, but of promoting a real radiation protection culture. The spread of such a radiological protection culture encourages the deliberate adoption in everyday practice of behaviour likely to reduce exposure to ionizing radiation as loser as reasonably achievable. The aim of this paper is to demonstrate that the need to diffuse a radiological protection culture is inspired by the philosophy behind the system recommended by ICPR Publication 60 on the management of residual radiological risk and, in particular by the behavioural and incentive approach implied by the optimization principle. Special attention will be given to the fundamentals likely to contribute in a definition of radiation protection culture. (author)

283

Radiation protection programme for nuclear gauges  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Ionizing radiation including the use of nuclear gauges can be very hazardous to humans and steps must be taken to minimize the risks so as to prevent deterministic effects and limiting chances for stochastic effects. The availability of a Radiation Protection Programme and its effective implementation ensures appropriate safety and security provisions for sealed radiation sources and promotes a safety culture within a facility that utilizes these sources. This study aims at establishing a guide on the radiation protection programme in nuclear gauges that comply with national requirements derived from current international recommendations. Elements that form part of a radiation protection programme are covered in detail as well as recommendations. The overall objective is to protect people (operators and the public) and the environment from the harmful effects of these sources if they are not properly controlled. Nuclear gauges for well logging and X-ray based gauges are outside the scope of this study. (au)

284

Environmental radiation protection. The new ICRP concept  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Protection of the environment regarding radiation protection was so far reduced to the concept: if man is protected the environment is protected well enough. This was derived from the radiosensitivity curve, according to which highly developed organisms are more sensible to radiation than less highly developed. ICRP publication 103 put this simple concept in question. Even before, ICRP set up a committee to discuss this theme. End of 2012 ICRP released a new concept of environmental protection regarding different exposure situations and brought it up for discussion in the internet. This concept is based on Reference Animals and Plants (RAPs) and analogous to the concept of the protection for man. The exposure for representative organisms regarding ionizing radiation shall be estimated and compared with Derived Consideration Reference Levels (DCRLs). If the DCRLs are reached or exceeded there is a need to react. This concept raises several questions. (orig.)

285

Challenges to the system of radiation protection – role and activities of the International Radiation Protection Association  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The vision of IRPA as the International Radiation Protection Association of individual radiation protection practitioners organized through national or regional societies is to be recognized by its members, stakeholders and the public as the international voice of the radiation protection profession in the enhancement of radiation protection culture and practice worldwide. It is a key challenge of IRPA to make this vision a reality.The global acceptance of radiation protection principles, in particular in the medical area, is a real challenge. Ensuring that medical procedures are justified and optimized is vital, not least for CT and hybrid imaging examinations and in pediatric medicine. There is a strong responsibility of medical physicists and radiation protection experts to ensure safe and secure application of ionizing radiation. A Technical Agreement with the IOMP (International Organization for Medical Physics) provides the way for a joint approach to enhance radiation safety in the medical field. IRPA started an initiative on Ethics in Radiation Protection and currently IRPA is working closely with ICRP on the development of guidance on Ethical Dimensions of the Radiation Protection System.To encourage and support the Associate Societies in the development of effective means of enhancing public understanding of radiation risk through the sharing of good practice, ideas and resource material, IRPA has established a Task Group on Public Understanding of Radiation Risk. The ultimate goal is to develop and promote a library of good practice activities on public understanding of radiation risk through the sharing of experience across the Associate Societies

286

Effective dose: a radiation protection quantity  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Modern radiation protection is based on the principles of justification, limitation, and optimisation. Assessment of radiation risks for individuals or groups of individuals is, however, not a primary objective of radiological protection. The implementation of the principles of limitation and optimisation requires an appropriate quantification of radiation exposure. The International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) has introduced effective dose as the principal radiological protection quantity to be used for setting and controlling dose limits for stochastic effects in the regulatory context, and for the practical implementation of the optimisation principle. Effective dose is the tissue weighted sum of radiation weighted organ and tissue doses of a reference person from exposure to external irradiations and internal emitters. The specific normalised values of tissue weighting factors are defined by ICRP for individual tissues, and used as an approximate age- and sex-averaged representation of the relative contribution of each tissue to the radiation detriment of stochastic effects from whole-body low-linear energy transfer irradiations. The rounded values of tissue and radiation weighting factors are chosen by ICRP on the basis of available scientific data from radiation epidemiology and radiation biology, and they are therefore subject to adjustment as new scientific information becomes available. Effective dose is a single, risk-related dosimetric quan is a single, risk-related dosimetric quantity, used prospectively for planning and optimisation purposes, and retrospectively for demonstrating compliance with dose limits and constraints. In practical radiation protection, it has proven to be extremely useful.

287

Radiation protection research projects. Status report 2007  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In Behalf of the German Federal Environment Ministry (BMU) the BfS (Bundesamt fuer Strahlenschutz) assigns research contracts concerning radiation protection topics. The results of these research projects are supposed to provide decision support for the development of radiation protection regulations and other specific radiation protection tasks of the BMU. The BfS is basically charged for the planning, the technical and administrative prearrangements, the assignment, the expert monitoring and the technical evaluation of the results. The report is the compiled information on the results or intermediate results (status reports) of these research projects for the year 2007

288

Radiation Protection at Light Water Reactors  

CERN Document Server

This book is aimed at Health Physicists wishing to gain a better understanding of the principles and practices associated with a light water reactor (LWR) radiation protection program. The role of key program elements is presented in sufficient detail to assist practicing radiation protection professionals in improving and strengthening their current program. Details related to daily operation and discipline areas vital to maintaining an effective LWR radiation protection program are presented. Programmatic areas and functions important in preventing, responding to, and minimizing radiological incidents and the importance of performing effective incident evaluations and investigations are described. Elements that are integral in ensuring continuous program improvements are emphasized throughout the text.

Prince, Robert

2012-01-01

289

Blended learning specialists in radiation protection  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this paper, we present a blended learning Radiation Protection Technician through an approved degree from the Polytechnic University of Valencia, which covers the knowledge and skills of functions relating to operators and supervisors in various areas and skilled workers to be to perform their work in technical units or Radiation Protection Radiation Protection Services. The benefits of this work are those related to achieving quality training flexible and adapted to follow the check off the person conducting the course, adapted to internal and external training of the applicant companies.

290

Radiation protection at light water reactors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This book is aimed at Health Physicists wishing to gain a better understanding of the principles and practices associated with a light water reactor (LWR) radiation protection program. The role of key program elements is presented in sufficient detail to assist practicing radiation protection professionals in improving and strengthening their current program. Details related to daily operation and discipline areas vital to maintaining an effective LWR radiation protection program are presented. Programmatic areas and functions important in preventing, responding to, and minimizing radiological incidents and the importance of performing effective incident evaluations and investigations are described. Elements that are integral in ensuring continuous program improvements are emphasized throughout the text. (orig.)

291

Radiation protection and the female worker  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An influx of young women into industrial occupations has resulted in a reexamination of policy regarding fetal protection. Each of the Environmental Protection Agency's four alternatives, as listed in Federal Radiation Protection Guidance for Occupational Exposures, is examined and given a critique: voluntary limitation of radiation exposure to the unborn, voluntary sterilization by women, exclusion of child-bearing-age women from occupational tasks resulting in possible fetal exposure, and limiting the mandatory exposure limit for all workers. The author lists employers and women employees responsibilities in considering occupations with radiation risks. 1 reference

292

Radiation protection at synchrotron radiation facilities.  

Science.gov (United States)

A synchrotron radiation (SR) facility typically consists of an injector, a storage ring, and SR beamlines. The latter two features are unique to SR facilities, when compared to other types of accelerator facilities. The SR facilities have the characteristics of low injection beam power, but high stored beam power. The storage ring is generally above ground with people occupying the experimental floor around a normally thin concrete ring wall. This paper addresses the radiation issues, in particular the shielding design, associated with the storage ring and SR beamlines. Normal and abnormal beam losses for injection and stored beams, as well as typical storage ring operation, are described. Ring shielding design for photons and neutrons from beam losses in the ring is discussed. Radiation safety issues and shielding design for SR beamlines, considering gas bremsstrahlung and synchrotron radiation, are reviewed. Radiation source terms and the methodologies for shielding calculations are presented. PMID:11843084

Liu, J C; Vylet, V

2001-01-01

293

Radiation protection training of radiation safety officers in Finland in 2008  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority (STUK) carried out a survey on the radiation protection training of radiation safety officers (RSO) in Finland in 2008. The aim of the survey was to obtain information on the conformity and uniformity of the training provided in different training organisations. A previous survey concerning radiation protection training was carried out in 2003. That survey determined the training needs of radiation users and radiation safety officers as well the radiation protection training included in vocational training and supplementary training. This report presents the execution and results of the survey in 2008. According to the responses, the total amount of RSO training fulfilled the requirements presented in Guide ST 1.8 in the most fields of competence. The emphasis of the RSO training differed between organisations, even for training in the same field of competence. Certain issues in Guide ST 1.8 were dealt quite superficially or even not at all in some training programmes. In some fields of competence, certain matters were entirely left to individual study. No practical training with radiation equipment or sources was included in the RSO training programme of some organisations. Practical training also varied considerably between organisations, even within the same field of competence. The duties in the use of radiation were often considered as practical training with radiation equipment and sources. Practical training from the pand sources. Practical training from the point of view of a radiation safety officer was brought up in the responses of only one organisation. The number of questions and criteria for passing RSO exams also varied between organisations. Trainers who provided RSO training for the use of radiation in health care sectors had reached a higher vocational training level and received more supplementary training in radiation protection in the previous 5 years than trainers who provided RSO training for the use of radiation in industry, research, and education and training. Those trainers who had received no supplementary training or whose supplementary training was not known were more involved in training for the industrial, research, and education and training sectors than for the health care sectors. Experiences with and feedback on Guide ST 1.8 and its applicability were also collected in this survey. The results of the survey and feedback will be used when Guide ST 1.8 is revised. (orig.)

294

Strengthening the radiation protection culture: a priority of EDF radiation protection policy  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text of publication follows: In order to improve the management of radiation protection at EDF nuclear power plants, the Human Factors Group of the Research and Development Division of EDF has performed some studies on the appropriation process of the radiation protection requirements. These studies have notably shown that an efficient application of the radiation protection requirements lies on a comprehension by all workers of the meaning of these requirements. Furthermore, they should not be applied under the constraint or because of the fear of a sanction, but the workers need to perceive and understand the benefits in terms of protection associated with the radiation protection requirements. The strengthening of the radiation protection culture is therefore a key element of the radiation protection policy developed by EDF. This culture lies on an awareness of the health risks potentially associated with low levels of ionising radiations, as well as on the knowledge of tools, techniques and good practices developed to control the level of exposures and improve the radiation protection. Various type of actions have been undertaken to reinforce among the relevant players (exposed and non-exposed workers, contractors, all levels of management,... ) an awareness of radiation protection in order to integrate it in their day to day work: elaboration of a 'radiation protection system of reference' explaining how the radiation protection regulatory requirements are an protection regulatory requirements are applied at EDF, publication of a 'radiation protection handbook' available for all workers (including contractors), training sessions, creation of networks of specialists from the various nuclear power plants on specific radiation protection issues, organisation of feed-back experience forum, etc. Beyond these specific actions, i t is also important to ensure a support and an assistance on the field by dedicated specialists. In this perspective, the health physicists have to play a key role in order to foster the appropriation of the radiation protection culture. For this reason, the structure and the skills of the health physics departments was reinforced and their presence on the field increased. The improvement of radiation protection performances at EDF nuclear power plants is strongly relying on a commitment of all the players involved. Their motivation and vigilance have to be sustained so that their involvement is not merely occasional, but fits into a continuous process. The sharing of a common radiation protection culture is essential as it develops individual and collective behaviours oriented towards a common objective: improving radiation protection and maintaining the levels of exposure as low as reasonably achievable. (author)

295

Radiation protection day - Book of abstracts  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This document brings together the abstracts of all presentations given at the Radiation protection day organised in May 2000 by the French association for radiation protection techniques and sciences (ATSR) on the topic of the new European and French radiation protection regulations and their conditions of application in hospitals. Content: 1 - Presentation of the Office of Protection against Ionizing Radiations (O.P.R.I.), status of texts and evolution, practical implementation of operational dosimetry (Alain Valero, O.P.R.I.); 2 - Presentation of the Radiation Protection Service of the Army (S.P.R.A.) and its role in French army's hospitals (Jean-Baptiste Fleutot, S.P.R.A.); 3 - 96/29 European directive and water quality - transposition in French law (Daniel Robeau, I.P.S.N. Fontenay-Aux-Roses); 4 - Presentation of an automatized active dosimetry system (Michel Deron, G.E.M. System); 5 - Euratom 97/43 Directive from June 30, 1997 - assessment of the existing framework for patients protection in medical environment (Pierre Muglioni, APAVE Nord Ouest); 6 - Specificities of the ionising radiations risk in medical environment - presentation of a ionising radiations risk assessment grid (Marie-Christine Soula, Labour regional direction Ile de France); 7 - Low dose effects (B. Le Guen, E.D.F. G.D.F.); 8 - Operational dosimetry in the medical domain - the Saphydose dosemeter (Frederico Felix - Saphymo); 9 - Positrons and radiation protection (Luc Cinotti - C.E.R.M.E.P.); 10 - Workplace studies in medical environment - areas and personnel classification (Jean-Claude Houy, Sandrine Laugle, Eugene Marquis Cancer Centre Rennes); 11 - Experience feedback after 4 years of active dosimetry in a nuclear medicine service (Albert Lisbona, Centre Rene Gauducheau Nantes/Saint-Herblain); 12 - Operational dosimetry as it is performed today in CNRS laboratories (Helene Dossier - C.N.R.S. Orsay); 13 - Radiation protection in submarine naval forces (Pierre Laroche, Army's health service - S.S.A)

296

Radiation exposure and protection during angiography  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The authors describe the radiological techniques during angiography examinations in their hospital. For every technique they measured the radiation exposure and dose to the staff of doctors, assistants and nurses in their standard positions in the room and the radiation dose at various points on their bodies. The results are critically discussed and alternative protection devices are analysed, since there are many difficulties concerning the employ of usual radiation protection systems. Cardiologists, above all, are given some recomandations to reduce radiation exposure without prejudicing the exam results

297

Radiation protection in the hospital environment  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The hospital environment contains numerous sources of ionizing radiation that may contribute to public and occupational radiation exposure. Radiation exposure from x rays is minimized through engineering design, administrative controls, and quality control. Exposure from patients that contain therapeutic quantities is minimized by isolation in appropriately controlled private rooms. Administrative controls are relied on for controlling radiation exposure from diagnostic nuclear medicine patients. Hospital radiation installations must be planned and periodically reviewed to take advantage of the latest developments in radiation protection and to keep public and occupational exposure as low as reasonably achievable

298

Safety survey report EBR-II safety survey, ANL-west health protection, industrial safety and fire protection survey  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A safety survey covering the disciplines of Reactor Safety, Nuclear Criticality Safety, Health Protection and Industrial Safety and Fire Protection was conducted at the ANL-West EBR-II FEF Complex during the period January 10-18, 1972. In addition, the entire ANL-West site was surveyed for Health Protection and Industrial Safety and Fire Protection. The survey was conducted by members of the AEC Chicago Operations Office, a member of RDT-HQ and a member of the RDT-ID site office. Eighteen recommendations resulted from the survey, eleven in the area of Industrial Safety and Fire Protection, five in the area of Reactor Safety and two in the area of Nuclear Criticality Safety.

Dunbar, K.A.

1972-01-10

299

Effective dose: a radiation protection quantity  

CERN Document Server

Modern radiation protection is based on the principles of justification, limitation, and optimisation. Assessment of radiation risks for individuals or groups of individuals is, however, not a primary objective of radiological protection. The implementation of the principles of limitation and optimisation requires an appropriate quantification of radiation exposure. The International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) has introduced effective dose as the principal radiological protection quantity to be used for setting and controlling dose limits for stochastic effects in the regulatory context, and for the practical implementation of the optimisation principle. Effective dose is the tissue weighted sum of radiation weighted organ and tissue doses of a reference person from exposure to external irradiations and internal emitters. The specific normalised values of tissue weighting factors are defined by ICRP for individual tissues, and used as an approximate age- and sex-averaged representation of th...

Menzel, H G

2012-01-01

300

Uncertainties of measurements in radiation protection  

CERN Document Server

On September 1st, 2001, the Austrian standard OENORM S 5255-1 with the title 'Uncertainties of measurements and limiting values in radiation protection - Part 1: Basics' was published. A part 2 of the standard with the subtitle 'Assessment of measurements with regard to limiting values' was published on April 1st, 2002. Part 1 of the standard is a consequent application of the 'Guide to the expression of uncertainty in measurement' (GUM) for measurements in radiation protection. It contains a summary of the most important definitions and mathematical methods, which are relevant for measurements in radiation protection. An important prerequisite is the standardisation of the coverage factor k=1 for measurements in radiation protection. Finally, the use of the standard is demonstrated by a detailed example there (dose rate meter). First, the uncertainty of a dose rate meter is stated, using only information on tolerances available e.g. from instrument specifications. Additionally, the strategies to reduce the u...

Steurer, A; Gruen, K

2003-01-01

301

Radiation Protection and Safety infrastructure in Albania  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

On 1995 Albania Parliament approved the Radiation Protection Act, which established the Radiation Protection Commission as Regulatory Body and Radiation Protection Office as an executive office. The licensing of private and public companies is a duty of RPC and the inspections, enforcement, import - export control, safety and security of radioactive materials, are tasks of RPO. Regulations on licence and inspection, safe handling of radioactive sources, radioactive waste management and transport of radioactive materials have been approved. The Codes of practice in diagnostic radiology, radiotherapy and nuclear medicine have been prepared. Institute of Nuclear Physics carry out monitoring of personal dosimetry, response to the radiological emergencies, calibration of dosimetric equipment's, management of radioactive waste, etc. Based in the IAEA documents, a new Radiation Protection Act is under preparation

302

Radiation Protection of Children of Belarus  

International Science & Technology Center (ISTC)

Radiation Protection of Children of Belarus. Development of Recommendations on the Basis of the Research of the Effectiveness of Effects of Radioprotectors on Children from Radiocontaminated Regions of Belarus

303

Protective effects in radiation modification of elastomers  

Science.gov (United States)

Saturated character of ethylene/octene thermoplastic elastomers demands an application of nonconventional methods of crosslinking connections between chains of molecules. These are organic peroxides, usually in the presence of coagents or an application of ionizing radiation. Several approaches (radiation, peroxide, peroxide/plus radiation and radiation/plus peroxide) were applied in crosslinking of elastomere Engage 8200. Attention was directed to the protection effects by aromatic peroxides and by photo- and thermostabilizers on radiolysis of elastomers. Role of dose of radiation, dose rate of radiation as well as the role of composition of elastomere on the radiation yield of hydrogen and absorbtion of oxygen was investigated. DRS method was used to follow postirradiation degradation. Influence of crosslinking methods on properties of elastomers is described. Results were interpreted from the point of view of protective actions of aromatic compounds.

G?uszewski, Wojciech; Zagórski, Zbigniew P.; Rajkiewicz, Maria

2014-12-01

304

National radiation protection programme for occupational exposure  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Radiation Protection in Ecuador, as an important part of the whole context of protection against occupational health damage, since 1979 has become a relevant aspect in our government's concerns and policy. Programs have been developed in order to register machines, sources, activities and ionizing radiation users in all fields throughout the country. Plans have been implemented to improve workers safety from occupational exposure: personal thermoluminescense dosimetry, training courses, technical studies to get the best protection in working places, coordination with health institutions to make tests and evaluations to control occupational health, personal and institutional licensing and others. We also have supplied advice on Radiation Protection in the use of radiodiagnosis and radiotherapy, nuclear medicine, radionmunoassay and in industrial, educational and research applications, mainly in matters of shielding, technical meetings, and design of personal protections and safety procedures. (author)

305

Radiation protection program for assistance of victims of radiation accidents  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The principles aspects of a radiological protection program for hospitals in case of medical assistance to external and internal contaminated persons are showed. It is based on the experience obtained at Centro Medico Naval Marcilio Dias during the assistance to the victims of Goiania accident in 1987. This paper describes the basic infrastructure of a nursery and the radiation protection procedures for the access control of people and materials, area and personal monitoring, decontamination and the support activities such as calibration of radiation monitors and waste management. Is is also estimated the necessary radiation protection materials and the daily quantity of waste generated. (author)

306

The reform of radiation protection in Morocco  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Occupational, public and environmental radiation protection is a major challenge in diverse applications of ionising radiation (industrial, medical, research). There is a considerable international pressure for states to strengthen their regulatory control of radiation safety in order to avoid major radiation accidents, or radiation sources becoming lost or getting in the wrong hands. Covering the safety of radiation in industry, medicine and research, the Moroccan government has made a great effort to strengthen the radiation protection infrastructure and human competency. The IAEA code of conduct and basic safety standards requires that national legislation creates a regulatory authority whose regulatory functions are effectively independent of any government department or other agency that promotes any of the practices regulated. Currently all of the regulatory powers lie with the ministry of health. In order to meet the internationally agreed standards of radiation safety, a new independent Moroccan nuclear safety authority will be established with high level of competencies in radiation protection and its role to ensure the protection of workers, the public and the environment. This paper aims to map out a possible regulatory change and review of the function and structure of the regulatory authority. (authors)

307

The reform of radiation protection in Morocco  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Occupational, public and environmental radiation protection is a major challenge in diverse applications of ionising radiation (industrial, medical, research). There is a considerable international pressure for states to strengthen their regulatory control of radiation safety in order to avoid major radiation accidents, or radiation sources becoming lost or getting in the wrong hands. Covering the safety of radiation in industry, medicine and research, the Moroccan government has made a great effort to strengthen the radiation protection infrastructure and human competency. The IAEA code of conduct and basic safety standards requires that national legislation creates a regulatory authority whose regulatory functions are effectively independent of any government department or other agency that promotes any of the practices regulated. Currently all of the regulatory powers lie with the ministry of health. In order to meet the internationally agreed standards of radiation safety, a new independent Moroccan nuclear safety authority will be established with high level of competencies in radiation protection and its role to ensure the protection of workers, the public and the environment. This paper aims to map out a possible regulatory change and review of the function and structure of the regulatory authority. (authors)

El Messaoudi, M.; Essadki, H. [Faculte des Sciences, Dept. de Physique, Rabat (Morocco)

2006-07-01

308

Operational radiation protection and monitoring programme  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

All the tasks of the Radiation Protection Department at the Nuclear Power Plant are mentioned and described. These tasks determine the necessary manpower and qualification of the personnel. Certain organizational structures are required to guarantee the effective work of this department. The Radiation Protection Department of the Biblis Nuclear Power Station and its tasks, manpower, organization etc. serves to illustrate the material covered by this lecture. (orig./RW)

309

Radiation protection experience in the Kernkraftwerk Stade  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The organization of radiation protection in the Kernkraftwerk Stade having been described, the extent of work during the period of revision is portrayed. The personnel dose rates, for own as well as foreign staff members, show a static tendency with annual doses between 300 and 400 rem per man. The lecture concludes with radiation protection measures during diving activities in 1973 when the core grid was exchanged in the flooded reactor pressure vessel. (orig.)

310

Views of the radiation protection professionals  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In general, the radiation protection professional is an adequately trained person who uses his/her technical or scientific experience and skills to protect human beings (and increasingly, the environment) against the harmful effects of ionizing radiation. These persons may be users of radiation in industry, medicine or science; they may be employed as radiation protection officers or consultants, or they may work within the regulatory or authority infrastructures. They may also be independent experts. In spite of the general goals they have in common, their priorities and their views may vary considerably. Confidence is an indispensable prerequisite for successful communication concerning the development of future recommendations in radiation protection. The process of confidence building is difficult. It requires a clarification of the different roles and interests of all parties involved, i.e. policy, economy, public and safety. The willingness to accept a new concept will be increased perceptibly if relevant persons or groups of persons (stakeholders) are already involved in the selection of alternatives. Radiation protection professionals are important partners in the process initiated by the International Committee on Radiological Protection (ICRP), discussing recommendations to come

311

Radiation protection for industrial radiography in the aerospace industry  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Boeing Company employs 80 industrial radiographers, operates 90 radiation sources, and takes 10,000 exposures per month. This paper describes the major components of Boeing's radiation protection program: hazard analysis, facilities and equipment design, program administration, and evaluation. In the hazard analysis, each source of radiation is analyzed to determine its hazard and relationship to both man and the environment around it. Once the degree of the hazard is known, facilities and equipment are designed to contain the hazard. This can be anything from a four foot concrete shielded room for an industrial radiographic accelerator, to a piece of rope that isolates an Iridium-192 source during a field radiographic inspection on an aircraft. The administrative functions provide the necessary records, command media, and a radiation source certification program. This certification authorizes the source of radiation to be used under specific conditions agreed upon by both the Radiation Protection Organization and Industrial Radiography Management. The radiation protection program is evaluated through medical exams, personnel monitoring, and area radiation surveys. (H.K.)

312

Radiation protection principles observance in Iranian dental schools  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In recent decades many guidelines has been conducted by radiation protection organizations about radiation protection in dentistry. This study aimed to evaluate the observance of these guidelines in educational clinics of all dental schools in Iran. Material and Methods: In this cross-sectional study a self-administered questionnaire, based on National Radiation Protection Board and European Commission guidelines, was conducted. The radiology departments of all dental school (18 schools) were surveyed in this study. The questionnaire was consisted of 3 sections including intraoral radiography, extra oral radiography and implementation of quality control programs. Results: In the case of the existence of radiation protection facilities (such as lead apron, thyroid shield and lead impacted walls) the use of high speed films and existence of automatic processor in dental schools, there was a proper condition. The main problem was related to lack of regular quality control and quality assurance programs. Digital radiography systems were employed in none of the schools and it was occasionally used for research purposes at some of them. Conclusions: This study has emphasized on the need for further consideration of radiation protection principles in dental schools, especially on the field of quality control and quality assurance programs.

313

Research on radiation effect and radiation protection at JAEA  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Researches on radiation effect and radiation protection at JAEA have been carried out in different sections. In recent years, the organizations were rearranged to attain better research circumstances, and new research programs started. At present, radiation effect studies focus on radiation effect mechanisms at atomic, molecular and cellular levels including simulation studies, and protection studies focus on dosimetry for conditions difficult to cover with currently used methods and data as well as the related basic studies. The outlines of the whole studies and also some descriptions on selected subjects will be given in this paper. (author)

314

What are the purposes of radiation protection?  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this paper author deals with principles of radiation protection, cancer risk, lowest doses of radiation associated with cancer, the question of threshold, repair of damage, probability distribution of the risk coefficient per 1 Sv and other problems. (J.K.)

315

25 years of medical radiation protection  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This volume contains 25 conference papers dealing with the following topics: yesterday's and today's radiation research; review of and prospects for radiation protection in radiology, in the working environment and in international recommendations; fundamentals and hazards of nuclear magnetic resonance. Papers were entered separately into the data base. (HP)

316

Radiography room design and radiation protection  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Shielding solutions of radiography room should be able to meet the relevant requirements of protection, and not too conservative to waste resources. According to the actual of radiography room, introducing the overall design and shielding solutions of 60Co radiography room, 192lr radiography room, and X-ray radiography room; calculating on the thickness of lead door, the walls, and roofs. Introducing radiography room used for radiation protection measures: Introducing radiation protection measures used in radiography room. The results show that the design and shielding solutions, dose limits and safety measures for radiography room content the relevant requirements. (authors)

317

Radiation protection in Baden-Wuerttemberg  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The tasks of radiation protection and nuclear safety to be looked after by the land Baden-Wuerttemberg consist essentially in licensing and control activities carried out by the Federal Government. With regard to radiation protection the focal points of the second medium-term programme of the Laender Government Baden-Wuerttemberg are: 1. the technical development plan 'power plant sites', 2. construction of nuclear power plants in the borderline areas of neighbouring foreign countries, 3. disposal of radioactive waste, 4. pollution protection measures against nuclear power plants, 5. safety measures when dealing with radioactive materials outside nuclear power plants. (GL)

318

Policies for radiation protection at nuclear facilities  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The purpose of the paper is to discuss the interface between three terms: radiological protection, nuclear safety, and radiation safety. Radiological protection is concerned with the estimation and control of radiation doses. The term only applies to the 'normal operation' and anticipated operational occurrences (certain exposures) at nuclear facilities. Nuclear safety is primarily concerned with the assessment and avoidance of accidents at nuclear power plants and other facilities. Radiation safety and compasses not only anticipated situations involving certain exposures, but also unanticipated 'de facto' situations. The three terms are interdependent. (Author)

319

The conceptual basis for neutron radiation protection  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The conceptual basis for neutron radiation protection has specific neutron aspect and general radiation protection aspects. As to the first, the rationale of q(L), q(Esub(n)) and finally the risk factors used in the definition of the effective dose equivalent, Hsub(E), are discussed. Using an approach developed by Rossi, an alternative q(L) is assumed and q(Esub(n)) and finally Hsub(E) calculated. General radiation protection aspects concern the definition, introduction and application of operational quantities, which are intended to replace in practice the primary and secondary limited ones. Neutron dose equivalent is not directly measurable, although efforts are now being made to utilize TE-proportional counters, and so at present all quantities have to be defined via calculated fluence-to-dose equivalent conversion functions. Extensive radiation transport calculations have been performed in the past in both anthropoid and regular body phantoms to determine fluence conversion factors for the whole hierarchy of primary limited and operational quantities. Quantities defined in the ICRU-sphere are of special interest. Revised data sets for all relevant quantities will be shown and intercompared. One of the recurrent problems in radiation protection is the difficulty in establishing a unique concept for environmental and individual monitoring. The planned concept of ICRU is critically reviewed in this respect. Finally the implications of the new proposals on the uncertainty in assessing limited quantities under certain exposure conditions in radiation protection practice will be discussed

320

Management information system on radiation protection  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Considering the flux complexity and the multi source information of all radiation protection activities on nuclear organizations, an effective management information system based on technology, information and people is necessary to improve the safety on all processes and operations subjected to radiation risks. An effective management information system is an essential tool to highlight the strengths and weaknesses and identify behaviors and trends on the activities requiring radiation protection programs. Such kind of distinct knowledge is useful to reach an effective management and support the human decision-making on nuclear organization. This paper presents a management information system based on Brazilian directives and regulations on radiation protection. Due to its generic characteristics, this radiation protection control system can be implemented on any nuclear organization by reediting the non restricted parameters which could differ considering all facilities and laboratories expected on-site with diverse technologies applications. This system can be considered as a powerful tool applied on the continuous management of radiation protection activities on nuclear organizations and research institutes as well as for long term planning, not only indicating how the safety activities are going, but why they are not going as well as planned where that is the case. (author)

321

Stomatological radiodiagnostics - radiation exposure and radiation protection  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

For the equipment of working places in dental radiology 4 types of apparatuses are available: (1) 'Minident 55' (technical parameters: 50-60 kV, 5-10 mA), (2) 'Stomax 100' (60-90 kV, 10-20 mA) both stomatological X-ray apparatuses for diagnostic purposes, (3) 'Cranex DC', a panoramic X-ray diagnostic device working on the layer principle, and (4) a 6-pulse radiodiagnostic device with horizontal table and auxiliary tomographic equipment. On the average one dental film per year and patient is taken in the GDR; the radiation exposure (12 mGy skin surface dose; 0.001 mGy gonad dose) is neither a somatic nor a genetic risk. Due to their small part in the total number of radiographs, extra-oral and panoramic X-ray examinations are of minor importance in the radiation exposure to the population

322

Manual on radiation protection in hospitals and general practice. X-ray diagnosis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Radiation protection is considered relative to x-ray diagnosis. The organization of radiation protection, choice of x-ray equipment, siting and construction of radiology departments, and the conduct of radiation surveys are discussed. Guidance is given throughout on good practice, which appears to be the perhaps most significant means of reducing the hazards to which patients and staff may be exposed. Separate chapters are also devoted to staff radiation protection facilities, the protection of patients and the general public from unnecessary irradiation, building structure and radiation protection, and the monitoring of staff. Five annexes deal with suggested local rules to be displayed in radiological departments, the medical aspects of diagnostic x-ray protection, principles and practice of diagnostic x-ray diagnosis, data for radiation protection in the diagnostic x-ray region, and the genetically significant dose to the population from x-ray diagnosis, respectively

323

Radiation protection in medical and biomedical research  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The human exposure to ionizing radiation in the context of medical and biomedical research raises specific ethical challenges whose resolution approaches should be based on scientific, legal and procedural matters. Joint Resolution MINSAP CITMA-Regulation 'Basic Standards of Radiation Safety' of 30 November 2001 (hereafter NBS) provides for the first time in Cuba legislation specifically designed to protect patients and healthy people who participate in research programs medical and biomedical and exposed to radiation. The objective of this paper is to demonstrate the need to develop specific requirements for radiation protection in medical and biomedical research, as well as to identify all the institutions involved in this in order to establish the necessary cooperation to ensure the protection of persons participating in the investigation

324

Radiation protection in dental practice  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This guide provides the dentist and dental support personnel with basic information on the safe use of x-rays in dental radiography. Included in this CODE are specific recommendations for eliminating unnecessary radiation exposure of both patients and staff

325

Development of radiation protection and measurement technology  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Reference X-, gamma, beta and neutron radiation fields complying with the ISO and ANSI standards have been established and evaluated to provide a basic technical support in national radiation protection dosimetry program and to provide calibration measurement devices. Personal dose evaluation algorithm has been developed with these reference radiation fields, which comply well with both domestic and the new ANSI N13.11, to evaluate accurate personal dose equivalents. A personal internal dosimetry algorithm which can estimate the intakes of radionuclides from the results of in vivo bioassay and the resulting internal doses has been developed and verified its performance. It was also evaluated to be equality excellent compared with those being used in foreign countries and used to make a computer code for internal dose evaluation which can be run with PC under the Windows environment. A BOMAB phantom for precise calibration of in vivo system has been also designed, fabricated and test-evaluated. Based on the ALARA concept of the optimization principle of radiation protection, a method for estimating the cost for radiation protection has been studied and an objective monetary cost of detriment due to radiation exposure, called {alpha} value ($/man-Sv) has been derived and proposed based on the Korean socio-economic situation and human risk factors to provide basic data for the radiation protection optimization study in Korea. (author). 100 refs., 104 tabs., 69 figs.

Chang, Si Young; Lee, T. Y.; Kim, J. L.; Kim, B. H.; Lee, B. J.; Chung, K. K.; Lee, K. C.; Chung, R. I.; Han, Y. D.; Kim, J. S.; Lee, H. S.; Kim, C. K.; Yoon, K. S.; Jeong, D. Y.; Yoon, S. C.; Yoon, Y. C.; Lee, S. Y.; Kim, J. S.; Seo, K. W. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, J. K.; Lee, J. K. [Hanyang Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

1997-07-01

326

Development of radiation protection and measurement technology  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Reference X-, gamma, beta and neutron radiation fields complying with the ISO and ANSI standards have been established and evaluated to provide a basic technical support in national radiation protection dosimetry program and to provide calibration measurement devices. Personal dose evaluation algorithm has been developed with these reference radiation fields, which comply well with both domestic and the new ANSI N13.11, to evaluate accurate personal dose equivalents. A personal internal dosimetry algorithm which can estimate the intakes of radionuclides from the results of in vivo bioassay and the resulting internal doses has been developed and verified its performance. It was also evaluated to be equality excellent compared with those being used in foreign countries and used to make a computer code for internal dose evaluation which can be run with PC under the Windows environment. A BOMAB phantom for precise calibration of in vivo system has been also designed, fabricated and test-evaluated. Based on the ALARA concept of the optimization principle of radiation protection, a method for estimating the cost for radiation protection has been studied and an objective monetary cost of detriment due to radiation exposure, called ? value ($/man-Sv) has been derived and proposed based on the Korean socio-economic situation and human risk factors to provide basic data for the radiation protection optimization study in Korea. (author). 100 refs., 104 tabs., 69 figs

327

Chemical radiation protection in mammals and humans  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The development and the present situation in experimental research with animals as well as in clinical application in the field of chemical radioprotection are described. The efficacy of radioprotective substances in the case of acute radiation death, of radiation-induced changes in various tissues and organs as well as in late effects are reported. The mechanisms of actions are discussed. By comparison of radiation reactions in protected and unprotected animals radioprotective factors can be determined. Such factors depend, among other parameters, on the kind of the radioprotective agent and its dose, on the radiation reaction, on the quality of radiation as well as on the radiation dose. Up to now thiophosphate WR 2721 proved to be the most efficient substance. It was observed that the application of this compound yielded a protection factor of up to 2.7 for the acute radiation death in mice. The disadvantage of radioprotective agents must be seen in their side effects. Despite this behaviour thiophosphate, amongst others, is being tested in clinical radiotherapy. In order to apply radioprotective substances in foreseen emergency or catastrophic situations a number of demands were postulated. As yet, none of the tested radioprotectors meet these demands. Therefore, NATO has refrained from keeping radioprotective agents in reserve up to now. On the other hand, the USSR has included the radioprotective agent cystamine in their civil defence protection kit. (orig.) civil defence protection kit. (orig.)

328

Radiation protection program of Petrobras  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Risks present in oil industry require specific control programs, specialy when using radioactive sources. Main uses of ionizing radiation in oil industry are in process control systems, industrial radiography and oilwell logging. A comprehensive and sistemic program is presented in order to assure the safe use of ionizing radiation in these activities. Principal subjects of this program are the control of radioactive sources, personel training in order to difuse knowledge at operations level and procedures standardization. (author)

329

Radiation protection aspects of the accident recovery  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

On the Unit 2 at Paks Nuclear Power Plant accident occurred on 10th April 2003. Thirty fuel assemblies damaged in the cleaning tank installed in the Pit No. 1. Due to the accident casing of the fuel elements and uranium-dioxide pellets inside them damaged. The scratched fuel assemblies and nuclear fuel fragments should be removed and safely deposited. In order to restore the operational condition of the Pit No. 1 a lot of complicated activities with radiation hazard should be implemented. These tasks bring up both technical difficulties and serious radiation protection problems, and it is essential to resolve them in order to reduce radiation exposure of the working personnel and to minimize the amount of off-site radioactive releases. This research-development topic covers radiation protection issues concerning the restoration of the Pit No. 1 on the Unit 2 at Paks NPP. Among other things, new radiation protection monitoring systems installed inside the Pit No. 1, radiation protection model calculations used during the preparation of restoration, organizational and technical measures to be used during the preparation and implementation phases, measures taken in order to prevent, reduce radiation exposure of the personnel, and the required limitations are presented. Also the results of the measurements performed so far and lessons can be learned from the results are demonstrated. The planned airborne and liquid radioactive releases, the ratio of the planned releases aeases, the ratio of the planned releases and their limits, and public overexposure originated from the planned releases are also presented. It is justified that restoration activities can be implemented with suitable radiation protection measures not failing the limits for releases and radiation exposure limits specified for the personnel and the public. (author)

330

Radiation protection and the safety of radiation sources  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

These Safety Fundamentals cover the protection of human beings against ionizing radiation (gamma and X rays and alpha, beta and other particles that can induce ionization as they interact with biological materials), referred to herein subsequently as radiation, and the safety of sources that produce ionizing radiation. The Fundamentals do not apply to non-ionizing radiation such as microwave, ultraviolet, visible and infrared radiation. They do not apply either to the control of non-radiological aspects of health and safety. They are, however, part of the overall framework of health and safety

331

Radiation protection activities around the CERN accelerators  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The staff of the Survey Section of Radiation Protection (RP) working around the CERN accelerators were as usual very busy. The LEP2 programme is now fully on its way, with the installation of additional superconducting RF cavities carried out during both the winter and summer shutdowns. The LEP energy per beam was thus increased to 80.5 GeV in summer and to 86 GeV in autumn. ACOL and LEAR ended their operational life on 19 December producing, for the last time, antiprotons for the experiments in the South Hall; all experiments will be dismantled in 1997. This programme will be partly replaced by the future Antiproton Decelerator, which was approved by the Research Board in November. Several experiments also came to their end in the North and West Experimental Areas of the SPS. NA44 (in EHN1) and NA47 (in EHN2) ended this year. All experiments installed in beam lines HI, H3, XI and X3 in the West Area also terminated, as these beam lines will be dismantled in the course of 1997 to make room for test facilities for the LHC. Several modifications in the West and North Experimental Areas have already been undertaken at the end of the year and will be continued in 1997. Some equipment installed in the West Area will be moved to the North Area. In addition to routine work, several measurements of synchrotron radiation were made in LEP for the two new energy levels reached in 1996. A number of dedicated measurements were also undertaken in EHN1 (North Area) at the end of the year, during the lead-ion run which closed the physics period. A detailed assessment of releases of radioactivity from the ISOLDE facility was also made

332

Consequences of the new Slovenian legislation on radiation protection and nuclear safety for radiation protection training  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The paper presents brief description of the old Slovenian regulations and an overview of the new, harmonised regulations in the field of radiation protection training. The most important novelties were pointed out with possible consequences for the implementation of radiation protection training. Some suggestions on how to overcome transitional problems and how to improve training were also given. (author)

333

Radiation protection in nuclear energy. V.2  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The conference was convened to provide a forum for the exchange of international views on the principles of radiation protection for regulators and practitioners, to highlight issues of current importance, to examine the problems encountered in applying the principles of radiation protection, and, where possible, to identify generic solutions. The highlights of the conference were the sessions on the interface between nuclear safety and radiation protection, the evolution of radiation protection principles, exemption rules and accident experiences. The special session on the practical implications of the linear dose-response relationships also provoked particular interest. Although the session on optimization and decision aiding did not reveal any new developments, it did indicate an increasing emphasis on the optimization of radiation protection. A clear trend towards attaining lower collective doses per unit practice over a given time period, despite the increase in nuclear power plant capacity, is also apparent, although very few data on job-related worker doses have been published to date in the open literature. From the regulators' viewpoint, a very strong desire was expressed for a move towards regulatory strategies that exempt practices and sources causing insignificant individual and collective doses. Refs, figs and tabs

334

Radiation protection problems with sealed Pu radiation sources  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A brief outline of the production methods and most important properties of Pu-238 and Pu-239 is given, followed by an overview of possibilities for utilizing the different types of radiation emitted, a description of problems involved in the safe handling of Pu radiation sources, and an assessment of the design principles for Pu-containing alpha, photon, neutron and energy sources from the radiation protection point of view. (author)

335

Radiation chemistry and environmental protection  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A combination of different technological methods in one plant is usually economically advantageous in industry. Such a general approach is also useful in solving ecological problems by methods of radiation technology. This method of cleaning 'harsh' sufactants and 'mold' products and a stage of subsequent biological purification of these products from the water. Combining radiation and adsorption techniques is also promising. A relatively large number of examples can now be cited. At the same time, purely radiational technologies are also possible. The authors discuss one of these technologies in more detail. This concerns electron-beam scrubbing of sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides from the gases from electric power plants. This method can also be used for scrubbing sulfur dioxide from waste gases from sulfuric acid and metallurgical plants

336

National congress of radiation protection; Congres national de radioprotection  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The congress of radiation protection tackled different areas of radiation protection. The impact of ionizing radiations on environment coming from radioactive activities. The biological radiation effects, the dosimetry, the different ways of doing relative to radiation protection,the risks analysis and the communications with populations, information about accidents and the lessons learned from them are included in this congress. (N.C.)

NONE

2001-07-01

337

Basic manual for radiation protection. 2. rev. ed.  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Based on his vast practical experience, the author succeeded in presenting a concise and systematic survey of the special knowledge required in the field of radiation protection. Starting with explaining the elementary physical processes of the interaction between matter and radiation, the terms used are defined, principles and mechanisms are discussed, and mathematical models are given whenever necessary. Among the great variety of aspects dealt with, radiation dosimetry is a main topic, including the calculation of dose rates of beta, gamma and neutron rays, as well as design, operating mode and use of the radiation measuring and monitoring equipment required to assess and assure sufficient radiological protection. Although the design of shieldings remains the domain of the specialist having access to the electronic computers required for this purpose, this book illustrates the design and effects of radiation shields. The natural radiation background and the radiation dose to the environment emanating from technical and other installations are discussed along with the biological effects of ionizing radiation on plants, animals and man. Another important issue dealt with is the incorporation of radioactive substances and appropriate therapeutical measures. The legal aspect has also been taken into account, with the relevant laws and regulations and ordinances forming the administrative basis of efficient radiological protection being presented; large space has been don being presented; large space has been devoted to practical radiation protection: A collection of new radiological SI units, interpreted in terms of the units hitherto used, a great number of figures and a comprehensive subject index and bibliography will no doubt be of help to the reader. (orig./HP)

338

Radiation protection of the environment - new trends  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Recent trends in the radiation protection of the environment focusing on basic changes of the protection philosophy from the egocentric to ecocentric approach are presented and discussed. The globalization of the economy is accompanied by global contamination of the environment that requires changes in the attitude of the protection of the total environment, i.e. protection of humans, fauna and flora, all ecosystems and the Earth in general, as well as the cosmic space. This complex approach is illustrated on the radiation protection of the environment that has always been in the forefront in developing protection philosophy, methodology and standards, which later has also been applied to the protection of the environment caused by non-radioactive contaminants, such as heavy metals and organic compounds. High radiation doses delivered to biota are illustrated on shellfish and fish collected in the Mururoa and Fangataufa lagoons (affected by series of nuclear weapons tests), and on fish in Novaya Zemlya bays (affected by dumping of nuclear reactors and radioactive wastes). On the methodological site an example is discussed focusing on the in situ sea-bed radionuclide mapping and seawater monitoring using submersible gamma-ray spectrometers operating with NaI(Tl) and HPGe detectors which has proved to be important pre-requisite for estimation of the spatial distribution of radionuclides in the water column and on the sea floor, as well as for optimisation of sediment sampling for studying the radionuclide distribution with depth

339

Ionizing radiation, genetic risks and radiation protection  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

With one method of risk estimation, designed as the doubling dose method, the estimates of total genetic risk (i.e., over all generation) for a population continuously exposed at a rate of 0.01 Gy/generation of low LET irradiation are about 120 cases of Mendelian and chromosomal diseases/106 live births and about the same number of cases for multifactorial diseases (i.e., a total of 240 cases/106). These estimates provide the basis for risk coefficients for genetic effects estimated by ICRP (1991) in its Publication 60. These are: 1.0%/Sv for the general population (which is 40% of 240/106/0.01 Gy), and 0.6%/Sv for radiation workers (which is 60% of that for the general population). The results of genetic studies carried out on the Japanese survivors of A-bombs have shown no significant adverse effects attributable to parental radiation exposures. The studies of Gardner and colleagues suggest that the risk of leukaemia in children born to male workers in the nuclear reprocessing facility in Sellafield, U.K., may be increased. However, this finding is at variance with the results from the Japanese studies and at present, does not lend itself to a simple interpretation based on radiobiological principles. In the light of recent advances in the molecular biology of naturally-occurring human Mendelian diseases and what we presently know about multifactorial diseases, arguments are advanced to support the thesis that (i) current risk estimates for Mendelian diseases may be conservative and (ii) an overall doubling dose for all adverse genetic effects may be higher than the 1 Gy currently used (i.e., the relative risks are probably lower). (author)

340

Research priorities for occupational radiation protection  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Subpanel on Occupational Radiation Protection Research concludes that the most urgently needed research is that leading to the resolution of the potential effects of low-level ionizing radiation. This is the primary driving force in setting appropriate radiation protection standards and in directing the emphasis of radiation protection efforts. Much has already been done in collecting data that represents a compendium of knowledge that should be fully reviewed and understood. It is imperative that health physics researchers more effectively use that data and apply the findings to enhance understanding of the potential health effects of low-level ionizing radiation and improve the risk estimates upon which current occupational radiation protection procedures and requirements depend. Research must be focused to best serve needs in the immediate years ahead. Only then will we get the most out of what is accomplished. Beyond the above fundamental need, a number of applied research areas also have been identified as national priority issues. If effective governmental focus is achieved on several of the most important national priority issues, important occupational radiation protection research will be enhanced, more effectively coordinated, and more quickly applied to the work environment. Response in the near term will be enhanced and costs will be reduced by: developing microprocessor-aided open-quotes smartclose quotes instruments to simplify the use and processing of radiation data; developing more sensitive, energy-independent, and tissue-equivalent dosimeters to more accurately quantify personnel dose; and developing an improved risk assessment technology base. This can lead to savings of millions of dollars in current efforts needed to ensure personnel safety and to meet new, more stringent occupational guidelines

341

Questions concerning radiation protection in the field of radiometry  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Based on legal regulations, guidelines, and standards valid in the German Democratic Republic 105 questions concerning radiation protection are answered covering subjects indicated by the following key words and headings: radiometric gages, radiation protection measures, working within protected areas, legal provisions, responsible staff member, radiation protection officer, operating personnel, radiation protection instructions, safe keeping of radiation sources, leak testing, unusual occurrence, transport of radioactive materials, and ceasing of operation

342

Results of environmental radiation monitoring during radioactive waste disposal at central radiation protection station  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Results of environmental radiation monitoring during radioactive waste processing and disposal are presented. It is carried out at the central radiation protection station (CRPS) using up-to-date dosemeters, radiometers and electron-physical equipment. As a rule the personnel external radiation dose is shown to exceed 0.01 J/kg per year. The radioactive fallout density is (4-6)x106 Bq/(km2xday) within the zone under monitoring. Radionuclide composition and specific activity of surface waters, soils and plants are given. Radiometric survey shows much difference in background values of ?-radiation dose rate only in some regions. Aerial gamma spectrometric survey shows high background gamma radiation just over CRPS

343

Radiation protection 1/87  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

There is a paper on medical first aid after radiation accidents and another on positive effects of low-dose irradiation which are treated separately. In addition there are four contributions on question of conventional X-ray diagnosis. (G.Q.)

344

Radiation protection in the installation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A KTA Safety Standard should be prepared that takes into account and integrates in one standard all existing documents for radiological protection in nuclear power plants ( e.g. KTA standards, BMI/U standards). Care should be taken to consistently work in latest research results and knowledge. This may lead to problems in the licensing procedure for the backfitting of older installations, but solutions can be found then by adopting plant-specific standards. (orig./HP)

345

Developments in radiation protection measuring instruments  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Measuring instruments used in radiation protection have undergone dramatic changes over the past decade. But also the attitude of users vis-a-vis this equipment is changing. This is reflected in changes in equipment concepts, the trend being towards 'considerate equipment' which does not absorb the user's attention, but reserves it for the real purposes of radiation protection. Just measuring is no longer enough. Measured data acquisition and evaluation must be integrated more closely, and more specifically, into an overall process of optimized in-plant radiation protection. A key role in this scheme is played by the application-oriented user interface, while measurement and testing routines become more and more automated. The technology now available for storing programs and data, interconnecting and displaying them in many ways, offers almost unlimited possibilities. (orig.)

346

Evolution of Radiation Protection System in Kenya  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Promulgation of radiation protection legislation in Kenya dates back to 1982, was revised in 1985 and became operational in 1986. This law, the Radiation Protection Act, establishes the Radiation Protection Board as the National Regulatory Authority, with an executive Inspectorate headed by the Secretary to the Board. Subsidiary legislation on radiological practices and standards were subsequently published. The Inspectorate carries out the National programme for notification, authorization, inspection and enforcement. Nuclear applications for peaceful purposes in Kenya are on the increase in all major fields of socio-economic development. Provision of regulatory services, guidance and enforcement procedures, has had a net growth over the last fifteen years. However, staff retention has been declining over the years in a market where job opportunities, with relatively high incentives, are high either inside or outside the country. Human and equipment resource development has therefore not kept pace and this has hampered effective and efficient provision of services. The poor status of the economy has had its impact on delivery of quality, effective and efficient radiation protection services. Provision of radiation services and acquisition of radiation detection and measurement equipment in the country has been generally lacking dating as far back as 1995. During the period 1989 to present, Kenya's Regulatory Authority, the Radiation Protection Board, undertook to prodiation Protection Board, undertook to provide personal monitoring, quality assurance, radioanalysis, and equipment calibration. Over the years these services have stalled due to outdated equipment most of which have broken down. A maintenance and calibration service for nuclear equipment is an expensive cross-boarder issue. Budgetary constraints, insufficient human and equipment resources, and a perennial 'brain drain' has placed limitations to the effectiveness and efficiency of implementation of the National programmes and slowed the attainment of the objectives of the National policy on radiation protection and waste safety. The current Radiation Protection Act is limited in scope, regulatory independence and empowerment. A new draft of the revised Act was submitted to the IAEA for review and comments. The revised version is aimed, inter alia, at meeting the principal requirements of the International Basic Safety Standards and incorporating aspects of non-ionizing radiation. The revised draft is now under discussion with stakeholders for their input before enactment. Development of a sustainable national infrastructure requires years of national effort and government commitment. Over the last two years, there has been sufficient government commitment and there have been solid achievements. Kenya has placed the issue of human resource development high on her development agenda and has provided support for expanding technical staffing of the Regulatory Authority with an initial recruitment of ten (10) Radiation Protection Officers. Other factors impacting on quality, effectiveness and efficiency of radiation protection programmes, are being appropriately addressed in order to realize a fully sustainable radiation protection infrastructure. (Author)

347

Understanding of radiation protection in medicine. Pt. 2. Occupational exposure and system of radiation protection  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Using a questionnaire we investigated whether radiation protection is correctly understood by medical doctors (n=140) and nurses (n=496). Although medical exposure is usually understood by medical doctors and dentists, their knowledge was found to be insufficient. Sixty-eight percent of medical doctors and 50% of dentists did not know about the system of radiation protection. Dose monitoring was not correctly carried out by approximately 20% of medical staff members, and medical personnel generally complained of anxiety about occupational exposure rather than medical exposure. They did not receive sufficient education on radiation exposure and protection in school. In conclusion, the results of this questionnaire suggested that they do not have adequate knowledge about radiation exposure and protection. The lack of knowledge about protection results in anxiety about exposure. To protect oneself from occupational exposure, individual radiation doses must be monitored, and medical practice should be reconsidered based on the results of monitoring. To eliminate unnecessary medical and occupational exposure and to justify practices such as radiological examinations, radiation protection should be well understood and appropriately carried out by medical doctors and dentists. Therefore, the education of medical students on the subject of radiation protection is required as is postgraduate education for medical doctors, dentists and nurses. (author)nurses. (author)

348

RCA - a regional approach to radiation protection  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Regional Cooperative Agreement (RCA) for Asia and Oceania is the oldest of four International Atomic Energy Agency Member State regional programs. Organized in 1972, 17 countries are now members of RCA - Australia, Bangladesh, Peoples Republic of China, India, Indonesia, Japan, Republic of Korea, Malaysia, Mongolia, Myanmar, New Zealand, Pakistan, Philippines, Singapore, Sri Lanka, Thailand, and Viet Nam. A number of projects related to the application of a wide range of nuclear technologies are conducted through RCA. The program is established by national coordinators for each project area, in consultation with IAEA technical officers. Most of the funding comes directly from RCA regional donor countries, with about one third supplied through the IAEA Technical Cooperation program. In 1986, following the Chernobyl accident, national coordinators and the IAEA staff recognized the value of establishing an RCA project aimed at strengthening regional radiation protection programs. The potential importance of RCA involvement in radiation protection is underscored by the fact that its member states comprise more than half of the world's population. The regional approach to addressing radiation protection issues allows member states to take advantage of regional resources to solve common regional problems. RCA provides the opportunity for specialists who may have few professional colleagues in their country to develop valuable contacts with regional radiation protection ntacts with regional radiation protection experts. In a very real way, specialists can network with their neighbours, often establishing bilateral programs outside of the RCA auspices. The current five year RCA Project to strengthen radiation protection infrastructure, with the IAEA designation - RAS/9/006, will be completed at the end of 1997. The project was developed to address five mayor areas of activity: Off-site emergency response; individual monitoring, internal and external; characterization of the physical, anatomical, physiological and metabolic characteristics of the Asian populations; regulations, with emphasis on implementation of the new international basic safety standards; and training and education. (author)

349

New radiobiological, radiation risk and radiation protection paradigms  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The long-standing conventional paradigm for radiobiology has formed a logical basis for the standard paradigm for radiation risk of cancer and heritable effects and, from these paradigms, has developed the internationally applied system for radiation protection, but with many simplifications, assumptions and generalizations. A variety of additional radiobiological phenomena that do not conform to the standard paradigm for radiobiology may have potential implications for radiation risk and radiation protection. It is suggested, however, that the current state of knowledge is still insufficient for these phenomena, individually or collectively, to be formulated systematically into a new paradigm for radiobiology. Additionally, there is at present lack of direct evidence of their relevance to risk for human health, despite attractive hypotheses as to how they might be involved. Finally, it remains to be shown how incorporation of such phenomena into the paradigm for radiation protection would provide sufficient added value to offset disruption to the present widely applied system. Further research should aim for better mechanistic understanding of processes such as radiation-induced genomic instability (for all radiation types) and bystander effects (particularly for low-fluence high-LET particles) and also priority should be given to confirmation, or negation, of the relevance of the processes to human health risks from radiation.n.

350

Survey of women's awareness about radiation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A project in a voluntary group 'Women's Energy Network' conducted two questionnaire surveys on Japanese women's awareness about radiation. The survey was conducted to investigate how women(non-experts) perceive radiation and radioactivity, what is their image about radiation, to what extent they are aware of the use of radiation in their daily life, and whether they find nuclear related information useful or not. The results of those surveys have led WEN to publish a booklet entitled 'Our Life and Radiation' to be used for public communication and to hold public forums in various cities in Japan. The first survey was conducted in 2001 to those living in big cities such as Tokyo and Osaka and to those living in the area where the nuclear power plant is installed. The response rate was 72.4% (1,028 out of 1,419). The second one was done in 2005 to those living in Tokyo and other big cities. The response rate was 84.7% (888 our of 983). It was derived from the two surveys that they were not so much aware of various applications of radiation for daily use (awareness rate was low), but they considered those information would be useful when it becomes available for them and they were interested in knowing about it. As for the image of radiation, about 80% have shown fear when they see or hear a word 'radiation'. This report provides the result of questionnaire surveys on women's awareness about radiation conducted by 'Our Daily Life and Radiation' project in Women's Energy and Radiation' project in Women's Energy Network. (author)

351

Chemical protection from high LET radiation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Radioprotection by WR151327 from high LET fast neutrons was investigated and compared with that from low LET radiation. Radiation damage in bone marrow, intestine, skin and leg length were all protected by a pretreatment with 400 mg/kg WR151327. Most prominent protection was observed for bone marrow, which gave a Dose Modifying Factor (DMF) of 2.2 against ? rays. Identical protection was observed between early and late radiation damage. WR151327 protected fast neutrons less efficiently than ? rays; 40% for bone marrow and 80% for skin leg. Pathological findings indicated that hyperplastic change in both dermis and epidermis associated with late skin shrinkage. Laser doppler flow-metry showed a good relationship between reduction of blood flow and late skin shrinkage. Irradiation of skin by heavy particle Carbon-12 indicated that skin shrinkage was modified by unirradiated surrounding normal tissues, which proposed a significant role of 'Volume Effect' in radiation damage. Tumor tissues were less protected by WR151327 than normal tissues. Dependence of radioprotection by WR151327 on tissue oxygen concentration is a probable reason to explain the difference between normal and tumor tissues. (author)

352

Radiation protection supervisors certification in Brazil  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In order to accomplish its legal assignments CNEN certifies the qualification of radiation protection supervisors. The current certification process is presented and discussed in this paper. This paper discusses the main points of the certification process including: knowledge tests, stake holder's communication, standards, supervisor responsibilities and profiles. The importance of safety certification of nuclear facilities and radiation protection of public individuals and workers are also discussed. Taking into account the characteristics of the Brazilian Nuclear program, the future improvements and goals in the certification process is also presented. (author)

353

Third conference on radiation protection and dosimetry  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This conference has been designed with the objectives of promoting communication among applied, research, regulatory, and standards personnel involved in radiation protection and providing them with sufficient information to evaluate their programs. To partly fulfill these objectives, a technical program consisting of more than 75 invited and contributed oral presentations encompassing all aspects of radiation protection has been prepared. General topics include external dosimetry, internal dosimetry, instruments, regulations and standards, accreditation and test programs, research advances, and applied program experience. This publication provides a summary of the technical program and a collection of abstracts of the oral presentations

354

Third conference on radiation protection and dosimetry  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This conference has been designed with the objectives of promoting communication among applied, research, regulatory, and standards personnel involved in radiation protection and providing them with sufficient information to evaluate their programs. To partly fulfill these objectives, a technical program consisting of more than 75 invited and contributed oral presentations encompassing all aspects of radiation protection has been prepared. General topics include external dosimetry, internal dosimetry, instruments, regulations and standards, accreditation and test programs, research advances, and applied program experience. This publication provides a summary of the technical program and a collection of abstracts of the oral presentations.

1991-01-01

355

Radiation protection for personnel in international standards  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The International Electrotechnical Commission' (IEC) Subcommittee 45B 'Radiation protection instrumentation' of the IEC produces International Standards defining the requirements to which the instrumentation used for the radiation protection must satisfy. The compliance to these requirements is a guaranty of the quality of the instrument, of its good performance in the nuclear environment. Type testing equipment to the recommendations and requirements of the standards also provides the equipment user with reliable and internationally acceptable performance data which they can use for the accurate interpretation and comparisons of their operational measurements

356

Radiation protection and fuzzy set theory  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In radiation protection we encounter a variety of sources of uncertainties which are due to fuzziness in our cognition or perception of objects. For systematic treatment of this type of uncertainty, the concepts of fuzzy sets or fuzzy measures could be applied to construct system models, which may take into consideration both subjective or intrinsic fuzziness and objective or extrinsic fuzziness. The theory of fuzzy sets and fuzzy measures is still in a developing stage, but its concept may be applied to various problems of subjective perception of risk, nuclear safety, radiation protection and also to the problems of man-machine interface and human factor engineering or ergonomic

357

Crop protection research with radioisotopes and radiations  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Research work carried at the Indian Agricultural Research Institute, Delhi, over the last few years in crop protection using radioisotopes and radiations is summarised. Radiations and radioisotopes have been used in investigating various entomological and plant pathological problems with the ultimate aim of ensuring crop protection for increasing productivity. Tracer techniques have been utilised to get useful information on: (1) plant pathogen movement, spread, multiplication and infection processes in the hosts in order to devise effective control measures and (2) fate of pesticides. Nuclear radiations have been used for radiation disinfestation of grains and fruits, genetic improvement of useful insects like lac insects, silk worm, etc. and also for indirect control of insects by inducing sterility. (A.K.)

358

Current Challenges in Radiation Protection in Medicine  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Radiation protection professionals in medical facilities and practices are being challenged by new imaging technologies that use x-rays or radioactive materials. These include faster computerized tomography (CT) scanners, new interventional techniques that use extended fluoroscopy time, increased use of positron emission tomography (PET), and digital imaging techniques. More frequently these technologies are being fused into a single procedure, such as combined CT and PET scanning. Radiation Protection professionals are challenged to (1) be aware of developing technologies and clinical techniques, (2) analyze the potential radiation risks to patients and staff, (3) initiate necessary radiation safety training for medical staff, and (4) be involved in planning, dose measurement and optimization of the procedure to achieve appropriate dose control and ALARA

359

Radiation protection, public policies and education  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The objective of this paper is to inform about the aspects of radiation protection public policies concerning the public spheres and the ordinary population. It is known that information has been considered a very important good in several knowledge areas. However, the efficiency of their transmission mechanisms should be periodically evaluated, checking existing critical and stagnation points. Nuclear area can be mentioned as a historically typical case, where the public policies assume relevant importance as tool for promotion, control and education of the population in general. Considering the polemic nature of such subject, it is clear that there is a need for conducting the construction of educational contents taking in account the educator training necessities. The addressing of radiation protection aspects applied to nuclear techniques conducts, for example, to the awareness on the benefits of radiation and its industrial and medical applications, which are established considering the worldwide adopted basic principles of radiation protection. Such questions, concerned with (or related to) public policies, establish a link between radiation protection and education, themes explored in this article to provide a better view of the current Brazilian scenario. (author)

360

Radiation protection training programmes Spanish approach  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Radiation Protection Programmes are being considered the best way to promote safety culture and to spread and propagate European basic safety standards. It is widely accepted that training is an important tool to upgrade competence for radiation exposed workers. The Spanish Radiation Protection Education and Training Programmes provide a solid and integrated educational model, which takes into account the variety of applied fields, the different levels of responsibilities, the technological and methodological advances, as well as the international tendencies. The needs for a specialised training on Radiation Protection (RP) for exposed workers appears into the Spanish regulation in 1964. National initial training programmes are well established since 1972. Individual certifications, based on personal licences are required for exposed workers. The Spanish regulation also includes continuous and on the job RP training. The educational programmes are being continuously updating and improving. CIEMAT plays an important role in RP Spanish training, improving and modifying the previous RP courses and developing new programmes in order to complete the RP training levels. To achieve Radiation Protection objectives, new technological media for educational methods and material are taking into account. Nevertheless, Spanish RP education and training model has to be improved in some aspects. The purpose of this paper is to analyse the situation and the future needs to be considered in order to complete the RP training processes

361

National congress of radiation protection - SFRP 2005  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The nine tutorial sessions are: first one, the new recommendations of the ICRP; second one, effects on health of ionizing radiations with the following subjects ( the dose-response relationship and the estimation of carcinogen effects of ionizing radiation low doses; effect of dose rate on the induction and repair of radioinduced DNA double strand break; interest of global approach in radiation protection; molecular signature of the radioinduction in the thyroid tumors: example of radioinduced thyroid tumors after radiotherapy; incidence of child leukemia near the nuclear facilities: results of a multi sites study in France; genome instability and mutations induction after ionizing irradiation: consequences for the progeny; D.T.P.A encapsulation, an efficient strategy for the plutonium decorporation among the rat); the third one, non-ionizing radiation with the following subjects (can the exposure to a magnetic field of 100 ? T at 50 Hz be detected in the human physiological shiver; evaluation of the population exposure to the magnetic fields of 50 Hz: what indicators to choose; experimental study of the immunity of implantable defibrillators to the low frequencies electro-magnetic perturbations; DNA damages induced by the Ar F laser; dosimetry with a phantom in gel of human head); fourth session concerns the regulatory aspects; the fifth one presents the radiation protection and the radioactive waste management; the sixth session concerns the public and patients radiation protection; the seventh one treats the radiation protection in professional area with the following subjects ( optimization of radiation protection in the underground uranium mine of Cominak in Niger; revealing by multi parameters capillaroscopy, of micro vascular alterations of fingers among interventional radiologists; use of radioactive and chemical probes in biological research; uncertainties on doses and D.P.U.I.; monitoring of work areas. Evaluation of workers exposure towards a particular contamination; C.H.A.V.I.R., an interactive simulator for radiation protection; an ALARA engineering commune to the operating reactors; evolution of the radiological zoning and monitoring rules associated on the Cogema la Hague facility; an ambitious project for the nuclear park of EDF power plants : the purification project and its implementation for the Chinon B2 reactor - 2004); the eighth session concerns the environmental exposures and their consequences with the following presentations ( the concept of radioecological sensitivity and its interest in the risk management; phenomenal and analytical interpretation of the rain-deposit relationship used for the building of cesium 137 deposits in France consecutively to the Chernobyl accident; study of radioactivity source terms and transfer from medical origin in the purification network of the town of Toulouse; natural and artificial radioactivity in some marine species in manche. Case of polonium and plutonium alpha emitters. Synthesis of data acquired in the north Cotentin since 1990. elements of comparison; the role of local commissions of information (C.L.I.) in the follow up of release and monitoring of nuclear facilities); the ninth session concerns the dosimetry; the tenth session is divided in two parts radiation protection in accidental situations and radiation protection in post accidental situations with their respective presentations as follow ( evaluation of the dispersion of an aero contaminant in a ventilated area in field near an accidental source of emissions; study of the containment efficiency by gloveboxes in functioning accidental situations; the radiation protection and health; study by R.P.E. of the response of different materials in mixed field ( gamma, neutrons), application to the dosimetry reconstruction of an accident; nuclear or radiological events: organisation of medical intervention; and rehabilitation of life conditions in the contaminated territories: the contribution of radiation protection; management of post accidental situations: lessons from crisis exercises of Pierrelat

362

Protective properties of radiation-modified polyethylene  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Mass transfer of aggressive liquids and gases through polyethylene films modified with radiation surface grafting was investigated. Nonstabilized grade A film with a grafted adhesive-active layer on the basis of polymethacrylic acid was used for the investigation. It is shown that radiation modification considerably increases polyethylene adhesion with respect to metals without deterioration of physicomechanical polymer properties which permits to use it as a protective coating for equipment operating in corrosive media

363

The optimization (ALARA) principle of radiation protection  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Doses resulting from sources and activities involving exposure to ionizing radiation or to radioactive substances should be restricted by a system of dose limitation which shall include the regulation of the corresponding activity, optimization of radiation protection and annual dose equivalent limits. All exposures should be kept as low as reasonably achievable, economic and social factors being taken into account. The ways of implementation of these elements in nuclear practice in our country are presented in this report. (Author)

364

Radiation Protection and Civil defence Department  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This conference involves subjects of radiation protection, programming of civil defence, on the implementation of 1990 ICRP recommendation, thermoluminescence properties of bone equivalent calcium phosphate ceramics, potassium body burdens in occupational users of egyptian nuclear research centre, transport of radionuclides in fresh water stream, water treatment process for nuclear reactor, research activities related to internal contamination and bioassay and experience and environmental radiation monitoring in inshass. it contains of figures and tables

365

Radiation protection optimization and work management  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The influence quantification of bound factors to work management, and the obtained results when you apply the dosimetric economical evaluation model of the radiation protection experiments, prove that ALARA principle application musn't bound to actions on the radiation sources, but that you can find a wide act field in the irradiation work volume management topics. 53 refs., 5 tabs., 10 figs., 4 appendixes

366

Radiation protection. 3. completely rev. ed.  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The task presented by radiation protection in case of accidents and in nuclear disaster relief can only be solved using such concepts as will allow a coordinated response by fire brigades, the police, and disaster relief organizations. The entire subject of protection against radioactivity is summed up by the individual topics: Basic phyiscal and biological elements, basic elements of use, preventive fire protection, tasks and equipment of relief brigades, action planning and action theory. Particular reference is made to transport accidents in radioactive material haulage. (orig.)

367

Management in the protection from ionizing radiation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

There are numerous types and forms of endangering working and living environment, ranging from natural disasters to nuclear accidents. Challenges of the New Age determined that most of the countries reviewed its strategic decisions in the system of protection from ionizing radiation and nuclear safety and defined in a new way the threats, which could considerably imperil health of the population and national interests as well. Excessive radiation of the population became a serious and actual problem in the era of increasingly mass application of ionizing radiation, especially in medicine. The goal of this work is to reduce the risk through using knowledge and existing experiences, in particular when it comes to ionizing radiation in medicine. Optimization of the protection in radiology actually means an effort to find the compromise between quality information provided by diagnostics procedure and quality effects of therapy procedure on one side and dose of radiation received by patients on the other. Criteria for the quality management in the protection from ionizing radiation used in diagnostic radiology was given by the European Commission: European Guidelines on Quality Criteria for Diagnostic Radiographic Images, EUR, 16260. (author)

368

Radiation protection training and information for workers  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The meeting reported in these proceedings was organized to discuss the specific problems of providing information and training on radiation protection to workers exposed to radiation, intervention staff and workers likely to be affected by an activity involving ionizing radiation. Particular emphasis was placed on the need to harmonize basic training on radiation protection in the context of 1992. It seemed advisable for technical training on radiation protection to be introduced into secondary education. To this end, the Commission was asked to draw up a guide for apprentices and students. In view of the growing diversification of activities involving the use of radioactive substances, the Commission was called upon to intensify its efforts in order to ensure that relevant information and training was provided in all firms to workers exposed to ionizing radiation, and to produce guides for specific categories of workers, such as those responsible for the transport of radioactive materials or those likely to be involved in organizing measures in the event of a radiological emergency

369

Radiation protection in pediatric radiology  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The purpose of this report is to make available a source of practical information regarding the manner in which radiologic examinations in children should be conducted to reduce the radiation dose to these patients and those responsible for thier care. The report is mainly for the use of pediatricians, radiologists, radiologic technicians, and other personnel who order or use radiological methods in examining children, Appendices contain methods for estimating doses to various organs, and doses from various examinations in pediatric radiology. The Council has adopted some units of the SI system of nomenclature. A glossary of terms is included

370

University based radiation protection: a combination of theory and practice  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In modern times, Universities are expected to act as regional and national centres for providing information on radiation protection and University based Radiological Protection Services are therefore a natural development. The typical workload of a University service on campus is concerned two-thirds with unsealed sources, of which soft ?'s and iodine-125 predominate, and one-third with sealed radioisotope and neutron sources and X-ray emitters. Non-ionising radiation protection is frequently included in the Service's terms of reference. A wide variety of instrumentation to satisfy the campus' needs is thus available at short notice for use in industrial and public authority radiation surveys. In addition, laboratory facilities for radio-chemistry, spectrometry, and radioactive counting are already manned by experienced technical staff. Industry thus finds in the Universities a ready willingness and competence to assist in occupational radiation protection, and public authorities can turn to the Universities in relation to their problems of radioactivity in public health. (author)

371

Ultraviolet Radiation Protection Methods (invited paper)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Exposure to solar UVR is widespread. Additionally, a small proportion of the population is exposed to artificial sources. There is a clear link between exposure to solar UVR and a range of adverse health effects. The acute and chronic exposure phenomena are different and, in terms of protection, both the measures and success rates will also be different. To reduce risk it is necessary to characterise fully the radiation source, understand the intermediate medium and the biological receptor and then develop appropriate exposure prevention strategies. Protection against occupational exposure to artificial sources should be approached using administrative and engineering control measures. Protective measures against solar UVR are still evolving. A significant decrease in risk can be achieved by changing behaviour through well-designed educational programmes. Personal protection is also important and effective protection is readily available. Avoidance of acute UVR effects and a decrease in skin cancer rates and mortality are the desirable long-term outcomes from such a programme. (author)

372

Radiation protection course for physicians. 3. rev. ed.  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The regulations of the Radiation Protection Ordinance and the X-ray Ordinance concerning the expert training of radiological safety officers and health physicists working in hospitals and general practice require expert knowledge in radiation protection of these persons. Expert knowledge includes knowledge of radiation protection itself but also experience in the medical application of ionizing radiation and radioactive materials and experience required for judging the state of health of persons occupationally exposed to radiation. The discussions between lectures and participants of the radiation protection courses made it necessary to update the textbooks with regard to the latest state of knowledge in radiobiology, radiation hygiene, radiation protection, and legislation. (orig./HP)

373

Seventh meeting of radiation protection skilled persons  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This document gathers the slides of the available presentations given during these conference days. Twenty-three presentations out of 25 are assembled in the document and deal with: 1 - the evolution of workers' international protection rules against ionizing radiation risks (C. Bardelay); 2 - presentation of the report of the working group on radiation protection (P. Barbey); 3 - position of the French nuclear safety authority and of the labor general direction about the position of permanent expert groups in radiation protection concerning the expected evolutions in the occupation and training of radioprotection skilled persons (RSP), (T. Lahaye); 4 - experience feedback: RSP in surgery operating theater - a sometimes delicate intervention (S. Balduyck); 5 - workplace analysis in dental surgery: constraints and specificities (D. Le Denmat); 6 - workplace analysis: tritium atmospheric contamination (S. Rigaud); 7 - revision of the NFC 15-160 standard relative to radiology facilities (J.L. Rehel); 8 - example of area tele-dosimetry usage - the Pitie Salpetriere hospital experiment (C. Chatellier and C. Barret); 9 - contribution of radio-attenuation lead gloves in interventional radiology (J. Guersen); 10 - zoning in the medical domain: encountered problems typology and evaluation of possible solutions (Degrange, J.P.); 11 - management of used sealed sources distributed by the CEA and CISBIO (B. Sevestre); 12 - how to perform a measurement in radiation protection - how about measurement uncertainty (M. Ammerich); 13 - national campaign of control about the application of workers radiation protection rules (T. Lahaye); 14 - transparency and inspection approach in local nuclear applications: gamma-graphy, research, nuclear medicine, interventional radiography and radiotherapy (S. Rodde and C. Marchal); 15 - local/regional networks of RSPs and radiation protection actors: 2008 audit results and recent evolutions (C. Lefaure); 16 - role and missions of the external RSP in dental surgery (H. Bouk'Il); 17 - status of radiation protection inspections at Paris social services and state-owned hospitals authority (D.J. Gambini); 18 - registered organisation and RSP: relations and exchanges (B. Auboiroux and P. Martel); 19 - interactions between EdF's RSP and contractor's RSP (A. Riedel); 20 - 2009 national status of workers' exposure (J. Feuardent); 21 - IRSN's Siseri system: relations with users (P. Scanff); 22 - communication as an integral part of RSP's role (M. Bof); 23 - the expected consequences of the publication no. 103 of the international commission of radiological protection (CIPR), (J. Lochard). (J.S.)

374

International regulations for radiation protection  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A review of the development of the IAEA Radiological Protection standards is given. The basic features of the latest revision recently adopted by the governing bodies of the sponsoring organizations, i.e. IAEA, WHO, ILO, NEA/OECD are discussed and some of the features of the future Agency programme for its implementation will be outlined. In particular, attention will be given to development of the basic principles for setting release limits of radioactive materials into the environment. An important aspect of this is when the release of radioactive materials into the environment crosses international boundaries. The Agency is best suited to try to reach a consensus on the minimum monetary value for the unit collective dose. (orig./RW)

375

Radiation protection and risk assessment  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In its publications 22 and 26, ICRP recommends a method of optimization that requires that first the risks of the considered activity be quantitatively assessed. This paper deals with the transportation of radioactive material. Several aspects are examined: assessing risk quantitatively (as an expected number of health effects), determining the most cost-effective alternative options and applying the method to a practical example. Two of the possible applications of the results are presented in the case of transportation of UF6 in France: 1) the cost-effectiveness analysis of a set of alternative protection measures and 2) the comparison between such measures affecting risks in nuclear transportation and other measures dealing with different steps of the whole uranium fuel cycle. (HK)

376

Proceedings of the Ninth Radiation Physics and Protection Conference  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The publication has been set up as proceedings of the Radiation Physics and Protection conference, the conference contains of the following subjects: Radiation Sources and Radioactive Waste; Theoretical Radiation Physics; Experimental Radiation Physics; Radiation and Nuclear Emergency; Non Ionizing Radiation; Medical Physics; Environment; Natural Radioactivity; Radiation Effect; Dosimetry; Elemental Analysis; Radiation Instruments. This conference consists of one volume and 459 pages., figs., tabs., refs

377

Occupational radiation protection in industrial and research facilities  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper briefly reviews worldwide industrial/research occupational doses associated with irradiation, radiography, well logging, gauging, laboratory research and isotope production. According to the 2000 Report of the United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation, 14% of the annual occupational collective dose (360 man·Sv for the period 1990-1994) derived from industrial uses, compared with 50% from the nuclear fuel cycle. Although worldwide occupational doses indicate general compliance with safety standards and a good safety record, serious overexposures occur frequently enough to cause concern. In the period 1989-1991, there were three fatal radiation accidents at irradiators. In addition, radiography overexposures continue to be frequently reported. Radiography experience in the United States of America included about 70 reported radiography overexposures during the period 1997 to mid-2002. Eight of these entailed acute overexposures resulting from stuck or detached radiation sources, or simple failure to retract a source, and failure to perform proper surveys. The challenges associated with industrial occupational protection include a lack of defence in depth (relative to fuel cycle operations), a large variety of work site conditions encountered and personnel limitations due, in many instances, to the small size of the organizations involved. The path forward to providing improved occupational radiation protection should include a st radiation protection should include a strong emphasis on worker training, consistency of operations (seeking best practices), and co-operation and communication among regulatory authorities. (author)

378

Applying radiation health effects data to radiation protection policies  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Data from the peer-reviewed scientific literature establish a sound basis to define a low-dose, low-dose-rate, dose-response. These data include human health dose-response studies; immunologically 'whole' animal studies; and cellular and molecular biological studies of complete biological systems for the relevant immunological and physiological responses. Initiatives are required to constructively apply these data to both radiation research and radiation protection policies. First, current low level radiation health effects research must apply existing data to define research projects to integrate and confirm existing dose-response data, with specific emphasis on the biological bases that exist in definitive and reproducible cellular and biological dose-response. Second, dose-response assessment must identify and incorporate all existing substantial and confirmed data, including natural radiation sources, to establish the bases for radiation protection policy for interventions to protect public health and safety. A preliminary assessment of these data is applied to: 1) Specify research that can be constructively applied to describe radiation health effects dose-response. 2) Apply health effects dose-response to radiation and radioactivity applications policies to maximize radiation health effects interventions for occupational applications, medical applications, and other radiation and radioactive materials applications controls to cost-effectively assure public health and safety. An assessment of the proposed revisions to ICRP radiation protection policies is provided that associates the basis for administrative limits with the previous proposal of the US NRC for a 'Below Regulatory Concern' (BRC) policy. This proposal ignores the context of the fact that very low levels of radiation exposure are far within the variations of natural radiation exposures, and therefore can have no gross net consequences. The equivalent failure of the BRC proposal resulted in quick political rejection of the proposed policy. It was seen as stating that, while very small radiation doses would in fact cause 'small' adverse health consequences (seen by the public and their political leaders as 'cancer deaths'), such consequences are seen as found 'acceptable' by the radiation protection authorities. Such implied but non-existent consequences are NOT seen as acceptable to the public and its political leaders. No explanation of 'context' or providing public education' can reasonably be expected to overcome the perception provided by the proposal that such trivial radiation produce 'a few deaths' that, because they are 'lost in cancer statistics' are perceived as accepted' by the radiation protection policy-makers, which results in the permanent loss of public acceptance and credibility of these organizations and individuals. This proposal considers the lack of adverse health effects from data at, e.g., variations in natural background, confirmed by medical and biological data, establish that radiation at low levels can have no relevant net adverse consequences. Such a basis can provide public assurance that appropriate radiation protection limits produce no residual public health and safety consequences. (author)

Muckerheide, James [Center for Nuclear Technology and Society at WPI, Worcester Polytechnic Institute, Worcester, MA (United States)

2000-05-01

379

Applying radiation health effects data to radiation protection policies  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Data from the peer-reviewed scientific literature establish a sound basis to define a low-dose, low-dose-rate, dose-response. These data include human health dose-response studies; immunologically 'whole' animal studies; and cellular and molecular biological studies of complete biological systems for the relevant immunological and physiological responses. Initiatives are required to constructively apply these data to both radiation research and radiation protection policies. First, current low level radiation health effects research must apply existing data to define research projects to integrate and confirm existing dose-response data, with specific emphasis on the biological bases that exist in definitive and reproducible cellular and biological dose-response. Second, dose-response assessment must identify and incorporate all existing substantial and confirmed data, including natural radiation sources, to establish the bases for radiation protection policy for interventions to protect public health and safety. A preliminary assessment of these data is applied to: 1) Specify research that can be constructively applied to describe radiation health effects dose-response. 2) Apply health effects dose-response to radiation and radioactivity applications policies to maximize radiation health effects interventions for occupational applications, medical applications, and other radiation and radioactive materials applications controls to cost-effectively assure public healtls to cost-effectively assure public health and safety. An assessment of the proposed revisions to ICRP radiation protection policies is provided that associates the basis for administrative limits with the previous proposal of the US NRC for a 'Below Regulatory Concern' (BRC) policy. This proposal ignores the context of the fact that very low levels of radiation exposure are far within the variations of natural radiation exposures, and therefore can have no gross net consequences. The equivalent failure of the BRC proposal resulted in quick political rejection of the proposed policy. It was seen as stating that, while very small radiation doses would in fact cause 'small' adverse health consequences (seen by the public and their political leaders as 'cancer deaths'), such consequences are seen as found 'acceptable' by the radiation protection authorities. Such implied but non-existent consequences are NOT seen as acceptable to the public and its political leaders. No explanation of 'context' or providing public education' can reasonably be expected to overcome the perception provided by the proposal that such trivial radiation produce 'a few deaths' that, because they are 'lost in cancer statistics' are perceived as accepted' by the radiation protection policy-makers, which results in the permanent loss of public acceptance and credibility of these organizations and individuals. This proposal considers the lack of adverse health effects from data at, e.g., variations in natural background, confirmed by medical and biological data, establish that radiation at low levels can have no relevant net adverse consequences. Such a basis can provide public assurance that appropriate radiation protection limits produce no residual public health and safety consequences. (author)

380

Implication on future priorities in radiation protection  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

As a result of the consequences of the Chernobyl accident, the aspects of health effects from radiation as well as the protection norms are reviewed. In particular the radioprotection of the workers and the population, the emergency planning and the information of the public at national and international levels are discussed. (A.F.)

381

Radiation protection: Philosophy, recommendations and practice  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The philosophy developed by the International Commission on Radiological Protection for the control of human radiation exposure will be described. The application of the ICRP recommendations to the authorization and control of the disposal of radioactive wastes to the sea will be discussed in the context of the practice in the United Kingdom. (author)

382

Conditions for radiation protection in industrial radiography  

CERN Document Server

The leaflet specifies radiation protection requirements for industrial radiography in Norway. The regulations are directed towards companies using or distributing sealed radioactive sources, x-ray equipment or accelerators in non-destructive material testing (NDT). Technical requirements to the equipment, as well as administrative requirements for use, licensing, qualifications, handling of accidents etc. are given. (Author)

1999-01-01

383

Relations between radiation risks and radiation protection measuring techniques  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Relations between radiation risks and radiation protection measuring techniques are considered as components of the radiation risk. The influence of the exposure risk on type and extent of radiation protection measurements is discussed with regard to different measuring tasks. Based upon measuring results concerning the frequency of certain external and internal occupational exposures in the GDR, it has been shown that only a small fraction of the monitored persons are subjected to a high exposure risk. As a consequence the following recommendations are presented: occupationally exposed persons with small exposure risk should be monitored using only a long-term desimeter (for instance a thermoluminescence desimeter). In the case of internal exposure, the surface and air contamination levels should be controlled so strictly that routine measurements of internal contamination need not be performed

384

Radiation protection and dosimetry: basis. 9. ed.  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A revised book 'Radiation Protection and Dosimetry: Fundamentals, prepared to meet the training courses offered by the Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria - IRD, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil and people interested in the subject, is presented. Concepts have been updated, especially the chapter on Radiological Magnitudes, due to upgrade of Standard CNEN-NN-3.01-Basic Guidelines on Radiological Protection, published in the Diario Oficial da Uniao on September 1, 2011. A chapter related to Waste Management, another on the Transport of Radioactive Materials and three annexes on: Standards of CNEN, Ionizing Radiation and Personnel Legislation and Determination of shields in Radiotherapy were included. Were also added several tables for use in radiological protection, to facilitate consultation

385

Radiation protection in today's world: towards sustainability  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The science and application of radiological protection have continually evolved since the beginning of the 20 century when the health effects of radiation first began to be discovered. Given these changes, notably over the past 10 to 15 years, and considering the recent evolution of social values and judgements, the NEA Committee on Radiation Protection and Public Health (CRPPH) felt that it would be worthwhile to identify possible emerging challenges as well as ongoing challenges that will require new approaches to reach sustainable decisions. This report concisely describes the CRPPH views of the most significant challenges to radiological protection policy, regulation and application that are likely to emerge or are already emerging. While not proposing solutions to these issues, the report characterizes key aspects and pressures, taking into account the evolution of science, society and experience, such that governments can better foresee these challenges and be prepared to address them appropriately. (author)

386

Prevent Eye Damage: Protect Yourself from UV Radiation  

Science.gov (United States)

® ® ® ® ® ® PREVENT EYE DAMAGE Protect Yourself from UV Radiation M ost Americans understand the link between ultraviolet (UV) radiation and skin cancer. ... of the connection between UV radiation and eye damage. With increased levels of UV radiation reaching the ...

387

Protective role of plants against harmful radiation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The rapid technological advancement has increased human exposure to ionizing radiations enormously. Ionizing radiations produces deleterious effects in the living organisms. Widespread use of radiation in diagnosis therapy, industry, energy sector and inadvertent exposure during air and space travel, nuclear accidents and nuclear terror attacks requires safeguard against human exposures. Lead shielding and other physical measures can be used in such situations but with difficulty to manage; thus pharmacological intervention could be the most prudent strategy to protect humans against the harmful effect of ionizing radiations. These pharmacological agents are radioprotectives; The development of radioprotective agents has been the subject of intense research in view of their potential for use within a radiation environment. However, no ideal, safe synthetic radio protectors are available to date, so the search for alternative sources including plants has been ongoing. In Ayurveda, the traditional Indian system of medicine, several plants have been used to treat free radical-mediated ailments and, therefore, it is logical to expect that such plants may also render some protection against radiation damage. This all is due to antioxidant enzymes, nitroxides, and melatonin, antiemetic, anti-inflammatory. haemopoitic and immunostimulant compounds. Some of the plants which are found to be radioprotective are Centella asiatica, Ginkgo biloba, Hippophae rhamnoides, Ocimum sanc biloba, Hippophae rhamnoides, Ocimum sanctum, Podophyllurn hexandrum, Tinospora cordifolia, Emblica officinalis, Phyllanthus amarus, etc. So there is an urgent need to identify and characterize the many of the plants in relation to the radioprotection. Besides these medicinal plants there are also some fruits and vegetables which are having good response against harmful radiations such as Kiwifruit Actinidia deliciosa (Actinidaceae), Cape Gooseberry Physalis peruviana (Solanaceae). They protect against the radiation-induced damage by scavenging of free radicals and increasing antioxidant status. Fractionation guided evaluation may result in the development of ideal radio protectors in the near future. (author)

388

Workers radiation protection. A necessary constant improvement  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

After an overview of the French situation in terms of workers radiation protection, of its progress and remaining weaknesses (some indicators are given: number of monitored workers, average individual dosed, year limit excess), the different intervention levels are presented: prevention (legal and regulatory framework, visits and inspections, regulatory files, workstation studies, reference documents and education), monitoring (external and internal dosimetry), follow-up (the SISERI information system, individual medical follow-up cards), anomalies and crisis. The change of veterinary practices is outlined (this profession is exposed to radiation and compliance with radiation protection regulations modified their professional practices). The role of the IRSN in the elaboration of French and international standards is presented

389

Radiation protection and safety in radiotherapy  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Soon after the discovery of X rays by Roentgen in 1895 and of natural radioactivity by Becquerel in 1896 it became apparent that ionizing radiation was not only useful for the diagnosis and treatment of disease but also harmful to human tissues. It has been recognized since early studies on X rays and radioactive minerals that exposure to high levels of radiation can cause clinical damage to tissues of the human body. In addition, long term epidemiological studies of populations exposed to radiation, especially the survivors of the atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki in Japan in 1945, have demonstrated that exposure to radiation also has a potential for delayed effects such as induction of malignancies or damage to genetic material. Ionizing radiation and radioactive substances are natural and permanent features of the environment, and thus the risks associated with radiation exposure can only be restricted, not eliminated entirely. Additionally, the use of human-made radiation is now widespread. Sources of ionizing radiation are essential to modern health care: disposable medical supplies sterilized by intense radiation have been central to combating disease; radiology and nuclear medicine are a vital diagnostic tool; and radiotherapy is commonly part of the treatment of malignancies. Applications of ionizing radiation are growing in industry, agriculture, medicine and many other fields of industry and research, benefiting humanity. Irradiation is used around ting humanity. Irradiation is used around the world to preserve foodstuffs and reduce wastage, and sterilization techniques have been used to eradicate disease carrying insects and pests. Industrial radiography is in routine use, for example to examine welds, detect cracks and help prevent failure of engineered structures. The acceptance by society of the risks associated with radiation is conditional on the benefits to be gained from the use of radiation. Nonetheless, the risks must be restricted and protected against by the application of radiation safety standards. It is therefore essential that activities involving radiation exposure be subject to certain standards of safety in order to protect the individuals who are exposed to radiation, be it occupationally, for medical diagnostic or therapeutic purposes, or as members of the public

390

Protective effects of puerarin on radiation injury of experimental rats  

OpenAIRE

Objective: To observe the protective effects of puerarin on radiation injury of experimental rats and to discuss the possible mechanism of its radiation protection. Methods: Wistar rats were divided randomly into 4 groups with 8 rats in each group: physiological saline non-radiation (SN) group, puerarin non-radiation (PN) group, physiological saline radiation (SR) group, puerarin radiation (PR) group. The source of radiation was cobalt-60 gamma rays, and the rats were exposed to radiation (1....

Jin, Le-hong; Liu, Chuan-fei

2005-01-01

391

Radiation protection in the dental profession  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A synopsis is presented of the results of a Health and Safety Executive Survey begun in 1977. The aim of the survey was to fulfil the need of the HSE to meet its enforcement duties concerning equipment and procedures, to devise a basis for regulatory requirements, and to evaluate the dental postal pack provided by the NRPB. Dentists were chosen at random from a list of practitioners offering treatment within the N.H.S. Significant differences were noted in results obtained from the first (585 practitioners) and second groups, the latter being surveyed subsequent to additional guidance being offered. The survey included questions on location and maintenance of equipment, beam diameter and filtration, film processing techniques, timer accuracy, the level of instruction and supervision given to dental staff, diagnostic procedures, personal radiation doses and dose per exposure. (U.K.)

392

Manual on radiation protection in hospitals and general practice. Radiation protection in dentistry  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The booklet deals with all aspects of the use of X rays in dentistry. The recommendations made are designed to reduce unnecessary exposure of the patient, will result in the production of superior radiographs and assist in eliminating unnecessary exposure of the operator himself. Separate chapters deal with the following topics: the need for radiation protection, delegation of responsibility, radiographic equipment, radiographic film, radiographic techniques, film processing and handling, patient doses (adults and children), general radiation protection and monitoring, educational standards

393

10 CFR 34.25 - Radiation survey instruments.  

Science.gov (United States)

...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Radiation survey instruments. 34.25...FOR INDUSTRIAL RADIOGRAPHY AND RADIATION SAFETY REQUIREMENTS FOR INDUSTRIAL RADIOGRAPHIC...OPERATIONS Equipment § 34.25 Radiation survey instruments....

2010-01-01

394

2009 Canadian Radiation Oncology Resident Survey  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Purpose: Statistics from the Canadian post-MD education registry show that numbers of Canadian radiation oncology (RO) trainees have risen from 62 in 1999 to approximately 150 per year between 2003 and 2009, contributing to the current perceived downturn in employment opportunities for radiation oncologists in Canada. When last surveyed in 2003, Canadian RO residents identified job availability as their main concern. Our objective was to survey current Canadian RO residents on their training and career plans. Methods and Materials: Trainees from the 13 Canadian residency programs using the national matching service were sought. Potential respondents were identified through individual program directors or chief resident and were e-mailed a secure link to an online survey. Descriptive statistics were used to report responses. Results: The eligible response rate was 53% (83/156). Similar to the 2003 survey, respondents generally expressed high satisfaction with their programs and specialty. The most frequently expressed perceived weakness in their training differed from 2003, with 46.5% of current respondents feeling unprepared to enter the job market. 72% plan on pursuing a postresidency fellowship. Most respondents intend to practice in Canada. Fewer than 20% of respondents believe that there is a strong demand for radiation oncologists in Canada. Conclusions: Respondents to the current survey expressed significant satisfaction with their career choice and training pro with their career choice and training program. However, differences exist compared with the 2003 survey, including the current perceived lack of demand for radiation oncologists in Canada.

395

2009 Canadian Radiation Oncology Resident Survey  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Purpose: Statistics from the Canadian post-MD education registry show that numbers of Canadian radiation oncology (RO) trainees have risen from 62 in 1999 to approximately 150 per year between 2003 and 2009, contributing to the current perceived downturn in employment opportunities for radiation oncologists in Canada. When last surveyed in 2003, Canadian RO residents identified job availability as their main concern. Our objective was to survey current Canadian RO residents on their training and career plans. Methods and Materials: Trainees from the 13 Canadian residency programs using the national matching service were sought. Potential respondents were identified through individual program directors or chief resident and were e-mailed a secure link to an online survey. Descriptive statistics were used to report responses. Results: The eligible response rate was 53% (83/156). Similar to the 2003 survey, respondents generally expressed high satisfaction with their programs and specialty. The most frequently expressed perceived weakness in their training differed from 2003, with 46.5% of current respondents feeling unprepared to enter the job market. 72% plan on pursuing a postresidency fellowship. Most respondents intend to practice in Canada. Fewer than 20% of respondents believe that there is a strong demand for radiation oncologists in Canada. Conclusions: Respondents to the current survey expressed significant satisfaction with their career choice and training program. However, differences exist compared with the 2003 survey, including the current perceived lack of demand for radiation oncologists in Canada.

Debenham, Brock, E-mail: debenham@ualberta.net [Department of Radiation Oncology, Cross Cancer Institute, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta (Canada); Banerjee, Robyn [Department of Radiation Oncology, Tom Baker Cancer Centre, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta (Canada); Fairchild, Alysa; Dundas, George [Department of Radiation Oncology, Cross Cancer Institute, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta (Canada); Trotter, Theresa [Department of Radiation Oncology, Tom Baker Cancer Centre, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta (Canada); Yee, Don [Department of Radiation Oncology, Cross Cancer Institute, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta (Canada)

2012-03-15

396

The healing arts radiation protection guidelines  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The objective of these guidelines is to help the health professional render the risks associated with diagnostic radiation as low as reasonably achievable. The guidelines contain advice and recommendations, but no mandatory requirements. They assist radiation protection officers in establishing and maintaining a Quality Assurance Program and in carrying out other duties required by the Healing Arts Radiation Protection Act; assist staff to comply with the X-ray Safety Code in a way that will raise the standards of x-ray diagnosis and patient safety; address the relationship between the radiation exposure of the patient and the quality of the image; address the problem of protecting the patient in x-ray examinations; summarize x-ray safety problems from the point of view of the operator and other staff; indicate what remedial measures can be taken; define the quality assurance needs of x-ray users; and encourage the users of x-rays for diagnostic purposes to go beyond the scope of the Act and comply with the ALARA principle

397

Radiation protection optimization. Advances in practical implementation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Within the Community, protection against the dangers of ionizing radiation is regulated in conformity with the provisions of two Council Directives. One is of general application for all activities involving a hazard arising from ionizing radiation and lays down the basic safety standards for the health protection of the general public and workers against the dangers of ionizing radiation. The other is derived from the abovementioned one and lays down the basic measures for the radiation protection of persons undergoing medical examination or treatment. The Commission, in collaboration with the Spanish Ministerio de Sanidad y Consumo, the Consejo de Seguridad Nuclear and the Centro de Investigaciones Energeticas, Medioambientales y Tecnologicas, organized on 12, 13 and 14 September 1988 in Madrid, the third scientific seminar on the optimization principle (Alara) which is a key element of the two abovementioned Council Directives. The seminar allowed an analysis of the progress made since the previous seminars of 1979 and 1983, in the practical implementation of the optimization principle, in relation to the design and operation of nuclear and industrial installations, natural radioactivity, medical practices and countermeasures. The report contains the 20 original contributions presented and some general considerations on the results of the seminar

398

Safety and radiation protection in mining and milling facilities  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Federal Legislation in Brazil establishes that the Brazilian Nuclear Energy Commission - CNEN - is responsible for the surveillance of the industrialization of nuclear ores and the production and commerce of nuclear materials in such way that activities such as buying, selling, import and export, are subject to previous licensing and surveillance. Regulation CNEN-NN-4.01 on Safety and Radiation Protection in Mining and Milling Facilities of conventional ores containing naturally occurring radioactive materials, NORM, was issued in 2004 establishing both a methodology for classification of these facilities into three Categories, taking into account both the contents of uranium and thorium in the ores and the applicable radiation and safety requirements based on a graded approach. Although the lack of a licensing process in the above mentioned Regulation made its implementation a difficult task, CNEN, by means of an initial survey, identified ca. 30 mining and milling industries of conventional ores containing uranium and thorium with concentrations above 10 Bq/g. More recently, a new juridical understanding of the legislation concluded that CNEN must issue licences and authorizations for the possession and storage of all ores with uranium and thorium concentrations above exemption levels. A proper surveillance programme encompassing 13 of these mining facilities was then put forward aiming at the improvement of their safety and radiation protection. This article presents an overview of NORM exploitation in Brazil and put forward suggestions for achieving viable solutions for the protection of workers, general public and environment from the effects of ionizing radiation. (author)

399

radiation protection services and Norm procedures at Guoco-Rsh  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

coordinated service programs of radiation protection and NORM handling procedures are implemented at Gupco-Rsh according to a bilateral agreement between the gulf of suez petroleum company (Gupco) and the atomic energy authority (AEA) since august 1995. the services included under the domain of the agreement are carried out by an expert group during periodic visits to Gupco-Rsh site. the activities performed serving the purpose of the programs implemented are extensive. essentially aiming at instituting an integrated radiation protection services in petroleum industry, and procedures for safe handling of NORM and NORM- contaminated items; the safety of industrial sealed sources is also seriously addressed.the AEA expert group adopt the international recommendations for protection of workers and environmental preservation for all procedures implemented . however. modifications are made to harmonize the implementation to accord with current egyptian regulations.The main features of the programmes instituted include targeted training addressed to selected groups; radiological mapping surveys of Rsh area with periodic monitoring of selected onshore and offshore sites.Measurements of personnel radiation exposure, and medical surveillance of radiation workers is periodically carried out

400

International Society of Radiology and Radiation Protection  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The purpose of the International Society of Radiology (ISR), as being the global organization of radiologists, is to promote and help co-ordinate the progress of radiology throughout the world. In this capacity and as a co-operating organization of the IAEA, the ISR has a specific responsibility in the global radiological protection of patients. Globally, there are many users of medical radiation, and radiology may be practised in the most awkward circumstances. The individuals performing X ray studies as well as those interpreting them may be well trained, as in industrialized parts of the world, but also less knowledgeable, as in developing areas. The problems of radiological protection, both of patients and of radiation workers, still exist, and radiation equipment is largely diffused throughout the world. That is why a conference like this is today as important as ever. Radiation protection is achieved through education, on the one hand, and legislation, on the other. Legislation and regulation are the instruments of national authorities. The means of the ISR are education and information. Good radiological practice is something that can be taught. The ISR is doing this mainly through the biannual International Congress of Radiology (ICR), now arranged in an area of radiological need; the three previous ICRs were in China, in India and in South America; the next one is going to be in Mexico in 2002. The goal of the ICR is mainly to be an instructive and educationamainly to be an instructive and educational event, especially designed for the needs of its surrounding region. The ISR is aiming at producing educational material. The International Commission on Radiological Education (ICRE), as part of the ISR, is launching the production of a series of educational booklets, which also include radiation protection. The ICRE is actively involved in shaping and organizing the educational and scientific programme of the ICRs

401

ICRP and radiation protection of medical staff  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Committee 3 (Protection in Medicine) and Committee 4 (Application of Recommendations) of the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) deal with the protection of medical staff. In the last 10 years, the Committee on Protection in Medicine has been involved in the preparation of 12 publications, some of which include specific recommendations on occupational RP. This paper summarizes the most relevant aspects of these recommendations on RP for medical staff. The most recent publication on Radiation Dose to Patients from Radiopharmaceuticals contains an annex on hand exposure in radio-pharmacies. Radiation detriment from exposure of both radiological staff and other individuals is considered as part of the justification of medical exposures and of the optimization process. ICRP advises on the uncertainty concerning the risk of cataracts and puts particular emphasis on optimization in situations of exposure of the eyes. Some recommendations on staff protection are included in the documents on computed tomography, digital radiology, pregnancy, discharge of patients after therapy and interventional radiology. The contents related to staff RP in the coming publications of the Committee (pediatric, cardiology, and fluoroscopy) are also summarized.

402

Decommissioning an uranium and thorium facility: a radiation protection approach  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Decommissioning means actions taken at the end of the useful life of a facility in retiring it from service with adequate regard for the health and safety of workers and members of the public. In the present work, we introduce a radiation protection approach for the removal of radioactive material to the extent that the facility or site becomes available for use without restriction. The facility to be decommissioned is a fuel cycle pilot plant that operated with natural uranium and thorium for almost two decades and then, kept inactive for about 10 years at the Nuclear and Energy Research Institute - IPEN. Even after this long period of inactivity, it has presented significant levels of radiation and contamination spread over the floor, walls, windows, doors and ceiling. The fuel cycle pilot plant was completely dismantled, remaining only the walls and the concrete structures. In this work we present the job done to restore the area. According to each step of dismantling a continuous monitoring of the contaminated surfaces was carried out including the survey of the deep material from the floor and walls. The material identified as radioactive waste was stored into appropriated metal drums. A radiation protection team guided this stage of the work, prescribing the tasks, and the amount of material that should be removed from floors, windows and ceiling. For this, repetitive surveys had to be done. The results of monitoring and contamination levels were analysed, thus guiding the next steps of the job. In this way radiation protection team took over the tasks, running the work with the purpose of achieving acceptable levels of radiation, restoring the area for unrestricted use. (author)

403

Radiation protection organization in Guangdong Nuclear Power Station (GNPS)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The French way of radiation protection management has been adopted by Guangdong Nuclear Power Station (GNPS) but there are some differences. In this paper author describes radiation protection organization in GNPS, special measures having been taken and the present status

404

The purpose of radiation protection monitoring  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In the early period (1942-1960) of nuclear energy programmes with which I was associated, most radiation protection standards seem to have been formulated on the assumption that there is a threshold dose of ionizing radiation below which no radiation damage is expected to result in the lifetime of the exposed individual. It was in this climate of opinion that health physics began as a profession, and levels of maximum permissible exposure (MPE) to external sources of radiation, maximum permissible concentrations in air, water and food, and maximum permissible body burdens of radionuclides inside the human body were set and enforced. Some of the levels of MPE were quite high in comparison with present standards but, fortunately, the health physicists at the national laboratories in which most radiation workers were employed were very conservative; in most cases the average annual exposures were less than 10% of the MPE levels. However, there was not much concern with the man-rem concept, as exemplified by rather high levels of radioactive waste discharged from the plants or placed in temporary holding facilities - where there was a likely possibility of seepage into the environment. This situation was understandable and justifiable at a time when the purpose of radiation protection monitoring was simply to prevent individuals from exceeding a threshold dose. The period of the recent past up to the present time (1978) has been one in which there has been a gradual change from the concept of a threshold dose hypothesis to the linear hypothesis. In this period the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) and the national standards setting bodies have pointed out that the levels they have selected are based on the linear hypothesis, but in most respects they leave us with the impression that this is most probably a conservative assumption, subject to revision when better data become available. Also, during this period, the concept of exposure As Low As Reasonably Achievable (ALARA) was developed

405

Biological research for the radiation protection  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The work scope of 'Biological Research for the Radiation Protection' had contained the research about polyamine effect on cell death triggered ionizing radiation, H2O2 and toxic agents. In this paper, to elucidate the role of polyamines as mediator in lysosomal damage and stress(H2O2)- induced apoptosis, we utilized ?-DiFluoroMethylOrnithine (DFMO), which inhibited ornithine decarboxylase and depleted intracellular putrescine, and investigated the effects of polyamine on the apoptosis caused by H2O2, ionizing radiation and paraquat. We also showed that MGBG, inhibitor of polyamine biosynthesis, treatment affected intracellular redox steady states, intracellular ROS levels and protein oxidation. Thereafter we also investigated whether MGBG may enhance the cytotoxic efficacy of tumor cells caused by ionizing radiation or H2O2 because such compounds are able to potentiate the cell-killing effects. In addition, ceruloplasmin and thioredoxin, possible antioxidant proteins, were shown to have protective effect on radiation- or H2O2(or chemicals)-induced macromolecular damage or cell death

406

Biological research for the radiation protection  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The work scope of 'Biological Research for the Radiation Protection' had contained the research about polyamine effect on cell death triggered ionizing radiation, H{sub 2}O{sub 2} and toxic agents. In this paper, to elucidate the role of polyamines as mediator in lysosomal damage and stress(H{sub 2}O{sub 2})- induced apoptosis, we utilized {alpha}-DiFluoroMethylOrnithine (DFMO), which inhibited ornithine decarboxylase and depleted intracellular putrescine, and investigated the effects of polyamine on the apoptosis caused by H{sub 2}O{sub 2}, ionizing radiation and paraquat. We also showed that MGBG, inhibitor of polyamine biosynthesis, treatment affected intracellular redox steady states, intracellular ROS levels and protein oxidation. Thereafter we also investigated whether MGBG may enhance the cytotoxic efficacy of tumor cells caused by ionizing radiation or H{sub 2}O{sub 2} because such compounds are able to potentiate the cell-killing effects. In addition, ceruloplasmin and thioredoxin, possible antioxidant proteins, were shown to have protective effect on radiation- or H{sub 2}O{sub 2}(or chemicals)-induced macromolecular damage or cell death.

Kim, In Gyu; Kim, Chan Kug; Shim, Hae Won; Jung, Il Lae; Byun, Hee Sun; Moon, Myung Sook; Cho, Hye Jeong; Kim, Jin Sik

2003-04-01

407

History of radiation protection agencies and standards  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The history of radiation protection and standards has shown a decrease of recommended exposure limits over the years. There are two reasons for this decrease. First there has been an increased awareness of the biological effects of radiation. Second, advances in technology have made it possible to use radiation more efficiently while decreasing unnecessary dose to workers and the public. Thus it is now possible to maintain much smaller dose limits than in the early years. Current radiation protection philosophy is based on the assumption that there is no completely ''safe'' amount of radiation. In practical terms, however, there is certainly a level below which the measurement of biologic effects becomes meaningless. The important operational concept as put forth by the ICRP in 1977 is that exposure of an individual should be kept As Low as Reasonably Achievable (the ALARA principle) below recommended limits. In other words, recognizing that there are many situations in which it is impossible to reduce exposure to zero, one must weigh the cost of designing equipment and structures that reduce exposure below the recommended limits against the perceived benefits of doing so

408

Thermoluminescence Dosimetry Applied to Radiation Protection  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

This is a general review of the present state of the development and application of thermoluminescence dosimetry (TLD) for radiation protection purposes. A description is given of commonly used thermoluminescent dosimeters and their main dosimetric properties, e.g. energy response, dose range, fading, and LET dependence. The applications of thermoluminescence dosimetry in routine personnel monitoring, accident dosimetry, u.v. radiation dosimetry, and environmental monitoring are discussed with particular emphasis on current problems in routine personnel monitoring. Finally, the present state of the development of TL readout instrumentation is discussed and some future trends are indicated.

Christensen, Poul; BŘtter-Jensen, Lars

1982-01-01

409

The gender problem in radiation protection  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Gender is a range of characteristics used to distinguish between males and females, particularly in the cases of men and women and the masculine and feminine attributes assigned to them. While the social sciences sometimes approach gender as a social construct, and some gender studies particularly do, research in the natural and medical sciences investigates whether biological differences in males and females influence the development of gender in humans. Radiation protection regulations also take into account the possibly different radiation risks of males and females. The following contribution investigates how far this is justified, and what are the consequences. (orig.)

410

The gender problem in radiation protection  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Gender is a range of characteristics used to distinguish between males and females, particularly in the cases of men and women and the masculine and feminine attributes assigned to them. While the social sciences sometimes approach gender as a social construct, and some gender studies particularly do, research in the natural and medical sciences investigates whether biological differences in males and females influence the development of gender in humans. Radiation protection regulations also take into account the possibly different radiation risks of males and females. The following contribution investigates how far this is justified, and what are the consequences. (orig.)

Persson, Lars [Nobel Inst. of Physics, Stockholm (Sweden)

2012-07-01

411

Radiation protection: concepts and trade offs  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The concern here is with radiation and radiation protection. The burden of the presentation is simple. It is that the nonthreshold basis cannot be abandoned. Acceptance of the non-threshold concept introduces a train of events which ultimately requires a benefit-hazard interchange. The non-threshold basis indicates that some degree of harm must result from an exposure. This, in turn, invites, possibly demands, risk estimates. Unavoidable (man-made) hazard, in turn, requires compensation or justification in benefits, at least equal to the harm. These circumstances will require us to consider trade offs between benefits and hazards and trade offs between the pragmatic and the ideal

412

The Croatian Radiation Protection Institute - Status and Role  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

One of the recent developments in radiation protection in the Republic of Croatia is founding of the Croatian Radiation