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1

Survey of radiation protection programmes for transport  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The survey of radiation protection programmes for transport has been jointly performed by three scientific organisations I.P.S.N. (France), G.R.S. ( Germany), and N.R.P.B. (United kingdom) on behalf of the European Commission and the pertaining documentation summarises the findings and conclusions of the work that was undertaken with the principal objectives to provide guidance on the establishment, implementation and application of radiation protection programmes for the transport of radioactive materials by operators and the assessment and evaluation of such programmes by the competent authority and to review currently existing radiation protection programmes for the transport of radioactive materials. (N.C.)

2001-01-01

2

Chemical protection against ionizing radiation: a survey of possible mechanisms  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A comparative survey is given of the hypotheses which have been proposed to explain the protecting and sensitizing action of chemical substances towards ionizing radiation such as gamma radiation or x radiation

1977-01-01

3

A survey of research programs in radiation protection in Canada  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A survey of research programs in Canada concerned with radiation protection was conducted in 1991-92 by the Joint Subcommittee on Regulatory Research (JSCRR) of the Atomic Energy Control Board (AECB) Advisory Committees on Radiological Protection and on Nuclear Safety. The purpose of this survey was to determine the current state of funding for this type of research in Canada. Funding for health-related radiation research in Canada is critical to establishing and maintaining a supply of trained professionals who can provide competent advice on health-related problems in radiation protection. The present report is an analysis of the information received in this survey. This survey concludes with the recommendation that the organization and definition of subprograms for the AECB Regulatory Research and Support Program should be completed as soon as possible. In this report the JSCRR should assist AECB staff in preparing a report in which priorities for research related to radiation protection are indicated. The sources of information noted at the end of the Discussion section of this report should be considered for this purpose. (author). 15 refs., 3 tabs

1995-01-01

4

A knowledge and awareness level survey of radiation protection among the radiation workers in Henan Province  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text: Objective: To reveal the knowledge and awareness level of radiation protection among radiation workers in Henan province and to explore the methods to improve it. Methods: A questionnaire survey was carried out among 208 radiation workers. Results: The correct rate of the answer to radiation protection knowledge from radiation workers in Henan province is 53.78%. Most of them (88.9%) realized that it is important to protect patients and their companions. They adhere to the principles of justification of medial exposure and optimization of radiation protection and follow the management system of radiation protection. However, a few workers didn't follow the principles strictly. Sometime, during the radio diagnosis and radiotherapy services, the patients and their companions were not well protected from the radiation, and some patients were given unnecessary X-ray examine. Even worse, some workers did not attach importance to the regulations of radiation protection and disobey them frequently. Again, some hospital leaders disregard the regulation of radiation protection and didn't follow the regulation of health surveillance and radiation protection monitoring properly. And those behaviors and attitude, in fact, influence some workers' attitude to radiation protection. Conclusion: The level of radiation protection knowledge and awareness among the radiation workers in Henan province needs to be improved. It is necessary to strengthen radiation protection knowledge by strengthening training, and to improve safety awareness among the radiation staff, and, more important, the hospital leaders as well. (author)

2008-10-19

5

Survey of Radiation Protection Awareness among Radiation Workers in Shiraz Hospitals  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Introduction: Ionizing radiations are the hazardous agents in the workplace and all forms of ionizing radiation produce some type of injuries. Awareness of application of protection guidelines and knowledge of the principles of radiation protection can play an important role in health of employees. Survey of radiation employee’s levels of awareness and practical behavior is essential and should be standardized. Methods: The hospitals were visited to determine the number of radiation employe...

Amirzadeh, F.; Tabatabaie, S. H. R.

2005-01-01

6

Survey of Radiation Protection Awareness among Radiation Workers in Shiraz Hospitals  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Introduction: Ionizing radiations are the hazardous agents in the workplace and all forms of ionizing radiation produce some type of injuries. Awareness of application of protection guidelines and knowledge of the principles of radiation protection can play an important role in health of employees. Survey of radiation employee’s levels of awareness and practical behavior is essential and should be standardized. Methods: The hospitals were visited to determine the number of radiation employees and to select the samples. Data was collected by questionnaire and analyses were performed by EPI6 software. Results: The employee’s awareness about protection in the radiation room was 70%, about application of film badge was more than 85%. The employee’s awareness of periodic inspection of atomic energy organization expert was 54% and their knowledge of long term and short term radiation effects were 98% and 95%, respectively. There was a meaningful relation concerning the level of education and awareness of the employees about MPD or principles of radiation protection (P<0.0007 and P<0.003 respectively. Conclusion: Our results reveal that the employees have acceptable knowledge about the use of film badges, however, they lack enough awareness concerning other issues of radiation protection. Proper and periodic educational courses for radiation workers are mandatory.

F. Amirzadeh

2005-07-01

7

Radiation protection  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Problem related to radiation protection during space flights as applied to ''Salyut-6'' station is considered. Attention is paid to radiation protection standards, problems of dosimetry and radiation monitoring during the flight and to pre-flight methods for evaluating the environmental radioactivity. Classification of means for radiation protection is proposed. Problems concerning data acquisition and processing on the radiation safety of the orbital station crew are discussed

1986-01-01

8

Radiation protection  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This work define procedures and controls about ionizing radiations. Between some definitions it found the following topics: radiation dose, risk, biological effects, international radioprotection bodies, workers exposure, accidental exposure, emergencies and radiation protection

1994-07-01

9

On the awareness of radiation protection. A questionnaire survey of junior college students of radiological technology  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A questionnaire survey on the awareness of radiation protection was conducted to improve our curriculum of radiation protection education, which seems to be important for the safe administrative control systems and handling techniques of radiation. A total of 426 students answered our questionnaire during the period of 1994 to 1999. They were 80 first-year, 114 second-year and 232 third-year students. The facility values of 4 questions on the influence of radiation to a human body were 50.2%, 30.3%, 28.9% and 7.0%. There was no statistically significant difference among different age groups. The facility values of 3 questions on the dose limitation of occupation exposure were 50.5% (on the effective dose equivalent), 36.4% (on the tissue dose equivalent to skin), and 40.9% (on the crystalline lens). On safe handling of radiation, only 35.7% of students correctly answered that they use a plastic board to protect themselves from ?-ray, while 77.0% correctly answered the question on the decontamination method of radioactive substance from the skin. The results show the students' lack of knowledge on radiation protection. Those involved in basic science education and radiation protection education, therefore, need to clarify their teaching content and offer explicit explanations on the proper dose of radiation, effects to exposure dose, interaction between different materials and radiation. (author)

2002-02-01

10

Review of Various Survey Instruments Locally Developed for Radiation Protection Work  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper describes the various survey instruments developed in the Directorate of Radiation Protection for radiological protection surveys of medical and industrial institutions. These Instruments Include (a) survey meters: (i) ion-chamber and scintillation types for measuring X- and gamma-ray exposures, and (ii) proportional counter and scintillation types for measuring slow- and fast-neutron fluxes; and (b) an isotope calibrator for measuring the activity of gamma sources. Each of these Instruments was developed to meet specified operational requirements, taking into consideration various factors such as climatic conditions, availability of components and range of Intensities of radiation encountered during the survey. All the instruments discussed In this review are portable and battery powered. (author)

1969-05-01

11

Knowledge in Radiation Protection: a Survey of Professionals in Medical Imaging, Radiation Therapy and Nuclear Medicine Units in Yaounde  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Medical use of ionizing radiation is now the most common radiation source of the population at the global level. The knowledge and practices of health professionals working with X-rays determine the level and quality of implementation of internationally and nationally recommended measures for radiation protection of patients and workers. The level of implementation and enforcement of international recommendations in African countries is an issue of concern due to weak laws and regulations and regulatory bodies. We report the results of a cross-sectional survey of health professionals working with ionizing radiation in Yaounde, the capital city of Cameroon. More than 50% of these professionals have a moderate level of knowledge of the norms and principles of radiation protection and more than 80% have never attended a continuing professional development workshop on radiation protection. (authors)

2013-01-01

12

Radiation protection  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A book has been written to provide medical physicists and others with a brief and succinct overview of the scientific and engineering bases of ionising radiation protection. The book begins with a historical introduction followed by a review of basic radiation biology and radiological physics. The physical and biological bases of radiation protection are then discussed, with emphasis on the problems encountered in the field. Applied radiation protection techniques are covered in the remainder of the book such as radiation protection standards, instrumentation, personal dosimetry, radiological design, engineering and management. (U.K.)

1985-01-01

13

Radiation protection  

CERN Multimedia

This will be a simple explanation of the reasons why CERN has to be careful about radiation protections issues, a practical guide on how to recognize radiation dangers, the monitoring systems that make sure radiation levels are well tolerable norms, and a quick summary of what radiation levels mean in terms of personal risk.

CERN. Geneva

2001-01-01

14

Radiation Protection  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Major achievements of SCK-CEN's Radiation Protection Department in 2001 are described. The main areas for R and D of the department are enviromnental remediation, emergency planning, radiation protection research, low-level radioactvity measurements, safeguards and physics measurements, decision strategy research and policy support and social sciences in nuclear research. Main achievements for 2001 in these areas are reported.

Loos, M

2002-04-01

15

Radiation Protection  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Major achievements of SCK-CEN's Radiation Protection Department in 2001 are described. The main areas for R and D of the department are enviromnental remediation, emergency planning, radiation protection research, low-level radioactvity measurements, safeguards and physics measurements, decision strategy research and policy support and social sciences in nuclear research. Main achievements for 2001 in these areas are reported

2002-04-01

16

Radiation protection  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Possible effects of radiation are mentioned. Protective measures against direct radiation, incorporation, and contamination are listed. Statutory provisions rule various radiation protection areas where annual dose rate limits must be observed. A nuclear power plants is presented to exemplify these areas. To carry out all the work which is controlled by a specific job order observing special radiation protection measures, it takes a great deal of organizing work and personnel. As an example, the article illustrates the efforts required to eliminate the contamination hazard in handling with open radioactive substances. The radiation protection measures taken in German nuclear power plants are successful inasmuch as the annual limits for individual dose rates are seldom reached, and the mean values for all employers is below 1/10 of the limit values. (orig./HSCH)

1984-12-01

17

Radiation Protection  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Major achievements of SCK-CEN's Radiation Protection Department in 2000 are described. The main areas for R and D of the department remain neutron dosimetry and neutron activation analysis, safeguards information handling and non-destructive assay techniques. Further activities include low-level radioactivity measurements in environmental and biological samples and radiation protection research. Finally, achievements in decision strategy research and social sciences in nuclear research are reported.

Loos, M

2001-04-01

18

Radiation and radiation protection  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The book reviews the history of research on radiative matter, methods of detecting ionizing radiation, quantities and units in radiation protection, measurement of radiation intensity and radiation dose, determination of radiation energy. One chapter deals with the natural radiation environment, another with man-made radiation sources and their application and purpose. Effects on man and radiobiology as an important field of research are discussed, as well as methods and problems of risk assessment as a prerequisite for defining and recommending radiation protection principles and measures. The dose limits determined so far as a result of this research work are explained. The book finally presents explanations of technical terms in physics and dosimetry that are helpful in understanding the subjects discussed. (HSCH)

1986-01-01

19

Survey of radiation protection programmes for transport; Etude des programmes de radioprotection pour les transports de matieres radioactives  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The survey of radiation protection programmes for transport has been jointly performed by three scientific organisations I.P.S.N. (France), G.R.S. ( Germany), and N.R.P.B. (United kingdom) on behalf of the European Commission and the pertaining documentation summarises the findings and conclusions of the work that was undertaken with the principal objectives to provide guidance on the establishment, implementation and application of radiation protection programmes for the transport of radioactive materials by operators and the assessment and evaluation of such programmes by the competent authority and to review currently existing radiation protection programmes for the transport of radioactive materials. (N.C.)

Lizot, M.T.; Perrin, M.L.; Sert, G. [CEA Fontenay-aux-Roses, Inst. de Protection et de Surete Nucleaire, Dept. de Protection et de Surete Nucleaire, 92 (France); Lange, F.; Schwarz, G.; Feet, H.J.; Christ, R. [Gesellschaft fur Anlagen-und Reaktorsicherheit, GRS, mbH, Cologne (Germany); Shaw, K.B.; Hughes, J.S.; Gelder, R. [National Radiological Protection Board (NRPB), Oxon, OX (United Kingdom)

2001-07-01

20

Proposal of a survey of radiation protection procedures during breast feeding  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Contamination can occur by breast milk ingestion involving mothers subjected to diagnostic procedures or treatment with radiopharmaceuticals, which can reach high concentrations in milk causing significant absorbed doses to the children organs. Besides internal dose, close contact between the baby and his mother give rise to external exposures. In Brazil, 7% of diagnostic procedures use 131I or 123I for thyroid imaging and 84% of these were hold by women. For 131I, 67Ga and 201Tl, is recommended breast feeding cessation. The present work proposes a survey of the state of the art of radiation protection to breast feeding infants. It was planned interviews with nuclear medicine staff applying a questionnaire in order to assess specific procedures to women in reproductive age. This is 'on progress work'. (author)

2009-07-08

 
 
 
 
21

Survey and analysis of radiation safety management systems at medical institutions. Second report. Radiation measurement, calibration of radiation survey meters, and periodic check of installations, equipment, and protection instruments  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We carried out a questionnaire survey to determine the actual situation of radiation safety management measures in all medical institutions in Japan that had nuclear medicine facilities. The questionnaire consisted of questions concerning the evaluation of shielding capacity; radiation measurement; periodic checks of installations, equipment, and protection instruments; and the calibration of radiation survey meters. The analysis was undertaken according to region, type of establishment, and number of beds. The overall response rate was 60 percent. For the evaluation of shielding capacity, the outsourcing rate was 53 percent of the total. For the radiation measurements of ''leakage radiation dose and radioactive contamination'' and contamination of radioactive substances in the air'', the outsourcing rates were 28 percent and 35 percent of the total, respectively (p<0.001, according to region and establishment). For the periodic check of radiation protection instruments, the implementation rate was 98 percent, and the outsourcing rate was 32 percent for radiation survey meters and 47 percent for lead aprons. The non-implemented rate for calibration of radiation survey meters was 25 percent of the total (p<0.001, according to region and establishment). The outsourcing rate for calibration of radiation survey meters accounted for 87 percent of the total, and of these medical institutions, 72 percent undertook annual calibration. The implementation rate for patient exposure measurement was 20 percent of the total (p<0.001, according to number of beds), and of these medical institutions 46 percent recorded measurement outcome. (author)

2006-01-01

22

Radiation protection of the population by legal provisions concerning radioactive releases - a comparative survey on the current legislation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The legal provisions on radioactive releases to the environment belong to the basic rules of radiation protection law. The survey of the most important sources of international law is followed by the internal legal provisions of some States with comments on current legislative problems. (orig.)

1993-01-01

23

Assessment of radiation protection training needs and capabilities in Europe: Results of the ENETRAP survey  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text: Maintaining a high level of competencies in the field of radiation protection is crucial for the future safe application of ionising radiation and to ensure the protection of workers, the public and the environment. Although working with a variety of responsibilities and specific professional aims, practitioners dealing with applications of ionizing radiation have three common needs with regard to radiological protection: basic education and training providing the required level of understanding of artificial and natural radiation; a standard for the recognition of skills and experience; and an opportunity to fine-tune and test acquired knowledge on a regular basis. The wide variety of the national approaches of the E and T programs in radiological protection in Europe hampers a common European methodology concerning these issues. This is particularly true for the Qualified Expert. Although, in this specific case, the fundamentals of the E and T programs are given by a European directive, the national differences in for instance, level, duration, subjects, practical and theoretical proportions in a program etc. create a barrier for the mutual recognition of this expert. The development of a common European radiation protection and safety culture and, based on that, the mutual recognition of radiation protection courses and the acquired competencies of radiation protection experts becomes crucial in a world of dynamic markets and increasing workers' mobility. A sustainable Education and Training (E and T) infrastructure is an essential component to combat the decline in expertise and to ensure the continuation of the high level of radiation protection knowledge in the future. Such infrastructure has to be built in such a way that both the initial training ('Education') and the unceasing maintenance of the level of competencies ('Training') are available. In answer to the need to develop a common European radiation protection and safety culture and, based on that, the mutual recognition for radiation protection courses and the acquired competencies of Qualified Experts, the ENETRAP project is working on a European harmonized approach of E and T programs in radiation protection. In a first phase of the ENETRAP project; a questionnaire was set up, the objective of this questionnaire being to elicit detailed information which will enable us to: assess the actual training needs in the EU Member States and Candidate States; understand the various regulatory aspects and consequently propose minimum requirements for mutual recognition of RPEs and RPOs; collate details of the various training and education activities available in the EU Member and Candidate States, and; review the content, structure and methods of these training and education activities. Hereto, an extensive list of questions was set up addressing the following topics: numbers of RPEs; identification of practices; national capabilities for education and training in radiological protection; regulatory requirements and; recognition. This questionnaire was sent out to 31 countries, i.e. the European Member States, the Candidate States, and the Associated States Norway and Switzerland. This paper will summarize the results of this questionnaire and the implementation these results into the construction of the E and T programmes, namely the European Master in Radiation Protection (EMRP - to start in September 2007) and the ENETRAP training scheme, being a revision of the Saclay based European Radiation Protection Course ERPC. A preliminary programme of both initiatives uses a modular approach and puts forward 2 parts : a common basis, and a series of specialized modules on occupational radiation protection in nuclear power plants and fuel cycle industry, the medical sector, non-nuclear industry and research laboratories, waste and disposal sites, etc. The EMRP and ENETRAP training scheme are planned to run (partly) in parallel, so that an overlap can be made between certain modules. This innovative construction allows close contact and enhances discussi ons

2007-06-01

24

Atoms, radiation and radiation protection  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This text describes basic atomic and nuclear structure as well as the physical processes that result in the emission of ionizing radiation. In addition, external and internal radiation protection criteria, standards and practices are presented from the standpoint of their underlying physical and biological basis. Contents: About atomic physics and radiation. Atomic structure and radiation. The nucleus and nuclear radiation. Interaction of heavy charged particles with matter. Interaction of beta particles with matter. Phenomena associated with charged particle tracks. Interaction of photons with matter. Neutrons, fission, and criticality. Radiation detection methods. Radiation dosimetry. Chemical and biological effects of radiation. Radiation protection criteria and standards. External radiation protection. Internal radiation protection

1986-01-01

25

Radiation protection principles  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The presentation outlines the aspects of radiation protection principles. It discussed the following subjects; radiation hazards and risk, the objectives of radiation protection, three principles of the system - justification of practice, optimization of protection and safety, dose limit

2007-12-10

26

Radiation protection in India  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Safety has been given prime importance in all the nuclear energy and nuclear radiation related activities in India. These include nuclear power production as well as application of radiation in various fields such as medicine, agriculture, industry, research etc. Radiation protection is an integral part of safety assurance. The radiation protection standards are basically derived from the ICRP recommendations and the Basic Safety Standards of the IAEA. In some instances the standards followed in India are more stringent as compared to these. A suitable regulatory framework and management structure exists. The Atomic Energy Regulatory Board is the apex regulatory body for nuclear and radiation installations in India. The radiation protection standards at the various nuclear facilities are implemented through the Health Physics Units and Environmental Survey Laboratories, which are independent of the plant management. A suitable personnel monitoring programme has been established. Training and research and development activities are also given due importance. With the importance given to the implementation of radiation protection standards, generally the dose received by occupational workers has been found to be well below the regulatory limits. The cases of over exposure are negligible. The dose to the public is also well below the regulatory limits. (author)

2002-10-20

27

Survey and analysis of radiation safety management systems at medical institutions. Initial report. Radiation protection supervisor, radiation safety organization, and education and training  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this study, a questionnaire survey was carried out to determine the actual situation of radiation safety management systems in Japanese medical institutions with nuclear medicine facilities. The questionnaire consisted of questions concerning the Radiation Protection Supervisor license, safety management organizations, and problems related to education and training in safety management. Analysis was conducted according to region, type of establishment, and number of beds. The overall response rate was 60%, and no significant difference in response rate was found among regions. Medical institutions that performed nuclear medicine practices without a radiologist participating accounted for 10% of the total. Medical institutions where nurses gave patients intravenous injections of radiopharmaceuticals as part of the nuclear medicine practices accounted for 28% of the total. Of these medical institutions, 59% provided education and training in safety management for nurses. The rate of acquisition of Radiation Protection Supervisor licenses was approximately 70% for radiological technologists and approximately 20% for physicians (regional difference, p=0.02). The rate of medical institutions with safety management organizations was 71% of the total. Among the medical institutions (n=208) without safety management organizations, approximately 56% had 300 beds or fewer. In addition, it became clear that 35% of quasi-public organizations and 44% of private organizations did not provide education and training in safety management (p<0.001, according to establishment). (author)

2005-11-01

28

Radiation Protection: Basic Information  

Science.gov (United States)

... developed and produced nuclear weapons. Informing People About Radiation and Radiation Hazards EPA informs the public about radiation topics, ... to answer specific questions. Top of page EPA's Radiation Protection Program Strategic Goals Goal 1. Prepare for ...

29

Optical Radiation: Laser Protection  

Science.gov (United States)

... Credits PPE Selection Impact Hazards Heat Chemicals Dust Optical Radiation - Filter Lenses - Welding - Lasers - Glare PPE Selection - Optical Radiation: Laser Protection Laser work and similar operations ...

30

Radiation protection standards  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The present paper deals with: Objectives and basic concepts of radiation protection, basic radiobiological considerations, the ICRP system of dose limitation and with operational radiation protection (limits, reference levels, occupational exposure). (RW)

1980-10-15

31

Argentine radiation protection society  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Argentine Radiation Protection Society (SAR) is a non profit society, member of IRPA. It was originally launched in 1987 and a formal constitution was adopted in 1983. Presently, SAR has 220 active members, professionals and technicians dedicated to a variety of disciplines related to different radiation protection aspects: medicine, industry, research and teaching. The basic SAR objectives are: to promote research and knowledge exchange on radiation protection topics and related disciplines; to promote the comprehension of radiation protection criteria with regard to existence and handling of radioactive and fissile materials and any other radiation sources; to foster the conception of radiation protection as a professional discipline and to contribute to its permanent improvement; to promote the diffusion of the information related to all radiation protection and nuclear safety aspects, and radiation protection standards and recommendations, not only within the scientific, technical and academic areas, but also to general public

2000-05-14

32

Radiation and radiation protection  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The brochure explains the major types of radiation, the radiation sources, effects, uses, and risks, as well as the regulatory system adopted by the government in order to keep the risks as low as possible. (orig./DG)

1992-01-01

33

Radiation protection of female patients of reproductive capacity: A survey of policy and practice in Norway  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The implementation of various policies related to female patients of reproductive capacity was investigated using a structured telephone interview of radiological departments in Norway. The findings suggest that 60% (n = 35/58) of radiological departments have written guidelines regarding female patients of reproductive capacity. The 10-day rule is implemented for a range of examinations in 12% (n = 7/58) of the radiological departments questioned, and in another 9% (n = 5/58) it is only implemented for hysterosalpingography. Forty percent (n = 23/58) of departments are familiar with rapid urine pregnancy tests and use them in certain circumstances. In conclusion, a lack of standardisation of approaches to radiation protection is apparent, and this raises concerns as national and international recommendations are not being correctly implemented. This may lead to confusion amongst patients and staff, and may have adverse consequences such as the accidental irradiation of the unborn child

2007-02-01

34

Radiation protection in Bolivia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Radiation protection in Bolivia has gone through a number of stages. Initially, in the 1970s, the focus was mainly on the analysis of environmental sources resulting from the nuclear tests carried out by France in the Pacific Ocean. Subsequently, the focus switched somewhat to radiation protection in connection with the mining of uranium and in the area of public health. During the third stage, radiation protection in other areas became important as the use of radiation sources was introduced. Finally, during the present -- fourth -- stage, radiation protection regulations are being introduced and mechanisms for the control of radiation sources are being established. (author)

2001-08-01

35

Radiation protection research  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The objectives of the research in the field of radiation protection research performed at the Belgian Nuclear Research Centre SCK-CEN are (1) to elaborate and to improve methods and guidelines for the evaluation of restoration options for radioactively contaminated sites; (2) to develop, test and improve biosphere models for the performance assessment of radioactive waste disposal in near-surface or geological repositories; (3) to asses the impact of releases from nuclear or industrial installations; (4) to increase capabilities in mapping and surveying sites possibly or likely contaminated with enhanced levels of natural radiation; (5) to identify non nuclear industries producing NORM waste, to make an inventory of occurring problems and to propose feasible solutions or actions when required; (6) to maintain the know-how of retrospective radon measurements in real conditions and to assess radon decay product exposure by combining these techniques. Main achievements in these areas for 2001 are summarised

2002-04-01

36

Radiation protection research  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The objectives of the research in the field of radiation protection research performed at the Belgian Nuclear Research Centre SCK-CEN are (1) to elaborate and to improve methods and guidelines for the evaluation of restoration options for radioactively contaminated sites; (2) to develop, test and improve biosphere models for the performance assessment of radioactive waste disposal in near-surface or geological repositories; (3) to asses the impact of releases from nuclear or industrial installations; (4) to increase capabilities in mapping and surveying sites possibly or likely contaminated with enhanced levels of natural radiation; (5) to identify non nuclear industries producing NORM waste, to make an inventory of occurring problems and to propose feasible solutions or actions when required; (6) to maintain the know-how of retrospective radon measurements in real conditions and to assess radon decay product exposure by combining these techniques. Main achievements in these areas for 2001 are summarised.

Vanmarcke, H

2002-04-01

37

Radiation protection during space flight  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The problem of ensuring space flight safety arises from conditions inherent to space flights and outer space and from the existing weight limitations of spacecraft. In estimating radiation hazard during space flights, three natural sources are considered: the Earth's radiation belt, solar radiation, and galactic radiation. This survey first describes the major sources of radiation hazard in outer space with emphasis on those source parameters directly related to shielding manned spacecraft. Then, the current status of the safety criteria used in the shielding calculations is discussed. The rest of the survey is devoted to the rationale for spacecraft radiation shielding calculations. The recently completed long-term space flights indicate the reliability of the radiation safety measures used for the near-Earth space exploration. While planning long-term interplanetary flights, it is necessary to solve a number of complicated technological problems related to the radiation protection of the crew

1983-01-01

38

Radiation protection practices and related continuing professional education in dental radiography: A survey of practitioners in the North-east of England  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Purpose: To establish the level of implementation of recommendations from the National Radiological Protection Board, relating to best radiation protection practice in dental radiography within general dental practices in the North-east of England. To survey the opinion of practitioners on the availability of related post-graduate courses in the region. Methods: A postal survey in the form of a self-reported questionnaire was mailed to all practices in the North-east of England in November 2000. The questionnaire, consisting of closed and open-ended questions, was to be completed where possible by the resident radiation protection supervisor. Results: Two hundred and sixteen practices responded to the questionnaire, a response rate of 53%. The survey revealed variation in the standards of application of best radiation protection practice. Some 23% of practitioners had not attended any post-graduate courses on radiation protection since qualifying. Post-graduate education provision on radiation protection in the region was considered insufficient by 51% of respondents. Conclusions: It is concluded that a significant proportion of practices were not making full use of opportunities to reduce dose to their patients. In addition, a small number of practices had untrained staff acting as the Radiation Protection Supervisor. A significant proportion of practitioners had not been updated in radiation protection practices within a 5-year period, and this may account for the failure to implement best radiographic practice. Over half felt that there was insufficient availability of post-graduate courses in radiation protection. The regional provision of continuing professional education in this field may need development

2005-11-01

39

Implantation of inspection and radiation protection plan  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Methods, means and procedures adopted by Petrobras engineering service to survey safety radiation protection of the companies that carry out radiographic services of PETROBRAS are showed. The systematic used in certification of personel, procedures, audits and field survey concerning radiation protection, are described. (C.M.)

1988-04-11

40

Radiation protection standards  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Topics covered include biological radiation effects, radiation protection principles, recommendations of the ICRP and the National Health and Medical Research Council, and dose limits for individuals, particularly the limit applied to the inhalation of radon daughters

1983-11-30

 
 
 
 
41

Radiation protection law  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This article first reviews the general radiation protection law at international and national level, with particular reference to the recommendations of the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) which, although not mandatory, are nevertheless taken into consideration by international organisations establishing basic radiation protection standards such as the UN, IAEA, NEA and Euratom, at Community level, and by national legislation. These standards are therefore remarkably harmonized. Radiation protection rule applied in France for the different activities and uses of radioactive substances are then described, and finally, a description is given of the regulations governing artificial radioisotopes and radioactive effluents. (NEA)

1981-01-01

42

Radiation protection infrastructure  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A prerequisite for the safe use of ionizing radiation in a country is the availability of an adequate infrastructure to achieve the desired degree of protection. The extent of such an infrastructure, generally comprising regulatory mechanisms and technical capabilities for application and enforcement of regulations, has to be commensurate with the stage of technological development. The expanding application of ionizing radiation in medicine, industry and research calls for vigorous promotion of effective radiation protection efforts, not only to prevent any unsafe practices but also to assess correctly and provide authoritative information on the safety of adopted practices. Experience reveals that radiation protection practices vary considerably from one country to another. The regulatory structures and type of organization with regard to radiation protection are very different, depending on a number of factors such as the constitutional framework, the legal and administrative systems of the country concerned, the state of technical development, the status of application of radiation sources, the existence of research and associated institutions, and the technical skills and financial resources available. Radiation protection principles evolve with time as further experience is gained and as new research evidence becomes available. Regulation of radiation protection has to take account of such changes and adapt to changing conditions. Forty-eight papers from 29 Member States and two International Organizations were presented in nine scientific sessions. Topics included radiation protection regulation and licensing notification, registration, inspection and control programmes, education and training, the role of supporting institutions such as national laboratories and research institutes, the role of professional associations, the contribution of radiation protection services, and international activities. A concluding panel addressed development strategies to strengthen radiation protection infrastructure and explored how the IAEA could best assist to overcome identified shortcomings. Refs, figs and tabs

1990-05-07

43

Radiation protection organizations at nuclear power stations  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In the spring and summer of 1986, Radiation Protection Management conducted a survey of radiation protection organizations at 34 nuclear power stations. This article presents the results of the survey and examines radiation protection organizations in five areas: program scope, staffing levels, organization structure, corporate support, and the use of committees. Examples of three types of organization structures are presented and discussed - line/staff, departmental, and empire. The departmental type of structure is the dominant form of organization, reflecting a growing trend towards the separation of radiation protection operations and support functions as well as specialization in technician duties.

Bunker, A.S. (Techrite Co., Kentwood, MI (US))

1986-10-01

44

Optimisation of radiation protection  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Optimisation of radiation protection is one of the key elements in the current radiation protection philosophy. The present system of dose limitation was issued in 1977 by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) and includes, in addition to the requirements of justification of practices and limitation of individual doses, the requirement that all exposures be kept as low as is reasonably achievable, taking social and economic factors into account. This last principle is usually referred to as optimisation of radiation protection, or the ALARA principle. The NEA Committee on Radiation Protection and Public Health (CRPPH) organised an ad hoc meeting, in liaison with the NEA committees on the safety of nuclear installations and radioactive waste management. Separate abstracts were prepared for individual papers presented at the meeting

1988-03-16

45

Physics for radiation protection  

CERN Multimedia

A much-needed working resource for health physicists and other radiation protection professionals, this volume presents clear, thorough, up-to-date explanations of the basic physics necessary to address real-world problems in radiation protection. Designed for readers with limited as well as basic science backgrounds, Physics for Radiation Protection emphasizes applied concepts and carefully illustrates all topics through examples as well as practice problems. Physics for Radiation Protection draws substantially on current resource data available for health physics use, providing decay schemes and emission energies for approximately 100 of the most common radionuclides encountered by practitioners. Excerpts of the Chart of the Nuclides, activation cross sections, fission yields, fission-product chains, photon attenuation coefficients, and nuclear masses are also provided.

Martin, James E

2013-01-01

46

Radiation protection and monitoring  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The present paper deals with the following topics: - Radiological quantities and units - Principles of radiological protection - Limits of doses and activity uptake - Activity discharges and monitoring - Radiation exposure and its calculation - Environmental monitoring - Personnel dosimetry. (orig./RW)

1982-11-17

47

Software for radiation protection  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The software products presented are universally usable programs for radiation protection. The systems were designed in order to establish a comprehensive database specific to radiation protection and, on this basis, model in programs subjects of radiation protection. Development initially focused on the creation of the database. Each software product was to access the same nuclide-specific data; input errors and differences in spelling were to be excluded from the outset. This makes the products more compatible with each other and able to exchange data among each other. The software products are modular in design. Functions recurring in radiation protection are always treated the same way in different programs, and also represented the same way on the program surface. The recognition effect makes it easy for users to familiarize with the products quickly. All software products are written in German and are tailored to the administrative needs and codes and regulations in Germany and in Switzerland. (orig.)

2002-03-01

48

Results of a survey on occupational radiation protection in the medical field  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A complete reform of the French regulations concerning the use of I. R. in application of the new European directives has initiated a multidisciplinary working group in the Ile-de-France French region. The goal of the working group was to draw an assessment guide for the radiological protection organisation in order to install the legal operational dosimetry in the medical field. The results of this investigation showed important variations in the application of areas and on the classification of the exposed workers. The co-operation between the medical team and the radiological protection expert PCRP have to be increased through training, and common exercises and more available time should be provided to the Pcrp. The priorities are towards the most exposed jobs activities like interventional radiology. An extension of this study is under process by the Institut National of Research on occupational Safety within a multidisciplinary group and a morbidity study on the exposed workers is on going with the Institute for Sanitary Follow up in France. (Author)

2002-01-01

49

Radiation protection textbook  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This textbook of radiation protection presents the scientific bases, legal and statutory measures and technical means of implementation of the radioprotection in the medical and industrial sectors, research and nuclear installations. It collects the practical information (organization, analysis of post, prevention, evaluation and risks management, the controls, the training and the information) usually scattered and the theoretical knowledge allowing every person using ionizing radiation: To analyze jobs in controlled areas, to watch the respect for the current regulations, to participate in the training and in the information of the staffs exposed to intervene in accidental situation. This third edition is widely updated and enriched by the most recent scientific and legal data concerning, notably, the human exposure, the dosimetry, the optimization of the radiation protection and the epidemiological inquiries. The contents is as follows: physics of ionizing radiation, ionizing radiation: origin and interaction with matter, dosimetry and protection against ionizing radiation, detection and measurement of ionizing radiation, radiobiology, legal measures relative to radiation protection, human exposure of natural origin, human exposure of artificial origin, medical, dental and veterinarian radiology, radiotherapy, utilization of unsealed sources in medicine and research, electronuclear industry, non nuclear industrial and aeronautical activities exposing to ionizing radiation, accidental exposures. (N.C.)

2007-01-01

50

RADIATION PROTECTION IN IRAN  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper presents the current activities on radiation protection in Iran. According to the Atomic Energy Organization Law of Iran the radiological safety is ascribed to the Atomic Energy Organization of Iran (A E O I and the Radiation Protection Department (R P D is the responsible organ within AEOI. R P D since it's establishment in 1975, with the aim to ensure the protection of man and his environment against any harmful effects of radiations, has embarked on a national development and regulatory activity. The organization and the program of the R P D with an emphasis on the problems and achievements are described in this paper. The Iranian Radiation Protection Society and it's cooperation with the R P D for the dissemination of information and support for the educational institutions to cover the radiation protection topics are presented in this paper. It can be shown that countries envisaging institutions to cover the radiation protection topics are presented in this paper. It can be shown that countries envisaging to embark on a nuclear development have to start much earlier with a major educational and training activity for the personnel in radiological safety as well as other relevant fields.

R. Abedinzadih

1980-08-01

51

Radiation protection in education  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The education of secondary school students in the fields of nuclear sciences was strictly limited according to the 9th recommendations of the ICRP issued in 1966 saying that people under age 18 are not allowed to deal with ionizing radiations. Due to the changes concerning the concept of radiation protection, new opportunities for teaching nuclear technology even in the secondary schools were opened. The 36th recommendations of the ICRP published in 1983 dealing with the maximum permissible doses and the measures taken for radiation protection should be kept in mind while organizing the education of the pupils between age 16 and 18. (V.N.)

1985-01-01

52

Radiation Protection Dosimetry  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The contributions presented during the seminar provided clear evidence that radiation protection of the patient plays an increasingly important role for manufacturers of radiological equipment and for regulatory bodies, as well as for radiologists, doctors and assistants. The proceedings of this seminar reflect the activities and work in the field of radiation protection of the patient and initiate further action in order to harmonize dosimetric measurements and calculations, to ameliorate education and training, to improve the technical standards of the equipment and to give a push to a more effective use of ionising radiation in the medical sector

1991-03-19

53

Radiation protection glossary  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The glossary is intended to be used as a terminology standard for IAEA documentation on radiation protection. An effort has been made to use definitions contained in internationally accepted publications such as recommendations of the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP), standards of the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) and of the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC), reports of the International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurements (ICRU), with only slight modifications in order to tailor them more closely to IAEA needs. The glossary is restricted to ionizing radiation

1986-01-01

54

Current radiation protection law  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Radiation protection law has been characterized by an extremely dynamic development process since approximately 1950, which is reflected in a spiraling development of legislation. This permanent process of amending is triggered regularly by recommendations coming from the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP), which is a private, nongovernmental organization. They are regularly adopted by the intergovernmental international organizations, such as the International Atomic Energy Agency, the World Health Organization, the Nuclear Energy Agency of OECD, and the European Communities, which are engaged in the field of radiation protection, and then pass into national legislation entirely or in part and with modifications. In the Federal Republic of Germany, they are reflected in the provisions of the Atomic Energy Act, the X-Ray Ordinance, and the Radiation Protection Ordinance, all of which are supplemented by administrative regulations, directives, and technical rules.

Bischof, W.

1988-11-01

55

Radiation protection in Qatar  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The State of Qatar has become a Member State of IAEA since 1974. Later the Department of Industrial Development (DID) because the focal point and the competent authority regarding all aspects of the peaceful application of Nuclear Technology. Very little or no progress was made regarding improving the Radiation Protection Infrastructure during those years. In 1998, DID approached the Supreme Council, then called 'Department of Environment' to implement the model project on upgrading radiation protection infrastructure, the council agreed and work commenced immediately. In less than five years, we were able to issue the radiation protection law, draft three set of regulations, namely: Radiation Protection Regulations, Radioactive Waste Management Regulations and the Safe Transport of Radioactive Materials Regulation. A radiation Protection Section, comprising three units was established. We are providing individual exposure monitoring for most of the radiation workers in the public sector and some in the private sector. We have also started proper licensing and inspections procedures, where our inspectors are enforcing the law. (author)

2003-09-01

56

ISO radiation protection standards  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

After a brief description of the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) and its Technical Committee (TC) 85 ''Nuclear Energy'', the work of its Sub-Committee (SC) 2 ''Radiation Protection'' is described in some detail. Several international standards on subjects closely related to radiation protection have already been published, for example ISO-361 (Basic radiation protection symbol), ISO-1757 (Photographic dosimeters), ISO-1758 and 1759 (Direct and indirect-reading pocket exposure meters), ISO-2889 (Sampling of airborne radioactive materials), ISO-4037 (X and gamma reference radiations for calibration) and ISO-4071 (Testing of exposure meters and dosimeters). TC 85/SC 2 has currently eight active Working Groups (WG) dealing with 14 standards projects, mostly in advanced stages, in such fields as neutron and beta reference radiations, and X and gamma radiations of high and low dose-rates and high energies for calibration purposes, reference radiations for surface contamination apparatus, ejection systems for gamma radiography apparatus, industrial and laboratory irradiators, lead shielding units, protective clothing, thermoluminescence dosemeters, radioelement gauges, and surface contamination and decontamination.

Becker, K. (DIN Deutsches Inst. fuer Normung e.V., Berlin (Germany, F.R.)); West, N. (Association Francaise de Normalisation (AFNOR), 92 - Paris-la-Defense)

1981-01-01

57

ISO radiation protection standards  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

After a brief description of the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) and its Technical Committee (TC) 85 ''Nuclear Energy'', the work of its Sub-Committee (SC) 2 ''Radiation Protection'' is described in some detail. Several international standards on subjects closely related to radiation protection have already been published, for example ISO-361 (Basic radiation protection symbol), ISO-1757 (Photographic dosimeters), ISO-1758 and 1759 (Direct and indirect-reading pocket exposure meters), ISO-2889 (Sampling of airborne radioactive materials), ISO-4037 (X and gamma reference radiations for calibration) and ISO-4071 (Testing of exposure meters and dosimeters). TC 85/SC 2 has currently eight active Working Groups (WG) dealing with 14 standards projects, mostly in advanced stages, in such fields as neutron and beta reference radiations, and X and gamma radiations of high and low dose-rates and high energies for calibration purposes, reference radiations for surface contamination apparatus, ejection systems for gamma radiography apparatus, industrial and laboratory irradiators, lead shielding units, protective clothing, thermoluminescence dosemeters, radioelement gauges, and surface contamination and decontamination. (author)

1981-01-01

58

Implantation of Inspection and Radiation Protection Plan.  

Science.gov (United States)

Methods, means and procedures adopted by Petrobras engineering service to survey safety radiation protection of the companies that carry out radiographic services of PETROBRAS are described. The systems used in certification of personnel, procedures, audi...

J. L. R. Cunha

1988-01-01

59

Level of compliance with the radiation protection regulation-A survey among Norwegian hospitals and X-ray institutes  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

To identify the level of compliance with the new radiation protection regulation among Norwegian health care enterprises (HCEs). Totally, 41 HCEs were authorised to use advanced X-ray equipment for medical purposes during 2005-07. Follow-up inspections with 14 HCEs were carried out during 2007-09. Main topics for the inspections were those requirements identified as most challenging to implement in the authorisation process. Totally, 192 non-conformities with the regulation were revealed during the authorisation process. The inspections revealed that 93 % of the inspected HCEs had non-conformities with the regulation. Most common non-conformities dealt with skills in radiation protection, establishment of local diagnostic reference levels, access to medical physicists and performance of quality control of X-ray equipment. Inspections are an effective tool for implementation of regulation the requirements at the HCEs, thus improving radiation protection awareness. (authors)

2010-09-01

60

Principles of Radiation Protection Concepts  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The contents of this chapter are follows - Radiation Protection Concepts: justification, dose limitation, optimisation, potential exposures, situation requiring intervention; Special Considerations. Protection from Radiation Hazards, Remove the Hazard, Prevent the Hazard, Guard the Worker, Implementation of Radiation Protection and Safety Measures, Distance, Shielding, Time, Monitoring Programme, Safety System. Radiation Protection in Radiological Service: Specific Requirement in Diagnostic Radiological Service

2004-01-01

 
 
 
 
61

Radiation protection optimization of workers  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report presents the contribution of CEPN (study center on protection evaluation in nuclear area) to the Days of the French Radiation Protection Society (SFRP) on optimization of workers radiation protection in electronuclear, industrial and medical areas

1994-09-20

62

International radiation protection standards  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text: Today the recommendations of ICRP have a profound influence on radiation protection all over the world. The latest recommendations were issued as publication no 60 (ICRP 60 1991). This document elaborated a conceptual framework for radiation protection based on ethics, experimental work, and risk assessment. The justification principle prohibits practices involving additional radiation exposures unless they produce sufficient societal benefits. The three main principles of the ICRP for proposed or continuing radiation-protection practices are: 1) the justification principle; 2)the optimization principle; 3) the dose limitation principle.The optimization principle requires managers to keep radiation exposures as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA), taking into account economic and social factors. the dose-limitation principle limits exposure of individuals to radiation. The system of radiological protection recommended by CRP for intervention is based on two additional principles: the proposed intervention should do more good than harm; one should optimize the form, scale and duration of intervention. Although the ICRP does not employ the term precautionary principle it does use the concept, at least implicitly

2009-11-01

63

Radiological protection survey results about radiodiagnosis protection practices in Cuba  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In order to identify radiation protection current situation in national X-ray diagnostic practice , the State (cuban) Supervision System for Radiation and Nuclear Safety carried out in 1992 a survey which was planned for projection of future regulatory activities in this field. Survey covers the most important aspects related to radiation protection of occupationally exposed workers, patients and general population. Surveyed sample included a total of 52 X-ray units, sited in 7 dental clinics, 2 polyclinics and 13 hospitals, from 7 provinces of the country. Results showed that the organization of radiation protection in terms of personnel specially designated to carry out surveillance and control activities and level of documentation is deficient. Survey evidenced the general lack of safety and quality culture among technologists and radiologists which is mainly reflected in non regular application of basic patient protection measures (shielding, collimation, use of proper filtration among others) and non regular execution of basic quality inspection of employed radiographic systems. (authors). 4 refs., 1 fig

1996-08-01

64

Fundamentals of health physics for the radiation-protection officer  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The contents of this book on health physics include chapters on properties of radioactive materials, radiation instrumentation, radiation protection programs, radiation survey programs, internal exposure, external exposure, decontamination, selection and design of radiation facilities, transportation of radioactive materials, radioactive waste management, radiation accidents and emergency preparedness, training, record keeping, quality assurance, and appraisal of radiation protection programs

1983-01-01

65

Foundations for radiation protection  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text; In 1996, the IAEA published the latest edition of the International Basic Safety Standards for Protection Against Ionizing Radiation and for the Safety of Radiation Sources (Basic Safety Standards or BSS) comprising basic requirements to be filled in all activities involving radiation exposure. The standards define internationally harmonized requirements and provide practical guidance for public authorities and services, employers and workers, specialized radiation protection bodies, enterprises and health and safety communities. In the same year, the IAEA, through the technical cooperation programme, launched the Model Project on Upgrading Radiation Protection Infrastructure, a global initiative designed to help Member States establish the infrastructure needed to adhere to the BSS. To address the complexity of this task, the radiation protection team identified key elements, known as Thematic Safety Areas. These are: 1. Legislative Framework and Regulatory Infrastructure, Draft and put into effect radiation protection laws and regulations and establish and empower a national regulatory authority. 2. Occupational Exposure Control Protect the health and safety of each individual who faces the risk of radiation exposure in the workplace through individual and workplace monitoring programmes, including dose assessment, record keeping of doses and quality management. 3. Medical Exposure Control: Develop procedures and activities to control the exposure of patients undergoing diagnosis and/or treatment via diagnostic and interventional radiology, nuclear medicine or radiotherapy through staff training, provision of basic quality control equipment, and the establishment of quality assurance programmes. 4. Public and Environmental Exposure Control: Develop means to protect both the public and the environment including: a) programmes to register, inventory and provide safe storage of unused radioactive sources and material; b) procedures to control and safely manage radioactive waste; c) mechanisms to ensure that foodstuffs and other consumer goods being exported/imported comply with national safety standards; and d) tools to monitor radiation levels in the environment (i.e., in air, soil and water). 5. Emergency Preparedness and Response: Mitigate the impact of radiological and/or nuclear emergencies by developing capabilities for preparedness and response through a national emergency plan. This includes training qualified personnel, ensuring technical capabilities are in place and allocating sufficient resources to facilitate an efficient response. (IAEA)

2006-03-01

66

Radiation Protection in the Industry  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Information on use, effects of the use of ionizing radiations is provided. Ionizing radiation sources used in Lithuania are listed, description of characteristics of equipment using ionizing radiation sources is presented. Description of requirements for the licence holder is provided. Radiation protection requirements working with Ionizing radiation sources and legislation regulating radiation protection requirements in the industry is listed

2002-01-01

67

Radiation protection - thirty years after  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this paper is discussed some questions in the field of Radiation Protection as like: historical prologue of radiations discovery and it's systematics; radiation and radiation protection; ALARA principle and 'de minimis' approach; radiation risks and dose limits and radiation and chemicals a risk comparison (author)

1989-10-02

68

Radiation protection in Qatar  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text: The State of Qatar has become a member State of IAEA since 1974. Later the Department of Industrial Development (DID) beam the focal point and the competent authority regarding all aspects of the peaceful application of Nuclear Technology. In July, 2000 the Supreme Council was established and charged with all matters related to environmental protection. The Supreme Council joined the IAEA Projects on upgrading protection infrastructure in West Asia region. A preliminary research was initiated to discover where radiation sources are being used, and the legal framework, if any, to regulate their use. The research indicated that radiation sources were being used in the industrial practices (well logging, industrial radiography and nuclear gauges) and in medical practices (mainly diagnostic radiology). The research also indicated that there was virtually no legal framework to regulate them. In less than five years, the State of Qatar was able to issue the radiation protection law, three sets of regulations, namely: Radiation Protection Regulations, Radioactive Waste Management Regulations and the Safe Transport of Radioactive Materials Regulations. In addition, several specific regulation work, dose limits and radiation protection officers were issued. A radiation Protection Department, comprising three sections was established. We are providing individual exposure monitoring for most of the radiation workers in the public sector and some in the private sector. We have set up a proper licensing and inspections procedures, where our inspectors are enforcing the law. More recently, we established an early warning network for nuclear of radiological emergencies, consisting of 6 transplantable stations, five mobile stations and two navigating stations. This year, the network was augmented with five fixed station and an advanced early warning centre, which provides early warning via multiple means (MMS, Fax, E-mail and audio alarms). Last year we signed a nuclear security agreement for cooperation with IAEA. Based on this agreement, the Agency assisted the state of Qatar to establish a very comprehensive boarder monitoring network, covering all land, sea and air ports. The information from all monitors is transferred in real time to two centres; one at the Ministry of Interior, while the being the early warning centre at the Supreme Council. The Supreme Council is currently considering, with the assistance of IAEA, establishing a regional training centre of excellence for radiation protection. (author)

2008-10-19

69

Radiation protection glossary  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This glossary contains the arabic equivalent of all the terms included in the IAEA Safety Series No.76 (which is a selected basic terms used in IAEA publications), thus this glossary contains English, French, Spanish, Russian, and Arabic. It is intended to facilitate the work of arabic speaking scientists involved in the field of radiation protection

1989-01-01

70

Radiation protection in nuclear facilities  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This book covers several themes in sixteen chapters: the dosimetry of ionizing radiations, the norms, the legislation, the instrumentation; the protection against external irradiation and contamination; the radiation protection in reactors; the radioactive wastes and effluents; the radiation monitoring and surveillance in environment; it would be useful to any person having a responsibility in radiation protection in nuclear facilities. (N.C.)

1997-01-01

71

Radiation protecting glove  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The radiation protecting gloves of the present invention comprise a neutron shielding material made of natural or synthetic rubber incorporated with neutron shielding materials. For the neutron shielding materials, those having first neutron moderating effect and those having thermal neutron absorbing effect can be used properly. As the materials having first neutron moderating effect, gadolinium oxide power, zirconium hydride powder or the like is used. Further, as the thermal neutron absorbing material, boron carbide powder or the like is used. As the natural or synthetic rubber for the substrate, neoprene rubber, butadiene rubber or hyperlon rubber may be used for instance. Thus, a radiation protection gloves having neutron protecting function can be obtained. (I.N.).

Harada, Yoshifumi; Nakahara, Hiroshi.

1991-01-21

72

Radiation protecting glove  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The radiation protecting gloves of the present invention comprise a neutron shielding material made of natural or synthetic rubber incorporated with neutron shielding materials. For the neutron shielding materials, those having first neutron moderating effect and those having thermal neutron absorbing effect can be used properly. As the materials having first neutron moderating effect, gadolinium oxide power, zirconium hydride powder or the like is used. Further, as the thermal neutron absorbing material, boron carbide powder or the like is used. As the natural or synthetic rubber for the substrate, neoprene rubber, butadiene rubber or hyperlon rubber may be used for instance. Thus, a radiation protection gloves having neutron protecting function can be obtained. (I.N.)

1989-06-12

73

Radiation Protection: Introduction  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

As a federal research Centre, SCK-CEN has the statutory assignment to give priority to research related to safety, radioactive waste management, protection of man and environment, management of fissile and other strategic materials and social implications as part of the pursuit of sustainable development and to develop and gather the necessary knowledge and spread this knowledge through formation and communication. At the Division of Radiation Protection at SCK-CEN we are therefore active to maintain and enhance knowledge and expertise in each aspect of radiation protection: we study the risk of exposure - the way that radioactive materials spread in the environment and the potential for human contact - and the risk from exposure - how radiation affects human health; we perform health physics measurements; we are involved in emergency planning and preparedness and support to risk governance and decision taking. These activities are supported by radiation specific analysis and measurement techniques. These activities are not performed in isolation but in context of national and international collaborations or demands

2007-09-01

74

Radiation protection - the employer  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A brief report is given of a paper presented at the symposium on 'Radiation and the Worker - where do we go from here' in London 1983. The paper concerned the employers' viewpoint on the draft of the proposed Ionising Radiations Regulations in the Health and Safety Commission Consultative Document. It was concluded that there was already a very good standard of radiological protection in the UK and that any improvements could therefore only be fringe improvements, although the cost to the employer of introducing and implementing the new proposed Regulations was bound to be high. (U.K.)

1983-03-01

75

Radiation protection: A correction  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An error in translation inadvertently distorted the sense of a paragraph in the article entitled 'Ecological Aspects of Radiation Protection', by Dr. P. Recht, which appeared in the Bulletin, Volume 14, No. 2 earlier this year. In the English text the error appears on Page 28, second paragraph, which reads, as published: 'An instance familiar to radiation protection specialists, which has since come to be regarded as a classic illustration of this approach, is the accidental release at the Windscale nuclear centre in the north of England.' In the French original of this text no reference was made, or intended, to the accidental release which took place in 1957; the reference was to the study of the critical population group exposed to routine releases from the centre, as the footnote made clear. A more correct translation of the relevant sentence reads: 'A classic example of this approach, well-known to radiation protection specialists, is that of releases from the Windscale nuclear centre, in the north of England.' A second error appeared in the footnote already referred to. In all languages, the critical population group studied in respect of the Windscale releases is named as that of Cornwall; the reference should be, of course, to that part of the population of Wales who eat laver bread. (author)

1972-01-01

76

Emerging radiation protection  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In recent years, a number of radiation protection issues have emerged into the public forum. The perceived high risks associated with radiation exposure, and disproportionate media attention to such issues, have contributed to heightened concerns by the public and the individual occupationally exposed worker. This paper examines the new and controversial radiation risk estimates of the National Research Council's BEIR V committee, which are based on the most current atomic-bomb survivor data and a revised dosimetry model. These risk estimates are somewhat higher than past values, and may eventually impact the legal framework in the United States through the regulations of the EPA, NRC, DOE, OSHA, and other agencies that set radiation exposure standards. Additionally, present regulations and standards are often based upon differing levels of acceptable risk, which have led to conflicting exposure and effluent release criteria. Further, due to inherent boundaries in legal authority, many potentially significant sources of radiation exposure to the public remain unregulated Radiation exposure scenarios such as medical x-ray, radon, and other technology enhanced sources have no legal limits. These issues and others are examined and analyzed with respect to regulatory policy

1993-02-11

77

The national radiation protection infrastructure  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The state system of radiation protection is still being created after Lithuania regained its independancy and in connection with recommendations laid in the ICRP-60 publication and requirements of legislation of European Community. A new regulation institutions was established and a number of laws and regulations related to radiation protection was prepared. The Radiation Protection Centre of Ministry of Health is the regulatory authority responsible for radiation protection of public and of workers using sources of ionizing radiation in Lithuania. A new Radiation Protection Law, Nuclear Energy Law, Radioactive Waste Management Law and different regulations was approved. Preparation of legislation, creation of state system of radiation protection and its upgrading allow to presume that the necessary level of radiation protection is to be achieved. (au)

1999-11-01

78

Some perspectives on radiation protection  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A brief review of the history and organizational structure of the NCRP is given. Summaries are given of a number of NCRP radiation protection guides dealing with hazards from 85Kr, radiation exposures from consumer products, basic radiation protection criteria, and doses from natural background radiation

1979-02-01

79

Radiation protection, optimization and justification  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Nine articles in the field of radiation protection relative to the medical examinations concern the new legislation in radiation protection, the optimization of this one in order to reduce the radiation doses delivered to the patients, the side effects induced by irradiation and to give an evaluation of the medical exposure of french population to ionizing radiations. (N.C.)

2005-10-01

80

Survey and evaluation of the external research and development programme 1977-1983 of the Swedish Radiation Protection Institute  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A review of the external research programme of SSI is undertaken. The main research programme is in this report divided into five subprogrammes according to the main programmes of the Institute. This report covers research projects reported 1977-1983. An evaluation of the impact of the R and D programme is included in the report. The external R and D research programme of SSI has had an important impact on the radiation protection work in Sweden. The methods for evaluation of research programmes are also discussed in the report

1993-01-01

 
 
 
 
81

The atomic energy and radiation protection law of the USSR  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The author outlines the atomic and radiation protection law in the Soviet Union and gives a survey on the legal regulations in force, especially of the main radiation protection provisions. Until now the statutory provisions in this field are not concentrated in one single atomic energy act or radiation protection ordinance, but there exist numerous regulations for special fields of application. (WG)

1986-09-01

82

Radiation protection and monitoring  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The safety, the quality and efficiency of the radiological monitoring systems for block one and two of the NPP Mochovce, designed and delivered by the general designer, should be increased by EUCOM Siemens. Modern, accident resistant and/or more powerful monitoring systems have been designed by Siemens will be added to the existing systems. To achieve this radiation measuring units will be installed inside the hermetic zone, in the reactor hall, at the stack, at the release water system and in the environment in the vicinity of the NPP. The presentation, the storage distribution and the processing of all measuring results also will be optimised by installing a modern high-performance computer system, the so-called Central Radiological Computer System 'CRCS', featuring a high availability. The components will be installed in the relevant control rooms all over the plant. With this computer system it is easy to control the radiation level inside and outside the NPP during normal operation and during and after an accident. Special programs, developed by Siemens support the staff by interpreting the consequences of radioactive releases into the environment and by initiating protection procedures during and after an accident. All functions of the system are available for emergency protection drills and training the staff interruption of the normal control procedure. For the personal protection a digital personal dosimetry system completely considering with the requirements of ICRP 60 and several contamination monitors will be installed. (authors)

1997-11-19

83

Radiation protection medical care of radiation workers  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Radiation protection medical care for radiation workers is part of the extensive programme protecting people against dangers emanating from the peaceful application of ionizing radiation. Thus it is a special field of occupational health care and emergency medicine in case of radiation accidents. It has proved helpful in preventing radiation damage as well as in early detection, treatment, after-care, and expert assessment. The medical checks include pre-employment and follow-up examinations, continued long-range medical care as well as specific monitoring of individuals and defined groups of workers. Three levels of action are involved: works medical officers specialized in radiation protection, the Institute of Medicine at the National Board for Atomic Safety and Radiation Protection, and a network of clinical departments specialized in handling cases of acute radiation damage. An account is given of categories, types, and methods of examinations for radiation workers and operators. (author)

1988-01-01

84

Occupational radiation protection software  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper presents a reflection on the basic essentials of a Radiation Work Permit (RWP). Based on the latest WANO Recommendations, this paper considers the RWP as a complete process rather than a simple administrative procedure. This process is implemented via software which is also presented in this paper. The software has been designed to achieve the following objectives: - To configure the radiological map of the plant. To plan radiological surveillance, to input data, to update radiological signposting and mandatory protective clothing in each area of the station. All this information can be checked from any personnel computer connected to a network. - To collect radiological data by means of a palmtop (PDA) and to upload it to a personnel computer, thereby speeding up the job and reducing human errors. - To implement the RWP by allowing on-line consultation of the permitted individual doses of the workers and the planned collective dose for each job. The software also supplies the radiological information to the workers. - To collect and arrange pictures, maps and sketches of equipment placed in rooms or in areas of the plant. - To allow the software to be used in real time from different workstations. - High reliability and speed of working. - Flexible data enquiry. The software provides a number of standard data enquiries such as numbers of workers on each job and their individual dose received...etc. It also allows data to be exported to other well-known software applications such as Excel and Access for further data analysis. The software has been designed by radiation protection professionals and developed by computer programmers who were integrated into the radiological work environment. The software would fulfill Occupational Radiation Protection Department requirements. (author)

2010-05-01

85

Protection against enhanced radiation weapons  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

By means of the code ANISN extensive calculations of radiation protection against the neutron and gamma radiation of 'Enhanced Radiation Weapons' (Neutron Bombs) were performed. The shielding materials considered are: The air layer between the explosion centre and the earth surface, water, dry and wet earth, steel plates, normal concrete and concrete with boron and iron. The result is that tank crews can hardly be protected but for civil protection a two meter thick, rather wet layer of earth is a sufficient protection for men against the radiation of the Enhanced Radiation Weapon. (orig.)

1982-01-01

86

National Sessions of Radiation Protection  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Radioprotection Argentine Society (SAR) was organized the National Sessions on Radiation Protection 2012 in order to continue the exchange in the radiation protection community in the country, on work areas that present a challenge to the profession. The new recommendations of the ICRP and the IAEA Safety Standards (2011), among others, includes several topics that are necessary to develop. The SAR wants to encourage different organizations from Argentina, to submit projects that are developing in order to strengthen radiation protection.

2012-08-23

87

Pregnancy and Radiation Protection  

Science.gov (United States)

Several modalities are currently utilized for diagnosis and therapy, by appropriate application of x-rays. In diagnostic radiology, interventional radiology, radiotherapy, interventional cardiology, nuclear medicine and other specialties radiation protection of a pregnant woman as a patient, as well as a member of the operating personnel, is of outmost importance. Based on radiation risk, the termination of pregnancy is not justified if foetal doses are below 100 mGy. For foetal doses between 100 and 500 mGy, a decision is reached on a case by case basis. In Diagnostic Radiology, when a pregnant patient takes an abdomen CT, then an estimation of the foetus' dose is necessary. However, it is extremely rare for the dose to be high enough to justify an abortion. Radiographs of the chest and extremities can be done at any period of pregnancy, provided that the equipment is functioning properly. Usually, the radiation risk is lower than the risk of not undergoing a radiological examination. Radiation exposure in uterus from diagnostic radiological examinations is unlikely to result in any deleterious effect on the child, but the possibility of a radiation-induced effect can not be entirely ruled out. The effects of exposure to radiation on the foetus depend on the time of exposure, the date of conception and the absorbed dose. Finally, a pregnant worker can continue working in an x-ray department, as long as there is reasonable assurance that the foetal dose can be kept below 1 mGy during the pregnancy. Nuclear Medicine diagnostic examinations using short-lived radionuclides can be used for pregnant patient. Irradiation of the foetus results from placental transfer and distribution of radiopharmaceuticals in the foetal tissues, as well as from external irradiation from radioactivity in the mother's organ and tissues. As a rule, a pregnant patient should not undergo therapy with radionuclide, unless it is crucial for her life. In Radiotherapy, the patient, treating oncologist, other team and family members should carefully discuss for the decision of abortion. Important factors must be considered such as the stage and aggressiveness of the tumour, the location of the tumour, the stage of pregnancy, various therapies etc.

Gerogiannis, J.; Stefanoyiannis, A. P.

2010-01-01

88

Pregnancy and Radiation Protection  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Several modalities are currently utilized for diagnosis and therapy, by appropriate application of x-rays. In diagnostic radiology, interventional radiology, radiotherapy, interventional cardiology, nuclear medicine and other specialties radiation protection of a pregnant woman as a patient, as well as a member of the operating personnel, is of outmost importance. Based on radiation risk, the termination of pregnancy is not justified if foetal doses are below 100 mGy. For foetal doses between 100 and 500 mGy, a decision is reached on a case by case basis. In Diagnostic Radiology, when a pregnant patient takes an abdomen CT, then an estimation of the foetus' dose is necessary. However, it is extremely rare for the dose to be high enough to justify an abortion. Radiographs of the chest and extremities can be done at any period of pregnancy, provided that the equipment is functioning properly. Usually, the radiation risk is lower than the risk of not undergoing a radiological examination. Radiation exposure in uterus from diagnostic radiological examinations is unlikely to result in any deleterious effect on the child, but the possibility of a radiation-induced effect can not be entirely ruled out. The effects of exposure to radiation on the foetus depend on the time of exposure, the date of conception and the absorbed dose. Finally, a pregnant worker can continue working in an x-ray department, as long as there is reasonable assurance that the foetal dose can be kept below 1 mGy during the pregnancy. Nuclear Medicine diagnostic examinations using short-lived radionuclides can be used for pregnant patient. Irradiation of the foetus results from placental transfer and distribution of radiopharmaceuticals in the foetal tissues, as well as from external irradiation from radioactivity in the mother's organ and tissues. As a rule, a pregnant patient should not undergo therapy with radionuclide, unless it is crucial for her life. In Radiotherapy, the patient, treating oncologist, other team and family members should carefully discuss for the decision of abortion. Important factors must be considered such as the stage and aggressiveness of the tumour, the location of the tumour, the stage of pregnancy, various therapies etc.

2010-01-21

89

Radiation risks and radiation protection at CRNL  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Radiation exposure is an occupational hazard at CRNL. The predicted health effects of low levels of radiation are described and compared with other hazards of living. Data related to the health of radiation workers are also considered. Special attention is given to the expected effects of radiation on the unborn child. Measures taken to protect CRNL employees against undue occupational exposure to radiation are noted

1986-01-01

90

Radiation protection, measurements and methods  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The introductory lectures discuss subjects such as radiation protection principles and appropriate measuring techniques; methods, quantities and units in radiation protection measurement; technical equipment; national and international radiation protection standards. The papers presented at the various sessions deal with: Dosimetry of external radiation (27 papers); Working environment monitoring and emission monitoring (21 contributions); Environmental monitoring (19 papers); Incorporation monitoring (9 papers); Detection limits (4 papers); Non-ionizing radiation, measurement of body dose and biological dosimetry (10 papers). All 94 contributions (lectures, compacts and posters) are retrievable as separate records. (HP)

1982-10-19

91

Radiation protection primer  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This 'radiation protection primer' does not pretend to give absolute, final answers to the many questions that have been arising after the Chernobyl accident. What it is intended to supply, as a schematic overview of problems resulting from nuclear accidents, and a likewise systematic outline of possible solutions and sensible reactions to such an event. The book takes up questions such as: What has happened to the soil. Will future harvests be 'clean' again. What does radioactivity to our drinking water and other waters. What are the effects of a radioactive fallout on food. What may we eat or drink. What happens to the human body after intake of radioactive air, or - even only slightly - contaminated food or water. What can we do to protect our health, and the health of our children. Is there anything else we can do in order to avoid such a disaster in future, except from shutting-off all reactors. The book itself presents some answers and advice, along with a list of terms and explanations, and addresses to apply to for further advice and information. (orig./HP)

1986-01-01

92

Plowshare radiation protection guidance  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The recommendations of the ICRP and the NCRP were developed primarily for occupational radiation exposures. They were later modified and applied to non-occupational exposures of populations. These, with appropriate interpretations, can be used to provide Plowshare radiation protection guidance. Exposures from Plowshare operations will tend to be acute, arising from radionuclides of relatively short half-life, but will have some chronic aspects due to small amounts of long-lived radionuclides generated. In addition, the neutron activation process of Plowshare technology will produce radionuclides not commonly encountered in routine nuclear energy programs. How these radionuclides contribute to personnel exposure is known for only a few situations that may not be representative of Plowshare exposure. Further complications arise from differences in radionuclide deposition and physiological sensitivity among individuals of different ages and states of health in the exposed population. All parameters necessary to evaluate such exposures are not available, even for good quantitative approximations, resulting in the need for interpretive experience. (author)

1969-04-07

93

Ethical issues in radiation protection  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Ethical theories are relevant to the current recommendations and standards for radiation protection. Radiation protection is not only a matter for science. It is also a problem of philosophy. In order for protection regulations to be respected, it must correspond to widely accepted ethical values among those who are affected by the regulations. The workshop covered the following issues: Problems in Present Protection Policy, ICRP Protection Policy - A Historical Perspective, Radiation Risk - What we know and what we believe, Present ICRP Recommendations, Ethical Values in the Context of ICRP Recommendations, Collective Responsibility for Invisible Harm, Environmental Protection - Ethical Issues, The Global Change of Values, and Procedural justice and Radiation Protection. Six workshop contributions and a workshop summary are presented in this report.

Persson, Lars (ed.)

2000-03-15

94

Ethical issues in radiation protection  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Ethical theories are relevant to the current recommendations and standards for radiation protection. Radiation protection is not only a matter for science. It is also a problem of philosophy. In order for protection regulations to be respected, it must correspond to widely accepted ethical values among those who are affected by the regulations. The workshop covered the following issues: Problems in Present Protection Policy, ICRP Protection Policy - A Historical Perspective, Radiation Risk - What we know and what we believe, Present ICRP Recommendations, Ethical Values in the Context of ICRP Recommendations, Collective Responsibility for Invisible Harm, Environmental Protection - Ethical Issues, The Global Change of Values, and Procedural justice and Radiation Protection. Six workshop contributions and a workshop summary are presented in this report

1999-06-16

95

Occupational radiation protection. Safety guide  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Occupational exposure to ionizing radiation can occur in a range of industries, medical institutions, educational and research establishments and nuclear fuel cycle facilities. Adequate radiation protection of workers is essential for the safe and acceptable use of radiation, radioactive materials and nuclear energy. In 1996, the Agency published Safety Fundamentals on Radiation Protection and the Safety of Radiation Sources (IAEA Safety Series No. 120) and International Basic Safety Standards for Protection against Ionizing, Radiation and for the Safety of Radiation Sources (IAEA Safety Series No. 115), both of which were jointly sponsored by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, the IAEA, the International Labour Organisation, the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency, the Pan American Health Organization and the World Health Organization. These publications set out, respectively, the objectives and principles for radiation safety and the requirements to be met to apply the principles and to achieve the objectives. The establishment of safety requirements and guidance on occupational radiation protection is a major component of the support for radiation safety provided by the IAEA to its Member States. The objective of the IAEA's occupational protection programme is to promote an internationally harmonized approach to the optimization of occupational radiation protection, through the development and application of guidelines for restricting radiation exposures and applying current radiation protection techniques in the workplace. Guidance on meeting the requirements of the Basic Safety Standards for occupational protection is provided in three interrelated Safety Guides, one giving general guidance on the development of occupational radiation protection programmes and two giving more detailed guidance on the monitoring and assessment of workers' exposure due to external radiation sources and from intakes of radionuclides, respectively. These Safety Guides together reflect the current internationally accepted principles and recommended practices in occupational radiation protection, with account taken of the major changes that have occurred over the past decade. The three Safety Guides on occupational radiation protection are jointly sponsored by the IAEA and the International Labour Office. The present Safety Guide provides general guidance on the establishment of an effective radiation protection programme for occupational exposure, in accordance with the requirements of the Basic Safety Standards and appropriate for the sources of radiation likely to be encountered in the workplaces in question

1999-10-01

96

Mining and radiation protection law  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The following radiation protection recommendations, guidelines and standards under international law must be considered: - ICRP recommendations (in particular no. 24, 26, 32); - IAEA Safety series; - Euratom standards 1980/84. Investigations of the legal position in the Federal Republic of Germany must comprise: - AtG of 1959/1976; - Radiation Protection Ordinance in its wording of 1976 which is in force; - Federal Mining Act of 1980. Since both mining law and radiation protection law are involved, the homogeneity and possible concurrence of operative legal regulations must be investigated. The following problems must be discussed: - scope of application of the Radiation Protection Ordinance and of the Federal Mining Act with respect to the search for, production of, processing and transport, import and export as well as the possession of radioactive minerals; also waste disposal; - terminology, - application of protection regulations of the Radiation Protection Ordinance for mining activities (radiation protection policies, persons responsible for radiation protection, environmental protection, physical control, medical control etc.); - government supervision. (orig./HP)

1985-12-01

97

Bioassay programs for radiation protection  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report discusses the rationale for the establishment of bioassay programs as a means of protection for radiation workers in the nuclear industry. The bioassay program of the Radiation Protection Bureau is described for the years 1966-1978 and plans for future changes are outlined. (auth)

1979-01-01

98

Practical radiation protection; Praktische stralingshygiene  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This textbook aims at providing sufficient knowledge and insight to carry out correctly radiation protection activities and operations. The subjects are appropriate for the training of radiation protection experts for the levels 5A (encapsulated sources, X rays) and 5B (open sources, laboratory activities).

Brouwer, G. [Afdeling Cursorisch Onderwijs, Interfacultair Reactor Instituut IRI, Delft (Netherlands); Van den Eijnde, J.H.G.M. [Dienst voor Veiligheid en Milieu, Rijksuniversiteit Leiden, Leiden (Netherlands)

1997-12-31

99

Radiation protection in nuclear medicine  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The goal of this Chapter is to give a general outline of the essential principles and procedures for radiation protection in a nuclear medicine department where radionuclides are used for diagnosis and therapy. More detailed recommendations regarding radiation protection in nuclear medicine are given in the publications of the International Commission on Radiation Protection (ICRP, publications 25, 57, 60) and in ILO/IAEA/WHO Manual on Radiation Protection in Hospitals and General Practice (Volume 2: Unsealed Sources, WHO, Geneva, 1975), on which this Chapter is based. This chapter is not intended to replace the above-mentioned international recommendations on radiation protection, as well as existing national regulations on this subject, but intended only to provide guidance for implementing these recommendations in clinical practice

1992-01-01

100

Radiation protection of the patient  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Every irradiation contributes to increasing the risk and cost-benefit considerations went into radiation protection work. The stochastic effect of cancer induction is the main concern in today`s work on radiation protection of the patient. In radiation therapy, doses to the target volume (tumour and nearby healthy tissues) are part of the therapy and not a matter of radiation protection; doses to distant organs need, however, to be minimised to reduce the risk of developing radiation induced cancer later in life. The present recommendations by the ICRP are gathered in three publications for patients in diagnostic radiology, radiotherapy and nuclear medicine, respectively. This article discusses some of the social and economical aspects of diagnostic radiology, reviews its biological effects and gives risk estimates according to the ICRP 60. The concepts of radiation protection are also discussed and some of the strategies for dose reduction adopted by the European Union are outlined 21 refs.

Carlsson, G.A. [Linkoping University, Faculty of Health Sciences (Sweden). Dept of Radiation Physics

1999-03-01

 
 
 
 
101

Occupational safety meets radiation protection  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The cooperation circle ''Synergies in operational Security'' is a joint working group of the Association of German Safety Engineers (VDSI) and the German-Swiss Professional Association for Radiation Protection (FS). The tasks of the KKSyS are arising from the written agreement of the two associations. This includes work on technical issues. In this regard, the KKSyS currently is dealing with the description of the interface Occupational Safety / Radiation Protection. ''Ignorance is no defense'' - the KKSyS creates a brochure with the working title ''Occupational Safety meets radiation protection - practical guides for assessing the hazards of ionizing radiation.'' The target groups are entrepreneurs and by them instructed persons to carry out the hazard assessment. Our aim is to create practical guides, simple to understand. The practical guides should assist those, who have to decide, whether an existing hazard potential through ionizing radiation requires special radiation protection measures or whether the usual measures of occupational safety are sufficient. (orig.)

2012-09-17

102

Radiation protection guidelines for radiation emergencies  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The system of dose limitation and present guidance for emergency workers and guidance for intervention on behalf of the public are discussed. There are three elements for the system of dose limitation: justification, optimization and dose limits. The first element is basically a political process in this country. Justification is based on a risk-benefit analysis, and justification of the use of radioactive materials or radiation is generally not within the authority of radiation protection managers. Radiation protection managers typically assess detriments or harm caused by radiation exposure and have very little expertise in assessing the benefits of a particular practice involving nuclear material.

Lessard, E.T.; Meinhold, C.B.

1986-01-01

103

Radiation protection guidelines for radiation emergencies  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The system of dose limitation and present guidance for emergency workers and guidance for intervention on behalf of the public are discussed. There are three elements for the system of dose limitation: justification, optimization and dose limits. The first element is basically a political process in this country. Justification is based on a risk-benefit analysis, and justification of the use of radioactive materials or radiation is generally not within the authority of radiation protection managers. Radiation protection managers typically assess detriments or harm caused by radiation exposure and have very little expertise in assessing the benefits of a particular practice involving nuclear material

1986-11-19

104

Radiation protective clothing  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An external clothing as a main portion of the radiation protective clothing of the present invention is adapted to cover substantially the entire body of a wearer, comprises a moisture permeable material partially or entirely, and has an air supply device equipped with a filter for feeding air to a head portion of the wearer in the external clothing. Cleaned air filtered by the filter is supplied to the head portion of a wearer in the external clothing. The air passes through remarkably perspiratory head, face, shoulder, chest and back portions to remove heat and sweat at sensitively important upper portions of a body, so that humidity is released to remove fatigues and improve workability. In addition, since some extent of internal pressure is exerted to the inside of the external clothing by the air supply, contaminated air does not intrude from the outside to the external clothing. Since the air supply device is attached and carried to the external clothing, there is no air line hose which disturbs operation. (I.S.)

1997-01-06

105

Ethics in radiation protection  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Ethics is a branch of philosophy. Its object is the study of both moral and immoral behaviour in order to make well founded judgements and to arrive at adequate recommendations. The Collins English Dictionary provides the following definitions of the word ethic: Ethic: a moral principle or set of moral values held by an individual or group; Ethics(singular): the philosophical study of the moral value of human conduct and of the rules and principles that ought to govern it; Ethics(pleural): a social, religious or civil code of behaviour considered correct, especially that of a particular group, profession or individual; Ethics(pleural): the moral fitness of a decision, course of action, etc. Ethics has a two-fold objective: Firstly it evaluates human practices by calling upon moral standards; it may give prescriptive advice on how to act morally in a specific kind of situation. This implies analysis and evaluation. Sometimes this is known as Normative ethics. The second is to provide therapeutic advice, suggesting solutions and policies. It must be based on well-informed opinions and requires a clear understanding of the vital issues. In the medical world, we are governed by the Hippocratic Oath. Essentially this requires medical practitioners (doctors) to do good, not harm. There is great interest and even furore regarding ethics in radiation protection

2002-10-08

106

The Radiation Protection in Guatemala  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A brief account of the activities on radiation safety carried out by the General Directorate of Nuclear Energy of Guatemala in the period 1991-1992 is presented. The activities are reported under organization, activities on occupational radiation protection in medicine, industry and research, personnel monitoring, radiation metrology, regulations and international cooperation are described

1992-01-01

107

An introduction to radiation protection  

CERN Multimedia

The sixth edition of this established text takes the reader through the general background to the subject, the technical principles underlying the control of radiation hazards, radiation detection and measurement and the biological effects of radiation. These are followed by a consideration of radiation protection issues in the nuclear industry, the non-nuclear sector and the medical field. Further specialised topics include risk assessment, waste management and decommissioning, radiological incidents and emergencies, relevant legislation and organizational issues.

Martin, Alan; Beach, Karen; Cole, Peter

2012-01-01

108

Radiation protection in civil defence  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The brochure contains the information given to the participants of an advanced training course in civil defence, on the subject of radiation protection. The course was held by teachers of Bundesverband fuer den Selbstschutz (BVS). (orig.)

109

Healing Arts Radiation Protection Act  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Healing Arts Radiation Protection Act is concerned with regulating the registration, installation, operation, inspection and safety of X-ray machines. The Act provides for the establishment of the Healing Arts Radiation Protection Commission which is responsible for reporting on all the above matters to the Ontario Minister of Health. In addition the board is responsible for the continuing development of an X-ray safety code and for the submission of an annual report of their activities to the minister

1984-01-01

110

Radiation survey meters used for environmental monitoring  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Nordic dosimetry group set up the GammaRate project to investigate how its expertise could be used to assure appropriate usage of survey meters in environmental monitoring. Considerable expertise in calibrating radiation instruments exists in the Nordic radiation protection authorities. The Swedish, Finnish, Danish and Norwegian authorities operate Secondary Standard Dosimetry Laboratories (SSDLs) that provide users with calibration traceable to internationally recognised primary standards. These authorities together with the Icelandic authorities have formally cooperated since 2002 in the field of radiation dosimetry. Dosimetry is the base for assesment of risk from ionising radiation and calibration of instruments is an imported part in dosimetry. The Nordic dosimetry group has been focused on cancer therapy. This work extends the cooperation to the dosimetry of radiation protection and environmental monitoring. This report contains the formal, theoretical and practical background for survey meter measurements. Nordic standards dosimetry laboratories have the capability to provide traceable calibration of instruments in various types of radiation. To verify and explore this further in radiation protection applications a set of survey instruments were sent between the five Nordic countries and each of the authority asked to provide a calibration coefficient for all instruments. The measurement results were within the stated uncertainties, except for some results from NRPA for the ionchamber based instrument. The comparison was shown to be a valuable tool to harmonize the calibration of radiation protection instruments in the Nordic countries. Dosimetry plays an important role in the emergency situations, and it is clear that better traceability and harmonised common guidelines will improve the emergency preparedness and health. (Author)

Bjerke, H. (ed.) (Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority, NRPA (Norway)); Sigurdsson, T. (Icelandic Radiation Safety Authority, Geislavarnir Rikisins, GR (IS)); Meier Pedersen, K. (National Board of Health, Statens Institut for Straalebeskyttelse (SIS) (Denmark)); Grindborg, J.-E.; Persson, L. (Swedish Radiation Safety Authority, Straalsaekerhetsmyndigheten (SSM) (Sweden)); Siiskonen, T.; Hakanen, A.; Kosunen, A. (Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority, Saeteilyturvakeskus (STUK) (Finland))

2012-01-15

111

Occupational radiation protection in medicine in Estonia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

New legislation concerning radiation protection, which was effective in Estonia from 1998, followed from recommendations of ICRP Publication 60 and IAEA BSS, and included all basic principles for the protection of radiation workers given in these documents. From 1997 all topics in radiation protection in Estonia are regulated and supervised by Estonian Radiation Protection Centre. ERPC is responsible also for supervising of occupational radiation protection and monitoring of radiation workers. There are 1137 radiation workers in Estonia. Personal monitoring is managed for 1183 workers. Most significant part of radiation workers and radiation sources is in medical sector. The paper describes in detail all current aspects of occupational radiation protection in medicine. (author)

2003-07-01

112

Radiation protection in medical applications  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text: The goal of this paper is to identify the areas in which radiation protection is actually needed and the relative importance of protection measures. A correlation between the different medical applications of the ionizing radiations and the associated risks, mainly due to ignorance, has been a constant throughout the history of mankind. At the beginning, the accidents were originated in research nuclear laboratories working on the atomic bomb, while the incidents occurred in medical areas because of virtual ignorance of the harmful effects on humans. The 60's were characterized by the oil fever, which produced innumerable accidents due to the practice of industrial radiography; in the 70's the use of radiations on medical applications was intensified, to such and extent that a new type of victim appeared: the patient. Unfortunately, during 80's and 90's the number of accidents in different medical practices has increased, projecting the occurred in Zaragoza (Spain) on 1990 with a linear accelerator for radiotherapy treatments. In some developed countries, foreseeing the probability of producing biological effects as a result of different radiology practices, more strict security rules are adopted to guarantee the application of the three principles of the radioprotection: justification, optimization and limitation of individual dose. In this way, in the U.S.A., the Joint Commission on Accreditation of Health Care Organization (JCAHO), favors a vigilance politics in the different departments of Radiodiagnostic and Nuclear Medicine to secure an effective management in security, communications and quality control, in which the medical physicists play an important role. One of the requirements for example is to attach the value of entrance exposition dose in the radiological diagnostic report. So, the doses in the different organs are compared with the tabulated doses. Basically, a quality control programme is designed to minimize the risks for patients, workers and the public in general, maximizing the quality of the diagnostic information. To achieve this goal, external advise on quality control, radioprotection training, personal monitoring, environmental survey and technical supports must be added to the physician staff. In diagnostic areas, using radiography and computed tomography, the doses of the operators are 2 mSv/yr on average; in mammography and odontology they do not exceed 0.5 mSv/yr; in fluoroscopy they vary between 2 and 4 mSv/yr; in the services of radiotherapy and brachytherapy they vary between 1 and 2 mSv/yr, in spite of the high dose rates present, and finally in nuclear medicine the average doses are 1 mSv/yr. Bearing in mind, that the annual permissible weighed dose is 20 mSv/yr, the value of the dose absorbed by the professional that work in the areas, is optimal. The weak point of radiation protection philosophy in medical applications is in the work of interventional physicians who take part in a lot of angiography procedures for about half and hour with each patient. This staff, have no full time dedication like the radiologist physicians and therefore haven't enough knowledge about the radiations and besides they are outside the personal dosimetry systems. Actually they are the highest risk group among physicians who use ionizing radiations in routine work and to whom the efforts in radio sanitary policies must be directed. (author)

1998-09-22

113

Radiation protection, 1975. Annual EPA review of radiation protection activities  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The EPA, under its Federal Guidance authorities, is responsible for advising the President on all matters pertaining to radiation and, through this mechanism, to provide guidance to other Federal agencies on radiation protection matters. Highlights are presented of significant radiation protection activities of all Federal agencies which were completed in 1975, or in which noteworthy progress was made during that period, and those events affecting members of the public. State or local activities are also presented where the effects of those events may be more far-reaching. At the Federal level significant strides have been made in reducing unnecessary radiation exposure through the efforts of the responsible agencies. These efforts have resulted in the promulgation of certain standards, criteria and guides. Improved control technologies in many areas make it feasible to reduce emissions at a reasonable cost to levels below current standards and guides. This report provides information on the significant activities leading to the establishment of the necessary controls for protection of public health and the environment. Radiation protection activities have been undertaken in other areas such as medical, occupational and consumer product radiation. In the context of radiation protection, ancillary activities are included in this report in order to present a comprehensive overview of the events that took place in 1975 that could have an effect on public health, either directly or indirectly. Reports of routine or continuing radiation protection operations may be found in publications of the sponsoring Federal agencies, as can more detailed information about activities reported in this document. A list of some of these reports is included

1976-01-01

114

Proceedings of Asia congress on radiation protection  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

203 articles were collected in the proceedings. The contents of the proceedings included the principle and practices of radiation protection, biological effects of radiation, radiation monitoring, protection in medical and other fields, radiation dosimetry, nuclear energy and the environment, natural radiation, radioactive waste management, and other radiation protection issues

1993-10-18

115

Concepts of radiation protection; Nocoes de protecao radiologica  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This seventh chapter presents the concepts and principles of safety and radiation protection, emergency situations; NORM and TENORM; radiation protection care; radiation protection plan; activities of the radiation protection service; practical rules of radiation protection and the radiation symbol.

NONE

2013-11-15

116

Radiation protection and health effects  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The use of ionizing radiation in nuclear medicine carries with it a responsibility to both patient and personnel to maximize the diagnostic and therapeutic benefit while minimizing the potential for any adverse health effects. Shortly after the discovery of the x-ray in 1895 the potential for acute health hazards of ionizing radiation became apparent. However, the risks of ionizing radiation were poorly understood and many early users did not believe that anyone could be hurt by something that could not be detected by any of the human senses. Many experiments on the biologic effects of ionizing radiation began in the early 1900s, and the first radiation protection standards were proposed by the British Roentgen Society in 1915. We now realize that these pioneers had a very limited knowledge of the potential hazards and radiation protection principles. Today more scientific data are available on the health effects of, detection of, and protection from ionizing radiation than any other physical agent or chemical known. In addition, use of many forms of ionizing radiation is heavily regulated at both national and state levels. This paper discusses how maternal contamination with radionuclides may cause irradiation of the fetus even if the radionuclide is not transferred across the placenta. This is mostly true for radionuclides that decay yielding relatively penetrating radiations

1988-01-01

117

Radiation protection information  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

From the measurements and discussion presented in this report, the following conclusions may be drawn: The population doses from naturally occuring radiation is on average lower in Denmark and much lower in Iceland than in the other Nordic countries. In Sweden, Finland and Norway the largest contributors to the population doses from naturally occuring radiation are radon daughters in indoor air. For Denmark and Iceland, radon daughters contribute about the same to the total effective dose equivalent as the external gamma radiation. Some groups of people in the Nordic countries are highly exposed to radon daughters. In some cases, the received doses are very high (higher than the dose limit for radiation workers). From the conclusions above, the radon daughter problem should be given priority, at least in Sweden, Finland and Norway, especially regarding the search for population groups receiving the highest doses

118

Research programs 1992/93 radiation protection  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Radiation protection research programs are summarized. The main fields are: ionizing and non-ionizing radiation, radioactive wastes, radiation accidents, dosimetry, epidemiology, radiobiology and radioecology

1992-01-01

119

Aerial radiation survey  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Aerial gamma spectrometry surveys are the most effective, comprehensive and preferred tool to delimit the large area surface contamination in a radiological emergency either due to a nuclear accident or following a nuclear strike. The airborne survey apart from providing rapid and economical evaluation of ground contamination over large areas due to larger ground clearance and higher speed, is the only technique to overcome difficulties posed by ground surveys of inaccessible region. The aerial survey technique can also be used for searching of lost radioactive sources, tracking of radioactive plume and generation of background data on the Emergency Planning Zone (EPZ) of nuclear installations

1998-10-01

120

Radiation protection in nuclear medicine  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Addresses all aspects of radiation protection in nuclear medicine. Covers current technologies and principles. An ideal textbook for students and a ready source of information for nuclear medicine specialists and medical physics experts. One of a series of three books on the fundamentals of modern nuclear medicine (physics, safety, and imaging). This book explains clearly and in detail all aspects of radiation protection in nuclear medicine. After an introductory chapter on the general role of radiation protection, measurement quantities and units are discussed, and detectors and dosimeters, described. Radiation biology and radiation dosimetry are then addressed, with the inclusion of a chapter specifically devoted to biology and dosimetry for the lens of the eye. Discussion of radiation doses to patients and to embryos, fetuses, and children forms a central part of the book. Phantom models, biokinetic models, calculations, and software solutions are all considered, and a further chapter focuses on quality assurance and reference levels. Occupational exposure also receives detailed attention. Exposure resulting from the production, labeling, and injection of radiopharmaceuticals and from contact with patients is discussed and shielding calculations are explained. The book closes by considering exposure of the public and summarizing the ''rules of thumb'' for radiation protection in nuclear medicine. This is an ideal textbook for students and a ready source of useful information for nuclear medicine specialists and medical physics experts.

2013-01-01

 
 
 
 
121

Radiation protection in nuclear medicine  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Addresses all aspects of radiation protection in nuclear medicine. Covers current technologies and principles. An ideal textbook for students and a ready source of information for nuclear medicine specialists and medical physics experts. One of a series of three books on the fundamentals of modern nuclear medicine (physics, safety, and imaging). This book explains clearly and in detail all aspects of radiation protection in nuclear medicine. After an introductory chapter on the general role of radiation protection, measurement quantities and units are discussed, and detectors and dosimeters, described. Radiation biology and radiation dosimetry are then addressed, with the inclusion of a chapter specifically devoted to biology and dosimetry for the lens of the eye. Discussion of radiation doses to patients and to embryos, fetuses, and children forms a central part of the book. Phantom models, biokinetic models, calculations, and software solutions are all considered, and a further chapter focuses on quality assurance and reference levels. Occupational exposure also receives detailed attention. Exposure resulting from the production, labeling, and injection of radiopharmaceuticals and from contact with patients is discussed and shielding calculations are explained. The book closes by considering exposure of the public and summarizing the ''rules of thumb'' for radiation protection in nuclear medicine. This is an ideal textbook for students and a ready source of useful information for nuclear medicine specialists and medical physics experts.

Mattsson, Soeren [Lund Univ., Skane Univ. Hospital Malmoe (Sweden). Medical Radiation Physics; Hoeschen, Christoph (eds.) [Helmholtz Zentrum Muenchen Deutsches Forschungszentrum fuer Gesundheit und Umwelt GmbH, Neuherberg (Germany)

2013-07-01

122

Radiation protection in questions and answers  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An easily surveyable catalogue of questions is presented which is to make it easier for medical personnel to get acquainted with the basic knowledge according to the X-ray Ordinance and to acquire the expert knowledge in radiation protection. The catalogue is arranged according to different subjects. There are several alternative answers to every question. The right answer is given in the solution index (annex). (HP)

1976-01-01

123

Radiation protection training and education in Europe; Strahlenschutzausbildung in Europa  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

First, a comprehensive survey is given on the development and the present situation of radiation protection education and training, followed by exemplary reports from the individual countries Germany, Switzerland, Austria and the Netherlands. (orig.)

Boersma, Hielke Freerk [Groningen Univ. (Netherlands). Office of the Univ. Health, Safety and Environment; Ham, Ulla [GNS Gesellschaft fuer Nuklear-Service mbH, Essen (Germany); Holl, Matthias [Strahlenschutzschulung, Andernach (Germany); Jahn, Swen-Gunnar [Eidgenoessisches Nuklearsicherheitsinspektorat (ENSI), Villigen (Switzerland); Neuwirth, Johannes [Seibersdorf Laboratories (Austria); Schmitt-Hannig, Annemarie [Bundesamt fuer Strahlenschutz, Oberschleissheim (Germany). Fachbereich Strahlenschutz und Gesundheit; Schoenhacker, Stefan [Bundesministerium fuer Inneres, Traiskirchen (Austria). Abt. 1/9 - Zivilschutzschule; Vahlbruch, Jan-Willem [Leibniz Univ. Hannover (Germany). Inst. fuer Radiooekologie und Strahlenschutz (IRS)

2013-09-01

124

Current radiation protection law  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The paper reviews the dynamic development of the law on radiological protection, showing that legislation in this field develops along a spiral line starting from non-governmental level to the level of governmental international agencies, going full circle to the level of national legislation. This process which generally takes several years is subject to political, psychological, economic, and ecologic impacts in addition to technical and scientific impacts which frequently require amendments of the law, so that the dynamic development may have a negative aspect in terms of reliability of the law. The paper discusses recent amendments of the law on radiological protection and legislative initiatives taken after the Chernobyl reactor accident. (RST)

1988-06-01

125

Radiation Protection Centre Annual Report, 2002  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Description of the activities of Radiation Protection Centre (RPC) is presented. Radiation Protection Centre is responsible for radiation protection issues in Lithuania. Information on work performed by RPC in 2002, short review of the state of radiation protection is provided. Main issues are: emergency preparedness in connection with possible terror acts, preparation for decommissioning, achievements in co-operation projects is presented and other

2003-01-01

126

Semiconductor spectrometer for radiation protection  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The radiation fields on aircraft board and for other radiation protection application are complexes they contain the particles with energies up to few hundreds MeV. Obviously, one distinguishes the components with low resp. high linear energy transfer (LET). Recently, we have acquired a new measuring instrument, MDU-LIULIN, an energy deposition spectrometer base on a Si-detector. The spectrometer was originally developed and largely tested onboard of cosmic vehicles, its sensitive element is a Si-diode. The spectrometer has been calibrated in photon, neutron and high-energy radiation reference fields (CERN). The energy deposited in the detector by a particle is analysed by a 256-channel spectrum analyser, it permits to distinguish the contribution of different types of radiation to integral dosimetry quantities. The spectrometer has been, since April 2000 used for some radiation protection applications, mostly on aircraft board. Results obtained are presented, discussed and analysed. Materials and methods. (authors)

2001-11-01

127

Philosophy of radiological protection and radiation hazard protection law  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The radiation protection and the human safety in radiation facilities are strictly controlled by law. There are rules on the radiation measurement, too. In the present review, philosophy of the radiological protection and the radiation hazard protection law is outlined with reference to ICRP recommendations. (J.P.N.)

2013-09-01

128

Radiation Protection Research: Radiobiology  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The main objectives of research in the field of radiobiology and epidemiology performed at the Belgian Nuclear Research Centre SCK-CEN are (1) to study cancer mortality in nuclear workers in Belgium; to document the feasibility of retrospective cohort studies in Belgium; (2) to participate in the IARC study; (3) to elucidate the molecular basis of the effects of ionising radiation in the mammalian embryo during the early phases of its development; (4) to assess the genetic risk of maternal exposure to ionizing radiation; (5) to elucidate the cellular mechanisms leading to brain damage after prenatal irradiation; (6) to advise authorities and to provide the general population with adequate information concerning the health risk arising from radiation exposure. Progress and major achievements in these topical areas in 1999 are reported

2000-01-01

129

Radiation Protection Research: Radiobiology  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The main objectives of research in the field of radiobiology and epidemiology performed at the Belgian Nuclear Research Centre SCK-CEN are (1) to study cancer mortality in nuclear workers in Belgium; to document the feasibility of retrospective cohort studies in Belgium; (2) to participate in the IARC study; (3) to elucidate the molecular basis of the effects of ionising radiation in the mammalian embryo during the early phases of its development; (4) to assess the genetic risk of maternal exposure to ionizing radiation; (5) to elucidate the cellular mechanisms leading to brain damage after prenatal irradiation; (6) to advise authorities and to provide the general population with adequate information concerning the health risk arising from radiation exposure. Progress and major achievements in these topical areas in 1999 are reported.

Desaintes, C

2000-07-01

130

Radiation protection - the unions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A brief report is given of a paper presented at the symposium on 'Radiation and the Worker - where do we go from here' in London 1983. The paper concerned trade union viewpoints on the draft of the proposed Ionising Radiations Regulations in the Health and Safety Commission Consultative Document. The main contentious issue was that the 5 rem dose limit might have been lower if ICRP had agreed to involve employers and the trade union movement in their considerations. However, it was concluded that, on balance, the trade union movement would welcome the proposed Regulations. (U.K.)

1983-03-01

131

Encouraging the radiation protection practice  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The radiological protection of workers occupationally exposed to ionizing radiation (X-ray diagnoses, Nuclear Medicine, Radiotherapy and Dental) is essential to minimize the appearance of radiation effects. The ways to reduce the potential for exposure of workers are: Time, Distance , and Shielding. The most important purpose of radiation protection is to provide safe conditions for activities involving ionizing radiation, basic safety conditions that must be observed in professional practice. The professional must have full knowledge of the subject and deepen in the revision of norms and guidelines related to radiation protection establish by the Vigilancia Sanitaria - ANVISA, and Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear - CNEN, Brazil. The study was conducted in a technical school for the Technical Training Course in Radiology, where the students are invited to think deeply about the radiation protection of themselves, the patients and the environment. Developed since July 2012, with the participation of 30 students, with a leading class -three teachers assisting in the development of the project . With this project there was an awareness of both students, as instructors stage accompanying the daily lives of students and their own colleagues. Following the same objective in 2013 the project continues with more adept at radioprotection

2013-04-14

132

Radiation Protection Centre Annual Report, 2004  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Description of the activities of Radiation Protection Centre is presented. Radiation Protection Centre is responsible for radiation protection issues in Lithuania. Information on work performed by Radiation Protection Centre in 2004, short review of the state of radiation protection is provided. Main issues discussed in the report are: licensing of practices; preparation for decommissioning of Ignalina NPP; transport of radioactive materials and radioactive waste; management of radioactive waste; emergency preparedness; radiological accidents and incidents; public exposure; international cooperation and other

2005-01-01

133

Activities of Radiation Protection Centre in 2000  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Description of the activities of Radiation Protection Centre in 2000 is presented. Radiation Protection Centre is responsible for radiation protection issues. Currently there are six departments at Radiation Protection Centre: two in Vilnius - Department of Radiation Protection Supervision and Control and Department of Programs and Expertise, and four in the districts. Brief information on subject controlled by each departments is provided focusing on main achievements and events

2001-01-01

134

Radiation Protection Centre Annual Report, 2001  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Description of the activities of Radiation Protection Centre in 2001 is presented. Radiation Protection Centre is responsible for radiation protection issues. Currently there are six departments at Radiation Protection Centre: two in Vilnius - Department of Radiation Protection Supervision and Control and Department of Programs and Expertise, and four in the districts. Brief information on subject controlled by each departments is provided in report focusing on main achievements and events

2002-01-01

135

Microdosimetry and radiation protection  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Pacific Northwest Laboratory has developed an instrument, the Total Dose Meter, to determine the dose equivalent from penetrating ionizing radiations in mixed radiation fields, such as neutrons and gamma rays. This device is intended to be used as an alarming personnel monitor to determine the total dose equivalent, and uses a single cylindrical tissue equivalent proportional counter (TEPC) detector. The TEPC is operated at very low pressures so that it measures the energy deposition distribution in a tissue-like site only 1 micrometer in diameter. The present instrument uses algorithms to determine neutron quality factors using the currently accepted values. If the recommendations of ICRU-40 are adopted, the algorithms in the microprocessor can be changed to determine the new values of quality factor for neutrons and for photons

1987-01-01

136

XXX. Days of Radiation Protection. Conference Proceedings of the 30-th Days of Radiation Protection  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The publication has been set up as a proceedings of the conference dealing with health protection during work with ionizing radiation for different activities which involve the handling of ionizing radiation sources. The main conference topics are focused on current problems in radiation protection and radioecology. In this proceedings totally 107 papers are published. The Conference consists of following sections: Effects of ionizing radiation; Regulation of radiation protection; Dosimetry and Metrology of ionizing radiation; Radiation protection in nuclear Power plants; Medical exposure and radiation protection in diagnostic radiology, nuclear medicine and radiation oncology; Natural radioactivity issues in radiation protection; Education, societal aspects and public involvement in radiation protection, trends and perspectives

2008-11-10

137

1993 Radiation Protection Workshop: Proceedings  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The 1993 DOE Radiation Protection Workshop was conducted from April 13 through 15, 1993 in Las Vegas, Nevada. Over 400 Department of Energy Headquarters and Field personnel and contractors from the DOE radiological protection community attended the Workshop. Forty-nine papers were presented in eleven separate sessions: Radiological Control Manual Implementation, New Approaches to Instrumentation and Calibration, Radiological Training Programs and Initiatives, External Dosimetry, Internal Dosimetry, Radiation Exposure Reporting and Recordkeeping, Air Sampling and Monitoring Issues, Decontamination and Decommissioning of Sites, Contamination Monitoring and Control, ALARA/Radiological Engineering, and Current and Future Health Physics Research. Individual papers are indexed separately on the database.

1993-12-31

138

Radiation protection/shield design  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Radiation protection/shielding design of a nuclear facility requires a coordinated effort of many engineering disciplines to meet the requirements imposed by regulations. In the following discussion, the system approach to Clinch River Breeder Reactor Plant (CRBRP) radiation protection will be described, and the program developed to implement this approach will be defined. In addition, the principal shielding design problems of LMFBR nuclear reactor systems will be discussed in realtion to LWR nuclear reactor system shielding designs. The methodology used to analyze these problems in the U.S. LMFBR program, the resultant design solutions, and the experimental verification of these designs and/or methods will be discussed. (orig.)

1977-04-22

139

Radiation protection, an international challenge  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The radiation protection community faces a series of international challenges in 1991. There are three topics in which action is required: - Communication, standard setting and education. IRPA is already responding to the challenges in communication and standard setting. There is a growing demand for education and training in radiation protection and the teaching of this subject in schools must be improved. It is therefore proposed that IRPA should respond to this challenge and help to co-ordinate the necessary international initiatives. The importance is stressed to create a 'Safety Culture' which is reflected already in the education programs. (orig.)

1991-05-01

140

Radiation protection in mines  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The main objective of the research project was to investigate and develop methods at the Muellenbach test mine which allow optimal protection against radon and its daughter products considering both economic and mining aspects. Theoretical models as well as investigations in the laboratory and underground have shown that good ventilation offers an effective protection against radon and its daughters. Other methods such as wetting of broken rock and variation of the blasting pattern as well as the application of positive ventilating pressure were of minor influence on radon emanation. The sealing of rock surfaces showed satisfactory results in laboratory tests (radon emanation rate was reduced up to 98%), however underground its application appears to be limited and unsuitable for stoping operations. The airstream helmet (type AH 1) tested underground proved to be effective as a dust filter but because of its ergonomic and safety disadvantages its application in uranium mining is limited. Its efficiency as far as the reduction of radon daughters is concerned should be tested after the ergonomic disadvantages have been eliminated. The research work done has shown that cavitation models developed are of practical value for the determination of radon and its daughter concentrations as well as for mine ventilation planning. The report presented emphasizes that the nuclide measurements carried out underground and the knowledge gained about the behaviour of radio nuclides in the mine atmosphere are transferable to other mining branches for instance to coal and fluorspar mining. (orig./HP)

1986-01-01

 
 
 
 
141

Nordic society for radiation protection  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The key themes of teh 12th ordinary general meeting of the Nordic Society for Radiation Protection were: RADIATION - ENVIRONMENT - INFORMATION. A number of outstanding international experts accepted to contribute on the meetings first day with invited presentations, which focussed on these themes. In all 38 oral presentations and 28 posters are included in the present Proceedings, which furthermore contains a resume of discussions from the special session on 'Controllable Dose'. (EHS)

1999-08-23

142

Radiation Protection and Monitoring Services at the Bandung Reactor Centre  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A description Is given of the Radiation Protection Service at the Bandung Reactor Centre, Including such activities as monitoring the radiation from the TRIGA MARK II (250-kW) reactor which is measured in the reactor hall and on the reactor deck. Another area surveyed by the Protection Service is the Radioisotope Laboratory. Also discussed are problems concerning instrument failure and the availability of man power To meet the safety requirements, the Protection Service is attempting to manufacture its own Instruments. (author)

1969-05-01

143

Radiation Protection Services Division: progress report for 1992-1993  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report describes the work of the Radiation Protection Services Division during 1993, for implementation of radiation safety in all institutions in India using radiation sources in medical, industrial and research applications. It gives information about personnel monitoring using photographic film and TLD badges, neutron monitoring badges, advisory and licensing services, regulation, transport of radioactive materials and periodic protection survey. About 33 publications by the staff of the Division are also listed. (author). 4 tabs

1994-01-01

144

Practical methods for radiation survey in nuclear installations  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This study is placed to those who are responsible to perform radiation survey in the nuclear installations, especially the beginners. Therefore, it gives a comprehensive view to all-important aspects related to their work starting from the structure of atoms to the practical steps for radiation survey works. So, it clarify how to perform personal monitoring, methods for monitoring surface contamination, methods for measuring radioactivity of gases and radioactive aerosols in air, monitoring radiation doses, measuring radiation influences in workplaces and finally measuring internal exposure of radiation workers in nuclear installations. Finally, The study shows some cases of breaches of radiation protection rules in some American nuclear installations and describes the final results of these breaches. The aim of this is to assure that any breach or ignore to radiation protection principles may produce bad results, and there is no leniency in implementing environmental radiation protection principles. (author)

2001-01-01

145

Priority issues in radiation protection  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Current radiation protection is based on the recommendations presented in ICRP Publication 60 produced in 1991, which was a consolidation of several ideas that were discussed in the years prior to publication. Conceptually, ICRP Publication 60 is based on a stipulated linear, non-threshold relationship between the probability of severe harm and radiation dose at low doses, and on this basis ICRP Publication 60 develops a coherent system of protection based on controlled and accepted risk. The current system of protection presents new protection quantities, and in addition a quantity (effective dose) that can be readily converted into risk, representing the result of several tissue exposures to different types of radiation. ICRP Publication 60 has made clear that the present system of protection distinguishes between practices, which increase doses and risks, and interventions, which reduce doses and risks. In the first case the increases are subject to control, while in the second the decision to intervene is guided by the principle of doing more good than harm. The control of the introduction and the performance of a practice are subject to the principles of justification, optimization of protection and individual dose limits for single sources of radiation or for a stipulated combination of sources. While these principles are well known, there is still substantial confusion, which can be exemplified by statements such as 'this protection system forces us to spend enormous amounts of money to reduce trivial risks'. This is nonsense, owing to the optimization principle. Also, there is confusion in trying to set limits in intervention situations, where there is no dose increase to control

1998-09-04

146

Ionizing radiation: Protection and dosimetry  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This guidebook explores the basics of the interaction of radiation with matter both from the physical and chemical aspects and the relation to biological effects. Calculations of absorbed doses and dose equivalent and ways to minimize exposure and optimization of radiation protection in light of the latest international recommendations are discussed and examples are shown. Frequently used dosimeters, radiation detectors with an emphasis on TL and chemical dosimeters and the dosimetry of fast neutron beams with special attention on medical uses in neutron therapy are discussed. The latest data on exposure resulting from natural and man-made sources in the environment is also covered.

Paie, G.

1988-01-01

147

Environmental damage valuation as radiation protection tool  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Environmental radiation protection procedures do not have global consensus. Aiming the development of consensus mechanisms to guide environmental radiation protection procedures, it appears that the approaches used by non-radioactive environmental protection are very promising. Among these approaches, environmental valuation procedures are commonly employed, and are very proper for environmental radiation protection. (author)

Pereira, Wagner de Souza; Py Junior, Delcy de Azevedo [Industrias Nucleares do Brasil, Resende, RJ (Brazil)]. E-mail: wspereira@inb.gov.br; Kelecom, Alphonse [Universidade Federal Fluminense (UFF), Niteroi, RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Biologia Geral

2006-07-01

148

Environmental damage valuation as radiation protection tool  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Environmental radiation protection procedures do not have global consensus. Aiming the development of consensus mechanisms to guide environmental radiation protection procedures, it appears that the approaches used by non-radioactive environmental protection are very promising. Among these approaches, environmental valuation procedures are commonly employed, and are very proper for environmental radiation protection. (author)

2006-08-16

149

Radiation protection in veterinary radiology  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This Code of Practice is designed to give guidance to veterinary surgeons in ensuring that workers and members of the public are adequately protected from the hazards of ionising radiation arising from the use of x-ray equipment in veterinary practice. (author)

1989-01-01

150

Radiation protection in technical radiography  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In on-site inspections, e.g. double-plate radiography of circumferential pipe welds Ir-192 is most frequently used. Methods, controlled area, possible personnel doses, and radiation protection measures for the inspection and construction personnel are briefly discussed. (HP)

1980-01-01

151

Protection against radiation (biological, pharmacological, chemical, physical)  

Science.gov (United States)

Physical, chemical, and biological protection for astronauts from penetrating radiation on long-term space flights is discussed. The status of pharmacochemical protection, development of protective substances, medical use of protective substances, protection for spacecraft ecologic systems, adaptogens and physical conditioning, bone marrow transplants and local protection are discussed. Combined use of local protection and pharmacochemical substances is also briefly considered.

Saksonov, P. P.

1975-01-01

152

Radiation protection of medical staff  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The continuing increase in the worldwide use of X-ray imaging has implications for radiation protection of medical staff. Much of the increased usage could be viewed as simply a workload issue with no particular new challenges. However, advances in technology and developments in techniques have seen an increase in the number of X-ray procedures in which medical personnel need to maintain close physical contact with the patient during radiation exposures. The complexity of many procedures means the potential for significant occupational exposure is high, and appropriate steps must be taken to ensure that actual occupational exposures are as low as reasonably achievable. Further attention to eye protection may be necessitated if a lowering of the dose limit for the lens of the eye is implemented in the near future. Education and training in radiation protection as it applies to specific situations, established working procedures, availability and use of appropriate protective tools, and an effective monitoring programme are all essential elements in ensuring that medical personnel in X-ray imaging are adequately and acceptably protected.

Le Heron, John, E-mail: J.Le.Heron@iaea.or [Radiation Safety and Monitoring Section, Division of Radiation, Transport and Waste Safety, International Atomic Energy Agency, Wagramer Strasse 5, P.O. Box 100, 1400 Vienna (Austria); Padovani, Renato, E-mail: padovani.renato@aoud.sanita.fvg.i [Medical Physics Department, University Hospital, Udine (Italy); Smith, Ian, E-mail: Ian.Smith@uchealth.com.a [St Andrew' s Medical Institute, St Andrew' s War Memorial Hospital, Brisbane (Australia); Czarwinski, Renate, E-mail: R.Czarwinski@iaea.or [Radiation Safety and Monitoring Section, Division of Radiation, Transport and Waste Safety, International Atomic Energy Agency, Wagramer Strasse 5, P.O. Box 100, 1400 Vienna (Austria)

2010-10-15

153

Radiation protection of medical staff  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The continuing increase in the worldwide use of X-ray imaging has implications for radiation protection of medical staff. Much of the increased usage could be viewed as simply a workload issue with no particular new challenges. However, advances in technology and developments in techniques have seen an increase in the number of X-ray procedures in which medical personnel need to maintain close physical contact with the patient during radiation exposures. The complexity of many procedures means the potential for significant occupational exposure is high, and appropriate steps must be taken to ensure that actual occupational exposures are as low as reasonably achievable. Further attention to eye protection may be necessitated if a lowering of the dose limit for the lens of the eye is implemented in the near future. Education and training in radiation protection as it applies to specific situations, established working procedures, availability and use of appropriate protective tools, and an effective monitoring programme are all essential elements in ensuring that medical personnel in X-ray imaging are adequately and acceptably protected.

2010-10-01

154

Radiation protection educational programmes in Egypt  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Radiation protection education activities have expanded during the past 5 years. The promotion of radiation protection knowledge has aimed at proliferating the philosophy of radiation protection and spreading the implementation of its measures. These activities materialized by intensifying the function of training for the scientific and technical staff of all institutions dealing with ionizing radiations. Besides training, the spread of radiation protection education was practiced by other channels of action. (author).

Gomaa, M.A.; El-Naggar, A.M. [Atomic Energy Authority, Cairo (Egypt). Radiation Protection Dept.

1994-07-01

155

Radiation protection educational programmes in Egypt  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Radiation protection education activities have expanded during the past 5 years. The promotion of radiation protection knowledge has aimed at proliferating the philosophy of radiation protection and spreading the implementation of its measures. These activities materialized by intensifying the function of training for the scientific and technical staff of all institutions dealing with ionizing radiations. Besides training, the spread of radiation protection education was practiced by other channels of action. (author)

1994-01-01

156

Radiation Protection Centre Annual Report, 2006  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Description of the activities of Radiation Protection Centre is presented. Radiation Protection Centre is responsible for radiation protection issues in Lithuania. Information on work performed by Radiation Protection Centre in 2006, short review of the state of radiation protection is provided. Main issues discussed in the report are: licensing of practices; state radiation protection supervision and control; preparation for and status of decommissioning of Ignalina NPP; state supervision and control of management of radioactive waste; state supervision and control of transport of radioactive materials and radioactive waste; emergency preparedness and prevention of terrorism; public exposure; medical exposure; international cooperation and other

2007-01-01

157

Radiation Protection Centre Annual Report, 2005  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Description of the activities of Radiation Protection Centre is presented. Radiation Protection Centre is responsible for radiation protection issues in Lithuania. Information on work performed by Radiation Protection Centre in 2005, short review of the state of radiation protection is provided. Main issues discussed in the report are: licensing of practices; radiation protection state supervision and control; preparation for decommissioning of Ignalina NPP; supervision and control of transport of radioactive materials and radioactive waste; supervision and control of management of radioactive waste; emergency preparedness; radiological accidents and incidents; prevention of nuclear and radiological terrorism; international cooperation and other

2006-01-01

158

Neutron spectrometry for radiation protection purposes  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Neutron spectrometry is required for reference in radiation protection dosimetry because the commonly used survey meters and personal dosemeters do not measure the neutron dose equivalent sufficiently independent of the neutron energy. Reliable calibration factors are based on the spectral neutron fluence measured at the particular position and the relevant fluence to dose equivalent conversion factor. Liquid scintillation detectors, hydrogen-filled spherical proportional counters and a set of Bonner spheres have been carefully specified for the spectrometry of neutrons in the energy range from thermal to 20 (100) MeV as encountered in radiation protection practice. Experimental calibration and Monte Carlo simulations were combined in order to establish the response matrices required for the unfolding of proton recoil pulse height spectra and Bonner sphere count rates. The spectrometers were employed at workplaces and in 'realistic' neutron calibration fields. (orig.)

1994-05-24

159

The international radiation protection: the international actors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The International commission on radiation units and measurements, (ICRU) and UNSCEAR represent the basic knowledge from science. For the international recommendations in radiation protection we find ICRP, the radiological safety standards of IAEA, the Committee of radiation protection and public health of the nuclear energy agency (Nea), the role and recent activities of the ilo concerning the radiation protection of workers and the Who role in radiation protection. About the regulation elaboration for the international standardization in radiation protection we have the international standard organisation (ISO), the alimentarius Codex and the radiation protection, at the European level, the European commission and the directives lay down the basic standards in radiation protection, the scientific and technical committee of the EURATOM treaty (S.T.C.). How to use the regulation is explained trough the international radiation protection association (IRPA), the European ALARA network (E.A.N.) the international cooperation on N.R.B.C. malevolent risk. (N.C.)

2005-12-01

160

Radiation protection following nuclear power accidents: a survey of putative mechanisms involved in the radioprotective actions of taurine during and after radiation exposure.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

There are several animal experiments showing that high doses of ionizing radiation lead to strongly enhanced leakage of taurine from damaged cells into the extracellular fluid, followed by enhanced urinary excretion. This radiation-induced taurine depletion can itself have various harmful effects (as will also be the case when taurine depletion is due to other causes, such as alcohol abuse or cancer therapy with cytotoxic drugs), but taurine supplementation has been shown to have radioprotect...

2012-01-01

 
 
 
 
161

Report to the government of Zambia. Radiation protection  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

At the request of the Government of the Republic of Zambia, the International Atomic Energy Agency set up a technical assistance project to supply an expert plus some equipment, commencing 1 October 1971 and of one year's duration. The project was to expand Zambia's radiation protection service through monitoring of radiation doses, radiation sources, and premises, and provide advise related to the safe handling of sources of ionizing radiation. Upon arrival the expert found that some of these activities had been initiated. The key measures therefore were to establish channels of communication and authority, survey the state of radiation safety and protective measures, and coordination of protective and control measures. On these lines the Ionising Radiation Act is stated to show how its establishment and organizational structure could assist in the implementation of radiation protection measures. maps

1971-10-01

162

Radioprotectors and Immunomodulators for Protection against Radiation  

International Science & Technology Center (ISTC)

Development of New Generation of Radioprotectors, Immunomodulators, and Radiation Sensitizers for Human Protection Against Ionizing Radiation and Efficiency Improvement of Radiotherapy of Malignant Cells

163

Radiation protection workshop summary remarks  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The overall aims of radiation protection are to define safety standards, determine the nature and magnitude of the hazard, make available the tools to control the hazards, and obtain assurance that standards can be or are being met. These aims were discussed at this conference. In the future dose limits are likely to be lowered, weighing factors used in dosimetry will be changed, explicit references will be made to environmental protection in regulations, and the ALARA principle will be mentioned. Accounting for individual variations in radiation sensitivity will be a challenge. Non-ionizing radiation may be of increasing regulatory concern. Research will be needed to support the more detailed estimates needed as we apply ALARA. Some pathways, especially urban pathways, have not been studied sufficiently. Refinement of biokinetic and other models will continue, an area where international cooperation is invaluable. Microdosimetry and animal studies will need to be continued to advance our understanding of low dose effects. Better sensitivity for plutonium detection and improved methods for personal air monitoring for alphas in uranium mines are two problems that must still be addressed. In operational protection, the emphasis will continue to be on ALARA. The principles for intervention following accidents are becoming clearer after Chernobyl. Dose reduction to patients from medical diagnostic radiation is desirable

1989-06-01

164

Training courses on radiation protection  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Many Member States are developing or already have developed their own national training programmes. The IAEA is actively involved in promoting training in radiological protection, and this report has been prepared to provide the guidance that may be required in this development. The original version of the report on this subject was published in 1964 as Technical Reports Series No. 31 entitled ''Training in Radiological Protection: Curricula and Programming''. In 1975 a second version was published entitled ''Training in Radiological Protection for Nuclear Programmes'' as Technical Reports Series No. 166. This publication is intended mainly for use by persons who are responsible for organizing training programmes in radiation protection. It also reflects the policy of the Agency to have continuing standardized training in radiation protection. In addition to a small change in the title of the report, some concepts and ideas which are no longer applicable have been omitted and new information included. An important part of this report is the list of courses now offered in many Member States

1988-01-01

165

Epistemological basis of radiation protection  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text: Regarding natural phenomena understood or not, the absolute truth must be somewhere. In fact, there is no evidence that neither nature nor the phenomena that it includes were 'created' to be understood. Except for the fact that Man appeared through the same process, with his curiosity, capacity to perceive and manipulate, his greed for power and fears. In general, the attitude towards questions for which the absolute truth has not been reached varies from ignorance/indifference to the search of knowledge through scientific methodology, and may even be based on beliefs. The fact that the interaction between ionizing radiations and living beings results in biological effect is true. That the biological effect of high doses of radiation, absorbed outside the context of medicine, is hazardous for the irradiated individuals also seems to be true. That any dose is dangerous, or not, is debatable: the available information and knowledge are not consistent enough to end the question; and so, the absolute truth remains hidden. Radiological Protection is founded on the principle that any increase of dose results in an increase in the risk of cancer, and that this risk must be kept as low as possible. It is therefore based on this 'belief' that the international organisms of radiological protection emit recommendations aiming the protection of people and the environment. What is interesting about this question is that because of restrictions imposed by regulating agencies, populations, members of the public and the environment are properly protected against harmful effects of ionizing radiations, which makes the truth no longer interesting. Radiological Protection is a requirement associated to all activities involving nuclear energy. It satisfies several interests and opposes others. The greater the opposed interests and the perception that the absolute truth can represent dialectic advantage to one of the parts, the greater the perception of the importance of its revelation. In the present study, two initiatives of search for the truth were analyzed: the initiative of the Brazilian National Congress, through the creation of a working group in charge of evaluating the radiological protection in the country; and WONUC's initiative to create a publication focused exclusively on the effect of low doses of ionizing radiation. In relation to the understanding of the biological effects of the radiations, the document underlines the difficulty of all those involved in accepting the evidence that the truth related to this question was not reached. In respect to the initiative of the WONUC, the International Journal of Low Radiation is now in its 4th volume; publishing works that oppose the official belief that any dose is harmful. (author)

2008-10-19

166

Radiation protection of the patient  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The manual is intended as a handbook of good practice for everyday use by those having responsibilities for the protection of patients undergoing diagnostic examinations or treatment. Part I is devoted to diagnostic radiology. The first section deals with the responsibilities of the doctors, radiologists, radiographers and radiation protection supervisors and advisors. The second section considers the various technical factors which contribute to the success of an examination and enable the required clinical objective to be achieved with minimal dose to the patient. Parts II and III of the manual, dealing with nuclear medicine and radiotherapy respectively, are being published separately. (author)

167

Radiation surveys in contaminated communities  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Radiation surveys of uranium contamination in Uranium City and Port Hope, Canada, are described. Samples of soil, water, and crops grown in contaminated soil and air in homes were analyzed for radon content. Following decontamination, measurements were made of ? exposure rates both inside and outside of buildings

1977-07-01

168

Radiation Protection in Paediatric Radiology  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Over the past decade and a half, special issues have arisen regarding the protection of children undergoing radiological examinations. These issues have come to the consciousness of a gradually widening group of concerned professionals and the public, largely because of the natural instinct to protect children from unnecessary harm. Some tissues in children are more sensitive to radiation and children have a long life expectancy, during which significant pathology can emerge. The instinct to protect children has received further impetus from the level of professional and public concern articulated in the wake of media responses to certain publications in the professional literature. Many institutions have highlighted the need to pay particular attention to the special problems of protecting paediatric patients. The International Commission on Radiological Protection has noted it and the IAEA's General Safety Requirements publication, Radiation Protection and Safety of Radiation Sources: International Basic Safety Standards (BSS), requires it. This need has been endorsed implicitly in the advisory material on paediatric computed tomography scanning issued by bodies such as the US Food and Drug Administration and the National Cancer Institute in the United States of America, as well as by many initiatives taken by other national and regional radiological societies and professional bodies. A major part of patient exposure, in general, and paediatric exposure, in particular, now arises from practices that barely existed two decades ago. For practitioners and regulators, it is evident that this innovation has been driven both by the imaging industry and by an ever increasing array of new applications generated and validated in the clinical environment. Regulation, industrial standardization, safety procedures and advice on best practice lag (inevitably) behind industrial and clinical innovations. This Safety Report is designed to consolidate and provide timely advice on dealing with the special problems involved. The approach adopted is developed within the IAEA framework of statutory responsibility to establish standards for the protection of people against exposure to ionizing radiation and to provide for the application of these standards. The BSS issued by the IAEA require the radiation protection of patients undergoing medical exposures through justification of the procedures involved and optimization of protection and safety. This challenge is taken up here by adding paediatric radiology to the areas dealt with in recent IAEA publications. These are specifically Safety Reports Series Nos 39 and 40 on diagnostic radiology and nuclear medicine, respectively, and Safety Reports Series Nos 58-61 and 63 on newer medical imaging techniques and other initiatives in justification of procedures and optimization of protection and safety. The advice of the IAEA is intended in particular for professionals, practitioners, and teachers and trainers in the area, as well as physicians referring children for examinations. Resource materials and training materials are available cost free on the IAEA's Radiation Protection of Patients web site (http://rpop.iaea.org).

2012-12-01

169

Radiation Protection Centre Annual Report, 2003  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Description of the activities of Radiation Protection Centre (RPC) is presented. Radiation Protection Centre is responsible for radiation protection issues in Lithuania. Information on work performed by RPC in 2003, short review of the state of radiation protection is provided. Main issues are: emergency preparedness, licensing of practices, preparation for decommissioning of Ignalina NPP, transport of radioactive materials and management of radioactive waste, achievements in co-operation projects is presented and other

2004-01-01

170

The new Radiation Protection Ordinance  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In order to make a contribution towards the general and consequent application of the regulations, the author has tried not only to give a compilation of the relevant legal regulations, but also to present concrete and practice-oriented advice with regard to the main regulations. These hints will make it easier for the persons concerned to apply the regulations properly, to pay attention to prohibitions, and to utilize possible facilitations and exemptions in a permissible way. In this context, not only the complete regulations of the Radiation Protection Ordinance, but also parts of the Atomic Energy Act and the Financial Security Ordinance find mention, legal regulations which are closely connected with the Radiation Protection Ordinance. (orig./HP)

1977-01-01

171

Examination of fabric of protective clothing suitable for sweltering radiation work. Influence on survey of contamination (MOX) in wet condition with sweat  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In the Plutonium Fuel Technical Development Center, protective clothing suitable for sweltering radiation work was examined. Since in a wet protective clothing with sweat, alpha ray is absorbed with moisture it was worried that of MOX powder by alpha measurement might be influenced the situations of alpha detection, the diffusion of contamination, and the osmosis and penetrability to wet protective clothing were examined for the present fabric and other new fabrics by MOX powder. As a result of examination, it was confirmed that the influence of detection on alpha ray in the wet condition of new fabrics was smaller than the current fabric. This report Summarized the result of examination and points in the fabric selection suitable for protective clothing. (author)

2008-01-01

172

Radiation protection enrollments and degrees, 1979 and 1980  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Public concern over the effects of low-level radiation and other aspects of the use of nuclear energy has grown in recent years, and the demand for radiation protection has continued to increase. Radiation Protection Enrollments and Degrees presents the results of the latest survey of institutions offering degree programs in this field. Students obtaining such degrees are vital to the development of industry, medicine, research, power production, construction, and agriculture. These surveys assist state and federal governments in their search for such personnel

1981-01-01

173

Radiation protection enrollments and degrees, 1979 and 1980  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Public concern over the effects of low-level radiation and other aspects of the use of nuclear energy has grown in recent years, and the demand for radiation protection has continued to increase. Radiation Protection Enrollments and Degrees presents the results of the latest survey of institutions offering degree programs in this field. Students obtaining such degrees are vital to the development of industry, medicine, research, power production, construction, and agriculture. These surveys assist state and federal governments in their search for such personnel.

Gove, R.M.; Little, J.R.; Shirley, D.L.

1981-07-01

174

Workstations studies and radiation protection  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This day on the workstations studies for the workers follow-up, was organised by the research and health section. Devoted to the company doctors, for the competent persons in radiation protection, for the engineers of safety, it presented examples of methodologies and applications in the medical, industrial domain and the research, so contributing to a better understanding and an application of regulatory measures. The analysis of the workstation has to allow a reduction of the exposures and the risks and lead to the optimization of the medical follow-up. The agenda of this day included the different subjects as follow: evolution of the regulation in matter of demarcation of the regulated zones where the measures of workers protection are strengthened; presentation of the I.R.S.N. guide of help to the realization of a workstation study; implementation of a workstation study: case of radiology; the workstation studies in the research area; Is it necessary to impose the operational dosimetry in the services of radiodiagnostic? The experience feedback of a competent person in radiation protection (P.C.R.) in a hospital environment; radiation protection: elaboration of a good practices guide in medical field; the activities file in nuclear power plant: an evaluation tool of risks for the prevention. Methodological presentation and examples; insulated workstation study; the experience feedback of a provider; Contribution of the ergonomics to the determiners characterization in the ionizing radiation exposure situations;The workstations studies for the internal contamination in the fuel cycle facilities and the consideration of the results in the medical follow-up; R.E.L.I.R. necessity of workstation studies; the consideration of the human factor. (N.C.)

2006-04-06

175

State Radiation Protection Supervision and Control  

CERN Multimedia

Radiation Protection Centre is carrying state supervision and control of radiation protection. The main objective of state supervision and control of radiation protection is assessing how licensees comply with requirements of the appropriate legislation and enforcement. Summary of inspections conducted in 2002 is presented.

2002-01-01

176

State Supervision and Control of Radiation Protection  

CERN Multimedia

Radiation Protection Centre is carrying state supervision and control of radiation protection. The main objective of state supervision and control of radiation protection is assessing how licensees comply with requirements of the appropriate legislation and enforcement. Summary of inspections conducted in 1999-2001 is presented.

2001-01-01

177

State Radiation Protection Supervision and Control  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Radiation Protection Centre is carrying state supervision and control of radiation protection. The main objective of state supervision and control of radiation protection is assessing how licensees comply with requirements of the appropriate legislation and enforcement. Summary of inspections conducted in 2002 is presented

2003-01-01

178

State Supervision and Control of Radiation Protection  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Radiation Protection Centre is carrying state supervision and control of radiation protection. The main objective of state supervision and control of radiation protection is assessing how licensees comply with requirements of the appropriate legislation and enforcement. Summary of inspections conducted in 1999-2001 is presented

2002-01-01

179

76 FR 20489 - Occupational Radiation Protection  

Science.gov (United States)

...HS-RM-09-835] RIN 1992-AA-45 Occupational Radiation Protection AGENCY: Office of Health...values in appendix C to its Occupational Radiation Protection requirements. The derived...835 (10 CFR part 835), Occupational Radiation Protection, are designed to...

2011-04-13

180

Execution of the Radiation Protection Ordinance  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The measures to be taken by the several surveying offices in accordance with Paragraph 63 section 3 and 6 of the Radiation Protection Ordinance are set forth in detail in the list of requirements in order to guarantee concertedness of all tasks and measures and to ensure harmonic organization of work routine. The details given refer to: 1. Type and design of dosemeters as well as their evaluation (including official personnel dosemeters). 2. Examination of error margins of personnel dose measurements ( comparative measurements). 3. Availability of evaluation results. 4. Documentation and publication of evaluation data. 5. Technical equipment. 6. Personnel available. (orig./HP)

1979-01-01

 
 
 
 
181

Radiation protection enrollments and degrees, 1981  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report presents data on the number of students enrolled and the degrees awarded in academic year 1980-81 from 61 U.S. universities offering degree programs in radiation protection or related areas that would enable students to work in the health physics field. The report includes historical survey data for the last decade and provides information such as trends by degree level, foreign national student participation, female and minority student participation, and placement of graduates. Also included is a listing of the universities by type of program and number of students

1982-01-01

182

New Radiation Protection training room  

CERN Multimedia

From now on, the theory and practical components of the Radiation Protection training, developed by the RP Group and offered by the HSE Unit’s Safety Training team to people working in a Controlled Radiation Area, will take place in a dedicated teaching room, designed specifically for this kind of training.   The new room is in the Safety Training Centre on the Prévessin site and has been open since 16 October. It has an adjoining workshop that, like the room itself, can accommodate up to 12 people. It is also equipped with an interactive board as well as instruments and detectors to test for ionising radiation. This room is located near the recently inaugurated LHC tunnel mock-up where practical training exercises can be carried out in conditions almost identical to those in the real tunnel. To consult the safety training catalogue and/or sign up for Radiation Protection training, please go to: https://cta.cern.ch For further information, please contact the Safety Trainin...

HSE Unit

2013-01-01

183

Operational radiation protection: A guide to optimization  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The purpose of this publication is to provide practical guidance on the application of the dose limitation system contained in the Basic Safety Standards for Radiation Protection to operational situations both in large nuclear installations and in much smaller facilities. It is anticipated that this Guide will be useful to both the management and radiation protection staff of operations in which there is a potential for occupational radiation exposures and to the competent authorities with responsibilities for providing a programme of regulatory control. Contents: Dose limitation system; Optimization and its practical application to operational radiation protection; Major elements of an effective operational radiation protection programme; Review of selected parts of the basic safety standards with special reference to operational radiation protection; Optimization of radiation protection; Techniques for the systematic appraisal of operational radiation protection programmes. Refs and figs

1990-01-01

184

Radiation protection in hospitals of Equatorial Guinea  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

With a population of four hundred thousand (400.000) inhabitants and distributed in a territory of 28 thousand (28.000) km"2, the use of ionizing radiations for medical practice in Equatorial Guinea is few and decreasing. It is used for diagnostic practices in the main hospitals of the country, where the work burden is not over 20 patients per day. The political, social and economical embryonic development of the country until recently had a negative influence on indicators and health organisations, so that even now the country does not have any radiological protection law, this shortness, in addition with the old architectural structure that x ray tools is lodging, as well as dosimetrical lack of employed staff, put this staff under risk of electromagnetic energy. This is to show the present survey of medical activities with ionizing radiation and to request technical support for implementing suitably the basic standards of radiation protection which will help us as basis for the elaboration outline law, on radiological protection in accordance with the new guidelines of the International Atomic Energy Agency. (author)

2001-03-01

185

78 FR 59982 - Revisions to Radiation Protection  

Science.gov (United States)

...NRC-2012-0268] Revisions to Radiation Protection AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory...Assuring that Occupational Radiation Exposures Are As Low As Is Reasonably...Achievable,'' Section 12.2, ``Radiation Sources,'' Section 12.3...

2013-09-30

186

An introduction to radiation protection principles  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The purpose of the document is to outline the fundamentals of radiation protection, to describe methods that enable employees to work safely with radiation and to aquaint employees with CRNL's radiation and industrial safety organization

1985-01-01

187

IAEA programmes for radiation protection  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The present IAEA radiation protection programmes are described: the resources allocated to those contained within the Principal Programme on Technological Safety and on Physical Security amount to 105.429.000 US dollars for the biannual 2004-2005 period: that is: a specific radiological safety programme (radiological protection and safety of radiation sources) combined with a programme on radioactive materials transport safety, and another programme on the safe management of radioactive waste. The Programme on Radiological and Transport Safety contains sub-programmes on: improvements on radiological and transport safety infrastructures at national and global levels, information and communication networks on radiological safety, application of safety standards on IAEA's operations, occupational radiation protection, radiological protection of the patient, safety on the transport of radioactive materials and preparation and response to nuclear or radiological emergency situations. The Programme on Radioactive Waste also includes sub-programmes on: the improvement of radioactive waste infrastructures at national and global levels, networks of information and communication on radioactive waste management, safety policies and approaches for the final disposal of radioactive waste, technologies for the final disposal of radioactive waste, releases of radioactive materials to the environment under safe conditions, safe management of residual radioactive materials, technologies for the safe closure of installations and rehabilitation of sites and the safe management of sealed out-of-use sources. Finally, there are described the consultations with experts from IAEA Member States conducted during a great number of international Conferences, and the conversion of the received recommendations into Action plans, that approach the IAEA programmes to the changing needs of the world and to the scientific discoveries which are been produced. (Author)

2004-01-01

188

SSDL for radiation protection of Thailand  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In Thailand, the Atomic Energy for Peace Act was enacted by the King in 1961, and Office of Atomic Energy for Peace was established to serve as the secretariat of the Atomic Energy for Peace Commission of Thailand. The import and export of radioactive materials, and the owners and users of radioactive materials must be licensed by the OAEP. The program for establishing the SSDL to calibrate radiation protection instruments started in 1981, and was completed in 1990. The calibration of survey meters and direct reading personnel dosimeters has been provided since 1986. The average number of the devices calibrated by the SSDL per month is shown. The categories of radiation utilization in Thailand are nucleonic gauging and control, nondestructive testing, oil and coal logging, radiation technology and research. The capability of the SSDL and the calibrated radiation measuring instruments for respective categories of utilization are reported. The number of the instruments used for radiography was 217, followed by 171 for nucleonic gauging and control. With the increasing use of radioactive materials, the work of radiation safety must be improved. Together with the license authority, the SSDL must expand its activity to assure the safe handling of radiation sources. (K.I.)

Wanitsuksombut, W. [Office of Atomic Energy for Peace, Bangkok (Thailand)

1995-06-01

189

10 CFR 39.67 - Radiation surveys.  

Science.gov (United States)

...licensee shall make radiation surveys...shall make a radiation survey of the...individual in the vehicle and of the exterior of each vehicle used to transport...logging tool detector or by using...shall conduct a radiation survey,...

2010-01-01

190

Ways to involve workers in radiation protection  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Involvement of workers in radiation protection results in improved occupational dose performance. There are several ways of involving workers in any safety program. However, in case of radiation protection the most effective way is to make the workers responsible for their own radiation protection. This is best accomplished by empowering the workers through providing them with necessary dose control and dose reduction. After completing a thorough radiation protection training program, the workers are capable of integrating radiation protection into their normal work by anticipating the radiation hazards, measuring the magnitude of these hazards and protecting against the hazards. In unusually high hazardous situations, further worker and management interaction is required. Training the worker in radiation protection approach has resulted in significant dose reduction

1993-01-01

191

Radiation protection, dosimetry and archaeometry  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The activities performed by the radiation protection, dosimetry and archeometry group of the Atomic Institute of the Austrian Universities during 1999-2001 are briefly described, they include: internal radiation protection (a pilot project based on select x-ray diagnostics investigations where the surface dose was measured and compared against the EU standards), dose rates for patients and personnel during radiological check up, environmental monitoring. In the field of dosimetry, a new dosimeter material (CaF2:Tm was investigated), an active and a passive Bonner-Kugel-spectrometer to measure the neutron spectrum and their dose at high altitudes was built. In the project phantom during 600 days the energy distribution and equivalent dose in a human phantom was measured. Dosimetry and spectrometry (neutrons) on high mountains and airplanes were performed. Earlier cells apoptosis after irradiation with 60Co gamma radiation and neutrons was investigated and age estimation was performed on samples from middle Neolithic period, Bronze age an Roman empire. (nevyjel)

2002-01-01

192

Cancer complexity and radiation protection.  

Science.gov (United States)

Management of radiological risks typically encountered in environmental and occupational settings is challenging because of uncertainties in the magnitude of the risks and the benefits of risk reduction. In practice, radiation dose instead of risk is measured. However, the relationship between dose and risk is not straightforward because cancer (the major health effect of concern at low doses) is a disease of complexity. Risks at small doses (defined as less than 100 mSv) can never be known exactly because of the inherent uncertainties in cancer as a complex disease. Tumors are complex because of the nonlinear interactions that occur among tumor cells and between the tumor and its local tissue environment. This commentary reviews evidence for cancer complexity and what complexity means for radiation protection. A complexity view of cancer does not mean we must abandon our current system of protection. What it does mean is that complexity requires new ways of thinking about control of cancer-the ideas that cancers can occur without cause, cancers behave unpredictably, and calculated cancer risks following small doses of radiation are highly uncertain. PMID:24849905

Mossman, Kenneth L

2014-07-01

193

Radiation protection brochure for persons occupationally exposed to radiation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This brochure is intended to convey basic knowledge on radiation protection according to the requirements of the ordinance on radiation protection. It is addressed to persons occupationally exposed to radiation under section 20a of the ordinance on radiation protection. These include e.g. persons employed in nuclear power plants (such as operating personnel, maintenance and repair personnel, test engineers etc.), furthermore persons handling radioactive materials (e.g. in radio-isotope laboratories) or using ionizing radiation (e.g. in the case of non-destructive material testings with gamma irradiation devices or accelerators). Persons receiving professional training in nuclear plants also belong to that group of persons. The booklet is meant to provide appropriate information. It is no substitute for the required instruction on radiation protection. It points out the legal, physical and biological bases of radiation protection, natural and civilizing radiation exposure, dose limits and radiation protection areas as well as general safety measures. (orig./HSCH)

1984-01-01

194

Radiation protection in radioiodine therapy  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Clinic of Nuclear Medicine and Endocrinology of the Motol City Hospital has had continuous tradition of I-131 treatment for almost 50 years. Nowadays the therapeutic part of the Clinic focuses on differentiated follicular and papillary thyroid cancers, rarely neuroendocrine tumors (neuroblastoma, pheochromocytoma, etc.). There is absolute necessity to comply with the rules of radiation protection which is especially important in the case when high activities are administered. This affects not only personnel but also other visitors (maintenance engineers, students, inspectors of the regulatory authorities). Radioiodine laboratory employees, who process and administer 131 1 are the most exposed group with the possibly highest radiation exposure. The investigation reference level for extemal exposure has been set 1 mSv , while the intervention level 20 mSv .During the last ten years, when the clinic has been located in the new building of Motol Hospital, the intervention level had not been reached, investigation level had been exceeded mostly by workers from the referred most exposed group by maximally 20 %. The extemal exposure of radioiodine laboratory workers is minimized by personal protective equipment and by using a special PC controlled pi petting device for preparing 1311 treatment activities. Every exposed ward worker undergoes according to official directives (Section 77 paragraph 6 of Regulation No. 307 /2002 Coll. implementing the Reg. No. 499/2005 Coll. and SUJB Requirements for thyroid radioiodine therapy) regular measuring of possible thyroid contamination. The investigation reference level of internal contamination is set to 1 kBq, the intervention level is 3 kBq. The investigation level was exceeded several times in the period from 1998. The intervention level was exceeded once (3,2 kBq) and concerned nurse was sent to the National Radiation Protection Institute (SURO). The committed effective dose was in this case determined to be E(50)=0.64 mSv. (authors)

2008-11-01

195

Distributed radiation protection console system  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Radiation exposure control is one of the most important aspects in any nuclear facility . It encompasses continuous monitoring of the various areas of the facility to detect any increase in the radiation level and/or the air activity level beyond preset limits and alarm the O and M personnel working in these areas. Detection and measurement of radiation level and the air activity level is carried out by a number of monitors installed in the areas. These monitors include Area Gamma Monitors, Continuous Air Monitors, Pu-In-Air Monitors, Criticality Monitors etc. Traditionally, these measurements are displayed and recorded on a Central Radiation Protection Console(CRPC), which is located in the central control room of the facility. This methodology suffers from the shortcoming that any worker required to enter a work area will have to inquire about the radiation status of the area either from the CRPC or will get to know the same directly from the installed only after entering the area. This shortcoming can lead to avoidable delays in attending to the work or to unwanted exposure. The authors have designed and developed a system called Distributed Radiation Protection Console (DRPC) to overcome this shortcoming. A DRPC is a console which is located outside the entrance of a given area and displays the radiation status of the area. It presents to health physicist and the plant operators a graphic over-view of the radiation and air activity levels in the particular area of the plant. It also provides audio visual annunciation of the alarm status. Each radioactive area in a nuclear facility will have its own DRPC, which will receive as its inputs the analog and digital signals from radiation monitoring instruments installed in the area and would not only show those readings on its video graphic screen but will also provide warning messages and instructions to the personnel entering the active areas. The various DRPCs can be integrated into a Local Area Network, where the host computer can receive and process the data from all the DRPCs to form an alternative or additional Central Radiation Protection Console. The DRPC is essentially a small Computerized Data Acquisition System(CDAS) built around a panel PC. The panel PC serves as the host while an I/O system comprising a processor and I/O modules serves as the slave data acquisition system. The panel is a LCD Video monitor, which serves as the Graphical User Interface. The application software is developed on a Visual Basic 6.0 and MS Windows platform. The DRPC also includes a relay based alarm annunciation system, which provides redundancy to ensure availability of alarm status in the event of non-availability of the CDAS. (author)

2004-02-01

196

Radiation physics, biology, and protection  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper reports on: the physics and biology of radiation; the structure and function of a podiatric x-ray unit; the factors involved in the formulation of the foot/ankle image on a radiograph; and radiation protection and safety in a podiatric office setting. The discussions are limited to those topics directly applicable to podiatric radiology. The decision to perform a radiological study is assessed. According to the author, it depends upon the podiatric physician's discretion and judgment. Certain conditions will require radiographs, including arthritis, bone infection, and a high suspicion of fracture, to name a few. Attempts have been made to objectively evaluate clinical symptomatology and, based upon a screening protocol, determine whether or not a radiologic examination should be performed

1990-01-01

197

The radiation protection officer in medicine and engineering  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Subjects: Function and tasks of the radiation protection officers; Behaviour in radiation protection areas; Radiation protection in practice; Staff training and motivation; Measuring equipment; Radiation protection plans - structural, apparative and staff-related; Explanations of radiation protection legislation. This practical guide makes the many requirements on radiation protection easier and more transparent. (orig.)

2006-08-01

198

XXX. Days of Radiation Protection. Presentations of the 30-th Days of Radiation Protection  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The publication was presented only on the Internet as proceedings of presentations presented on the conference dealing with health protection during work with ionizing radiation for different activities which involve the handling of ionizing radiation sources. The main conference topics are focused on current problems in radiation protection and radioecology. In this proceedings totally 97 presentations are published. The Conference consists of the following sections: Effects of ionizing radiation; Regulation of radiation protection; Dosimetry and Metrology of ionizing radiation; Radiation protection in nuclear Power plants; Medical exposure and radiation protection in diagnostic radiology, nuclear medicine and radiation oncology; Natural radioactivity issues in radiation protection; Education, societal aspects and public involvement in radiation protection, trends and perspectives

2008-11-10

199

Radiation protection programme progress report 1988  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The progress report of the radiation protection programme outlines the research work carried out in 1988 under contracts between the Commission of the European Communities and research groups in the Member States. Results of more than 350 projects are reported. They are grouped into six sectors: Radiation dosimetry and its interpretation; Behaviour and control of radionuclides in the environment; Nonstochastic effects of ionizing radiation; Radiation carcinogenesis; Genetic effects of ionizing radiation; Evaluation of radiation risks and optimization of protection. Within the framework programme, the aim of this scientific research is to improve the conditions of life with respect to work and protection of man and his environment and to assure a safe production of energy, i.e.: (i) to improve methods necessary to protect workers and the population by updating the scientific basis for appropriate standards; (ii) to prevent and counteract harmful effects of radiation; (iii) to assess radiation risks and provide methods to cope with the consequences of radiation accidents

1988-01-01

200

Radiation protection issues for EPR reactor  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

As part of the EPR (European Pressurized Reactor) project being deployed at Flamanville, EDF has pro actively made the decision to focus on radiation protection Radiation Protection aspects right from the start of the design phase, as it has done with nuclear safety. The approach adopted for managing Radiation Protection-significant activities has been to include all involved stakeholders - designers, licensee and contractor companies - in the three successive phases, starting with a survey among workers and designers, followed by a proposal review, and finally ending with the decision-making phase entrusted to an ALARA committee. The Radiation Protection target set by EDF for this new reactor is to engage in an effort of continuous improvement and optimisation, through benchmarking with the best performing plants of the fleet. The collective dose target is currently set at 0.35 Man Sv/year per unit. In addition to other aspects, efforts will focus on shortening the duration of the highest-dose jobs, with a new challenge being set for work performed in the reactor building during normal operations, the aim being to improve plant availability. The plan is for work to be performed 7 days prior to shutting down the reactor and 3 days afterwards, in order to make logistical arrangements for forthcoming jobs. Without this reduction, the estimated drop is currently 4.5% of annual dose. For this purpose, two areas have been set up in the E.P.R.'s reactor building: one no-go area for containing leaks from the primary circuit, and one accessible area for normal operations, separated from the no-go area by purpose-built ventilation equipment and facilities. To offer protection against radioactive flux (neutrons and high energy), Radiation Protection studies have resulted in the installation of a concrete floor and of nuclear shielding at the outlets of primary circuit pipes. Steam generator bunkers and pumps have also been reinforced. All these measures will ensure that the accessible area can be posted as a green area (dose rate < 25 ?Sv/h), with a neutron dose rate of less than 2.5 ?Sv/h. In order to optimise radiation exposure on the EPR, efforts have focused on two parameters factored into dose calculation: dose rate and work volume exposed to radiation. The main R.P. design upgrades are improvements upon the most recent N4 plant series. In order to ensure radiological cleanliness, contamination must be contained as close to the source as possible on working units. This type of zoning is essentially aimed at enabling the plant to generate conventional waste from the radiologically controlled area in order to reduce the quantity of nuclear waste produced, to reduce nuclear waste volumes during the dismantling phase and to reduce the number of areas with a contamination risk, thereby preventing the transfer of contamination to areas outside the plant. In total, this optimisation effort has resulted in a saving of 21% when comparing the reference dose with the optimised EPR dose. A strategic priority for the EDF Group, radiation protection is gradually becoming less and less confined to the happy few, and is becoming a cross-functional area where multi-disciplinary team work is of paramount importance from the very start of the design phase. (authors)

2008-01-01

 
 
 
 
201

New radiation protection legislation in Sweden  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The objective of the new Act is to protect humans, animals and the environment from the harmful effects of ionizing as well as non-ionizing radiation. As previously, the main responsibility for public radiation protection will rest with a single central radiation protection authority. According to the Act, the general obligations with regard to radiation protection will assign greater responsibility than in the past to persons carrying out activities involving radiation. Persons engaged in such activities will be responsible for the safe processing and storage of radioactive waste. The Act also contains rules governing decommissioning of technical equipment capable of generating radiation. The Act contains several rules providing for more effective supervision. The supervisory authority may, in particular, decide on the necessary regulations and prohibitions for each individual case. The scope for using penal provisions has been extended and a rule on the mandatory execution of orders regarding radiation protection measures has been introduced. (authors)

1984-01-01

202

Occupational radiation protection legislation in Israel  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Various governmental agencies, including the Ministry of Health, the Ministry of Labor and the Israel AEC are responsible for the control of the use of radioactive materials and medical X-ray machines in Israel. Present legislation deals mainly with the legal aspects of the purchase, transport and possession of radioactive materials and the purchase and operation of medical X-ray machines. No legislation refers explicitly to the protection of the worker from ionizing (and non-ionizing) radiation. A special group of experts appointed by the Minister of Labor recently worked out a comprehensive draft law concerning all legal aspects of occupational radiation protection in Israel. Among the main chapters of the draft are: general radiation protection principles, national radiation protection standards, medical supervision of radiation workers, personal monitoring requirements. The present situation with regard to radiation hazard control in Israel and details of the proposed radiation protection law is discussed. (Author)

1980-03-14

203

Manual on radiation protection in hospitals and general practice. Basic protection requirements  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The manual as a whole deals with the radiation protection of patients, occupationally exposed persons, and the public. Volume 1, on basic protection requirements, is a general review common to all medical applications of ionizing radiation and radionuclides. Radiation protection is required for patients and staff, and with regard to medical research and chemical trials of new methods; radiation equipment and operating procedures are discussed in connection with diagnostic x-ray installations, x-ray beam therapy, gamma-ray installations for teletherapy, brachytherapy, unsealed sources for therapeutic use, and the diagnostic use of unsealed sources in nuclear medicine. In planning of radiation facilities, attention is paid to levels at which medical care is given, the centralization and decentralization of radiation facilities, diagnostic x-ray facilities and therapy facilities, and nuclear medicine and therapy with unsealed sources. Shielding design is discussed applicable to diagnostic radiology, radiotherapy, nuclear medicine and the therapeutic use of radionuclides. Assignment of responsibilities, legal responsibilities, safety checks, refresher courses and symposia are discussed in the context of organizing radiation protection. Radiation surveys are necessary, and such surveys are described for x-ray and gamma-ray beams, sealed radioactive sources and nuclear medicine. A whole section is devoted to personnel monitoring and health surveillance. An annex gives a list of commonly used radionuclides, another deals with the design of protective shielding

1974-01-01

204

Radiation protection in a university TRIGA reactor  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Radiation protection in a university institute operating a research reactor and other installations has different constraints as a larger facility. This is because the legal requirements apply in full, but the potential of exposure is low, and accesses has to be made available for students, but also for temporary workers. Some of the problems in practical radiation protection are addressed and solutions are discussed. In addition, experience with national radiation protection legislation recently to be issued is addressed and discussed. (author)

2004-09-15

205

Structure and Responsibilities of Radiation Protection Centre  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Constitution of Radiation Protection Centre (RPC) in Lithuania is presented. RPC was established in 1997, in 1999 the Government granted the status of the regulatory authority of Lithuania on radiation protection issues. Currently there are two departments at RPC: two in Vilnius - Department of Radiation Protection Supervision and Control and Department of Programs and Expertise, and four in the districts. Main tasks of RPC are listed

2002-01-01

206

Radiation protection challenges facing the federal agencies.  

Science.gov (United States)

In the United States, federal agencies are responsible for setting national policy and performance expectations for radiation protection programs. National policy establishes a regulatory regime, under which society can realize the beneficial uses of radiation while at the same time protecting workers, the public, and environment from the potential hazards of radiation. The challenges facing federal agencies continue to revolve around finding the right balance between benefit and adverse impact. Federal agencies are petitioned to support the research community to provide a sound scientific basis for informing the decision-making process related to radiation protection policy. The federal agencies are further challenged to consider the deliberations of the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) and the National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements (NCRP) who bring together the best technical minds in the field to consider the latest scientific information and provide recommendations for establishing comprehensive and coherent radiation protection programs. The uncertainty inherent in research and the conservatism in the models and recommendations of the ICRP and NCRP should be transparent and communicated because determining the level of uncertainty and the degree of conservatism acceptable to society is a challenge for, and the responsibility of, the federal agencies in creating performance-based policies in public health and radiation protection. It is through the federal government's open, inclusive, and democratic processes where society strikes the balance that defines adequate radiation protection policy, builds public trust, and allows the radiation protection professionals to properly implement and manage that policy. PMID:15303063

Jones, C Rick

2004-09-01

207

Radiation protection in the Brazilian universities  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A research covering 91 institutions was undertaken in order to elucidate how radiation protection were indeed fulfilled. A questionary including technical administrative and legal subjects was sent by mail and 36% of which were answered propitiating substantial data for analysis. Only in few cases universities have knowledge of basic procedures in radiation protection, claiming for the elaboration of a plan that could guide supervisors and workers in radiation protection in these institution. Based on the tree analysis technique proposed by IAEA, a Reference Radiation protection Program has been elaborated and proposed for Brazilian universities. (author). 14 refs, 1 figs

1994-09-02

208

Nevada Test Site Radiation Protection Program  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Title 10 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) 835, 'Occupational Radiation Protection', establishes radiation protection standards, limits, and program requirements for protecting individuals from ionizing radiation resulting from the conduct of U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) activities. 10 CFR 835.101(a) mandates that DOE activities be conducted in compliance with a documented Radiation Protection Program (RPP) as approved by DOE. This document promulgates the RPP for the Nevada Test Site (NTS), related (onsite or offsite) DOE National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO) operations, and environmental restoration offsite projects.

Radiological Control Managers' Council, Nevada Test Site

2007-08-09

209

Radiation protection course for physicians. Pt. 3  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This radiation protection course for nuclear diagnosis and therapy consists of a basic course for physicians on the basis of the present state of knowledge. The following subjects are treated by several authors who have held courses in radiation protection for more than 10 years: Application of radioactive materials in medicine; radiopharmaceuticals; patient exposure during diagnosis; technical radiation protection and radiation protection surveillance; contamination and incorporation monitoring; external personnel exposure during diagnosis and therapy; storage, transport and removal of radioactive substances; instruction and information; laws, ordinances, regulations, technical rules; measures in cases of accident; procedures and inspections by the responsible authorities; practical courses and calculation training. (HP)

1977-01-01

210

Quantities and units in radiation protection  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This lecture contains a short review of quantities and units used in radiation protection as well as units used in describing of nuclear reactions, LET values, and radiation length of the particles. The simulations of some radioactive decays are included

2004-09-01

211

New general radiation protection training course  

CERN Multimedia

Some members of CERN personnel, users included, may have to work in supervised or controlled radiation areas, or may be concerned with activities involving the use of radioactive sources. According to CERN Safety rules all persons whose work may encounter ionising radiation risk must be adequately trained. This training must ensure that workers are informed about the potential health risks which could result from radiation exposure, about the basic principles of radiation protection and of the relevant radiation protection regulations as well as about safe working methods and techniques in radiation zones. Therefore the Organization organises mandatory general and work-specific radiation protection (RP) courses addressed to its personnel. These courses are also open to contractors’ personnel, in addition to the RP training they must receive from their employers. Based on the results of a pilot project, an improved general radiation protection course has been prepared. This...

2008-01-01

212

Basic principles of radiation protection in Canada  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The major goal of radiation protection in Canada is to ensure that individuals are adequately protected against the harm that might arise from unwarranted exposure to ionizing radiation. This report deals with the basic principles and organizations involved in protection against ionizing radiation. Three basic principles of radiation protection are: 1) that no practice shall be adopted unless its introduction produces a positive net benefit for society, 2) that all exposures shall be kept as low as reasonably achievable, relevant economic and social factors being taken into account, and 3) that doses to individuals should not exceed specified annual limits. The limit for radiation workers is currently 50 mSv per year, and exposures of the general public should not exceed a small fraction of that of radiation workers. Other specific areas in radiation protection which have received considerable attention in Canada include limitations on collective dose (the sum of the individual doses for all exposed individuals), exemption rules for extremely small radiation doses or amounts of radioactive materials, occupational hazards in uranium mining, and special rules for protection of the foetus in pregnant female radiation workers. Implementation of radiation protection principles in Canada devolves upon the Atomic Energy Control Board, the Department of National Health and Welfare, provincial authorities, licensees and radiation workers. A brief description is given of the roles of each of these groups

1990-01-01

213

Calibration of radiation protection monitoring instruments  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Occupational radiation protection is a major component of the support for radiation safety provided by the International Atomic Energy Agency to its Member States. The objective of the IAEA Occupational Protection Programme is to promote an internationally harmonized approach to optimizing occupational radiation protection through the development and application of guidelines for restricting radiation exposures in the workplace and for applying current occupational radiation protection techniques. Occupational exposure to ionizing radiation can occur in industry, medical institutions, research establishments, universities and nuclear fuel cycle facilities. Adequate radiation protection for workers is an essential requirement for the safe and acceptable use of radiation, radioactive materials and nuclear energy. Guidance on the application of the requirements of the BSS to occupational protection is given in three interrelated Safety Guides: Occupational Radiation Protection; Assessment of Occupational Exposure due to External Sources of Radiation Assessment of Occupational Exposure due to Intakes of Radionuclides. This Safety Report provides guidance on the establishment and operation of calibration facilities for radiation monitoring instruments. It reflects the current internationally accepted principles and recommended practices in calibration procedures, taking into account of the major changes and developments that have occurred over the past decade

1999-01-01

214

Radiation Protection Group annual report (1997)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Annual Report of the Radiation Protection Group is intended to inform the Host State Authorities, as well as the CERN Management and staff, about the radiological situation at CERN during the year 1997. The structure of the present report follows that of previous years and has five sections. It presents the results of environmental radiation monitoring, gives information about the radiation control on the sites of the Organization, describes the radiation protection activities around the CERN accelerators, reports on personnel dosimetry, calibration and instrumentation, and briefly comments on the non-routine activities of the Radiation Protection Group

1998-01-01

215

Radiation Protection Group annual report (1998)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Annual Report of the Radiation Protection Group is intended to inform the Host State Authorities, as well as the CERN Management and staff, about the radiological situation at CERN during the year 1998. The structure of the present report follows that of previous years and has five sections. It presents the results of environmental radiation monitoring, gives information about the radiation control on the sites of the Organization, describes the radiation protection activities around the CERN accelerators, reports on personnel dosimetry, calibration and instrumentation, and briefly comments on the non-routine activities of the Radiation Protection Group

1999-01-01

216

Radiation Protection Group annual report (1996)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Annual Report of the Radiation Protection Group is intended to inform the Host State Authorities, as well as the CERN Management and staff, about the radiological situation at CERN during the year 1996. The structure of the present report follows that of previous years and has five sections. It presents the results of environmental radiation monitoring, gives information about the radiation control on the sites of the Organization, describes the radiation protection activities around the CERN accelerators, reports on personnel dosimetry, calibration and instrumentation, and briefly comments on the non-routine activities of the Radiation Protection Group

1997-01-01

217

Status of radiation protection at different hospitals in Nepal  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Nepal has a long history of medical radiology since 1923 but unfortunately, we still do not have any radiation protection infrastructure to control the use of ionizing radiations in the various fields. The objective of this study was an assessment of the radiation protection in medical uses of ionizing radiation. Twenty-eight hospitals with diagnostic radiology facility were chosen for this study according to patient loads, equipment and working staffs. Radiation surveys were also done at five different radiotherapy centers. Questionnaire for radiation workers were used; radiation dose levels were measured and an inventory of availability of radiation equipment made. A corollary objective of the study was to create awareness in among workers on possible radiation health hazard and risk. It was also deemed important to know the level of understanding of the radiation workers in order to initiate steps towards the establishment of Nepalese laws, regulation and code of radiological practice in this field. Altogether, 203 radiation workers entertained the questionnaire, out of which 41 are from the Radiotherapy and 162 are from diagnostic radiology. The radiation workers who have participated in the questionnaire represent more than 50% of the radiation workers working in this field in Nepal. Almost all X-ray, CT and Mammogram installations were built according to protection criteria and hence found safe. Radiation dose level at the reference points for all the five radiotherapy centers are within safe limit. Around 65% of the radiation workers have never been monitored for radiation. There is no quality control program in any of the surveyed hospitals except radiotherapy facilities. (author)

2012-10-01

218

Radiation protection. 2. rev. ed.  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This direction specifies how to perform the Radiation Protection Ordinance-StrlSchV of October 13th, 1976 with respect to the state of science and technique in the field of medicine. In order to answer to the special organizing conditions in hospitals and doctor's consulting rooms this direction is disposed as follows: 1) Handling with unsealed radioactive material for diagnostic and therapy purposes in the field of nuclear medicine. 2) Handling with sealed radioactive material for interstitial and intra-cavitary therapy as well as for contact therapy and implantation. 3) Operation of plants for ionizing radiation production in radiotherapy (electron accelerators and other accelerators used in medicine. 4) Handling with sealed radioactive material in irradiation devices with radioactive sources for radiotherapy. This direction also concerns the handling with unsealed radioactive material in laboratory diagnostic including clinical chemistry for detecting and quantifying human disease as far as diagnostic at patients is effected (in-vivo-diagnostic). It also concerns the planning of devices considered for the above mentioned handling or operation, respectively. (orig./HP)

1980-01-01

219

First Asian regional congress on radiation protection  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Due to the rapid progress in the development of nuclear energy and its applications in medicine, agriculture and industry, the potential danger to targe groups of population due to radiation hazards has increased. Thus, radiation protection has become an important aspects of industrial and public hygiene. The article reviews the deliberations of the First Asian Regional Congress on Radiation Protection which was held during 15-20 December 1974 at the Bhabha Atomic Research Centre. 190 papers were presented on the following broad subjects: (1) organization of radiation protection services on a countrywide scale and significant problems and experiences; (2) research and cooperation, mutual assistance, education and training; (3) personnel monitoring; (4) nuclear industry risks and benefits; (5) radiation protection legislation and (6) panel discussions and regional international cooperation in the field of radiation protection. (S.K.K.)

1974-12-00

220

Tripartism and radiation protection - the way forward  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Radiation protection with its highly sophisticated conceptual framework and technical complexity, is an issue on which it is sometimes difficult to achieve consensus among the social partners, particularly as the subject evokes emotional responses. A functional difficulty arises when the agencies charged with providing broad policy direction in occupational health have little or no expertise in radiation protection. This arrangement seriously constrains the process of expert scientific input to the tripartite bodies. In this paper, experiences with tripartism and radiation protection in Western Australia are exampled to illustrate the type of problems which can arise. Suggestions are made for improving tripartite consideration of radiation issues. It is concluded that the radiation protection community needs to be aware of the socio-political environment in which it operates, if it is to contribute effectively to future policy and standards for radiation protection. 12 refs

1993-01-01

 
 
 
 
221

Radiation protection and safety infrastructures in Albania  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The paper intends to present the evolution and actual situation of radiation protection and safety infrastructure in Albania, focusing in its establishing and functioning in accordance with BBS and other important documents of specialized international organizations. There are described the legal framework of radiation safety, the regulatory authority, the services as well the practice of their functioning. The issue of the establishing and functioning of the radiation safety infrastructure in Albania was considered as a prerequisite for a good practices development in the peaceful uses of radiation sources . The existence of the adequate legislation and the regulatory authority, functioning based in the Basic Safety Standards (BSS), are the necessary condition providing the fulfilment of the most important issues in the mentioned field. The first document on radiation protection in Albania stated that 'for the safe use of radiation sources it is mandatory that the legal person should have a valid permission issued by Radiation Protection Commission'. A special organ was established in the Ministry of Health to supervise providing of the radiation protection measures. This organization of radiation protection showed many lacks as result of the low efficiency . The personnel monitoring, import, transport, waste management and training of workers were in charge of Institute of Nuclear Physics (INP). In 1992 an IAEA RAPAT mission visited Albania and proposed some recommendations for radiation protection improvements. The mission concluded that 'the legislation of the radiation protection should be developed'. In 1995 Albania was involved in the IAEA Model Project 'Upgrading of Radiation Protection Infrastructure'. This project, which is still in course, intended to establish the modern radiation safety infrastructures in the countries with low efficiency ones and to update and upgrade all aspects related with radiation safety: legislation and regulations, regulatory authority, radiation sources control, occupational, medical and public exposures, emergency response and preparedness, etc. (author)

2008-10-19

222

Biological research for radiation protection  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The work scope of Biological research for the radiation protection had contained the search of biological microanalytic methods for assessing the health effect by ?-radiation and toxic agents, the standardization of human T-lymphocyte cell culture and polymerase chain reaction, T-cell clonal assay, and the quantification of mutation frequency in the hypoxanthine (guanine) phosphoribosyl transferase (HPRT) gene locus by single exposure or combined exposure. Especially, the polymerase chain reaction methods using reverse transcriptase has been developed to analyze the mutant gene induced by ?-radiation and chemical (pentachlorophenol) agent exposure, and to investigate the point mutations in the HPRT gene locus of T-lymphocytes. The HPRT T-cell clonal assay revealed that it could not differentiate ?-irradiation from pentachlorophenol, because the frequency of somatic mutations induced by both damaging agents increased in a dose-dependent manner. The analysis of DNA sequence alterations of HPRT mutant clones clearly showed that both damaging agents induced different mutational spectra in the HPRT locus of T-cells. The large deletions, which account for 75 percent of the analyzed mutants, are characteristic mutations induced by ?-irradiation. By contrast, point mutations such as base substitutions and insertion, come up to 97 percent in the case of pentachlorophenol-treated cells. The point mutation frequencies at 190 base pair and 444 base pair positions are 3-6 folds as high as in those at other mutation positions. It may be that these mutation sites are hot spots induced by pentachlorophenol. These results suggest that the HPRT mutation spectrum can be used as a potential bio marker for assessing a specific environmental risk. (author)

2000-01-01

223

Biological research for radiation protection  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The work scope of Biological research for the radiation protection had contained the search of biological microanalytic methods for assessing the health effect by {gamma}-radiation and toxic agents, the standardization of human T-lymphocyte cell culture and polymerase chain reaction, T-cell clonal assay, and the quantification of mutation frequency in the hypoxanthine (guanine) phosphoribosyl transferase (HPRT) gene locus by single exposure or combined exposure. Especially, the polymerase chain reaction methods using reverse transcriptase has been developed to analyze the mutant gene induced by {gamma}-radiation and chemical (pentachlorophenol) agent exposure, and to investigate the point mutations in the HPRT gene locus of T-lymphocytes. The HPRT T-cell clonal assay revealed that it could not differentiate {gamma}-irradiation from pentachlorophenol, because the frequency of somatic mutations induced by both damaging agents increased in a dose-dependent manner. The analysis of DNA sequence alterations of HPRT mutant clones clearly showed that both damaging agents induced different mutational spectra in the HPRT locus of T-cells. The large deletions, which account for 75 percent of the analyzed mutants, are characteristic mutations induced by {gamma}-irradiation. By contrast, point mutations such as base substitutions and insertion, come up to 97 percent in the case of pentachlorophenol-treated cells. The point mutation frequencies at 190 base pair and 444 base pair positions are 3-6 folds as high as in those at other mutation positions. It may be that these mutation sites are hot spots induced by pentachlorophenol. These results suggest that the HPRT mutation spectrum can be used as a potential bio marker for assessing a specific environmental risk. (author)

Kim, In Gyu; Kim, Kug Chan; Shim, Hae Won; Oh, Tae Jeong; Park, Seon Young; Lee, Kang Suk

2000-04-01

224

Project Radiation protection, Annual report 1994  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

According to the action plan for the period 1991-1995, the main objective of this project during 1994 was to provide operational basis, methods and procedures for solving the radiation protection problems that might appear under routine working conditions and handling of radiation sources. The aim was also to provide special methods for action in case of accidents that could affect the employed staff and the population. Overall activity was directed to maintaining and providing personnel, instrumentation, and methods for the following special radiation protection measures: operational control of the radiation field and contamination; calibration of the radiation and dosimetry instruments-secondary dosimetry metrology laboratory; instrumentation and measuring systems for radiation protection; control of environmental transfer of radioactive material; medical radiation protection

1994-01-01

225

Radiation protection and environment protection research and applications  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The recognition by society of the radiation associated risks is commonly conditioned by the fair gain that everybody can get by using nuclear technologies and/or radioactive materials. As far as nuclear technologies penetrated areas vital for the development of human civilization, such as energy or health, the issue of protecting people and environment became more and more meaningful. The research performed and the experience acquired to date brought up the materialization of a general radiation protection precept, whose principles and rules are applied by all users of radioactive materials or radiation facilities, regardless of the type of radiation or activity. The success in operating a nuclear facility depends on several factors, among which an important one is the settlement and maintenance of efficient radiation protective measures. In this respect, the INR approached two primary objectives: ensuring the radiation and environment protection for its own nuclear facilities, and sustaining an R and D program destined to increase proficiency in human and environment protection against radiation-associated risks. To achieve these two goals the INR created a department endowed with appropriate personnel and assets. This is the Laboratory for Radiation, Environment and Civil Protection

2003-10-22

226

Radiation protection of air crew at exposition with cosmic radiation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this presentation authors deals with radiation protection of air crew at exposition by cosmic radiation. Some results of measurements of dose equivalents on some air board from Slovakia are presented

2009-03-01

227

Course of radiation protection: technical level  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The course handbook on radiation protection and nuclear safety, technical level prepared by scientists of the Nuclear Regulatory Authority (ARN) of the Argentina Republic, describes the subjects in 19 chapters and 2 annexes. These topics detailed in the text have the following aspects: radioactivity elements, interaction of the radiation and the matter, radio dosimetry, internal contamination dosimetry, principles of radiation detection, biological radiation effects, fundamentals of radiation protection, dose limits, optimization, occupational exposure, radiation shielding, radioactive waste management, criticality accidents, safe transport of radioactive materials, regulatory aspects

2002-01-01

228

Summary of radiation protection in exploitation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This document proposes a large and detailed overview of notions and practices regarding radiation protection in relationship with an NPP exploitation framework. It presents the main notions: matter structure, radioactivity, interactions between matter and radiations, types of ionizing radiation, magnitudes and measurement units, exposure modes, main principles of radiation protection, means of protection against internal and external exposures. The second part proposes an overview of the origin of radiological risks in a nuclear power plant. This origin can be found in fission products, activation products, actinides, designed protections, or circuit contaminations. These radiological risks are more precisely identified and described in terms of detection and prevention (internal exposure risk, contamination risk, iodine-related risk, alpha radiation-related risk, access to the reactor building). The next part addresses the medical and radiological follow-up of exposed workers by a special medical control, by an individual exposure control, by a specific control of female personnel, and by attention to exceptional exposures. Measurement means are presented (detection principles, installation continuous control, workspaces control, personnel contamination control, follow-up of individual dose) as well as collective and individual protection means. The management of radiation protection is addressed through a presentation of decision and management structures for radiation protection, and of EDF objectives and ambitions in this domain. The organization of radiation protection during exploitation is described: responsibilities for radiation protection in a nuclear power station, requirements for workers, preparation of interventions in controlled zone, work execution in controlled zone, zone controls and radiological cleanness of installations. The two last chapters address issues and practices of radiation protection in the case of deconstruction or dismantling, and in the case of transportation of radioactive materials and objects. Appendices contain information of biological effects of ionizing radiations, main regulatory texts, and involved international and French bodies

2004-01-01

229

Radiation protection techniques; Techniques de radioprotection  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The technologies of radiation protection which are developed in this chapter depend on the regulations, actual possibilities in nuclear instrumentation and the methods coming from the experiences of french nuclear operating. The quality reached by the radiation protection finds its justification in the acceptable exposure level of workers compared to the prescribed limits and in the limited number of nuclear incidents in France.

Descours, S. [CEA Centre d`Etudes de Fontenay-aux-Roses, 92 (France); Dollo, R. [Electricite de France (EDF), 75 - Paris (France); Kalimbadjian, J. [Compagnie Generale des Matieres Nucleaires (COGEMA), 50 - Cherbourg (France). Etablissement de La Hague; Troesch, G. [CEA Centre d`Etudes de Grenoble, 38 (France)

1996-05-01

230

Radiation protection laws in the Nordic countries  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Sweden has since 1988 a totally revised radiation protection law and Finland has recently enacted a new law. The legal situation of the Nordic countries in the radiation protection field is reviewed with the main emphasis on the Swedish law. (author)

1991-01-01

231

Certification of radiation protection inspector qualification  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The norm which establishes the requirements related to the certification of radiation protection inspector qualification is presented. The norm is applied to physical person candidate, or holding the office, to the certification of radiation protection inspector qualification in radiactive installations or nuclear installations or transport of radioactive materials. (M.C.K.)

1988-01-01

232

Manual for medical problems of radiation protection  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The manual deals comprehensively and topically with the theoretical and practical fundamentals of radiation protection of the population considering the present knowledge in the fields of radiobiology and radiation protection medicine. The subject is covered under the following headings: (1) physics of ionizing radiations, (2) biological radiation effects, (3) the acute radiation syndrome, (4) medical treatment of the acute radiation syndrome, (5) combined radiation injuries, and (6) prophylaxis and therapy of injuries caused by fission products of nuclear explosions. The book is of interest to medical doctors, medical scientists, and students in medicine who have to acquire special knowledge in the field of radiation protection and it is of value as a reference book in daily routine

1979-01-01

233

Portable radiation survey instrument manual  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The External Dose Evaluation Manual, BNWL-MA-6Z, is being issued by sections as individual procedures are completed to describe the portable radiation survey instruments in use on the Hanford site. The manual is in two parts. Part 1 covers general administrative and technical procedures associated with instrument procurement, radiological standards functions, criticality and high level exposure analysis, and special dosimetry capabilities. The specifications, calibration, operation, performance, and uses of the CP and extended CP (XCP) ionization chambers; the Juno dose ratemeter; the portable count rate meters EGM and PAM; the SNOOPY neutron dose rate meter; the Cutie Pie--Totem Pole meters LPC, TPC, and HPC; the Radeco Portable Alpha Monitor (PAM), and the Low Level Monitor (LLM) are presented

1973-01-01

234

Safety survey report EBR-II safety survey, ANL-west health protection, industrial safety and fire protection survey  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A safety survey covering the disciplines of Reactor Safety, Nuclear Criticality Safety, Health Protection and Industrial Safety and Fire Protection was conducted at the ANL-West EBR-II FEF Complex during the period January 10-18, 1972. In addition, the entire ANL-West site was surveyed for Health Protection and Industrial Safety and Fire Protection. The survey was conducted by members of the AEC Chicago Operations Office, a member of RDT-HQ and a member of the RDT-ID site office. Eighteen recommendations resulted from the survey, eleven in the area of Industrial Safety and Fire Protection, five in the area of Reactor Safety and two in the area of Nuclear Criticality Safety.

Dunbar, K.A.

1972-01-10

235

Radiation protection training course for health professionals  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

As the EURATOM regulations of 1996 and 1997 were implemented in German law, new amended versions of the Radiation Protection Ordinance (1 August 2001) and the X-Ray Ordinance (1 July 2002) came into force in Germany. Both ordinances require that persons authorized to use inionzing radiation must have expert knowledge in radiation protection. The extent of such knowledge is clearly specified, including practical experience and training courses, and will be tested and certified by the responsible authorities. This book intends to help provide the required knowledge in radiation protection and can also serve as a textbook during training courses. (orig.)

2005-01-01

236

Radiation protection guidelines for space missions  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The original recommendations for radiation protection guidelines were made by the National Academy of Sciences in 1970. Since that time the US crews have become more diverse in their makeup and much has been learned about both radiation-induced cancer and other late effects. While far from adequate there is now some understanding of the risks that high-Z and -energy (HZE) particles pose. For these reasons it was time to reconsider the radiation protection guidelines for space workers. This task was undertaken recently by National Council on Radiation Protection (NCRP). 42 refs., 2 figs., 9 tabs.

Fry, R.J.M.

1987-01-01

237

Radiation protection guidelines for space missions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The original recommendations for radiation protection guidelines were made by the National Academy of Sciences in 1970. Since that time the US crews have become more diverse in their makeup and much has been learned about both radiation-induced cancer and other late effects. While far from adequate there is now some understanding of the risks that high-Z and -energy (HZE) particles pose. For these reasons it was time to reconsider the radiation protection guidelines for space workers. This task was undertaken recently by National Council on Radiation Protection (NCRP). 42 refs., 2 figs., 9 tabs

1987-10-12

238

INES rating of radiation protection related events  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this presentation, based on the draft Manual, a short review of the use of the INES rating of events concerning radiation protection is given, based on a new INES User's Manual edition. The presentation comprises a brief history of the scale development, general description of the scale and the main principles of the INES rating. Several examples of the use of the scale for radiation protection related events are mentioned. In the presentation, the term 'radiation protection related events' is used for radiation source and transport related events outside the nuclear installations. (authors)

2009-03-01

239

Radiation protection: issues and trends in supranational legislation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The report deals with issues that the Group regarded as of major importance, selected from among new ones and others considered at the Tokyo Conference. The remaining issues will be resumed in future as and when the Group deems opportune. Hence the bulk of the report is concerned with the major issues, i.e. protection against radon in dwellings, mutual acceptance of radiation protection qualification, legal criteria for protection in medicine, implementation of the Euratom Directive on informing the public in the event of an emergency. A brief survey follows of other issues such as European Community (EC) regulations on food contamination, information of countries about transfrontier risks, and non-ionising radiation. Some conclusions are drawn as to ways and means at the international and/or Community level which could be useful in adopting a more uniform approach and achieve a more harmonious regime of radiation protection among the various countries. (author)

1991-09-23

240

Preparing the radiation protection worker to meet multiple needs  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

At the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) the radiation protection worker aids in protecting personnel and their surrounding environment from the hazards of radiation. These individuals use their technical knowledge, skills, and abilities to survey and monitor various project-related activities. They must also provide guidance in project design, development, and implementation. These combined efforts assure that protective measures are taken in accordance with applicable standards. The ORNL performance-based training program enhances the skills of the worker. The program incorporates job specific information on the diverse facilities and activities monitored with basic fundamentals of radiation protection. Successful completion of this program includes passing both a qualification exam and an on-the-job skills review. This paper details the structure of such a program and explains the strategies taken to reach the program's goals. 4 refs., 2 tabs.

Abercrombie, J.S.; Thorpe, B.C.

1987-01-01

 
 
 
 
241

An introduction to radiation protection principles  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The fundamentals of radiation hazards and their control are outlined. This report is for use by all radiation workers at CRNL and copies are available for all who want one. The purposes of the document are to outline the fundamentals of radiation protection, to describe methods that enable employees to work safely with radiation and to acquaint employees with the CRNL radiation and industrial safety organization

1983-01-01

242

Protection aspects in ionising radiation applications  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Availability of (i) locally made and good quality equipment which satisfy stringent radiation protection standards, (2) tailor-made programmes for training of physicists, physicians, engineers, technologists and researchers in radiation safety and the resultant production of adequate number of well trained personnel (who as users are also made to be involved in decision making on radiation protection programmes and policies), (3) codes, guides, manuals and brochures on radiation safety in different disciplines, and (4) legal and administrative backing for the radiation protection efforts at the governmental level for optimal regulation - not over regulate or over police - should be considered as the real positive points of radiation protection infrastructure in the country. 11 tabs

1994-01-01

243

Development of post accident radiation survey instrument  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Based on the existing reactor safety study scenarios, associated source term releases and the three nuclear accidents that occurred in the past (Windscale, TMI and Chernobyl), 131I and 137Cs have been identified as the radionuclides of major concern with respect to potential dose. Rapid measurement techniques, that use indigenous instruments for assessing deposited activity during an accidental release, have been evolved to facilitate quick decisions on subsequent protective measures. However, conventional radiation survey instruments give only the gross activity/dose rate without any energy, discrimination possible. It would be more appropriate and meaningful while planning the counter-measures, if the contributions due to 131I and 137Cs can separately be measured. With this objective in mind, a novel portable radiation survey instrument has been developed for the first time in India with the additional features such as inclusion of energy discrimination. This paper reports the development of such an instrument. The instrument uses conventional PM tube along with low power hybrid circuits based miniature discriminator. The versatility of the post accident monitor has further been improved by providing five ranges of energy discrimination possible. With this instrument, it is possible to measure gross activity below and above 500 keV as well as individual discriminator widows for 131I, 137Cs and 60Co. The system has a simple analog meter display. The use of miniature electronics has ensured low power consumption while enhancing the reliability of the system. (author)

2005-03-01

244

Occupational radiation protection. IAEA functions and policies  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The paper describes the functions and polices of the IAEA with regard to occupational radiation protection, which in fact reflect the international approach of the United Nations family to this problem. An international regime on occupational radiation protection has been growing on the bases of international legally binding conventions, international standards and international provisions for the application of these standards. The IAEA has been instrumental in establishing a corpus of occupational radiation protection standards that has a long and fructiferous history. The corpus now comprises one set of basic policy fundamentals on radiation protection, one basic international requirement, the International Basic Safety Standards for Protection against Ionizing Radiation and for the Safety of Radiation Sources, one basic guide on general occupational radiation protection, and several supporting guides establishing procedures, inter alia, for monitoring for external radiation and for internal contamination. The United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation provides the global scientific estimates of the biological effects attributable to radiation exposure and the International Commission on Radiological Protection the basic recommendations on radiation protection that are taken into account in the formulation of the international standards. The International Labour Organization (ILO) harmonizes the interests of governments, workers and employers and provides this essential input into the standards. The IAEA establishes the international standards in co-operation with the ILO and other specialized United Nations organizations. The paper finally describes a number of controversial occupational protection issues which are still being discussed internationally and the author considers that the Conference presents an ideal forum in which to tackle these issues and search for a consensual approach to their solution. (author)

2003-07-01

245

The Radiation Protection Law (StrVG)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The law for the prevention of radiation exposure of the population (Radiation Protection Law - StrVG) of December 12, 1986, given that appropriate dose and contamination values as well as the pertaining calculation methods will be laid down in the legal regulations yet to be issued, for which this law provides the autherization basis, is suited to assure the protection of the population from harmful radiation exposure. (orig./HP)

1987-01-01

246

SI units in radiation protection  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

International System of Units abbreviated as SI Units has been adopted by most of the countries of the world. Following this development, the implementation of SI units has become mandatory with a transition period of about ten years. Some of the journals have already adopted the SI units and any material sent for publication to them must use only these. International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurement (ICRU) published letters in several journals including 'Physics in Medicine and Biology', 'Health Physics', 'British Journal of Radiology', etc. outlining the latest recommendations on SI units to elicit the reactions of scientists in the general field of radiological sciences. Reactions to the letters were numerous as can be seen in the correspondence columns of these journals for the last few years and ranged from great misgivings and apprehension to support and appreciation. SI units have also been the subject of editorial comments in several journals. On the basis of a survey of this literature, it may be said that there was general agreement on the long term advantage of SI units inspite of some practical difficulties in their use particular in the initial stages. This report presents a review of SI units in radiological sciences with a view to familiarize the users with the new units in terms of the old. A timetable for the gradual changeover to the SI units is also outlined. (author)

1978-01-01

247

Educational system in the radiation protection  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A general characteristic of the existing university plans and programs is a partial approach to radiation protection without a unique frame on the basis of which, certain colleges could adjust their distinctive characteristics and could analyze this multidisciplinary field which is present in our contemporary lives. We must seriously take into account the consequences of our 'ignorance' towards this field. The present 'disorganized state' in the educational system concerning radiation protection, when many professions are 'fighting' for leading roles and 'exclusive rights' in applying measures for radiation protection: physicians, chemists, doctors and others, must be regulated on international and national scales by applying powerful authority of international organizations. The key to solving this problem is found in defining minimal common bases of educational plans and programs from the field of radiation protection that would be unique for all colleges that are directly or indirectly connected to this domain. The following step could be made towards organizing specialist and graduate studies at university levels for all schools that have incorporated basis for radiation protection into their plans and programs. Lastly, as special form of continuous education in the field of radiation protection , multidisciplinary basic and specialized courses should be organized internationally intended to solve specific problems of utilization of ionising radiation sources and integral radiation protection. (author)

2003-10-01

248

Radiation protection for particle accelerators  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

It a a great number of medical installations in spain using particle accelerators for radiotherapy. It is obvious the importance of an accurate estimation of the doses produced in these installations that may be received by health workers, patients or public. The lower values of dose limits established in the new ICRP recommendations imply a recalculation of items concerning such installations. In our country, specific guidelines for radiation protection in particle accelerators facilities have not been yet developed, however two possible guides can be used, NCRP report number 51 and DIN Standard 6847. Both have been analyzed comparatively in the paper, and major remarks have been summarized. Interest has been focused on thickness estimation of shielding barriers in order to verify whether must be modified to comply with the new dose limits. Primary and secondary barriers for a Mevatron used in a Medical Center, have been calculated and the results have been compared with actual data obtained from the installation, to test the adequacy of shielding barriers and radioprotection policies. The results obtained are presented and analyzed in order to state the implications of the new ICRP recommendations. (author)

1992-01-01

249

Rules and regulations of radiation protection  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The finality of this legislative text is to guarantee the radiation protection of the exposed personnel, of the people in general and the environment against the ionizing radiations risks. Its scope includes all the natural and juridical persons that work with ionizing radiation sources into the peruvian territory

1989-01-01

250

The new principle for radiation protection  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The present radiation protection principle was originated from the Lineal No Threshold hypothesis based on the health effects of radiation observed in the atomic explosions in Hiroshima and Navasota, Japan. But there had been also facts that indicated radiation received in low doses and in low-dose-rate had no obvious harm, even beneficial to humanity

2004-12-01

251

Radiation protection training in health care  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Guide presents the content and minimum amount of radiation protection training for health care staff with respect to the use of ionizing radiation. This Guide does not apply to training with respect to non-ionizing radiation and its use

2003-02-15

252

Using of ionizing radiation in environment protection  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this paper, there is given the review of application of the radiation chemistry techniques in the environment protection . Using of sources of ionization radiation in underground water, drinking water and waste waters as well as in exhaust gases radiation processing and treatment are reviewed

1997-10-21

253

The revised German radiation protection ordinance  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Since August 2001, German radiation protection law is governed by a new Radiation Protection Ordinance, implementing two new Euratom Directives and taking into account new scientific developments, which provides a comprehensive basis for the protection of man and the environment. The Ordinance has been completely restructured; however, it is still a very complex piece of legislation comprising 118 provisions and 14 annexes, some of them highly technical. Reduced dose limits for occupationally exposed persons and members of the public, a detailed provision on clearance of radioactive substances, a new part aiming at the protection of man and the environment against ionising radiation emanating from natural sources, and regulations dealing with the protection of consumers in connection with the addition of radioactive substances to consumer goods are some of the centre pieces of the new legislation which shall contribute significantly to the further prevention or at least minimisation of the adverse effects of radiation exposure. (orig.)

2002-02-01

254

Radiation protection instruction. Textbook with illustrations  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The material presented is intended as an aid for the radiation protection officer in fulfilling his task required by section 39 of the Radiation Protection Ordinance, to instruct the medical personnel of nuclear medicine departments at least twice a year on the hazards and safety measures to be observed. The Radiation Protection Officer has to select the appropriate subjects from the 23 chapters of this instruction unit. Records are to be kept of the subjects and times of instruction, and are to be signed by the person instructed. Persons occupationally exposed to ionizing radiation have to be informed that it is not only the Radiation Protection Officer who is responsible for damage or injury, but also the medical personnel can be made liable for damage due to negligence (as for instance delays in giving notice of a contamination). (orig./HP) With 40 slides

1985-01-01

255

Pilot study for natural radiation survey  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

NRPB's national survey of natural radiation exposure in homes commenced in 1982 and will run until 1984. A pilot survey was undertaken in over 100 homes for one year, using passive thermoluminescent dosemeters to measure external radiation from terrestrial and cosmic sources and passive radon dosemeters to measure the radon-222 gas concentration. A preliminary analysis of the results obtained from the pilot survey is given. The main value of the pilot survey was in providing experience and various administrative and scientific procedures have been simplified or automated for the national survey. (U.K.)

1983-01-01

256

Novel measured quantities in radiation protection  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The novel dose quantities as defined by ICRU: ambient dose equivalent, directional dose equivalent, individual dose equivalent penetrating and individual dose equivalent superficial, are introduced and commented in relation to: primarly limited dose quantities, secondarily limited dose quantities, primary field quantities, secondary field quantities and practically measured quantities. The same paper has been published under the title 'The novel ICRU equivalent dose quantities for radiation protection' in: Future developments and tasks of radiation protection, Annual Convention 1988 of the Austrian Association for Radiation Protection. (qui)

1989-04-05

257

Radiation protection research projects. Status report 2007  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In Behalf of the German Federal Environment Ministry (BMU) the BfS (Bundesamt fuer Strahlenschutz) assigns research contracts concerning radiation protection topics. The results of these research projects are supposed to provide decision support for the development of radiation protection regulations and other specific radiation protection tasks of the BMU. The BfS is basically charged for the planning, the technical and administrative prearrangements, the assignment, the expert monitoring and the technical evaluation of the results. The report is the compiled information on the results or intermediate results (status reports) of these research projects for the year 2007

2009-01-01

258

Radiation Protection at Light Water Reactors  

CERN Multimedia

This book is aimed at Health Physicists wishing to gain a better understanding of the principles and practices associated with a light water reactor (LWR) radiation protection program. The role of key program elements is presented in sufficient detail to assist practicing radiation protection professionals in improving and strengthening their current program. Details related to daily operation and discipline areas vital to maintaining an effective LWR radiation protection program are presented. Programmatic areas and functions important in preventing, responding to, and minimizing radiological incidents and the importance of performing effective incident evaluations and investigations are described. Elements that are integral in ensuring continuous program improvements are emphasized throughout the text.

Prince, Robert

2012-01-01

259

Radiation protection training of radiation safety officers in Finland in 2008  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority (STUK) carried out a survey on the radiation protection training of radiation safety officers (RSO) in Finland in 2008. The aim of the survey was to obtain information on the conformity and uniformity of the training provided in different training organisations. A previous survey concerning radiation protection training was carried out in 2003. That survey determined the training needs of radiation users and radiation safety officers as well the radiation protection training included in vocational training and supplementary training. This report presents the execution and results of the survey in 2008. According to the responses, the total amount of RSO training fulfilled the requirements presented in Guide ST 1.8 in the most fields of competence. The emphasis of the RSO training differed between organisations, even for training in the same field of competence. Certain issues in Guide ST 1.8 were dealt quite superficially or even not at all in some training programmes. In some fields of competence, certain matters were entirely left to individual study. No practical training with radiation equipment or sources was included in the RSO training programme of some organisations. Practical training also varied considerably between organisations, even within the same field of competence. The duties in the use of radiation were often considered as practical training with radiation equipment and sources. Practical training from the point of view of a radiation safety officer was brought up in the responses of only one organisation. The number of questions and criteria for passing RSO exams also varied between organisations. Trainers who provided RSO training for the use of radiation in health care sectors had reached a higher vocational training level and received more supplementary training in radiation protection in the previous 5 years than trainers who provided RSO training for the use of radiation in industry, research, and education and training. Those trainers who had received no supplementary training or whose supplementary training was not known were more involved in training for the industrial, research, and education and training sectors than for the health care sectors. Experiences with and feedback on Guide ST 1.8 and its applicability were also collected in this survey. The results of the survey and feedback will be used when Guide ST 1.8 is revised. (orig.)

2009-01-01

260

Radiation protection in occupational health  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The document is a training manual for physicians entering the field of occupational medicine for radiation workers. Part 1 contains the general principles for the practice of occupational health, namely health surveillance and the role of the occupational physician in the workplace, and Part 2 provides the essential facts necessary to understand the basic principles of radiation physics, radiobiology, dosimetry and radiation effects which form the basis for occupational radiation health

1987-01-01

 
 
 
 
261

Radiation protection at reactors RA and RB  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Radiation protection activities at the RA and RB reactors are imposed by the existing legal regulations and international recommendations in this field. This annual report contains five parts which cover the following topics: Radiation safety, dosimetry control and technical radiation protection at reactors RA and RB; Handling of radioactive waste, actions and decontamination; Control of the environment (surroundings of RA and RB reactors) and meteorological measurements; Control of internal contamination and internal exposure; Health control od personnel exposed to radiation. Personnel as well as financial data are part of this report

2003-01-01

262

Progress report 1983. Programme. Radiation protection  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The research activities of the Radiation Protection programme in 1983 are summarized, the results of about 400 projects from contracts with national institutions and universities in the member states are presented under six headings: radiation dosimetry and its interpretation; behaviour and control of radionuclides in the environment; short-term somatic effects of ionizing radiation; late somatic effects of ionizing radiation; genetic effects of ionizing radiation; evaluation of radiation risks. Each report gives details of the contractor, the head of the research team, the general subject of the contract and the list of projects involved.

1984-01-01

263

Radiation protection programme: Progress report 1982  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The 1982 progress report of the radiation protection program contains summaries of reports on research projects under six headings: (1) radiation dosimetry and its interpretation (48 projects), (2) behavior and control of radionuclides in the environment (53 projects), (3) short-term somatic effects of ionizing radiation (44 projects), (4) late somatic effects of ionizing radiation (58 projects), (5) genetic effects of ionizing radiation (82 projects), and (6) evaluation of radiation risks (45 projects). Each report gives details of the contractor, the head of the research team, the general subject of the contract, and the list of projects involved.

1982-01-01

264

Radiation protection in the hospital environment  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The hospital environment contains numerous sources of ionizing radiation that may contribute to public and occupational radiation exposure. Radiation exposure from x rays is minimized through engineering design, administrative controls, and quality control. Exposure from patients that contain therapeutic quantities is minimized by isolation in appropriately controlled private rooms. Administrative controls are relied on for controlling radiation exposure from diagnostic nuclear medicine patients. Hospital radiation installations must be planned and periodically reviewed to take advantage of the latest developments in radiation protection and to keep public and occupational exposure as low as reasonably achievable

1988-11-01

265

Nuclear instrumentation for radiation protection [Paper No.:N1  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Instrumentation for radiation protection surveillance should be primarily geared to generate and process a complete set of data on the radiological status in and around the nuclear installations for controlling the internal and external exposure of workers and to ensure that the dose to members of the public are kept below the mandatory limits. The paper reviews the status of development of radiation protection instruments in the national context and projects the requirements. The various category of instruments discussed in the paper cover survey instruments, installed monitors, personal monitoring devices, neutron monitors, air monitoring instruments, environmental dose logging systems and detectors. The development efforts need to be translated into regular production with proper quality assurance for meeting the growing demands of the radiation protection profession in the country. (author). 30 refs

1993-01-01

266

Radiation Protection and Safety infrastructure in Albania  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

On 1995 Albania Parliament approved the Radiation Protection Act, which established the Radiation Protection Commission as Regulatory Body and Radiation Protection Office as an executive office. The licensing of private and public companies is a duty of RPC and the inspections, enforcement, import - export control, safety and security of radioactive materials, are tasks of RPO. Regulations on licence and inspection, safe handling of radioactive sources, radioactive waste management and transport of radioactive materials have been approved. The Codes of practice in diagnostic radiology, radiotherapy and nuclear medicine have been prepared. Institute of Nuclear Physics carry out monitoring of personal dosimetry, response to the radiological emergencies, calibration of dosimetric equipment's, management of radioactive waste, etc. Based in the IAEA documents, a new Radiation Protection Act is under preparation

2005-04-01

267

Radiation Protection of Children of Belarus  

International Science & Technology Center (ISTC)

Radiation Protection of Children of Belarus. Development of Recommendations on the Basis of the Research of the Effectiveness of Effects of Radioprotectors on Children from Radiocontaminated Regions of Belarus

268

Strengthening the radiation protection culture: a priority of EDF radiation protection policy  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text of publication follows: In order to improve the management of radiation protection at EDF nuclear power plants, the Human Factors Group of the Research and Development Division of EDF has performed some studies on the appropriation process of the radiation protection requirements. These studies have notably shown that an efficient application of the radiation protection requirements lies on a comprehension by all workers of the meaning of these requirements. Furthermore, they should not be applied under the constraint or because of the fear of a sanction, but the workers need to perceive and understand the benefits in terms of protection associated with the radiation protection requirements. The strengthening of the radiation protection culture is therefore a key element of the radiation protection policy developed by EDF. This culture lies on an awareness of the health risks potentially associated with low levels of ionising radiations, as well as on the knowledge of tools, techniques and good practices developed to control the level of exposures and improve the radiation protection. Various type of actions have been undertaken to reinforce among the relevant players (exposed and non-exposed workers, contractors, all levels of management,... ) an awareness of radiation protection in order to integrate it in their day to day work: elaboration of a 'radiation protection system of reference' explaining how the radiation protection regulatory requirements are applied at EDF, publication of a 'radiation protection handbook' available for all workers (including contractors), training sessions, creation of networks of specialists from the various nuclear power plants on specific radiation protection issues, organisation of feed-back experience forum, etc. Beyond these specific actions, i t is also important to ensure a support and an assistance on the field by dedicated specialists. In this perspective, the health physicists have to play a key role in order to foster the appropriation of the radiation protection culture. For this reason, the structure and the skills of the health physics departments was reinforced and their presence on the field increased. The improvement of radiation protection performances at EDF nuclear power plants is strongly relying on a commitment of all the players involved. Their motivation and vigilance have to be sustained so that their involvement is not merely occasional, but fits into a continuous process. The sharing of a common radiation protection culture is essential as it develops individual and collective behaviours oriented towards a common objective: improving radiation protection and maintaining the levels of exposure as low as reasonably achievable. (author)

2006-05-15

269

Qualification criteria for persons responsible for radiation protection  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A survey of the qualification criteria included in the German atomic law (Atomic Energy Act, Radiological Protection Ordinance and X-ray Protection Ordinance) for persons responsible for radiation protection is given. Especially the various activities for which a health physics officer is required, the range of qualification in each case and the way the qualification has to be proved, are pointed out. Also the different guides that are issued to complete the legal requirements are mentioned. The definitions of the term qualification for health physics given in the different guides are cited and it is shown, that the qualification of a healt physics officer has to be based on the three criteria (I) vocational training. (II) professional experience and (III) the necessary knowledge in radiation protection. (orig./HP)

1980-10-01

270

Qualification criteria for persons responsible for radiation protection  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A survey of the qualification criteria included in the German atomic law (Atomic Energy Act, Radiological Protection Ordinance and X-ray Protection Ordinance) for persons responsible for radiation protection is given. Especially the various activities for which a health physics officer is required, the range of qualification in each case and the way the qualification has to be proved, are pointed out. Also the different guides that are issued to complete the legal requirements are mentioned. The definitions of the term qualification for health physics given in the different guides are cited and it is shown, that the qualification of a healt physics officer has to be based on the three criteria (I) vocational training. (II) professional experience and (III) the necessary knowledge in radiation protection.

Wehner, G (Bundesministerium des Innern, Bonn (Germany, F.R.))

1980-10-01

271

National radiation protection programme for occupational exposure  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Radiation Protection in Ecuador, as an important part of the whole context of protection against occupational health damage, since 1979 has become a relevant aspect in our government's concerns and policy. Programs have been developed in order to register machines, sources, activities and ionizing radiation users in all fields throughout the country. Plans have been implemented to improve workers safety from occupational exposure: personal thermoluminescense dosimetry, training courses, technical studies to get the best protection in working places, coordination with health institutions to make tests and evaluations to control occupational health, personal and institutional licensing and others. We also have supplied advice on Radiation Protection in the use of radiodiagnosis and radiotherapy, nuclear medicine, radionmunoassay and in industrial, educational and research applications, mainly in matters of shielding, technical meetings, and design of personal protections and safety procedures. (author)

2003-09-01

272

The reform of radiation protection in Morocco  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Occupational, public and environmental radiation protection is a major challenge in diverse applications of ionising radiation (industrial, medical, research). There is a considerable international pressure for states to strengthen their regulatory control of radiation safety in order to avoid major radiation accidents, or radiation sources becoming lost or getting in the wrong hands. Covering the safety of radiation in industry, medicine and research, the Moroccan government has made a great effort to strengthen the radiation protection infrastructure and human competency. The IAEA code of conduct and basic safety standards requires that national legislation creates a regulatory authority whose regulatory functions are effectively independent of any government department or other agency that promotes any of the practices regulated. Currently all of the regulatory powers lie with the ministry of health. In order to meet the internationally agreed standards of radiation safety, a new independent Moroccan nuclear safety authority will be established with high level of competencies in radiation protection and its role to ensure the protection of workers, the public and the environment. This paper aims to map out a possible regulatory change and review of the function and structure of the regulatory authority. (authors)

2006-05-15

273

Opportunities for fuzzy logic in radiation protection  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper points at applications of fuzzy logic currently under development at the radiation protection research unit at the nuclear research center SCK/CEN. The illustrated applications are snapshots of the wide research area of radiation protection and radiological optimization. As such, it is not the intention of this paper to give a complete overview of fuzzy logic applications in these fields, but rather to try to reveal future opportunities for further developing fuzzy logic in nuclear science

1994-09-14

274

Radiation protection experience in the Kernkraftwerk Stade  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The organization of radiation protection in the Kernkraftwerk Stade having been described, the extent of work during the period of revision is portrayed. The personnel dose rates, for own as well as foreign staff members, show a static tendency with annual doses between 300 and 400 rem per man. The lecture concludes with radiation protection measures during diving activities in 1973 when the core grid was exchanged in the flooded reactor pressure vessel. (orig.)

1976-08-01

275

Radiation protection optimization - appropriate legal provisions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The ICRP publications are the basic source of reference for the international and national legislation in the field of radiation protection. This also applies to the transformation of the ICRP radiation protection principles into international and national law, as is shown in this paper by the example of the optimization principle. The adoption of the ALARA principle as the ICRP-recommended optimization principle by the national or international legislative bodies is briefly reviewed. (DG)

1992-01-01

276

Operational radiation protection and monitoring programme  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

All the tasks of the Radiation Protection Department at the Nuclear Power Plant are mentioned and described. These tasks determine the necessary manpower and qualification of the personnel. Certain organizational structures are required to guarantee the effective work of this department. The Radiation Protection Department of the Biblis Nuclear Power Station and its tasks, manpower, organization etc. serves to illustrate the material covered by this lecture. (orig./RW)

1980-10-15

277

Federal radiation protection regulations: An industry viewpoint  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Regulations and standards to protect the public and workers from ionizing radiation have been in transition for a number of years, although most of the basic limits in use have remained essentially unchanged over the past 25 years or so. Legislation, political changes, new scientific data, advances in scientific concepts, and finally, public perception and resulting pressures have all been factors in the modifications that have been implemented or considered for radiation protection regulations in recent years. During this period, radiation exposures to both the public and the work force have been reduced through program management and improved technology. Based on activities of the AIF Subcommittee on Radiation Protection, this paper reviews pertinent NRC and EPA regulations, standards and guidance as well as NCRP recommendations and provide some analyses of these in terms of their potential effect on nuclear industry operations. Comments include suggestions where minor changes in Federal agency approaches to radiation regulation might be made for the public benefit

1987-01-01

278

Current situation of radiation protection in Vietnam  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Vietnam was one of the earliest countries, who applied ionizing radiation in medicine, since 1923, Dr. Marie Curie had supplied radium sources to Hanoi cancer hospital for radiotherapy. However, we did not give sufficient attention to radiation protection involving, e.g. technology, legislation, until 1980s. Recently with the strong support from International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and Vietnam government nuclear technology has been strongly and widely developed in different branches and radiation protection situation in Vietnam has been improved step by step. Strategy for Peaceful Utilization of Atomic Energy up to 2020 approved by the prime minister on January 3th, 2006 confirms that nuclear power plant will be put in operation by 2020. To ensure the implementation of the strategy, the first priority should be given to radiation protection and nuclear safety. This paper presents shortly some activities of radiation safety in Vietnam. The requirements for developing this field in Vietnam are also discussed. (author)

2008-12-01

279

The radiation protection officer in medicine and engineering  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The directory covers the duties and responsibilities of the radiation protection officer in medicine and engineering, the fundamentals of radiation protection (German radiation protection law, limiting values, fundamental physics, biological radiation effects of ionizing radiation, radon at the working place, radiation protection for neutron handling), the accomplishment of radiation protection (radiation protection in case of open radioactive source handling, application of encapsulated radioactive materials, operation of facilities generating ionizing radiation, employment in foreign facilities or institutions, technical X-ray facilities or interfering radiation, X-ray facility in medicine, quality assurance in nuclear medicine)

2008-06-01

280

Views of the radiation protection professionals  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In general, the radiation protection professional is an adequately trained person who uses his/her technical or scientific experience and skills to protect human beings (and increasingly, the environment) against the harmful effects of ionizing radiation. These persons may be users of radiation in industry, medicine or science; they may be employed as radiation protection officers or consultants, or they may work within the regulatory or authority infrastructures. They may also be independent experts. In spite of the general goals they have in common, their priorities and their views may vary considerably. Confidence is an indispensable prerequisite for successful communication concerning the development of future recommendations in radiation protection. The process of confidence building is difficult. It requires a clarification of the different roles and interests of all parties involved, i.e. policy, economy, public and safety. The willingness to accept a new concept will be increased perceptibly if relevant persons or groups of persons (stakeholders) are already involved in the selection of alternatives. Radiation protection professionals are important partners in the process initiated by the International Committee on Radiological Protection (ICRP), discussing recommendations to come

2003-07-01

 
 
 
 
281

Proposals for changes in radiation protection standards  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The International Commission on Radiological Protection has proposed changes to its recommendations on radiation protection standards. The proposed new control regime would distinguish between planned, potential and pre-existing exposure situations and between occupational, medical and public exposures. The proposals are expected to be published formally later this year. (author)

1990-01-01

282

Safety radiation protection interfaces and optimization approach  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this document, the Institute of Protection and Nuclear Safety (I.P.S.N.) notes its thoughts about the way whom the optimization approach led in nuclear power plants can make easy, in not emergency situations, the reaching of the best compromise between safety and radiation protection. (N.C.)

1998-06-09

283

Ecological radiation protection criteria for nuclear power  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

By now a large quantity of radioactive hazards of all sizes and shapes has accumulated in Russia. They include RBMK, VVER, and BN (fast-neutron) nuclear power plants, nuclear fuel processing plants, radioactive waste dumps, ships with nuclear power units, etc. In order to evaluate the radioecological situation correctly, the characteristics of the radioactive contamination must be compiled in these areas with some system of criteria which will provide an acceptable level of ecological safety. Currently health criteria for radiation protection are, which are oriented to man's radiation protection, predominate. Here the concept of a thresholdless linear dose-response dependence, which has been confirmed experimentally only at rather high doses (above 1 Gy), is taken as the theoretical basis for evaluating and normalizing radiation effects. According to one opinion, protecting people against radiation is sufficient to protect other types of organisms, although they are not necessarily of the same species. However, from the viewpoint of ecology, this approach is incorrect, because it does not consider radiation dose differences between man and other living organisms. The article discusses dose-response dependences for various organisms, biological effects of ionizing radiation, and appropriate radiation protection criteria

1993-10-01

284

Radiation protection principles observance in Iranian dental schools  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In recent decades many guidelines has been conducted by radiation protection organizations about radiation protection in dentistry. This study aimed to evaluate the observance of these guidelines in educational clinics of all dental schools in Iran. Material and Methods: In this cross-sectional study a self-administered questionnaire, based on National Radiation Protection Board and European Commission guidelines, was conducted. The radiology departments of all dental school (18 schools) were surveyed in this study. The questionnaire was consisted of 3 sections including intraoral radiography, extra oral radiography and implementation of quality control programs. Results: In the case of the existence of radiation protection facilities (such as lead apron, thyroid shield and lead impacted walls) the use of high speed films and existence of automatic processor in dental schools, there was a proper condition. The main problem was related to lack of regular quality control and quality assurance programs. Digital radiography systems were employed in none of the schools and it was occasionally used for research purposes at some of them. Conclusions: This study has emphasized on the need for further consideration of radiation protection principles in dental schools, especially on the field of quality control and quality assurance programs.

2010-01-01

285

Views of the radiation protection professionals  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The International Radiation Protection Association (IRPA) is an organization with a membership comprising individual professionals in radiological protection. Over recent years, the IRPA has played an increasingly important role in the standards setting process by collecting and transmitting views on proposals and by quickly informing the profession about developments within international bodies. The main concerns of the profession with respect to proposals from the International Commission on Radiological Protection are described, together with the areas of particular concern to the profession. (author)

2003-07-01

286

Research on radiation effect and radiation protection at JAEA  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Researches on radiation effect and radiation protection at JAEA have been carried out in different sections. In recent years, the organizations were rearranged to attain better research circumstances, and new research programs started. At present, radiation effect studies focus on radiation effect mechanisms at atomic, molecular and cellular levels including simulation studies, and protection studies focus on dosimetry for conditions difficult to cover with currently used methods and data as well as the related basic studies. The outlines of the whole studies and also some descriptions on selected subjects will be given in this paper. (author)

2007-02-01

287

The new radiation protection regulation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This dossier deals with the new regulation on radiological protection resulting from a Recommendation of the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) issued in 1990. The Recommendation, as per the EURATOM Treaty, lead to a Directive prescribing that the member states of the European Union should adopt new standards for radiological protection. Following a presentation of the main principles which underlie the ICRP 'philosophy', the implementation of the reform in the European Union and in France is described and analyzed in a series of articles. Other articles on the same subject will be published later on. (author)

2002-01-01

288

Medical aspects of radiation protection law contribution to Austrian radiation protection law  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Some medical aspects of the radiation protection law, esp. in conjunction with medical surveillance of persons exposed to radiation, are dealt with. The discussion refers to the countries of the European Community and Austria and Switzerland. (VJ)

1977-01-01

289

Radiation protection: the french regulation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The French legislation concerning workmen, population and environment protection against the harm ful consequences of irradiation originated from nuclear power plant activities is presented. (A.L.S.L.)

1979-01-01

290

Quantities and units in radiation protection dosimetry  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A new report, entitled Quantities and Units in Radiation Protection Dosimetry, has recently been published by the international Commission on Radiation Units and Measurements. That report (No. 51) aims to provide a coherent system of quantities and units for purposes of measurement and calculation in the assessment of compliance with dose limitations. The present paper provides an extended summary of that report, including references to the operational quantities needed for area and individual monitoring of external radiations. ((orig.))

1994-08-01

291

Report on radiation protection in Croatia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Ministry of Health in the Republic of Croatia is in charge of radiation protection, and the new Ionizing Radiation Protection Act defines the responsibilities of the different organizations and institutions. The report explains the existing national system of notification and registration in Croatia and some of the main provisions of the above referred Act. Reference is made to the national provisions for the management of disused sources, recovery or control of orphan sources, and to the national inventory of radiation sources in the country with the data collected during 1998 and 1999. (author)

2001-08-01

292

Radiation protection in dental radiology. A textbook  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The textbook presents the basic principles and knowledge of X-radiation and its applications and is intended for radiological personnel in dentistry or in medical practice specializing in the treatment of maxillo-facial disease. The book discusses in detail all medical and technical aspects of X-ray equipment and their applications, the properties and uses of the films and screens, and processing techniques. There also are chapters dealing with the means available for radiation protection, and with the legal radiation protection provisions to be observed. (DG)

1992-01-01

293

Is radiation protection for the unborn child guaranteed by radiation protection for female workers?  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

ICRP Publication 88 recommends doses to embryo and fetus from intakes of radionuclides by the mother for various intake scenarios. Mainly by answering the question 'Is radiation protection for the unborn child guaranteed by radiation protection for female workers?' it has been assessed if the intake scenarios given in ICRP Publication 88 are adequate for radiation protection purposes. This is generally the case, but the consideration of an additional chronic intake scenario for early pregnancy would be helpful. It is demonstrated that following chronic intake by inhalation, for most radionuclides radiation protection for (female) workers is also adequate for protection of the unborn child, considered as a member of the public. However, there are a number of radionuclides for which possible intakes in routine operations should be more restricted (up to 1% of the annual limits on intake for workers in the case of nickel isotopes) to ensure radiation protection for the unborn child. (author)

2002-09-09

294

Management information system on radiation protection  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Considering the flux complexity and the multi source information of all radiation protection activities on nuclear organizations, an effective management information system based on technology, information and people is necessary to improve the safety on all processes and operations subjected to radiation risks. An effective management information system is an essential tool to highlight the strengths and weaknesses and identify behaviors and trends on the activities requiring radiation protection programs. Such kind of distinct knowledge is useful to reach an effective management and support the human decision-making on nuclear organization. This paper presents a management information system based on Brazilian directives and regulations on radiation protection. Due to its generic characteristics, this radiation protection control system can be implemented on any nuclear organization by reediting the non restricted parameters which could differ considering all facilities and laboratories expected on-site with diverse technologies applications. This system can be considered as a powerful tool applied on the continuous management of radiation protection activities on nuclear organizations and research institutes as well as for long term planning, not only indicating how the safety activities are going, but why they are not going as well as planned where that is the case. (author)

Grossi, Pablo Andrade; Souza, Leonardo Soares de; Figueiredo, Geraldo Magela, E-mail: pabloag@cdtn.b, E-mail: lss@cdtn.b, E-mail: gmf@cdtn.b [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

2011-07-01

295

The conceptual basis for neutron radiation protection  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The conceptual basis for neutron radiation protection has specific neutron aspect and general radiation protection aspects. As to the first, the rationale of q(L), q(Esub(n)) and finally the risk factors used in the definition of the effective dose equivalent, Hsub(E), are discussed. Using an approach developed by Rossi, an alternative q(L) is assumed and q(Esub(n)) and finally Hsub(E) calculated. General radiation protection aspects concern the definition, introduction and application of operational quantities, which are intended to replace in practice the primary and secondary limited ones. Neutron dose equivalent is not directly measurable, although efforts are now being made to utilize TE-proportional counters, and so at present all quantities have to be defined via calculated fluence-to-dose equivalent conversion functions. Extensive radiation transport calculations have been performed in the past in both anthropoid and regular body phantoms to determine fluence conversion factors for the whole hierarchy of primary limited and operational quantities. Quantities defined in the ICRU-sphere are of special interest. Revised data sets for all relevant quantities will be shown and intercompared. One of the recurrent problems in radiation protection is the difficulty in establishing a unique concept for environmental and individual monitoring. The planned concept of ICRU is critically reviewed in this respect. Finally the implications of the new proposals on the uncertainty in assessing limited quantities under certain exposure conditions in radiation protection practice will be discussed

1984-09-17

296

Radiation protection in dental practice  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This guide provides the dentist and dental support personnel with basic information on the safe use of x-rays in dental radiography. Included in this CODE are specific recommendations for eliminating unnecessary radiation exposure of both patients and staff

297

Radiation Protection Program of Petrobras.  

Science.gov (United States)

Risks present in oil industry require specific control programs, especially when using radioactive sources. Main uses of ionizing radiation in oil industry are in process control systems, industrial radiography and oilwell logging. A comprehensive and sys...

M. Signorini

1988-01-01

298

Development of radiation protection and measurement technology  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Reference X-, gamma, beta and neutron radiation fields complying with the ISO and ANSI standards have been established and evaluated to provide a basic technical support in national radiation protection dosimetry program and to provide calibration measurement devices. Personal dose evaluation algorithm has been developed with these reference radiation fields, which comply well with both domestic and the new ANSI N13.11, to evaluate accurate personal dose equivalents. A personal internal dosimetry algorithm which can estimate the intakes of radionuclides from the results of in vivo bioassay and the resulting internal doses has been developed and verified its performance. It was also evaluated to be equality excellent compared with those being used in foreign countries and used to make a computer code for internal dose evaluation which can be run with PC under the Windows environment. A BOMAB phantom for precise calibration of in vivo system has been also designed, fabricated and test-evaluated. Based on the ALARA concept of the optimization principle of radiation protection, a method for estimating the cost for radiation protection has been studied and an objective monetary cost of detriment due to radiation exposure, called {alpha} value ($/man-Sv) has been derived and proposed based on the Korean socio-economic situation and human risk factors to provide basic data for the radiation protection optimization study in Korea. (author). 100 refs., 104 tabs., 69 figs.

Chang, Si Young; Lee, T. Y.; Kim, J. L.; Kim, B. H.; Lee, B. J.; Chung, K. K.; Lee, K. C.; Chung, R. I.; Han, Y. D.; Kim, J. S.; Lee, H. S.; Kim, C. K.; Yoon, K. S.; Jeong, D. Y.; Yoon, S. C.; Yoon, Y. C.; Lee, S. Y.; Kim, J. S.; Seo, K. W. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, J. K.; Lee, J. K. [Hanyang Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

1997-07-01

299

Radiatsionnye issledovaniya v ORB i RI OIYaI. Itogi za 1979-1989 gody. (Radiation protection research in the Department of Radiation Safety and R R JINR. Results for 1979-1989).  

Science.gov (United States)

A survey and results of the radiation protection research in the Department of radiation safety, JINR for the 1979-1989 decade are presented. The characteristics of JINR basic nuclear installations as radiation sources and radiation environmental situatio...

M. M. Komochkov

1989-01-01

300

Radiation Protection Elephants in the Room  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

As our system of radiological protection evolves, several significant issues loom within radiation protection discussions and publications. These issues influence the nature of epidemiological and radiobiological research and the establishment of radiation protection recommendations, standards, and regulations. These issues are like the proverbial elephants in the room. They are large, and it is unwise to ignore them. This paper discusses the impact of three young elephants as they make their presence increasingly obvious: increased cancer susceptibility from early-life exposure to radiation, terrorism and fear of radiation, and patient safety. Increased cancer susceptibility from early-life exposure to radiation is emerging as a discussion topic related to the safety of computed tomography (CT) and other medical modalities. Shortly after publication of CT dose data, manufacturers were helping to reduce doses to children by increasing flexibility for adjustment of technique factors. Also, radiation epidemiological data are being used in the development of guidance on exposure to chemical carcinogens during early life. Re-emergence of public fear of radiation has been fueled by threats of radiological dispersion devises and confusing messages about personal decontamination, emergency room acceptance or rejection of contaminated victims, and environmental clean-up. Finally, several professional publications have characterized risk of medical radiation exposure in terms of patient deaths even though epidemiological data do not support such conclusions. All three of these elephants require excellent science and sophisticated data analysis to coax them from the room. Anecdotal communications that confuse the public should be avoided. These are not the only elephants in the room, but these three are making their presence increasingly obvious. This paper discusses the need for radiation protection professionals to rely on good science in the evolution of the system of radiological protection. (Author) 32 refs

2004-01-01

 
 
 
 
301

Abstracts of 20. International Symposium Radiation Protection Physics  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

51 papers are presented as titles with abstracts which are processed individually for the INIS data base. They deal with general aspects of radiation protection physics, international activities in radiation protection, solid state dosimetry, models and calculation methods in radiation protection, and measuring techniques in radiation protection

1988-04-25

302

Radiation protection activities around the CERN accelerators  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The staff of the Survey Section of Radiation Protection (RP) working around the CERN accelerators were as usual very busy. The LEP2 programme is now fully on its way, with the installation of additional superconducting RF cavities carried out during both the winter and summer shutdowns. The LEP energy per beam was thus increased to 80.5 GeV in summer and to 86 GeV in autumn. ACOL and LEAR ended their operational life on 19 December producing, for the last time, antiprotons for the experiments in the South Hall; all experiments will be dismantled in 1997. This programme will be partly replaced by the future Antiproton Decelerator, which was approved by the Research Board in November. Several experiments also came to their end in the North and West Experimental Areas of the SPS. NA44 (in EHN1) and NA47 (in EHN2) ended this year. All experiments installed in beam lines HI, H3, XI and X3 in the West Area also terminated, as these beam lines will be dismantled in the course of 1997 to make room for test facilities for the LHC. Several modifications in the West and North Experimental Areas have already been undertaken at the end of the year and will be continued in 1997. Some equipment installed in the West Area will be moved to the North Area. In addition to routine work, several measurements of synchrotron radiation were made in LEP for the two new energy levels reached in 1996. A number of dedicated measurements were also undertaken in EHN1 (North Area) at the end of the year, during the lead-ion run which closed the physics period. A detailed assessment of releases of radioactivity from the ISOLDE facility was also made

1997-03-25

303

Radiation and heredity: genetic aspects of protection against radiation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Primary radiogenetic effects and delayed genetic radiation effects are considered. Experimental and published data on possibility to protect organisms and populations against single and long-term (during life of several generations) effect of ionizing radiation are given. Problem concerning population adaptation to low dose irradiation is discussed. 490 refs., 28 figs., 43 tabs

1990-01-01

304

Current Radiation Protection Practices in Egypt  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The aim of the present study is to report in going activities in Egypt during 2010-2011. Such activities are controlled by Egyptian Law no 59 (1960). Where activities controlled by ministry of Health are x-rays machines accelerators and sealed sources. While activities controlled by Atomic Energy Authority are unsealed sources and reactors. Radiation protection practices include radiation monitoring at sites external and internal personnel dosimetry of radiation workers. It covers sites such as Hospitals companies, research reactors and research institutes and others. Detailed summary of the radiation protection practices shall be covered in the present study. Attention shall be paid to the new Ionizing radiation law I which was issued in 2011. The new law shall be implemented as soon as its executive regulation is issued. Upon its implementation. The duties of the controlling authorities shall be redistributed between ministry of health and a new controlling authority. The new authority shall control nuclear and radiological activities

2011-11-01

305

Radiation protection and the safety of radiation sources  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

These Safety Fundamentals cover the protection of human beings against ionizing radiation (gamma and X rays and alpha, beta and other particles that can induce ionization as they interact with biological materials), referred to herein subsequently as radiation, and the safety of sources that produce ionizing radiation. The Fundamentals do not apply to non-ionizing radiation such as microwave, ultraviolet, visible and infrared radiation. They do not apply either to the control of non-radiological aspects of health and safety. They are, however, part of the overall framework of health and safety

1996-01-01

306

Viewing radiation protection in the framework of general environmental protection  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The author of the introductory contribution places the tasks of radiation protection within the framework of general environmental protection. He presents joint concepts - for instance, large-area measuring plans for radon in living-space and formaldehyde in building materials, and, for instance, protection of waters with corresponding recommendations for the chemicals industry - and sets out the political principles of the Federal German Government for the improvement of the environmental situation and, especially, for the protection of human health. He points out each citizen's own responsibility for his health, and the consumer's responsibility as regards his own consumer behaviour. As regards the protection of the population and the environment against ionizing radiation hazards, especially with regard to German nuclear power plants, the valid principle is 'safety first', and this includes the tasks with which radiologists are confronted in the event of nuclear accidents to assure transfrontier, preventive medical care. The Association of German Radiologists is requested to make special efforts to assess the radiation exposure of man. (TRV)

1987-01-01

307

Radiation survey of the nuclear submarine Kursk  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Results of the radiation survey of the accidentally submerged nuclear submarine Kursk conducted in 2000 - 2001 provided with nuclear and radiation safety of works are presented. Obtained results demonstrated that reactors were shutdown and radionuclide migration to sea medium was absent

2002-09-01

308

Radiation chemistry and environmental protection  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A combination of different technological methods in one plant is usually economically advantageous in industry. Such a general approach is also useful in solving ecological problems by methods of radiation technology. This method of cleaning 'harsh' sufactants and 'mold' products and a stage of subsequent biological purification of these products from the water. Combining radiation and adsorption techniques is also promising. A relatively large number of examples can now be cited. At the same time, purely radiational technologies are also possible. The authors discuss one of these technologies in more detail. This concerns electron-beam scrubbing of sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides from the gases from electric power plants. This method can also be used for scrubbing sulfur dioxide from waste gases from sulfuric acid and metallurgical plants

1992-05-01

309

Public understanding of radiation protection concepts  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Chernobyl accident in April 1986 clearly showed that communication with the public was one of the areas where there was a strong need for improvement, particularly concerning the nature and extent of the information provided by national authorities. The countermeasures adopted by public health authorities also raised difficulties in terms of public understanding and acceptance due, in part, to the perception of discrepancies in national, regional or local response to the accident, but also to a more basic lack of comprehension of the complex radiation protection considerations involved. In an attempt to help improve the situation, the NEA Committee on Radiation Protection and Public Health decided to organise a Workshop on public communication in the event of a nuclear accident, centered on radiation protection issues. The purpose of this Workshop was to analyse appropriate methods and language to be used when explaining to the public the scientific concepts underlying radiation risks and radiation protection, and the technical rationale for the choice of protective actions in an emergency. Separate abstracts were prepared for individual papers presented at the meeting

1987-12-02

310

Radiation protection course for physicians. Pt. 2  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The material presented is intended as a teaching aid for courses of advanced professional training in radiotherapy, specifically for the subject of radiation protection. It will further be of help as a manual for physicians specializing in radiotherapy, and also for radiological personnel, who will be glad to have at hand a systematic and comprehensive guide to radiation protection measures in radiotherapy. The material has been revised so as to offer the current state of the art, and has been improved by adding illustrations of practical value and a subject index. The material has been restricted to explaining the legal basis of radiation protection in medical therapy as far as covered by the subjects of the training course. This offered the possibility of presenting a comprehensive view of the legal provisions governing radiation protection, which originally are given in two different statutory orders, the X-ray Ordinance and the Radiation Protection Ordinance. The latest recommendations of the ICRP and related comments, rules and standards have been taken into account. (orig.)

1983-01-01

311

Costs of radiation protection in X-ray diagnosis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The study described investigates into the costs arising from physical protection measures against radiation, in particular from dosimetric determinations carried out in humans according to section 40 of the X-Ray Ordinance, from special structural requirements of examination rooms and higher purchase prices for X-ray units offering built-in protective devices (hardware-related radiation protection). The conventional fluoroscope is chosen as an example of how this is achieved today. At first, a survey is given of X-ray installations in North Rhine-Westphalia, the technical details of which are described. This provides approximative information on the extent of dosimetric calculations in humans, the necessary expenditure on shieldings and the costs involved in additional hardware-related measures. (orig./DG)

1987-01-01

312

Regulatory System of Radiation Protection in Taiwan  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

After the radioactive contaminated buildings incident occurred in Taiwan in 1993, the competent authority for radiation protection the Atomic Energy Council (AEC) started to review the structured problem of radiation protection regulatory system. Through several years' investigation and study, the AEC has improved two important tools in radiation protection regulatory system, i.e., control regulations and actual practice, and made them more rigorous and efficient. This paper will make a brief introduction of the efforts that Taiwan has made in this respect. Taiwan's radiation protection control was based on the Atomic Energy Law promulgated in 1968, but the control idea and authorization scope were not sufficient to appropriately respond to the highly developed economy and democracy in Taiwan. After several years' legislative process, the Ionizing Radiation Protection Law (IRP Law) was promulgated and entered into force on February 1, 2003. This IRP Law specifically emphasizes categorized risk management of radiation sources, establishment of personnel licenses and training system, enhancement of public safety control, and implementation of quality assurance program for medical exposure. The Legislative Yuan (Congress) fully authorized the competent authority to establish various technological control regulations according to control necessity without prior review by the Legislative Yuan in advance. As to the penalties of the violations of the IRP Law, the AEC adopts high-rated administrative fines and applies the Criminal Law to those who seriously contaminate the environment. In actual practice, the AEC has constructed a Radiation Protection Control Information System compatible with the IRP Law that fully combines the functions of computers and Internet. The information of facility operators who own radiation sources, radiation protection specialists, and operating personnel are entered into this system, starting from the submission of application of the radiation sources until the discard of the radiation sources such that the competent authority can efficiently control. In order to control the moving status of high-activity sources, the AEC requires the owners of high-activity sources shall report the conditions of variation to the competent authority through Internet every month. According to the IRP Law the records of penalties shall also enter this system for statistical analysis so as to be used for regulatory reference. (Author)

2004-01-01

313

National congress of radiation protection; Congres national de radioprotection  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The congress of radiation protection tackled different areas of radiation protection. The impact of ionizing radiations on environment coming from radioactive activities. The biological radiation effects, the dosimetry, the different ways of doing relative to radiation protection,the risks analysis and the communications with populations, information about accidents and the lessons learned from them are included in this congress. (N.C.)

NONE

2001-07-01

314

IAEA occupational radiation protection programme: current status  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

As stated in Art.III.A.6 of its Statute, the International Atomic Energy Agency (commonly referred to as the Agency) is authorized to establish or adopt, in consultation and, where appropriate, in collaboration with the competent organs of the United Nations and with the specialized agencies concerned, standards of safety for protection of health and minimization of danger to life and property (including such standards for labour conditions), and to provide for the application of these standards to its own operation as well as to the operations making use of materials, services, equipment, facilities, and information made available by the Agency or at its request or under its control or supervision. The Agency s Occupational Radiation Protection Programme aims at harmonizing infrastructures for the control of radiation exposure of workers and for optimizing radiation protection in situation s of exposures due to external radiation and intakes of radionuclides from both artificial and natural sources of radiation. Under its regular and technical cooperation programmes, the Agency has been assigning high priority to both the establishment of safety standards for labour conditions and for the application of these standards through, Interalia, direct assistance under its technical cooperation (TC) programme, the rendering of services, the promotion of education and training, the fostering of information exchange and the coordination of research and development. The purpose of this paper is to present the current status and future IAEA activities in support of occupational radiation protection. (authors)

2006-05-15

315

Some educational aspects of radiation protection  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The paper examines the training in radiation protection received by the various occupationally exposed groups in New South Wales. Consideration is given to the content and relevance of the various training programmes available. It is considered that the increasing usage of radiation requires that particular emphasis be made as to the risks from low doses of radiation. It is concluded that an overall policy on the training of persons working with radiation is required, and a number of necessary features of such training are proposed

1980-06-01

316

Accreditation of ionizing radiation protection programs  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

There are over one million workers in the United States who have the potential to be exposed to ionizing radiation. Therefore, it is necessary to determine accurately the quantity of radiation to which they may have been exposed. This quantity if measured by personnel dosimeters that are carried by individuals requiring radiation monitoring. Accreditation of the organizations which evaluate this quantity provides official recognition of the competence of these organizations. Accreditation programs in the field of ionizing radiation protection have been in operation for a number of years, and their experience has demonstrated that such programs can help to improve performance

1991-11-01

317

Ionizing radiation, genetic risks and radiation protection  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

With one method of risk estimation, designed as the doubling dose method, the estimates of total genetic risk (i.e., over all generation) for a population continuously exposed at a rate of 0.01 Gy/generation of low LET irradiation are about 120 cases of Mendelian and chromosomal diseases/106 live births and about the same number of cases for multifactorial diseases (i.e., a total of 240 cases/106). These estimates provide the basis for risk coefficients for genetic effects estimated by ICRP (1991) in its Publication 60. These are: 1.0%/Sv for the general population (which is 40% of 240/106/0.01 Gy), and 0.6%/Sv for radiation workers (which is 60% of that for the general population). The results of genetic studies carried out on the Japanese survivors of A-bombs have shown no significant adverse effects attributable to parental radiation exposures. The studies of Gardner and colleagues suggest that the risk of leukaemia in children born to male workers in the nuclear reprocessing facility in Sellafield, U.K., may be increased. However, this finding is at variance with the results from the Japanese studies and at present, does not lend itself to a simple interpretation based on radiobiological principles. In the light of recent advances in the molecular biology of naturally-occurring human Mendelian diseases and what we presently know about multifactorial diseases, arguments are advanced to support the thesis that (i) current risk estimates for Mendelian diseases may be conservative and (ii) an overall doubling dose for all adverse genetic effects may be higher than the 1 Gy currently used (i.e., the relative risks are probably lower). (author)

1992-03-18

318

Research priorities for occupational radiation protection  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Subpanel on Occupational Radiation Protection Research concludes that the most urgently needed research is that leading to the resolution of the potential effects of low-level ionizing radiation. This is the primary driving force in setting appropriate radiation protection standards and in directing the emphasis of radiation protection efforts. Much has already been done in collecting data that represents a compendium of knowledge that should be fully reviewed and understood. It is imperative that health physics researchers more effectively use that data and apply the findings to enhance understanding of the potential health effects of low-level ionizing radiation and improve the risk estimates upon which current occupational radiation protection procedures and requirements depend. Research must be focused to best serve needs in the immediate years ahead. Only then will we get the most out of what is accomplished. Beyond the above fundamental need, a number of applied research areas also have been identified as national priority issues. If effective governmental focus is achieved on several of the most important national priority issues, important occupational radiation protection research will be enhanced, more effectively coordinated, and more quickly applied to the work environment. Response in the near term will be enhanced and costs will be reduced by: developing microprocessor-aided open-quotes smartclose quotes instruments to simplify the use and processing of radiation data; developing more sensitive, energy-independent, and tissue-equivalent dosimeters to more accurately quantify personnel dose; and developing an improved risk assessment technology base. This can lead to savings of millions of dollars in current efforts needed to ensure personnel safety and to meet new, more stringent occupational guidelines

1994-01-01

319

Radiation protection program of PETROBRAS  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A broad and systemic program is presented aiming the control of ionizing radiation usage in activities such as measurement of operational variables, industrial radiography and well logging. Main aspects of this program are: control of radioactive sources utilization; personnel back up training in order to spread knowledge at the operation level, and standardization of procedures. (author)

1988-01-01

320

Reflections concerning radiation protection philosophy  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Critical philosophy also includes observations of the technical amplified senses make, i.e. the application of accessory instruments, measuring instruments and statistic methods. The application of this philosophy is, among other things, referred to when taking the linear dose response relationship for stochastic radiation effects as an example. (DG)

1981-04-03

 
 
 
 
321

European radiation protection in the Essen practice test; Europaeischer Strahlenschutz im Essener Praxistest  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The proceeding of the meeting European radiation protection in the Essen practice test includes contributions to the following issues: basic radiation protection standards; clearance values and permitted activities; optimization, guidance values for dose limits; radon and radiation protection standards; radiation protection - eye lens; RPE (radiation protection expert)/RPO (radiation protection officer); environmental radiation protection; radiation protection in medicine.

Lorenz, Bernd; Ludwig, Sabine; Peinsipp, Norbert (eds.)

2013-07-01

322

Radiation protection in the application of ionizing radiation in industry  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

There is a substantial increase in the use of ionizing radiation in industry throughout the country especially in the last five years or so. With this growth in the number of users and activity of sources used, and together with the introduction of the new Atomic Energy Licensing Act (AELA) in 1984, the question of radiation safety and protection of workers and members of the public in general, can no longer be taken lightly. It has to be dealt with effectively. In this paper, a general discussion and clarification on certain practical aspects of radiation protection as recommended by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) is presented. Amongst the topics chosen are those on area monitoring, personnel monitoring, leak testing of sealed sources and training of personnel. Also presented in the paper is a brief discussion about UTN's experience in giving out radiation protection services to various agencies throughout the country. (author)

1987-11-17

323

Abstracts of 21. International Symposium Radiation Protection Physics  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

45 papers are presented as titles with abstracts which are processed individually for the INIS data base. They deal with general aspects of radiation protection physics, chiefly problems of radiation detection and measuring techniques in radiation protection

1989-04-03

324

Characteristics of radiation protection legislation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The laws on radiological protection have special characteristics. They can exist laws that regulate dangerous activities that will be also applicable, if it corresponds to the activities that involve radioactive materials. But a law of radiological protection should exist. It foresees the existence of an appropriate regulatory body and specialized institutions, definitions, infractions and sanctions then the respective regulations will be elaborated for the different applications. The objective is to contribute to the development of the nuclear energy in the country and to provide the regulatory basis that assures a reasonable security for radioactive installations. The essential objectives of these laws are: 1. to establish the legislative framework for the development and employment of nuclear energy, without risks, according with treaties and conventions that the countries have approved. 2. To fix the fundamental principles and the conditions of their setting in practice allowing to a specific regulation determining application procedures. 3. To create a structure of regulation of enough authority to be able to control and to watch over in an effective way the authorized activities 4. To guarantee an appropriate financial protection against the derived damages of accidents or nuclear incidents. (author)

2001-05-04

325

Radiation protection in neighbouring countries in Central Europe. Proceedings  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This proceeding is published in 3 volumes. Volume 1 covers the topics: (1) Environmental protection, and (2) Radiation Dosimetry. Volume 2 covers the topics: (3) Radiation Protection in Medical Exposures, (4) Radiation Protection in Applications of Radioisotopes and Nuclear Technology, (5) Radioactive Waste Management and Decommissioning, (6) Radiation Monitoring, and (7) Emergency Planning and Preparedness. Volume 3 covers the topics: (8) Operational Radiation Protection, (9) Non Ionising Radiation, (10) Radiation Protection Principles and Policies, (11) Natural Radiation, (12) Radiation Exposure Control: Methods and Means, and (13) Public Education and Information. (blahsl)

1993-04-28

326

Application of radioprotectors in radiation protection  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Application of the ionizing radiation in almost all the fields of human activities enlarged the knowledge of their harming influence on the living beings. At the same time there have been many investigations of different chemical means that could successfully be used in protection from radiation. Until today several hundreds of different chemical compounds have been considered to be a potential chemical radioprotector. Analyzing the results of investigating great number of potential radioprotective compounds, it can be said that those containing sulfur provide the most effective protection. That are aminothiols, aminodisulphides, derivatives of thiourea, thiosulphuric and thiophosphate acid, dithiocarbamates, thiazolines, some of biogen amines and their derivates. Among the investigated compounds there is a certain number that, under some circumstances, has shown a protective effect on the experimental animals. In the work comparative investigation of the protective effect of cistaphosa (WR-638) and gamaphosa (WR-2721) have been researched on the big experimental animals, radiated with a high level of X-radiation. Well protective influence of both radioprotectors has been proven but gamafos showed higher efficiency. (author)

Kljajic, R.R.; Masic, Z.S. [Scientific Veterinary Inst., Novi Sad (Yugoslavia)

2000-05-01

327

Radiation protection supervisors certification in Brazil  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In order to accomplish its legal assignments CNEN certifies the qualification of radiation protection supervisors. The current certification process is presented and discussed in this paper. This paper discusses the main points of the certification process including: knowledge tests, stake holder's communication, standards, supervisor responsibilities and profiles. The importance of safety certification of nuclear facilities and radiation protection of public individuals and workers are also discussed. Taking into account the characteristics of the Brazilian Nuclear program, the future improvements and goals in the certification process is also presented. (author)

2008-10-19

328

Radiation protection and fuzzy set theory  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In radiation protection we encounter a variety of sources of uncertainties which are due to fuzziness in our cognition or perception of objects. For systematic treatment of this type of uncertainty, the concepts of fuzzy sets or fuzzy measures could be applied to construct system models, which may take into consideration both subjective or intrinsic fuzziness and objective or extrinsic fuzziness. The theory of fuzzy sets and fuzzy measures is still in a developing stage, but its concept may be applied to various problems of subjective perception of risk, nuclear safety, radiation protection and also to the problems of man-machine interface and human factor engineering or ergonomic

1993-10-18

329

Radiation protection monitoring in tropical, developing countries  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Almost all radiation protection standards, manuals and textbooks have been written in and for industrialized countries in temperate climates, and most research effort and instrument manufacturers are also located there. There has been relatively little interest in the completely different socio-economic and climatic conditions in many developing countries. Some of the important differences in conditions, such as high temperatures and relative humidities, electric-power failures and voltage fluctuations, shortage of trained manpower, etc., are discussed, and suggestions are made how to minimize their impacts. Other important matters that are considered are recruitment and training, optimized organizational structures, and the proper choice of research topics in the radiation protection field. (author)

1978-06-30

330

Radiation protection for personnel in international standards  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The International Electrotechnical Commission' (IEC) Subcommittee 45B 'Radiation protection instrumentation' of the IEC produces International Standards defining the requirements to which the instrumentation used for the radiation protection must satisfy. The compliance to these requirements is a guaranty of the quality of the instrument, of its good performance in the nuclear environment. Type testing equipment to the recommendations and requirements of the standards also provides the equipment user with reliable and internationally acceptable performance data which they can use for the accurate interpretation and comparisons of their operational measurements

2003-07-01

331

Inspections by the Swedish Radiation Protection Authority  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Swedish Radiation Protection Authority, SSI, is the regulatory and supervisory authority in Sweden that is responsible for radiation protection on a national level. SSI employs 110 professionals with a broad and varied expertise; engineers, physicists, chemists, legal experts and press officers and is headed by a government-appointed director general. The budget is about 10 million Euro per year and is financed by taxes and fees. SSI is divided in to five different departments. This paper describes mainly the inspection activities performed by the Department of Occupational and Medical Exposures at SSI.

Cederlund, T.; Hofvander, P.; Staalnacke, C.G. [Swedish Radiation Protection Authority, Stockholm (Sweden). Dept. of Occupational and Medical Exposure

2005-09-15

332

Radiation protection and radiation recovery with essential metalloelement chelates  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This review presents the roles of some essential metalloelement-dependent enzymes in tissue maintenance and function, and their responses to radiation injury in accounting for radiation protection and recovery effects observed for nontoxic doses of essential metalloelement compounds. Effects of biochemicals including water undergoing bond radiolysis and the effects of free radicals derived from diatomic oxygen account for the acute and chronic aspects of radiation injury. Copper chelates have radiation protection and radiation recovery activities and cause rapid recovery of immunocompetency and recovery from radiation-induced histopathology. Mice treated with Cu(II)2(3,5-disopropylsalicy-late)4[Cu(II)2(3,5-DIPS)4] had increased survival and corresponding increases in numbers of myeloid and multipotential progenitor cells early after irradiation and earlier recovery of immune reactivity. Examination of radiation-induced histopathology in spleen, bone marrow, thymus, and small intestine also revealed Cu(II)2(3,5-DIPS)4-mediated rapid recovery of radiation-induced histopathology. Most recently, Fe, Mn, and Zn complexes have also been found to prevent death in lethally irradiated mice. These pharmacological effects of essential metalloelement chelates can be understood as due to facilitation of de novo synthesis of essential metalloelement-dependent enzymes which have roles in preventing the accumulation of pathological concentrations of oxygen radicals or repairing biochemical damage caused by radiation-induced bond homolysis. Essential metalloelement chelates offer a physiological approach to prevention and/or treatment of radiation injury. 97 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab

1995-12-01

333

Current Challenges in Radiation Protection in Medicine  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Radiation protection professionals in medical facilities and practices are being challenged by new imaging technologies that use x-rays or radioactive materials. These include faster computerized tomography (CT) scanners, new interventional techniques that use extended fluoroscopy time, increased use of positron emission tomography (PET), and digital imaging techniques. More frequently these technologies are being fused into a single procedure, such as combined CT and PET scanning. Radiation Protection professionals are challenged to (1) be aware of developing technologies and clinical techniques, (2) analyze the potential radiation risks to patients and staff, (3) initiate necessary radiation safety training for medical staff, and (4) be involved in planning, dose measurement and optimization of the procedure to achieve appropriate dose control and ALARA

2007-04-22

334

Radiation protection in the sand pit  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Radiation protection in the Western Australian minerals sands industry has attracted considerable controversy over the last 20 years: firstly, in relation to environmental and public health issues associated with the indiscriminate disposal of radioactive tailings as landfill in the mid to late 1970s and, secondly, in relation to occupational health issues associated with excessive radiation exposures to some workers at some plants in the mid to late 1980s. The industry also attracts attention through its proximity to coastal regions and population centres and consequent land use conflicts. Owing to intense political and societal scrutiny, and the emotional responses evoked by radiation, the industry`s survival depends on a continuing high level of environmental and safety performance. This article summarises the successes and failures of the mineral sands industry in managing radiation protection and highlights some future issues and challenges for the industry. (Author).

Hewson, Greg [Department of Minerals and Energy, WA (Australia)

1997-02-01

335

Radiation protection, public policies and education  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The objective of this paper is to inform about the aspects of radiation protection public policies concerning the public spheres and the ordinary population. It is known that information has been considered a very important good in several knowledge areas. However, the efficiency of their transmission mechanisms should be periodically evaluated, checking existing critical and stagnation points. Nuclear area can be mentioned as a historically typical case, where the public policies assume relevant importance as tool for promotion, control and education of the population in general. Considering the polemic nature of such subject, it is clear that there is a need for conducting the construction of educational contents taking in account the educator training necessities. The addressing of radiation protection aspects applied to nuclear techniques conducts, for example, to the awareness on the benefits of radiation and its industrial and medical applications, which are established considering the worldwide adopted basic principles of radiation protection. Such questions, concerned with (or related to) public policies, establish a link between radiation protection and education, themes explored in this article to provide a better view of the current Brazilian scenario. (author)

2011-10-24

336

Radiation protection training programmes Spanish approach  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Radiation Protection Programmes are being considered the best way to promote safety culture and to spread and propagate European basic safety standards. It is widely accepted that training is an important tool to upgrade competence for radiation exposed workers. The Spanish Radiation Protection Education and Training Programmes provide a solid and integrated educational model, which takes into account the variety of applied fields, the different levels of responsibilities, the technological and methodological advances, as well as the international tendencies. The needs for a specialised training on Radiation Protection (RP) for exposed workers appears into the Spanish regulation in 1964. National initial training programmes are well established since 1972. Individual certifications, based on personal licences are required for exposed workers. The Spanish regulation also includes continuous and on the job RP training. The educational programmes are being continuously updating and improving. CIEMAT plays an important role in RP Spanish training, improving and modifying the previous RP courses and developing new programmes in order to complete the RP training levels. To achieve Radiation Protection objectives, new technological media for educational methods and material are taking into account. Nevertheless, Spanish RP education and training model has to be improved in some aspects. The purpose of this paper is to analyse the situation and the future needs to be considered in order to complete the RP training processes

2002-10-08

337

National congress of radiation protection - SFRP 2005  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The nine tutorial sessions are: first one, the new recommendations of the ICRP; second one, effects on health of ionizing radiations with the following subjects ( the dose-response relationship and the estimation of carcinogen effects of ionizing radiation low doses; effect of dose rate on the induction and repair of radioinduced DNA double strand break; interest of global approach in radiation protection; molecular signature of the radioinduction in the thyroid tumors: example of radioinduced thyroid tumors after radiotherapy; incidence of child leukemia near the nuclear facilities: results of a multi sites study in France; genome instability and mutations induction after ionizing irradiation: consequences for the progeny; D.T.P.A encapsulation, an efficient strategy for the plutonium decorporation among the rat); the third one, non-ionizing radiation with the following subjects (can the exposure to a magnetic field of 100 ? T at 50 Hz be detected in the human physiological shiver; evaluation of the population exposure to the magnetic fields of 50 Hz: what indicators to choose; experimental study of the immunity of implantable defibrillators to the low frequencies electro-magnetic perturbations; DNA damages induced by the Ar F laser; dosimetry with a phantom in gel of human head); fourth session concerns the regulatory aspects; the fifth one presents the radiation protection and the radioactive waste management; the sixth session concerns the public and patients radiation protection; the seventh one treats the radiation protection in professional area with the following subjects ( optimization of radiation protection in the underground uranium mine of Cominak in Niger; revealing by multi parameters capillaroscopy, of micro vascular alterations of fingers among interventional radiologists; use of radioactive and chemical probes in biological research; uncertainties on doses and D.P.U.I.; monitoring of work areas. Evaluation of workers exposure towards a particular contamination; C.H.A.V.I.R., an interactive simulator for radiation protection; an ALARA engineering commune to the operating reactors; evolution of the radiological zoning and monitoring rules associated on the Cogema la Hague facility; an ambitious project for the nuclear park of EDF power plants : the purification project and its implementation for the Chinon B2 reactor - 2004); the eighth session concerns the environmental exposures and their consequences with the following presentations ( the concept of radioecological sensitivity and its interest in the risk management; phenomenal and analytical interpretation of the rain-deposit relationship used for the building of cesium 137 deposits in France consecutively to the Chernobyl accident; study of radioactivity source terms and transfer from medical origin in the purification network of the town of Toulouse; natural and artificial radioactivity in some marine species in manche. Case of polonium and plutonium alpha emitters. Synthesis of data acquired in the north Cotentin since 1990. elements of comparison; the role of local commissions of information (C.L.I.) in the follow up of release and monitoring of nuclear facilities); the ninth session concerns the dosimetry; the tenth session is divided in two parts radiation protection in accidental situations and radiation protection in post accidental situations with their respective presentations as follow ( evaluation of the dispersion of an aero contaminant in a ventilated area in field near an accidental source of emissions; study of the containment efficiency by gloveboxes in functioning accidental situations; the radiation protection and health; study by R.P.E. of the response of different materials in mixed field ( gamma, neutrons), application to the dosimetry reconstruction of an accident; nuclear or radiological events: organisation of medical intervention; and rehabilitation of life conditions in the contaminated territories: the contribution of radiation protection; management of post accidental situations: lessons from crisis exercises of Pierrelat

2005-06-14

338

Evolution of Radiation Protection System in Kenya  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Promulgation of radiation protection legislation in Kenya dates back to 1982, was revised in 1985 and became operational in 1986. This law, the Radiation Protection Act, establishes the Radiation Protection Board as the National Regulatory Authority, with an executive Inspectorate headed by the Secretary to the Board. Subsidiary legislation on radiological practices and standards were subsequently published. The Inspectorate carries out the National programme for notification, authorization, inspection and enforcement. Nuclear applications for peaceful purposes in Kenya are on the increase in all major fields of socio-economic development. Provision of regulatory services, guidance and enforcement procedures, has had a net growth over the last fifteen years. However, staff retention has been declining over the years in a market where job opportunities, with relatively high incentives, are high either inside or outside the country. Human and equipment resource development has therefore not kept pace and this has hampered effective and efficient provision of services. The poor status of the economy has had its impact on delivery of quality, effective and efficient radiation protection services. Provision of radiation services and acquisition of radiation detection and measurement equipment in the country has been generally lacking dating as far back as 1995. During the period 1989 to present, Kenya's Regulatory Authority, the Radiation Protection Board, undertook to provide personal monitoring, quality assurance, radioanalysis, and equipment calibration. Over the years these services have stalled due to outdated equipment most of which have broken down. A maintenance and calibration service for nuclear equipment is an expensive cross-boarder issue. Budgetary constraints, insufficient human and equipment resources, and a perennial 'brain drain' has placed limitations to the effectiveness and efficiency of implementation of the National programmes and slowed the attainment of the objectives of the National policy on radiation protection and waste safety. The current Radiation Protection Act is limited in scope, regulatory independence and empowerment. A new draft of the revised Act was submitted to the IAEA for review and comments. The revised version is aimed, inter alia, at meeting the principal requirements of the International Basic Safety Standards and incorporating aspects of non-ionizing radiation. The revised draft is now under discussion with stakeholders for their input before enactment. Development of a sustainable national infrastructure requires years of national effort and government commitment. Over the last two years, there has been sufficient government commitment and there have been solid achievements. Kenya has placed the issue of human resource development high on her development agenda and has provided support for expanding technical staffing of the Regulatory Authority with an initial recruitment of ten (10) Radiation Protection Officers. Other factors impacting on quality, effectiveness and efficiency of radiation protection programmes, are being appropriately addressed in order to realize a fully sustainable radiation protection infrastructure. (Author)

2004-01-01

339

Radiation protection optimization and work management  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The influence quantification of bound factors to work management, and the obtained results when you apply the dosimetric economical evaluation model of the radiation protection experiments, prove that ALARA principle application musn't bound to actions on the radiation sources, but that you can find a wide act field in the irradiation work volume management topics. 53 refs., 5 tabs., 10 figs., 4 appendixes

1994-01-01

340

Radiation Protection and Civil defence Department  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This conference involves subjects of radiation protection, programming of civil defence, on the implementation of 1990 ICRP recommendation, thermoluminescence properties of bone equivalent calcium phosphate ceramics, potassium body burdens in occupational users of egyptian nuclear research centre, transport of radionuclides in fresh water stream, water treatment process for nuclear reactor, research activities related to internal contamination and bioassay and experience and environmental radiation monitoring in inshass. it contains of figures and tables

1991-10-07

 
 
 
 
341

2009 Canadian Radiation Oncology Resident Survey  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Purpose: Statistics from the Canadian post-MD education registry show that numbers of Canadian radiation oncology (RO) trainees have risen from 62 in 1999 to approximately 150 per year between 2003 and 2009, contributing to the current perceived downturn in employment opportunities for radiation oncologists in Canada. When last surveyed in 2003, Canadian RO residents identified job availability as their main concern. Our objective was to survey current Canadian RO residents on their training and career plans. Methods and Materials: Trainees from the 13 Canadian residency programs using the national matching service were sought. Potential respondents were identified through individual program directors or chief resident and were e-mailed a secure link to an online survey. Descriptive statistics were used to report responses. Results: The eligible response rate was 53% (83/156). Similar to the 2003 survey, respondents generally expressed high satisfaction with their programs and specialty. The most frequently expressed perceived weakness in their training differed from 2003, with 46.5% of current respondents feeling unprepared to enter the job market. 72% plan on pursuing a postresidency fellowship. Most respondents intend to practice in Canada. Fewer than 20% of respondents believe that there is a strong demand for radiation oncologists in Canada. Conclusions: Respondents to the current survey expressed significant satisfaction with their career choice and training program. However, differences exist compared with the 2003 survey, including the current perceived lack of demand for radiation oncologists in Canada.

2012-03-15

342

Radiation protection in pediatric radiology  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The purpose of this report is to make available a source of practical information regarding the manner in which radiologic examinations in children should be conducted to reduce the radiation dose to these patients and those responsible for thier care. The report is mainly for the use of pediatricians, radiologists, radiologic technicians, and other personnel who order or use radiological methods in examining children, Appendices contain methods for estimating doses to various organs, and doses from various examinations in pediatric radiology. The Council has adopted some units of the SI system of nomenclature. A glossary of terms is included

1981-01-01

343

Radiation protection. 3. completely rev. ed.  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The task presented by radiation protection in case of accidents and in nuclear disaster relief can only be solved using such concepts as will allow a coordinated response by fire brigades, the police, and disaster relief organizations. The entire subject of protection against radioactivity is summed up by the individual topics: Basic phyiscal and biological elements, basic elements of use, preventive fire protection, tasks and equipment of relief brigades, action planning and action theory. Particular reference is made to transport accidents in radioactive material haulage. (orig.)

1993-01-01

344

Radiation protection training and information for workers  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The meeting reported in these proceedings was organized to discuss the specific problems of providing information and training on radiation protection to workers exposed to radiation, intervention staff and workers likely to be affected by an activity involving ionizing radiation. Particular emphasis was placed on the need to harmonize basic training on radiation protection in the context of 1992. It seemed advisable for technical training on radiation protection to be introduced into secondary education. To this end, the Commission was asked to draw up a guide for apprentices and students. In view of the growing diversification of activities involving the use of radioactive substances, the Commission was called upon to intensify its efforts in order to ensure that relevant information and training was provided in all firms to workers exposed to ionizing radiation, and to produce guides for specific categories of workers, such as those responsible for the transport of radioactive materials or those likely to be involved in organizing measures in the event of a radiological emergency

1988-11-28

345

Management in the protection from ionizing radiation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

There are numerous types and forms of endangering working and living environment, ranging from natural disasters to nuclear accidents. Challenges of the New Age determined that most of the countries reviewed its strategic decisions in the system of protection from ionizing radiation and nuclear safety and defined in a new way the threats, which could considerably imperil health of the population and national interests as well. Excessive radiation of the population became a serious and actual problem in the era of increasingly mass application of ionizing radiation, especially in medicine. The goal of this work is to reduce the risk through using knowledge and existing experiences, in particular when it comes to ionizing radiation in medicine. Optimization of the protection in radiology actually means an effort to find the compromise between quality information provided by diagnostics procedure and quality effects of therapy procedure on one side and dose of radiation received by patients on the other. Criteria for the quality management in the protection from ionizing radiation used in diagnostic radiology was given by the European Commission: European Guidelines on Quality Criteria for Diagnostic Radiographic Images, EUR, 16260. (author)

2008-10-19

346

Patients radiation protection in medical imaging. Conference proceedings  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This document brings together the available presentations given at the conference organised by the French society of radiation protection about patients radiation protection in medical imaging. Twelve presentations (slides) are compiled in this document and deal with: 1 - Medical exposure of the French population: methodology and results (Bernard Aubert, IRSN); 2 - What indicators for the medical exposure? (Cecile Etard, IRSN); 3 - Guidebook of correct usage of medical imaging examination (Philippe Grenier, Pitie-Salpetriere hospital); 4 - Radiation protection optimization in pediatric imaging (Hubert Ducou-Le-Pointe, Aurelien Bouette (Armand-Trousseau children hospital); 5 - Children's exposure to image scanners: epidemiological survey (Marie-Odile Bernier, IRSN); 6 - Management of patient's irradiation: from image quality to good practice (Thierry Solaire, General Electric); 7 - Dose optimization in radiology (Cecile Salvat (Lariboisiere hospital); 8 - Cancer detection in the breast cancer planned screening program - 2004-2009 era (Agnes Rogel, InVS); 9 - Mammographic exposures - radiobiological effects - radio-induced DNA damages (Catherine Colin, Lyon Sud hospital); 10 - Breast cancer screening program - importance of non-irradiating techniques (Anne Tardivon, Institut Curie); 11 - Radiation protection justification for the medical imaging of patients over the age of 50 (Michel Bourguignon, ASN); 12 - Search for a molecular imprint for the discrimination between radio-induced and sporadic tumors (Sylvie Chevillard, CEA)

2011-12-13

347

Radiation protection low in the draft of a code on the protection of the environment  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In September 1997 the Independent Expert Commission mandated by the German Federal Ministry of Environment, Nature and Reactor Safety has presented its Draft of a Code on the Protection of the Environment (General and Special Part). The Code contains as part of the Environmental Law provisions on nuclear energy and radiation protection. This draft is very large (it contains 775 single sections), and is therefore until now virtually unknown. It seems by this reason suitable and necessary to give a survey on the proposals offered by the Commission in this Draft concerning these fields. (orig.)

1998-10-02

348

Ultraviolet Radiation Protection Methods (invited paper)  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Exposure to solar UVR is widespread. Additionally, a small proportion of the population is exposed to artificial sources. There is a clear link between exposure to solar UVR and a range of adverse health effects. The acute and chronic exposure phenomena are different and, in terms of protection, both the measures and success rates will also be different. To reduce risk it is necessary to characterise fully the radiation source, understand the intermediate medium and the biological receptor and then develop appropriate exposure prevention strategies. Protection against occupational exposure to artificial sources should be approached using administrative and engineering control measures. Protective measures against solar UVR are still evolving. A significant decrease in risk can be achieved by changing behaviour through well-designed educational programmes. Personal protection is also important and effective protection is readily available. Avoidance of acute UVR effects and a decrease in skin cancer rates and mortality are the desirable long-term outcomes from such a programme. (author)

Roy, C.R.; Gies, H.P

2000-07-01

349

Radiation protection: Radiation dose units and fundamentals. Correct use of radiation dose units, measurements, risk assessment  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Radiation protection intends to prevent radiation damage by appropriate staff-related and technical measures in accordance with the specifications of the German X-Ray Ordinance (R and V) and Radiation Protection Ordinance (StrlSchV) and in agreement with the ICRLP (International Commission on Radiological Protection). They require that radiation use must be justified, exposure conditions must be optimised, and exposure times must be limited to the shortest time necessary. In practical use, this requires considerable practical and theoretical knowledge from the user concerning the physical properties of radiation sources, interactions with tissue and matter of different types of radiation, and biological effects of radiation. National and international organizations and committees have specified the knowledge which a user must have as follows: Physical fundamentals of radiation protection; Measuring quantities and specified standard units; Organisational and constructional radiation protection; Legal knowledge. (orig.)

2005-01-01

350

Training for Radiation Protection in Interventional Radiology  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Program in radiological equipment has incorporated more powerful x-ray sources into the standard Fluoroscopy and CT systems. Expanding use of interventional procedures carries extensive use of fluoroscopy and CT which are both associated with excessive radiation exposure to the patient and personnel. During cases of Intravenous CT Angiography and direct Intraarterial CT Angiography, one may substitute a substantial number of diagnostic angiography checks. Basic training in interventional radiology hardly includes some of the fundamentals of radiation protection. Radiation Protection in Interventional Radiology must be implemented in daily practice and become an integral part of procedure planning strategy in each and every case. Interventional radiological most master all modern imaging modalities in order to choose the most effective, but least hazardous one. In addition, one must be able to use various imaging techniques (Fluoroscopy, CTA, MM and US) as a stand-alone method, as well as combine two techniques or more. Training programs for fellows: K-based simulation of procedures and radiation protection. Special attention should be taken in the training institutions and a basic training in radiation protection is advised before the trainee is involved in the practical work. Amendment of techniques for balloon and stent deployment with minimal use of fluoroscopy. Attention to the differences between radiation protection in cardiovascular and nonvascular radiology with special measures that must be taken for each one of them (i.e., peripheral angiography vs. stenting, Endo luminal Aortic Stent Graft, or nonvascular procedures such as biliary or endo urological stenting or biliary intervention). A special emphasis should be put on the training techniques of Interventional Radiologists, both beginners and experienced. Patient dose monitoring by maintaining records of fluoroscopic time is better with non-reset timer, but is optional. Lee of automated systems that record Dose-Area Product (DAP) or total skin dose are more reliable. Any new fluoroscopy equipment should integrate a DAP-meter with K-based automatic recording of procedural dose per radiologist and cumulative dose par patient. A person in charge of radiation protection will review on the monthly basis readings of DAP-meter for each radiologist and take measures if excessive exposures have been used. Basic principles of radiation protection in Interventional CT will be presented

1999-12-20

351

Operational radiation protection for European astronauts  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Since the early times of human spaceflight radiation has been, besides the influence of microgravity on the human body, recognized as a main health concern to the astro- and cosmonauts. The radiation environment that the crew experiences during a space flight differs significantly to that found on earth due to particles of greater potential for biological damage. High-energetic charged particles, such as protons, helium nuclei ('alpha particles') and heavier ions up to iron, originating from several sources, such as galactic cosmic radiation (GCR), energetic solar particle events (SPE) as well as protons and electrons trapped in the earth radiation belts, are the main contributors. The exposure that the crew receives during a space flight significantly exceeds exposures routinely received by terrestrial radiation workers. The European Space Agency's (ESA) Astronaut Center (EAC) in Cologne, Germany, is home of the European Astronaut Corps. Part of the EAC is the Crew Medical Support Office (CMSO or HSF-AM) responsible for ensuring the health and well being of the European Astronauts. A sequence of activities is conducted to protect astro- and cosmonauts health, including those targeting to mitigate adverse effects of space radiation. All health related activities are part of a multinational Medical Operations (MedOps) concept, which is executed by the different Space Agencies participating in the human spaceflight program to the International Space Station (ISS). This article will give an introduction of the current measures for radiation monitoring and protection of astro- and cosmonauts. The operational guidelines that shall ensure proper implementation and execution of those radiation protection measures will be addressed. Operational hardware for passive and active radiation monitoring and for personal dosimetry, as well as operational procedures that are applied, will be described. (author)

2010-05-01

352

Multiagency radiation survey and site investigation manual (MARSSIM): Survey design  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper describes the MultiAgency Radiation Survey and Site Investigation Manual (MARSSIM) strategy for designing a final status survey. The purpose of the final status survey is to demonstrate that release criteria established by the regulatory agency have been met. Survey design begins with identification of the contaminants and determination of whether the radionuclides of concern exist in background. The decommissioned site is segregated into Class 1, Class 2, and Class 3 areas, based on contamination potential, and each area is further divided into survey units. Appropriate reference areas for indoor and outdoor background measurements are selected. Survey instrumentation and techniques are selected in order to assure that the instrumentation is capable of detecting the contamination at the derived concentration guideline level (DCGL). Survey reference systems are established and the number of survey data points is determined-with the required number of data points distributed on a triangular grid Pattern. Two suitistical tests are used to evaluate data from final status surveys. For contaminants that are b, present in background, the Wilcoxon Rank Sum test is used; for contaminants that are not present in background, the Wilcoxon Signed Rank (or Sign) test is used. The number of data points needed to satisfy these nonparametric tests is based on the contaminant DCGL value, the expected Standard deviation of the contaminant in background and in the survey unit, and the acceptable probability of making Type I and Type II decision errors. The MARSSIM also requires a reasonable level of assurance that any small areas of elevated residual radioactivity that could be significant relative to regulatory limits are not missed during the final status survey. Measurements and sampling on a specified grid size are used to obtain an adequate assurance level that small locations of elevated radioactivity will Still satisfy DCGLs-applicable to small areas

1996-06-01

353

Work report 2002 of the Safety and Radiation Protection Department  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The tasks of the Department for Safety and Radiation Protection, the organization, and the work in the year under review are described. Headings of work were as follows: licensing and safety, operational radiation protection, environmental monitoring, measuring technology, industrial safety, and physical protection. Research and development work was done on environmental monitoring and on radiation protection. (MG)

2003-01-01

354

The responsibility of the radiation protection expert  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

After having recalled the two main different types of responsibility in the French law system (civil liability and criminal responsibility), and how criminal law has been gradually introduced in companies, the author analyzes and describes how the radiation protection expert's responsibility is tightly related to that of his employer, and how both can be committed on a disciplinary and criminal level

2008-12-11

355

Radiation Protection Section (SC/SL/RP)  

CERN Multimedia

We should like to inform you that the Radiation Protection Section (SC/SL/RP) located on the Prévessin site has moved from Building 865 (ground floor) to new premises in Wing A of Building 892 (second floor). Telephone numbers remain the same. SC/SL/RP section

2006-01-01

356

Radiation protection and safety in industrial radiography  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The use of ionizing radiation, particularly in medicine and industry, is growing throughout the world, with further expansion likely as technical developments result from research. One of the longest established applications of ionizing radiation is industrial radiography, which uses both X radiation and gamma radiation to investigate the integrity of equipment and structures. Industrial radiography is widespread in almost all Member States. It is indispensable to the quality assurance required in modern engineering practice and features in the work of multinational companies and small businesses alike. Industrial radiography is extremely versatile. The equipment required is relatively inexpensive and simple to operate. It may be highly portable and capable of being operated by a single worker in a wide range of different conditions, such as at remote construction sites, offshore locations and cross-country pipelines as well as in complex fabrication facilities. The associated hazards demand that safe working practices be developed in order to minimize the potential exposure of radiographers and other persons who may be in the vicinity of the work. The use of shielded enclosures (fixed facilities), with effective safety devices, significantly reduces any radiation exposures arising from the work. This Safety Report summarizes good and current state of the art practices in industrial radiography and provides technical advice on radiation protection and safety. It contains information for Regulatory Authorities, operating organizations, workers, equipment manufacturers and client organizations, with the intention of explaining their responsibilities and means to enhance radiation protection and safety in industrial radiography

1999-01-01

357

Radiation protection in nuclear facilities; Radioprotection dans les installations nucleaires  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This book covers several themes in sixteen chapters: the dosimetry of ionizing radiations, the norms, the legislation, the instrumentation; the protection against external irradiation and contamination; the radiation protection in reactors; the radioactive wastes and effluents; the radiation monitoring and surveillance in environment; it would be useful to any person having a responsibility in radiation protection in nuclear facilities. (N.C.).

Choudens, H. de; Troesch, G. [Institut National Polytechnique, 38 -Grenoble (France)

1997-09-01

358

Research report on radiation protection 1981  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this research report on radiation protection the results achieved in 1981 of the research and development projects assisted by the Federal Minister of the Interior are made accessible above all to the scientists and engineers participating in this research program as well as to the research institutions on the field of radiation protection, to the members of the commission on radiological protection and of the commission for reactor safety and to the supervising and licensing authorities. The report is a compilation of individual reports, which are composed by the consignees respectively the recipients of the allowances themselves as a documentation of the progress of their works. Each individual report contains informations concerning the objectives of the project, works carried out, results achieved and further work planned. (orig.)

1982-01-01

359

Radiation protection and dosimetry: basis. 9. ed.  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A revised book 'Radiation Protection and Dosimetry: Fundamentals, prepared to meet the training courses offered by the Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria - IRD, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil and people interested in the subject, is presented. Concepts have been updated, especially the chapter on Radiological Magnitudes, due to upgrade of Standard CNEN-NN-3.01-Basic Guidelines on Radiological Protection, published in the Diario Oficial da Uniao on September 1, 2011. A chapter related to Waste Management, another on the Transport of Radioactive Materials and three annexes on: Standards of CNEN, Ionizing Radiation and Personnel Legislation and Determination of shields in Radiotherapy were included. Were also added several tables for use in radiological protection, to facilitate consultation

2013-01-01

360

Protective role of plants against harmful radiation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The rapid technological advancement has increased human exposure to ionizing radiations enormously. Ionizing radiations produces deleterious effects in the living organisms. Widespread use of radiation in diagnosis therapy, industry, energy sector and inadvertent exposure during air and space travel, nuclear accidents and nuclear terror attacks requires safeguard against human exposures. Lead shielding and other physical measures can be used in such situations but with difficulty to manage; thus pharmacological intervention could be the most prudent strategy to protect humans against the harmful effect of ionizing radiations. These pharmacological agents are radioprotectives; The development of radioprotective agents has been the subject of intense research in view of their potential for use within a radiation environment. However, no ideal, safe synthetic radio protectors are available to date, so the search for alternative sources including plants has been ongoing. In Ayurveda, the traditional Indian system of medicine, several plants have been used to treat free radical-mediated ailments and, therefore, it is logical to expect that such plants may also render some protection against radiation damage. This all is due to antioxidant enzymes, nitroxides, and melatonin, antiemetic, anti-inflammatory. haemopoitic and immunostimulant compounds. Some of the plants which are found to be radioprotective are Centella asiatica, Ginkgo biloba, Hippophae rhamnoides, Ocimum sanctum, Podophyllurn hexandrum, Tinospora cordifolia, Emblica officinalis, Phyllanthus amarus, etc. So there is an urgent need to identify and characterize the many of the plants in relation to the radioprotection. Besides these medicinal plants there are also some fruits and vegetables which are having good response against harmful radiations such as Kiwifruit Actinidia deliciosa (Actinidaceae), Cape Gooseberry Physalis peruviana (Solanaceae). They protect against the radiation-induced damage by scavenging of free radicals and increasing antioxidant status. Fractionation guided evaluation may result in the development of ideal radio protectors in the near future. (author)

2012-01-01

 
 
 
 
361

Radiation protection problems by nonionizing electromagnetic radiation in Austria  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Since about one year an interdisciplinary study group has been established to investigate possible radiation protection problems caused by nonionizing electromagnetic radiation in this country. The aim of this project is to identify major fields of concern, to establish appropriate techniques of measurement and control and eventually develop a sound basis for future legislation. The paper gives a summary on the present results of this study. (Author)

1984-01-01

362

Dietary protection during radiation therapy  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Eighteen patients receiving Cobalt 60 irradiation for abdominal or pelvic malignancies were assigned at random to eat either a semi-hydrolyzed diet (Flexical: 10 g% casein hydrolsate; 14 g% triglycerides, 20% of which medium chain; 66% disaccharides) or a normal diet. There are no significant differences between these two groups with respect to age and the ratio of ideal to actual caloric intake. The patients in the control group received on the average a total of 3,900 rd and those in the Flexical group 4,040 rd. Generally, Flexical appeared to have a significant positive effect on body weight. In addition, radiation-induced diarrhea was not a problem in the Flexical group. In the latter-group, serum proteins including immunoglobulins remained essentially unchanged during therapy while a moderate but significant fall was observed in all control patients. No significant difference between the two groups was observed with respect to peripheral blood hematocrit, red and white cell counts. However, the drop in blood lymphocytes following irradiation was significantly less in the Flexical group. The mechanisms of radioprotection are discussed. These preliminary data indicate that the nutritional and perhaps the immunological status of cancer patients receiving intensive irradiation can be maintained by dietary measures. (orig.)

1975-05-01

363

Chemical screening of radiation protecting agents  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An aqueous solution of 2-propanol was chosen as chemical system for fundamental study of the chemical screening of organic compounds on the responsibility for ionizing radiation. The effect of additives on the yield of acetone was investigated by subjecting this system on gamma-radiolysis. The results show that this system is suitable for the estimation of radiation protecting cheracter of the known radiation protecting agents and compounds which act as a OH scavenger. On the basis of these results, various nitrogen-containing additives having free amino group, guanidine group and hetero-cyclic amine were examined first of all in expectation of improvement for the toxicity of sulfur-containing compounds. (author)

1981-01-01

364

Special radiation protection aspects of medical accelerators  

CERN Document Server

Radiation protection aspects relevant to medical accelerators are discussed. An overview is first given of general safety requirements. Next. shielding and labyrinth design are discussed in some detail for the various types of accelerators, devoting more attention to hadron machines as they are far less conventional than electron linear accelerators. Some specific aspects related to patient protection are also addressed. Finally, induced radioactivity in accelerator components and shielding walls is briefly discussed. Three classes of machines are considered: (1) medical electron linacs for 'conventional' radiation therapy. (2) low energy cyclotrons for production of radionuclides mainly for medical diagnostics and (3) medium energy cyclotrons and synchrotrons for advanced radiation therapy with protons or light ion beams (hadron therapy). (51 refs).

Silari, Marco

2001-01-01

365

RCA - a regional approach to radiation protection  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Regional Cooperative Agreement (RCA) for Asia and Oceania is the oldest of four International Atomic Energy Agency Member State regional programs. Organized in 1972, 17 countries are now members of RCA - Australia, Bangladesh, Peoples Republic of China, India, Indonesia, Japan, Republic of Korea, Malaysia, Mongolia, Myanmar, New Zealand, Pakistan, Philippines, Singapore, Sri Lanka, Thailand, and Viet Nam. A number of projects related to the application of a wide range of nuclear technologies are conducted through RCA. The program is established by national coordinators for each project area, in consultation with IAEA technical officers. Most of the funding comes directly from RCA regional donor countries, with about one third supplied through the IAEA Technical Cooperation program. In 1986, following the Chernobyl accident, national coordinators and the IAEA staff recognized the value of establishing an RCA project aimed at strengthening regional radiation protection programs. The potential importance of RCA involvement in radiation protection is underscored by the fact that its member states comprise more than half of the world's population. The regional approach to addressing radiation protection issues allows member states to take advantage of regional resources to solve common regional problems. RCA provides the opportunity for specialists who may have few professional colleagues in their country to develop valuable contacts with regional radiation protection experts. In a very real way, specialists can network with their neighbours, often establishing bilateral programs outside of the RCA auspices. The current five year RCA Project to strengthen radiation protection infrastructure, with the IAEA designation - RAS/9/006, will be completed at the end of 1997. The project was developed to address five mayor areas of activity: Off-site emergency response; individual monitoring, internal and external; characterization of the physical, anatomical, physiological and metabolic characteristics of the Asian populations; regulations, with emphasis on implementation of the new international basic safety standards; and training and education. (author)

1996-01-01

366

Radiation protection and safety in radiotherapy  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Soon after the discovery of X rays by Roentgen in 1895 and of natural radioactivity by Becquerel in 1896 it became apparent that ionizing radiation was not only useful for the diagnosis and treatment of disease but also harmful to human tissues. It has been recognized since early studies on X rays and radioactive minerals that exposure to high levels of radiation can cause clinical damage to tissues of the human body. In addition, long term epidemiological studies of populations exposed to radiation, especially the survivors of the atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki in Japan in 1945, have demonstrated that exposure to radiation also has a potential for delayed effects such as induction of malignancies or damage to genetic material. Ionizing radiation and radioactive substances are natural and permanent features of the environment, and thus the risks associated with radiation exposure can only be restricted, not eliminated entirely. Additionally, the use of human-made radiation is now widespread. Sources of ionizing radiation are essential to modern health care: disposable medical supplies sterilized by intense radiation have been central to combating disease; radiology and nuclear medicine are a vital diagnostic tool; and radiotherapy is commonly part of the treatment of malignancies. Applications of ionizing radiation are growing in industry, agriculture, medicine and many other fields of industry and research, benefiting humanity. Irradiation is used around the world to preserve foodstuffs and reduce wastage, and sterilization techniques have been used to eradicate disease carrying insects and pests. Industrial radiography is in routine use, for example to examine welds, detect cracks and help prevent failure of engineered structures. The acceptance by society of the risks associated with radiation is conditional on the benefits to be gained from the use of radiation. Nonetheless, the risks must be restricted and protected against by the application of radiation safety standards. It is therefore essential that activities involving radiation exposure be subject to certain standards of safety in order to protect the individuals who are exposed to radiation, be it occupationally, for medical diagnostic or therapeutic purposes, or as members of the public

2005-07-01

367

Radiation Protection in NORM Industries  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text: NORM is an acronym for naturally occurring radioactive materials, which include radioactive elements found in the environment. Long-lived radioactive elements of interest include uranium, thorium and potassium, and any of their radioactive decay products, such as radium and radon. These elements have always been present in the earth's crust, and nearly all materials contain trace amounts of them. However, when these materials are processed as the result of human activities, concentration or enhancement of the levels of these radionuclides may occur. The processing of raw materials by many resource-based industries may increase the concentration of radioactive substances in those materials, and enhance the potential exposure to naturally occurring radioactive materials in products, by-products, residues and wastes. The most significant industries within the EU, based on the radiological risk and economic significance are: the phosphate industry, the processing of metal ores, zircon sands and refractory materials, manufacture of rare earths, manufacture and use of thorium compounds, the titanium dioxide pigment industry and the oil and gas extraction. If the residues containing naturally occurring radionuclides are not managed properly and safely, contamination over large areas is possible given the large quantities of such residues. There are two effects of human exploitation that are relevant in the case of potential effects of NORM on human health and the environment: (1) The concentrations of NORM can be enhanced above its natural levels in a product, byproduct or residue. (2) The availability for release into the biosphere of the NORM in products, by-products or residues can be enhanced through physicochemical changes or simply due to the method by which the residues are managed. The pathways by which workers could receive a significant radiation dose are: external irradiation, inhalation of dust, inhalation of radon, ingestion of dirt and dust and skin contamination. Occupational exposure to NORM falls within the scope of the requirements for practices if the radionuclide activity concentration in the material exceeds 1 Bq/g for uranium and thorium series radionuclides (other than radon and its short-lived progeny) or 10 Bq/g for potassium-40. If the relevant activity concentration level for radon or NORM is exceeded, a 'graded approach' to regulation should be applied, being the regulation in accordance with the characteristics of the operation and the exposures involved. (authors)

2008-10-19

368

Manual on radiation protection in hospitals and general practice. Radiation protection in dentistry  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The booklet deals with all aspects of the use of X rays in dentistry. The recommendations made are designed to reduce unnecessary exposure of the patient, will result in the production of superior radiographs and assist in eliminating unnecessary exposure of the operator himself. Separate chapters deal with the following topics: the need for radiation protection, delegation of responsibility, radiographic equipment, radiographic film, radiographic techniques, film processing and handling, patient doses (adults and children), general radiation protection and monitoring, educational standards

1977-01-01

369

Intervention and sustainability in radiation protection  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The book includes two parts: (A): Intervention and sustainability in radiation protection; summary and assessment of the conference of the German radiation protection commission (Strahlenschutzkommission) in November 2008. (B): lectures: The question of sustainability in connection with long-living radionuclides. Principles for protecting individuals in a context of rehabilitation of living conditions in contaminated territories. The application of the basic principles of radiation protection in case of Wismut recultivation. Situation concerning radon and reduction of radon-induced exposure in Schlema and Schneeberg. International experiences in recultivation projects: Lermontov (Russia), Mailuu (Kirgistan), Kitwe (Zambia). Radiological burden of the past in Germany. Radiological industrial wastes: situation, intervention, sustainability. Radiological burden of the past in Switzerland. Recultivation and clearing procedure in the former fuel production plant NUKEM-A. Justification of the strong sustainability concept. Recultivation strategies for the areas contaminated through the Chernobyl accident. Traces of plutonium production in the Jenissei river. Results and assessment of the active storage for residues (ALfR) in Rheinsberg. Large-scale changes of environmental radioactivity: atmospheric radioactivity. Long-living radionuclides in the hydrosphere: the case of iodine-129. Long-term retention and behavior of radioactivity in the soils. Assessment of long-term behavior of recultivation areas and old environmental contamination. Long-term safety and sustainability for the final repository of radioactive waste. Assessment of the long-term behavior of radiological contaminated uranium mining sites in France - The GEP (Groupe d'expertise pluraliste) approach.

2008-11-13

370

radiation protection services and Norm procedures at Guoco-Rsh  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

coordinated service programs of radiation protection and NORM handling procedures are implemented at Gupco-Rsh according to a bilateral agreement between the gulf of suez petroleum company (Gupco) and the atomic energy authority (AEA) since august 1995. the services included under the domain of the agreement are carried out by an expert group during periodic visits to Gupco-Rsh site. the activities performed serving the purpose of the programs implemented are extensive. essentially aiming at instituting an integrated radiation protection services in petroleum industry, and procedures for safe handling of NORM and NORM- contaminated items; the safety of industrial sealed sources is also seriously addressed.the AEA expert group adopt the international recommendations for protection of workers and environmental preservation for all procedures implemented . however. modifications are made to harmonize the implementation to accord with current egyptian regulations.The main features of the programmes instituted include targeted training addressed to selected groups; radiological mapping surveys of Rsh area with periodic monitoring of selected onshore and offshore sites.Measurements of personnel radiation exposure, and medical surveillance of radiation workers is periodically carried out

2004-02-01

371

Safety and radiation protection in mining and milling facilities  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Federal Legislation in Brazil establishes that the Brazilian Nuclear Energy Commission - CNEN - is responsible for the surveillance of the industrialization of nuclear ores and the production and commerce of nuclear materials in such way that activities such as buying, selling, import and export, are subject to previous licensing and surveillance. Regulation CNEN-NN-4.01 on Safety and Radiation Protection in Mining and Milling Facilities of conventional ores containing naturally occurring radioactive materials, NORM, was issued in 2004 establishing both a methodology for classification of these facilities into three Categories, taking into account both the contents of uranium and thorium in the ores and the applicable radiation and safety requirements based on a graded approach. Although the lack of a licensing process in the above mentioned Regulation made its implementation a difficult task, CNEN, by means of an initial survey, identified ca. 30 mining and milling industries of conventional ores containing uranium and thorium with concentrations above 10 Bq/g. More recently, a new juridical understanding of the legislation concluded that CNEN must issue licences and authorizations for the possession and storage of all ores with uranium and thorium concentrations above exemption levels. A proper surveillance programme encompassing 13 of these mining facilities was then put forward aiming at the improvement of their safety and radiation protection. This article presents an overview of NORM exploitation in Brazil and put forward suggestions for achieving viable solutions for the protection of workers, general public and environment from the effects of ionizing radiation. (author)

2011-10-24

372

Radiation protection optimization. Advances in practical implementation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Within the Community, protection against the dangers of ionizing radiation is regulated in conformity with the provisions of two Council Directives. One is of general application for all activities involving a hazard arising from ionizing radiation and lays down the basic safety standards for the health protection of the general public and workers against the dangers of ionizing radiation. The other is derived from the abovementioned one and lays down the basic measures for the radiation protection of persons undergoing medical examination or treatment. The Commission, in collaboration with the Spanish Ministerio de Sanidad y Consumo, the Consejo de Seguridad Nuclear and the Centro de Investigaciones Energeticas, Medioambientales y Tecnologicas, organized on 12, 13 and 14 September 1988 in Madrid, the third scientific seminar on the optimization principle (Alara) which is a key element of the two abovementioned Council Directives. The seminar allowed an analysis of the progress made since the previous seminars of 1979 and 1983, in the practical implementation of the optimization principle, in relation to the design and operation of nuclear and industrial installations, natural radioactivity, medical practices and countermeasures. The report contains the 20 original contributions presented and some general considerations on the results of the seminar

1988-09-12

373

The healing arts radiation protection guidelines  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The objective of these guidelines is to help the health professional render the risks associated with diagnostic radiation as low as reasonably achievable. The guidelines contain advice and recommendations, but no mandatory requirements. They assist radiation protection officers in establishing and maintaining a Quality Assurance Program and in carrying out other duties required by the Healing Arts Radiation Protection Act; assist staff to comply with the X-ray Safety Code in a way that will raise the standards of x-ray diagnosis and patient safety; address the relationship between the radiation exposure of the patient and the quality of the image; address the problem of protecting the patient in x-ray examinations; summarize x-ray safety problems from the point of view of the operator and other staff; indicate what remedial measures can be taken; define the quality assurance needs of x-ray users; and encourage the users of x-rays for diagnostic purposes to go beyond the scope of the Act and comply with the ALARA principle

1987-01-01

374

Protection from radiation nephropathy by WR-2721  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The efficacy of WR-2721 pretreatment against radiation injury to the growing kidney was evaluated in the weanling mouse. Immediately following unilateral nephrectomy, animals received intraperitoneal injections of saline or WR-2721 (220 mg/kg). Thirty minutes later both nonprotected (saline-treated) control animals and protected (WR-2721-treated) animals received 1000-rad single-fraction radiation to the remaining kidney. Other animals received WR-2721 immediately following unilateral nephrectomy but no radiation. Animals were sacrificed at 3 and 24 weeks. Nonirradiated animals treated with WR-2721 only showed normal compensatory renal growth, body growth, and renal function at 24 weeks. The nonprotected, irradiated animals exhibited renal growth inhibition without body growth inhibition, and renal functional abnormalities including elevation of serum BUN and reduction of glomerular filtration rate. Pretreatment with WR-2721 prior to 1000 rad prevented the renal growth inhibition and functional abnormalities seen in the nonprotected irradiated animals. Within the observation period there were no differences in renal morphology by light and electron microscopy between protected and nonprotected groups; only mild glomerular and tubular abnormalities compatible with radiation injury were seen. The dose reduction factor for WR-2721 renal growth protection is between 1.16 and 1.2.

Donaldson, S.S. (Stanford Univ. School of Medicine, CA); Moskowitz, P.S.; Evans, J.W.; Fajardo, L.F.

1984-02-01

375

Decommissioning an uranium and thorium facility: a radiation protection approach  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Decommissioning means actions taken at the end of the useful life of a facility in retiring it from service with adequate regard for the health and safety of workers and members of the public. In the present work, we introduce a radiation protection approach for the removal of radioactive material to the extent that the facility or site becomes available for use without restriction. The facility to be decommissioned is a fuel cycle pilot plant that operated with natural uranium and thorium for almost two decades and then, kept inactive for about 10 years at the Nuclear and Energy Research Institute - IPEN. Even after this long period of inactivity, it has presented significant levels of radiation and contamination spread over the floor, walls, windows, doors and ceiling. The fuel cycle pilot plant was completely dismantled, remaining only the walls and the concrete structures. In this work we present the job done to restore the area. According to each step of dismantling a continuous monitoring of the contaminated surfaces was carried out including the survey of the deep material from the floor and walls. The material identified as radioactive waste was stored into appropriated metal drums. A radiation protection team guided this stage of the work, prescribing the tasks, and the amount of material that should be removed from floors, windows and ceiling. For this, repetitive surveys had to be done. The results of monitoring and contamination levels were analysed, thus guiding the next steps of the job. In this way radiation protection team took over the tasks, running the work with the purpose of achieving acceptable levels of radiation, restoring the area for unrestricted use. (author)

2008-10-19

376

Days of Radiation Protection 2001. Conference Proceedings of the 24th Days of Radiation Protection  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Already the 24th annual international conference 'Days of Protection from Radiation' was taking place in Jan Sverma Hotel in Demaenova dolina on 26-29 November 2001. More than 180 participants from the Slovak Republic and the Czech Republic participated in the meetings of experts on protection from radiation. Representative of IAEA Division for Protection from Radiation and the representatives of several European companies securing the project, advisory and supplier's activities in dosimetry of ionising radiation also participated in the conference. The participants discussed in 7 expert panels the issue of protection from radiation in the legislative field, in the nuclear facilities operation and in medicine. The expert part of the other panels concerned the issues of ionising radiation impact on the environment and working environment, natural radio-nuclides, including radon and biologic impacts of radiation. One separate panel was dedicated to device techniques and methods of dosimetry of ionising radiation. More than 45 expert lectures and more than 40 poster presentations were presented at the conference during 3 days. The exhibition and presentation of measuring technique products and devices and of materials used in the area of radiation protection and nuclear medicine was prepared during the course of the conference. Participation in the conference showed that a great interest in problems of protection from radiation persists. This was proved by rich lecturing activity and wide discussions on the floor and during the poster presentations. Participants were satisfied since the organisers of the event prepared a worthy event with the rich expert themes at a good organisational and social level in a beautiful environment of Low Tatras

2001-11-26

377

Commercial Sensory Survey Radiation Testing Progress Report  

Science.gov (United States)

The NASA Electronic Parts and Packaging (NEPP) Program Sensor Technology Commercial Sensor Survey task is geared toward benefiting future NASA space missions with low-cost, short-duty-cycle, visible imaging needs. Such applications could include imaging for educational outreach purposes or short surveys of spacecraft, planetary, or lunar surfaces. Under the task, inexpensive commercial grade CMOS sensors were surveyed in fiscal year 2007 (FY07) and three sensors were selected for total ionizing dose (TID) and displacement damage dose (DDD) tolerance testing. The selected sensors had to meet selection criteria chosen to support small, low-mass cameras that produce good resolution color images. These criteria are discussed in detail in [1]. This document discusses the progress of radiation testing on the Micron and OmniVision sensors selected in FY07 for radiation tolerance testing.

Becker, Heidi N.; Dolphic, Michael D.; Thorbourn, Dennis O.; Alexander, James W.; Salomon, Phil M.

2008-01-01

378

Selecting radiation detectors for fire protection  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In the design of automatic fire protection systems, it must be noted that there is no such thing as a true and infallible fire detector. Equipment for use in fire detection employs one or more types of sensors that respond to the various characteristics of fire. Except for those characteristics of fire which can be sensed by the human body, fires emit also ultraviolet and infrared radiation which are both invisible to the human eye. Although they also have their limitations, ultraviolet and infrared detectors can be used for fire protection

1985-01-01

379

Issues in deep space radiation protection  

Science.gov (United States)

The exposures in deep space are largely from the Galactic Cosmic Rays (GCR) for which there is as yet little biological experience. Mounting evidence indicates that conventional linear energy transfer (LET) defined protection quantities (quality factors) may not be appropriate for GCR ions. The available biological data indicates that aluminum alloy structures may generate inherently unhealthy internal spacecraft environments in the thickness range for space applications. Methods for optimization of spacecraft shielding and the associated role of materials selection are discussed. One material which may prove to be an important radiation protection material is hydrogenated carbon nanofibers. c 2001. Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

Wilson, J. W.; Shinn, J. L.; Tripathi, R. K.; Singleterry, R. C.; Clowdsley, M. S.; Thibeault, S. A.; Cheatwood, F. M.; Schimmerling, W.; Cucinotta, F. A.; Badhwar, G. D.; Noor, A. K.; Kim, M. Y.; Badavi, F. F.; Heinbockel, J. H.; Miller, J.; Zeitlin, C.; Heilbronn, L.

2001-01-01

380

Radiation Protection Using Carbon Nanotube Derivatives  

Science.gov (United States)

BHA and BHT are well-known food preservatives that are excellent radical scavengers. These compounds, attached to single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs), could serve as excellent radical traps. The amino-BHT groups can be associated with SWNTs that have carbolyxic acid groups via acid-base association or via covalent association. The material can be used as a means of radiation protection or cellular stress mitigation via a sequence of quenching radical species using nano-engineered scaffolds of SWNTs and their derivatives. It works by reducing the number of free radicals within or nearby a cell, tissue, organ, or living organism. This reduces the risk of damage to DNA and other cellular components that can lead to chronic and/or acute pathologies, including (but not limited to) cancer, cardiovascular disease, immuno-suppression, and disorders of the central nervous system. These derivatives can show an unusually high scavenging ability, which could prove efficacious in protecting living systems from radical-induced decay. This technique could be used to protect healthy cells in a living biological system from the effects of radiation therapy. It could also be used as a prophylactic or antidote for radiation exposure due to accidental, terrorist, or wartime use of radiation- containing weapons; high-altitude or space travel (where radiation exposure is generally higher than desired); or in any scenario where exposure to radiation is expected or anticipated. This invention s ultimate use will be dependent on the utility in an overall biological system where many levels of toxicity have to be evaluated. This can only be assessed at a later stage. In vitro toxicity will first be assessed, followed by in vivo non-mammalian screening in zebra fish for toxicity and therapeutic efficacy.

Conyers, Jodie L., Jr.; Moore, Valerie C.; Casscells, S. Ward

2010-01-01

 
 
 
 
381

The purpose of radiation protection monitoring  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In the early period (1942-1960) of nuclear energy programmes with which I was associated, most radiation protection standards seem to have been formulated on the assumption that there is a threshold dose of ionizing radiation below which no radiation damage is expected to result in the lifetime of the exposed individual. It was in this climate of opinion that health physics began as a profession, and levels of maximum permissible exposure (MPE) to external sources of radiation, maximum permissible concentrations in air, water and food, and maximum permissible body burdens of radionuclides inside the human body were set and enforced. Some of the levels of MPE were quite high in comparison with present standards but, fortunately, the health physicists at the national laboratories in which most radiation workers were employed were very conservative; in most cases the average annual exposures were less than 10% of the MPE levels. However, there was not much concern with the man-rem concept, as exemplified by rather high levels of radioactive waste discharged from the plants or placed in temporary holding facilities - where there was a likely possibility of seepage into the environment. This situation was understandable and justifiable at a time when the purpose of radiation protection monitoring was simply to prevent individuals from exceeding a threshold dose. The period of the recent past up to the present time (1978) has been one in which there has been a gradual change from the concept of a threshold dose hypothesis to the linear hypothesis. In this period the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) and the national standards setting bodies have pointed out that the levels they have selected are based on the linear hypothesis, but in most respects they leave us with the impression that this is most probably a conservative assumption, subject to revision when better data become available. Also, during this period, the concept of exposure As Low As Reasonably Achievable (ALARA) was developed

1978-06-30

382

Survey of international personnel radiation dosimetry programs  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In September of 1983, a mail survey was conducted to determine the status of external personnel gamma and neutron radiation dosimetry programs at international agencies. A total of 130 agencies participated in this study including military, regulatory, university, hospital, laboratory, and utility facilities. Information concerning basic dosimeter types, calibration sources, calibration phantoms, corrections to dosimeter responses, evaluating agencies, dose equivalent reporting conventions, ranges of typical or expected dose equivalents, and degree of satisfaction with existing systems was obtained for the gamma and neutron personnel monitoring programs at responding agencies. Results of this survey indicate that to provide the best possible occupational radiation monitoring programs and to improve dosimetry accuracy in performance studies, facility dosimetrists, regulatory and standards agencies, and research laboratories must act within their areas of responsibility to become familiar with their radiation monitoring systems, establish common reporting guidelines and performance standards, and provide opportunities for dosimetry testing and evaluation. 14 references, 10 tables

1985-01-01

383

Survey of Canadian hospitals radiation emergency plans  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report documents the findings of a survey of Canadian hospitals conducted by Social Data Research Ltd. during the Spring and Summer, 1995. The main objective of the survey was to determine the state of readiness of Canadian hospitals in respect of radiation emergency planning. In addition, the AECB was interested in knowing the extent to which a report by the Group of Medical Advisors, 'GMA-3: Guidelines on Hospital Emergency Plans for the Management of Minor Radiation Accidents', which was sponsored and distributed in 1993, was received and was useful to hospital administrators and emergency personnel. A self-administered questionnaire was distributed to 598 acute care hospitals, and 274 responses were received. The main conclusion of this study is that, with the exception of a few large institutions, hospitals generally do not have specific action plans to handle minor radiation accidents. (author)

1996-01-01

384

Global view on radiation protection in medicine  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

When planning good management of ionising radiation in medicine, key factors such as ensuring that health professionals work together and convincing them that radiation protection (RP) represents a substantial part of the quality management system in their clinical practice are of utmost importance. The United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation has decided that one of the thematic priorities will be medical radiation exposure of patients. The International Commission on Radiological Protection has recently updated the report on RP in medicine and continues to work on focused documents centred on specific areas where advice is needed. The roles of the International Atomic Energy Agency, World Health Organization and the European Commission, in the area of RP in medicine, are described in the present document. The industry, the standardisation organisations as well as many scientific and professional societies are also dedicating significant effort to radiation safety aspects in medicine. Some of the efforts and priorities contemplated in RP in medicine over the coming years are suggested. The best outcome will be accomplished when all the actors, i.e. medical doctors, other health professionals, regulators, health authorities and the industry manage to work together. (authors)

2010-09-01

385

Biological research for the radiation protection  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The work scope of 'Biological Research for the Radiation Protection' had contained the research about polyamine effect on cell death triggered ionizing radiation, H2O2 and toxic agents. In this paper, to elucidate the role of polyamines as mediator in lysosomal damage and stress(H2O2)- induced apoptosis, we utilized ?-DiFluoroMethylOrnithine (DFMO), which inhibited ornithine decarboxylase and depleted intracellular putrescine, and investigated the effects of polyamine on the apoptosis caused by H2O2, ionizing radiation and paraquat. We also showed that MGBG, inhibitor of polyamine biosynthesis, treatment affected intracellular redox steady states, intracellular ROS levels and protein oxidation. Thereafter we also investigated whether MGBG may enhance the cytotoxic efficacy of tumor cells caused by ionizing radiation or H2O2 because such compounds are able to potentiate the cell-killing effects. In addition, ceruloplasmin and thioredoxin, possible antioxidant proteins, were shown to have protective effect on radiation- or H2O2(or chemicals)-induced macromolecular damage or cell death

2003-01-01

386

Radiation safety and protection in US dental hygiene programs  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A survey of radiation safety and protection measures used by programs teaching dental hygiene indicated some areas for concern. No barriers or radiation shieldings were used between operator and patient in four programs. Radiation monitoring devices were not worn by faculty operators in 16% of the programs. Fewer than half of the programs used thyroid shields for patients on a routine basis. Insufficient filtration for the kilovolt peak employed was used by 14% of the programs, and for 19% more the filtration was unknown or unspecified. Three programs used closed cones. Rectangular collimation was not used at all by 63% of the programs, and only 20% used E speed film routinely. Quality assurance for equipment maintenance and for film processing were in place at only 54% and 49% of the programs, respectively

1986-01-01

387

Radiation protection at the TRIGA Heidelberg II  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

It should be noted that the two research reactors TRIGA HD I and II caused no radiation incident during the total operation time since 1966. The occupational doses of the co-workers have been low. Only few different radionuclides are produced in the pool water with small activities. The radioactive waste is minor. The dose rate above the pool surface is unimportant. The activities in the exhaust air result in a negligible effective dose to the environment. This result is only possible by accurate reactor operation, cautious sample irradiation and handling, and by careful radiation protection. (orig.)

Krauss, O.; Kuebler, W.; Hnatek, K.; Sold, A. [Deutsches Krebsforschungszentrum (DKFZ), Heidelberg (Germany). Zentrale Einrichtung Strahlenschutz und Dosimetrie

1996-07-01

388

SOI microdosemetry for mixed field radiation protection  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Radiation protection in mixed neutron/gamma fields produced by radiation sources is relevant in many industrial applications such as bore hole logging and prompt gamma neutron activation analysis, security applications and neutron radiography. Online monitoring of the dose equivalent received from a neutron/gamma source would permit real time dosemetry in industrial and medical applications. A silicon on insulator (SOI) microdosemeter has been used to determine the microdosemetric spectra from a 252Cf source which can be converted to dose equivalent. Simulations of the response of a SOI microdosemeter to the 252Cf source using GEANT4 have been performed

2008-02-01

389

Risk assessment perspectives in radiation protection  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The contribution of risk evaluation (as opposed to risk determination) to risk assessment is discussed. An attempt is made to give a mathematical structure to the justification process, the first part of the process involving the worth and costs of the practice, the second involving the implementation of radiation protection practices and a judgment of the social costs of the remaining detriment. Two risks that may be considered in the justification equation are discussed in outline:- 1) the relative potency of radiation vs. carcinogenic chemicals 2) rare events, i.e. nuclear and waste disposal accidents. (U.K.)

1980-01-01

390

The gender problem in radiation protection  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Gender is a range of characteristics used to distinguish between males and females, particularly in the cases of men and women and the masculine and feminine attributes assigned to them. While the social sciences sometimes approach gender as a social construct, and some gender studies particularly do, research in the natural and medical sciences investigates whether biological differences in males and females influence the development of gender in humans. Radiation protection regulations also take into account the possibly different radiation risks of males and females. The following contribution investigates how far this is justified, and what are the consequences. (orig.)

Persson, Lars [Nobel Inst. of Physics, Stockholm (Sweden)

2012-07-01

391

The gender problem in radiation protection  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Gender is a range of characteristics used to distinguish between males and females, particularly in the cases of men and women and the masculine and feminine attributes assigned to them. While the social sciences sometimes approach gender as a social construct, and some gender studies particularly do, research in the natural and medical sciences investigates whether biological differences in males and females influence the development of gender in humans. Radiation protection regulations also take into account the possibly different radiation risks of males and females. The following contribution investigates how far this is justified, and what are the consequences. (orig.)

2012-01-01

392

Radiation Protection in the Experimental Pile Marius  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Measurements made around the experimental pile 'Marius' made it possible to determine the valid characteristics of the slabs designed to improve the biological protection by covering the charge and discharge pits. These measurements also made it possible to evaluate the risks occurring when the pile is operating at various Powers and to make a reasonable estimate of the value of the ratio of the total danger due to neutrons (thermal and fast) and ? radiation and to the danger due only to the ? radiation. A knowledge of this ratio makes it possible to make satisfactory evaluations with a single apparatus which is really portable. (author)

1962-01-01

393

Thermoluminescence Dosimetry Applied to Radiation Protection  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

This is a general review of the present state of the development and application of thermoluminescence dosimetry (TLD) for radiation protection purposes. A description is given of commonly used thermoluminescent dosimeters and their main dosimetric properties, e.g. energy response, dose range, fading, and LET dependence. The applications of thermoluminescence dosimetry in routine personnel monitoring, accident dosimetry, u.v. radiation dosimetry, and environmental monitoring are discussed with particular emphasis on current problems in routine personnel monitoring. Finally, the present state of the development of TL readout instrumentation is discussed and some future trends are indicated.

Christensen, Poul; Bøtter-Jensen, Lars

1982-01-01

394

Thermoluminescence dosimetry applied to radiation protection  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This is a general review of the present state of the development and application of thermoluminescence dosimetry (TLD) for radiation protection purposes. A description is given of commonly used thermoluminescent dosimeters and their main dosimetric properties, e.g. energy response, dose range, fading, and LET dependence. The applications of thermoluminescence dosimetry in routine personnel monitoring, accident dosimetry, u.v. radiation dosimetry, and environmental monitoring are discussed with particular emphasis on current problems in routine personnel monitoring. Finally, the present state of the development of TL readout instrumentation is discussed and some future trends are indicated. (author)

1982-01-01

395

2003 survey of Canadian radiation oncology residents  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Purpose: Radiation oncology's popularity as a career in Canada has surged in the past 5 years. Consequently, resident numbers in Canadian radiation oncology residencies are at all-time highs. This study aimed to survey Canadian radiation oncology residents about their opinions of their specialty and training experiences. Methods and Materials: Residents of Canadian radiation oncology residencies that enroll trainees through the Canadian Resident Matching Service were identified from a national database. Residents were mailed an anonymous survey. Results: Eight of 101 (7.9%) potential respondents were foreign funded. Fifty-two of 101 (51.5%) residents responded. A strong record of graduating its residents was the most important factor residents considered when choosing programs. Satisfaction with their program was expressed by 92.3% of respondents, and 94.3% expressed satisfaction with their specialty. Respondents planning to practice in Canada totaled 80.8%, and 76.9% plan to have academic careers. Respondents identified job availability and receiving adequate teaching from preceptors during residency as their most important concerns. Conclusions: Though most respondents are satisfied with their programs and specialty, job availability and adequate teaching are concerns. In the future, limited time and resources and the continued popularity of radiation oncology as a career will magnify the challenge of training competent radiation oncologists in Canada

2005-06-01

396

Nevada National Security Site Radiation Protection Program  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Title 10 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) Part 835, “Occupational Radiation Protection,” establishes radiation protection standards, limits, and program requirements for protecting individuals from ionizing radiation resulting from the conduct of U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) activities. 10 CFR 835.101(a) mandates that DOE activities be conducted in compliance with a documented Radiation Protection Program (RPP) as approved by DOE. This document promulgates the RPP for the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS), related (on-site or off-site) U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Field Office (NNSA/NFO) operations, and environmental restoration off-site projects. This RPP section consists of general statements that are applicable to the NNSS as a whole. The RPP also includes a series of appendices which provide supporting detail for the associated NNSS Tennant Organizations (TOs). Appendix H, “Compliance Demonstration Table,” contains a cross-walk for the implementation of 10 CFR 835 requirements. This RPP does not contain any exemptions from the established 10 CFR 835 requirements. The RSPC and TOs are fully compliant with 10 CFR 835 and no additional funding is required in order to meet RPP commitments. No new programs or activities are needed to meet 10 CFR 835 requirements and there are no anticipated impacts to programs or activities that are not included in the RPP. There are no known constraints to implementing the RPP. No guides or technical standards are adopted in this RPP as a means to meet the requirements of 10 CFR 835.

none,

2013-04-30

397

Radiation protection aspects in importing metallic scraps  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The meeting deals with radiation protection problems caused by the possibility that radioactive metal scraps or radioactive sources hidden in the scraps, may arrive in a foundry. The importance of this issue and of rational and systematic solutions is showed by several accidents, happened in the past in numerous countries, by many signals in Italy and by some papers published in international scientific journals or reports issued by authorities and institutions in different countries

1995-05-11

398

Numerical experiments in radiation protection and dosimetry  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Numerical experiments have dominant place almost at all the regions of human creativity. They are preceding the physical experiment with the aim to direct it and they are following it in order to interpret it. Our backwardness compared to the world in performing numerical experiments in radiation protection and dosimetry, may be compensated exclusively by coordinated work mastering theory and techniques of numerical experiments. This paper is dedicated to those purposes. (author)

1997-01-01

399

Product control: improved methods - improved radiation protection?  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Many different kinds of methods and installations are applied to the product control of solidified radioactive waste. Over the years they have been modified, adapted and improved. We will use the processing of cemented waste samples and the determination of the fire point of bitumen samples as examples. We will try to show in detail, how minor changes already have a positive influence on reproducibility, working procedures and practical radiation protection. (orig.)

2005-09-20

400

Specific radiation protection analyses for supervisory purposes  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

It is the objective of the project to elaborate decision support instruments for supervisory authorities, using as a basis empirical values for classification of radioactive scrap contaminated by natural or artifical radioactivity. The results are intended to yield the supplementing information required by the supervisory authorities for case-specific decisions in compliance with sections 4,8,80 of the German radiation protection ordinance (StrlSchV). (orig./CB)

1998-03-01

 
 
 
 
401

Monthly radiation protection training of workers: An evaluation of two years operational practice  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Radiation protection training and education is important in stimulating safety culture of occupationally exposed workers. Taking into account the mandatory requirements in relation to education and training a digital training tool was introduced for communication of personal dose results and regular information on radiation protection. This tool enables that personal dose reports are monthly sent to the individual mailbox of workers together with short comprehensive slideshows on radiation protection topics. After two years of operational practice a survey was organised to evaluate the training tool. The results show that the majority (92%) of the occupationally exposed workers are aware of the communication of personal dose results through e-mail. Furthermore, 81% of these workers are also aware of their monthly and cumulated dose level. The monthly information on radiation protection topics is however less consulted. Around 40% of the workers that noticed the link are indifferent to the monthly information. The interest in radiation protection issues increases however with the education level.

2011-11-01

402

Survey of case reports of radiation-induced cancer  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A survey of the cases reported as radiation-induced cancer in chief organs (the breast, the uterus, the pharynx and larynx, the colon, and the bone) was carried out. The number of the cases which were found by this survey were 10 in the breast, 548 in the uterus, 130 in the pharyns and larynx, 80 in the colon, and 256 in the bone. The most of these cases had received radiation for the purpose of treatment of non-malignant disease. The average latent period were 15.0 years in the cases of breast cancer, 10.1 years in uterus cancer, 27.3 years in pahrynx and larynx cancer, 13.6 years in colon cancer, and 15.5 years in bone cancer. The lowest radiation dose were 1470 rads in the cases of breast cancer, 900 rads in uterus in colon cancer, 4000 rads in pahrynx and larynx cancer, 460 rads in colon cancer, and 2700 rads in bone cancer. Histopathological findings, sex difference, onset age, and others were investigated in each organ. This survey gave many valuable informations for radiation protection and safety

1977-04-30

403

University courses on radiation protection in Estonia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A brief overview is given on the educational courses containing topics in the field of radiation protection in the Tallinn Technical University and in the University of Tartu, Estonia. It follows from the analysis that at present there is no complete system for education or training of experts in the field. At the same time a significant deficit in specialists and experts is one of the major barriers in the development of an efficient radiation protection infrastructure in this country. A comparison of the course topics to the syllabus for the training of qualified experts recommended by EC and by IAEA demonstrates the items, which need a further development and an expanded coverage in the existing or in future courses. These items involve, e.g., operational radiation protection and its organisation, waste management, transport, quality assurance, etc. Upgrading of courses for the missing theoretical items is not difficult, but it is not sufficient. The largest void lies in the weakness / absence of an adequate basis for practical work or exercises for students. The examples of co-operation and help provided for the existing courses, especially by the Nordic countries, are encouraging. (au)

1999-11-01

404

A multidimensional approach of radiation protection optimization  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The optimization principle as applied to radiation protection is often associated with the necessity to take into account the collective dimension of the health risk. Actually, there should be no confusion between optimization and the collective approach of radiation protection. It is possible to consider optimization in such a way that most of the various dimensions of the health detriment are included. In order to illustrate this an optimization method based on multiattribute analysis was implemented within the framework of the determination of 'ALARA' levels for the PWR fuel cycle. With this method both the collective health risk and the risk related to the critical group are simultaneously taken into account. The results show that such an optimization leads to a satisfactory synthesis of the conventional individual approach and the collective approach. More generally, the credibility of the optimization process will largely rely upon the ability to take into account the multiple dimensions of most of the choices in the field of radiation protection

1980-01-01