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Survey of radiation protection programmes for transport  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The survey of radiation protection programmes for transport has been jointly performed by three scientific organisations I.P.S.N. (France), G.R.S. ( Germany), and N.R.P.B. (United kingdom) on behalf of the European Commission and the pertaining documentation summarises the findings and conclusions of the work that was undertaken with the principal objectives to provide guidance on the establishment, implementation and application of radiation protection programmes for the transport of radioactive materials by operators and the assessment and evaluation of such programmes by the competent authority and to review currently existing radiation protection programmes for the transport of radioactive materials. (N.C.)

2

Chemical protection against ionizing radiation: a survey of possible mechanisms  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A comparative survey is given of the hypotheses which have been proposed to explain the protecting and sensitizing action of chemical substances towards ionizing radiation such as gamma radiation or x radiation

3

Radiation protection surveys - as an optimising procedure in diagnostic radiology  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Radiation Protection Division (RPD) in Kuwait operates primarily for the benefit of health authorities in regulating the use of ionizing radiation in medical field. There are approximately 250 radiology and 40 dental X-ray units in the country. Radiation protection surveys are a regular feature of RPD and include planning, pre-commissioning, routine and after repair checks on the newly installed as well as in-use X-ray units. The aim of these surveys is to ensure standard X-ray outputs and adequate safety measures so as to enhance the image quality and avoid the unnecessary exposure to both the patients and operators

4

A survey of research programs in radiation protection in Canada  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A survey of research programs in Canada concerned with radiation protection was conducted in 1991-92 by the Joint Subcommittee on Regulatory Research (JSCRR) of the Atomic Energy Control Board (AECB) Advisory Committees on Radiological Protection and on Nuclear Safety. The purpose of this survey was to determine the current state of funding for this type of research in Canada. Funding for health-related radiation research in Canada is critical to establishing and maintaining a supply of trained professionals who can provide competent advice on health-related problems in radiation protection. The present report is an analysis of the information received in this survey. This survey concludes with the recommendation that the organization and definition of subprograms for the AECB Regulatory Research and Support Program should be completed as soon as possible. In this report the JSCRR should assist AECB staff in preparing a report in which priorities for research related to radiation protection are indicated. The sources of information noted at the end of the Discussion section of this report should be considered for this purpose. (author). 15 refs., 3 tabs

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A knowledge and awareness level survey of radiation protection among the radiation workers in Henan Province  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text: Objective: To reveal the knowledge and awareness level of radiation protection among radiation workers in Henan province and to explore the methods to improve it. Methods: A questionnaire survey was carried out among 208 radiation workers. Results: The correct rate of the answer to radiation protection knowledge from radiation workers in Henan province is 53.78%. Most of them (88.9%) realized that it is important to protect patients and their companions. They adhere to the principles of justification of medial exposure and optimization of radiation protection and follow the management system of radiation protection. However, a few workers didn't follow the principles strictly. Sometime, during the radio diagnosis and radiotherapy services, the patients and their companions were not well protected from the radiation, and some patients were given unnecessary X-ray examine. Even worse, some workers did not attach importance to the regulations of radiation protection and disobey them frequently. Again, some hospital leaders disregard the regulation of radiation protection and didn't follow the regulation of health surveillance and radiation protection monitoring properly. And those behaviors and attitude, in fact, influence some workers' attitude to radiation protection. Conclusion: The level of radiation protection knowledge and awareness among the radiation workers in Henan province needs to be improved. It is necessary to strengthen radiation protection knowledge by strengthening training, and to improve safety awareness among the radiation staff, and, more important, the hospital leaders as well. (author)

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Survey of Radiation Protection Awareness among Radiation Workers in Shiraz Hospitals  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Introduction: Ionizing radiations are the hazardous agents in the workplace and all forms of ionizing radiation produce some type of injuries. Awareness of application of protection guidelines and knowledge of the principles of radiation protection can play an important role in health of employees. Survey of radiation employee’s levels of awareness and practical behavior is essential and should be standardized. Methods: The hospitals were visited to determine the number of radiation employees and to select the samples. Data was collected by questionnaire and analyses were performed by EPI6 software. Results: The employee’s awareness about protection in the radiation room was 70%, about application of film badge was more than 85%. The employee’s awareness of periodic inspection of atomic energy organization expert was 54% and their knowledge of long term and short term radiation effects were 98% and 95%, respectively. There was a meaningful relation concerning the level of education and awareness of the employees about MPD or principles of radiation protection (P<0.0007 and P<0.003 respectively. Conclusion: Our results reveal that the employees have acceptable knowledge about the use of film badges, however, they lack enough awareness concerning other issues of radiation protection. Proper and periodic educational courses for radiation workers are mandatory.

F. Amirzadeh

2005-07-01

7

Radiation protection  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

One usually thinks of radiation safety as keeping patient and personnel exposure as low as reasonably achievable; however, radiation protection activities play an important role in quality assurance for both the clinical and physical aspects. Radiation protection has several aspects: The first step is the design of the irradiation device and its shielding. Room shielding design is based on the leakage levels specified by the manufacturer and on levels of scatter and primary radiation impinging on the radiation barriers. Integrity and adequacy of shielding should be verified by survey after unit installation. Installation and periodic testing of interlocks are necessary to assure that nonirradiation conditions can be restored as soon as necessary. Personnel monitoring serves two purposes; to provide a record of personnel exposures and to alert one to unsuspected changes that may have taken place in procedure, shielding integrity, or source location. Area monitoring and survey on a periodic basis also provides knowledge of unsuspected changes in procedure, shielding integrity, or source location. Brachytherapy and the transport of small radiation sources require additional precautionary actions. Protection of patient anatomy not being treated reduces the chance of normal tissue damage and the possibility of carcinogenic effects

8

Radiation protection  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

It includes outline of health physics, quantity and unit for radiation protection, base of radiological protection, principle of radiological protection, radiation monitoring, radiation safety handling, radiation waste management, storage and transportation and measures of accidents. It explains in detail radioactivity, interaction coefficients, philosophy and system of radiological protection, personal monitoring program, disposal of radiation air, liquid and solid waste, as well as measures in case of fire, earthquake and so on.

9

On the awareness of radiation protection. A questionnaire survey of junior college students of radiological technology  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A questionnaire survey on the awareness of radiation protection was conducted to improve our curriculum of radiation protection education, which seems to be important for the safe administrative control systems and handling techniques of radiation. A total of 426 students answered our questionnaire during the period of 1994 to 1999. They were 80 first-year, 114 second-year and 232 third-year students. The facility values of 4 questions on the influence of radiation to a human body were 50.2%, 30.3%, 28.9% and 7.0%. There was no statistically significant difference among different age groups. The facility values of 3 questions on the dose limitation of occupation exposure were 50.5% (on the effective dose equivalent), 36.4% (on the tissue dose equivalent to skin), and 40.9% (on the crystalline lens). On safe handling of radiation, only 35.7% of students correctly answered that they use a plastic board to protect themselves from ?-ray, while 77.0% correctly answered the question on the decontamination method of radioactive substance from the skin. The results show the students' lack of knowledge on radiation protection. Those involved in basic science education and radiation protection education, therefore, need to clarify their teaching content and offer explicit explanations on the proper dose of radiation, effects to exposure dose, interaction between different materials and radiation. (author)

10

Knowledge in Radiation Protection: a Survey of Professionals in Medical Imaging, Radiation Therapy and Nuclear Medicine Units in Yaounde  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Medical use of ionizing radiation is now the most common radiation source of the population at the global level. The knowledge and practices of health professionals working with X-rays determine the level and quality of implementation of internationally and nationally recommended measures for radiation protection of patients and workers. The level of implementation and enforcement of international recommendations in African countries is an issue of concern due to weak laws and regulations and regulatory bodies. We report the results of a cross-sectional survey of health professionals working with ionizing radiation in Yaounde, the capital city of Cameroon. More than 50% of these professionals have a moderate level of knowledge of the norms and principles of radiation protection and more than 80% have never attended a continuing professional development workshop on radiation protection. (authors)

11

Radiation protection  

CERN Document Server

This will be a simple explanation of the reasons why CERN has to be careful about radiation protections issues, a practical guide on how to recognize radiation dangers, the monitoring systems that make sure radiation levels are well tolerable norms, and a quick summary of what radiation levels mean in terms of personal risk.

CERN. Geneva

2001-01-01

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Radiation protection  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A NRPB leaflet in the 'At-a-Glance' series explains in a simple but scientifically accurate way what radiation is, the biological effects and the relative sensitivity of different parts of the human body. The leaflet then discusses radiation protection principles, radiation protection in the UK and finally the effectiveness of this radiation protection as judged by a breakdown of the total dose received by an average person in the UK, a heavy consumer of Cumbrian seafood, an average nuclear industry worker and an average person in Cornwall. (UK)

13

Radiation protection  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Personnel whose duties include the application of X-ray or the handling of radioactive material according to the statutory provisions of Germany have to attend a compulsory course in ''Radiation Protection''. The textbook in hand is a systematic compilation of all subjects of the course, with questions and answers. The subjects are: (1) Physical fundamentals and X-radiation. (2) Taking X-rays. (3) X-ray quality. (4) X-ray anatomy. (5) Biological effects of ionizing radiation. (6) Dosimetry. (7) Basic principles underlying radiation protection. (8) Examination instruments. (9) Examinations using contrast media. (10) Quality assurance. (11) Patient positioning and instrument handling. The textbook also presents the relevant texts of the Radiation Protection Ordinance and of the examination problems, and a glossary of terms. (orig.). 165 figs., 24 tabs

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Principles of radiation protection and legal basis for workers and public protection - a description of the Federal Radiation Survey  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The consequences of traditional mining and uranium industry, public concern and the need for decisions on restoration and remediation of radioactive-contaminated sites require systematic investigations and objective evaluations of the existing radiological situation. With this intention a comprehensive Federal project has been lauched to study the contributions of the geologic conditions and mining activities to the radiation exposure of the public. The responsibility for the whole project was delegated to the Federal Office for Radiation Protection (BfS). Topics covered in this paper include: Radiological evaluation and legal basis of the radiological protection for workers and for the public; Radiological protection for workers and the public in case of remedial actions

15

Radiation protection  

CERN Multimedia

The section of the Radiation Protection Group in charge of shipping radioactive material would like to remind users that all radioactive material leaving CERN must be checked for radioactivity and must be shipped according to the procedure given at http://cern.ch/service-rp-shipping Do not hesitate to contact us for any question or control. Radioactive Shipping Service: service-rp-shipping@cern.ch Tél. 73171

2005-01-01

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Radiation protection  

CERN Multimedia

The section of the radiation protection group in charge of shipping radioactive material would like to remind users that all radioactive material leaving CERN must be checked for radioactivity and must be shipped according to the procedure given at http://cern.ch/service-rp-shipping Do not hesitate to contact us for any question or control. Radioactive Shipping Service: service-rp-shipping@cern.ch Tél. 73171

Radioactive Shipping Service

2005-01-01

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Radiation protection  

CERN Multimedia

The section of the Radiation Protection Group in charge of shipping radioactive material would like to remind users that all radioactive material leaving CERN must be checked for radioactivity and must be shipped according to the procedure given at http://cern.ch/service-rp-shipping Do not hesitate to contact us for any question or control. Radioactive Shipping Service: service-rp-shipping@cern.ch Tel. 73171

2005-01-01

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Survey of radiation protection programmes for transport; Etude des programmes de radioprotection pour les transports de matieres radioactives  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The survey of radiation protection programmes for transport has been jointly performed by three scientific organisations I.P.S.N. (France), G.R.S. ( Germany), and N.R.P.B. (United kingdom) on behalf of the European Commission and the pertaining documentation summarises the findings and conclusions of the work that was undertaken with the principal objectives to provide guidance on the establishment, implementation and application of radiation protection programmes for the transport of radioactive materials by operators and the assessment and evaluation of such programmes by the competent authority and to review currently existing radiation protection programmes for the transport of radioactive materials. (N.C.)

Lizot, M.T.; Perrin, M.L.; Sert, G. [CEA Fontenay-aux-Roses, Inst. de Protection et de Surete Nucleaire, Dept. de Protection et de Surete Nucleaire, 92 (France); Lange, F.; Schwarz, G.; Feet, H.J.; Christ, R. [Gesellschaft fur Anlagen-und Reaktorsicherheit, GRS, mbH, Cologne (Germany); Shaw, K.B.; Hughes, J.S.; Gelder, R. [National Radiological Protection Board (NRPB), Oxon, OX (United Kingdom)

2001-07-01

19

Radiation protection  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Three main pillars underpin the IAEA's mission: Safety and Security - The IAEA helps countries to upgrade their infrastructure for nuclear and radiation safety and security, and to prepare for and respond to emergencies. Work is keyed to international conventions, the development of international standards and the application of these standards. The aim is to protect people and the environment from the harmful effects of exposure to ionizing radiation. Science and Technology - The IAEA is the world's focal point for mobilizing peaceful applications of nuclear science and technology for critical needs in developing countries. The work contributes to alleviating poverty, combating disease and pollution of the environment and to other goals of sustainable development. Safeguards and Verification - The IAEA is the nuclear inspectorate, with more than four decades of verification experience. Inspectors work to verify that nuclear material and activities are not diverted towards military purposes. Quantities and Units: Dose equivalent is the product of absorbed dose of radiation and quality factor (Q). For absorbed dose in rads, dose equivalent is in rems. If absorbed dose is in gray, the dose equivalent is in sievert. Quality factor is defined without reference to any particular biological end point. Quality factors are recommended by committees such as the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) or the National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements (NCRP), based on experimental RBE values but with some judgment exercised. Effective Dose Equivalent: It is the sum of the weighted dose equivalents for all irradiated tissues, in which the weighting factors represent the different risks of each tissue to mortality from cancer and hereditary effects. Committed dose equivalent: It is the integral over 50 years of dose equivalent following the intake of a radionuclide. Collective effective dose equivalent: It is a quantity for a population and is the sum of effective dose equivalents to all members of that population. Units are in person-sievert/person-rems. Aim of Radiation Protection: 1. Avoid the deterministic effects; and 2. Lower the probability of stochastic effects to an acceptable level. (author)

20

Proposal of a survey of radiation protection procedures during breast feeding  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Contamination can occur by breast milk ingestion involving mothers subjected to diagnostic procedures or treatment with radiopharmaceuticals, which can reach high concentrations in milk causing significant absorbed doses to the children organs. Besides internal dose, close contact between the baby and his mother give rise to external exposures. In Brazil, 7% of diagnostic procedures use 131I or 123I for thyroid imaging and 84% of these were hold by women. For 131I, 67Ga and 201Tl, is recommended breast feeding cessation. The present work proposes a survey of the state of the art of radiation protection to breast feeding infants. It was planned interviews with nuclear medicine staff applying a questionnaire in order to assess specific procedures to women in reproductive age. This is 'on progress work'. (author)

 
 
 
 
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Survey and analysis of radiation safety management systems at medical institutions. Second report. Radiation measurement, calibration of radiation survey meters, and periodic check of installations, equipment, and protection instruments  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We carried out a questionnaire survey to determine the actual situation of radiation safety management measures in all medical institutions in Japan that had nuclear medicine facilities. The questionnaire consisted of questions concerning the evaluation of shielding capacity; radiation measurement; periodic checks of installations, equipment, and protection instruments; and the calibration of radiation survey meters. The analysis was undertaken according to region, type of establishment, and number of beds. The overall response rate was 60 percent. For the evaluation of shielding capacity, the outsourcing rate was 53 percent of the total. For the radiation measurements of ''leakage radiation dose and radioactive contamination'' and contamination of radioactive substances in the air'', the outsourcing rates were 28 percent and 35 percent of the total, respectively (p<0.001, according to region and establishment). For the periodic check of radiation protection instruments, the implementation rate was 98 percent, and the outsourcing rate was 32 percent for radiation survey meters and 47 percent for lead aprons. The non-implemented rate for calibration of radiation survey meters was 25 percent of the total (p<0.001, according to region and establishment). The outsourcing rate for calibration of radiation survey meters accounted for 87 percent of the total, and of these medical institutions, 72 percent undertook annual calibration. The implementation rate for patient expos The implementation rate for patient exposure measurement was 20 percent of the total (p<0.001, according to number of beds), and of these medical institutions 46 percent recorded measurement outcome. (author)

22

Radiation protection of the population by legal provisions concerning radioactive releases - a comparative survey on the current legislation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The legal provisions on radioactive releases to the environment belong to the basic rules of radiation protection law. The survey of the most important sources of international law is followed by the internal legal provisions of some States with comments on current legislative problems. (orig.)

23

Radioactivity and radiation protection  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The volume covers the following issues: chemical elements and their smallest particles; nuclear reactions and radioactivity; energy of radiation particles and gamma quanta; interactions between radiation and matter; radiation measurement and measuring units; radiation effects on living cells; radionuclides in the human body; natural radiation sources - natural radiation exposure; artificial radiation sources - civilization-induced radiation exposure; radiation protection measures against external radiation effects; radiation protection measures against internal radiation effects; radiation protection for persons within a nuclear power plant.

24

Assessment of radiation protection training needs and capabilities in Europe: Results of the ENETRAP survey  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text: Maintaining a high level of competencies in the field of radiation protection is crucial for the future safe application of ionising radiation and to ensure the protection of workers, the public and the environment. Although working with a variety of responsibilities and specific professional aims, practitioners dealing with applications of ionizing radiation have three common needs with regard to radiological protection: basic education and training providing the required level of understanding of artificial and natural radiation; a standard for the recognition of skills and experience; and an opportunity to fine-tune and test acquired knowledge on a regular basis. The wide variety of the national approaches of the E and T programs in radiological protection in Europe hampers a common European methodology concerning these issues. This is particularly true for the Qualified Expert. Although, in this specific case, the fundamentals of the E and T programs are given by a European directive, the national differences in for instance, level, duration, subjects, practical and theoretical proportions in a program etc. create a barrier for the mutual recognition of this expert. The development of a common European radiation protection and safety culture and, based on that, the mutual recognition of radiation protection courses and the acquired competencies of radiation protection experts becomes crucial in a world of dynamic markets and increasing workers' mobilityc markets and increasing workers' mobility. A sustainable Education and Training (E and T) infrastructure is an essential component to combat the decline in expertise and to ensure the continuation of the high level of radiation protection knowledge in the future. Such infrastructure has to be built in such a way that both the initial training ('Education') and the unceasing maintenance of the level of competencies ('Training') are available. In answer to the need to develop a common European radiation protection and safety culture and, based on that, the mutual recognition for radiation protection courses and the acquired competencies of Qualified Experts, the ENETRAP project is working on a European harmonized approach of E and T programs in radiation protection. In a first phase of the ENETRAP project; a questionnaire was set up, the objective of this questionnaire being to elicit detailed information which will enable us to: assess the actual training needs in the EU Member States and Candidate States; understand the various regulatory aspects and consequently propose minimum requirements for mutual recognition of RPEs and RPOs; collate details of the various training and education activities available in the EU Member and Candidate States, and; review the content, structure and methods of these training and education activities. Hereto, an extensive list of questions was set up addressing the following topics: numbers of RPEs; identification of practices; national capabilities for education and training in radiological protection; regulatory requirements and; recognition. This questionnaire was sent out to 31 countries, i.e. the European Member States, the Candidate States, and the Associated States Norway and Switzerland. This paper will summarize the results of this questionnaire and the implementation these results into the construction of the E and T programmes, namely the European Master in Radiation Protection (EMRP - to start in September 2007) and the ENETRAP training scheme, being a revision of the Saclay based European Radiation Protection Course ERPC. A preliminary programme of both initiatives uses a modular approach and puts forward 2 parts : a common basis, and a series of specialized modules on occupational radiation protection in nuclear power plants and fuel cycle industry, the medical sector, non-nuclear industry and research laboratories, waste and disposal sites, etc. The EMRP and ENETRAP training scheme are planned to run (partly) in parallel, so that an overlap can be made between certain modules. This innovative construction allow

25

Radiation protection in India  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Safety has been given prime importance in all the nuclear energy and nuclear radiation related activities in India. These include nuclear power production as well as application of radiation in various fields such as medicine, agriculture, industry, research etc. Radiation protection is an integral part of safety assurance. The radiation protection standards are basically derived from the ICRP recommendations and the Basic Safety Standards of the IAEA. In some instances the standards followed in India are more stringent as compared to these. A suitable regulatory framework and management structure exists. The Atomic Energy Regulatory Board is the apex regulatory body for nuclear and radiation installations in India. The radiation protection standards at the various nuclear facilities are implemented through the Health Physics Units and Environmental Survey Laboratories, which are independent of the plant management. A suitable personnel monitoring programme has been established. Training and research and development activities are also given due importance. With the importance given to the implementation of radiation protection standards, generally the dose received by occupational workers has been found to be well below the regulatory limits. The cases of over exposure are negligible. The dose to the public is also well below the regulatory limits. (author)

26

Radiation protection of nuclear medicine workers in the Czech Republic in 2003 -some results of SONS and questionnaire survey II  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Our paper presents the most. important data concerning an equipment of 45 nuclear medicine departments (depts.) with radiation protection facilities and aids. The results of the questionnaire survey mentioned in our previous paper are briefly summarized here. A relatively low radiation burden of nuclear medicine staff suggests the standard of radiation protection measures to be relatively good in our country. However, our survey shows some shortcomings, especially the following ones: (1) some depts. need equipment for the preparation and dispensing of radiopharmaceuticals; (2) syringe shields for injection of beta-emitters such as 90Y are missing Iargely; (3) at some depts. shielding of staff from the patient containing a radiopharmaceutical is either missing or insufficient. Some deficiencies, including those not mentioned here, cannot be considered too significant. If syringe shields for beta-emitters are not available, Pb shields can be provisionally used. It would be desirable to replace the Pb shields by tungsten ones having the same effectiveness as Pb shields but smaller dimensions enabling a more comfortable injections (of course, tungsten syringe shields were available at four depts. which administered 18F-FDG in 2003). An acquaintance of depts. with the results of our survey is believed to stimulate nuclear medicine workers to improve further radiation protection in compliance with legislative requirements. (authors)

27

Survey of radiation protection creiteria following the accident at the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

After the accident at Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant, various numerical criteria relevant to radiation protection were defined. We surveyed these criteria through internet. As a result of survey, the following 13 items were identified: (1) criteria for taking stable iodine tablets, (2) criteria for the screening of surface contamination, (3) evacuation area, sheltering area, etc., (4) activity concentrations in food, drinking water,etc., (5) dose limit for radiation workers engaged in emergency work, (6) guideline levels of radioactive substances in bathing areas, (7) criteria for use of school buildings and schoolyards, (8) restriction on planting rice, (9) acceptable activity concentrations in feedstuff, (10) acceptable activity concentrations in compost, (11) criteria for export containers and ships, (12) criteria for contaminated waste, (13) standards for radiation workers engaged in decontamination work. In this report, the basis of and issues on these criteria are summarized. (author)

28

On ethical issues in radiation protection  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

From an ethical viewpoint the author surveys existing international radiation protection recommendations and standards. After outlining previous work on the ethics of radiation protection, professional ethics, and the ethics of human radiation experiments, the author discusses ethical thinking on seven key issues related to radiation protection and ethics. (author)

29

Radiation Protection: Basic Information  

Science.gov (United States)

... developed and produced nuclear weapons. Informing People About Radiation and Radiation Hazards EPA informs the public about radiation topics, ... to answer specific questions. Top of page EPA's Radiation Protection Program Strategic Goals Goal 1. Prepare for ...

30

Ethical problems in radiation protection  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In this report the authors survey existing international radiation-protection recommendations and standards of the ICRP, the IAEA, and the ILO. After outlining previous work on the ethics of radiation protection, professional ethics, and the ethics of human radiation experiments, the authors review ethical thinking on seven key issues related to radiation protection and ethics. They formulate each of these seven issues in terms of alternative ethical stances: (1) equity versus efficiency, (2) health versus economics, (3) individual rights versus societal benefits, (4) due process versus necessary sacrifice, (5) uniform versus double standards, (6) stake holder consent versus management decisions, and (7) environmental stewardship versus anthropocentric standards.

Shrader-Frechette, K.; Persson, Lars

2001-05-01

31

Ethical problems in radiation protection  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this report the authors survey existing international radiation-protection recommendations and standards of the ICRP, the IAEA, and the ILO. After outlining previous work on the ethics of radiation protection, professional ethics, and the ethics of human radiation experiments, the authors review ethical thinking on seven key issues related to radiation protection and ethics. They formulate each of these seven issues in terms of alternative ethical stances: (1) equity versus efficiency, (2) health versus economics, (3) individual rights versus societal benefits, (4) due process versus necessary sacrifice, (5) uniform versus double standards, (6) stake holder consent versus management decisions, and (7) environmental stewardship versus anthropocentric standards

32

Radiation protection standards  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The present paper deals with: Objectives and basic concepts of radiation protection, basic radiobiological considerations, the ICRP system of dose limitation and with operational radiation protection (limits, reference levels, occupational exposure). (RW)

33

Atoms, Radiation, and Radiation Protection  

CERN Document Server

Atoms, Radiation, and Radiation Protection offers professionals and advanced students a comprehensive coverage of the major concepts that underlie the origins and transport of ionizing radiation in matter. Understanding atomic structure and the physical mechanisms of radiation interactions is the foundation on which much of the current practice of radiological health protection is based. The work covers the detection and measurement of radiation and the statistical interpretation of the data. The procedures that are used to protect man and the environment from the potential harmful effects of

Turner, James E

2007-01-01

34

Radiation protection in Switzerland  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Proceeding from the legislation valid in Switzerland in the field of radiation protection, concepts and regulations governing the protection of man and the environment against radioactivity and ionizing radiation are outlined. Authorities are introduced which are responsible for licensing and surveillance of nuclear installations, medical radiation facilities, and plants processing radiactive materials, and for protecting occupationally exposed individuals. Finally, environmental radioactivity monitoring and radiation doses resulting for the people are described, pointing out, in particular, radiation exposure by radon in dwelling houses. (orig.)

35

Ethical issues in radiation protection  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this note the authors survey existing international radiation-protection recommendations of the ICRP, the IAEA, and the ILO. After outlining previous work on the ethics of radiation protection and risk assessment/management, the authors review ethical thinking on five key issues related to radiation protection and ethics. They formulate each of these five issues in terms of alternative ethical stances: (1) Equity vs. Efficiency, (2) Health vs. Economics, (3) Individual Rights vs. Societal Benefits, (4) Due Process vs. Necessary Sacrifice, and (5) Stakeholder Consent vs. Management Decisions (authors)

36

Radiation and radiation protection  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The brochure explains the major types of radiation, the radiation sources, effects, uses, and risks, as well as the regulatory system adopted by the government in order to keep the risks as low as possible. (orig./DG)

37

Research in Radiation Protection  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Radiation Protection has a long scientific tradition and big experience in radiation protection practice. Changes in the focus of the research program of the Forschungszentrum have influenced our activities in the field of radiation protection. Since older staff members experienced in radiation protection already have or are going to retire in the near future, it is necessary to run scientific education programmes in the field of radiation protection for post docs and students. The Central Safety Department started several programmes in the last years. In this report the results obtained so far are presented. (orig.)

38

Radiation protection of female patients of reproductive capacity: A survey of policy and practice in Norway  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The implementation of various policies related to female patients of reproductive capacity was investigated using a structured telephone interview of radiological departments in Norway. The findings suggest that 60% (n = 35/58) of radiological departments have written guidelines regarding female patients of reproductive capacity. The 10-day rule is implemented for a range of examinations in 12% (n = 7/58) of the radiological departments questioned, and in another 9% (n = 5/58) it is only implemented for hysterosalpingography. Forty percent (n = 23/58) of departments are familiar with rapid urine pregnancy tests and use them in certain circumstances. In conclusion, a lack of standardisation of approaches to radiation protection is apparent, and this raises concerns as national and international recommendations are not being correctly implemented. This may lead to confusion amongst patients and staff, and may have adverse consequences such as the accidental irradiation of the unborn child

39

Radiation protection research  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The objectives of the research in the field of radiation protection research performed at the Belgian Nuclear Research Centre SCK-CEN are (1) to elaborate and to improve methods and guidelines for the evaluation of restoration options for radioactively contaminated sites; (2) to develop, test and improve biosphere models for the performance assessment of radioactive waste disposal in near-surface or geological repositories; (3) to asses the impact of releases from nuclear or industrial installations; (4) to increase capabilities in mapping and surveying sites possibly or likely contaminated with enhanced levels of natural radiation; (5) to identify non nuclear industries producing NORM waste, to make an inventory of occurring problems and to propose feasible solutions or actions when required; (6) to maintain the know-how of retrospective radon measurements in real conditions and to assess radon decay product exposure by combining these techniques. Main achievements in these areas for 2001 are summarised.

Vanmarcke, H

2002-04-01

40

Radiation protection research  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The objectives of the research in the field of radiation protection research performed at the Belgian Nuclear Research Centre SCK-CEN are (1) to elaborate and to improve methods and guidelines for the evaluation of restoration options for radioactively contaminated sites; (2) to develop, test and improve biosphere models for the performance assessment of radioactive waste disposal in near-surface or geological repositories; (3) to asses the impact of releases from nuclear or industrial installations; (4) to increase capabilities in mapping and surveying sites possibly or likely contaminated with enhanced levels of natural radiation; (5) to identify non nuclear industries producing NORM waste, to make an inventory of occurring problems and to propose feasible solutions or actions when required; (6) to maintain the know-how of retrospective radon measurements in real conditions and to assess radon decay product exposure by combining these techniques. Main achievements in these areas for 2001 are summarised

 
 
 
 
41

Protective legislation, ionizing radiation and health: a new appraisal and international survey  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Restrictive regulations (protective legislation) on employment conditions of female workers limiting maximum hours of work and prohibiting certain toxic exposures have existed for decades. In some countries, such as the United States, Canada and the Nordic countries, the growth of civil rights and equal opportunity legislation has led to their elimination, either in fact or in practice, and only a small number of disparate regulations for male and female workers still exist. Most other industrialized countries, as well as the International Labour Office of the United Nations, still have active restrictive rules for women's employment. However, restrictive regulation is an area of active policy debate around the world. International examples of the debate on protective legislation are given here. A specific case study of the occupational health standards governing exposure to ionizing radiation is used and its technical rationale discussed as an illustration of the basic issues. These include: overbroad categorization of all women as potential childbearers, no matter what their childbearing intentions; failure to recognize the full range of potential adverse health effects to males; disparate application of the restrictive regulations, generally to occupations or areas of employment that are traditionally held by men, while traditional female jobs with the same exposures are excluded from the regulatory restriction

42

Radiation protection instrument 1993  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Radiation Protection Instrument, 1993 (Legislative Instrument 1559) prescribes the powers and functions of the Radiation Protection Board established under the Ghana Atomic Energy Commission by the Atomic Energy Commission (Amendment) Law, 1993 (P.N.D.C. Law 308). Also included in the Legislative Instrument are schedules on control and use of ionising radiation and radiation sources as well as procedures for notification, licensing and inspection of ionising radiation facilities. (EAA)

43

Radiation protection forum  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The National Director of the Nuclear Regulatory Authority and Radiation Protection of Uruguay in the first forum for radiation protection set out the following themes: activity of regulatory body, radiation safety, physical security, safeguards, legal framework, committed substantive program, use of radiation, risks and benefits, major sources of radiation, the national regulatory framework, national inventory of sources, inspections, licensing, import and export of sources control , radioactive transport, materials safety, agreements, information and teaching, radiological emergencies and prompt response.

44

Radiation protection practices and related continuing professional education in dental radiography: A survey of practitioners in the North-east of England  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Purpose: To establish the level of implementation of recommendations from the National Radiological Protection Board, relating to best radiation protection practice in dental radiography within general dental practices in the North-east of England. To survey the opinion of practitioners on the availability of related post-graduate courses in the region. Methods: A postal survey in the form of a self-reported questionnaire was mailed to all practices in the North-east of England in November 2000. The questionnaire, consisting of closed and open-ended questions, was to be completed where possible by the resident radiation protection supervisor. Results: Two hundred and sixteen practices responded to the questionnaire, a response rate of 53%. The survey revealed variation in the standards of application of best radiation protection practice. Some 23% of practitioners had not attended any post-graduate courses on radiation protection since qualifying. Post-graduate education provision on radiation protection in the region was considered insufficient by 51% of respondents. Conclusions: It is concluded that a significant proportion of practices were not making full use of opportunities to reduce dose to their patients. In addition, a small number of practices had untrained staff acting as the Radiation Protection Supervisor. A significant proportion of practitioners had not been updated in radiation protection practices within a 5-year period, and this may account for the fear period, and this may account for the failure to implement best radiographic practice. Over half felt that there was insufficient availability of post-graduate courses in radiation protection. The regional provision of continuing professional education in this field may need development

45

Implantation of inspection and radiation protection plan  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Methods, means and procedures adopted by Petrobras engineering service to survey safety radiation protection of the companies that carry out radiographic services of PETROBRAS are showed. The systematic used in certification of personel, procedures, audits and field survey concerning radiation protection, are described. (C.M.)

46

Optimization of radiation protection  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Symposium presentations were divided into three sessions devoted to the following topics: the role of optimization of radiation protection (10 papers), application of the principle of optimization of radiation protection (26 papers), methods and techniques in the optimization of radiation protection (7 papers). An additional session was devoted to the presentation of a summary statement and to an extended discussion by a panel of senior experts on the question of whether optimization (ALARA) is meeting its objective

47

Radiation protection standards  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Topics covered include biological radiation effects, radiation protection principles, recommendations of the ICRP and the National Health and Medical Research Council, and dose limits for individuals, particularly the limit applied to the inhalation of radon daughters

48

Manual of Radiation Protection  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This manual explains the principles and practice of radiation protection for those whose work in research, in the field of medicine or in the industry requires the use of radiation sources. It provides the information radiation users need to protect themselves and others and to understand and comply with international recommendations, regulations and legislation regarding the use of radionuclides and radiation machines. It is designed to teach a wide audience of doctors, biologists, research scientists, technicians, engineers, students and others

49

Radiation protection to firemen  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The basic Knowledge about ionizing radiation oriented for firemen, are presented. The mainly damage and effects caused by radiation exposure as well as the method of radiation protection are described in simple words. The action to be taken in case of fire involving radiation such as vehicles transporting radioactive materials are emphasized. (author)

50

Radiation protection survey of research and development activities initiated after the Chernobyl accident. Review report  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The compilation of research and development activities in the various fields of radiation protection in OECD Member countries which have been undertaken or planned specifically to address open questions arising from the Chernobyl reactor accident experience shows a potential for international cooperative arrangements and/or coordination between national programmes. Both the preliminary review of the answers, which only cover a part of the relevant activities in OECD Member countries, and a computerized literature search indicate that the multidisciplinarity of the research area under consideration will call for special efforts to efficiently implement new models and new quantitative findings from the different fields of activity to provide an improved basis for emergency management and risk assessment. Further improvements could also be achieved by efforts to initiate new activities to close gaps in the programmes under way, to enhance international cooperation, and to coordinate the evaluation of the results. This preliminary review of the answers of 17 Member countries to the questionnaire on research and development activities initiated after the Chernobyl accident is not sufficient as a basis for a balanced decision on those research areas most in need for international cooperation and coordination. It may however serve as a guide for the exploration of the potential for international cooperative arrangements and/or coordination between national programmes by the CRPPH. Even at this preliminary stage, several specific activities are proposed to the NEA/OECD by Member countries. Whole body counting and the intercomparison of national data bases on the behaviour of radionuclides in the environment did attract most calls for international cooperation sponsored by the NEA

51

Regulations in radiation protection  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

On the occasion of the twenty fifth anniversary of the Dutch Society for Radiation Protection, a symposium was held about Regulations in Radiation Protection. The program consisted of six contributions of which four are included in this publication. The posters presented are published in NVS-nieuws, 1985, vol. 11(5). (G.J.P.)

52

Radiation protection infrastructure  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A prerequisite for the safe use of ionizing radiation in a country is the availability of an adequate infrastructure to achieve the desired degree of protection. The extent of such an infrastructure, generally comprising regulatory mechanisms and technical capabilities for application and enforcement of regulations, has to be commensurate with the stage of technological development. The expanding application of ionizing radiation in medicine, industry and research calls for vigorous promotion of effective radiation protection efforts, not only to prevent any unsafe practices but also to assess correctly and provide authoritative information on the safety of adopted practices. Experience reveals that radiation protection practices vary considerably from one country to another. The regulatory structures and type of organization with regard to radiation protection are very different, depending on a number of factors such as the constitutional framework, the legal and administrative systems of the country concerned, the state of technical development, the status of application of radiation sources, the existence of research and associated institutions, and the technical skills and financial resources available. Radiation protection principles evolve with time as further experience is gained and as new research evidence becomes available. Regulation of radiation protection has to take account of such changes and adapt to changing conditions. Forty-eight papers from 29 Member States and two International Organizations were presented in nine scientific sessions. Topics included radiation protection regulation and licensing notification, registration, inspection and control programmes, education and training, the role of supporting institutions such as national laboratories and research institutes, the role of professional associations, the contribution of radiation protection services, and international activities. A concluding panel addressed development strategies to strengthen radiation protection infrastructure and explored how the IAEA could best assist to overcome identified shortcomings. Refs, figs and tabs

53

Radiation protection in the dental profession  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A survey, conducted by the Health and Safety Executive (HSE), on the standard of radiation protection in the dental profession in the United Kingdom is described. The results are compared with UK advisory standards. The preliminary survey results were reported in the professional press and each participating dental practitioner received comments and advice concerning the basic requirements for radiation protection. The method of survey has been broadened to form the basis of inspection of dental radiography by the HSE. (H.K.)

54

Optimisation of radiation protection  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Optimisation of radiation protection is one of the key elements in the current radiation protection philosophy. The present system of dose limitation was issued in 1977 by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) and includes, in addition to the requirements of justification of practices and limitation of individual doses, the requirement that all exposures be kept as low as is reasonably achievable, taking social and economic factors into account. This last principle is usually referred to as optimisation of radiation protection, or the ALARA principle. The NEA Committee on Radiation Protection and Public Health (CRPPH) organised an ad hoc meeting, in liaison with the NEA committees on the safety of nuclear installations and radioactive waste management. Separate abstracts were prepared for individual papers presented at the meeting

55

Ethics and radiation protection  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Some of the major problems in radiation protection are closely connected to issues that have a long, independent tradition in moral philosophy. This contribution focuses on two of these issues. One is the relationship between the protection of individuals and optimisation on the collective level, and the other is the relative valuation of future versus immediate damage. Some of the intellectual tools that have been developed by philosophers can be useful in radiation protection. On the other hand, philosophers have much to learn from radiation protectors, not least when it comes to finding pragmatic solutions to problems that may be intractable in principle

56

Ethics and radiation protection  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Some of the major problems in radiation protection are closely connected to issues that have a long, independent tradition in moral philosophy. This contribution focuses on two of these issues. One is the relationship between the protection of individuals and optimisation on the collective level, and the other is the relative valuation of future versus immediate damage. Some of the intellectual tools that have been developed by philosophers can be useful in radiation protection. On the other hand, philosophers have much to learn from radiation protectors, not least when it comes to finding pragmatic solutions to problems that may be intractable in principle.

Hansson, Sven Ove [Department of Philosophy and the History of Technology, Royal Institute of Technology (KTH), Teknikringen 78 B, 2tr, SE-100 44 Stockholm (Sweden)

2007-06-01

57

Radiation protection at CERN  

CERN Document Server

This paper gives a brief overview of the general principles of radiation protection legislation; explains radiological quantities and units, including some basic facts about radioactivity and the biological effects of radiation; and gives an overview of the classification of radiological areas at CERN, radiation fields at high-energy accelerators, and the radiation monitoring system used at CERN. A short section addresses the ALARA approach used at CERN.

Forkel-Wirth, Doris; Silari, Marco; Streit-Bianchi, Marilena; Theis, Christian; Vincke, Heinz; Vincke, Helmut

2013-01-01

58

National survey of radiation protection for workers in positron emission tomography facilities in Japan. 1st Report. Occupational role assignment, radiation exposure to medical workers  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We have investigated the role assignment and radiation exposure of medical workers (including receptionists) in PET (positron emission tomography) facilities in Japan using a questionnaire. The survey period was from October 1st to November 15th 2006. The response rate for the questionnaire was 60.0% (72/120 facilities). Nurses were engaged in the intravenous administration of radioactive fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) in 66.9% of PET facilities. In 89.5% of PET facilities, radiological technologists mainly performed the PET examination. The average radiation exposure to medical workers was 0.13 mSv/month (n: 709, standard deviation (S.D.): 0.16) as the effective dose. It was shown that radiation exposure was significantly different depending on the occupation and content of work (p-1], which was 4.6 times higher than the average dose of 0.13 [mSv month-1]. We have clarified the actual conditions of radiation protection in PET facilities in Japan for the first time. (author)

59

Radiation Protection Group  

CERN Document Server

The Radioactive Waste Section of the Radiation Protection Group wishes to inform you that the Radioactive Waste Treatment Centre will be closed on the afternoon of Tuesday 19 December 2006. Thank-you for your understanding.

2006-01-01

60

Physics for radiation protection  

CERN Document Server

A much-needed working resource for health physicists and other radiation protection professionals, this volume presents clear, thorough, up-to-date explanations of the basic physics necessary to address real-world problems in radiation protection. Designed for readers with limited as well as basic science backgrounds, Physics for Radiation Protection emphasizes applied concepts and carefully illustrates all topics through examples as well as practice problems. Physics for Radiation Protection draws substantially on current resource data available for health physics use, providing decay schemes and emission energies for approximately 100 of the most common radionuclides encountered by practitioners. Excerpts of the Chart of the Nuclides, activation cross sections, fission yields, fission-product chains, photon attenuation coefficients, and nuclear masses are also provided.

Martin, James E

2013-01-01

 
 
 
 
61

Radiation Protection: introduction  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The abstract gives an overview and introduction to the activities of SCK-CEN's Radiation Protection department. Main strategic developments and achievements in the field of life sciences, policy supports and medical applications are summarised

62

Radiation protection and monitoring  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The present paper deals with the following topics: - Radiological quantities and units - Principles of radiological protection - Limits of doses and activity uptake - Activity discharges and monitoring - Radiation exposure and its calculation - Environmental monitoring - Personnel dosimetry. (orig./RW)

63

The workers radiation protection  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This file gathers contributions and points of view from different actors of the workers radiation protection, included two foreign contributions making reference to Spanish and British practices. (N.C.)

64

Progress in radiation protection  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Activities during 1974 in the field of radiation protection are briefly reviewed. Topics discussed include the evaluation of compliance with 1974 Federal regulatory standards for medical and dental x-ray equipment and cabinet x-ray systems used for the inspection of carry-on baggage at airline terminals; the development of standards for laser products, microwave ovens, ultrasound equipment, and phototherapy equipment. Biological research programs and training programs in the field of radiation protection are discussed briefly. (U.S.)

65

Radiation protection textbook  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This textbook of radiation protection presents the scientific bases, legal and statutory measures and technical means of implementation of the radioprotection in the medical and industrial sectors, research and nuclear installations. It collects the practical information (organization, analysis of post, prevention, evaluation and risks management, the controls, the training and the information) usually scattered and the theoretical knowledge allowing every person using ionizing radiation: To analyze jobs in controlled areas, to watch the respect for the current regulations, to participate in the training and in the information of the staffs exposed to intervene in accidental situation. This third edition is widely updated and enriched by the most recent scientific and legal data concerning, notably, the human exposure, the dosimetry, the optimization of the radiation protection and the epidemiological inquiries. The contents is as follows: physics of ionizing radiation, ionizing radiation: origin and interaction with matter, dosimetry and protection against ionizing radiation, detection and measurement of ionizing radiation, radiobiology, legal measures relative to radiation protection, human exposure of natural origin, human exposure of artificial origin, medical, dental and veterinarian radiology, radiotherapy, utilization of unsealed sources in medicine and research, electronuclear industry, non nuclear industrial and aeronautical activities exposing to ionizing raautical activities exposing to ionizing radiation, accidental exposures. (N.C.)

66

RADIATION PROTECTION IN IRAN  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper presents the current activities on radiation protection in Iran. According to the Atomic Energy Organization Law of Iran the radiological safety is ascribed to the Atomic Energy Organization of Iran (A E O I and the Radiation Protection Department (R P D is the responsible organ within AEOI. R P D since it's establishment in 1975, with the aim to ensure the protection of man and his environment against any harmful effects of radiations, has embarked on a national development and regulatory activity. The organization and the program of the R P D with an emphasis on the problems and achievements are described in this paper. The Iranian Radiation Protection Society and it's cooperation with the R P D for the dissemination of information and support for the educational institutions to cover the radiation protection topics are presented in this paper. It can be shown that countries envisaging institutions to cover the radiation protection topics are presented in this paper. It can be shown that countries envisaging to embark on a nuclear development have to start much earlier with a major educational and training activity for the personnel in radiological safety as well as other relevant fields.

R. Abedinzadih

1980-08-01

67

Radiation protection in education  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The education of secondary school students in the fields of nuclear sciences was strictly limited according to the 9th recommendations of the ICRP issued in 1966 saying that people under age 18 are not allowed to deal with ionizing radiations. Due to the changes concerning the concept of radiation protection, new opportunities for teaching nuclear technology even in the secondary schools were opened. The 36th recommendations of the ICRP published in 1983 dealing with the maximum permissible doses and the measures taken for radiation protection should be kept in mind while organizing the education of the pupils between age 16 and 18. (V.N.)

68

Radiation Protection Dosimetry  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The contributions presented during the seminar provided clear evidence that radiation protection of the patient plays an increasingly important role for manufacturers of radiological equipment and for regulatory bodies, as well as for radiologists, doctors and assistants. The proceedings of this seminar reflect the activities and work in the field of radiation protection of the patient and initiate further action in order to harmonize dosimetric measurements and calculations, to ameliorate education and training, to improve the technical standards of the equipment and to give a push to a more effective use of ionising radiation in the medical sector

69

Radiation protection glossary  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The glossary is intended to be used as a terminology standard for IAEA documentation on radiation protection. An effort has been made to use definitions contained in internationally accepted publications such as recommendations of the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP), standards of the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) and of the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC), reports of the International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurements (ICRU), with only slight modifications in order to tailor them more closely to IAEA needs. The glossary is restricted to ionizing radiation

70

Radiation protection after Chernobyl  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The conference papers deal with the situation in radiation protection as regards the revision of the X-Ray Ordinance of 1973 and the Radiation Protection Ordinance of 1976 with reference to the accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant on April 26, 1986. The introduction views radiation protection in the framework of general environmental protection. In the part 'Results' the quality factors that have been valid hitherto and play an important part in dose assessments are discussed in connection with an evaluation of radiobiological data, and proposals are made for a revision of those factors. A further important topic are the risks associated with prenatal radiation exposure with the resulting practical conclusions to be drawn by radiologists. Part 2, 'Concepts', is concerned with: Ethical, legal, and practical aspects of medical research and therapy using radioactive materials, the 'effective dose' concept with unexpected consequences after the very low limits laid down for non-stochastic effects, and the development of dose notions and measuring values. Part 3 finally points out that 'regulation' necessarily requires the acceptance of radiation hazards. This part reports on the state of discussions on the draft amendment to the Radiation Protection Ordinance, minimization of radiation by quality assurance, and known as well as new DIN Standards. Points due for revision in the X-Ray Ordinance are the classification of professionally exposed persons in their risk fessionally exposed persons in their risk categories and the required measuring values for professional radiation exposure. The last part deals with reports on skin disease due to radiation treated at the Hornheide special clinic. (TRV) With 30 figs., 27 tabs

71

Radiation protection optimization of workers  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report presents the contribution of CEPN (study center on protection evaluation in nuclear area) to the Days of the French Radiation Protection Society (SFRP) on optimization of workers radiation protection in electronuclear, industrial and medical areas

72

National congress of radiation protection  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The congress of radiation protection tackled different areas of radiation protection. The impact of ionizing radiations on environment coming from radioactive activities. The biological radiation effects, the dosimetry, the different ways of doing relative to radiation protection,the risks analysis and the communications with populations, information about accidents and the lessons learned from them are included in this congress. (N.C.)

73

Level of compliance with the radiation protection regulation-A survey among Norwegian hospitals and X-ray institutes  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

To identify the level of compliance with the new radiation protection regulation among Norwegian health care enterprises (HCEs). Totally, 41 HCEs were authorised to use advanced X-ray equipment for medical purposes during 2005-07. Follow-up inspections with 14 HCEs were carried out during 2007-09. Main topics for the inspections were those requirements identified as most challenging to implement in the authorisation process. Totally, 192 non-conformities with the regulation were revealed during the authorisation process. The inspections revealed that 93 % of the inspected HCEs had non-conformities with the regulation. Most common non-conformities dealt with skills in radiation protection, establishment of local diagnostic reference levels, access to medical physicists and performance of quality control of X-ray equipment. Inspections are an effective tool for implementation of regulation the requirements at the HCEs, thus improving radiation protection awareness. (authors)

74

Fundamentals of health physics for the radiation-protection officer  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The contents of this book on health physics include chapters on properties of radioactive materials, radiation instrumentation, radiation protection programs, radiation survey programs, internal exposure, external exposure, decontamination, selection and design of radiation facilities, transportation of radioactive materials, radioactive waste management, radiation accidents and emergency preparedness, training, record keeping, quality assurance, and appraisal of radiation protection programs

75

Project Radiation Protection - East  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Swedish Government has allocated SEK 11 million for support in radiation protection to Central and Eastern Europe, particularly the Baltic states and Russia. The Swedish Radiation Protection Institute is in charge of this program, commonly referred to as Radiation Protection - East. The support will be given in the form of consultancy services, measurement equipment, computer hardware and software, etc. Some 40 projects have been initiated and prioritized in discussions with relevant parties in the East, and bilateral protocols on cooperation have been signed. Most of the projects are in progress and some have already been finalized. An introduction to the aims, organization and practical experience of the work is given in this report, together with a presentation of all ongoing and planned projects. A financial statement and a quick glance at suggested future projects conclude the report

76

Laser radiation protection  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We have presented the effects of laser radiation on human organism, with special emphasize on eye as the most sensitive organ. It was pointed-out that there are many parameters that should be taken into account when determining the level of protection from laser light. In that respect it is important to be aware of international standards that regulate this area. In addition, we have described a new material which efficiently protects human eye, by formation of microlens and carbonization.

77

Radiological protection survey results about radiodiagnosis protection practices in Cuba  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In order to identify radiation protection current situation in national X-ray diagnostic practice , the State (cuban) Supervision System for Radiation and Nuclear Safety carried out in 1992 a survey which was planned for projection of future regulatory activities in this field. Survey covers the most important aspects related to radiation protection of occupationally exposed workers, patients and general population. Surveyed sample included a total of 52 X-ray units, sited in 7 dental clinics, 2 polyclinics and 13 hospitals, from 7 provinces of the country. Results showed that the organization of radiation protection in terms of personnel specially designated to carry out surveillance and control activities and level of documentation is deficient. Survey evidenced the general lack of safety and quality culture among technologists and radiologists which is mainly reflected in non regular application of basic patient protection measures (shielding, collimation, use of proper filtration among others) and non regular execution of basic quality inspection of employed radiographic systems. (authors). 4 refs., 1 fig

78

Radiation protecting facility  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Purpose: To provide a radiation protecting facility using opaque acrylic resin instead of lead glass in the portions such as view windows. Constitution: Lead-containing acrylic resin employed can be prepared, for example, by polymerizing a monomer mixture comprising 95 - 15 wt.% of styrene and/or alkyl methacrylate and 5 - 85 wt.% of hydroxyalkyl methacrylate at the coexistence of lead methacrylate or lead acrylate. The resin thus prepared is used for such components as partition plates, view windows, screen plate, door or the like in radiation protecting facility that require opacity. The resin is less expensive and more excellent in workability as compared with conventional lead glass. (Kamimura, M.)

79

Foundations for radiation protection  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text; In 1996, the IAEA published the latest edition of the International Basic Safety Standards for Protection Against Ionizing Radiation and for the Safety of Radiation Sources (Basic Safety Standards or BSS) comprising basic requirements to be filled in all activities involving radiation exposure. The standards define internationally harmonized requirements and provide practical guidance for public authorities and services, employers and workers, specialized radiation protection bodies, enterprises and health and safety communities. In the same year, the IAEA, through the technical cooperation programme, launched the Model Project on Upgrading Radiation Protection Infrastructure, a global initiative designed to help Member States establish the infrastructure needed to adhere to the BSS. To address the complexity of this task, the radiation protection team identified key elements, known as Thematic Safety Areas. These are: 1. Legislative Framework and Regulatory Infrastructure, Draft and put into effect radiation protection laws and regulations and establish and empower a national regulatory authority. 2. Occupational Exposure Control Protect the health and safety of each individual who faces the risk of radiation exposure in the workplace through individual and workplace monitoring programmes, including dose assessment, record keeping of doses and quality management. 3. Medical Exposure Control: Develop procedures and activities to control the exposure of patiactivities to control the exposure of patients undergoing diagnosis and/or treatment via diagnostic and interventional radiology, nuclear medicine or radiotherapy through staff training, provision of basic quality control equipment, and the establishment of quality assurance programmes. 4. Public and Environmental Exposure Control: Develop means to protect both the public and the environment including: a) programmes to register, inventory and provide safe storage of unused radioactive sources and material; b) procedures to control and safely manage radioactive waste; c) mechanisms to ensure that foodstuffs and other consumer goods being exported/imported comply with national safety standards; and d) tools to monitor radiation levels in the environment (i.e., in air, soil and water). 5. Emergency Preparedness and Response: Mitigate the impact of radiological and/or nuclear emergencies by developing capabilities for preparedness and response through a national emergency plan. This includes training qualified personnel, ensuring technical capabilities are in place and allocating sufficient resources to facilitate an efficient response. (IAEA)

80

Radiation protection for nurses  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Various aspects of radiation protection relevant to nurses are presented. The different radioisotopes used in internal radiotherapy and scintiscanning techniques and any necessary precautions which should be observed when nursing these patients are described. General information is also given on nuclear and atomic terminology, the physical half-life of radioisotopes, radiation dose as a function of distance, shielding, film badges and the maximum permissible dose. (U.K.)

 
 
 
 
81

Radiation protection - thirty years after  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this paper is discussed some questions in the field of Radiation Protection as like: historical prologue of radiations discovery and it's systematics; radiation and radiation protection; ALARA principle and 'de minimis' approach; radiation risks and dose limits and radiation and chemicals a risk comparison (author)

82

Radiation protection in Qatar  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text: The State of Qatar has become a member State of IAEA since 1974. Later the Department of Industrial Development (DID) beam the focal point and the competent authority regarding all aspects of the peaceful application of Nuclear Technology. In July, 2000 the Supreme Council was established and charged with all matters related to environmental protection. The Supreme Council joined the IAEA Projects on upgrading protection infrastructure in West Asia region. A preliminary research was initiated to discover where radiation sources are being used, and the legal framework, if any, to regulate their use. The research indicated that radiation sources were being used in the industrial practices (well logging, industrial radiography and nuclear gauges) and in medical practices (mainly diagnostic radiology). The research also indicated that there was virtually no legal framework to regulate them. In less than five years, the State of Qatar was able to issue the radiation protection law, three sets of regulations, namely: Radiation Protection Regulations, Radioactive Waste Management Regulations and the Safe Transport of Radioactive Materials Regulations. In addition, several specific regulation work, dose limits and radiation protection officers were issued. A radiation Protection Department, comprising three sections was established. We are providing individual exposure monitoring for most of the radiation workers in the public sector and some in the private sector. We have set up a proper licensing and inspections procedures, where our inspectors are enforcing the law. More recently, we established an early warning network for nuclear of radiological emergencies, consisting of 6 transplantable stations, five mobile stations and two navigating stations. This year, the network was augmented with five fixed station and an advanced early warning centre, which provides early warning via multiple means (MMS, Fax, E-mail and audio alarms). Last year we signed a nuclear security agreement for cooperation with IAEA. Based on this agreement, the Agency assisted the state of Qatar to establish a very comprehensive boarder monitoring network, covering all land, sea and air ports. The information from all monitors is transferred in real time to two centres; one at the Ministry of Interior, while the being the early warning centre at the Supreme Council. The Supreme Council is currently considering, with the assistance of IAEA, establishing a regional training centre of excellence for radiation protection. (author)

83

Environmental radiation protection standards  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The principles involved in the setting of radiological protection standards are reviewed, and the differences in procedures used by various countries in implementing them are outlined. Standards are taken here to mean the specific numerical limits relating to radiation doses to people or to amounts of radioactive material released into the environment. (author)

84

Radiation protecting glove  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The radiation protecting gloves of the present invention comprise a neutron shielding material made of natural or synthetic rubber incorporated with neutron shielding materials. For the neutron shielding materials, those having first neutron moderating effect and those having thermal neutron absorbing effect can be used properly. As the materials having first neutron moderating effect, gadolinium oxide power, zirconium hydride powder or the like is used. Further, as the thermal neutron absorbing material, boron carbide powder or the like is used. As the natural or synthetic rubber for the substrate, neoprene rubber, butadiene rubber or hyperlon rubber may be used for instance. Thus, a radiation protection gloves having neutron protecting function can be obtained. (I.N.)

85

Enhancing radiation protection  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

When a new radiotherapy center in Gezira, Sudan, delivers its first therapeutic dose to a cancer patient, two things happen: A young man begins to regain his health and looks forward to being better able to support his family and contribute to his community; and a developing nation realizes an important step toward deriving the social and economic benefits of nuclear science. The strategic application of nuclear technology in particular fields- human health, industry, food and agriculture, energy, water resources and environmental protection - has enormous potential to help shape the future of developing countries. But past radiological incidents, several of which involved high levels of exposure or death (Bolivia, Brazil, Cost Rica, Georgia, Ghana, Morocco, Panama and Thailand), underscore the inherent and very serious risks. For this reason, the IAEA's Departments of Technical Cooperation and Nuclear Safety and Security partner closely, particularly in the area of radiation protection. They strive to consider every minute detail in the equation that brings together radiation sources, modern technologies, people and the environment. Launched in 1996, the Model Project on Upgrading Radiation Protection Infrastructure (the Model Project) aimed to help Member States: achieve capacities that underpin the safe and secure application of nuclear technologies; establish a legislative framework and regulatory infrastructure; develop exposure control mechanisms to protect workxposure control mechanisms to protect workers, medical patients, the public and the environment; and achieve preparedness and planned response to radiological emergencies. In fact, the hospital scenario above typically marks several years of intense collaboration amongst scientists, legislators, regulators, politicians and administrators from both Member States and the IAEA, orchestrated and aided by regional managers and technical experts from the IAEA. As radiation protection team members can attest, every application of nuclear technology carries special considerations and unique challenges. And each country is equally distinct in terms of needs, technical capacity, availability of financial resources and adequately trained personnel (at both regulatory and user organizations), and overall infrastructure

86

Recommendations on radiation protection realization  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Recommendations on basic principles of radiation protection organization in case of using an ionizing radiation source in medicine are presented. The recommendations represent extracts from 26 ICRP publications

87

On ethical issues in radiation protection. Radiation protection recommendations and standards seen from an ethical perspective  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

International radiation protection recommendations and standards of the ICRP, the IAEA, the European Union and the ILO are surveyed from an ethical perspective. The authors come to the conclusion that the insights of ethical theories provide a number of ways in which current recommendations and standards for radiation protection could improve. (orig.)

88

An introduction to radiation protection  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This book presents an account of the nature of hazards presented by ionizing radiation and the methods of protection. Topics covered are as follows: the structure of matter; radioactivity and radiation; radiation units; biological effects of radiation; natural and man-made radiation; the system of dose limitation; radiation detection and measurement; the external radiation hazard; the internal radiation hazard; nuclear reactor health physics; radioactive waste; x-rays and radiography; radiation protection in medicine; legislation and other regulations related to radiological protection; health physics laboratory techniques; radiological emergencies; and the organization and administration of health physics services

89

Medical imaging: progress in radiation protection  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A survey is given on possible radiation risks and on state and efficiency of radiation protection measures at all imaging procedures used today in medicine. In particular, examinations of children are dealt with. Also, the controversial dispute about the planned mammographic screening is discussed. With regard to the technical equipment, the use and advantage of modern digital detectors is shown. (orig.)

90

The German radiation protection law  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper covers the following subjects: the origins of the Radiation Protection Law, the meaning of the EURATOM treaty and basic standard, amendments to the 1989 Radiation Protection Law, deviation from the EC law harmonisation, content of the German Radiation Protection Law and the new ICRP60 rules

91

The national radiation protection infrastructure  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The state system of radiation protection is still being created after Lithuania regained its independancy and in connection with recommendations laid in the ICRP-60 publication and requirements of legislation of European Community. A new regulation institutions was established and a number of laws and regulations related to radiation protection was prepared. The Radiation Protection Centre of Ministry of Health is the regulatory authority responsible for radiation protection of public and of workers using sources of ionizing radiation in Lithuania. A new Radiation Protection Law, Nuclear Energy Law, Radioactive Waste Management Law and different regulations was approved. Preparation of legislation, creation of state system of radiation protection and its upgrading allow to presume that the necessary level of radiation protection is to be achieved. (au)

92

Emerging radiation protection  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In recent years, a number of radiation protection issues have emerged into the public forum. The perceived high risks associated with radiation exposure, and disproportionate media attention to such issues, have contributed to heightened concerns by the public and the individual occupationally exposed worker. This paper examines the new and controversial radiation risk estimates of the National Research Council's BEIR V committee, which are based on the most current atomic-bomb survivor data and a revised dosimetry model. These risk estimates are somewhat higher than past values, and may eventually impact the legal framework in the United States through the regulations of the EPA, NRC, DOE, OSHA, and other agencies that set radiation exposure standards. Additionally, present regulations and standards are often based upon differing levels of acceptable risk, which have led to conflicting exposure and effluent release criteria. Further, due to inherent boundaries in legal authority, many potentially significant sources of radiation exposure to the public remain unregulated Radiation exposure scenarios such as medical x-ray, radon, and other technology enhanced sources have no legal limits. These issues and others are examined and analyzed with respect to regulatory policy

93

Radiation protection following nuclear power accidents: a survey of putative mechanisms involved in the radioprotective actions of taurine during and after radiation exposure.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available There are several animal experiments showing that high doses of ionizing radiation lead to strongly enhanced leakage of taurine from damaged cells into the extracellular fluid, followed by enhanced urinary excretion. This radiation-induced taurine depletion can itself have various harmful effects (as will also be the case when taurine depletion is due to other causes, such as alcohol abuse or cancer therapy with cytotoxic drugs, but taurine supplementation has been shown to have radioprotective effects apparently going beyond what might be expected just as a consequence of correcting the harmful consequences of taurine deficiency per se. The mechanisms accounting for the radioprotective effects of taurine are, however, very incompletely understood. In this article an attempt is made to survey various mechanisms that potentially might be involved as parts of the explanation for the overall beneficial effect of high levels of taurine that has been found in experiments with animals or isolated cells exposed to high doses of ionizing radiation. It is proposed that taurine may have radioprotective effects by a combination of several mechanisms: 1 during the exposure to ionizing radiation by functioning as an antioxidant, but perhaps more because it counteracts the prooxidant catalytic effect of iron rather than functioning as an important scavenger of harmful molecules itself, 2 after the ionizing radiation exposure by helping to reduce the intensity of the post-traumatic inflammatory response, and thus reducing the extent of tissue damage that develops because of severe inflammation rather than as a direct effect of the ionizing radiation per se, 3 by functioning as a growth factor helping to enhance the growth rate of leukocytes and leukocyte progenitor cells and perhaps also of other rapidly proliferating cell types, such as enterocyte progenitor cells, which may be important for immunological recovery and perhaps also for rapid repair of various damaged tissues, especially in the intestines, and 4 by functioning as an antifibrogenic agent. A detailed discussion is given of possible mechanisms involved both in the antioxidant effects of taurine, in its anti-inflammatory effects and in its role as a growth factor for leukocytes and nerve cells, which might be closely related to its role as an osmolyte important for cellular volume regulation because of the close connection between cell volume regulation and the regulation of protein synthesis as well as cellular protein degradation. While taurine supplementation alone would be expected to exert a therapeutic effect far better than negligible in patients that have been exposed to high doses of ionizing radiation, it may on theoretical grounds be expected that much better results may be obtained by using taurine as part of a multifactorial treatment strategy, where it may interact synergistically with several other nutrients, hormones or other drugs for optimizing antioxidant protection and minimizing harmful posttraumatic inflammatory reactions, while using other nutrients to optimize DNA and tissue repair processes, and using a combination of good diet, immunostimulatory hormones and perhaps other nontoxic immunostimulants (such as beta-glucans for optimizing the recovery of antiviral and antibacterial immune functions. Similar multifactorial treatment strategies may presumably be helpful in several other disease situations (including severe infectious diseases and severe asthma as well as for treatment of acute intoxications or acute injuries (both mechanical ones and severe burns where severely enhanced oxidative and/or nitrative stress and/or too much secretion of vasodilatory neuropeptides from C-fibres are important parts of the pathogenetic mechanisms that may lead to the death of the patient. Some case histories (with discussion of some of those mechanisms that may have been responsible for the observed therapeutic outcome are given for illustration of the likely validity of these concepts and their relevance both for treatment of severe infection

Olav Christophersen

2012-02-01

94

Radiation protection code of practice  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A collection of legal and regulatory material governing Jordan's radiation protection activities. The full text of Jordan's Nuclear Energy and Radiation Protection Law (No. 14 for 1987) is given, along with relevant regulations which are enforced in Jordan. The regulations cover the areas of shielding radiology rooms, defining radiation work, decontamination in the event of laboratory scale radiological accidents, radioactive waste disposal, personnel dosimetry, assigning radiation protection officers, licensing, and inspection. (A.M.H.). 12 tabs., 6 figs

95

Survey and evaluation of the external research and development programme 1977-1983 of the Swedish Radiation Protection Institute  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A review of the external research programme of SSI is undertaken. The main research programme is in this report divided into five subprogrammes according to the main programmes of the Institute. This report covers research projects reported 1977-1983. An evaluation of the impact of the R and D programme is included in the report. The external R and D research programme of SSI has had an important impact on the radiation protection work in Sweden. The methods for evaluation of research programmes are also discussed in the report

96

Occupational radiation protection software  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper presents a reflection on the basic essentials of a Radiation Work Permit (RWP). Based on the latest WANO Recommendations, this paper considers the RWP as a complete process rather than a simple administrative procedure. This process is implemented via software which is also presented in this paper. The software has been designed to achieve the following objectives: - To configure the radiological map of the plant. To plan radiological surveillance, to input data, to update radiological signposting and mandatory protective clothing in each area of the station. All this information can be checked from any personnel computer connected to a network. - To collect radiological data by means of a palmtop (PDA) and to upload it to a personnel computer, thereby speeding up the job and reducing human errors. - To implement the RWP by allowing on-line consultation of the permitted individual doses of the workers and the planned collective dose for each job. The software also supplies the radiological information to the workers. - To collect and arrange pictures, maps and sketches of equipment placed in rooms or in areas of the plant. - To allow the software to be used in real time from different workstations. - High reliability and speed of working. - Flexible data enquiry. The software provides a number of standard data enquiries such as numbers of workers on each job and their individual dose received...etc. It also allows data to be exported to other well-known sofata to be exported to other well-known software applications such as Excel and Access for further data analysis. The software has been designed by radiation protection professionals and developed by computer programmers who were integrated into the radiological work environment. The software would fulfill Occupational Radiation Protection Department requirements. (author)

97

Protection against enhanced radiation weapons  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

By means of the code ANISN extensive calculations of radiation protection against the neutron and gamma radiation of 'Enhanced Radiation Weapons' (Neutron Bombs) were performed. The shielding materials considered are: The air layer between the explosion centre and the earth surface, water, dry and wet earth, steel plates, normal concrete and concrete with boron and iron. The result is that tank crews can hardly be protected but for civil protection a two meter thick, rather wet layer of earth is a sufficient protection for men against the radiation of the Enhanced Radiation Weapon. (orig.)

98

Radiation protection and society  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The radiological protection of population, living on the contaminated territories, is actual 10 years after the Chernobyl accident. Eventually, the whole system of countermeasures application is aimed to protect society as a complex community of individuals . The variety of levels of society, i.e. family, settlement on the whole, can be considered as certain harmonic systems differing in their public consciousness levels and lifestyles, this explain the difference in their 'behaviour' in terms of radiation protection and attitude to the information obtained. Each level of society possesses a certain degree of liberty of choice, that finally influence the magnitude and the character of dose distribution within certain population groups. In general, the dose distribution in the settlement can be explained only on the bases of 'family' analysis. This concerns the rural settlement as a society too. All rural settlement can be divided into two or three classes: with low, high and intermediate social features. Small settlements (< 100 persons), where the advanced in age persons with low material income and high degree of natural economy are applied to the first class. This results in higher doses (2-3 fold), than in the settlements with higher social level. The analysis shows that in socially 'waning' settlements the countermeasures are less efficient and the term of their action is shorter. (this class is the largest, About 50% among all the rural settlements). Due to the deterioration of the economic situation in the Republic of Belarus after 1991-1992 resulted in the increase of doses mainly in the habitants first of all of this class of settlements. It seems problematic to increase countermeasures efficiency in this class of settlements without the refuse of the accustomed lifestyle and radical improvement of social-demographic and economic conditions. The present material shows the necessity of the differential approach based on 'society-analysis' in the determination of the strategy and tactics of radiological protection of the rural population. (authors)

99

Chemical Protection Against Radiation Damage  

Science.gov (United States)

Discusses potential war time and medical uses for chemical compounds giving protection against radiation damage. Describes compounds known to protect, research aimed at discovering such compounds, and problems of toxicity. (EB)

Campaigne, Ernest

1969-01-01

100

Pregnancy and Radiation Protection  

Science.gov (United States)

Several modalities are currently utilized for diagnosis and therapy, by appropriate application of x-rays. In diagnostic radiology, interventional radiology, radiotherapy, interventional cardiology, nuclear medicine and other specialties radiation protection of a pregnant woman as a patient, as well as a member of the operating personnel, is of outmost importance. Based on radiation risk, the termination of pregnancy is not justified if foetal doses are below 100 mGy. For foetal doses between 100 and 500 mGy, a decision is reached on a case by case basis. In Diagnostic Radiology, when a pregnant patient takes an abdomen CT, then an estimation of the foetus' dose is necessary. However, it is extremely rare for the dose to be high enough to justify an abortion. Radiographs of the chest and extremities can be done at any period of pregnancy, provided that the equipment is functioning properly. Usually, the radiation risk is lower than the risk of not undergoing a radiological examination. Radiation exposure in uterus from diagnostic radiological examinations is unlikely to result in any deleterious effect on the child, but the possibility of a radiation-induced effect can not be entirely ruled out. The effects of exposure to radiation on the foetus depend on the time of exposure, the date of conception and the absorbed dose. Finally, a pregnant worker can continue working in an x-ray department, as long as there is reasonable assurance that the foetal dose can be kept below 1 mGy during the pregnancy. Nuclear Medicine diagnostic examinations using short-lived radionuclides can be used for pregnant patient. Irradiation of the foetus results from placental transfer and distribution of radiopharmaceuticals in the foetal tissues, as well as from external irradiation from radioactivity in the mother's organ and tissues. As a rule, a pregnant patient should not undergo therapy with radionuclide, unless it is crucial for her life. In Radiotherapy, the patient, treating oncologist, other team and family members should carefully discuss for the decision of abortion. Important factors must be considered such as the stage and aggressiveness of the tumour, the location of the tumour, the stage of pregnancy, various therapies etc.

Gerogiannis, J.; Stefanoyiannis, A. P.

2010-01-01

 
 
 
 
101

Pregnancy and Radiation Protection  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Several modalities are currently utilized for diagnosis and therapy, by appropriate application of x-rays. In diagnostic radiology, interventional radiology, radiotherapy, interventional cardiology, nuclear medicine and other specialties radiation protection of a pregnant woman as a patient, as well as a member of the operating personnel, is of outmost importance. Based on radiation risk, the termination of pregnancy is not justified if foetal doses are below 100 mGy. For foetal doses between 100 and 500 mGy, a decision is reached on a case by case basis. In Diagnostic Radiology, when a pregnant patient takes an abdomen CT, then an estimation of the foetus' dose is necessary. However, it is extremely rare for the dose to be high enough to justify an abortion. Radiographs of the chest and extremities can be done at any period of pregnancy, provided that the equipment is functioning properly. Usually, the radiation risk is lower than the risk of not undergoing a radiological examination. Radiation exposure in uterus from diagnostic radiological examinations is unlikely to result in any deleterious effect on the child, but the possibility of a radiation-induced effect can not be entirely ruled out. The effects of exposure to radiation on the foetus depend on the time of exposure, the date of conception and the absorbed dose. Finally, a pregnant worker can continue working in an x-ray department, as long as there is reasonable assurance that the foetal dose can be kept beurance that the foetal dose can be kept below 1 mGy during the pregnancy. Nuclear Medicine diagnostic examinations using short-lived radionuclides can be used for pregnant patient. Irradiation of the foetus results from placental transfer and distribution of radiopharmaceuticals in the foetal tissues, as well as from external irradiation from radioactivity in the mother's organ and tissues. As a rule, a pregnant patient should not undergo therapy with radionuclide, unless it is crucial for her life. In Radiotherapy, the patient, treating oncologist, other team and family members should carefully discuss for the decision of abortion. Important factors must be considered such as the stage and aggressiveness of the tumour, the location of the tumour, the stage of pregnancy, various therapies etc.

102

Radiation risks and radiation protection at CRNL  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Radiation exposure is an occupational hazard at CRNL. The predicted health effects of low levels of radiation are described and compared with other hazards of living. Data related to the health of radiation workers are also considered. Special attention is given to the expected effects of radiation on the unborn child. Measures taken to protect CRNL employees against undue occupational exposure to radiation are noted

103

Occupational radiation protection. Safety guide  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Occupational exposure to ionizing radiation can occur in a range of industries, medical institutions, educational and research establishments and nuclear fuel cycle facilities. Adequate radiation protection of workers is essential for the safe and acceptable use of radiation, radioactive materials and nuclear energy. In 1996, the Agency published Safety Fundamentals on Radiation Protection and the Safety of Radiation Sources (IAEA Safety Series No. 120) and International Basic Safety Standards for Protection against Ionizing, Radiation and for the Safety of Radiation Sources (IAEA Safety Series No. 115), both of which were jointly sponsored by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, the IAEA, the International Labour Organisation, the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency, the Pan American Health Organization and the World Health Organization. These publications set out, respectively, the objectives and principles for radiation safety and the requirements to be met to apply the principles and to achieve the objectives. The establishment of safety requirements and guidance on occupational radiation protection is a major component of the support for radiation safety provided by the IAEA to its Member States. The objective of the IAEA's occupational protection programme is to promote an internationally harmonized approach to the optimization of occupational radiation protection, through the development and application of guidelines for restricting radiation expf guidelines for restricting radiation exposures and applying current radiation protection techniques in the workplace. Guidance on meeting the requirements of the Basic Safety Standards for occupational protection is provided in three interrelated Safety Guides, one giving general guidance on the development of occupational radiation protection programmes and two giving more detailed guidance on the monitoring and assessment of workers' exposure due to external radiation sources and from intakes of radionuclides, respectively. These Safety Guides together reflect the current internationally accepted principles and recommended practices in occupational radiation protection, with account taken of the major changes that have occurred over the past decade. The three Safety Guides on occupational radiation protection are jointly sponsored by the IAEA and the International Labour Office. The present Safety Guide provides general guidance on the establishment of an effective radiation protection programme for occupational exposure, in accordance with the requirements of the Basic Safety Standards and appropriate for the sources of radiation likely to be encountered in the workplaces in question

104

Radiation protection, measurements and methods  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The introductory lectures discuss subjects such as radiation protection principles and appropriate measuring techniques; methods, quantities and units in radiation protection measurement; technical equipment; national and international radiation protection standards. The papers presented at the various sessions deal with: Dosimetry of external radiation (27 papers); Working environment monitoring and emission monitoring (21 contributions); Environmental monitoring (19 papers); Incorporation monitoring (9 papers); Detection limits (4 papers); Non-ionizing radiation, measurement of body dose and biological dosimetry (10 papers). All 94 contributions (lectures, compacts and posters) are retrievable as separate records. (HP)

105

Radiation protection in laboratory work  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This compendium is directed to persons working with ionizing radiation in laboratories, and is meant to give enough information on ionizing radiation for such work. The following subjects are treated: physical background, biological effects of radiation, laws, detectors and measuring instruments, radiation protection at X-ray equipment and at handling radioactive material. (L.E.)

106

Ethical issues in radiation protection  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Ethical theories are relevant to the current recommendations and standards for radiation protection. Radiation protection is not only a matter for science. It is also a problem of philosophy. In order for protection regulations to be respected, it must correspond to widely accepted ethical values among those who are affected by the regulations. The workshop covered the following issues: Problems in Present Protection Policy, ICRP Protection Policy - A Historical Perspective, Radiation Risk - What we know and what we believe, Present ICRP Recommendations, Ethical Values in the Context of ICRP Recommendations, Collective Responsibility for Invisible Harm, Environmental Protection - Ethical Issues, The Global Change of Values, and Procedural justice and Radiation Protection. Six workshop contributions and a workshop summary are presented in this report.

Persson, Lars (ed.)

2000-03-15

107

Plowshare radiation protection guidance  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The recommendations of the ICRP and the NCRP were developed primarily for occupational radiation exposures. They were later modified and applied to non-occupational exposures of populations. These, with appropriate interpretations, can be used to provide Plowshare radiation protection guidance. Exposures from Plowshare operations will tend to be acute, arising from radionuclides of relatively short half-life, but will have some chronic aspects due to small amounts of long-lived radionuclides generated. In addition, the neutron activation process of Plowshare technology will produce radionuclides not commonly encountered in routine nuclear energy programs. How these radionuclides contribute to personnel exposure is known for only a few situations that may not be representative of Plowshare exposure. Further complications arise from differences in radionuclide deposition and physiological sensitivity among individuals of different ages and states of health in the exposed population. All parameters necessary to evaluate such exposures are not available, even for good quantitative approximations, resulting in the need for interpretive experience. (author)

108

Radiation Protection Training in Lithuania  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Radiation Protection Training is an important component of Radiation Protection and serves for human radiation safety. According to the Lithuanian Law on Radiation Protection the legal persons and enterprises without the status of legal persons to conduct practices with sources or which workers work under exposure must organize at their own expenses a compulsory training and assessment of knowledge of the workers engaging in activities with the sources and radiation protection officers. Such training has been started in 1999. In Lithuania there are few institutions executing Radiation Protection training. Under requirements of legal act On Frequency and Procedure of Compulsory Training and Assessment Knowledge of the Workers Engage in Activities with the Sources of Ionising Radiation and Radiation Protection Officers these institutions have to prepare and coordinate training programs with the Radiation Protection Center. There are adopted different educating programs for Radiation Protection Training to the Workers and Radiation Protection Officers depending on character of work and danger of sources. The duration of Training is from 30 to 270 hours. The Training shall be renewed every five years passing 30 hors course. To ensure the adequate quality of training a great deal of attention is paid to qualifying the lectures. For this purpose, it was established an Evaluation commission to estimate the adequacy of lecturer's knowledge to requirements of Training programsledge to requirements of Training programs. After passing exams the lectures get the qualification confirming certificates. The main task of our days is to establish and arrange the National Training Centre on Radiation Protection Training that would satisfy requirements and recommendations of legal documents of IAEA and EU for such kind of institutions of institutions. (Author)

109

Competence in radiation protection - acquisition, maintaining, extending  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A survey is given on current initiatives, supranational in the EU and national in Germany and Switzerland, for education and training in radiation protection with the aim of maintaining and enlarging professional competence. Successively, individual studying possibilities and courses as well as some experiences with guidelines for professional knowledge in Germany are described. (orig.)

110

Radioactivity and radiation protection; Radioaktivitaet und Strahlenschutz  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The volume covers the following issues: chemical elements and their smallest particles; nuclear reactions and radioactivity; energy of radiation particles and gamma quanta; interactions between radiation and matter; radiation measurement and measuring units; radiation effects on living cells; radionuclides in the human body; natural radiation sources - natural radiation exposure; artificial radiation sources - civilization-induced radiation exposure; radiation protection measures against external radiation effects; radiation protection measures against internal radiation effects; radiation protection for persons within a nuclear power plant.

Volkmer, Martin

2007-04-15

111

Aspects of Radiation Protection. The German Radiation Protection Ordinance  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The book provides current knowledge on the new German Radiation Protection Ordinance. Legal regulations, biological fundamentals of radiation effects, medical indications in which radiation exposure is permissible, and dosimetry aspects are gone into. The text is supplemented by current aspects of medical and technical development, radiological diagnostics and teleradiology. (orig.)

112

Radiation protection policies to protect public health  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Scientific data from plant, animal, and human populations more strongly find radiation essential to life, i.e., suppressing background radiation is debilitating and that moderately enhanced radiation doses have positive effects, than that low-moderate radiation dose has adverse effects. close-quote Federal radiation protection policy will be in the public interest and save hundreds of billions of dollars at no public health cost when known dose effects to exposed populations are applied to ensure no adverse health effects, with safety margins, and when appropriate research is funded (and public benefits from new radiation and nuclear science and technology applications are enabled) at the sole cost of reduced federal power and influence

113

Radiation protection guidelines for radiation emergencies  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The system of dose limitation and present guidance for emergency workers and guidance for intervention on behalf of the public are discussed. There are three elements for the system of dose limitation: justification, optimization and dose limits. The first element is basically a political process in this country. Justification is based on a risk-benefit analysis, and justification of the use of radioactive materials or radiation is generally not within the authority of radiation protection managers. Radiation protection managers typically assess detriments or harm caused by radiation exposure and have very little expertise in assessing the benefits of a particular practice involving nuclear material

114

Obligatory Radiation Protection Course  

CERN Multimedia

Since February 2008, participation in the radiation protection course has been a prerequisite for obtaining a CERN personal dosimeter for all Staff Members and Users. All Staff and Users holding a personal dosimeter were informed by the Bulletin and by a personal e-mail sent in February 2008 that they were required to participate in the course before the annual exchange of their dosimeter. Many people had not done so by that time and the Dosimetry Service exceptionally classified them for 2 months as short-term visitors (VCT), a category of monitored personnel to whom the training requirement does not presently apply. As all personnel concerned have since had time to participate in an RP course, this "grace period" will no longer be granted as of 1 October 2008 and the RP course must be completed before the personal dosimeter is exchanged. For newcomers to CERN, and for those returning to CERN after an absence of more than 1 year, one registration as a VCT for two months ...

SC Unit

2008-01-01

115

Ethics in radiation protection  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Ethics is a branch of philosophy. Its object is the study of both moral and immoral behaviour in order to make well founded judgements and to arrive at adequate recommendations. The Collins English Dictionary provides the following definitions of the word ethic: Ethic: a moral principle or set of moral values held by an individual or group; Ethics(singular): the philosophical study of the moral value of human conduct and of the rules and principles that ought to govern it; Ethics(pleural): a social, religious or civil code of behaviour considered correct, especially that of a particular group, profession or individual; Ethics(pleural): the moral fitness of a decision, course of action, etc. Ethics has a two-fold objective: Firstly it evaluates human practices by calling upon moral standards; it may give prescriptive advice on how to act morally in a specific kind of situation. This implies analysis and evaluation. Sometimes this is known as Normative ethics. The second is to provide therapeutic advice, suggesting solutions and policies. It must be based on well-informed opinions and requires a clear understanding of the vital issues. In the medical world, we are governed by the Hippocratic Oath. Essentially this requires medical practitioners (doctors) to do good, not harm. There is great interest and even furore regarding ethics in radiation protection

116

New Approaches to Radiation Protection  

Science.gov (United States)

Radioprotectors are compounds that protect against radiation injury when given prior to radiation exposure. Mitigators can protect against radiation injury when given after exposure but before symptoms appear. Radioprotectors and mitigators can potentially improve the outcomes of radiotherapy for cancer treatment by allowing higher doses of radiation and/or reduced damage to normal tissues. Such compounds can also potentially counteract the effects of accidental exposure to radiation or deliberate exposure (e.g., nuclear reactor meltdown, dirty bomb, or nuclear bomb explosion); hence they are called radiation countermeasures. Here, we will review the general principles of radiation injury and protection and describe selected examples of radioprotectors/mitigators ranging from small-molecules to proteins to cell-based treatments. We will emphasize agents that are in more advanced stages of development.

Rosen, Eliot M.; Day, Regina; Singh, Vijay K.

2015-01-01

117

The Radiation Protection in Guatemala  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A brief account of the activities on radiation safety carried out by the General Directorate of Nuclear Energy of Guatemala in the period 1991-1992 is presented. The activities are reported under organization, activities on occupational radiation protection in medicine, industry and research, personnel monitoring, radiation metrology, regulations and international cooperation are described

118

Radiation protection education in Europe  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Education in Radiation Protection varies considerably in the different European Countries. As there is free movement of staff and services in between these European Countries one of the main objectives of the European Union is to compare the different implementations and to identify similarities. Therefore, in this paper the German and Swiss Radiation Protection Systems are explained and the relevant topics of the Revision of the European Basic Safety Standard are presented. Additionally a bilateral pilot project is described which compares the lowest level radiation protection courses in Germany and The Netherlands and possible future developments are outlined. (orig.)

119

An evaluation of radiation protection in Norway  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A survey of radiation protection in Norway is presented. Statens Institutt for Straalehygiene is the organization which performs the radiation protection functions on a national basis, and the laws upon which its activities are based are cited. The relevant parts of the ILO Convention nr.115 are also cited. The tasks of the institute are divided in the following programmes:- (i)radiation protection regulations and inspection, (ii) training and information (iii) emergency planning and provisions (iv) development of methods and, (v) administration. These programmes are defined and briefly described. The organisational structure and tasks are described. Analysis in tabular form of the status of the tasks leads to the conclusion that, while the institute's laboratories and equipment are satisfactory shortage of personnel restricts the adequate performance of its tasks. (JIW)

120

Use of diagnostic x-ray among Norwegian dentists. A survey and inspection based on new radiation protection regulations  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A survey among all dentists with e-mail addresses registered with The Norwegian Dental Association (NDA) has been conducted. In addition an audit has been conducted among 21 dentists. This report summarizes the results of the survey and the findings at the audits. (Author)

 
 
 
 
121

Radiation protection in civil defence  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The brochure contains the information given to the participants of an advanced training course in civil defence, on the subject of radiation protection. The course was held by teachers of Bundesverband fuer den Selbstschutz (BVS). (orig.)

122

Healing Arts Radiation Protection Act  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Healing Arts Radiation Protection Act is concerned with regulating the registration, installation, operation, inspection and safety of X-ray machines. The Act provides for the establishment of the Healing Arts Radiation Protection Commission which is responsible for reporting on all the above matters to the Ontario Minister of Health. In addition the board is responsible for the continuing development of an X-ray safety code and for the submission of an annual report of their activities to the minister

123

Occupational radiation protection in medicine in Estonia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

New legislation concerning radiation protection, which was effective in Estonia from 1998, followed from recommendations of ICRP Publication 60 and IAEA BSS, and included all basic principles for the protection of radiation workers given in these documents. From 1997 all topics in radiation protection in Estonia are regulated and supervised by Estonian Radiation Protection Centre. ERPC is responsible also for supervising of occupational radiation protection and monitoring of radiation workers. There are 1137 radiation workers in Estonia. Personal monitoring is managed for 1183 workers. Most significant part of radiation workers and radiation sources is in medical sector. The paper describes in detail all current aspects of occupational radiation protection in medicine. (author)

124

Proceedings of Asia congress on radiation protection  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

203 articles were collected in the proceedings. The contents of the proceedings included the principle and practices of radiation protection, biological effects of radiation, radiation monitoring, protection in medical and other fields, radiation dosimetry, nuclear energy and the environment, natural radiation, radioactive waste management, and other radiation protection issues

125

Radiation protection, 1975. Annual EPA review of radiation protection activities  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The EPA, under its Federal Guidance authorities, is responsible for advising the President on all matters pertaining to radiation and, through this mechanism, to provide guidance to other Federal agencies on radiation protection matters. Highlights are presented of significant radiation protection activities of all Federal agencies which were completed in 1975, or in which noteworthy progress was made during that period, and those events affecting members of the public. State or local activities are also presented where the effects of those events may be more far-reaching. At the Federal level significant strides have been made in reducing unnecessary radiation exposure through the efforts of the responsible agencies. These efforts have resulted in the promulgation of certain standards, criteria and guides. Improved control technologies in many areas make it feasible to reduce emissions at a reasonable cost to levels below current standards and guides. This report provides information on the significant activities leading to the establishment of the necessary controls for protection of public health and the environment. Radiation protection activities have been undertaken in other areas such as medical, occupational and consumer product radiation. In the context of radiation protection, ancillary activities are included in this report in order to present a comprehensive overview of the events that took place in 1975 that could have an effect on public health, either directly or indirectly. Reports of routine or continuing radiation protection operations may be found in publications of the sponsoring Federal agencies, as can more detailed information about activities reported in this document. A list of some of these reports is included

126

Concepts of radiation protection; Nocoes de protecao radiologica  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This seventh chapter presents the concepts and principles of safety and radiation protection, emergency situations; NORM and TENORM; radiation protection care; radiation protection plan; activities of the radiation protection service; practical rules of radiation protection and the radiation symbol.

NONE

2013-11-15

127

Policy support on radiation protection  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The objectives of activities related to policy support on radiation protection is: (1) to support and advise the Belgian authorities on specific problems concerning existing and potential hazards from exposure to ionizing radiation in normal and accidental situations,;(2) to improve and support nuclear emergency-response decisions in industrial areas from an economical point of view. The main achievements for 1997 are described

128

Radiation protection measures  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

National law and its relation to international recommendations, in the Netherlands and the authorised bodies responsible for making the law, control and inspection of its execution are surveyed in this chapter. (G.H.)

129

Introduction to radiation protection dosimetry  

CERN Document Server

One essential characteristic of life is the exchange of matter and energy between organisms and their environment. Radiation is a form of energy that has always been around in nature and will forever be the companion of human beings throughout life. In order to assess the impact of radiation exposures properly, it is essential to introduce appropriate quantities and units which can then be used for quantification of exposures from various sources. In principle, radiation protection is mainly aimed at controlling radiation exposure, while radiation dosimetry deals primarily with the measurement

Sabol, Josef

1995-01-01

130

Dutch policy on radiation protection  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In March 1990 a Dutch policy-document on occupational and environmental protection against ionizing radiation was agreed upon by the council of ministers (Radiation Protection and Risk management; 1990). The main consequences of the paper are an extension of policy to the emissions and waste of natural radionuclides of all industries and radon in dwellings, lower standards in terms of dose for workers and the public by a factor of two and a half, and risk management as a tool for environmental protection including source upperbounds in terms of risk. (author)

131

Radiation survey meters used for environmental monitoring  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Nordic dosimetry group set up the GammaRate project to investigate how its expertise could be used to assure appropriate usage of survey meters in environmental monitoring. Considerable expertise in calibrating radiation instruments exists in the Nordic radiation protection authorities. The Swedish, Finnish, Danish and Norwegian authorities operate Secondary Standard Dosimetry Laboratories (SSDLs) that provide users with calibration traceable to internationally recognised primary standards. These authorities together with the Icelandic authorities have formally cooperated since 2002 in the field of radiation dosimetry. Dosimetry is the base for assesment of risk from ionising radiation and calibration of instruments is an imported part in dosimetry. The Nordic dosimetry group has been focused on cancer therapy. This work extends the cooperation to the dosimetry of radiation protection and environmental monitoring. This report contains the formal, theoretical and practical background for survey meter measurements. Nordic standards dosimetry laboratories have the capability to provide traceable calibration of instruments in various types of radiation. To verify and explore this further in radiation protection applications a set of survey instruments were sent between the five Nordic countries and each of the authority asked to provide a calibration coefficient for all instruments. The measurement results were within the stated uncertainties, except for some results from NRPA for the ionchamber based instrument. The comparison was shown to be a valuable tool to harmonize the calibration of radiation protection instruments in the Nordic countries. Dosimetry plays an important role in the emergency situations, and it is clear that better traceability and harmonised common guidelines will improve the emergency preparedness and health. (Author)

Bjerke, H. (ed.) (Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority, NRPA (Norway)); Sigurdsson, T. (Icelandic Radiation Safety Authority, Geislavarnir Rikisins, GR (IS)); Meier Pedersen, K. (National Board of Health, Statens Institut for Straalebeskyttelse (SIS) (Denmark)); Grindborg, J.-E.; Persson, L. (Swedish Radiation Safety Authority, Straalsaekerhetsmyndigheten (SSM) (Sweden)); Siiskonen, T.; Hakanen, A.; Kosunen, A. (Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority, Saeteilyturvakeskus (STUK) (Finland))

2012-01-15

132

Radiation survey meters used for environmental monitoring  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Nordic dosimetry group set up the GammaRate project to investigate how its expertise could be used to assure appropriate usage of survey meters in environmental monitoring. Considerable expertise in calibrating radiation instruments exists in the Nordic radiation protection authorities. The Swedish, Finnish, Danish and Norwegian authorities operate Secondary Standard Dosimetry Laboratories (SSDLs) that provide users with calibration traceable to internationally recognised primary standards. These authorities together with the Icelandic authorities have formally cooperated since 2002 in the field of radiation dosimetry. Dosimetry is the base for assesment of risk from ionising radiation and calibration of instruments is an imported part in dosimetry. The Nordic dosimetry group has been focused on cancer therapy. This work extends the cooperation to the dosimetry of radiation protection and environmental monitoring. This report contains the formal, theoretical and practical background for survey meter measurements. Nordic standards dosimetry laboratories have the capability to provide traceable calibration of instruments in various types of radiation. To verify and explore this further in radiation protection applications a set of survey instruments were sent between the five Nordic countries and each of the authority asked to provide a calibration coefficient for all instruments. The measurement results were within the stated uncertainties, except for some results from NRPA for the ionchamber based instrument. The comparison was shown to be a valuable tool to harmonize the calibration of radiation protection instruments in the Nordic countries. Dosimetry plays an important role in the emergency situations, and it is clear that better traceability and harmonised common guidelines will improve the emergency preparedness and health. (Author)

133

Radiation protection in veterinary practice  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

It is suggested that those using radiographic equipment in veterinary practice should have a greater awareness of the hazards of radiation, the potential sources of exposure and the basic methods of radiation protection, but it is also emphasised that if the rules are observed and the potential danger appreciated, then the risks are quite acceptable. The effects of x-rays on living tissues, and the special implication of these to the veterinarian, safety aspects of x-ray machines, protective clothing and ancillary equipment requirements, suitability of premises, radiographic procedures and their supervision, monitoring of potential radiation hazards and staff training, are discussed. (U.K.)

134

Radiation protection and health effects  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The use of ionizing radiation in nuclear medicine carries with it a responsibility to both patient and personnel to maximize the diagnostic and therapeutic benefit while minimizing the potential for any adverse health effects. Shortly after the discovery of the x-ray in 1895 the potential for acute health hazards of ionizing radiation became apparent. However, the risks of ionizing radiation were poorly understood and many early users did not believe that anyone could be hurt by something that could not be detected by any of the human senses. Many experiments on the biologic effects of ionizing radiation began in the early 1900s, and the first radiation protection standards were proposed by the British Roentgen Society in 1915. We now realize that these pioneers had a very limited knowledge of the potential hazards and radiation protection principles. Today more scientific data are available on the health effects of, detection of, and protection from ionizing radiation than any other physical agent or chemical known. In addition, use of many forms of ionizing radiation is heavily regulated at both national and state levels. This paper discusses how maternal contamination with radionuclides may cause irradiation of the fetus even if the radionuclide is not transferred across the placenta. This is mostly true for radionuclides that decay yielding relatively penetrating radiations

135

Radiation protection in nuclear medicine  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Addresses all aspects of radiation protection in nuclear medicine. Covers current technologies and principles. An ideal textbook for students and a ready source of information for nuclear medicine specialists and medical physics experts. One of a series of three books on the fundamentals of modern nuclear medicine (physics, safety, and imaging). This book explains clearly and in detail all aspects of radiation protection in nuclear medicine. After an introductory chapter on the general role of radiation protection, measurement quantities and units are discussed, and detectors and dosimeters, described. Radiation biology and radiation dosimetry are then addressed, with the inclusion of a chapter specifically devoted to biology and dosimetry for the lens of the eye. Discussion of radiation doses to patients and to embryos, fetuses, and children forms a central part of the book. Phantom models, biokinetic models, calculations, and software solutions are all considered, and a further chapter focuses on quality assurance and reference levels. Occupational exposure also receives detailed attention. Exposure resulting from the production, labeling, and injection of radiopharmaceuticals and from contact with patients is discussed and shielding calculations are explained. The book closes by considering exposure of the public and summarizing the ''rules of thumb'' for radiation protection in nuclear medicine. This is an ideal textbook for students and a ready source of useful information for nuclear medicine specialists and medical physics experts.

Mattsson, Soeren [Lund Univ., Skane Univ. Hospital Malmoe (Sweden). Medical Radiation Physics; Hoeschen, Christoph (eds.) [Helmholtz Zentrum Muenchen Deutsches Forschungszentrum fuer Gesundheit und Umwelt GmbH, Neuherberg (Germany)

2013-07-01

136

Radiation protection in nuclear medicine  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Addresses all aspects of radiation protection in nuclear medicine. Covers current technologies and principles. An ideal textbook for students and a ready source of information for nuclear medicine specialists and medical physics experts. One of a series of three books on the fundamentals of modern nuclear medicine (physics, safety, and imaging). This book explains clearly and in detail all aspects of radiation protection in nuclear medicine. After an introductory chapter on the general role of radiation protection, measurement quantities and units are discussed, and detectors and dosimeters, described. Radiation biology and radiation dosimetry are then addressed, with the inclusion of a chapter specifically devoted to biology and dosimetry for the lens of the eye. Discussion of radiation doses to patients and to embryos, fetuses, and children forms a central part of the book. Phantom models, biokinetic models, calculations, and software solutions are all considered, and a further chapter focuses on quality assurance and reference levels. Occupational exposure also receives detailed attention. Exposure resulting from the production, labeling, and injection of radiopharmaceuticals and from contact with patients is discussed and shielding calculations are explained. The book closes by considering exposure of the public and summarizing the ''rules of thumb'' for radiation protection in nuclear medicine. This is an ideal textbook for students and a ready source of useful ior students and a ready source of useful information for nuclear medicine specialists and medical physics experts.

137

Optical Radiation: Laser Protection  

Science.gov (United States)

... burns, cataracts, and permanent blindness. When lasers produce invisible ultraviolet, or other radiation, both employees and visitors ... of Information Act | Privacy & Security Statement | Disclaimers | Important Web Site Notices | International | Contact Us U.S. Department of ...

138

The workers radiation protection  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report gives the situation of I.R.S.N. activities in 2004: agreements of dosimetry organisms and studies of working place relative to ionizing radiation and the situation in 2004 of occupational exposure to ionizing radiation. In an other part are studies the evolution of the analysis of the situation of working dosimetry and some thoughts about the possibilities of surveillance strategy. (N.C.)

139

Actual global problems of radiation protection  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Personal views on some actual problems in radiation protection are given in this paper. Among these problems are: evolution methodology used in radiation protection regulations; radiation protection, nuclear energy and safety, and new approaches to the process of the hazardous substances management. An interesting fact relating to the X-ray, radiation protection and Nikola Tesla are given also. (author)

140

Philosophy of radiological protection and radiation hazard protection law  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The radiation protection and the human safety in radiation facilities are strictly controlled by law. There are rules on the radiation measurement, too. In the present review, philosophy of the radiological protection and the radiation hazard protection law is outlined with reference to ICRP recommendations. (J.P.N.)

 
 
 
 
141

Radiation protection authorized persons (RPA) in Germany  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The radiation protection authorized person (RPA) is playing an important role in the fields of organization, realization and checking the radiation protection in Germany, first of all in big institutions like research centers, facilities and medical centers. The paper deals with the legal status of the RPA especially the clear dividing line between his tasks and the tasks of the radiation protection supervisor and the radiation protection commissioner. The paper shows that the embodiment of the RPA in the radiation protection law has advantages also in coordinating the tasks of radiation protection officer and radiation protection expert recommended by the European Union. (orig.)

142

Biological Research for Radiation Protection  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The work scope of 'Biological Research for the Radiation Protection' had contained the research about ornithine decarboxylase and its controlling proteins, thioredoxin, peroxiredoxin, S-adenosymethionine decarboxylase, and glutamate decarboxylase 67KD effect on the cell death triggered ionizing radiation and H{sub 2}O{sub 2}(toxic agents). In this study, to elucidate the role of these proteins in the ionizing radiation (or H{sub 2}O{sub 2})-induced apoptotic cell death, we utilized sensesed (or antisensed) cells, which overexpress (or down-regulate) RNAs associated with these proteins biosynthesis, and investigated the effects of these genes on the cytotoxicity caused by ionizing radiation and H{sub 2}O{sub 2}(or paraquat). We also investigated whether genisteine(or thiamine) may enhance the cytotoxic efficacy of tumor cells caused by ionizing radiation (may enhance the preventing effect radiation or paraquat-induced damage) because such compounds are able to potentiate the cell-killing or cell protecting effects. Based on the above result, we suggest that the express regulation of theses genes have potentially importance for sensitizing the efficiency of radiation therapy of cancer or for protecting the radiation-induced damage of normal cells.

Kim, In Gyu; Kim, Kug Chan; Jung, Il Lae; Choi, Yong Ho; Kim, Jin Sik; Moon, Myung Sook; Byun, Hee Sun; Phyo, Ki Heon; Kim, Sung Keun

2005-04-15

143

Biological Research for Radiation Protection  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The work scope of 'Biological Research for the Radiation Protection' had contained the research about ornithine decarboxylase and its controlling proteins, thioredoxin, peroxiredoxin, S-adenosymethionine decarboxylase, and glutamate decarboxylase 67KD effect on the cell death triggered ionizing radiation and H2O2(toxic agents). In this study, to elucidate the role of these proteins in the ionizing radiation (or H2O2)-induced apoptotic cell death, we utilized sensesed (or antisensed) cells, which overexpress (or down-regulate) RNAs associated with these proteins biosynthesis, and investigated the effects of these genes on the cytotoxicity caused by ionizing radiation and H2O2(or paraquat). We also investigated whether genisteine(or thiamine) may enhance the cytotoxic efficacy of tumor cells caused by ionizing radiation (may enhance the preventing effect radiation or paraquat-induced damage) because such compounds are able to potentiate the cell-killing or cell protecting effects. Based on the above result, we suggest that the express regulation of theses genes have potentially importance for sensitizing the efficiency of radiation therapy of cancer or for protecting the radiation-induced damage of normal cells

144

Scientific basis for new radiation protection act  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The basic scientific principles for new a radiation protection act is presented. They include basic radiation protection principles and direct protection measures as well as nuclear safety measures. Some new topics following these measures are discussed. (author)

145

Radiation protection and the public  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

For many years, the Fachverband fuer Strahlenschutz strives to be seen and recognized by the public as a competent group of experts. In spite of some partial success, this goal has not been reached to the extent desired. The reasons for that do lie, according to the author, at the least with the Fachverband. They are rather to be found within two features inherent to radiation protection itself. One of them is the difficult and frequently conflicting role of a referee between benefit and risk of radiation. This role implies that the independence and integrity of radition protection is often grossly misjudged by the public. The other problem is the widely differing composition of radiation protection representatives with regard to origin, education and professional field of activity. This makes it for the public almost impossible to perceive a clear and unambiguous image of radiation protection. Therefore, a successful communication with the public cannot be achieved merely by improving the contact with the media and by better mastering its rules, as the Fachverband is trying. It furthermore requires a change of thinking with regard to the whole structure of communication. The author clarifies this further in the article. In addition to that, each radiation protection representative who takes public relations seriously as a task of this profession, must be ready to observe three rules: Sound stories, openness - particularly when dealing with controversial issues -, andn dealing with controversial issues -, and absolute personal and professional integrity. (orig.)

146

European radiation protection in the Essen practice test  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The proceeding of the meeting European radiation protection in the Essen practice test includes contributions to the following issues: basic radiation protection standards; clearance values and permitted activities; optimization, guidance values for dose limits; radon and radiation protection standards; radiation protection - eye lens; RPE (radiation protection expert)/RPO (radiation protection officer); environmental radiation protection; radiation protection in medicine.

147

Radiation Protection Research: Radiobiology  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The main objectives of research in the field of radiobiology and epidemiology performed at the Belgian Nuclear Research Centre SCK-CEN are (1) to study cancer mortality in nuclear workers in Belgium; to document the feasibility of retrospective cohort studies in Belgium; (2) to participate in the IARC study; (3) to elucidate the molecular basis of the effects of ionising radiation in the mammalian embryo during the early phases of its development; (4) to assess the genetic risk of maternal exposure to ionizing radiation; (5) to elucidate the cellular mechanisms leading to brain damage after prenatal irradiation; (6) to advise authorities and to provide the general population with adequate information concerning the health risk arising from radiation exposure. Progress and major achievements in these topical areas in 1999 are reported.

Desaintes, C

2000-07-01

148

Radiation Protection Research: Radiobiology  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The main objectives of research in the field of radiobiology and epidemiology performed at the Belgian Nuclear Research Centre SCK-CEN are (1) to study cancer mortality in nuclear workers in Belgium; to document the feasibility of retrospective cohort studies in Belgium; (2) to participate in the IARC study; (3) to elucidate the molecular basis of the effects of ionising radiation in the mammalian embryo during the early phases of its development; (4) to assess the genetic risk of maternal exposure to ionizing radiation; (5) to elucidate the cellular mechanisms leading to brain damage after prenatal irradiation; (6) to advise authorities and to provide the general population with adequate information concerning the health risk arising from radiation exposure. Progress and major achievements in these topical areas in 1999 are reported

149

ICRP-Radiation protection principles and practice  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A brief survey is given of the history of ICRP, its basic standards and recommendations and their rationale, from its foundation in 1928 to the latest major review of its recommendation in 1977. In this time the basic radiation standard for whole body irradiation of a radiation worker has dropped from the equivalent of 50 r per year (in 1934) through 15 rem per year (1954) to 5 rem per year in 1958. ICRP recommendations include maximum permissible doses for particular organs and a comprehensive list of derived limits governing the intake of radionuclides into the body, and dose limits for members of the public. Emphasis in current radiation protection practice is on avoiding all unnecessary exposures and keeping doses as far below dose limits as is reasonably achievable. The use of cost-benefit analysis to optimize protection and some of its inherent difficulties, is discussed

150

Radiation protection principles of NCRP.  

Science.gov (United States)

The current recommendations of the National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements (NCRP) relative to ionizing radiation are based on radiation protection principles that developed historically as information about radiation effects on human populations became available. Because the NCRP Charter states that the NCRP will cooperate with the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP), the basic principles and recommendations for radiation protection of the NCRP are closely coupled with those of the ICRP. Thus, the fundamental principles of justification, optimization, and dose limitation as initially stated in ICRP Publication 26 have been adopted and applied by the NCRP in its recommendations. ICRP and NCRP recommendations on dose limitation for the general public and for occupationally exposed individuals are based on the same analyses of radiation risk, and, while similar, there are differences reflecting the aspects of radiation application and exposure circumstances unique to the United States. The NCRP has recently extended its guidance to address exposure to individuals engaged in space activities. Several reports have been issued or are in preparation to provide recommendations on dose limitation and the development of radiation safety programs to apply the radiation protection principles in space activities. The biological basis for these recommendations is provided in these and accompanying NCRP reports. Recommendations for the application of basic radiation protection principles have been made in many reports over the years. Those that are most current appear in approximately 50 reports published in the last 15 y. These address radiation safety practices in industrial and medical institutions, control of radionuclides in the environment, protection of the public, and assessment of radiation risk. Some of the aspects of these recommendations will be discussed. Current recommendations related to radiation safety practice are based on the principles and dose limits specified in Report No. 116. The limits are based on estimates of the risk of fatal cancer and an assessment of the risk that should be tolerated by workers who are occupationally exposed and by the general public. These levels of risk are related to other risks that individuals accept in their lives. Looking to the future, one might consider other directions that the NCRP could take in developing radiation safety recommendations that are still based upon the stated principles, such as relating dose to loss of life expectancy instead of fatal cancer risk. It may also be that the principles of justification, optimization, and dose limitation should be reconsidered. For example, the NCRP may make recommendations about the relationship of radiation dose to various biological effects or outcomes and the resulting estimates of risk, but not specify dose limits. This would relieve the NCRP of the necessity to speculate about acceptable risks. One can also imagine that the principle of justification could be applied not only to the introduction of a new source of radiation, but also to the removal of an existing source of radiation, i.e., the idea of justifying decontamination efforts. It is clear that as we move into the 21st century there will be a continuing need for the NCRP to identify the principles upon which radiation protection is to be based and to provide guidance on the application of those principles for the many beneficial uses of radiation and radioactive materials in society. PMID:15303061

Kase, Kenneth R

2004-09-01

151

Encouraging the radiation protection practice  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The radiological protection of workers occupationally exposed to ionizing radiation (X-ray diagnoses, Nuclear Medicine, Radiotherapy and Dental) is essential to minimize the appearance of radiation effects. The ways to reduce the potential for exposure of workers are: Time, Distance , and Shielding. The most important purpose of radiation protection is to provide safe conditions for activities involving ionizing radiation, basic safety conditions that must be observed in professional practice. The professional must have full knowledge of the subject and deepen in the revision of norms and guidelines related to radiation protection establish by the Vigilancia Sanitaria - ANVISA, and Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear - CNEN, Brazil. The study was conducted in a technical school for the Technical Training Course in Radiology, where the students are invited to think deeply about the radiation protection of themselves, the patients and the environment. Developed since July 2012, with the participation of 30 students, with a leading class -three teachers assisting in the development of the project . With this project there was an awareness of both students, as instructors stage accompanying the daily lives of students and their own colleagues. Following the same objective in 2013 the project continues with more adept at radioprotection

152

Activities of Radiation Protection Centre in 2000  

CERN Document Server

Description of the activities of Radiation Protection Centre in 2000 is presented. Radiation Protection Centre is responsible for radiation protection issues. Currently there are six departments at Radiation Protection Centre: two in Vilnius - Department of Radiation Protection Supervision and Control and Department of Programs and Expertise, and four in the districts. Brief information on subject controlled by each departments is provided focusing on main achievements and events.

Radiat. Prot. Cent. Vilnius

2001-01-01

153

Trends in radiation protection measuring techniques  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A brief survey is given of the trends in radiation protection measuring methods. Based on observations made at the Nuclex 78 it is stated that (1) more and more complete systems are offered for radiation monitoring in nuclear power plants with microprocessors playing an important role, (2) a great deal of multipurpose pocket devices are produced, very often fitted with microprocessors, (3) dosemeter reading systems are automated to a large extent and equipped with microprocessors, (4) the halogen counter continues to be the detector most frequently applied, and (5) there are no new developments in neutron dosimetry

154

Indium 111. Radiation protection  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The radiopharmaceutucal 111In-oxine is used in labelling of different blood cells and proteins. Due to its liquid state, there is always a risk for contamination during handling procedures. The aim of the project was to evaluate the contamination risks, when using this radiopharmaceutical. The investigation includes calculations of the absorved dose to the skin after a contamination of 111In-oxine, including the radionuclide impurity 114Inm/114In. Investigations of 288 protection gloves shows that there is always a risk for contamination, when working with 111In-oxine. On the protection gloves, we found activities normally ranging from a 100 Bq up to a few kBq. Noticeable is the contamination on the vials, already before their use. Besides 111 In we found most of the radionuclides used in nuclear medicine, with activities up to tens of kBq. The radionuclide impurity was cleary detectable but below the recommended value. The penetration of 111In-oxine protection gloves of latex was negligible. Measurements of penetration in skin was evaluated with two independent methods; in vivo using a surface barrier detector, and by autoradiography. The measured penetration was less than a few micrometers. Calculation from the experimental contamination values show that the absorbed dose to the basal cell layer could be in order of several Gy. (authors)

155

Regulatory aspects of radiation protection  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The paper introduces the projects launched by the European Community to foster prospects in dosimetry, radiation protection and best use of equipment in the medical field. These projects are put in perspective with the European legal framework for radiation protection, in particular, the Basic Safety Standards Directive, the Medical Exposures Directive and the Directive on High-Activity Sealed Sources. A summary is given of the overall mission statements of the commission services in the field of radiation protection, including the field of research, and how they relate to other actions in the overall health policy of the EU. In conclusion, a number of priority areas for future work in the medical field are highlighted. (authors)

156

XXX. Days of Radiation Protection. Conference Proceedings of the 30-th Days of Radiation Protection  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The publication has been set up as a proceedings of the conference dealing with health protection during work with ionizing radiation for different activities which involve the handling of ionizing radiation sources. The main conference topics are focused on current problems in radiation protection and radioecology. In this proceedings totally 107 papers are published. The Conference consists of following sections: Effects of ionizing radiation; Regulation of radiation protection; Dosimetry and Metrology of ionizing radiation; Radiation protection in nuclear Power plants; Medical exposure and radiation protection in diagnostic radiology, nuclear medicine and radiation oncology; Natural radioactivity issues in radiation protection; Education, societal aspects and public involvement in radiation protection, trends and perspectives

157

Radiation protecting materials  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Purpose: To provide a transparent lead-containing acrylic resin plate with a light permeable, electromagnetic shielding conduction layer, thereby improving the electro-magnetic wave shielding performance over a wide range of wavelength. Constitution: The transparent lead-containing acrylic resin plate is a transparent acrylic resin plate containing lead as a constituent ingredient for the resin and has radiation shielding nature owing to lead contained therein. Further, it has physical properties and workability substantially equal to those in general acrylic resins. Since this can shield not only X-rays but also electromagnetic waves at longer wavelength, erroneous operation due to electromagnetic waves can be prevented, as well as deposition of dusts or the likes due to static electric charges can also be prevented in those electronic equipments such as electronic computers, measuring instruments, radio-receivers, analyzers, etc. in radiation facilities. (Takahashi, M.)

158

1993 Radiation Protection Workshop: Proceedings  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The 1993 DOE Radiation Protection Workshop was conducted from April 13 through 15, 1993 in Las Vegas, Nevada. Over 400 Department of Energy Headquarters and Field personnel and contractors from the DOE radiological protection community attended the Workshop. Forty-nine papers were presented in eleven separate sessions: Radiological Control Manual Implementation, New Approaches to Instrumentation and Calibration, Radiological Training Programs and Initiatives, External Dosimetry, Internal Dosimetry, Radiation Exposure Reporting and Recordkeeping, Air Sampling and Monitoring Issues, Decontamination and Decommissioning of Sites, Contamination Monitoring and Control, ALARA/Radiological Engineering, and Current and Future Health Physics Research. Individual papers are indexed separately on the database.

1993-12-31

159

Radiation protection/shield design  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Radiation protection/shielding design of a nuclear facility requires a coordinated effort of many engineering disciplines to meet the requirements imposed by regulations. In the following discussion, the system approach to Clinch River Breeder Reactor Plant (CRBRP) radiation protection will be described, and the program developed to implement this approach will be defined. In addition, the principal shielding design problems of LMFBR nuclear reactor systems will be discussed in realtion to LWR nuclear reactor system shielding designs. The methodology used to analyze these problems in the U.S. LMFBR program, the resultant design solutions, and the experimental verification of these designs and/or methods will be discussed. (orig.)

160

Radiation protection, an international challenge  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The radiation protection community faces a series of international challenges in 1991. There are three topics in which action is required: - Communication, standard setting and education. IRPA is already responding to the challenges in communication and standard setting. There is a growing demand for education and training in radiation protection and the teaching of this subject in schools must be improved. It is therefore proposed that IRPA should respond to this challenge and help to co-ordinate the necessary international initiatives. The importance is stressed to create a 'Safety Culture' which is reflected already in the education programs. (orig.)

 
 
 
 
161

Traceability of radiation protection instruments  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Radiation protection instruments are used in daily measurement of dose and activities in workplaces and environments for safety management. The requirements for calibration certificates with traceability are increasing for these instruments to ensure the consistency and reliabilities of the measurement results. The present traceability scheme of radiation protection instruments for dose and activity measurements is described with related IEC/ISO requirements. Some examples of desirable future calibration systems with recent new technologies are also discussed to establish the traceability with reasonable costs and reliabilities. (authors)

162

Flexibility in radiation protection legislation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The UK approach to radiation protection legislation is described in detail. The advantages are outlined of a flexible approach whereby the objectives of the legislation are clearly identified but the means of achieving these are left open or qualified by terms such as 'where reasonably practicable'. The roles and viewpoints of management and unions in such an approach are discussed especially with respect to legislation such as the Health and Safety at Work Act. Specific topics include requirements for notification of use, criteria for controlled areas and the tasks of the radiation protection adviser. (UK)

163

Radiation protection for human population  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Are given the results of researches carried out in Belarus in 1996 on the following directions: study of features of formation of the population irradiation doze; definition of collective irradiation dozes of the population of Belarus for 10 years after the Chernobyl accident and forecast of risk of radiation induced diseases; study of influence of the radioactive contamination on agricultural ecosystems; development of technologies of manufacture on the contaminated soils of plant and cattle-breeding production and food products with the permissible contents of radionuclides in according to the requirements of radiation protection; development and perfection of complex technologies, ways and means of decontamination, processing and burial of radioactive wastes; development and substantiation of actions for increase of radiation security of the population of Belarus; development of combined system of an estimation on problems of radiation protection of the population living on contaminated territories

164

Nordic society for radiation protection  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The key themes of teh 12th ordinary general meeting of the Nordic Society for Radiation Protection were: RADIATION - ENVIRONMENT - INFORMATION. A number of outstanding international experts accepted to contribute on the meetings first day with invited presentations, which focussed on these themes. In all 38 oral presentations and 28 posters are included in the present Proceedings, which furthermore contains a resume of discussions from the special session on 'Controllable Dose'. (EHS)

165

Radiation protection in mines  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The main objective of the research project was to investigate and develop methods at the Muellenbach test mine which allow optimal protection against radon and its daughter products considering both economic and mining aspects. Theoretical models as well as investigations in the laboratory and underground have shown that good ventilation offers an effective protection against radon and its daughters. Other methods such as wetting of broken rock and variation of the blasting pattern as well as the application of positive ventilating pressure were of minor influence on radon emanation. The sealing of rock surfaces showed satisfactory results in laboratory tests (radon emanation rate was reduced up to 98%), however underground its application appears to be limited and unsuitable for stoping operations. The airstream helmet (type AH 1) tested underground proved to be effective as a dust filter but because of its ergonomic and safety disadvantages its application in uranium mining is limited. Its efficiency as far as the reduction of radon daughters is concerned should be tested after the ergonomic disadvantages have been eliminated. The research work done has shown that cavitation models developed are of practical value for the determination of radon and its daughter concentrations as well as for mine ventilation planning. The report presented emphasizes that the nuclide measurements carried out underground and the knowledge gained about the behaviour of radio nuclides ind about the behaviour of radio nuclides in the mine atmosphere are transferable to other mining branches for instance to coal and fluorspar mining. (orig./HP)

166

Radiation Protection Services Division: progress report for 1992-1993  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report describes the work of the Radiation Protection Services Division during 1993, for implementation of radiation safety in all institutions in India using radiation sources in medical, industrial and research applications. It gives information about personnel monitoring using photographic film and TLD badges, neutron monitoring badges, advisory and licensing services, regulation, transport of radioactive materials and periodic protection survey. About 33 publications by the staff of the Division are also listed. (author). 4 tabs

167

Radiation protection material  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The material, capable of being cast into the shape and thickness desired, is resistant to radiation (300 x 106 rad and 1 x 1017 n/cm2 while retaining its H2 content). It is composed of a silicon elastomer base material to which particles from BC, boric acid and/or boron oxide are homogeneously admixed with a volume percentage between 5 and 75. For each purpose the particles are of constant size respectively. The sizes lie between 0.18 mm (80 mesh) and 0.05 mm (300 mesh). (DG)

168

Radiation protecting sheet  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

As protection sheets used in radioactivity administration areas, a thermoplastic polyurethane composition sheet with a thickness of less 0.5 mm, solid content (ash) of less than 5% and a shore D hardness of less than 60 is used. A composite sheet with thickness of less than 0.5 mm laminated or coated with such a thermoplastic polyurethane composition as a surface layer and the thermoplastic polyurethane composition sheet applied with secondary fabrication are used. This can satisfy all of the required properties, such as draping property, abrasion resistance, high breaking strength, necking resistance, endurance strength, as well as chemical resistance and easy burnability in burning furnace. Further, by forming uneveness on the surface by means of embossing, etc. safety problems such as slippage during operation and walking can be overcome. (T.M.)

169

Environmental damage valuation as radiation protection tool  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Environmental radiation protection procedures do not have global consensus. In researching mechanisms to guide environmental radiation protection procedures consensus searching, the approaches used by non-radioactive environmental protection are very promising. Among the approaches, environmental valuation procedures are commonly employed, and are very proper for environmental radiation protection. (author)

170

Regulations for radiation protection in industrial radiography  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

These Regulations specify that responsibility for applying radiation protection regulations in industrial radiography rests with the owner of the establishment who will designate a radiation protection officer to this effect. They provide for the organisation of radiation protection, including the measures to be observed, exposure limits, etc. The competent authority for these questions is the State Institute of Radiation Hygiene

171

Radiation protection in veterinary radiology  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This Code of Practice is designed to give guidance to veterinary surgeons in ensuring that workers and members of the public are adequately protected from the hazards of ionising radiation arising from the use of x-ray equipment in veterinary practice. (author)

172

Chemical protection against ionizing radiation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Over 40 years have passed since the research of the Manhattan Project suggested the possibility of chemical protection against ionizing radiation. During that time, much has been learned about the nature of radiation-induced injury and the factors governing the expression of that injury. Thousands of compounds have been tested for radioprotective efficacy, and numerous theories have been proposed to account for these actions. The literature on chemical radioprotection is large. In this article, the authors consider several of the mechanisms by which chemicals may protect against radiation injury. They have chosen to accent this view of radioprotector research as opposed to that research geared toward developing specific molecules as protective agents because they feel that such an approach is more beneficial in stimulating research of general applicability. This paper describes the matrix of biological factors upon which an exogenous radioprotector is superimposed, and examines evidence for and against various mechanisms by which these agents may protect biological systems against ionizing radiation. It concludes with a brief outlook for research in chemical radioprotection

173

Radiation protection of medical staff  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The continuing increase in the worldwide use of X-ray imaging has implications for radiation protection of medical staff. Much of the increased usage could be viewed as simply a workload issue with no particular new challenges. However, advances in technology and developments in techniques have seen an increase in the number of X-ray procedures in which medical personnel need to maintain close physical contact with the patient during radiation exposures. The complexity of many procedures means the potential for significant occupational exposure is high, and appropriate steps must be taken to ensure that actual occupational exposures are as low as reasonably achievable. Further attention to eye protection may be necessitated if a lowering of the dose limit for the lens of the eye is implemented in the near future. Education and training in radiation protection as it applies to specific situations, established working procedures, availability and use of appropriate protective tools, and an effective monitoring programme are all essential elements in ensuring that medical personnel in X-ray imaging are adequately and acceptably protected.

174

Radiation protection of medical staff.  

Science.gov (United States)

The continuing increase in the worldwide use of X-ray imaging has implications for radiation protection of medical staff. Much of the increased usage could be viewed as simply a workload issue with no particular new challenges. However, advances in technology and developments in techniques have seen an increase in the number of X-ray procedures in which medical personnel need to maintain close physical contact with the patient during radiation exposures. The complexity of many procedures means the potential for significant occupational exposure is high, and appropriate steps must be taken to ensure that actual occupational exposures are as low as reasonably achievable. Further attention to eye protection may be necessitated if a lowering of the dose limit for the lens of the eye is implemented in the near future. Education and training in radiation protection as it applies to specific situations, established working procedures, availability and use of appropriate protective tools, and an effective monitoring programme are all essential elements in ensuring that medical personnel in X-ray imaging are adequately and acceptably protected. PMID:20656429

Le Heron, John; Padovani, Renato; Smith, Ian; Czarwinski, Renate

2010-10-01

175

Practical methods for radiation survey in nuclear installations  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This study is placed to those who are responsible to perform radiation survey in the nuclear installations, especially the beginners. Therefore, it gives a comprehensive view to all-important aspects related to their work starting from the structure of atoms to the practical steps for radiation survey works. So, it clarify how to perform personal monitoring, methods for monitoring surface contamination, methods for measuring radioactivity of gases and radioactive aerosols in air, monitoring radiation doses, measuring radiation influences in workplaces and finally measuring internal exposure of radiation workers in nuclear installations. Finally, The study shows some cases of breaches of radiation protection rules in some American nuclear installations and describes the final results of these breaches. The aim of this is to assure that any breach or ignore to radiation protection principles may produce bad results, and there is no leniency in implementing environmental radiation protection principles. (author)

176

Radiation protection in veterinary medicine  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Diagnostic radiology is an essential part of present-day veterinary practice. The need for radiation protection exists because occupational exposure to ionizing radiation can result in deleterious effects that may manifest themselves not only in exposed individuals but in their descendants as well. These are respectively called somatic and genetic effects. Somatic effects are characterized by observable changes occurring in the body organs of the exposed individual. These changes may appear from within a few hours to many years later, depending on the amount and duration of exposure of the individual. In veterinary medicine, the possibility that anyone may be exposed to enough radiation to create somatic effect is extremely remote. Genetic effects are more a cause for concern at the lower doses used in veterinary radiology. Although the radiation doses may be small and appear to cause no observable damage, the probability of chromosomal damage in the germ cells, with the consequence of mutations, does exist. These mutations may give rise to genetic defects and therefore make these doses significant when applied to a large number of individuals. There are two main aspects of the problem to be considered. First, personnel working with X-ray equipment must be protected from excessive exposure to radiation during their work. Secondly, personnel in the vicinity of veterinary X-ray facilities and the general public require adequate protection

177

Radiation protection for human population  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The purpose of researches is development of methods and means of reduction of radiation risk caused by the Chernobyl accident consequences by means of decrease of both individual and collective dozes by realization of special protective measures. The reconstruction of average collective accumulated irradiation dozes of the inhabitants of the contaminated populated localities of Belarus is carried out; the forecast of development of radiation induced oncologic diseases is given. The laws of formation of annual irradiation dozes are investigated; the prevailing role of internal irradiation dozes in formation of total dose loadings is detected. On this basis a number of practical projects directed on creation of effective land tenure and decrease of radioactive contamination of agricultural production, as well as decontamination technologies and radioactive waste management are executed. Are given the results of researches carried out in Belarus in 1997 on the following directions: dose monitoring of the population, estimation and forecast of both collective irradiation dozes and risks of radiation induced diseases; development and optimization of a complex of measures for effective land use and decrease of radioactive contamination of agricultural production in order to reduce irradiation dozes of the population; development of complex technologies and means of decontamination, treatment and burial of radioactive wastes; development and ground of the measures for increase of radiation protection of the population of Belarus during of the reducing period after the Chernobyl accident; development of complex system of an estimation and decision-making on problems of radiation protection of the population living on contaminated territories

178

Development of radiation protection on TENORM  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Some of technologically enhanced naturally occurring radioactive material (TENORM), such as radon and monazite sand, gradually became a target for radiological protection. In order to regulate TENORM safely and economically, it is essential to consider the characteristics of TENORM such as ubiquity, huge volume, and very low activity levels. In this paper, radiation protection principles and standards for NORM/TENORM are summarized based on the reports published by the international organizations (e.g. ICRP and IAEA) to assist the development of national regulatory framework. The survey results on the present Japanese situations on industries related to NORM/TENORM are provided, and the categorization for NORM/TENORM, which is established by the Radiation Council of Japan, is explained how to control NORM/TENORM based on their exposure doses instead of their activity levels. Finally, basic processes to solve the problems related to NORM/TENORM are discussed. (author)

179

Report to the government of Zambia. Radiation protection  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

At the request of the Government of the Republic of Zambia, the International Atomic Energy Agency set up a technical assistance project to supply an expert plus some equipment, commencing 1 October 1971 and of one year's duration. The project was to expand Zambia's radiation protection service through monitoring of radiation doses, radiation sources, and premises, and provide advise related to the safe handling of sources of ionizing radiation. Upon arrival the expert found that some of these activities had been initiated. The key measures therefore were to establish channels of communication and authority, survey the state of radiation safety and protective measures, and coordination of protective and control measures. On these lines the Ionising Radiation Act is stated to show how its establishment and organizational structure could assist in the implementation of radiation protection measures. maps

180

Radioprotectors and Immunomodulators for Protection against Radiation  

International Science & Technology Center (ISTC)

Development of New Generation of Radioprotectors, Immunomodulators, and Radiation Sensitizers for Human Protection Against Ionizing Radiation and Efficiency Improvement of Radiotherapy of Malignant Cells

 
 
 
 
181

Applied radiation biology and protection  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Written by two eminent expects in the field with many years of teaching experience between them, this book presents a concise coverage of the physical and biological basics of radiation biology and protection. The book begins with a description of the methods of particle detection and dosimetric evaluation. The effects of ionizing radiation on man are treated from the initial physico-chemical phase of interaction to their conceivable pathological consequences. Regulations, limits and safeguards on nuclear power plants, radioisotope installations and medical centers which make use of ionizing radiation are given and the risks of exposure to natural, industrial and scientific radiation sources evaluated. The final chapter takes a look at some of the more important nuclear accidents, including Windscale, Three Mile Island, and Chernobyl, and describes basic procedures to be carried out in the eventuality of a nuclear emergency. Twelve chapters have been processed separately for inclusion in the appropriate data bases

182

Radiation protection and reactor safety  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Chernobyl reactor accident caused bewilderment, fear and anxiety among the population. How safe are reactors? Which precautions to protect lives and health have been taken? These questions are posed particularly in the areas of radiation protection, reactor safety, supply and waste management of nuclear power plants and other nuclear installations. For all these areas the present report contains an analysis of facts; it informs about political measures during the 11th legislative period of the German Bundestag, and shows prospects of future developments. (orig.)

183

Radiation Protection Legislation in the Nordic Countries  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Recent alterations in the radiation protection laws of the Nordic countries are presented. The report amends the previous SS-report 87-37 with the title Radiation Protection and Atomic Energy Legislation in the Nordic Countries. (au)

184

The new Swiss radiation protection law  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In 1991 the new Radiation Protection Law was passed by the Federal Council. This resulting in the necessity for a complete revision of the currently valid Radiation Protection Law. The draft elaborated by a working group will be presented. tabs

185

Radiation Protection in Paediatric Radiology  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Over the past decade and a half, special issues have arisen regarding the protection of children undergoing radiological examinations. These issues have come to the consciousness of a gradually widening group of concerned professionals and the public, largely because of the natural instinct to protect children from unnecessary harm. Some tissues in children are more sensitive to radiation and children have a long life expectancy, during which significant pathology can emerge. The instinct to protect children has received further impetus from the level of professional and public concern articulated in the wake of media responses to certain publications in the professional literature. Many institutions have highlighted the need to pay particular attention to the special problems of protecting paediatric patients. The International Commission on Radiological Protection has noted it and the IAEA's General Safety Requirements publication, Radiation Protection and Safety of Radiation Sources: International Basic Safety Standards (BSS), requires it. This need has been endorsed implicitly in the advisory material on paediatric computed tomography scanning issued by bodies such as the US Food and Drug Administration and the National Cancer Institute in the United States of America, as well as by many initiatives taken by other national and regional radiological societies and professional bodies. A major part of patient exposure, in general, and paediatric exposure, in particuleral, and paediatric exposure, in particular, now arises from practices that barely existed two decades ago. For practitioners and regulators, it is evident that this innovation has been driven both by the imaging industry and by an ever increasing array of new applications generated and validated in the clinical environment. Regulation, industrial standardization, safety procedures and advice on best practice lag (inevitably) behind industrial and clinical innovations. This Safety Report is designed to consolidate and provide timely advice on dealing with the special problems involved. The approach adopted is developed within the IAEA framework of statutory responsibility to establish standards for the protection of people against exposure to ionizing radiation and to provide for the application of these standards. The BSS issued by the IAEA require the radiation protection of patients undergoing medical exposures through justification of the procedures involved and optimization of protection and safety. This challenge is taken up here by adding paediatric radiology to the areas dealt with in recent IAEA publications. These are specifically Safety Reports Series Nos 39 and 40 on diagnostic radiology and nuclear medicine, respectively, and Safety Reports Series Nos 58-61 and 63 on newer medical imaging techniques and other initiatives in justification of procedures and optimization of protection and safety. The advice of the IAEA is intended in particular for professionals, practitioners, and teachers and trainers in the area, as well as physicians referring children for examinations. Resource materials and training materials are available cost free on the IAEA's Radiation Protection of Patients web site (http://rpop.iaea.org).

186

Radiation protection enrollments and degrees, 1979 and 1980  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Public concern over the effects of low-level radiation and other aspects of the use of nuclear energy has grown in recent years, and the demand for radiation protection has continued to increase. Radiation Protection Enrollments and Degrees presents the results of the latest survey of institutions offering degree programs in this field. Students obtaining such degrees are vital to the development of industry, medicine, research, power production, construction, and agriculture. These surveys assist state and federal governments in their search for such personnel

187

Radiation protection handbook for laboratory workers  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This handbook provides a source of information on radiation protection for workers involved in the use of ionising radiations in laboratories. Topics covered include radioactivity and properties of radiation, biological effects of radiation, legislation, monitoring radiation and radioactivity, practical radiation protection, standards of laboratories, closed sources, training and registration, waste disposal, transport of radioactive materials and machine sources of radiation. The Appendices provide information on units and exposure limits, data for radionuclides, monitoring, spillages and emergencies and working with some particular radionuclides. (UK)

188

International standards for radiation protection  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

International standards for radiation protection are issued by many bodies. These bodies differ to a large extent in their organisation, in the way the members are designated and in the way the international standards are authorised by the issuing body. Large differences also exist in the relevance of the international standards. One extreme is that the international standards are mandatory in the sense that no conflicting national standard may exist, the other extreme is that national and international standards conflict and there is no need to resolve that conflict. Between these extremes there are some standards or documents of relevance, which are not binding by any formal law or contract but are de facto binding due to the scientific reputation of the issuing body. This paper gives, for radiation protection, an overview of the main standards issuing bodies, the international standards or documents of relevance issued by them and the relevance of these documents. (authors)

189

Basic standards for radiation protection  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The basic standards for radiation protection have been based, for many years, on the recommendations of the International Commission of Radiological Protection. The three basic standards recommended by the Commission may be summarized as ''justification, optimization of protection and adherence to dose limitations. The applications of these basic principles to different aspects of protection are briefly summarized and the particular ways in which they have been applied to waste described in more detail. The application of dose limits, both in the control of occupational exposure and in regulating routine discharges of radioactive effluents is straight forward in principle although the measurement and calculational requirements may be substantial. Secondary standards such as derived limits may be extremely useful and the principles underlying their derivation will be described. Optimization of protection is inherently a more difficult concept to apply in protection and the various techniques used will be outlined by with particular emphasis on the use of cost benefit analysis are recommended by the ICRP. A review will be given of the problems involved in extending these basic concepts of the ICRP to probabilistic analyses such as those required for assessing the consequences of accidents or disruptive events in long term repositories. The particular difficulties posed by the very long timescales involved in the assessment of waste management practices will be discussed in some detail. (orig./RW)

190

Chemical radioprotectors in radiation protection  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The different demands for the ways of the administration of chemical radioprotectors as a cystamine or WR-2721 (amifostine, gammaphos, Ethyol) e.g. S-containing compounds, their distribution and further pharmacological properties of protective agents in mentioned indications are discussed in presented lecture. A special attention is concerned on the practical use of chemical radioprotectors in the emergency and clean-up workers after a radiation accident or nuclear catastrophes. (author)

191

Protection against radiations. EURATOM directive  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This directive gives the general principles of the protection of persons against ionizing radiations during medical exposures in following cases: exposure of patients in a diagnosis or therapy purpose, exposure in the field of professional medical surveillance, exposure in the case of medical screening programs, exposure of sane volunteer persons in the frame of medical research, exposure of persons in the case of medico-legal proceeding. (N.C.)

192

State Radiation Protection Supervision and Control  

CERN Document Server

Radiation Protection Centre is carrying state supervision and control of radiation protection. The main objective of state supervision and control of radiation protection is assessing how licensees comply with requirements of the appropriate legislation and enforcement. Summary of inspections conducted in 2002 is presented.

2002-01-01

193

State Supervision and Control of Radiation Protection  

CERN Document Server

Radiation Protection Centre is carrying state supervision and control of radiation protection. The main objective of state supervision and control of radiation protection is assessing how licensees comply with requirements of the appropriate legislation and enforcement. Summary of inspections conducted in 1999-2001 is presented.

2001-01-01

194

General rules for radiation protection within the CEA  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report first describes the organisation, scope of application and principles of radiation protection within the CEA. The second part proposes an overview of rules applicable to workers exposed to ionizing radiation. These rules concern the personnel classification, exposure limits, individual control, and training of workers in radiation protection. The third part addresses the technical rules for premise laying-out: protection zoning, indicators aimed at controlling the compliance of premise classification, radiological survey and control of premise classification. The fourth part addresses the modalities of access, stay and operation in regulated zone. The next part indicates and comments arrangements specific to ionizing radiation sources and to ionizing radiation emitting equipment (authorization and possession modalities, training, certification, controls, operation zoning, etc.), specific orders (radiological control of wastes, hardware, tools and equipment management), rules related to abnormal occupational situations (alarms, contamination event, radiological events), and the different studies and analysis of radiation protection implemented during the different phases of an installation lifetime

195

Operational radiation protection: A guide to optimization  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The purpose of this publication is to provide practical guidance on the application of the dose limitation system contained in the Basic Safety Standards for Radiation Protection to operational situations both in large nuclear installations and in much smaller facilities. It is anticipated that this Guide will be useful to both the management and radiation protection staff of operations in which there is a potential for occupational radiation exposures and to the competent authorities with responsibilities for providing a programme of regulatory control. Contents: Dose limitation system; Optimization and its practical application to operational radiation protection; Major elements of an effective operational radiation protection programme; Review of selected parts of the basic safety standards with special reference to operational radiation protection; Optimization of radiation protection; Techniques for the systematic appraisal of operational radiation protection programmes. Refs and figs

196

New Radiation Protection training room  

CERN Multimedia

From now on, the theory and practical components of the Radiation Protection training, developed by the RP Group and offered by the HSE Unit’s Safety Training team to people working in a Controlled Radiation Area, will take place in a dedicated teaching room, designed specifically for this kind of training.   The new room is in the Safety Training Centre on the Prévessin site and has been open since 16 October. It has an adjoining workshop that, like the room itself, can accommodate up to 12 people. It is also equipped with an interactive board as well as instruments and detectors to test for ionising radiation. This room is located near the recently inaugurated LHC tunnel mock-up where practical training exercises can be carried out in conditions almost identical to those in the real tunnel. To consult the safety training catalogue and/or sign up for Radiation Protection training, please go to: https://cta.cern.ch For further information, please contact the Safety Trainin...

HSE Unit

2013-01-01

197

Radiation protection in hospitals of Equatorial Guinea  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

With a population of four hundred thousand (400.000) inhabitants and distributed in a territory of 28 thousand (28.000) km2, the use of ionizing radiations for medical practice in Equatorial Guinea is few and decreasing. It is used for diagnostic practices in the main hospitals of the country, where the work burden is not over 20 patients per day. The political, social and economical embryonic development of the country until recently had a negative influence on indicators and health organisations, so that even now the country does not have any radiological protection law, this shortness, in addition with the old architectural structure that x ray tools is lodging, as well as dosimetrical lack of employed staff, put this staff under risk of electromagnetic energy. This is to show the present survey of medical activities with ionizing radiation and to request technical support for implementing suitably the basic standards of radiation protection which will help us as basis for the elaboration outline law, on radiological protection in accordance with the new guidelines of the International Atomic Energy Agency. (author)

198

Radiation protection problems with dental radiological equipment  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

With the advent of the EC Patient Directive, the importance of surveying and optimising patient exposure for diagnostic imaging procedures is paramount. In the field of dentistry there has been a heightened interest in areas of equipment performance and patient exposure. This interest, coupled with a number of dental radiation safety incidents investigated by our department, and the issuing of a Code of Practice for Radiological Protection in Dentistry by the Department of Health, led to the establishment in our department, of an evaluation protocol for the performance and operation of dental X ray equipment. The protocol was used to perform a survey on over 100 dental X ray units in use in the Public Sector in Ireland. This presentation will report on the radiation incidents mentioned above. It will detail the protocol and furnish the results and conclusions of the survey. The survey has made it possible to establish clearly the necessary steps required to ensure compliance with requirements. In addition, the corrective steps taken by the dental authorities will be presented and the overall impact of the regulations and the programme consequent on them will be reviewed. (Author)

199

Measures of radiation protection in the operation of nuclear power plants in the German Democratic Republic  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A survey is given on the provisions concerning (a) radiation protection at nuclear power plants in the GDR including the instructions applying within the plant, (b) the organization of radiation protection services, and (c) the measures of radiation protection surveillance inside and outside the plant during operation. (author)

200

An introduction to radiation protection principles  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The purpose of the document is to outline the fundamentals of radiation protection, to describe methods that enable employees to work safely with radiation and to aquaint employees with CRNL's radiation and industrial safety organization

 
 
 
 
201

Risk philosophy of the radiation protection operations  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Ionizing radiation is dangerous in two different ways: (i) high doses can cause serious injuries and (ii) low doses involve the risk of cancer and inheritable harm. The radiation protection aims at avoiding the high doses and keeping the low doses as low as possible. The estimation of the probability of radiation damage makes it possible to arrange radiation protection against each radiation source. In the case of ultraviolet radiation, similar assumptions are made. (G.B.)

202

SSDL for radiation protection of Thailand  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In Thailand, the Atomic Energy for Peace Act was enacted by the King in 1961, and Office of Atomic Energy for Peace was established to serve as the secretariat of the Atomic Energy for Peace Commission of Thailand. The import and export of radioactive materials, and the owners and users of radioactive materials must be licensed by the OAEP. The program for establishing the SSDL to calibrate radiation protection instruments started in 1981, and was completed in 1990. The calibration of survey meters and direct reading personnel dosimeters has been provided since 1986. The average number of the devices calibrated by the SSDL per month is shown. The categories of radiation utilization in Thailand are nucleonic gauging and control, nondestructive testing, oil and coal logging, radiation technology and research. The capability of the SSDL and the calibrated radiation measuring instruments for respective categories of utilization are reported. The number of the instruments used for radiography was 217, followed by 171 for nucleonic gauging and control. With the increasing use of radioactive materials, the work of radiation safety must be improved. Together with the license authority, the SSDL must expand its activity to assure the safe handling of radiation sources. (K.I.)

203

Fundamentals of practical radiation protection. 6. rev. ed.  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The book ''fundamentals of practical radiation protection'' includes the following chapters: Introduction; structure of matter; radiation types; radiation sources; radiation propagation in matter; characteristics of radiation effects; biological effects of ionizing radiation; radiation measurement; protective measures against radiation fields; protective measures against contamination; legal radiation protection regulations; radiation protection in specific working areas; obligations according to the radiation protection and X-ray regulations. The attachment covers examples of application, tables and diagrams, references and glossaries.

204

Radiation protection in radioiodine therapy  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Clinic of Nuclear Medicine and Endocrinology of the Motol City Hospital has had continuous tradition of I-131 treatment for almost 50 years. Nowadays the therapeutic part of the Clinic focuses on differentiated follicular and papillary thyroid cancers, rarely neuroendocrine tumors (neuroblastoma, pheochromocytoma, etc.). There is absolute necessity to comply with the rules of radiation protection which is especially important in the case when high activities are administered. This affects not only personnel but also other visitors (maintenance engineers, students, inspectors of the regulatory authorities). Radioiodine laboratory employees, who process and administer 131 1 are the most exposed group with the possibly highest radiation exposure. The investigation reference level for extemal exposure has been set 1 mSv , while the intervention level 20 mSv .During the last ten years, when the clinic has been located in the new building of Motol Hospital, the intervention level had not been reached, investigation level had been exceeded mostly by workers from the referred most exposed group by maximally 20 %. The extemal exposure of radioiodine laboratory workers is minimized by personal protective equipment and by using a special PC controlled pi petting device for preparing 1311 treatment activities. Every exposed ward worker undergoes according to official directives (Section 77 paragraph 6 of Regulation No. 307 /2002 Coll. implementing the Reg. No. 499/2005 Coll. and SUJB Requirements for thyroid radioiodine therapy) regular measuring of possible thyroid contamination. The investigation reference level of internal contamination is set to 1 kBq, the intervention level is 3 kBq. The investigation level was exceeded several times in the period from 1998. The intervention level was exceeded once (3,2 kBq) and concerned nurse was sent to the National Radiation Protection Institute (SURO). The committed effective dose was in this case determined to be E(50)=0.64 mSv. (authors)

205

New instruments for radiation protection  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Though a century old, the radiation protection is actual by its purpose: a dose as low as reasonable achievable is to be received either by involved professionals or population. This threshold is dependent on the technical progress. Some major developments like surface mounted device technology, consumer almost ideal operational amplifiers, microcontrollers and the news signal digital processing techniques, offer the opportunity to design improved instruments for radioprotection. To put in a light portable instrument both the whole measuring system and the 'intelligence' - a microcontroller and the associated software - are the main ideas applied by the authors. The result is presented: a family of eight members, at least, based on two parents. (authors)

206

SI units in radiation protection  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In the field of radiation protection all hitherto used units for activity, activity concentrations, exposure, absorbed dose, and dose rates have to be replaced by SI units during the next years. For this purpose graphs and conversion tables are given as well as recommendations on unit combinations preferentially to be used. As to the dose equivalent, it is suggested to introduce a new special unit being 100 times greater than the rem, instead of maintaining the rem or using the gray for both absorbed dose and dose equivalent. Measures and time schedule relating to the gradual transition to SI units in measuring techniques, training, and publishing et cetera are explained. (author)

207

Radiation protection in dental radiography  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In considering the special provisions required in dental radiography, investigations were conducted in Iran. Radiation dose levels in dental radiography were found to be high. Patient exposure from intraoral radiographic examination was calculated, using 50kV X-ray. Thermoluminescent dosimeters were fastened to the nasion, eyes, lip, philtrum, thyroid, gonads and to the right and left of the supra-orbital, infra-orbital temporomandibular joints of live patients. The highest exposure value was for the lower lip. Recommendations concerning educational training and protection of staff and patients were included

208

Radiation protection - an overview of the concept for radiation protection at work and the concept for environmental radiation protection  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This book gives an overview of the entire field of radiation protection with the subject areas radioactivity, X-rays, UV radiation, laser beams and high-frequency electromagnetic fields. It deals graphically with the most important physical notions, the incidence, origin, properties and biological effects of types of radiation, administrative and practical protection measures and the code of rules governing them. Apart from fundamentals of radiation protection the emphasis on the following: natural radiation exposure, radiation exposure to radon, disaster relief plans in the environment of nuclear plant, the precautionary radiation protection system evolved after Chernobyl, radiation exposure through UV radiation devices, radio, RF communication, radar, microwave ovens and high-voltage transmission lines as well as computer work-places. (orig.)

209

Radiation protection of non-human species  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The effects of radiation on non-human species, both animals and plants, have long been investigated. In the disposal of radioactive wastes, the protection of non-human species has been investigated. Yet no radiation protection standard for exposure of animals and plants per se has been agreed. The International Commission on Radiological Protection has long taken the view that, if human beings are properly protected from radiation, other species will thereby be protected to the extent necessary for their preservation. However, the International Atomic Energy Agency has found it necessary to investigate the protection of non-human species where radioactivity is released to an environment unpopulated by human beings. It is proposed that the basis of such protection, and the knowledge of radiation effects on non-human species on which it is based, suggest a practical radiation protection standard for non-human species. (1 tab.)

210

The radiation protection officer in medicine and engineering  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Subjects: Function and tasks of the radiation protection officers; Behaviour in radiation protection areas; Radiation protection in practice; Staff training and motivation; Measuring equipment; Radiation protection plans - structural, apparative and staff-related; Explanations of radiation protection legislation. This practical guide makes the many requirements on radiation protection easier and more transparent. (orig.)

211

Application of radiation to environmental protection  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A survey was made to investigate the current applications of radiations to environmental protection. Electron irradiation is used for desulfurization and denitration of flue gas. Flue gas generated from combusted fossil fuel such as coal and oil is irradiated with electrons to oxidize sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides, which are then removed to clean the flue gas. Ammonia or lime may be added before irradiation to convert sulfer dioxide and nitrogen oxides into ammonium sulfate and ammonium nitrate or convert sulfur dioxide into calcium sulfite and calcium sulfate. Radiations are helpful for treatment of waste water. When water is irradiated with radiations, most of the energy is absorbed by water to cause decomposition of water molecules, resulting in the production of highly reactive species such as OH radical and H atom. Contaminants then react with these species and are oxidized into carbon dioxide and water. Other methods are also available for applying radiations to water treatment. Sludge contains a large amount of organic substances that serve as fertilizer components. Thus, radiations can be used to sterilize and compost sludge. (Nogami, K.)

212

Radiation protection planning and management during revision  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

During the operation of nuclear power plants it is normally possible for the in-house personnel to take care of arising radiation protection problems. However, in the comparatively short revision phases, the duties of radiation protection become much more varied. Additional trained radiation protection crews are needed at short notice. This is also the time in which the largest contributions are made to the annual cumulated doses of the personnel. Recent guidelines and rules trying to reduce the radiation exposure of personnel concentrate on this very point. The article outlines the radiation protection activities performed by the service personnel in the course of a steam generator check. (orig.)

213

Radiation protection training in Germany  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Verifying the possibilities for harmonization of the radiation protection education one has to define the aims and the present status. The aims are an education system, effective in contents and economy, complying with the national and European legal regulations, which is well accepted by the persons concerned. The German-Swiss Radiation Protection Association (FS) has already pointed at the special meaning of this topic repeatedly. In the following the FS-working group 'education; describes the present training situation and challenge in Germany. (orig.) [German] Das deutsche Konzept der Strahlenschutzausbildung, entwickelt auf der Grundlage von Vorschlaegen des deutsch-schweizerischen Fachverbandes fuer Strahlenschutz (FS), geht von dem Gedanken aus, dass die Anwendung ionisierender Strahlung unter der Kontrolle einer Person mit der notwendigen Fachkunde fuer die jeweilige Taetigkeit stehen sollte. Dieses Konzept ist vor allem auf die Vielzahl der Anwendungen und auf die Akzeptanz durch die Auszubildenden ausgerichtet. Es spezifiziert ein Kurssystem, das sowohl aus Kompaktkursen als auch aus einer Kombination von Grundkursen und Aufbaukursen besteht. Das Konzept hat sich im Grossen und Ganzen als erfolgreich erwiesen. Die Anzahl der Fachkundegruppen sollte jedoch aus Gruenden der besseren Anpassung verringert werden. (orig.)

Vogt, H.G. [Hannover Univ. (Germany). Zentrum fuer Strahlenschutz und Radiooekologie

1999-07-01

214

XXVII. Days of Radiation Protection. Conference Proceedings  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The publication has been set up as a proceedings of the conference dealing with health protection during work with ionizing radiation for different activities which involve the handling of ionizing radiation sources. The main conference topics are focused on current problems in radiation protection and radioecology. In this proceedings totally 83 papers are published

215

Radiation protection. 1985 revised version. 8. ed.  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The new 1985 version of the information brochure takes into account experience gained during performance of courses in radiation protection. The brochure presents clear and concise information on aspects and subjects such as: scientific fundamentals, interaction between radiation and matter, biological radiation effects, the relevant legislation (Radiation Protection Ordinance, X-Ray Ordinance), measuring principles and equipment, calibration of equipment, rules for the safe handling of ionizing radiation and sealed or unsealed radiation sources, transport of radioactive substances, handling of X-ray device, and protective measures for the case of incidents or accidents. (DG)

216

Radiation protection programme progress report 1988  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The progress report of the radiation protection programme outlines the research work carried out in 1988 under contracts between the Commission of the European Communities and research groups in the Member States. Results of more than 350 projects are reported. They are grouped into six sectors: Radiation dosimetry and its interpretation; Behaviour and control of radionuclides in the environment; Nonstochastic effects of ionizing radiation; Radiation carcinogenesis; Genetic effects of ionizing radiation; Evaluation of radiation risks and optimization of protection. Within the framework programme, the aim of this scientific research is to improve the conditions of life with respect to work and protection of man and his environment and to assure a safe production of energy, i.e.: (i) to improve methods necessary to protect workers and the population by updating the scientific basis for appropriate standards; (ii) to prevent and counteract harmful effects of radiation; (iii) to assess radiation risks and provide methods to cope with the consequences of radiation accidents

217

Manual on radiation protection in hospitals and general practice. Basic protection requirements  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The manual as a whole deals with the radiation protection of patients, occupationally exposed persons, and the public. Volume 1, on basic protection requirements, is a general review common to all medical applications of ionizing radiation and radionuclides. Radiation protection is required for patients and staff, and with regard to medical research and chemical trials of new methods; radiation equipment and operating procedures are discussed in connection with diagnostic x-ray installations, x-ray beam therapy, gamma-ray installations for teletherapy, brachytherapy, unsealed sources for therapeutic use, and the diagnostic use of unsealed sources in nuclear medicine. In planning of radiation facilities, attention is paid to levels at which medical care is given, the centralization and decentralization of radiation facilities, diagnostic x-ray facilities and therapy facilities, and nuclear medicine and therapy with unsealed sources. Shielding design is discussed applicable to diagnostic radiology, radiotherapy, nuclear medicine and the therapeutic use of radionuclides. Assignment of responsibilities, legal responsibilities, safety checks, refresher courses and symposia are discussed in the context of organizing radiation protection. Radiation surveys are necessary, and such surveys are described for x-ray and gamma-ray beams, sealed radioactive sources and nuclear medicine. A whole section is devoted to personnel monitoring and health surveillance. An annex gives a lis health surveillance. An annex gives a list of commonly used radionuclides, another deals with the design of protective shielding

218

Basic concepts on environmental radiation protection  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This chapter makes an overview on basic concepts of environmental radiation protection, approaching the system of protection for practices, evaluation oc the environmental radiologic impact, environmental monitoring, models and exposures pathways

219

Occupational radiation protection legislation in Israel  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Various governmental agencies, including the Ministry of Health, the Ministry of Labor and the Israel AEC are responsible for the control of the use of radioactive materials and medical X-ray machines in Israel. Present legislation deals mainly with the legal aspects of the purchase, transport and possession of radioactive materials and the purchase and operation of medical X-ray machines. No legislation refers explicitly to the protection of the worker from ionizing (and non-ionizing) radiation. A special group of experts appointed by the Minister of Labor recently worked out a comprehensive draft law concerning all legal aspects of occupational radiation protection in Israel. Among the main chapters of the draft are: general radiation protection principles, national radiation protection standards, medical supervision of radiation workers, personal monitoring requirements. The present situation with regard to radiation hazard control in Israel and details of the proposed radiation protection law is discussed. (Author)

220

New radiation protection legislation in Sweden  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The objective of the new Act is to protect humans, animals and the environment from the harmful effects of ionizing as well as non-ionizing radiation. As previously, the main responsibility for public radiation protection will rest with a single central radiation protection authority. According to the Act, the general obligations with regard to radiation protection will assign greater responsibility than in the past to persons carrying out activities involving radiation. Persons engaged in such activities will be responsible for the safe processing and storage of radioactive waste. The Act also contains rules governing decommissioning of technical equipment capable of generating radiation. The Act contains several rules providing for more effective supervision. The supervisory authority may, in particular, decide on the necessary regulations and prohibitions for each individual case. The scope for using penal provisions has been extended and a rule on the mandatory execution of orders regarding radiation protection measures has been introduced. (authors)

 
 
 
 
221

Device for the radiation shield in radiation protection wall penetrations  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The invention has been aimed at a device for the radiation shield in radiation protection wall penetrations. Within a misaligned tube a protective barrier is arranged through which at least one channel opening is guided on the principle of gap area lapping. The invention renders possible to use much less absorber material for the protective barrier

222

Radiation protection in nuclear energy. V.1  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The conference was convened to provide a forum for the exchange of international views on the principles of radiation protection for regulators and practitioners, to highlight issues of current importance, to examine the problems encountered in applying the principles of radiation protection, and, where possible, to identify generic solutions. A special session entitled ''The dose-response relationship: implications for nuclear energy'', and a panel on ''Radiation protection education and training'' were included in the conference programme. Refs, figs and tabs

223

Structure and Responsibilities of Radiation Protection Centre  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Constitution of Radiation Protection Centre (RPC) in Lithuania is presented. RPC was established in 1997, in 1999 the Government granted the status of the regulatory authority of Lithuania on radiation protection issues. Currently there are two departments at RPC: two in Vilnius - Department of Radiation Protection Supervision and Control and Department of Programs and Expertise, and four in the districts. Main tasks of RPC are listed

224

Radiation protection activities and status in Asia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The status of radiation protection practices in Asian countries is monitored by different means, e.g. the IAEA technical cooperation activities, by an overall assessment of conditions in a country by RAPAT missions, and on the basis of data collected through various regional activities. The radiation protection situation in Asia is very heterogeneous. There is a group of countries with very well developed radiation protection practices and advanced in the application of the Basic Safety Standards, but the majority of Asian member states still need improvement, several lacking the necessary fundamental infrastructure for radiation protection

225

New infrastructures for training in radiation protection  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this work, an analysis of the new infrastructure used in the radiation protection training and professional education, which is developed nowadays, is carried out. CIEMAT has been making many efforts in the education and training of professionals at all levels, for years. At present CIEMAT is developing educational activities in radiation protection general courses and professionals updating courses. The newest strategies for the radiation protection learning are developing in collaboration with professional societies. These try to encourage the technology transference, the collaboration between the actors involved with the radiation protection and the new information technology implementation. (Author) 11 refs

226

33. Days of Radiation Protection. Presentations  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The publication has been set up as presentations of the conference dealing with health protection during work with ionizing radiation for different activities which involve the handling of ionizing radiation sources. The main conference topics are focused on the current problems in radiation protection and radioecology. On the web-page totally 103 presentations or posters are published. The Conference consists of the following sections: (I) Effects of ionizing radiation (radiology, health effects, risk factors); (II) General aspects of radiation protection (recommendations and legislative in radiation protection); (III): Dosimetry and metrology of ionizing radiation (metrology, instrumentation, use of computational methods); (IV) Radiation protection in nuclear power industry (working environment in the nuclear industry, the impact on the environment, nuclear power shutdown management); (V) Emergency management (emergencies, accidents, waste); (VI) Radiation load and protection in diagnostics, nuclear medicine and radiation oncology (burden on patients, staff, size of population exposure from medical sources of ionizing radiation, security, and quality control, optimization); (VII) Natural sources of radiation in workplaces and the environment (radon and other radionuclides, the risk estimation, optimization); (VIII) Education (new trends in education of radiation experts, medical physicists and stake-holders).

227

New general radiation protection training course  

CERN Multimedia

Some members of CERN personnel, users included, may have to work in supervised or controlled radiation areas, or may be concerned with activities involving the use of radioactive sources. According to CERN Safety rules all persons whose work may encounter ionising radiation risk must be adequately trained. This training must ensure that workers are informed about the potential health risks which could result from radiation exposure, about the basic principles of radiation protection and of the relevant radiation protection regulations as well as about safe working methods and techniques in radiation zones. Therefore the Organization organises mandatory general and work-specific radiation protection (RP) courses addressed to its personnel. These courses are also open to contractors’ personnel, in addition to the RP training they must receive from their employers. Based on the results of a pilot project, an improved general radiation protection course has been prepared. This...

2008-01-01

228

New general radiation protection training course  

CERN Multimedia

Some members of CERN personnel, including users, may have to work in supervised or controlled radiation areas, or may be involved in activities involving the use of radioactive sources. According to CERN Safety Rules all persons whose work may be associated with ionising radiation risk must be adequately trained. This training must ensure that workers are informed about the potential health risks which could result from radiation exposure, the basic principles of radiation protection and the relevant radiation protection regulations as well as safe working methods and techniques in radiation zones. Therefore the Organization organises mandatory general and work-specific radiation protection (RP) courses for its personnel. These courses are also open to contractors’ personnel, in addition to the RP training they must receive from their employers. Based on the results of a pilot project, an improved general radiation protection course has been prepared. This new ½ day cours...

2008-01-01

229

Quantities and units in radiation protection  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This lecture contains a short review of quantities and units used in radiation protection as well as units used in describing of nuclear reactions, LET values, and radiation length of the particles. The simulations of some radioactive decays are included

230

Basic principles of radiation protection in Canada  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The major goal of radiation protection in Canada is to ensure that individuals are adequately protected against the harm that might arise from unwarranted exposure to ionizing radiation. This report deals with the basic principles and organizations involved in protection against ionizing radiation. Three basic principles of radiation protection are: 1) that no practice shall be adopted unless its introduction produces a positive net benefit for society, 2) that all exposures shall be kept as low as reasonably achievable, relevant economic and social factors being taken into account, and 3) that doses to individuals should not exceed specified annual limits. The limit for radiation workers is currently 50 mSv per year, and exposures of the general public should not exceed a small fraction of that of radiation workers. Other specific areas in radiation protection which have received considerable attention in Canada include limitations on collective dose (the sum of the individual doses for all exposed individuals), exemption rules for extremely small radiation doses or amounts of radioactive materials, occupational hazards in uranium mining, and special rules for protection of the foetus in pregnant female radiation workers. Implementation of radiation protection principles in Canada devolves upon the Atomic Energy Control Board, the Department of National Health and Welfare, provincial authorities, licensees and radiation workers. A brief description is given of the roles of each of these groups

231

100 years of ionizing radiation protection  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The development of radiation protection from the end of 19. century and evolution of opinion about injurious effect of ionizing radiation were presented. Observations of undesirable effects of ionizing radiation exposition, progress of radiobiology and dosimetry directed efforts toward radiation protection. These activities covered, at the beginning, limited number of persons and were subsequently extended to whole population. The current means, goals and regulations of radiological control have been discussed

232

Radiation Protection Group annual report (1996)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Annual Report of the Radiation Protection Group is intended to inform the Host State Authorities, as well as the CERN Management and staff, about the radiological situation at CERN during the year 1996. The structure of the present report follows that of previous years and has five sections. It presents the results of environmental radiation monitoring, gives information about the radiation control on the sites of the Organization, describes the radiation protection activities around the CERN accelerators, reports on personnel dosimetry, calibration and instrumentation, and briefly comments on the non-routine activities of the Radiation Protection Group

233

Radiation Protection Group annual report (1998)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Annual Report of the Radiation Protection Group is intended to inform the Host State Authorities, as well as the CERN Management and staff, about the radiological situation at CERN during the year 1998. The structure of the present report follows that of previous years and has five sections. It presents the results of environmental radiation monitoring, gives information about the radiation control on the sites of the Organization, describes the radiation protection activities around the CERN accelerators, reports on personnel dosimetry, calibration and instrumentation, and briefly comments on the non-routine activities of the Radiation Protection Group

234

Radiation Protection Group annual report (1997)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Annual Report of the Radiation Protection Group is intended to inform the Host State Authorities, as well as the CERN Management and staff, about the radiological situation at CERN during the year 1997. The structure of the present report follows that of previous years and has five sections. It presents the results of environmental radiation monitoring, gives information about the radiation control on the sites of the Organization, describes the radiation protection activities around the CERN accelerators, reports on personnel dosimetry, calibration and instrumentation, and briefly comments on the non-routine activities of the Radiation Protection Group

235

Radiation Protection Group annual report (1995)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Annual Report of the Radiation Protection Group is intended to inform the Host State Authorities, as well as the CERN Management and staff, about the radiological situation at CERN during the year 1995. The structure of the present report follows that of previous years and has five sections. It presents the results of environmental radiation monitoring, gives information about the radiation control on the sites of the Organization, describes the radiation protection activities around the CERN accelerators, reports on personnel dosimetry, calibration and instrumentation, and briefly comments on the non-routine activities of the Radiation Protection Group

236

Status of radiation protection at different hospitals in Nepal  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Nepal has a long history of medical radiology since 1923 but unfortunately, we still do not have any radiation protection infrastructure to control the use of ionizing radiations in the various fields. The objective of this study was an assessment of the radiation protection in medical uses of ionizing radiation. Twenty-eight hospitals with diagnostic radiology facility were chosen for this study according to patient loads, equipment and working staffs. Radiation surveys were also done at five different radiotherapy centers. Questionnaire for radiation workers were used; radiation dose levels were measured and an inventory of availability of radiation equipment made. A corollary objective of the study was to create awareness in among workers on possible radiation health hazard and risk. It was also deemed important to know the level of understanding of the radiation workers in order to initiate steps towards the establishment of Nepalese laws, regulation and code of radiological practice in this field. Altogether, 203 radiation workers entertained the questionnaire, out of which 41 are from the Radiotherapy and 162 are from diagnostic radiology. The radiation workers who have participated in the questionnaire represent more than 50% of the radiation workers working in this field in Nepal. Almost all X-ray, CT and Mammogram installations were built according to protection criteria and hence found safe. Radiation dose level at the reference points for all the five radiohe reference points for all the five radiotherapy centers are within safe limit. Around 65% of the radiation workers have never been monitored for radiation. There is no quality control program in any of the surveyed hospitals except radiotherapy facilities. (author)

237

Status of radiation protection at different hospitals in Nepal  

Science.gov (United States)

Nepal has a long history of medical radiology since1923 but unfortunately, we still do not have any Radiation Protection Infrastructure to control the use of ionizing radiations in the various fields. The objective of this study was an assessment of the radiation protection in medical uses of ionizing radiation. Twenty-eight hospitals with diagnostic radiology facility were chosen for this study according to patient loads, equipment and working staffs. Radiation surveys were also done at five different radiotherapy centers. Questionnaire for radiation workers were used; radiation dose levels were measured and an inventory of availability of radiation equipment made. A corollary objective of the study was to create awareness in among workers on possible radiation health hazard and risk. It was also deemed important to know the level of understanding of the radiation workers in order to initiate steps towards the establishment of Nepalese laws, regulation and code of radiological practice in this field. Altogether, 203 Radiation workers entertained the questionnaire, out of which 41 are from the Radiotherapy and 162 are from diagnostic radiology. The radiation workers who have participated in the questionnaire represent more than 50% of the radiation workers working in this field in Nepal. Almost all X-ray, CT and Mammogram installations were built according to protection criteria and hence found safe. Radiation dose level at the reference points for all the five Radiotherapy centers are within safe limit. Around 65% of the radiation workers have never been monitored for radiation. There is no quality control program in any of the surveyed hospitals except radiotherapy facilities. PMID:23293457

Adhikari, Kanchan P.; Jha, L.N.; Galan, Montenegro P.

2012-01-01

238

Sense and purpose of radiation protection training  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Training in radiation protection is of great significance in connection with the activities of the executive, the federal army and emergency organizations in emergency operations for the protection of the population in the case of large-scale radioactive contamination due to diverse causes. The presently valid legal situation of radiation protection training is presented in connection with the expected modification in the amendment to the SSVO. The special situation of radiation protection training for the executive, the federal army and emergency organizations is described and discussed in connection with the new aspects outlined in the draft of the new radiation protection regulation. In conclusion, problems arising in the conveyance of basic knowledge in radiation protection are illustrated by means of a concrete example. (author)

239

First Asian regional congress on radiation protection  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Due to the rapid progress in the development of nuclear energy and its applications in medicine, agriculture and industry, the potential danger to targe groups of population due to radiation hazards has increased. Thus, radiation protection has become an important aspects of industrial and public hygiene. The article reviews the deliberations of the First Asian Regional Congress on Radiation Protection which was held during 15-20 December 1974 at the Bhabha Atomic Research Centre. 190 papers were presented on the following broad subjects: (1) organization of radiation protection services on a countrywide scale and significant problems and experiences; (2) research and cooperation, mutual assistance, education and training; (3) personnel monitoring; (4) nuclear industry risks and benefits; (5) radiation protection legislation and (6) panel discussions and regional international cooperation in the field of radiation protection. (S.K.K.)

240

Tripartism and radiation protection - the way forward  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Radiation protection with its highly sophisticated conceptual framework and technical complexity, is an issue on which it is sometimes difficult to achieve consensus among the social partners, particularly as the subject evokes emotional responses. A functional difficulty arises when the agencies charged with providing broad policy direction in occupational health have little or no expertise in radiation protection. This arrangement seriously constrains the process of expert scientific input to the tripartite bodies. In this paper, experiences with tripartism and radiation protection in Western Australia are exampled to illustrate the type of problems which can arise. Suggestions are made for improving tripartite consideration of radiation issues. It is concluded that the radiation protection community needs to be aware of the socio-political environment in which it operates, if it is to contribute effectively to future policy and standards for radiation protection. 12 refs

 
 
 
 
241

The IRPA [International Radiation Protection Association] perspective  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The development of guidelines, recommendations, standards, and criteria in radiation protection is the task of many government and nongovernment organizations. These standards are used in all applications of ionizing and nonionizing radiations and also relate to natural sources as well as accidental sources of radiations. The primary purpose of the International Radiation Protection Association (IRPA) is to serve as a medium for international communication and cooperation in radiation protection with the goal of advancing sound and effective radiation protection in all parts of the world. The IRPA is an association of 30 independent associate societies active in 35 countries, and the organization is governed by its 13,000 individual members who elect the general assembly. To encourage this process, IRPA has set up formal links with the international organizations and, for example, occupies an observer position on committees of the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) and the Nuclear Energy Agency of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD)

242

Radiation protection. 2. rev. ed.  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This direction specifies how to perform the Radiation Protection Ordinance-StrlSchV of October 13th, 1976 with respect to the state of science and technique in the field of medicine. In order to answer to the special organizing conditions in hospitals and doctor's consulting rooms this direction is disposed as follows: 1) Handling with unsealed radioactive material for diagnostic and therapy purposes in the field of nuclear medicine. 2) Handling with sealed radioactive material for interstitial and intra-cavitary therapy as well as for contact therapy and implantation. 3) Operation of plants for ionizing radiation production in radiotherapy (electron accelerators and other accelerators used in medicine. 4) Handling with sealed radioactive material in irradiation devices with radioactive sources for radiotherapy. This direction also concerns the handling with unsealed radioactive material in laboratory diagnostic including clinical chemistry for detecting and quantifying human disease as far as diagnostic at patients is effected (in-vivo-diagnostic). It also concerns the planning of devices considered for the above mentioned handling or operation, respectively. (orig./HP)

243

Biological research for radiation protection  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The work scope of Biological research for the radiation protection had contained the search of biological microanalytic methods for assessing the health effect by {gamma}-radiation and toxic agents, the standardization of human T-lymphocyte cell culture and polymerase chain reaction, T-cell clonal assay, and the quantification of mutation frequency in the hypoxanthine (guanine) phosphoribosyl transferase (HPRT) gene locus by single exposure or combined exposure. Especially, the polymerase chain reaction methods using reverse transcriptase has been developed to analyze the mutant gene induced by {gamma}-radiation and chemical (pentachlorophenol) agent exposure, and to investigate the point mutations in the HPRT gene locus of T-lymphocytes. The HPRT T-cell clonal assay revealed that it could not differentiate {gamma}-irradiation from pentachlorophenol, because the frequency of somatic mutations induced by both damaging agents increased in a dose-dependent manner. The analysis of DNA sequence alterations of HPRT mutant clones clearly showed that both damaging agents induced different mutational spectra in the HPRT locus of T-cells. The large deletions, which account for 75 percent of the analyzed mutants, are characteristic mutations induced by {gamma}-irradiation. By contrast, point mutations such as base substitutions and insertion, come up to 97 percent in the case of pentachlorophenol-treated cells. The point mutation frequencies at 190 base pair and 444 base pair positions are 3-6 folds as high as in those at other mutation positions. It may be that these mutation sites are hot spots induced by pentachlorophenol. These results suggest that the HPRT mutation spectrum can be used as a potential bio marker for assessing a specific environmental risk. (author)

Kim, In Gyu; Kim, Kug Chan; Shim, Hae Won; Oh, Tae Jeong; Park, Seon Young; Lee, Kang Suk

2000-04-01

244

Biological research for radiation protection  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The work scope of Biological research for the radiation protection had contained the search of biological microanalytic methods for assessing the health effect by ?-radiation and toxic agents, the standardization of human T-lymphocyte cell culture and polymerase chain reaction, T-cell clonal assay, and the quantification of mutation frequency in the hypoxanthine (guanine) phosphoribosyl transferase (HPRT) gene locus by single exposure or combined exposure. Especially, the polymerase chain reaction methods using reverse transcriptase has been developed to analyze the mutant gene induced by ?-radiation and chemical (pentachlorophenol) agent exposure, and to investigate the point mutations in the HPRT gene locus of T-lymphocytes. The HPRT T-cell clonal assay revealed that it could not differentiate ?-irradiation from pentachlorophenol, because the frequency of somatic mutations induced by both damaging agents increased in a dose-dependent manner. The analysis of DNA sequence alterations of HPRT mutant clones clearly showed that both damaging agents induced different mutational spectra in the HPRT locus of T-cells. The large deletions, which account for 75 percent of the analyzed mutants, are characteristic mutations induced by ?-irradiation. By contrast, point mutations such as base substitutions and insertion, come up to 97 percent in the case of pentachlorophenol-treated cells. The point mutation frequencies at 190 base pair and 444 base pair positions are 3-6 folds as high as in those at other mutation positions. It may be that these mutation sites are hot spots induced by pentachlorophenol. These results suggest that the HPRT mutation spectrum can be used as a potential bio marker for assessing a specific environmental risk. (author)

245

Project Radiation protection, Annual report 1994  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

According to the action plan for the period 1991-1995, the main objective of this project during 1994 was to provide operational basis, methods and procedures for solving the radiation protection problems that might appear under routine working conditions and handling of radiation sources. The aim was also to provide special methods for action in case of accidents that could affect the employed staff and the population. Overall activity was directed to maintaining and providing personnel, instrumentation, and methods for the following special radiation protection measures: operational control of the radiation field and contamination; calibration of the radiation and dosimetry instruments-secondary dosimetry metrology laboratory; instrumentation and measuring systems for radiation protection; control of environmental transfer of radioactive material; medical radiation protection

246

Radiation protection of air crew at exposition with cosmic radiation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this presentation authors deals with radiation protection of air crew at exposition by cosmic radiation. Some results of measurements of dose equivalents on some air board from Slovakia are presented

247

Summary of radiation protection in exploitation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This document proposes a large and detailed overview of notions and practices regarding radiation protection in relationship with an NPP exploitation framework. It presents the main notions: matter structure, radioactivity, interactions between matter and radiations, types of ionizing radiation, magnitudes and measurement units, exposure modes, main principles of radiation protection, means of protection against internal and external exposures. The second part proposes an overview of the origin of radiological risks in a nuclear power plant. This origin can be found in fission products, activation products, actinides, designed protections, or circuit contaminations. These radiological risks are more precisely identified and described in terms of detection and prevention (internal exposure risk, contamination risk, iodine-related risk, alpha radiation-related risk, access to the reactor building). The next part addresses the medical and radiological follow-up of exposed workers by a special medical control, by an individual exposure control, by a specific control of female personnel, and by attention to exceptional exposures. Measurement means are presented (detection principles, installation continuous control, workspaces control, personnel contamination control, follow-up of individual dose) as well as collective and individual protection means. The management of radiation protection is addressed through a presentation of decision and management structures for radiation protection, and of EDF objectives and ambitions in this domain. The organization of radiation protection during exploitation is described: responsibilities for radiation protection in a nuclear power station, requirements for workers, preparation of interventions in controlled zone, work execution in controlled zone, zone controls and radiological cleanness of installations. The two last chapters address issues and practices of radiation protection in the case of deconstruction or dismantling, and in the case of transportation of radioactive materials and objects. Appendices contain information of biological effects of ionizing radiations, main regulatory texts, and involved international and French bodies

248

Radiation protection laws in the Nordic countries  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Sweden has since 1988 a totally revised radiation protection law and Finland has recently enacted a new law. The legal situation of the Nordic countries in the radiation protection field is reviewed with the main emphasis on the Swedish law. (author)

249

Educational system in the radiation protection  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A general characteristic of the existing university plans and programs is a partial approach to radiation protection without a unique frame on the basis of which, certain colleges could adjust their distinctive characteristics and could analyze this multidisciplinary field which is present in our contemporary lives. We must seriously take into account the consequences of our 'ignorance' towards this field. The present 'disorganized state' in the educational system concerning radiation protection, when many professions are 'fighting' for leading roles and 'exclusive rights' in applying measures for radiation protection: physicians, chemists, doctors and others, must be regulated on international and national scales by applying powerful authority of international organizations. The key to solving this problem is found in defining minimal common bases of educational plans and programs from the field of radiation protection that would be unique for all colleges that are directly or indirectly connected to this domain. The following step could be made towards organizing specialist and graduate studies at university levels for all schools that have incorporated basis for radiation protection into their plans and programs. Lastly, as special form of continuous education in the field of radiation protection , multidisciplinary basic and specialized courses should be organized internationally intended to solve specific problems of utilization of ionising radiation sources and ization of ionising radiation sources and integral radiation protection. (author)

250

Regional radiation protection initiatives by Australia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Australia both through the auspices of the IAEA and from Government Aid Grants has contributed to the improvement of radiation protection throughout the Asia/Pacific region. The assistance has been in the form of training and improvement to radiation protection infrastructures. The presentation describes the objectives, scope and diversity of the radiation protection infrastructure program and the benefits to the large number of persons included in the program. An outline of the current IAEA program is also discussed together with an explanation of how the program will assist national regulators in the education of radiation workers, in hazardous operations such as industrial radiography

251

Radiation protection training course for health professionals  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

As the EURATOM regulations of 1996 and 1997 were implemented in German law, new amended versions of the Radiation Protection Ordinance (1 August 2001) and the X-Ray Ordinance (1 July 2002) came into force in Germany. Both ordinances require that persons authorized to use inionzing radiation must have expert knowledge in radiation protection. The extent of such knowledge is clearly specified, including practical experience and training courses, and will be tested and certified by the responsible authorities. This book intends to help provide the required knowledge in radiation protection and can also serve as a textbook during training courses. (orig.)

252

Radiation protection guidelines for space missions  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The original recommendations for radiation protection guidelines were made by the National Academy of Sciences in 1970. Since that time the US crews have become more diverse in their makeup and much has been learned about both radiation-induced cancer and other late effects. While far from adequate there is now some understanding of the risks that high-Z and -energy (HZE) particles pose. For these reasons it was time to reconsider the radiation protection guidelines for space workers. This task was undertaken recently by National Council on Radiation Protection (NCRP). 42 refs., 2 figs., 9 tabs.

Fry, R.J.M.

1987-01-01

253

Radiation protection guidelines for space missions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The original recommendations for radiation protection guidelines were made by the National Academy of Sciences in 1970. Since that time the US crews have become more diverse in their makeup and much has been learned about both radiation-induced cancer and other late effects. While far from adequate there is now some understanding of the risks that high-Z and -energy (HZE) particles pose. For these reasons it was time to reconsider the radiation protection guidelines for space workers. This task was undertaken recently by National Council on Radiation Protection (NCRP). 42 refs., 2 figs., 9 tabs

254

An introduction to radiation protection principles  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The fundamentals of radiation hazards and their control are outlined. This report is for use by all radiation workers at CRNL and copies are available for all who want one. The purposes of the document are to outline the fundamentals of radiation protection, to describe methods that enable employees to work safely with radiation and to acquaint employees with the CRNL radiation and industrial safety organization

255

Radiation protection for physicians. 2. rev. ed.  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The book is focussed on the advanced training of physicians with respect to radiation protection in the context of modern radiological techniques and nuclear medicine. The book is structured in the following chapters: physics of radiation, X-ray diagnostics and quality of an X-ray image, X--ray devices and methods, radiation dosimetry, quality control, natural and man-made radiation exposures, organizational and legal measures, biological radiation effects, practical experiences, comments concerning regulations

256

Comments to the German society's for radiation protection (Gesellschaft fur Strahlenschutz) proposed principles for radiation protection  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The German Society for Radiation Protection (in German Gesellschaft fur Strahlenschutz) is a separate society for radiation protection in Germany in addition to the leading society named Association of German and Swiss Radiation Protection Specialists (in German Fachverband fur Strahlenschutz). The Society is an international professional society. There are several hundreds members of the German Society for Radiation Protection. The German Society for Radiation Protection is not a member of IRPA (the International Radiation Protection Society). The IRPA member is the Association of German and Swiss Radiation Protection Specialists. According to information given on the web site of the Society for Radiation Protection (www.gfstrahlenschutz.de) the Society was founded in 1990 because in the opinion of the founding members the older professional societies and associations have not adequately considered and implemented the present knowledge of radiation risks and radiation protection. In accordance with its statutes the society pursues besides other aims the best possible protection of humans and the environment from the detrimental action of ionising and non-ionising radiation. The dealing with ionising and non-ionising radiation can according to the Society only be justified on the basis of biological and medical state of the art knowledge

257

Radiation protection and dosimetry; Strahlungsmessung und Dosimetrie  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The book covers the following topics: (1) radiation detectors: overview on the measuring tasks of radiation detectors; gas-filled detectors; theory of ionization chambers; solid-state detectors; other detectors; measurement series and measuring errors. (2) Dosimetry concepts and techniques: tasks and accuracy of medical dosimetry; radiation fields and radiation quality; radiation dose units; radiation field conditions during ionization dosimetry; dosimetric concepts, practical reference dosimetry using ionization chambers; dosimetric material equivalence, thermoluminescent dosimeters, remarks to the medical dosimetry. (3) Dose distributions: dose distribution of percutaneous photon radiation, dose distribution of percutaneous electron radiation, dose distribution around afterloading radiation sources; dose distribution of percutaneous neutron radiation, dose distribution of percutaneous proton radiation. (4) Other measuring tasks: spectrometry, activity and radiation protection measurements, measuring systems for X-ray imaging, problem solutions.

Krieger, Hanno

2011-07-01

258

Rules and regulations of radiation protection  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The finality of this legislative text is to guarantee the radiation protection of the exposed personnel, of the people in general and the environment against the ionizing radiations risks. Its scope includes all the natural and juridical persons that work with ionizing radiation sources into the peruvian territory

259

Using of ionizing radiation in environment protection  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this paper, there is given the review of application of the radiation chemistry techniques in the environment protection . Using of sources of ionization radiation in underground water, drinking water and waste waters as well as in exhaust gases radiation processing and treatment are reviewed

260

Radiation protection of fusion reactor magnets  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The efficiency of heterogeneous radiation protection of thermonuclear reactor (TNR) magnetic coils is estimated within the framework of a one-dimensional model. It depends on the mutual location of light and heavy components. The homogeneous protection and the iron-water protection with the optimum profile of light and heavy component location obtained from sensitivity calculations are also considered. Methodological recommendations for work with programs and constant libraries used in calculations are given. Blanket effect on protection efficiency is considered

 
 
 
 
261

Proceedings of the Russian-Hungarian seminar on radiation protection  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Proceedings of the Russian-Hungarian Seminar on Radiation Protection consist of two parts: 'Assessment of radiological situation and human exposure resulting from nuclear power plant discharges' and 'Late effects of incorporated radionuclides'. In the first part the historical portrayal of decision making on population protection in the USSR after the Chernobyl accident is analysed. Methodology of radiometric survey and data on exposure of population in Russia and Hungary to incorporated iodine-131, caesium-137, strontium-90 and to external radiation are presented. The international activity on biospheric model validation study is described. The second part includes results of joint studies on the biological and radioprotective effects of Russian and Hungarian preparations (Diethone, IOS 397, MORIN) in case of exposure to incorporated radionuclides and of skin exposure to external radiation and surface contamination. Comparative data on the radiation-induced yields of cytogenetic alterations are presented for use in assessment of doses in radiation accidents

262

From regulations towards radiation protection culture  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Compliance with the technical standards and specifications is a necessary but not sufficient condition for quality in radiation protection. Reaching this quality objective is not a matter of forcing improvements by a regulatory policy of reducing dose limits, but of promoting a real radiation protection culture. The spread of such a radiological protection culture encourages the deliberate adoption in everyday practice of behaviour likely to reduce exposure to ionizing radiation as loser as reasonably achievable. The aim of this paper is to demonstrate that the need to diffuse a radiological protection culture is inspired by the philosophy behind the system recommended by ICPR Publication 60 on the management of residual radiological risk and, in particular by the behavioural and incentive approach implied by the optimization principle. Special attention will be given to the fundamentals likely to contribute in a definition of radiation protection culture. (author)

263

The revised German radiation protection ordinance  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Since August 2001, German radiation protection law is governed by a new Radiation Protection Ordinance, implementing two new Euratom Directives and taking into account new scientific developments, which provides a comprehensive basis for the protection of man and the environment. The Ordinance has been completely restructured; however, it is still a very complex piece of legislation comprising 118 provisions and 14 annexes, some of them highly technical. Reduced dose limits for occupationally exposed persons and members of the public, a detailed provision on clearance of radioactive substances, a new part aiming at the protection of man and the environment against ionising radiation emanating from natural sources, and regulations dealing with the protection of consumers in connection with the addition of radioactive substances to consumer goods are some of the centre pieces of the new legislation which shall contribute significantly to the further prevention or at least minimisation of the adverse effects of radiation exposure. (orig.)

264

Portable radiation survey instrument manual  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The External Dose Evaluation Manual, BNWL-MA-6Z, is being issued by sections as individual procedures are completed to describe the portable radiation survey instruments in use on the Hanford site. The manual is in two parts. Part 1 covers general administrative and technical procedures associated with instrument procurement, radiological standards functions, criticality and high level exposure analysis, and special dosimetry capabilities. The specifications, calibration, operation, performance, and uses of the CP and extended CP (XCP) ionization chambers; the Juno dose ratemeter; the portable count rate meters EGM and PAM; the SNOOPY neutron dose rate meter; the Cutie Pie--Totem Pole meters LPC, TPC, and HPC; the Radeco Portable Alpha Monitor (PAM), and the Low Level Monitor (LLM) are presented

265

Guideline for radiation protection in medicine  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Four years after the Radiation Protection Ordinance, the BMI has published the 'Guideline for radiation protection in medicine'. The guideline has been compiled by more than 30 official authorities, committees, and experts' associations, including the Federal Health Office and the Central Association of the Electrical Industry. The sparse legal regulations are explained, and much valuable information is given so that everyone responsible for radiation protection ought to refer to it although it is addressed primarily to the responsible Laender authorities. There is much information beyond the fields of radiology and nuclear medicine. In addition, the guideline informs on what knowledge is required to become a radiation protection expert and obtain a license to handle radioactive materials. This is of great importance to medical students and physicians in training as they are enabled to make early provisions for using radioactive materials and ionizing radiation in their future medical practice. (orig./HK)

266

Implementation of the Radiation Protection Ordinance  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Implementation of the radiation protection ordinance. Here: Radiation protection guidelines for the use of radioactive substances and the operation of apparatus for the generation of ionizing radiation and of irradiation devices with radioactive sources in medical therapy (Radiation Protection guideline in nuclear medicine). Meeting of Laender committee on nuclear energy-Radiation protection - October 6/7, 1992. The guidelines refer to the following subjects: 1) Application of unsealed radioactive substances for examination and treatment of man, 2) Application of sealed radioactive substances for medical examinations (bone density scanning e.g.). 3) Application of sealed radioactive substances for interstitial and intracavitary treatment or contact therapy, and for implantations. 4) Application of sealed radioactive substances in irradiation equipment for brachytherapy (medical, remote-controlled after loading sytems). 5) Application of sealed radioactive substances in gamma radiation equipment for radiation therapy (teletherapy). 6) Operation of systems for the generation of ionizing radiation for radiation therapy (teletherapy) (as e.g. electron accelerators, neutron generators, cyclotrons). The guidelines also are applicable to quality assurance in the application of radioactive substances, in the operation of systems and equipment for the generation of ionizing radiation, in nuclear medicine and in radiation therapy. (orig./HP)./HP)

267

Challenges to the system of radiation protection – role and activities of the International Radiation Protection Association  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The vision of IRPA as the International Radiation Protection Association of individual radiation protection practitioners organized through national or regional societies is to be recognized by its members, stakeholders and the public as the international voice of the radiation protection profession in the enhancement of radiation protection culture and practice worldwide. It is a key challenge of IRPA to make this vision a reality.The global acceptance of radiation protection principles, in particular in the medical area, is a real challenge. Ensuring that medical procedures are justified and optimized is vital, not least for CT and hybrid imaging examinations and in pediatric medicine. There is a strong responsibility of medical physicists and radiation protection experts to ensure safe and secure application of ionizing radiation. A Technical Agreement with the IOMP (International Organization for Medical Physics) provides the way for a joint approach to enhance radiation safety in the medical field. IRPA started an initiative on Ethics in Radiation Protection and currently IRPA is working closely with ICRP on the development of guidance on Ethical Dimensions of the Radiation Protection System.To encourage and support the Associate Societies in the development of effective means of enhancing public understanding of radiation risk through the sharing of good practice, ideas and resource material, IRPA has established a Task Group on Public Understanding of Radiation Risk. The ultimate goal is to develop and promote a library of good practice activities on public understanding of radiation risk through the sharing of experience across the Associate Societies

268

Radiation Protection at Light Water Reactors  

CERN Document Server

This book is aimed at Health Physicists wishing to gain a better understanding of the principles and practices associated with a light water reactor (LWR) radiation protection program. The role of key program elements is presented in sufficient detail to assist practicing radiation protection professionals in improving and strengthening their current program. Details related to daily operation and discipline areas vital to maintaining an effective LWR radiation protection program are presented. Programmatic areas and functions important in preventing, responding to, and minimizing radiological incidents and the importance of performing effective incident evaluations and investigations are described. Elements that are integral in ensuring continuous program improvements are emphasized throughout the text.

Prince, Robert

2012-01-01

269

Quantitative risk in radiation protection standards  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The bases for developing quantitative assessment of exposure risks in the human being, and the several problems that accompany the assessment and introduction of the risk of exposure to high and low LET radiation into radiation protection, will be evaluated. The extension of the pioneering radiation protection philosophies to the control of other hazardous agents that cannot be eliminated from the environment will be discussed, as will the serious misunderstandings and misuse of concepts and facts that have inevitably surrounded the application to one agent alone, of the protection philosophy that must in time be applied to a broad spectrum of potentially hazardous agents. (orig.)

270

Gonad protective effect of radiation protective apron in chest radiography  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Depending on the facility, a radiation protective apron (protector) is used to protect the gonad from radiation exposure in chest radiography. To determine the necessity of using a protector during chest radiography, we measured the effect of the protector on the gonad in this study. First, using a human body phantom, we measured the absorbed dose of the female gonad with and without the protector, using a thermoluminescence dosimeter (TLD), and confirmed its protective effect. Using the protector, the absorbed dose was reduced to 28±2% and 39±4% for field sizes of 14 x 17 inch and 14 x 14 inch, respectively. Next, we used Monte Carlo simulation and confirmed, not only the validity of the actual measurement values, but also the fact that the influence of radiation on the absorbed dose of the gonad was mostly from scattered radiation from inside the body for the 14 x 17 inch field size, and also from the X-ray tube for the 14 x 14 inch field size. Although a certain protective effect is achieved by using the protector, the radiation dose to the gonad is only a few ?Gy even without a protector. Thus, the risk of a genetic effect would be as small as 10-8. Given that acceptable risk is below 10-6, we conclude the use of a radiation protective apron is not necessary for diagnostic chest radiography. (author)

271

Strengthening the radiation protection culture: a priority of EDF radiation protection policy  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text of publication follows: In order to improve the management of radiation protection at EDF nuclear power plants, the Human Factors Group of the Research and Development Division of EDF has performed some studies on the appropriation process of the radiation protection requirements. These studies have notably shown that an efficient application of the radiation protection requirements lies on a comprehension by all workers of the meaning of these requirements. Furthermore, they should not be applied under the constraint or because of the fear of a sanction, but the workers need to perceive and understand the benefits in terms of protection associated with the radiation protection requirements. The strengthening of the radiation protection culture is therefore a key element of the radiation protection policy developed by EDF. This culture lies on an awareness of the health risks potentially associated with low levels of ionising radiations, as well as on the knowledge of tools, techniques and good practices developed to control the level of exposures and improve the radiation protection. Various type of actions have been undertaken to reinforce among the relevant players (exposed and non-exposed workers, contractors, all levels of management,... ) an awareness of radiation protection in order to integrate it in their day to day work: elaboration of a 'radiation protection system of reference' explaining how the radiation protection regulatory requirements are an protection regulatory requirements are applied at EDF, publication of a 'radiation protection handbook' available for all workers (including contractors), training sessions, creation of networks of specialists from the various nuclear power plants on specific radiation protection issues, organisation of feed-back experience forum, etc. Beyond these specific actions, i t is also important to ensure a support and an assistance on the field by dedicated specialists. In this perspective, the health physicists have to play a key role in order to foster the appropriation of the radiation protection culture. For this reason, the structure and the skills of the health physics departments was reinforced and their presence on the field increased. The improvement of radiation protection performances at EDF nuclear power plants is strongly relying on a commitment of all the players involved. Their motivation and vigilance have to be sustained so that their involvement is not merely occasional, but fits into a continuous process. The sharing of a common radiation protection culture is essential as it develops individual and collective behaviours oriented towards a common objective: improving radiation protection and maintaining the levels of exposure as low as reasonably achievable. (author)

272

External dosimetry - Applications to radiation protection  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Dosimetry is the essential component of radiation protection. It allows to determine by calculation and measurement the absorbed dose value, i.e. the energy amounts deposited in matter by ionizing radiations. It deals also with the irradiation effects on living organisms and with their biological consequences. This reference book gathers all the necessary information to understand and master the external dosimetry and the metrology of ionizing radiations, from the effects of radiations to the calibration of radiation protection devices. The first part is devoted to physical dosimetry and allows to obtain in a rigorous manner the mathematical formalisms leading to the absorbed dose for different ionizing radiation fields. The second part presents the biological effects of ionizing radiations on living matter and the determination of a set of specific radiation protection concepts and data to express the 'risk' to develop a radio-induced cancer. The third part deals with the metrology of ionizing radiations through the standardized study of the methods used for the calibration of radiation protection equipments. Some practical exercises with their corrections are proposed at the end of each chapter

273

Radiation protection day - Book of abstracts  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This document brings together the abstracts of all presentations given at the Radiation protection day organised in May 2000 by the French association for radiation protection techniques and sciences (ATSR) on the topic of the new European and French radiation protection regulations and their conditions of application in hospitals. Content: 1 - Presentation of the Office of Protection against Ionizing Radiations (O.P.R.I.), status of texts and evolution, practical implementation of operational dosimetry (Alain Valero, O.P.R.I.); 2 - Presentation of the Radiation Protection Service of the Army (S.P.R.A.) and its role in French army's hospitals (Jean-Baptiste Fleutot, S.P.R.A.); 3 - 96/29 European directive and water quality - transposition in French law (Daniel Robeau, I.P.S.N. Fontenay-Aux-Roses); 4 - Presentation of an automatized active dosimetry system (Michel Deron, G.E.M. System); 5 - Euratom 97/43 Directive from June 30, 1997 - assessment of the existing framework for patients protection in medical environment (Pierre Muglioni, APAVE Nord Ouest); 6 - Specificities of the ionising radiations risk in medical environment - presentation of a ionising radiations risk assessment grid (Marie-Christine Soula, Labour regional direction Ile de France); 7 - Low dose effects (B. Le Guen, E.D.F. G.D.F.); 8 - Operational dosimetry in the medical domain - the Saphydose dosemeter (Frederico Felix - Saphymo); 9 - Positrons and radiation protection (Luc Cinotti - C.E.R.M.E.P.); 10 - Workplace studies in medical environment - areas and personnel classification (Jean-Claude Houy, Sandrine Laugle, Eugene Marquis Cancer Centre Rennes); 11 - Experience feedback after 4 years of active dosimetry in a nuclear medicine service (Albert Lisbona, Centre Rene Gauducheau Nantes/Saint-Herblain); 12 - Operational dosimetry as it is performed today in CNRS laboratories (Helene Dossier - C.N.R.S. Orsay); 13 - Radiation protection in submarine naval forces (Pierre Laroche, Army's health service - S.S.A)

274

Radiation protection in occupational health  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The document is a training manual for physicians entering the field of occupational medicine for radiation workers. Part 1 contains the general principles for the practice of occupational health, namely health surveillance and the role of the occupational physician in the workplace, and Part 2 provides the essential facts necessary to understand the basic principles of radiation physics, radiobiology, dosimetry and radiation effects which form the basis for occupational radiation health

275

Radiation exposure and protection during angiography  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The authors describe the radiological techniques during angiography examinations in their hospital. For every technique they measured the radiation exposure and dose to the staff of doctors, assistants and nurses in their standard positions in the room and the radiation dose at various points on their bodies. The results are critically discussed and alternative protection devices are analysed, since there are many difficulties concerning the employ of usual radiation protection systems. Cardiologists, above all, are given some recomandations to reduce radiation exposure without prejudicing the exam results

276

Radiation protection in the hospital environment  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The hospital environment contains numerous sources of ionizing radiation that may contribute to public and occupational radiation exposure. Radiation exposure from x rays is minimized through engineering design, administrative controls, and quality control. Exposure from patients that contain therapeutic quantities is minimized by isolation in appropriately controlled private rooms. Administrative controls are relied on for controlling radiation exposure from diagnostic nuclear medicine patients. Hospital radiation installations must be planned and periodically reviewed to take advantage of the latest developments in radiation protection and to keep public and occupational exposure as low as reasonably achievable

277

Effective dose: a radiation protection quantity  

CERN Document Server

Modern radiation protection is based on the principles of justification, limitation, and optimisation. Assessment of radiation risks for individuals or groups of individuals is, however, not a primary objective of radiological protection. The implementation of the principles of limitation and optimisation requires an appropriate quantification of radiation exposure. The International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) has introduced effective dose as the principal radiological protection quantity to be used for setting and controlling dose limits for stochastic effects in the regulatory context, and for the practical implementation of the optimisation principle. Effective dose is the tissue weighted sum of radiation weighted organ and tissue doses of a reference person from exposure to external irradiations and internal emitters. The specific normalised values of tissue weighting factors are defined by ICRP for individual tissues, and used as an approximate age- and sex-averaged representation of th...

Menzel, H G

2012-01-01

278

Integral radiation protection at major decommissioning projects  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The legal framework for decommissioning of nuclear installations in Switzerland is described. By means of the examples SAPHIR and DIORIT, the interplay between planning, surveillance and waste management in the sense of an integral radiation protection is explained. (orig.)

279

National radiation protection programme for occupational exposure  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Radiation Protection in Ecuador, as an important part of the whole context of protection against occupational health damage, since 1979 has become a relevant aspect in our government's concerns and policy. Programs have been developed in order to register machines, sources, activities and ionizing radiation users in all fields throughout the country. Plans have been implemented to improve workers safety from occupational exposure: personal thermoluminescense dosimetry, training courses, technical studies to get the best protection in working places, coordination with health institutions to make tests and evaluations to control occupational health, personal and institutional licensing and others. We also have supplied advice on Radiation Protection in the use of radiodiagnosis and radiotherapy, nuclear medicine, radionmunoassay and in industrial, educational and research applications, mainly in matters of shielding, technical meetings, and design of personal protections and safety procedures. (author)

280

Radiation protection. 2. rev. and enlarged ed.  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Ordinance for the use of X-rays in man was amended with the aim to keep the risk from radiation exposure to an absolute minimum without hereby maring the diagnostic usefulness of the pictures produced. This textbook was written for assistant medical personnel to provide a good working knowledge on subjects like radiation physics, radiation biology, operation of X-ray equipments, medical imaging systems, quality assurance, operation of instruments, radiation protection and radiation anatomy. The appendix further includes tables of exposure values, nomograms for better assessment of the magnitude of radiation exposure and the guidelines of the Federal Medical Association on quality assurance in X-ray diagnostics. This is another amended edition within one year which takes into account experiences made in courses, schools and radiation protective seminars. Also included are the recent adopted recommendations of the ICRP-Publication 60. In the annex the X-ray Ordinance provisions applicable for diagnostic radiology are presented. (orig./HP)

 
 
 
 
281

Nuclear data in radiation protection dosimetry  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Nuclear data plays an important role for studies of radiation protection dosimetry. Accurate nuclear data lead us to reliable results on dosimetric calculations. In this paper, the application of nuclear data to radiation protection dosimetry is demonstrated with the calculation of dose conversion coefficients for radionuclides in the environment. A problem in reproduction of forward neutron spectra for proton incidence with high-energy nuclear data is also discussed. (author)

282

Protection against Ionizing Radiation, No. 1420  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This publication is a compilation of national legislative and regulatory provisions on radiation protection in force on 15 November 1978. In addition to the in extenso texts on the subject, only the relevant provisions in laws and regulations with a more general scope have been reproduced. This comprehensive compilation expands and updates a previous collection by the Official Gazette of the French Republic which covered only decrees and orders on the protection of workers against the hazards of ionizing radiation. (NEA)

283

Radiation protection for industrial radiography in the aerospace industry  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Boeing Company employs 80 industrial radiographers, operates 90 radiation sources, and takes 10,000 exposures per month. This paper describes the major components of Boeing's radiation protection program: hazard analysis, facilities and equipment design, program administration, and evaluation. In the hazard analysis, each source of radiation is analyzed to determine its hazard and relationship to both man and the environment around it. Once the degree of the hazard is known, facilities and equipment are designed to contain the hazard. This can be anything from a four foot concrete shielded room for an industrial radiographic accelerator, to a piece of rope that isolates an Iridium-192 source during a field radiographic inspection on an aircraft. The administrative functions provide the necessary records, command media, and a radiation source certification program. This certification authorizes the source of radiation to be used under specific conditions agreed upon by both the Radiation Protection Organization and Industrial Radiography Management. The radiation protection program is evaluated through medical exams, personnel monitoring, and area radiation surveys. (H.K.)

284

Clear Film Protects Against Ultraviolet Radiation  

Science.gov (United States)

Acrylic film contains screeing agent filtering ultraviolet radiation up to 380 nanometers in wavelength but passes other components of Sunlight. Film used to protect such materials as rubber and plastics degraded by ultraviolet light. Used as protective cover on outdoor sheets or pipes made of such materials as polyethylene or polypropylene and on solar cells.

Gupta, A.; Yavrouian, A.

1983-01-01

285

Research on radiation effect and radiation protection at JAEA  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Researches on radiation effect and radiation protection at JAEA have been carried out in different sections. In recent years, the organizations were rearranged to attain better research circumstances, and new research programs started. At present, radiation effect studies focus on radiation effect mechanisms at atomic, molecular and cellular levels including simulation studies, and protection studies focus on dosimetry for conditions difficult to cover with currently used methods and data as well as the related basic studies. The outlines of the whole studies and also some descriptions on selected subjects will be given in this paper. (author)

286

What are the purposes of radiation protection?  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this paper author deals with principles of radiation protection, cancer risk, lowest doses of radiation associated with cancer, the question of threshold, repair of damage, probability distribution of the risk coefficient per 1 Sv and other problems. (J.K.)

287

25 years of medical radiation protection  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This volume contains 25 conference papers dealing with the following topics: yesterday's and today's radiation research; review of and prospects for radiation protection in radiology, in the working environment and in international recommendations; fundamentals and hazards of nuclear magnetic resonance. Papers were entered separately into the data base. (HP)

288

Radiation protection in Baden-Wuerttemberg  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The tasks of radiation protection and nuclear safety to be looked after by the land Baden-Wuerttemberg consist essentially in licensing and control activities carried out by the Federal Government. With regard to radiation protection the focal points of the second medium-term programme of the Laender Government Baden-Wuerttemberg are: 1. the technical development plan 'power plant sites', 2. construction of nuclear power plants in the borderline areas of neighbouring foreign countries, 3. disposal of radioactive waste, 4. pollution protection measures against nuclear power plants, 5. safety measures when dealing with radioactive materials outside nuclear power plants. (GL)

289

RADIATION BIOLOGY: CONCEPTS FOR RADIATION PROTECTION  

Science.gov (United States)

ABSTRACT The opportunity to write a historical review of the field of radiation biology allows for the viewing of the development and maturity of a field of study, thereby being able to provide the appropriate context for the earlier years of research and its findings. The...

290

Proceedings of the Tenth Radiation Physics and Protection Conference  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The publication has been set up as proceedings of the Radiation Physics and Protection Conference.. The conference consists Natural Radiation Sources; Radiation Detection and Measurements; Applied Radiation Physics; Radiation Medical Physics and Biophysics; Radiation Dosimetry; Operational Radiation Protection; Radiation Shielding; Transport of Radioactive Materials; Nuclear and Radiation Physics; Medical Physics and Public Protection Against Radiological Attack. This conference consists of 402 p., figs., tabs., refs.

291

''Calculation codes in radiation protection, radiation physics and dosimetry''  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The theme of these days was the use of calculation codes in radiation protection. The different fields were the physics of radiations with the codes TRIPOLI-4 (3 D Monte Carlo code of neutrons and photons transport), MERCURE, DARWIN ( code of radioactivity calculation), application of MCNP to size up an hybrid installation (Myrrha reactor) and for the neutron spectra calculation near the Venus reactor; the medical applications with the calculation codes used in radiotherapy BEAM (for the high energy x radiation) and GEANT-4 (interface GATE for the simulation of tomography examination, a monte Carlo code devoted to the calculation of DNA radiation damages. The last session tackled the other fields of radiation protection, use of transport codes during the calibration of measurement equipment, transport codes of particles in the metrology of ionizing radiations, code to evaluate the radiation dose received in a given situation. (N.C.)

292

Report on radiation protection in Croatia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Ministry of Health in the Republic of Croatia is in charge of radiation protection, and the new Ionizing Radiation Protection Act defines the responsibilities of the different organizations and institutions. The report explains the existing national system of notification and registration in Croatia and some of the main provisions of the above referred Act. Reference is made to the national provisions for the management of disused sources, recovery or control of orphan sources, and to the national inventory of radiation sources in the country with the data collected during 1998 and 1999. (author)

293

Beagle dog studies in radiation protection  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Almost all research with Beagle dogs in DOE programs has aimed at supplying data for the purpose of strengthening the bases for radiation protection guidelines. The studies have provided information ranging from the very basics of dosimetry to the definitive description of the resulting radiological effects. Thus, they are defined as dose-response studies, that explore the causes of radiation damage from the molecular to the whole body levels of investigation. What will be reported in the oral presentation is a more detailed review of the use of results from Beagle dog studies that have played an important role in radiation protection

294

Beta dosimetry problems in radiation protection  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A comparison of the ?-dosimetry with ?-dosimetry makes the significance of ?-dosimetry clear and shows the difficulties arising with ?-dosimetry especially in radiation of small ranges. The calculated methods to determine the ?-dose rate are shown, and their applicability to practical radiation protection is tested. It is shown that although the exact measurement of the dose rate is possible, a sufficiently small and energy-independent dosemeter is missing for radiation protection practice. Furthermore, the more or less suitable measuring methods for ?-dosimetry are individually discussed. An extensive literature compilation is given for further introduction into the problems of ?-dosimetry. (orig./LH)

295

Annual survey environmental protection (first sequel)  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A literature survey of articles on air pollution, solid waste disposal, noise abatement and water pollution published in the years 1973 and 1974 in German-language journals is given. A comparison of the total annual emission stemming from human activity with those stemming from natural processes shows that between 0.3 and 13 percent of the combined emissions stem from human activity. A table provides a survey on the solid, liquid and gaseous waste products from foundries. Of the emitted air pollutants, carbon monoxide and dust rank highest. The extent of organic air pollutants emitted from foundries is still unknown. The toxic effects of major pollutants on humans and the environment are listed in two tables. For example, aldehydes, nitrose gases (nitrogen trioxide, nitrogen dioxide), ozone, and sulfur dioxide affect the lung. Arsenic, asbestos, cadmium, vanadium, polycyclic hydrocarbons, aromatic amines, epoxides, and N-nitrose compounds are carcinogenic. The aims of future environmental protection policy have been laid down in the Emission Protection Law of March 15, 1974. The law puts equal emphasis on prophylactic measures and abatement measures.

Winterhalter, J.

1974-01-01

296

Radiation Protection Elephants in the Room  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

As our system of radiological protection evolves, several significant issues loom within radiation protection discussions and publications. These issues influence the nature of epidemiological and radiobiological research and the establishment of radiation protection recommendations, standards, and regulations. These issues are like the proverbial elephants in the room. They are large, and it is unwise to ignore them. This paper discusses the impact of three young elephants as they make their presence increasingly obvious: increased cancer susceptibility from early-life exposure to radiation, terrorism and fear of radiation, and patient safety. Increased cancer susceptibility from early-life exposure to radiation is emerging as a discussion topic related to the safety of computed tomography (CT) and other medical modalities. Shortly after publication of CT dose data, manufacturers were helping to reduce doses to children by increasing flexibility for adjustment of technique factors. Also, radiation epidemiological data are being used in the development of guidance on exposure to chemical carcinogens during early life. Re-emergence of public fear of radiation has been fueled by threats of radiological dispersion devises and confusing messages about personal decontamination, emergency room acceptance or rejection of contaminated victims, and environmental clean-up. Finally, several professional publications have characterized risk of medical radiat have characterized risk of medical radiation exposure in terms of patient deaths even though epidemiological data do not support such conclusions. All three of these elephants require excellent science and sophisticated data analysis to coax them from the room. Anecdotal communications that confuse the public should be avoided. These are not the only elephants in the room, but these three are making their presence increasingly obvious. This paper discusses the need for radiation protection professionals to rely on good science in the evolution of the system of radiological protection. (Author) 32 refs

297

Radiation protection in medical and biomedical research  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The human exposure to ionizing radiation in the context of medical and biomedical research raises specific ethical challenges whose resolution approaches should be based on scientific, legal and procedural matters. Joint Resolution MINSAP CITMA-Regulation 'Basic Standards of Radiation Safety' of 30 November 2001 (hereafter NBS) provides for the first time in Cuba legislation specifically designed to protect patients and healthy people who participate in research programs medical and biomedical and exposed to radiation. The objective of this paper is to demonstrate the need to develop specific requirements for radiation protection in medical and biomedical research, as well as to identify all the institutions involved in this in order to establish the necessary cooperation to ensure the protection of persons participating in the investigation

298

Development of radiation protection and measurement technology  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Reference X-, gamma, beta and neutron radiation fields complying with the ISO and ANSI standards have been established and evaluated to provide a basic technical support in national radiation protection dosimetry program and to provide calibration measurement devices. Personal dose evaluation algorithm has been developed with these reference radiation fields, which comply well with both domestic and the new ANSI N13.11, to evaluate accurate personal dose equivalents. A personal internal dosimetry algorithm which can estimate the intakes of radionuclides from the results of in vivo bioassay and the resulting internal doses has been developed and verified its performance. It was also evaluated to be equality excellent compared with those being used in foreign countries and used to make a computer code for internal dose evaluation which can be run with PC under the Windows environment. A BOMAB phantom for precise calibration of in vivo system has been also designed, fabricated and test-evaluated. Based on the ALARA concept of the optimization principle of radiation protection, a method for estimating the cost for radiation protection has been studied and an objective monetary cost of detriment due to radiation exposure, called ? value ($/man-Sv) has been derived and proposed based on the Korean socio-economic situation and human risk factors to provide basic data for the radiation protection optimization study in Korea. (author). 100 refs., 104 tabs., 69 figs

299

Chemical radiation protection in mammals and humans  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The development and the present situation in experimental research with animals as well as in clinical application in the field of chemical radioprotection are described. The efficacy of radioprotective substances in the case of acute radiation death, of radiation-induced changes in various tissues and organs as well as in late effects are reported. The mechanisms of actions are discussed. By comparison of radiation reactions in protected and unprotected animals radioprotective factors can be determined. Such factors depend, among other parameters, on the kind of the radioprotective agent and its dose, on the radiation reaction, on the quality of radiation as well as on the radiation dose. Up to now thiophosphate WR 2721 proved to be the most efficient substance. It was observed that the application of this compound yielded a protection factor of up to 2.7 for the acute radiation death in mice. The disadvantage of radioprotective agents must be seen in their side effects. Despite this behaviour thiophosphate, amongst others, is being tested in clinical radiotherapy. In order to apply radioprotective substances in foreseen emergency or catastrophic situations a number of demands were postulated. As yet, none of the tested radioprotectors meet these demands. Therefore, NATO has refrained from keeping radioprotective agents in reserve up to now. On the other hand, the USSR has included the radioprotective agent cystamine in their civil defence protection kit. (orig.) civil defence protection kit. (orig.)

300

Development of radiation protection and measurement technology  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Reference X-, gamma, beta and neutron radiation fields complying with the ISO and ANSI standards have been established and evaluated to provide a basic technical support in national radiation protection dosimetry program and to provide calibration measurement devices. Personal dose evaluation algorithm has been developed with these reference radiation fields, which comply well with both domestic and the new ANSI N13.11, to evaluate accurate personal dose equivalents. A personal internal dosimetry algorithm which can estimate the intakes of radionuclides from the results of in vivo bioassay and the resulting internal doses has been developed and verified its performance. It was also evaluated to be equality excellent compared with those being used in foreign countries and used to make a computer code for internal dose evaluation which can be run with PC under the Windows environment. A BOMAB phantom for precise calibration of in vivo system has been also designed, fabricated and test-evaluated. Based on the ALARA concept of the optimization principle of radiation protection, a method for estimating the cost for radiation protection has been studied and an objective monetary cost of detriment due to radiation exposure, called {alpha} value ($/man-Sv) has been derived and proposed based on the Korean socio-economic situation and human risk factors to provide basic data for the radiation protection optimization study in Korea. (author). 100 refs., 104 tabs., 69 figs.

Chang, Si Young; Lee, T. Y.; Kim, J. L.; Kim, B. H.; Lee, B. J.; Chung, K. K.; Lee, K. C.; Chung, R. I.; Han, Y. D.; Kim, J. S.; Lee, H. S.; Kim, C. K.; Yoon, K. S.; Jeong, D. Y.; Yoon, S. C.; Yoon, Y. C.; Lee, S. Y.; Kim, J. S.; Seo, K. W. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, J. K.; Lee, J. K. [Hanyang Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

1997-07-01

 
 
 
 
301

Radiation protection in dental practice  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This guide provides the dentist and dental support personnel with basic information on the safe use of x-rays in dental radiography. Included in this CODE are specific recommendations for eliminating unnecessary radiation exposure of both patients and staff

302

Genetic topics in radiation protection  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The effects of mutations induced by ionizing radiation on human health can be subdivided into decrease of general viability, malformations and embryonic death. Reasons are given for the recommendation why a man whose gonads had been exposed to radiation should refrain from procreation for a couple of months. An analysis of the frequency of chromosome aberrations induced in lymphocytes can provide an estimate of the dose received during an accidental exposure. Radiation induced chronicmyeloid leukaemia is probably based on the induction of an aberration involving chromosome 22 in a bone marrow cell (deletion, translocation). The relationship between the frequency of radiation induced point mutations and the DNA content of the genome of the species studied so far is discussed. (orig.)

303

Radiation protection program of Petrobras  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Risks present in oil industry require specific control programs, specialy when using radioactive sources. Main uses of ionizing radiation in oil industry are in process control systems, industrial radiography and oilwell logging. A comprehensive and sistemic program is presented in order to assure the safe use of ionizing radiation in these activities. Principal subjects of this program are the control of radioactive sources, personel training in order to difuse knowledge at operations level and procedures standardization. (author)

304

Abstracts of 20. International Symposium Radiation Protection Physics  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

51 papers are presented as titles with abstracts which are processed individually for the INIS data base. They deal with general aspects of radiation protection physics, international activities in radiation protection, solid state dosimetry, models and calculation methods in radiation protection, and measuring techniques in radiation protection

305

Radiation protection by medicinal plants  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The development of effective non-toxic radioprotective agents is of considerable interest in the improvement of radiotherapy of cancer and protection against unplanned exposures. The synthetic drugs developed in post-world war II have had serious constrains in clinical applicable due to their toxicity at the optimal protective dose. Search for non-toxic protectors from natural sources have indicated that some of the commonly used medicinal plants and the poly herbal formulation could prove to be valuable sources of clinically useful radioprotectors as their ratio of effective dose to toxic dose is very high

306

Radiation protection and the safety of radiation sources  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

These Safety Fundamentals cover the protection of human beings against ionizing radiation (gamma and X rays and alpha, beta and other particles that can induce ionization as they interact with biological materials), referred to herein subsequently as radiation, and the safety of sources that produce ionizing radiation. The Fundamentals do not apply to non-ionizing radiation such as microwave, ultraviolet, visible and infrared radiation. They do not apply either to the control of non-radiological aspects of health and safety. They are, however, part of the overall framework of health and safety

307

Consequences of the new Slovenian legislation on radiation protection and nuclear safety for radiation protection training  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The paper presents brief description of the old Slovenian regulations and an overview of the new, harmonised regulations in the field of radiation protection training. The most important novelties were pointed out with possible consequences for the implementation of radiation protection training. Some suggestions on how to overcome transitional problems and how to improve training were also given. (author)

308

Radiation protection in nuclear energy. V.2  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The conference was convened to provide a forum for the exchange of international views on the principles of radiation protection for regulators and practitioners, to highlight issues of current importance, to examine the problems encountered in applying the principles of radiation protection, and, where possible, to identify generic solutions. The highlights of the conference were the sessions on the interface between nuclear safety and radiation protection, the evolution of radiation protection principles, exemption rules and accident experiences. The special session on the practical implications of the linear dose-response relationships also provoked particular interest. Although the session on optimization and decision aiding did not reveal any new developments, it did indicate an increasing emphasis on the optimization of radiation protection. A clear trend towards attaining lower collective doses per unit practice over a given time period, despite the increase in nuclear power plant capacity, is also apparent, although very few data on job-related worker doses have been published to date in the open literature. From the regulators' viewpoint, a very strong desire was expressed for a move towards regulatory strategies that exempt practices and sources causing insignificant individual and collective doses. Refs, figs and tabs

309

The new German radiation protection ordinance  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

According to European law, the Basic Safety Standards (BSS) published by the European Council in 1996 and the Council Directive on health protection of individuals against dangers of ionising radiation in relation to medical exposure had to be transferred into national law within due time. In 2001 the new Ordinance for the Implementation of the Euratom Guidelines on Radiation Protection] was published, which replaces the old Radiation Protection Ordinance. The new German Ordinance adapts the European Directive to German law, covering the general principles but even giving more details in many fields of radiation protection. The BSS scope certainly is much broader than the prescriptions important for the field of radiation protection in nuclear power plants. According to the scope of this workshop on occupational exposure in nuclear power plants - and as the BSS most probably will be quite familiar to all of you - after a short general overview on relevant contents of the German Ordinance, this presentation will focus on the main issues important in the operation of NPP and especially on some areas which may give rise to necessary changes caused by the new Ordinance. (A.L.B.)

310

Basic manual for radiation protection. 2. rev. ed.  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Based on his vast practical experience, the author succeeded in presenting a concise and systematic survey of the special knowledge required in the field of radiation protection. Starting with explaining the elementary physical processes of the interaction between matter and radiation, the terms used are defined, principles and mechanisms are discussed, and mathematical models are given whenever necessary. Among the great variety of aspects dealt with, radiation dosimetry is a main topic, including the calculation of dose rates of beta, gamma and neutron rays, as well as design, operating mode and use of the radiation measuring and monitoring equipment required to assess and assure sufficient radiological protection. Although the design of shieldings remains the domain of the specialist having access to the electronic computers required for this purpose, this book illustrates the design and effects of radiation shields. The natural radiation background and the radiation dose to the environment emanating from technical and other installations are discussed along with the biological effects of ionizing radiation on plants, animals and man. Another important issue dealt with is the incorporation of radioactive substances and appropriate therapeutical measures. The legal aspect has also been taken into account, with the relevant laws and regulations and ordinances forming the administrative basis of efficient radiological protection being presented; large space has been don being presented; large space has been devoted to practical radiation protection: A collection of new radiological SI units, interpreted in terms of the units hitherto used, a great number of figures and a comprehensive subject index and bibliography will no doubt be of help to the reader. (orig./HP)

311

National congress of radiation protection; Congres national de radioprotection  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The congress of radiation protection tackled different areas of radiation protection. The impact of ionizing radiations on environment coming from radioactive activities. The biological radiation effects, the dosimetry, the different ways of doing relative to radiation protection,the risks analysis and the communications with populations, information about accidents and the lessons learned from them are included in this congress. (N.C.)

NONE

2001-07-01

312

Radiation protection problems with sealed Pu radiation sources  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A brief outline of the production methods and most important properties of Pu-238 and Pu-239 is given, followed by an overview of possibilities for utilizing the different types of radiation emitted, a description of problems involved in the safe handling of Pu radiation sources, and an assessment of the design principles for Pu-containing alpha, photon, neutron and energy sources from the radiation protection point of view. (author)

313

Introduction to radiation protection dosimetry  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This manual gives in a first part up-to-date definitions and knowledge upon the most significant radiation quantities, including their interpretation which are of a major importance for the topic. In a second part, radiation hazards (for public and occupational exposure) are compared and discussed for natural and man-made sources. The concept of quantities and units is developed, as well as the analysis of exposures from various sources. This book is designed not only for nuclear industry, but also for medical practice and environmental comprehension. refs

314

Radiation protection of the environment - new trends  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Recent trends in the radiation protection of the environment focusing on basic changes of the protection philosophy from the egocentric to ecocentric approach are presented and discussed. The globalization of the economy is accompanied by global contamination of the environment that requires changes in the attitude of the protection of the total environment, i.e. protection of humans, fauna and flora, all ecosystems and the Earth in general, as well as the cosmic space. This complex approach is illustrated on the radiation protection of the environment that has always been in the forefront in developing protection philosophy, methodology and standards, which later has also been applied to the protection of the environment caused by non-radioactive contaminants, such as heavy metals and organic compounds. High radiation doses delivered to biota are illustrated on shellfish and fish collected in the Mururoa and Fangataufa lagoons (affected by series of nuclear weapons tests), and on fish in Novaya Zemlya bays (affected by dumping of nuclear reactors and radioactive wastes). On the methodological site an example is discussed focusing on the in situ sea-bed radionuclide mapping and seawater monitoring using submersible gamma-ray spectrometers operating with NaI(Tl) and HPGe detectors which has proved to be important pre-requisite for estimation of the spatial distribution of radionuclides in the water column and on the sea floor, as well as for optimisation of sediment sampling for studying the radionuclide distribution with depth

315

A European handbook for teachers on radiation and radiation protection  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Commission of the European Communities (Directorate General XI) has taken several initiatives to assist Member States, one of them being the development of a handbook for teachers on radiation and radiation protection, in order to give teachers a clear, scientifically valid and objective set of materials to enable those who so wish to includes courses on radiation protection in their teaching programmes. The draft handbook has been tested in five countries and is to be published in English and French in 1993. Translations in all Community languages are envisaged

316

The basic biology of radiation protection  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This treatment of the basic biological principles of radiation protection takes into account the most recent recommendations by ICRP. The types of radiation considered differ with respect to their interaction with matter. Such interaction gives rise to the ionisation of irradiated atoms. This ionisation is the physical process which, ultimately, entails various types of biological effects. This is why the types of radiation listed above are called ionizing radiation. However, this physical property does not explain their different biological effectivenesses. Besides this qualitative similarity there is a quantiative difference to be observed, namely the ability to transfer to matter various amounts of energy along the ionization path. (orig./HP)

317

Radiation protection training for users of ionizing radiation in Hungary  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

According to the current and previous regulation related to the safety use of ionizing radiation, the personnel involved must obtain special qualification in radiation protection. In Hungary the radiation protection training are performed by appropriately certified training centers on basic, advanced and comprehensive levels. Certification of the training centers is given by the competent radiological health/radiation protection authority. The office of the Chief Medical Officer is the certifying authority for advanced and comprehensive levels training, as well as competent Regional Radiological Health Authority is responsible for basic level courses. The content and length of courses are specified in the regulation for all three levels of industrial, laboratory and medical users, in general. Some of the universities, technical and medical oriented are certified for advanced training for students as gradual course. Recently in Hungary there are 47 certified training centers for advanced and comprehensive courses, where the trainers should have a five years job experience in radiation protection and successful completion of comprehensive level course in radiation protection. (authors)

318

Questions concerning radiation protection in the field of radiometry  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Based on legal regulations, guidelines, and standards valid in the German Democratic Republic 105 questions concerning radiation protection are answered covering subjects indicated by the following key words and headings: radiometric gages, radiation protection measures, working within protected areas, legal provisions, responsible staff member, radiation protection officer, operating personnel, radiation protection instructions, safe keeping of radiation sources, leak testing, unusual occurrence, transport of radioactive materials, and ceasing of operation

319

Abstracts of 21. International Symposium Radiation Protection Physics  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

45 papers are presented as titles with abstracts which are processed individually for the INIS data base. They deal with general aspects of radiation protection physics, chiefly problems of radiation detection and measuring techniques in radiation protection

320

Radiation protection in the application of ionizing radiation in industry  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

There is a substantial increase in the use of ionizing radiation in industry throughout the country especially in the last five years or so. With this growth in the number of users and activity of sources used, and together with the introduction of the new Atomic Energy Licensing Act (AELA) in 1984, the question of radiation safety and protection of workers and members of the public in general, can no longer be taken lightly. It has to be dealt with effectively. In this paper, a general discussion and clarification on certain practical aspects of radiation protection as recommended by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) is presented. Amongst the topics chosen are those on area monitoring, personnel monitoring, leak testing of sealed sources and training of personnel. Also presented in the paper is a brief discussion about UTN's experience in giving out radiation protection services to various agencies throughout the country. (author)

 
 
 
 
321

Radiation protection 1/87  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

There is a paper on medical first aid after radiation accidents and another on positive effects of low-dose irradiation which are treated separately. In addition there are four contributions on question of conventional X-ray diagnosis. (G.Q.)

322

Radiation protection in neighbouring countries in Central Europe. Proceedings  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This proceeding is published in 3 volumes. Volume 1 covers the topics: (1) Environmental protection, and (2) Radiation Dosimetry. Volume 2 covers the topics: (3) Radiation Protection in Medical Exposures, (4) Radiation Protection in Applications of Radioisotopes and Nuclear Technology, (5) Radioactive Waste Management and Decommissioning, (6) Radiation Monitoring, and (7) Emergency Planning and Preparedness. Volume 3 covers the topics: (8) Operational Radiation Protection, (9) Non Ionising Radiation, (10) Radiation Protection Principles and Policies, (11) Natural Radiation, (12) Radiation Exposure Control: Methods and Means, and (13) Public Education and Information. (blahsl)

323

Aerial survey of radiation sources in Georgia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The document informs about the results of the first aerial radiological survey organized by the IAEA between 23 May-16 June 2000 to track down discarded radiation sources in the Republic of Georgia. A total area of about 1200 km2, with a population of approximately 1,5 million, was surveyed. The survey focussed on highly populated areas and on locations where there were abandoned military bases

324

Aiming Optimum Space Radiation Protection using Regolith.  

Science.gov (United States)

Radiation protection of space radiation is very important factor in manned space activity on the moon. At the construction of lunar base, low cost radiation shielding would be achieved using regolith that exists on the surface of the moon. We studied radiation shielding ability of regolith as answer the question, how much of depth would be necessary to achieve minimum radiation protection. We estimated the shielding ability of regolith against each atomic number of space radiation particles. Using stopping power data of ICRU REPORT49 and 73, we simulated the approximate expression (function of the energy of the atomic nucleus as x and the atomic number as Z) of the stopping power for the space proton particle (nucleus of H) against silicon dioxide (SiO2), aluminum oxide (Al2O3), and iron (Fe), which are the main components of regolith. Based on the expression, we applied the manipulation to the other particles of space radiation to up to argon particle (Ar). These simulated expressions complied well the data of ICRU REPORT49 and 73 except alpha particle (nucleus of He). The simulation values of stop-ping power of ten elements from potassium to nickel those we had no data in ICRU REPORT were further simulated. Using the obtained expressions, the relationship between the radiation absorbed dose and depth of a silicon dioxide was obtained. The space radiation relative dose with every depth in the moon could be estimated by this study.

Masuda, Daisuke; Nagamatsu, Aiko; Indo, Hiroko; Iwashita, Yoichiro; Suzuki, Hiromi; Shimazu, Toru; Yano, Sachiko; Tanigaki, Fumiaki; Ishioka, Noriaki; Mukai, Chiaki; Majima, Hideyuki J.

325

Evolution of Radiation Protection System in Kenya  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Promulgation of radiation protection legislation in Kenya dates back to 1982, was revised in 1985 and became operational in 1986. This law, the Radiation Protection Act, establishes the Radiation Protection Board as the National Regulatory Authority, with an executive Inspectorate headed by the Secretary to the Board. Subsidiary legislation on radiological practices and standards were subsequently published. The Inspectorate carries out the National programme for notification, authorization, inspection and enforcement. Nuclear applications for peaceful purposes in Kenya are on the increase in all major fields of socio-economic development. Provision of regulatory services, guidance and enforcement procedures, has had a net growth over the last fifteen years. However, staff retention has been declining over the years in a market where job opportunities, with relatively high incentives, are high either inside or outside the country. Human and equipment resource development has therefore not kept pace and this has hampered effective and efficient provision of services. The poor status of the economy has had its impact on delivery of quality, effective and efficient radiation protection services. Provision of radiation services and acquisition of radiation detection and measurement equipment in the country has been generally lacking dating as far back as 1995. During the period 1989 to present, Kenya's Regulatory Authority, the Radiation Protection Board, undertook to prodiation Protection Board, undertook to provide personal monitoring, quality assurance, radioanalysis, and equipment calibration. Over the years these services have stalled due to outdated equipment most of which have broken down. A maintenance and calibration service for nuclear equipment is an expensive cross-boarder issue. Budgetary constraints, insufficient human and equipment resources, and a perennial 'brain drain' has placed limitations to the effectiveness and efficiency of implementation of the National programmes and slowed the attainment of the objectives of the National policy on radiation protection and waste safety. The current Radiation Protection Act is limited in scope, regulatory independence and empowerment. A new draft of the revised Act was submitted to the IAEA for review and comments. The revised version is aimed, inter alia, at meeting the principal requirements of the International Basic Safety Standards and incorporating aspects of non-ionizing radiation. The revised draft is now under discussion with stakeholders for their input before enactment. Development of a sustainable national infrastructure requires years of national effort and government commitment. Over the last two years, there has been sufficient government commitment and there have been solid achievements. Kenya has placed the issue of human resource development high on her development agenda and has provided support for expanding technical staffing of the Regulatory Authority with an initial recruitment of ten (10) Radiation Protection Officers. Other factors impacting on quality, effectiveness and efficiency of radiation protection programmes, are being appropriately addressed in order to realize a fully sustainable radiation protection infrastructure. (Author)

326

Theoretical and practical basic training for radiation protection specialists  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The basic training in radiation protection being offered by the SAAS to radiation protection specialists (radiation protection officers and medical supervisors of radiation workers) is described. As for the radiation protection officers, it consists of three different groups of lectures, seminars and laboratory work according to the fields X-ray machines, radionuclides (general), and sealed radiation sources in process instrumentation and control engineering, respectively. The corresponding curricula are presented. (author)

327

Understanding of radiation protection in medicine. Pt. 2. Occupational exposure and system of radiation protection  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Using a questionnaire we investigated whether radiation protection is correctly understood by medical doctors (n=140) and nurses (n=496). Although medical exposure is usually understood by medical doctors and dentists, their knowledge was found to be insufficient. Sixty-eight percent of medical doctors and 50% of dentists did not know about the system of radiation protection. Dose monitoring was not correctly carried out by approximately 20% of medical staff members, and medical personnel generally complained of anxiety about occupational exposure rather than medical exposure. They did not receive sufficient education on radiation exposure and protection in school. In conclusion, the results of this questionnaire suggested that they do not have adequate knowledge about radiation exposure and protection. The lack of knowledge about protection results in anxiety about exposure. To protect oneself from occupational exposure, individual radiation doses must be monitored, and medical practice should be reconsidered based on the results of monitoring. To eliminate unnecessary medical and occupational exposure and to justify practices such as radiological examinations, radiation protection should be well understood and appropriately carried out by medical doctors and dentists. Therefore, the education of medical students on the subject of radiation protection is required as is postgraduate education for medical doctors, dentists and nurses. (author)nurses. (author)

328

Radiation survey of the nuclear submarine Kursk  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Results of the radiation survey of the accidentally submerged nuclear submarine Kursk conducted in 2000 - 2001 provided with nuclear and radiation safety of works are presented. Obtained results demonstrated that reactors were shutdown and radionuclide migration to sea medium was absent

329

Policy support on Radiation Protection  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The objective of SCK-CEN's R and D programme on decision strategy research are: (1) to support and advise the Belgian authorities on specific problems concerning existing and potential hazards from exposure to ionising radiation, both in normal and emergency situations; (2) to improve and support nuclear emergency response decisions in industrial areas from an economic point of view. Main achievements in this area in 1997 are described.

Hardeman, F

1998-07-01

330

Application of radioprotectors in radiation protection  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Application of the ionizing radiation in almost all the fields of human activities enlarged the knowledge of their harming influence on the living beings. At the same time there have been many investigations of different chemical means that could successfully be used in protection from radiation. Until today several hundreds of different chemical compounds have been considered to be a potential chemical radioprotector. Analyzing the results of investigating great number of potential radioprotective compounds, it can be said that those containing sulfur provide the most effective protection. That are aminothiols, aminodisulphides, derivatives of thiourea, thiosulphuric and thiophosphate acid, dithiocarbamates, thiazolines, some of biogen amines and their derivates. Among the investigated compounds there is a certain number that, under some circumstances, has shown a protective effect on the experimental animals. In the work comparative investigation of the protective effect of cistaphosa (WR-638) and gamaphosa (WR-2721) have been researched on the big experimental animals, radiated with a high level of X-radiation. Well protective influence of both radioprotectors has been proven but gamafos showed higher efficiency. (author)

Kljajic, R.R.; Masic, Z.S. [Scientific Veterinary Inst., Novi Sad (Yugoslavia)

2000-05-01

331

Application of radioprotectors in radiation protection  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Application of the ionizing radiation in almost all the fields of human activities enlarged the knowledge of their harming influence on the living beings. At the same time there have been many investigations of different chemical means that could successfully be used in protection from radiation. Until today several hundreds of different chemical compounds have been considered to be a potential chemical radioprotector. Analyzing the results of investigating great number of potential radioprotective compounds, it can be said that those containing sulfur provide the most effective protection. That are aminothiols, aminodisulphides, derivatives of thiourea, thiosulphuric and thiophosphate acid, dithiocarbamates, thiazolines, some of biogen amines and their derivates. Among the investigated compounds there is a certain number that, under some circumstances, has shown a protective effect on the experimental animals. In the work comparative investigation of the protective effect of cistaphosa (WR-638) and gamaphosa (WR-2721) have been researched on the big experimental animals, radiated with a high level of X-radiation. Well protective influence of both radioprotectors has been proven but gamafos showed higher efficiency. (author)

332

Radiation protection and fuzzy set theory  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In radiation protection we encounter a variety of sources of uncertainties which are due to fuzziness in our cognition or perception of objects. For systematic treatment of this type of uncertainty, the concepts of fuzzy sets or fuzzy measures could be applied to construct system models, which may take into consideration both subjective or intrinsic fuzziness and objective or extrinsic fuzziness. The theory of fuzzy sets and fuzzy measures is still in a developing stage, but its concept may be applied to various problems of subjective perception of risk, nuclear safety, radiation protection and also to the problems of man-machine interface and human factor engineering or ergonomic

333

Radiation protection supervisors certification in Brazil  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In order to accomplish its legal assignments CNEN certifies the qualification of radiation protection supervisors. The current certification process is presented and discussed in this paper. This paper discusses the main points of the certification process including: knowledge tests, stake holder's communication, standards, supervisor responsibilities and profiles. The importance of safety certification of nuclear facilities and radiation protection of public individuals and workers are also discussed. Taking into account the characteristics of the Brazilian Nuclear program, the future improvements and goals in the certification process is also presented. (author)

334

Third conference on radiation protection and dosimetry  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This conference has been designed with the objectives of promoting communication among applied, research, regulatory, and standards personnel involved in radiation protection and providing them with sufficient information to evaluate their programs. To partly fulfill these objectives, a technical program consisting of more than 75 invited and contributed oral presentations encompassing all aspects of radiation protection has been prepared. General topics include external dosimetry, internal dosimetry, instruments, regulations and standards, accreditation and test programs, research advances, and applied program experience. This publication provides a summary of the technical program and a collection of abstracts of the oral presentations

335

Radiation protection for personnel in international standards  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The International Electrotechnical Commission' (IEC) Subcommittee 45B 'Radiation protection instrumentation' of the IEC produces International Standards defining the requirements to which the instrumentation used for the radiation protection must satisfy. The compliance to these requirements is a guaranty of the quality of the instrument, of its good performance in the nuclear environment. Type testing equipment to the recommendations and requirements of the standards also provides the equipment user with reliable and internationally acceptable performance data which they can use for the accurate interpretation and comparisons of their operational measurements

336

Proceedings of the workshop on 'radiation protection in LINACs'  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The proceedings contain seven reports on electron and proton accelerators currently used in Japan. The first report describes the 'Present Condition of Linac Facilities in Japan -- Questionnaire Survey'. It summarizes results of a questionnaire survey on 400 facilities where accelerators are used for research, industrial or medical applications. The second one deals with 'Radiation Protection at Nuclear Physics Research Institute of Tohoku University'. Safety measures taken in the institute are described. The third report outlines 'Radiation Protection at Linac Facility in Tokai Laboratory of Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, focusing on equipment, radiation management, and safety measures. The fourth report, titled 'Proton Linac at High Energy Physics Research Institute', outlines major features of the facilities in the institute, radiation safety measures, etc. The fifth one describes the 'Safety Management at Electrotechnical Laboratory', centering on the equipment used, radiation management, and safety measures. The sixth one outlines major features of 'Electron Linac at Industrial Science Research Institute of Osaka University'. The seventh report describes the 'Present Condition of Neutron Generator (KURRI-LINAC)'. (N.K.)

337

Birth survey in high background radiation area  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In order to find out the hereditary effects of high background radiation, we investigated, on the basis of previous survey, the birth status of 2,218 married women of child-bearing age in the high background area and that of 1,854 women in the control area, using registration form to be filled out once a month in 1979. The results of the survey were almost identical with those of previous survey, and no detrimental effect of high background radiation in investigated area on sex ratio, spontaneous abortion rate, multiple pregnancy rate, infertility rate and neonatal mortality rate was revealed.

Shaozhuang, D.

1980-04-01

338

Radiation protection, public policies and education  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The objective of this paper is to inform about the aspects of radiation protection public policies concerning the public spheres and the ordinary population. It is known that information has been considered a very important good in several knowledge areas. However, the efficiency of their transmission mechanisms should be periodically evaluated, checking existing critical and stagnation points. Nuclear area can be mentioned as a historically typical case, where the public policies assume relevant importance as tool for promotion, control and education of the population in general. Considering the polemic nature of such subject, it is clear that there is a need for conducting the construction of educational contents taking in account the educator training necessities. The addressing of radiation protection aspects applied to nuclear techniques conducts, for example, to the awareness on the benefits of radiation and its industrial and medical applications, which are established considering the worldwide adopted basic principles of radiation protection. Such questions, concerned with (or related to) public policies, establish a link between radiation protection and education, themes explored in this article to provide a better view of the current Brazilian scenario. (author)

339

Basic radiation protection considerations in dental practice.  

Science.gov (United States)

This article provides basic guidance to radiation safety professionals unfamiliar with dental radiography on how to optimize the use of x-ray equipment and maintain occupational and non-occupational doses ALARA. Topics discussed in this article include basic protective measures commonly used to minimize the patient and operator's exposure to radiation, recommendations for the development of operating procedures, and the performance of compliance audits in dental practice. PMID:10527154

Michel, R; Zimmerman, T L

1999-11-01

340

Evaluation of radiation protection in interventional radiology  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The interventional radiology, relatively to the conventional radiology exposes particularly to ionizing radiations, because of the time of utilisation of the radioscopy. It is important to optimize the risk according to the ALARA principle. The efforts must be made on the following fields: the radiation protection means, the periodic and systematic monitoring of material, a regular evaluation of operators irradiation, the training of non radiologist operators, the respect of the legislation on the maximum permissible dose equivalents. (N.C.)

 
 
 
 
341

Radiation Protection and Civil defence Department  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This conference involves subjects of radiation protection, programming of civil defence, on the implementation of 1990 ICRP recommendation, thermoluminescence properties of bone equivalent calcium phosphate ceramics, potassium body burdens in occupational users of egyptian nuclear research centre, transport of radionuclides in fresh water stream, water treatment process for nuclear reactor, research activities related to internal contamination and bioassay and experience and environmental radiation monitoring in inshass. it contains of figures and tables

342

University based radiation protection: a combination of theory and practice  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In modern times, Universities are expected to act as regional and national centres for providing information on radiation protection and University based Radiological Protection Services are therefore a natural development. The typical workload of a University service on campus is concerned two-thirds with unsealed sources, of which soft ?'s and iodine-125 predominate, and one-third with sealed radioisotope and neutron sources and X-ray emitters. Non-ionising radiation protection is frequently included in the Service's terms of reference. A wide variety of instrumentation to satisfy the campus' needs is thus available at short notice for use in industrial and public authority radiation surveys. In addition, laboratory facilities for radio-chemistry, spectrometry, and radioactive counting are already manned by experienced technical staff. Industry thus finds in the Universities a ready willingness and competence to assist in occupational radiation protection, and public authorities can turn to the Universities in relation to their problems of radioactivity in public health. (author)

343

Patients radiation protection in medical imaging. Conference proceedings  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This document brings together the available presentations given at the conference organised by the French society of radiation protection about patients radiation protection in medical imaging. Twelve presentations (slides) are compiled in this document and deal with: 1 - Medical exposure of the French population: methodology and results (Bernard Aubert, IRSN); 2 - What indicators for the medical exposure? (Cecile Etard, IRSN); 3 - Guidebook of correct usage of medical imaging examination (Philippe Grenier, Pitie-Salpetriere hospital); 4 - Radiation protection optimization in pediatric imaging (Hubert Ducou-Le-Pointe, Aurelien Bouette (Armand-Trousseau children hospital); 5 - Children's exposure to image scanners: epidemiological survey (Marie-Odile Bernier, IRSN); 6 - Management of patient's irradiation: from image quality to good practice (Thierry Solaire, General Electric); 7 - Dose optimization in radiology (Cecile Salvat (Lariboisiere hospital); 8 - Cancer detection in the breast cancer planned screening program - 2004-2009 era (Agnes Rogel, InVS); 9 - Mammographic exposures - radiobiological effects - radio-induced DNA damages (Catherine Colin, Lyon Sud hospital); 10 - Breast cancer screening program - importance of non-irradiating techniques (Anne Tardivon, Institut Curie); 11 - Radiation protection justification for the medical imaging of patients over the age of 50 (Michel Bourguignon, ASN); 12 - Search for a molecular imprint for the discrimination between radio-induced and sporadic tumors (Sylvie Chevillard, CEA)

344

Radiation protection guidelines for space missions  

Science.gov (United States)

NASA's current radiation protection guidelines date from 1970, when the career limit was set at 400 rem. Today, using the same approach, but with the current risk estimates, a considerably lower career limit would obtain. Also, there is considerably more information about the radiation environments to be experienced in different missions than previously. Since 1970 women have joined the ranks. For these and other reasons it was necessary to reexamine the radiation protection guidelines. This task was undertaken by the National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements Scientific Committee 75 (NCRP SC 75). Below the magnetosphere the radiation environment varies with altitude and orbit inclination. In outer space missions galactic cosmic rays, with the small but important heavy ion component, determine the radiation environment. The new recommendations for career dose limits, based on lifetime excess risk of cancer mortality, take into account age at first exposure and sex. The career limits range from 100 rem (4.0Sv) for a 24 year old female to 400 rem for a 55 year old male compared to the previous single limit of 400 rem (4.0 Sv). The career limit for the lens of the eye was reduced from 600 to 400 rem (6.0 to 4.0 Sv.)

Fry, R. J. M.; Nachtwey, D. S.

1986-01-01

345

Management in the protection from ionizing radiation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

There are numerous types and forms of endangering working and living environment, ranging from natural disasters to nuclear accidents. Challenges of the New Age determined that most of the countries reviewed its strategic decisions in the system of protection from ionizing radiation and nuclear safety and defined in a new way the threats, which could considerably imperil health of the population and national interests as well. Excessive radiation of the population became a serious and actual problem in the era of increasingly mass application of ionizing radiation, especially in medicine. The goal of this work is to reduce the risk through using knowledge and existing experiences, in particular when it comes to ionizing radiation in medicine. Optimization of the protection in radiology actually means an effort to find the compromise between quality information provided by diagnostics procedure and quality effects of therapy procedure on one side and dose of radiation received by patients on the other. Criteria for the quality management in the protection from ionizing radiation used in diagnostic radiology was given by the European Commission: European Guidelines on Quality Criteria for Diagnostic Radiographic Images, EUR, 16260. (author)

346

Radiation protection guidelines for space missions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The current radiation protection guidelines of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) were recommended in 1970. The career limit was set at 4.0 Sv (400 rem). Using the same approach as in 1970 but current risk estimates, a considerably lower career limit would obtain today. Also, there is now much more information about the radiation environments that will be experienced in different missions. Furthermore, since 1970 women have joined the ranks of the astronauts. For these and other reasons, it was considered necessary to re-examine the radiation protection guidelines. This task has been undertaken by the National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements Scientific Committee 75. Within the magnetosphere, the radiation environment varies with altitude and inclination of the orbit. In outer space missions, galactic cosmic rays, with the small but important heavy-ion component, determine the radiation environment. The new recommendations for career dose limits, based on lifetime excess risk of cancer mortality, take into account age at first exposure and sex. The career limits range from 1.0 Sv (100 rem) for a 24-y-old female up to 4.0 Sv (400 rem) for a 55-y-old male, compared with the previous single limit of 4.0 Sv (400 rem). The career limit for the lens of the eye has been reduced from 6.0 Sv (600 rem) to 4.0 Sv (400 rem)

347

Radiation protection training and information for workers  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The meeting reported in these proceedings was organized to discuss the specific problems of providing information and training on radiation protection to workers exposed to radiation, intervention staff and workers likely to be affected by an activity involving ionizing radiation. Particular emphasis was placed on the need to harmonize basic training on radiation protection in the context of 1992. It seemed advisable for technical training on radiation protection to be introduced into secondary education. To this end, the Commission was asked to draw up a guide for apprentices and students. In view of the growing diversification of activities involving the use of radioactive substances, the Commission was called upon to intensify its efforts in order to ensure that relevant information and training was provided in all firms to workers exposed to ionizing radiation, and to produce guides for specific categories of workers, such as those responsible for the transport of radioactive materials or those likely to be involved in organizing measures in the event of a radiological emergency

348

Radiation protection in pediatric radiology  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The purpose of this report is to make available a source of practical information regarding the manner in which radiologic examinations in children should be conducted to reduce the radiation dose to these patients and those responsible for thier care. The report is mainly for the use of pediatricians, radiologists, radiologic technicians, and other personnel who order or use radiological methods in examining children, Appendices contain methods for estimating doses to various organs, and doses from various examinations in pediatric radiology. The Council has adopted some units of the SI system of nomenclature. A glossary of terms is included

349

Radiation protection: Radiation dose units and fundamentals. Correct use of radiation dose units, measurements, risk assessment  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Radiation protection intends to prevent radiation damage by appropriate staff-related and technical measures in accordance with the specifications of the German X-Ray Ordinance (R and V) and Radiation Protection Ordinance (StrlSchV) and in agreement with the ICRLP (International Commission on Radiological Protection). They require that radiation use must be justified, exposure conditions must be optimised, and exposure times must be limited to the shortest time necessary. In practical use, this requires considerable practical and theoretical knowledge from the user concerning the physical properties of radiation sources, interactions with tissue and matter of different types of radiation, and biological effects of radiation. National and international organizations and committees have specified the knowledge which a user must have as follows: Physical fundamentals of radiation protection; Measuring quantities and specified standard units; Organisational and constructional radiation protection; Legal knowledge. (orig.)

350

Workplace analysis and radiation protection  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This document gathers the slides of the available presentations given during this conference day. Fifteen presentations out of 16 are assembled in the document and deal with: 1 - the evolution of doses received by workers (J. Feuardent); 2 - evaluation of extremities dosimetry among interventional radiology practitioners (L. Donadille); 3 - practical guide for the realisation of workplace dosimetry studies presenting a ionizing radiation exposure risk: and example in nuclear medicine (J.L. Rehel); 4 - workplace studies in radiotherapy-curietherapy (D. Donnarieix); 5 - from dosimetry to physical intensity: the case of heat insulation activities (A. Garrigou and C. Piccadaci); 6 - the consideration of human factor during facility modifications (V. Gauthereau); 7 - how to carry out a workplace analysis in gamma-graphy? (F. Truchi); 8 - workplace studies in the framework of dismantling activities (J. Chardin); 9 - team synergy (F. Debouck); 10 - adaptation of individual dosimetry to the workplace: the case of external exposure (I. Clairand); 11 - technical aspects of the evaluation of ionizing radiations exposure induced by a new interventional radiology procedure (J.C. Amabile); 12 - the point of view of a radioprotection skilled person in a nuclear medicine service (J.M. Vrigneaud); 13 - workplace studies for the unique document (F. Roussille); 14 - occupational exposure to manufactured nano-particles: issues and knowledge status (O. Witschger); 15 - toxicological risk of nano-particles: 'health impact'? (S. Chevillard). (J.S.)

351

International regulations for radiation protection  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A review of the development of the IAEA Radiological Protection standards is given. The basic features of the latest revision recently adopted by the governing bodies of the sponsoring organizations, i.e. IAEA, WHO, ILO, NEA/OECD are discussed and some of the features of the future Agency programme for its implementation will be outlined. In particular, attention will be given to development of the basic principles for setting release limits of radioactive materials into the environment. An important aspect of this is when the release of radioactive materials into the environment crosses international boundaries. The Agency is best suited to try to reach a consensus on the minimum monetary value for the unit collective dose. (orig./RW)

352

Current trends in radiation protection  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Organizers of the 11. IRPA International Congress have wished to take advantage of this occasion to launch a new series of books dedicated to review the current important problems of concerns in radioprotection. The four editors have combined their efforts to assemble within this book contributions from the worldwide and most famous specialists in their respective fields. Their signatures lead to the insurance of a first class information. all aspects of radioprotection are treated, through synthetic articles accessible to all. Very didactic, this book will be useful to radioprotection professionals willing to take the stake of all aspects within their profession, but also to engineers, physicists, physicians, researchers, and non-specialist people who will find here a thorough synthesis of all aspects of radiological protection. (author)

Metivier, H.; Arranz, L.; Gallego, E.; Sugier, A

2004-07-01

353

Current trends in radiation protection  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Organizers of the 11. IRPA International Congress have wished to take advantage of this occasion to launch a new series of books dedicated to review the current important problems of concerns in radioprotection. The four editors have combined their efforts to assemble within this book contributions from the worldwide and most famous specialists in their respective fields. Their signatures lead to the insurance of a first class information. all aspects of radioprotection are treated, through synthetic articles accessible to all. Very didactic, this book will be useful to radioprotection professionals willing to take the stake of all aspects within their profession, but also to engineers, physicists, physicians, researchers, and non-specialist people who will find here a thorough synthesis of all aspects of radiological protection. (author)

354

Operational radiation protection for European astronauts  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Since the early times of human spaceflight radiation has been, besides the influence of microgravity on the human body, recognized as a main health concern to the astro- and cosmonauts. The radiation environment that the crew experiences during a space flight differs significantly to that found on earth due to particles of greater potential for biological damage. High-energetic charged particles, such as protons, helium nuclei ('alpha particles') and heavier ions up to iron, originating from several sources, such as galactic cosmic radiation (GCR), energetic solar particle events (SPE) as well as protons and electrons trapped in the earth radiation belts, are the main contributors. The exposure that the crew receives during a space flight significantly exceeds exposures routinely received by terrestrial radiation workers. The European Space Agency's (ESA) Astronaut Center (EAC) in Cologne, Germany, is home of the European Astronaut Corps. Part of the EAC is the Crew Medical Support Office (CMSO or HSF-AM) responsible for ensuring the health and well being of the European Astronauts. A sequence of activities is conducted to protect astro- and cosmonauts health, including those targeting to mitigate adverse effects of space radiation. All health related activities are part of a multinational Medical Operations (MedOps) concept, which is executed by the different Space Agencies participating in the human spaceflight program to the International Space Station (ISS). This e International Space Station (ISS). This article will give an introduction of the current measures for radiation monitoring and protection of astro- and cosmonauts. The operational guidelines that shall ensure proper implementation and execution of those radiation protection measures will be addressed. Operational hardware for passive and active radiation monitoring and for personal dosimetry, as well as operational procedures that are applied, will be described. (author)

355

Proceedings of the Ninth Radiation Physics and Protection Conference  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The publication has been set up as proceedings of the Radiation Physics and Protection conference, the conference contains of the following subjects: Radiation Sources and Radioactive Waste; Theoretical Radiation Physics; Experimental Radiation Physics; Radiation and Nuclear Emergency; Non Ionizing Radiation; Medical Physics; Environment; Natural Radioactivity; Radiation Effect; Dosimetry; Elemental Analysis; Radiation Instruments. This conference consists of one volume and 459 pages., figs., tabs., refs

356

Industrial radiation protection: what it is happening  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper presents the standard NE-06.04 of CNEN (Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear - Brazil) about open and close industrial radiography installations licensing. This review does not substitute CNEN-6/73 resolution, only specificy in details, how those installations must actuate with reference to the company radiation protection plan. (C.M.)

357

The responsibility of the radiation protection expert  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

After having recalled the two main different types of responsibility in the French law system (civil liability and criminal responsibility), and how criminal law has been gradually introduced in companies, the author analyzes and describes how the radiation protection expert's responsibility is tightly related to that of his employer, and how both can be committed on a disciplinary and criminal level

358

Radiation Protection Section (SC/SL/RP)  

CERN Multimedia

We should like to inform you that the Radiation Protection Section (SC/SL/RP) located on the Prévessin site has moved from Building 865 (ground floor) to new premises in Wing A of Building 892 (second floor). Telephone numbers remain the same. SC/SL/RP section

2006-01-01

359

Conditions for radiation protection in industrial radiography  

CERN Document Server

The leaflet specifies radiation protection requirements for industrial radiography in Norway. The regulations are directed towards companies using or distributing sealed radioactive sources, x-ray equipment or accelerators in non-destructive material testing (NDT). Technical requirements to the equipment, as well as administrative requirements for use, licensing, qualifications, handling of accidents etc. are given. (Author)

1999-01-01

360

Course on radiation protection, autumn 1988  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report contains the elaboration of problems and exercises which form part of lecture notes treating a number of concepts from atomic-and nuclear physics, which could belong to the ready knowledge of a radiation-protection specialist. (H.W.). 6 figs.; 2 tabs

 
 
 
 
361

Applying radiation health effects data to radiation protection policies  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Data from the peer-reviewed scientific literature establish a sound basis to define a low-dose, low-dose-rate, dose-response. These data include human health dose-response studies; immunologically 'whole' animal studies; and cellular and molecular biological studies of complete biological systems for the relevant immunological and physiological responses. Initiatives are required to constructively apply these data to both radiation research and radiation protection policies. First, current low level radiation health effects research must apply existing data to define research projects to integrate and confirm existing dose-response data, with specific emphasis on the biological bases that exist in definitive and reproducible cellular and biological dose-response. Second, dose-response assessment must identify and incorporate all existing substantial and confirmed data, including natural radiation sources, to establish the bases for radiation protection policy for interventions to protect public health and safety. A preliminary assessment of these data is applied to: 1) Specify research that can be constructively applied to describe radiation health effects dose-response. 2) Apply health effects dose-response to radiation and radioactivity applications policies to maximize radiation health effects interventions for occupational applications, medical applications, and other radiation and radioactive materials applications controls to cost-effectively assure public health and safety. An assessment of the proposed revisions to ICRP radiation protection policies is provided that associates the basis for administrative limits with the previous proposal of the US NRC for a 'Below Regulatory Concern' (BRC) policy. This proposal ignores the context of the fact that very low levels of radiation exposure are far within the variations of natural radiation exposures, and therefore can have no gross net consequences. The equivalent failure of the BRC proposal resulted in quick political rejection of the proposed policy. It was seen as stating that, while very small radiation doses would in fact cause 'small' adverse health consequences (seen by the public and their political leaders as 'cancer deaths'), such consequences are seen as found 'acceptable' by the radiation protection authorities. Such implied but non-existent consequences are NOT seen as acceptable to the public and its political leaders. No explanation of 'context' or providing public education' can reasonably be expected to overcome the perception provided by the proposal that such trivial radiation produce 'a few deaths' that, because they are 'lost in cancer statistics' are perceived as accepted' by the radiation protection policy-makers, which results in the permanent loss of public acceptance and credibility of these organizations and individuals. This proposal considers the lack of adverse health effects from data at, e.g., variations in natural background, confirmed by medical and biological data, establish that radiation at low levels can have no relevant net adverse consequences. Such a basis can provide public assurance that appropriate radiation protection limits produce no residual public health and safety consequences. (author)

Muckerheide, James [Center for Nuclear Technology and Society at WPI, Worcester Polytechnic Institute, Worcester, MA (United States)

2000-05-01

362

Relations between radiation risks and radiation protection measuring techniques  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Relations between radiation risks and radiation protection measuring techniques are considered as components of the radiation risk. The influence of the exposure risk on type and extent of radiation protection measurements is discussed with regard to different measuring tasks. Based upon measuring results concerning the frequency of certain external and internal occupational exposures in the GDR, it has been shown that only a small fraction of the monitored persons are subjected to a high exposure risk. As a consequence the following recommendations are presented: occupationally exposed persons with small exposure risk should be monitored using only a long-term desimeter (for instance a thermoluminescence desimeter). In the case of internal exposure, the surface and air contamination levels should be controlled so strictly that routine measurements of internal contamination need not be performed

363

Research report on radiation protection 1981  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this research report on radiation protection the results achieved in 1981 of the research and development projects assisted by the Federal Minister of the Interior are made accessible above all to the scientists and engineers participating in this research program as well as to the research institutions on the field of radiation protection, to the members of the commission on radiological protection and of the commission for reactor safety and to the supervising and licensing authorities. The report is a compilation of individual reports, which are composed by the consignees respectively the recipients of the allowances themselves as a documentation of the progress of their works. Each individual report contains informations concerning the objectives of the project, works carried out, results achieved and further work planned. (orig.)

364

Second Ordinance amending the Radiation Protection Ordinance  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The amendment covers the following changes: (1) Introduction of the concept of effective dose, reduction of partial body dose limits, and adoption of the radiotoxicity standards for radionuclides as defined by the EEC. (2) Introduction of a cumulative occupational dose limit of 400 mSv. (3) Supplementing regulations for protection of the population, particularly concerning the principles of radioecological assessment and dose factors. (4) Supplementing regulations concerning the use of radioactive substances in medicine and medical research. (5) Supplementing provisions concerning health physics monitoring. (6) Enhancement of controls in the shipping and transport of radioactive materials. (7) Clear assignment of tasks and activities in connection with the licensing provisions of the Radiation Protection Ordinance. (8) Revision of the waste provisions of the Radiation Protection Ordinance. (orig./HP)

365

Radiation protection and dosimetry: basis. 9. ed.  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A revised book 'Radiation Protection and Dosimetry: Fundamentals, prepared to meet the training courses offered by the Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria - IRD, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil and people interested in the subject, is presented. Concepts have been updated, especially the chapter on Radiological Magnitudes, due to upgrade of Standard CNEN-NN-3.01-Basic Guidelines on Radiological Protection, published in the Diario Oficial da Uniao on September 1, 2011. A chapter related to Waste Management, another on the Transport of Radioactive Materials and three annexes on: Standards of CNEN, Ionizing Radiation and Personnel Legislation and Determination of shields in Radiotherapy were included. Were also added several tables for use in radiological protection, to facilitate consultation

366

2009 Canadian Radiation Oncology Resident Survey  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Purpose: Statistics from the Canadian post-MD education registry show that numbers of Canadian radiation oncology (RO) trainees have risen from 62 in 1999 to approximately 150 per year between 2003 and 2009, contributing to the current perceived downturn in employment opportunities for radiation oncologists in Canada. When last surveyed in 2003, Canadian RO residents identified job availability as their main concern. Our objective was to survey current Canadian RO residents on their training and career plans. Methods and Materials: Trainees from the 13 Canadian residency programs using the national matching service were sought. Potential respondents were identified through individual program directors or chief resident and were e-mailed a secure link to an online survey. Descriptive statistics were used to report responses. Results: The eligible response rate was 53% (83/156). Similar to the 2003 survey, respondents generally expressed high satisfaction with their programs and specialty. The most frequently expressed perceived weakness in their training differed from 2003, with 46.5% of current respondents feeling unprepared to enter the job market. 72% plan on pursuing a postresidency fellowship. Most respondents intend to practice in Canada. Fewer than 20% of respondents believe that there is a strong demand for radiation oncologists in Canada. Conclusions: Respondents to the current survey expressed significant satisfaction with their career choice and training program. However, differences exist compared with the 2003 survey, including the current perceived lack of demand for radiation oncologists in Canada.

Debenham, Brock, E-mail: debenham@ualberta.net [Department of Radiation Oncology, Cross Cancer Institute, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta (Canada); Banerjee, Robyn [Department of Radiation Oncology, Tom Baker Cancer Centre, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta (Canada); Fairchild, Alysa; Dundas, George [Department of Radiation Oncology, Cross Cancer Institute, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta (Canada); Trotter, Theresa [Department of Radiation Oncology, Tom Baker Cancer Centre, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta (Canada); Yee, Don [Department of Radiation Oncology, Cross Cancer Institute, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta (Canada)

2012-03-15

367

2009 Canadian Radiation Oncology Resident Survey  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Purpose: Statistics from the Canadian post-MD education registry show that numbers of Canadian radiation oncology (RO) trainees have risen from 62 in 1999 to approximately 150 per year between 2003 and 2009, contributing to the current perceived downturn in employment opportunities for radiation oncologists in Canada. When last surveyed in 2003, Canadian RO residents identified job availability as their main concern. Our objective was to survey current Canadian RO residents on their training and career plans. Methods and Materials: Trainees from the 13 Canadian residency programs using the national matching service were sought. Potential respondents were identified through individual program directors or chief resident and were e-mailed a secure link to an online survey. Descriptive statistics were used to report responses. Results: The eligible response rate was 53% (83/156). Similar to the 2003 survey, respondents generally expressed high satisfaction with their programs and specialty. The most frequently expressed perceived weakness in their training differed from 2003, with 46.5% of current respondents feeling unprepared to enter the job market. 72% plan on pursuing a postresidency fellowship. Most respondents intend to practice in Canada. Fewer than 20% of respondents believe that there is a strong demand for radiation oncologists in Canada. Conclusions: Respondents to the current survey expressed significant satisfaction with their career choice and training pro with their career choice and training program. However, differences exist compared with the 2003 survey, including the current perceived lack of demand for radiation oncologists in Canada.

368

Performance of radiation survey meters in X- and gamma-radiation fields.  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim of this work was to investigate the different types of radiation detectors commonly used for radiation protection purposes as survey meters. The study was performed on survey meters that use different detectors as ionisation chamber, Geiger Mueller (GM) counter and scintillation detector. For each survey meter, energy dependence and angular response in X- and gamma-radiation fields was tested. The following commercially available survey meters were investigated: ionisation chambers Victoreen 451P, Babyline 31 and VA-J-15A, Geiger counter MRK-M87, 6150 AD6 and FAG FH 40F2 and scintillation counter 6150 ADB. As a source of gamma radiation, (137)Cs and (60)Co were used whereas X-ray radiation fields were generated using an X-ray unit. The radiation characteristics of the survey meters were mostly in compliance with references estimated by standard IEC 1017-2. However, some of them showed larger deviation at lower energies. GM counters exhibit strong energy dependence for low-energy photons. PMID:25063785

Ceklic, Sandra; Arandjic, Danijela; Zivanovic, Milos; Ciraj-Bjelac, Olivera; Lazarevic, Djordje

2014-11-01

369

Radiation protection in exploitation of uranium ores  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The results are analyzed of the study of the radiation conditions in uranium mines, design and testing of protection means, improvement of methods and equipment for the dosimetric control in different countries since 1968 to 1975. There are outlined radiation hazards and their role in the formation of the radiation situation in mines, dispersive composition of aerosols of short-living daughter products of Rn(DPR) in the mine atmosphere. Among means of the radiation protection the following are dealt with: ventilation including the calculation of air requirements, design of ventilation systems, ventilation practices in working mines; lowering of the release of radon into the mine atmosphere by isolating non-exploited pits, application of gas-proof covers to cofferdams in faces of jointing zones, intensification of mining works in dangerous zones. Methods of air cleaning to remove Rn are suggested in brief. Apparatus are described for the individual control of the level of latent energy in the zone of miners' respiration: track dosimeters, thermoluminescent crystalls (TLC), photographic films, semiconductor systems and biophysical methods of the control for uranium mines. The efficient use of existing protection means provides the normal radiation situation in mines without significant additional investments

370

Protective role of plants against harmful radiation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The rapid technological advancement has increased human exposure to ionizing radiations enormously. Ionizing radiations produces deleterious effects in the living organisms. Widespread use of radiation in diagnosis therapy, industry, energy sector and inadvertent exposure during air and space travel, nuclear accidents and nuclear terror attacks requires safeguard against human exposures. Lead shielding and other physical measures can be used in such situations but with difficulty to manage; thus pharmacological intervention could be the most prudent strategy to protect humans against the harmful effect of ionizing radiations. These pharmacological agents are radioprotectives; The development of radioprotective agents has been the subject of intense research in view of their potential for use within a radiation environment. However, no ideal, safe synthetic radio protectors are available to date, so the search for alternative sources including plants has been ongoing. In Ayurveda, the traditional Indian system of medicine, several plants have been used to treat free radical-mediated ailments and, therefore, it is logical to expect that such plants may also render some protection against radiation damage. This all is due to antioxidant enzymes, nitroxides, and melatonin, antiemetic, anti-inflammatory. haemopoitic and immunostimulant compounds. Some of the plants which are found to be radioprotective are Centella asiatica, Ginkgo biloba, Hippophae rhamnoides, Ocimum sanc biloba, Hippophae rhamnoides, Ocimum sanctum, Podophyllurn hexandrum, Tinospora cordifolia, Emblica officinalis, Phyllanthus amarus, etc. So there is an urgent need to identify and characterize the many of the plants in relation to the radioprotection. Besides these medicinal plants there are also some fruits and vegetables which are having good response against harmful radiations such as Kiwifruit Actinidia deliciosa (Actinidaceae), Cape Gooseberry Physalis peruviana (Solanaceae). They protect against the radiation-induced damage by scavenging of free radicals and increasing antioxidant status. Fractionation guided evaluation may result in the development of ideal radio protectors in the near future. (author)

371

Technical evaluation of the capability of present instrumentation to meet the draft ANSI standard on performance specifications for radiation protection survey instrumentation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Existing standards and guides were reviewed. A survey of commercially available instruments determined information on types of instruments available and the manufacturers specifications. Users provided information regarding instrument preference and desired capability. Based on the above information and statistical criteria, procurement of 56 representative instrumentation was initiated. Instrument test and evaluation procedures are being developed that follow the existing, proposed, or draft standards and guides

372

Radiation protection problems by nonionizing electromagnetic radiation in Austria  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Since about one year an interdisciplinary study group has been established to investigate possible radiation protection problems caused by nonionizing electromagnetic radiation in this country. The aim of this project is to identify major fields of concern, to establish appropriate techniques of measurement and control and eventually develop a sound basis for future legislation. The paper gives a summary on the present results of this study. (Author)

373

Special radiation protection aspects of medical accelerators  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Radiation protection aspects relevant to medical accelerators are discussed. An overview is first given of general safety requirements. Next, shielding and labyrinth design are discussed in some detail for the various types of accelerators, devoting more attention to hadron machines as they are far less conventional than electron linear accelerators. Some specific aspects related to patient protection are also addressed. Finally, induced radioactivity in accelerator components and shielding walls is briefly discussed. Three classes of machines are considered: (1) medical electron linacs for 'conventional' radiation therapy. (2) low energy cyclotrons for production of radionuclides mainly for medical diagnostics and (3) medium energy cyclotrons and synchrotrons for advanced radiation therapy with protons or light ion beams (hadron therapy). (author)

374

Radiation risks : the ethics of health protection  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Since the inception of commercial uses of nuclear technology, radiation protection standards established by regulatory agencies have reflected moral concerns based on two assumptions: (1) that the linear, zero-threshold hypothesis derives from scientific data in radiobiology which are virtually conclusive; (2) it is morally better for public health protection to assume that any radiation exposure, no matter how small, has some harmful effect which can and ought to be prevented. In the past few years these beliefs and related assumptions have received closer scrutiny, revealing hidden reasons for regulatory selection of radiation risks as objects of paramount ethical concern, with the result that greater risks to health have escaped comparison and mitigation. Based on this scrutiny this brief paper explores two questions: Are presupposed assumptions ethically justified on grounds of scientific evidence and ethical consistency? and should moral objections claiming to invalidate comparative risk assessments be accepted or rejected?

375

Radiation protection in industrial radiography in Hungary  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The paper gives an overview of the state of radiation protection of industrial radiographers in Hungary, outlining the key rules regulating this activity. Information are disloced on the system of radiation training of employers, the implementation of personal dosimetry and some typical dosimetric data. Having reviewed the main factors playing a key role in radiation protection of industrial radiographers, the work of experts employed in non-destructive tests of this kind can be considered safe. The best proofs of this safety are achievements in the field of personal dosimetry, which are clear indications that the new and more rigorous dose limits to be introduced in accordance with ICRP Publication No. 60 would not necessitate fundamental modifications of the rules currently in effect. (author)

376

Special radiation protection aspects of medical accelerators  

CERN Document Server

Radiation protection aspects relevant to medical accelerators are discussed. An overview is first given of general safety requirements. Next. shielding and labyrinth design are discussed in some detail for the various types of accelerators, devoting more attention to hadron machines as they are far less conventional than electron linear accelerators. Some specific aspects related to patient protection are also addressed. Finally, induced radioactivity in accelerator components and shielding walls is briefly discussed. Three classes of machines are considered: (1) medical electron linacs for 'conventional' radiation therapy. (2) low energy cyclotrons for production of radionuclides mainly for medical diagnostics and (3) medium energy cyclotrons and synchrotrons for advanced radiation therapy with protons or light ion beams (hadron therapy). (51 refs).

Silari, Marco

2001-01-01

377

Dietary protection during radiation therapy  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Eighteen patients receiving Cobalt 60 irradiation for abdominal or pelvic malignancies were assigned at random to eat either a semi-hydrolyzed diet (Flexical: 10 g% casein hydrolsate; 14 g% triglycerides, 20% of which medium chain; 66% disaccharides) or a normal diet. There are no significant differences between these two groups with respect to age and the ratio of ideal to actual caloric intake. The patients in the control group received on the average a total of 3,900 rd and those in the Flexical group 4,040 rd. Generally, Flexical appeared to have a significant positive effect on body weight. In addition, radiation-induced diarrhea was not a problem in the Flexical group. In the latter-group, serum proteins including immunoglobulins remained essentially unchanged during therapy while a moderate but significant fall was observed in all control patients. No significant difference between the two groups was observed with respect to peripheral blood hematocrit, red and white cell counts. However, the drop in blood lymphocytes following irradiation was significantly less in the Flexical group. The mechanisms of radioprotection are discussed. These preliminary data indicate that the nutritional and perhaps the immunological status of cancer patients receiving intensive irradiation can be maintained by dietary measures. (orig.)

378

Effects of new ICRP recommendations on current radiation protection practice  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A review is given of some of the basic concepts and proposals contained in recommendations made by the International Commission on Radiological Protection in ICRP Publication 26. Special attention has been paid to the statement that dose limits are not intended to be design or planning objectives but the lower boundary of a forbidden range of values. Dose values above these limits have to be avoided, however, values below these limits are not automatically permitted. Accordingly, the limits are the constraint for optimization procedures under the ALARA principle. In order to implement the results of such optimization procedures it is necessary to further develop and improve existing radiation protection methods and techniques. Problems related to individual exposure control, operational instrumentation for radiation field intensity survey, transport of radioactive materials, etc. are used as examples. (author)

379

Radiation protection and safety in radiotherapy  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Soon after the discovery of X rays by Roentgen in 1895 and of natural radioactivity by Becquerel in 1896 it became apparent that ionizing radiation was not only useful for the diagnosis and treatment of disease but also harmful to human tissues. It has been recognized since early studies on X rays and radioactive minerals that exposure to high levels of radiation can cause clinical damage to tissues of the human body. In addition, long term epidemiological studies of populations exposed to radiation, especially the survivors of the atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki in Japan in 1945, have demonstrated that exposure to radiation also has a potential for delayed effects such as induction of malignancies or damage to genetic material. Ionizing radiation and radioactive substances are natural and permanent features of the environment, and thus the risks associated with radiation exposure can only be restricted, not eliminated entirely. Additionally, the use of human-made radiation is now widespread. Sources of ionizing radiation are essential to modern health care: disposable medical supplies sterilized by intense radiation have been central to combating disease; radiology and nuclear medicine are a vital diagnostic tool; and radiotherapy is commonly part of the treatment of malignancies. Applications of ionizing radiation are growing in industry, agriculture, medicine and many other fields of industry and research, benefiting humanity. Irradiation is used around ting humanity. Irradiation is used around the world to preserve foodstuffs and reduce wastage, and sterilization techniques have been used to eradicate disease carrying insects and pests. Industrial radiography is in routine use, for example to examine welds, detect cracks and help prevent failure of engineered structures. The acceptance by society of the risks associated with radiation is conditional on the benefits to be gained from the use of radiation. Nonetheless, the risks must be restricted and protected against by the application of radiation safety standards. It is therefore essential that activities involving radiation exposure be subject to certain standards of safety in order to protect the individuals who are exposed to radiation, be it occupationally, for medical diagnostic or therapeutic purposes, or as members of the public

380

Protective effects of puerarin on radiation injury of experimental rats  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Objective: To observe the protective effects of puerarin on radiation injury of experimental rats and to discuss the possible mechanism of its radiation protection. Methods: Wistar rats were divided randomly into 4 groups with 8 rats in each group: physiological saline non-radiation (SN) group, puerarin non-radiation (PN) group, physiological saline radiation (SR) group, puerarin radiation (PR) group. The source of radiation was cobalt-60 gamma rays, and the rats were exposed to radiation (1....

Jin, Le-hong; Liu, Chuan-fei

2005-01-01

 
 
 
 
381

Radiation protection in the dental profession  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A synopsis is presented of the results of a Health and Safety Executive Survey begun in 1977. The aim of the survey was to fulfil the need of the HSE to meet its enforcement duties concerning equipment and procedures, to devise a basis for regulatory requirements, and to evaluate the dental postal pack provided by the NRPB. Dentists were chosen at random from a list of practitioners offering treatment within the N.H.S. Significant differences were noted in results obtained from the first (585 practitioners) and second groups, the latter being surveyed subsequent to additional guidance being offered. The survey included questions on location and maintenance of equipment, beam diameter and filtration, film processing techniques, timer accuracy, the level of instruction and supervision given to dental staff, diagnostic procedures, personal radiation doses and dose per exposure. (U.K.)

382

Occupational radiation protection: Protecting workers against exposure to ionizing radiation. Contributed papers  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Occupational exposure to ionizing radiation can occur in a range of industries, mining and milling; medical institutions, educational and research establishments and nuclear fuel cycle facilities. The term 'occupational exposure' refers to the radiation exposure incurred by a worker, which is attributable to the worker's occupation and committed during a period of work. According to the latest (2000) Report of the United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR), an estimated 11 million workers are monitored for exposure to ionizing radiation. They incur radiation doses attributable to their occupation, which range from a small fraction of the global average background exposure to natural radiation up to several times that value. It should be noted that the UNSCEAR 2000 Report describes a downward trend in the exposure of several groups of workers, but it also indicates that occupational exposure is affecting an increasingly large group of people worldwide. The International Basic Safety Standards for Protection against Ionizing Radiation and for the Safety of Radiation Sources (BSS), which are co-sponsored by, inter alia, the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), the International Labour Organization (ILO), the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) and the World Health Organization (WHO), establish a system of radiation protection which includes radiation dose limits for occupational exposure. Guidance supporting the requirements of the BSS for occupational protection is provided in three interrelated Safety Guides, jointly sponsored by the IAEA and the ILO. These Guides describe, for example, the implications for employers in discharging their main responsibilities (such as setting up appropriate radiation protection programmes) and similarly for workers (such as properly using the radiation monitoring devices provided to them). The IAEA i organized its first International Conference on Occupational Radiation Protection. The objective of the Conference was to foster the exchange of information on current issues related to the exposure of workers to ionizing radiation in the course of their work and to formulate recommendations, as appropriate, regarding measures to strengthen international co-operation in occupational radiation protection. The Conference addressed the issue of establishing occupational radiation protection standards and providing for their application. It will focus on a number of specific problems, inter alia, the complex issue of controlling occupational exposure to natural sources of radiation. This document contain contributed papers to the Conference

383

Individual radiation hypersensitivity and radiological protection  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Individuals with radiation hypersensitivity represent a challenge in terms of radiological protection. ICRP has acknowledged the importance of this issue by publishing Annual No.79 on genetic susceptibility to cancer in 1998. This paper gives a comprehensive overview on the problem. Progress in molecular genetics of cancer have enlarged our knowledge on individual susceptibility to cancer and in relation to this on individual radiation sensitivity. Until now there are some clear defined inherited disorders with evidence for increased risk by high (therapeutic) doses of ionising radiation. As there is rapidly growing knowledge and understanding of the mechanism of disease, the radiation protection society should become more and more acquainted with this special question. Our paper gives a basic introduction to the principles of the mechanisms of individual radiation sensitivity in hereditary disorders. Based on demonstration of disabled tumorsupressor genes in retinoblastoma as a simple example the possible role of environmental factors in cancer development is shown. Epidemiologic data of retinoblastoma cases provide evidence for the role of ionising radiation as an environmental factor increasing the risk for secondary cancer of such patients. Consequences for radiotherapeutic and occupational medicine are highlighted. There are some fundamental rules to be observed by physicians treating patients with radiotherapy. To identify high risk patients genetic testing may fy high risk patients genetic testing may be necessary, which is possible know for some hereditary disorders. Problems involving genetic testing are outlined. (author)

384

Radiation Protection in NORM Industries  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text: NORM is an acronym for naturally occurring radioactive materials, which include radioactive elements found in the environment. Long-lived radioactive elements of interest include uranium, thorium and potassium, and any of their radioactive decay products, such as radium and radon. These elements have always been present in the earth's crust, and nearly all materials contain trace amounts of them. However, when these materials are processed as the result of human activities, concentration or enhancement of the levels of these radionuclides may occur. The processing of raw materials by many resource-based industries may increase the concentration of radioactive substances in those materials, and enhance the potential exposure to naturally occurring radioactive materials in products, by-products, residues and wastes. The most significant industries within the EU, based on the radiological risk and economic significance are: the phosphate industry, the processing of metal ores, zircon sands and refractory materials, manufacture of rare earths, manufacture and use of thorium compounds, the titanium dioxide pigment industry and the oil and gas extraction. If the residues containing naturally occurring radionuclides are not managed properly and safely, contamination over large areas is possible given the large quantities of such residues. There are two effects of human exploitation that are relevant in the case of potential effects of NORM on human health and the l effects of NORM on human health and the environment: (1) The concentrations of NORM can be enhanced above its natural levels in a product, byproduct or residue. (2) The availability for release into the biosphere of the NORM in products, by-products or residues can be enhanced through physicochemical changes or simply due to the method by which the residues are managed. The pathways by which workers could receive a significant radiation dose are: external irradiation, inhalation of dust, inhalation of radon, ingestion of dirt and dust and skin contamination. Occupational exposure to NORM falls within the scope of the requirements for practices if the radionuclide activity concentration in the material exceeds 1 Bq/g for uranium and thorium series radionuclides (other than radon and its short-lived progeny) or 10 Bq/g for potassium-40. If the relevant activity concentration level for radon or NORM is exceeded, a 'graded approach' to regulation should be applied, being the regulation in accordance with the characteristics of the operation and the exposures involved. (authors)

385

Manual on radiation protection in hospitals and general practice. Radiation protection in dentistry  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The booklet deals with all aspects of the use of X rays in dentistry. The recommendations made are designed to reduce unnecessary exposure of the patient, will result in the production of superior radiographs and assist in eliminating unnecessary exposure of the operator himself. Separate chapters deal with the following topics: the need for radiation protection, delegation of responsibility, radiographic equipment, radiographic film, radiographic techniques, film processing and handling, patient doses (adults and children), general radiation protection and monitoring, educational standards

386

Safety and radiation protection in mining and milling facilities  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Federal Legislation in Brazil establishes that the Brazilian Nuclear Energy Commission - CNEN - is responsible for the surveillance of the industrialization of nuclear ores and the production and commerce of nuclear materials in such way that activities such as buying, selling, import and export, are subject to previous licensing and surveillance. Regulation CNEN-NN-4.01 on Safety and Radiation Protection in Mining and Milling Facilities of conventional ores containing naturally occurring radioactive materials, NORM, was issued in 2004 establishing both a methodology for classification of these facilities into three Categories, taking into account both the contents of uranium and thorium in the ores and the applicable radiation and safety requirements based on a graded approach. Although the lack of a licensing process in the above mentioned Regulation made its implementation a difficult task, CNEN, by means of an initial survey, identified ca. 30 mining and milling industries of conventional ores containing uranium and thorium with concentrations above 10 Bq/g. More recently, a new juridical understanding of the legislation concluded that CNEN must issue licences and authorizations for the possession and storage of all ores with uranium and thorium concentrations above exemption levels. A proper surveillance programme encompassing 13 of these mining facilities was then put forward aiming at the improvement of their safety and radiation protection. This article presents an overview of NORM exploitation in Brazil and put forward suggestions for achieving viable solutions for the protection of workers, general public and environment from the effects of ionizing radiation. (author)

Magalhaes, Maisa H.; Schenato, Flavia; Cruz, Paulo R., E-mail: maisahm@cnen.gov.br, E-mail: schenato@cnen.gov.br, E-mail: pcruz@cnen.gov.br [Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear (CNEN), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Xavier, Ana M., E-mail: axavier@cnen.gov.br [Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear (ESPOA/CNEN-RS), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Escritorio de Porto Alegre

2011-07-01

387

Optimization of radiation protection at Bohunice NPP  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Bohunice Nuclear Power Plant is situated in south - western part of Slovakia about 50 km away from Bratislava. There are four PWR reactors 440 MWe each - two units with reactors WWER - 230 (V1 NPP) and two units with WWER - 213 (V2 NPP). requirements for the optimization process are given in the mentioned Code No.12 of Ministry of Health. Code 12 stipulates the technical and organizational requirements for proving the Rational Achievable Level (RAL) of radiation protection. This level can be proved by means of the comparison of the dose distribution to the costs of protection. An example of two figures of dose constraints is: collective dose 20 man mSv for the specific task; individual exposure 1 mSv per day. The values of the financial equivalents of personal exposure - so called the alpha coefficients - are used for the calculation of the benefit of proposed measures. Impact of legislative changes into Bohunice NPP and optimization process are presented. Apparently the new law and the associate code created a base of transparent and understandable policy of radiation protection and optimization in Slovak Republic. The radiation protection legislative was implemented into the praxis and persons became familiar with it. Defining clear and unambiguous terms facilitated the communication between users and the regulatory body - State Health Institute. Optimization was generally accepted by the workers and managers and began to be a part of safety culture of operation at nuclear power plants. (authors)

388

Decommissioning an uranium and thorium facility: a radiation protection approach  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Decommissioning means actions taken at the end of the useful life of a facility in retiring it from service with adequate regard for the health and safety of workers and members of the public. In the present work, we introduce a radiation protection approach for the removal of radioactive material to the extent that the facility or site becomes available for use without restriction. The facility to be decommissioned is a fuel cycle pilot plant that operated with natural uranium and thorium for almost two decades and then, kept inactive for about 10 years at the Nuclear and Energy Research Institute - IPEN. Even after this long period of inactivity, it has presented significant levels of radiation and contamination spread over the floor, walls, windows, doors and ceiling. The fuel cycle pilot plant was completely dismantled, remaining only the walls and the concrete structures. In this work we present the job done to restore the area. According to each step of dismantling a continuous monitoring of the contaminated surfaces was carried out including the survey of the deep material from the floor and walls. The material identified as radioactive waste was stored into appropriated metal drums. A radiation protection team guided this stage of the work, prescribing the tasks, and the amount of material that should be removed from floors, windows and ceiling. For this, repetitive surveys had to be done. The results of monitoring and contamination levels were analysed, thus guiding the next steps of the job. In this way radiation protection team took over the tasks, running the work with the purpose of achieving acceptable levels of radiation, restoring the area for unrestricted use. (author)

389

The healing arts radiation protection guidelines  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The objective of these guidelines is to help the health professional render the risks associated with diagnostic radiation as low as reasonably achievable. The guidelines contain advice and recommendations, but no mandatory requirements. They assist radiation protection officers in establishing and maintaining a Quality Assurance Program and in carrying out other duties required by the Healing Arts Radiation Protection Act; assist staff to comply with the X-ray Safety Code in a way that will raise the standards of x-ray diagnosis and patient safety; address the relationship between the radiation exposure of the patient and the quality of the image; address the problem of protecting the patient in x-ray examinations; summarize x-ray safety problems from the point of view of the operator and other staff; indicate what remedial measures can be taken; define the quality assurance needs of x-ray users; and encourage the users of x-rays for diagnostic purposes to go beyond the scope of the Act and comply with the ALARA principle

390

Radiation protection optimization. Advances in practical implementation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Within the Community, protection against the dangers of ionizing radiation is regulated in conformity with the provisions of two Council Directives. One is of general application for all activities involving a hazard arising from ionizing radiation and lays down the basic safety standards for the health protection of the general public and workers against the dangers of ionizing radiation. The other is derived from the abovementioned one and lays down the basic measures for the radiation protection of persons undergoing medical examination or treatment. The Commission, in collaboration with the Spanish Ministerio de Sanidad y Consumo, the Consejo de Seguridad Nuclear and the Centro de Investigaciones Energeticas, Medioambientales y Tecnologicas, organized on 12, 13 and 14 September 1988 in Madrid, the third scientific seminar on the optimization principle (Alara) which is a key element of the two abovementioned Council Directives. The seminar allowed an analysis of the progress made since the previous seminars of 1979 and 1983, in the practical implementation of the optimization principle, in relation to the design and operation of nuclear and industrial installations, natural radioactivity, medical practices and countermeasures. The report contains the 20 original contributions presented and some general considerations on the results of the seminar

391

Occupational radiation protection: Protecting workers against exposure to ionizing radiation. Proceedings of an international conference  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Occupational exposure to ionizing radiation can occur in a range of industries, in mining and milling, in medical institutions, in educational and research establishments and in nuclear fuel cycle facilities. The term 'occupational exposure' refers to the radiation exposure incurred by a worker which is attributable to the worker's occupation and received or committed during a period of work. According to the latest (2000) Report of the United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR), an estimated 11 million workers worldwide are monitored for exposure to ionizing radiation. They incur radiation doses which range from a small fraction of the global average background exposure to natural radiation up to several times that value. The International Basic Safety Standards for Protection against Ionizing Radiation and for the Safety of Radiation Sources (BSS), which are co-sponsored by, amongst others, the IAEA, the International Labour Organization (ILO), the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency (OECD/NEA) and the World Health Organization (WHO), establish a system of radiation protection of which the provisions for occupational exposure are a substantial component. Guidance supporting the requirements of the BSS for occupational protection is provided in three Safety Guides, jointly sponsored by the IAEA and the ILO, and describing, for example, the implications for employers in discharging their main responsibilities (such as setting up appropriatnsibilities (such as setting up appropriate radiation protection programmes) and similarly for workers (such as properly using the radiation monitoring devices provided to them). It should be noted, however, that radiation protection is only one factor that must be addressed in order to protect the worker's overall health and safety. The occupational radiation protection programme should be established and managed in co-ordination with other health and safety disciplines. Less than half of the occupationally exposed workers are exposed to artificial radiation sources. The majority of occupationally exposed workers are exposed to elevated levels of natural radionuclides. Notably, those workers comprising this latter group receive a higher average annual dose than do those workers exposed to artificial sources. The principal natural sources of radiation exposure, other than the mining and processing of uranium ores, are radon in buildings, non-uranium or thorium ores that contain significant traces of natural radionuclides, other underground workplaces and cosmic rays at aircraft altitudes. The BSS provide for the exclusion of exposures, the magnitude or likelihood of which is essentially unamenable to control. In order to address these issues the first International Conference on Occupational Radiation Protection, hosted by the Government of Switzerland, was organized by the IAEA and convened jointly with the ILO. It was co-sponsored by the European Commission (EC) and held in co-operation with the WHO and the OECD/NEA and also with UNSCEAR, the International Commission on Radiological Protection, the International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurements, the International Electrotechnical Commission, the International Radiation Protection Association and the International Society of Radiology. It was held at the Headquarters of the ILO, Geneva, from 26 to 30 August 2002, and attended by 328 participants from 72 countries and 12 organizations. Through the strong support of the IAEA's Technical Co-operation Department, and also from the EC, almost half of the participants were representing developing countries. The Conference is the first international conference to cover the whole area of occupational radiation protection, including infrastructure development, radiation monitoring, stakeholder involvement, and the probability of causation of occupational harm attributable to radiation exposure. The Proceedings contain all the presentations and discussions as well as summaries of each session and the findings and recommendations of the Conference

392

Days of Radiation Protection 2001. Conference Proceedings of the 24th Days of Radiation Protection  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Already the 24th annual international conference 'Days of Protection from Radiation' was taking place in Jan Sverma Hotel in Demaenova dolina on 26-29 November 2001. More than 180 participants from the Slovak Republic and the Czech Republic participated in the meetings of experts on protection from radiation. Representative of IAEA Division for Protection from Radiation and the representatives of several European companies securing the project, advisory and supplier's activities in dosimetry of ionising radiation also participated in the conference. The participants discussed in 7 expert panels the issue of protection from radiation in the legislative field, in the nuclear facilities operation and in medicine. The expert part of the other panels concerned the issues of ionising radiation impact on the environment and working environment, natural radio-nuclides, including radon and biologic impacts of radiation. One separate panel was dedicated to device techniques and methods of dosimetry of ionising radiation. More than 45 expert lectures and more than 40 poster presentations were presented at the conference during 3 days. The exhibition and presentation of measuring technique products and devices and of materials used in the area of radiation protection and nuclear medicine was prepared during the course of the conference. Participation in the conference showed that a great interest in problems of protection from radiation persists. This was proved by rich lecturing activity and wide discussions on the floor and during the poster presentations. Participants were satisfied since the organisers of the event prepared a worthy event with the rich expert themes at a good organisational and social level in a beautiful environment of Low Tatras

393

White book of radiation protection. Radiation protection at EDF: trends and objectives  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

After a presentation of organization of radioprotection at EDF (Electricity of France), different parts of this radioprotection will be evoked: first, the question of radiobiology related to radiation effects, and associated medical questions. Then, different aspects of radioprotection all life long of nuclear power plants to ensure workers protection, public protection and environment protection. Finally the information and training themes, to end by emergency cases

394

Radiation protection organization in Guangdong Nuclear Power Station (GNPS)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The French way of radiation protection management has been adopted by Guangdong Nuclear Power Station (GNPS) but there are some differences. In this paper author describes radiation protection organization in GNPS, special measures having been taken and the present status

395

Radiation protection glossary. English-Estonian and Estonian-English  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The dictionary contains more than 300 entries in the field of radiation protection and also useful information about special measurement units for quantities of interest in radiation protection (SI units and the previously used units) with their conversion factors

396

49 CFR 193.2057 - Thermal radiation protection.  

Science.gov (United States)

...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Thermal radiation protection. 193.2057 ...Siting Requirements § 193.2057 Thermal radiation protection. Each LNG container and LNG transfer system must have a thermal exclusion zone in accordance with...

2010-10-01

397

Radiation Protection Using Carbon Nanotube Derivatives  

Science.gov (United States)

BHA and BHT are well-known food preservatives that are excellent radical scavengers. These compounds, attached to single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs), could serve as excellent radical traps. The amino-BHT groups can be associated with SWNTs that have carbolyxic acid groups via acid-base association or via covalent association. The material can be used as a means of radiation protection or cellular stress mitigation via a sequence of quenching radical species using nano-engineered scaffolds of SWNTs and their derivatives. It works by reducing the number of free radicals within or nearby a cell, tissue, organ, or living organism. This reduces the risk of damage to DNA and other cellular components that can lead to chronic and/or acute pathologies, including (but not limited to) cancer, cardiovascular disease, immuno-suppression, and disorders of the central nervous system. These derivatives can show an unusually high scavenging ability, which could prove efficacious in protecting living systems from radical-induced decay. This technique could be used to protect healthy cells in a living biological system from the effects of radiation therapy. It could also be used as a prophylactic or antidote for radiation exposure due to accidental, terrorist, or wartime use of radiation- containing weapons; high-altitude or space travel (where radiation exposure is generally higher than desired); or in any scenario where exposure to radiation is expected or anticipated. This invention s ultimate use will be dependent on the utility in an overall biological system where many levels of toxicity have to be evaluated. This can only be assessed at a later stage. In vitro toxicity will first be assessed, followed by in vivo non-mammalian screening in zebra fish for toxicity and therapeutic efficacy.

Conyers, Jodie L., Jr.; Moore, Valerie C.; Casscells, S. Ward

2010-01-01

398

The purpose of radiation protection monitoring  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In the early period (1942-1960) of nuclear energy programmes with which I was associated, most radiation protection standards seem to have been formulated on the assumption that there is a threshold dose of ionizing radiation below which no radiation damage is expected to result in the lifetime of the exposed individual. It was in this climate of opinion that health physics began as a profession, and levels of maximum permissible exposure (MPE) to external sources of radiation, maximum permissible concentrations in air, water and food, and maximum permissible body burdens of radionuclides inside the human body were set and enforced. Some of the levels of MPE were quite high in comparison with present standards but, fortunately, the health physicists at the national laboratories in which most radiation workers were employed were very conservative; in most cases the average annual exposures were less than 10% of the MPE levels. However, there was not much concern with the man-rem concept, as exemplified by rather high levels of radioactive waste discharged from the plants or placed in temporary holding facilities - where there was a likely possibility of seepage into the environment. This situation was understandable and justifiable at a time when the purpose of radiation protection monitoring was simply to prevent individuals from exceeding a threshold dose. The period of the recent past up to the present time (1978) has been one in which there has been a gradual change from the concept of a threshold dose hypothesis to the linear hypothesis. In this period the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) and the national standards setting bodies have pointed out that the levels they have selected are based on the linear hypothesis, but in most respects they leave us with the impression that this is most probably a conservative assumption, subject to revision when better data become available. Also, during this period, the concept of exposure As Low As Reasonably Achievable (ALARA) was developed

399

Radiation safety and protection in US dental hygiene programs  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A survey of radiation safety and protection measures used by programs teaching dental hygiene indicated some areas for concern. No barriers or radiation shieldings were used between operator and patient in four programs. Radiation monitoring devices were not worn by faculty operators in 16% of the programs. Fewer than half of the programs used thyroid shields for patients on a routine basis. Insufficient filtration for the kilovolt peak employed was used by 14% of the programs, and for 19% more the filtration was unknown or unspecified. Three programs used closed cones. Rectangular collimation was not used at all by 63% of the programs, and only 20% used E speed film routinely. Quality assurance for equipment maintenance and for film processing were in place at only 54% and 49% of the programs, respectively

400

Global view on radiation protection in medicine  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

When planning good management of ionising radiation in medicine, key factors such as ensuring that health professionals work together and convincing them that radiation protection (RP) represents a substantial part of the quality management system in their clinical practice are of utmost importance. The United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation has decided that one of the thematic priorities will be medical radiation exposure of patients. The International Commission on Radiological Protection has recently updated the report on RP in medicine and continues to work on focused documents centred on specific areas where advice is needed. The roles of the International Atomic Energy Agency, World Health Organization and the European Commission, in the area of RP in medicine, are described in the present document. The industry, the standardisation organisations as well as many scientific and professional societies are also dedicating significant effort to radiation safety aspects in medicine. Some of the efforts and priorities contemplated in RP in medicine over the coming years are suggested. The best outcome will be accomplished when all the actors, i.e. medical doctors, other health professionals, regulators, health authorities and the industry manage to work together. (authors)

 
 
 
 
401

Biological research for the radiation protection  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The work scope of 'Biological Research for the Radiation Protection' had contained the research about polyamine effect on cell death triggered ionizing radiation, H{sub 2}O{sub 2} and toxic agents. In this paper, to elucidate the role of polyamines as mediator in lysosomal damage and stress(H{sub 2}O{sub 2})- induced apoptosis, we utilized {alpha}-DiFluoroMethylOrnithine (DFMO), which inhibited ornithine decarboxylase and depleted intracellular putrescine, and investigated the effects of polyamine on the apoptosis caused by H{sub 2}O{sub 2}, ionizing radiation and paraquat. We also showed that MGBG, inhibitor of polyamine biosynthesis, treatment affected intracellular redox steady states, intracellular ROS levels and protein oxidation. Thereafter we also investigated whether MGBG may enhance the cytotoxic efficacy of tumor cells caused by ionizing radiation or H{sub 2}O{sub 2} because such compounds are able to potentiate the cell-killing effects. In addition, ceruloplasmin and thioredoxin, possible antioxidant proteins, were shown to have protective effect on radiation- or H{sub 2}O{sub 2}(or chemicals)-induced macromolecular damage or cell death.

Kim, In Gyu; Kim, Chan Kug; Shim, Hae Won; Jung, Il Lae; Byun, Hee Sun; Moon, Myung Sook; Cho, Hye Jeong; Kim, Jin Sik

2003-04-01

402

Biological research for the radiation protection  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The work scope of 'Biological Research for the Radiation Protection' had contained the research about polyamine effect on cell death triggered ionizing radiation, H2O2 and toxic agents. In this paper, to elucidate the role of polyamines as mediator in lysosomal damage and stress(H2O2)- induced apoptosis, we utilized ?-DiFluoroMethylOrnithine (DFMO), which inhibited ornithine decarboxylase and depleted intracellular putrescine, and investigated the effects of polyamine on the apoptosis caused by H2O2, ionizing radiation and paraquat. We also showed that MGBG, inhibitor of polyamine biosynthesis, treatment affected intracellular redox steady states, intracellular ROS levels and protein oxidation. Thereafter we also investigated whether MGBG may enhance the cytotoxic efficacy of tumor cells caused by ionizing radiation or H2O2 because such compounds are able to potentiate the cell-killing effects. In addition, ceruloplasmin and thioredoxin, possible antioxidant proteins, were shown to have protective effect on radiation- or H2O2(or chemicals)-induced macromolecular damage or cell death

403

The gender problem in radiation protection  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Gender is a range of characteristics used to distinguish between males and females, particularly in the cases of men and women and the masculine and feminine attributes assigned to them. While the social sciences sometimes approach gender as a social construct, and some gender studies particularly do, research in the natural and medical sciences investigates whether biological differences in males and females influence the development of gender in humans. Radiation protection regulations also take into account the possibly different radiation risks of males and females. The following contribution investigates how far this is justified, and what are the consequences. (orig.)

Persson, Lars [Nobel Inst. of Physics, Stockholm (Sweden)

2012-07-01

404

The Croatian Radiation Protection Institute - Status and Role  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

One of the recent developments in radiation protection in the Republic of Croatia is founding of the Croatian Radiation Protection Institute. The Health Care Act and the Ionizing Radiation Protection Bill stipulate its scope of activities and particularly highlight the role of the Institute in establishing and maintaining records on radiation sources and persons handling these sources, its participation in formulating the radiation protection doctrine and organization of the radiation source operators training. The initiation of the Institute activities has closed and evident gap in the organizational infrastructure of protection. (author)

405

Recommendations for a knowledge sharing in radiation protection. Expertise in radiation protection. Extract from ' propositions for a better protection of persons against the radiation risk'  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The group of priorities in radiation protection proposes the following recommendations: to carry on the researches in France to better know the radiation effects on man health and particularly the effects in relation with low doses; to create a national network of researchers working in the field of radiobiology; to create a plan of a scientific lookout; to strengthen the expertise in the field of action principles of radiation protection; to help the development of an organization allowing an interaction between each actor of radiation protection; to organize the production of notes on radiation protection for professionals. (N.C.)

406

Evaluation of radiation protection principles observance in Iranian dental schools  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

"nBackground and Aim: In recent decades many guidelines has been conducted by radiation protection organizations about radiation protection in dentistry. This study was designed to evaluate the observance of these guidelines in educational clinics of all dental schools in Iran."nMaterials and Methods: In this cross-sectional study a questionnaire based on National Radiation Protection guidelines was conducted. The questionnaire consisted of questions about radiation protection princ...

GhazikhanlouSani K.; Eskandarlou A

2009-01-01

407

Chemical protection against ionizing radiation. Final report  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The scientific literature on radiation-protective drugs is reviewed. Emphasis is placed on the mechanisms involved in determining the sensitivity of biological material to ionizing radiation and mechanisms of chemical radioprotection. In Section I, the types of radiation are described and the effects of ionizing radiation on biological systems are reviewed. The effects of ionizing radiation are briefly contrasted with the effects of non-ionizing radiation. Section II reviews the contributions of various natural factors which influence the inherent radiosensitivity of biological systems. Inlcuded in the list of these factors are water, oxygen, thiols, vitamins and antioxidants. Brief attention is given to the model describing competition between oxygen and natural radioprotective substances (principally, thiols) in determining the net cellular radiosensitivity. Several theories of the mechanism(s) of action of radioprotective drugs are described in Section III. These mechanisms include the production of hypoxia, detoxication of radiochemical reactive species, stabilization of the radiobiological target and the enhancement of damage repair processes. Section IV describes the current strategies for the treatment of radiation injury. Likely areas in which fruitful research might be performed are described in Section V. 495 references

408

Assessing the service provided by an institutional radiation safety survey program  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Routine radiation safety surveys are a required part of every institutional radiation protection program. Although mandated by regulation, surveys are really performed to help clinicians and researchers establish and maintain radiologically-safe working and learning environments. In some cases, however, the priorities established by a radiation protection program may not coincide with the needs perceived by the institution`s workers, leading to possible alienation, dissatisfaction, and non-compliance with policies, procedures, and regulations. To determine if a typical survey program was perceived as providing a good or valued service to workers, a simple questionnaire was created and utilized for a 6-mo period. The results obtained from this targeted assessment tool indicate that the radiation safety survey services were perceived as useful by most of the workers. In addition, the actual process of comment solicitation provided a positive feedback mechanism from the service recipients to the radiation safety staff, managers, committee members, and institution administrators. 5 refs., 2 tabs.

Emery, R.J.; Sawyer, R.L. [Univ. of Texas-Houston Health Science Center, TX (United States); Sprau, D.D. [East Carolina Univ., NC (United States)

1996-05-01

409

Emergency Radiation Survey Device Onboard the Uav  

Science.gov (United States)

Radiation survey device (RSD) on the base of unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) was developed as an equipment of rescue forces for radiation situation reconnaissance in case of emergency. RSD is multi range radiometer with spectrometer functions capable to work within gamma ray fields of dose rate 10-7 - 10-1 Sievert per hour. UAV md4-1000 (Microdrones GmbH, Germany) was selected as the RSD carrier as a reliable vehicle with appropriate properties. Short description of RSD, UAV and developed software features as well as sensitivity assessments for different radiation sources are presented.

Bogatov, S.; Mazny, N.; Pugachev, A.; Tkachenko, S.; Shvedov, A.

2013-08-01

410

Radiation risk and protection: a regulator's view  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

More effective results could be obtained if more importance were attached to the way by which the principles of radiation protection are put into practice, rather than to the lowering of primary limits. This conclusion may be clearly drawn from the trend in the years of collective doses in OECD countries' nuclear plants, as worked out by the International System on Occupational Exposure of OECD/NEA. 1 fig

411

Radiation protection aspects in importing metallic scraps  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The meeting deals with radiation protection problems caused by the possibility that radioactive metal scraps or radioactive sources hidden in the scraps, may arrive in a foundry. The importance of this issue and of rational and systematic solutions is showed by several accidents, happened in the past in numerous countries, by many signals in Italy and by some papers published in international scientific journals or reports issued by authorities and institutions in different countries

412

The historical development of radiation protection limits  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The present internationally largely corresponding radiation protection limits are based on recommendations given by the ICRP in 1965. In order to better understand the underlying concepts, a historical sketch of the development is presented including actual discussions of trends to be excepted. Although exposure of healthy individuals by man-made sources up to these maximum levels is legally permissible, it should be emphasized again and again that any unavoidable exposure must be justified by the need for its associated cause. (author)

413

Radiation protection by diethyldithiocarbamate. Protection of membrane and DNA in vitro and in vivo against ?-radiation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Diethyldithiocarbamate (DDTC) is studied for its antioxidant and radioprotective abilities. DDTC at a concentration of 0.5 mM reduced DPPH radical. DDTC reduced the damage to deoxyribose resulting from hydroxyl radicals generated by Fenton reaction, indicating that the radioprotective abilities of this compound could be due to the free radical scavenging. DDTC protected rat liver microsomal membranes in vitro from peroxidative damage in lipids (measured as TBARS) resulting from 50 Gy ?-radiation. It also protected plasmid pBR322 DNA from radiation-induced strand breaks. An oral administration of DDTC to mice before whole body ?-radiation exposure (4 Gy) resulted in a reduction of radiation-induced lipid peroxides in the liver homogenates. An administration of DDTC to mice before ?-radiation reduced the radiation-induced DNA damage as studied by single cell gel-electrophoresis (comet assay). The comet parameters such as tail length, tail moment, and percent of DNA in tail were found to increase in the blood leukocytes of mice exposed to 4 Gy ?-radiation. When DDTC was administered to mice before the radiation exposure, the increase in the comet parameters as a result of radiation was prevented, indicating a protection of cellular DNA. The present study has implication for the potential use of DDTC as a radioprotector. (author)

414

Chemical radioprotectors in the radiation protection  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Some chemical compounds showed high efficiency in protection of people and animals against harmful effects of ionizing radiation. A review of current situation was given and possible directions of further investigations in the field of chemical radioprotection were pointed out. From great number of chemical radioprotectors, the group of aminothiol, derivatives of cysteamine, that showed the greatest efficiency in previous investigations, was particularly described. According to newer literature data and our own results, WR-2721 (gamafos, ethiofos) deserves special attention because of high efficiency, comparatively good bearing and low protection of tumor tissue, what is of particular importance for radiotherapy of malignant diseases. In recent times, investigations in this field goes in the direction of discovering new substances and suitable combinations of two or more radioprotectors, which would lead to the maximal protection level with minimal unwanted effects. (author)

415

Radiation protection guidelines for the skin  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

With the exception of the function of cells in the skin associated with immunocompetence nonstochastic effects have been well characterized and threshold doses are known with a precision appropriate for setting radiation protection standards. A dose limitation of 0.5 Sv per year and a working lifetime dose limit of 20 Sv should protect the worker population adequately and therefore, the current protection standards are quite adequate. The risk estimate for skin cancer is very dependent on the selection of the projection model and on the mortality rate assumed. Based on the relative risk model, a mortality rate of 0.2% and summing risks for both UVR exposed and shielded skin the risk is about twice (1.94/10-4 Sv-1) that which ICRP derived in 1977. With the absolute model the risk is considerably less, about 0.5/10-4 Sv-1. 47 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab

416

IRPA Regional Congress on Radiation Protection in Central Europe  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Congress proceedings included 93 papers. The IRPA Congress materials deals with progress the various IRPA initiatives to implement new radiation protection concepts. In accordance to this actual trends the main topics of the congress are 'Clearance levels and material release' and 'Environmental impact assessment of workplaces resp. facilities with radiation sources'. Papers and posters in all traditional radiation protection subjects (general aspects, biological effects of radiation, radiation protection in medicine, dosimetry, instrumentation, quality assurance)

417

Training in Radiation Protection for Interventional Radiology  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Several potential problems have been detected in the safety aspects for the practice of interventional radiology procedures: a) An important increase in the number cases and their complexity and the corresponding increase of installations and specialists involved; b) New X ray systems more sophisticated, with advanced operational possibilities, requiring special skills in the operators to obtain the expected benefits;c) New medical specialists arriving to the interventional arena to profit the benefits of the interventional techniques without previous experience in radiation protection. For that reason, education and training is one of the basic areas in any optimisation programme in radiation protection (RP). the medical field and especially interventional radiology requires actions to promote and to profit the benefit of the new emerging technologies for training (Internet, electronic books, etc). The EC has recently sponsored the MARTIR programme (Multimedia and Audio-visual Radiation Protection Training in Interventional Radiology) with the production of two videos on basic aspects of RP and quality control and one interactive CD-ROM to allow tailored individual training programmes. those educational tools are being distributed cost free in the main European languages. To go ahead with these actions, the EC has decided to promote during 2002, a forum with the main Medical European Societies involved in these interventional procedures. (Author) procedures. (Author)

418

Commercial Sensory Survey Radiation Testing Progress Report  

Science.gov (United States)

The NASA Electronic Parts and Packaging (NEPP) Program Sensor Technology Commercial Sensor Survey task is geared toward benefiting future NASA space missions with low-cost, short-duty-cycle, visible imaging needs. Such applications could include imaging for educational outreach purposes or short surveys of spacecraft, planetary, or lunar surfaces. Under the task, inexpensive commercial grade CMOS sensors were surveyed in fiscal year 2007 (FY07) and three sensors were selected for total ionizing dose (TID) and displacement damage dose (DDD) tolerance testing. The selected sensors had to meet selection criteria chosen to support small, low-mass cameras that produce good resolution color images. These criteria are discussed in detail in [1]. This document discusses the progress of radiation testing on the Micron and OmniVision sensors selected in FY07 for radiation tolerance testing.

Becker, Heidi N.; Dolphic, Michael D.; Thorbourn, Dennis O.; Alexander, James W.; Salomon, Phil M.

2008-01-01

419

Radiation protection study of radiology medical workers in radiodiagnosis area  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Aspects related to radiological safety and its organization in radiodiagnosis were evaluated by means of scanning carried out in 18 hospitals of Mexico City, divided in 11 public institutions and 7 private ones. The population being studied was: hospital personnel that works in radiodiagnosis. The survey was made with 31 dichotomic variables, being obtained 132 surveys. The personnel characteristics are 83% works in public institutions, 49% works in radiodiagnosis, 3% has an academic degree, 13% is member of a hospital professional association, 13% has updated information on radiological protection, 36% was trained, 45% works for more than 2 years, 52% uses personal dosemeter, less than the 20% knows about the fundamentals of the radiological protection and 24% states to suffer from biological radiation effects, due to the exposure to x-rays. As result of the study, it was found that the main problems that the radiological protection has, are: lack of training programs in radiological protection and supervision, medical surveillance and the few number of persons that takes part in clinical meetings and professional associations. (authors). 7 refs., 3 tabs

420

Survey of international personnel radiation dosimetry programs  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In September of 1983, a mail survey was conducted to determine the status of external personnel gamma and neutron radiation dosimetry programs at international agencies. A total of 130 agencies participated in this study including military, regulatory, university, hospital, laboratory, and utility facilities. Information concerning basic dosimeter types, calibration sources, calibration phantoms, corrections to dosimeter responses, evaluating agencies, dose equivalent reporting conventions, ranges of typical or expected dose equivalents, and degree of satisfaction with existing systems was obtained for the gamma and neutron personnel monitoring programs at responding agencies. Results of this survey indicate that to provide the best possible occupational radiation monitoring programs and to improve dosimetry accuracy in performance studies, facility dosimetrists, regulatory and standards agencies, and research laboratories must act within their areas of responsibility to become familiar with their radiation monitoring systems, establish common reporting guidelines and performance standards, and provide opportunities for dosimetry testing and evaluation. 14 references, 10 tables

 
 
 
 
421

Survey of Canadian hospitals radiation emergency plans  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report documents the findings of a survey of Canadian hospitals conducted by Social Data Research Ltd. during the Spring and Summer, 1995. The main objective of the survey was to determine the state of readiness of Canadian hospitals in respect of radiation emergency planning. In addition, the AECB was interested in knowing the extent to which a report by the Group of Medical Advisors, 'GMA-3: Guidelines on Hospital Emergency Plans for the Management of Minor Radiation Accidents', which was sponsored and distributed in 1993, was received and was useful to hospital administrators and emergency personnel. A self-administered questionnaire was distributed to 598 acute care hospitals, and 274 responses were received. The main conclusion of this study is that, with the exception of a few large institutions, hospitals generally do not have specific action plans to handle minor radiation accidents. (author)

422

Radiation protection during operation of nuclear power plants  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This Guide describes a Radiation Protection Programme for nuclear power plants. It includes: (1) An outline of the basic principles as well as practical aspects of the programme; (2) A description of the responsibilities of the operating organization to establish an effective programme based upon these principles; (3) A description of the administrative and technical measures to establish and implement the programme. This Guide also deals with the operational aspects to be considered by the operating organization in reviewing design in order to facilitate implementation of the Radiation Protection Programme. This Guide covers the requirements for a Radiation Protection Programme for all operational states of the nuclear power plant. It also includes guidelines for handling planned special exposures and for coping with unplanned exposures and contamination of personnel, areas, and equipment. Additional information concerning emergency situations involving releases of radioactive materials is given in Safety Guides 50-SG-O6, ''Preparedness of the Operating Organization (Licensee) for Emergencies at Nuclear Power Plants'', and 50-SG-G6, ''Preparedness of Public Authorities for Emergencies at Nuclear Power Plants''. This Guide covers the principles of dose limitation to site personnel and to the public, but it does not include detailed instructions on the techniques used for the actual measurement and evaluation of the exposures. This Guide does not include detailed instructions on environmental surveys, but it does mention principal steps in environmental monitoring which may be required for confirmation of the acceptability of radioactive discharges

423

Quantitative Risk in Radiation Protection Standards  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Although the overall aim of radiobiology is to understand the biological effects of radiation, it also has the implied practical purpose of developing rational measures for the control of radiation exposure in man. The emphasis in this presentation is to show that the enormous effort expended over the years to develop quantitative dose-effect relationships in biochemical and cellular systems, animals, and human beings now seems to be paying off. The pieces appear to be falling into place, and a framework is evolving to utilize these data. Specifically, quantitative risk assessments will be discussed in terms of the cellular, animal, and human data on which they are based; their use in the development of radiation protection standards; and their present and potential impact and meaning in relation to the quantity dose equivalent and its special unit, the rem.

Bond, V. P.

1979-01-03

424

New dose units in radiation protection  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The 'Normenausschuss Radiologie' (German Standards Committee on Radiology, NAR) and the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB) have recommended the introduction of new quantities in the field of radiation protection measurements for external exposure in Germany as of January 1995. The present report serves as a support for this recommendation. It describes the present, radiation type related system of quantities and the new quantities as proposed by the ICRU which are the same for all types of radiation. The implications of the introduction of the new quantities in individual and area monitoring are described. In particular, changes of calibration procedures are considered, and numerical values needed for these procedures are given. Two chapters deal with special problems connected with instrument testing and verification and with provisional arrangements. (orig./HP)

425

Antihistamine provides sex-specific radiation protection  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Rats suffer an early transient performance decrement immediately after a sufficiently large dose of ionizing radiation. However, it has been shown that males experience a more severe incapacitation than females. This sex difference has been attributed to the low estrogen levels in the male. In support of this notion, supplemental estrogens in castrated male rats have produced less-severe performance decrements post-irradiation. Antihistamines have also previously been shown to alleviate radiation's effect on behavior. The present study revealed that antihistamines are only effective in altering the behavioral incapacitation of sexually intact male subjects. This contrasts with previous work which indicates that estrogens can only benefit gonadectomized rats. These findings suggest that different mechanisms may underly antihistamine and estrogen radiation protection

426

Antihistamine provides sex-specific radiation protection  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Rats suffer an early transient performance decrement immediately after a sufficiently large dose of ionizing radiation. However, it has been shown that males experience a more severe incapacitation than females. This sex difference has been attributed to the low estrogen levels in the male. In support of this notion, supplemental estrogens in castrated male rats have produced less-severe performance decrements post-irradiation. Antihistamines have also previously been shown to alleviate radiation's effect on behavior. The present study revealed that antihistamines are only effective in altering the behavioral incapacitation of sexually intact male subjects. This contrasts with previous work which indicates that estrogens can only benefit gonadectomized rats. These findings suggest that different mechanisms may underlie antihistamine and estrogen radiation protection

427

Radiation protection in screening children's hips  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Repeat hygienic investigation of the conditions of radiation protection in preventive screening of children's hips (at a time interval of 10 years) in the Central Bohemian Region revealed certain improvement in covering children's gonads (in the frequency of using protective devices), in the protection of the accompanying person and the equipment of the workplaces with modern X-ray apparatus and automatic developers. Large differences between individual workplaces were seen in the selection of technical parameters (voltage, power, focus, size of irradiated field); that is why up to nine-fold differences existed in irradiation of children. (The mean gonadal dose was 22.6 ?Gy and the mean weighted whole-body dose was 71.2 ?Gy.) A conservative estimate of the effective dose equivalent was used in comparing the social cost and benefit in preventive screening of children's hips which had shown that at least one preventive X-r