WorldWideScience

Sample records for radiation protection surveys

  1. Survey of radiation protection programmes for transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The survey of radiation protection programmes for transport has been jointly performed by three scientific organisations I.P.S.N. (France), G.R.S. ( Germany), and N.R.P.B. (United kingdom) on behalf of the European Commission and the pertaining documentation summarises the findings and conclusions of the work that was undertaken with the principal objectives to provide guidance on the establishment, implementation and application of radiation protection programmes for the transport of radioactive materials by operators and the assessment and evaluation of such programmes by the competent authority and to review currently existing radiation protection programmes for the transport of radioactive materials. (N.C.)

  2. A survey of research programs in radiation protection in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A survey of research programs in Canada concerned with radiation protection was conducted in 1991-92 by the Joint Subcommittee on Regulatory Research (JSCRR) of the Atomic Energy Control Board (AECB) Advisory Committees on Radiological Protection and on Nuclear Safety. The purpose of this survey was to determine the current state of funding for this type of research in Canada. Funding for health-related radiation research in Canada is critical to establishing and maintaining a supply of trained professionals who can provide competent advice on health-related problems in radiation protection. The present report is an analysis of the information received in this survey. This survey concludes with the recommendation that the organization and definition of subprograms for the AECB Regulatory Research and Support Program should be completed as soon as possible. In this report the JSCRR should assist AECB staff in preparing a report in which priorities for research related to radiation protection are indicated. The sources of information noted at the end of the Discussion section of this report should be considered for this purpose. (author). 15 refs., 3 tabs

  3. Survey of Radiation Protection Awareness among Radiation Workers in Shiraz Hospitals

    OpenAIRE

    Amirzadeh, F.; Tabatabaie, S. H. R.

    2005-01-01

    Introduction: Ionizing radiations are the hazardous agents in the workplace and all forms of ionizing radiation produce some type of injuries. Awareness of application of protection guidelines and knowledge of the principles of radiation protection can play an important role in health of employees. Survey of radiation employee’s levels of awareness and practical behavior is essential and should be standardized. Methods: The hospitals were visited to determine the number of radiation employe...

  4. Survey of Radiation Protection Education and Training in Finland in 2003

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The current state and need for radiation protection training in Finland have been surveyed by the Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority STUK. The survey sought to determine whether the current requirements for radiation protection training had been met, and to promote radiation protection training. Details of the scope and quality of present radiation protection training were requested from all educational institutes and organizations providing radiation protection training. The survey covered both basic and further training, special training of radiation safety officers, and supplementary training. The questionnaire was sent to 77 educational organization units, 66 per cent of which responded. Radiation workers and radiation safety officers were asked about radiation protection knowledge and needs for additional training. The questionnaire was sent to 880 radiation users and 170 radiation safety officers, 70 per cent of whom responded. The survey covered all professional groups and fields of the use of ionizing radiation except nuclear energy. The amount of radiation protection training in basic and further (specialization) training in the same vocational or academic degree varied remarkably by educational organization. The average amounts of radiation protection included in most professional degrees met the requirements. 32 per cent of workers considered their radiation protection training inadequate for their duties, and 48 per cent had completed no supplementary 8 per cent had completed no supplementary training in radiation protection over the last five years. Nurses working in public sector hospitals and physicians working in health centres had the greatest need for radiation protection training. 78 per cent of radiation workers in industry felt that they had sufficient radiation protection training. Co-operation between educational organizations is necessary to harmonize radiation protection training. Guidance of the Ministry of Education (the competent authority for education) is needed in this area, and the Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority STUK should also be involved. (Author)

  5. Survey of Radiation Protection Awareness among Radiation Workers in Shiraz Hospitals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Amirzadeh

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Ionizing radiations are the hazardous agents in the workplace and all forms of ionizing radiation produce some type of injuries. Awareness of application of protection guidelines and knowledge of the principles of radiation protection can play an important role in health of employees. Survey of radiation employee’s levels of awareness and practical behavior is essential and should be standardized. Methods: The hospitals were visited to determine the number of radiation employees and to select the samples. Data was collected by questionnaire and analyses were performed by EPI6 software. Results: The employee’s awareness about protection in the radiation room was 70%, about application of film badge was more than 85%. The employee’s awareness of periodic inspection of atomic energy organization expert was 54% and their knowledge of long term and short term radiation effects were 98% and 95%, respectively. There was a meaningful relation concerning the level of education and awareness of the employees about MPD or principles of radiation protection (P<0.0007 and P<0.003 respectively. Conclusion: Our results reveal that the employees have acceptable knowledge about the use of film badges, however, they lack enough awareness concerning other issues of radiation protection. Proper and periodic educational courses for radiation workers are mandatory.

  6. Radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work define procedures and controls about ionizing radiations. Between some definitions it found the following topics: radiation dose, risk, biological effects, international radioprotection bodies, workers exposure, accidental exposure, emergencies and radiation protection

  7. On the awareness of radiation protection. A questionnaire survey of junior college students of radiological technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A questionnaire survey on the awareness of radiation protection was conducted to improve our curriculum of radiation protection education, which seems to be important for the safe administrative control systems and handling techniques of radiation. A total of 426 students answered our questionnaire during the period of 1994 to 1999. They were 80 first-year, 114 second-year and 232 third-year students. The facility values of 4 questions on the influence of radiation to a human body were 50.2%, 30.3%, 28.9% and 7.0%. There was no statistically significant difference among different age groups. The facility values of 3 questions on the dose limitation of occupation exposure were 50.5% (on the effective dose equivalent), 36.4% (on the tissue dose equivalent to skin), and 40.9% (on the crystalline lens). On safe handling of radiation, only 35.7% of students correctly answered that they use a plastic board to protect themselves from ?-ray, while 77.0% correctly answered the question on the decontamination method of radioactive substance from the skin. The results show the students' lack of knowledge on radiation protection. Those involved in basic science education and radiation protection education, therefore, need to clarify their teaching content and offer explicit explanations on the proper dose of radiation, effects to exposure dose, interaction between different materials and radiation. (author)

  8. Data survey about radiation protection and safety of radiation sources in research laboratories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In Brazil, different types of research using unsealed sources are developed with a variety of radioisotopes. In such activities, professionals and students involved are potentially exposed to internal contamination by 14C, 45Ca, 51Cr, 3H, 125I, 32P, 33P, 35S, 90Sr and 99mTc. The general objective of this work is to evaluate radiological risks associated to these practices in order to supply information for planning actions aimed to improve radiation protection conditions in research laboratories. The criteria for risk evaluation and the safety aspects adopted in this work were based on CNEN Regulation 6.02 and in IAEA and NRPB publications. The survey of data was carried out during visits to laboratories in public Universities located in the city of Rio de Janeiro where unsealed radioactive sources are used in biochemistry, biophysics and genetic studies. According to the criteria adopted in this work, some practices developed in the laboratories require evaluation of risk of internal contamination depending on the conditions of source manipulation. It was verified the need for training of users of radioactive materials in this type of laboratory. This can be facilitated by the use of basic guides for the classification of areas, radiation protection, safety and source security in research laboratories. It was also observed the need for optimization of such prerved the need for optimization of such practices in order to minimize the contact with sources. It is recommended to implement more effective source and access controls as a way to reduce risks of individual radiation exposure and loss of radioactive materials (author)

  9. Radiation Protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Major achievements of SCK-CEN's Radiation Protection Department in 2001 are described. The main areas for R and D of the department are enviromnental remediation, emergency planning, radiation protection research, low-level radioactvity measurements, safeguards and physics measurements, decision strategy research and policy support and social sciences in nuclear research. Main achievements for 2001 in these areas are reported

  10. Radiation Protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grupen, Claus

    Radiation protection is a very important aspect for the application of particle detectors in many different fields, like high energy physics, medicine, materials science, oil and mineral exploration, and arts, to name a few. The knowledge of radiation units, the experience with shielding, and information on biological effects of radiation are vital for scientists handling radioactive sources or operating accelerators or X-ray equipment. This article describes the modern radiation units and their conversions to older units which are still in use in many countries. Typical radiation sources and detectors used in the field of radiation protection are presented. The legal regulations in nearly all countries follow closely the recommendations of the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP). Tables and diagrams with relevant information on the handling of radiation sources provide useful data for the researcher working in this field.

  11. Concepts of radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This seventh chapter presents the concepts and principles of safety and radiation protection, emergency situations; NORM and TENORM; radiation protection care; radiation protection plan; activities of the radiation protection service; practical rules of radiation protection and the radiation symbol

  12. Principles of radiation protection and legal basis for workers and public protection - a description of the Federal Radiation Survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The consequences of traditional mining and uranium industry, public concern and the need for decisions on restoration and remediation of radioactive-contaminated sites require systematic investigations and objective evaluations of the existing radiological situation. With this intention a comprehensive Federal project has been lauched to study the contributions of the geologic conditions and mining activities to the radiation exposure of the public. The responsibility for the whole project was delegated to the Federal Office for Radiation Protection (BfS). Topics covered in this paper include: Radiological evaluation and legal basis of the radiological protection for workers and for the public; Radiological protection for workers and the public in case of remedial actions

  13. Radiation protection

    CERN Multimedia

    2005-01-01

    The section of the Radiation Protection Group in charge of shipping radioactive material would like to remind users that all radioactive material leaving CERN must be checked for radioactivity and must be shipped according to the procedure given at http://cern.ch/service-rp-shipping Do not hesitate to contact us for any question or control. Radioactive Shipping Service: service-rp-shipping@cern.ch Tel. 73171

  14. Radiation protection

    CERN Document Server

    2005-01-01

    The section of the Radiation Protection Group in charge of shipping radioactive material would like to remind users that all radioactive material leaving CERN must be checked for radioactivity and must be shipped according to the procedure given at http://cern.ch/service-rp-shipping Do not hesitate to contact us for any question or control. Radioactive Shipping Service: service-rp-shipping@cern.ch Tél. 73171

  15. Radiation protection

    CERN Document Server

    Radioactive Shipping Service

    2005-01-01

    The section of the radiation protection group in charge of shipping radioactive material would like to remind users that all radioactive material leaving CERN must be checked for radioactivity and must be shipped according to the procedure given at http://cern.ch/service-rp-shipping Do not hesitate to contact us for any question or control. Radioactive Shipping Service: service-rp-shipping@cern.ch Tél. 73171

  16. 5. Radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The problems, targets and principles of radiation protection are surveyed. The most important concepts, quantities and units used in radiation protection are listed. Attention is paid to biological radiation effects, external and internal irradiation, radiaton sources and dosimetric systems at nuclear power plants. Discussed are the basic methods of radiation protection based on the factor of time, distance from the radiation source and shielding, and the questions of the limit dose system which should comprise the justification of the respective human activity, optimization of radiation protection and annual dose equivalent limits. The limits are outlined of reducing exposure with respect to costs which society is willing to expend for the given purpose. (Z.M.)

  17. Radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Three main pillars underpin the IAEA's mission: Safety and Security - The IAEA helps countries to upgrade their infrastructure for nuclear and radiation safety and security, and to prepare for and respond to emergencies. Work is keyed to international conventions, the development of international standards and the application of these standards. The aim is to protect people and the environment from the harmful effects of exposure to ionizing radiation. Science and Technology - The IAEA is the world's focal point for mobilizing peaceful applications of nuclear science and technology for critical needs in developing countries. The work contributes to alleviating poverty, combating disease and pollution of the environment and to other goals of sustainable development. Safeguards and Verification - The IAEA is the nuclear inspectorate, with more than four decades of verification experience. Inspectors work to verify that nuclear material and activities are not diverted towards military purposes. Quantities and Units: Dose equivalent is the product of absorbed dose of radiation and quality factor (Q). For absorbed dose in rads, dose equivalent is in rems. If absorbed dose is in gray, the dose equivalent is in sievert. Quality factor is defined without reference to any particular biological end point. Quality factors are recommended by committees such as the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) or the National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements (NCRP), based on experimental RBE values but with some judgment exercised. Effective Dose Equivalent: It is the sum of the weighted dose equivalents for all irradiated tissues, in which the weighting factors represent the different risks of each tissue to mortality from cancer and hereditary effects. Committed dose equivalent: It is the integral over 50 years of dose equivalent following the intake of a radionuclide. Collective effective dose equivalent: It is a quantity for a population and is the sum of effective dose equivalents to all members of that population. Units are in person-sievert/person-rems. Aim of Radiation Protection: 1. Avoid the deterministic effects; and 2. Lower the probability of stochastic effects to an acceptable level. (author)

  18. Survey of radiation protection programmes for transport; Etude des programmes de radioprotection pour les transports de matieres radioactives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lizot, M.T.; Perrin, M.L.; Sert, G. [CEA Fontenay-aux-Roses, Inst. de Protection et de Surete Nucleaire, Dept. de Protection et de Surete Nucleaire, 92 (France); Lange, F.; Schwarz, G.; Feet, H.J.; Christ, R. [Gesellschaft fur Anlagen-und Reaktorsicherheit, GRS, mbH, Cologne (Germany); Shaw, K.B.; Hughes, J.S.; Gelder, R. [National Radiological Protection Board (NRPB), Oxon, OX (United Kingdom)

    2001-07-01

    The survey of radiation protection programmes for transport has been jointly performed by three scientific organisations I.P.S.N. (France), G.R.S. ( Germany), and N.R.P.B. (United kingdom) on behalf of the European Commission and the pertaining documentation summarises the findings and conclusions of the work that was undertaken with the principal objectives to provide guidance on the establishment, implementation and application of radiation protection programmes for the transport of radioactive materials by operators and the assessment and evaluation of such programmes by the competent authority and to review currently existing radiation protection programmes for the transport of radioactive materials. (N.C.)

  19. Radiation protection in Hesse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A survey is given on the tasks of the administration of Land Hesse in the field of radiation protection. The responsible authorities are the Social Ministry and its subordinate agencies, in particular the Industrial Control Office and the Inspection Office for Industrial Administration. The measures taken by the authorities are subject to the Atomic Energy Act and its executive regulations such as the 1st Radiation Protection Ordinance governing the use of radioactive materials and radiation protection in nuclear facilities, the 2nd Radiation Protection Ordinance for the use of radioactive materials and X-ray equipment in schools, and the X-ray Ordinance for the use of X-ray installations and stray radiation. The competence for licensing and control of nuclear reactors and other applications of nuclear fuels is in the hands of the Ministry of Economy and Technology. The licences are granted in accordance with the Social Ministry and the Ministry of the Interior. (ORU/AK)

  20. Proposal of a survey of radiation protection procedures during breast feeding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Contamination can occur by breast milk ingestion involving mothers subjected to diagnostic procedures or treatment with radiopharmaceuticals, which can reach high concentrations in milk causing significant absorbed doses to the children organs. Besides internal dose, close contact between the baby and his mother give rise to external exposures. In Brazil, 7% of diagnostic procedures use 131I or 123I for thyroid imaging and 84% of these were hold by women. For 131I, 67Ga and 201Tl, is recommended breast feeding cessation. The present work proposes a survey of the state of the art of radiation protection to breast feeding infants. It was planned interviews with nuclear medicine staff applying a questionnaire in order to assess specific procedures to women in reproductive age. This is 'on progress work'. (author)

  1. The use of roentgen diagnostics in chiropractor activities. Project based survey according to new regulations regarding radiation protection and use of radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An audit has been performed in 17 chiropractic enterprises according to new radiation protection legislation. Before the audits a survey of the use of diagnostic imaging in Norwegian chiropractic enterprises was carried out. This report summarizes the results of the survey and the findings at the audits. (Author)

  2. Radiation protection in nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: People are exposed to ionizing radiation in many different forms: cosmic rays that penetrate earth atmosphere or radiation from soil and mineral resources are natural forms of ionizing radiation. Other forms are produced artificially using radioactive materials for various beneficial applications in medicine, industry and other fields. The greatest concerns about ionizing radiation are tied to its potential health effects and a system of radiation protection has been developed to protect people from harmful radiation. The promotion of radiation protection is one of the International Atomic Energy Agency main activities. Radiation protection concerns the protection of workers, members of public, and patients undergoing diagnosis and therapy against the harmful effects of ionizing radiation. The report covers the responsibility of radiation protection officer in Egypt Second Research Reactor (ETRR-2) in Inshas - Egypt, also presents the protection against ionizing radiation from external sources, including types of radiation, sources of radiation (natural - artificial), and measuring units of dose equivalent rate. Also covers the biological effects of ionizing radiation, personal monitoring and radiation survey instruments and safe transport of radioactive materials. The report describes the Egypt Second Research Reactor (ETRR-2), the survey instruments used, also presents the results obtained and gave a relations between different categories of data. (author)

  3. Assessment of radiation protection training needs and capabilities in Europe: Results of the ENETRAP survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Maintaining a high level of competencies in the field of radiation protection is crucial for the future safe application of ionising radiation and to ensure the protection of workers, the public and the environment. Although working with a variety of responsibilities and specific professional aims, practitioners dealing with applications of ionizing radiation have three common needs with regard to radiological protection: basic education and training providing the required level of understanding of artificial and natural radiation; a standard for the recognition of skills and experience; and an opportunity to fine-tune and test acquired knowledge on a regular basis. The wide variety of the national approaches of the E and T programs in radiological protection in Europe hampers a common European methodology concerning these issues. This is particularly true for the Qualified Expert. Although, in this specific case, the fundamentals of the E and T programs are given by a European directive, the national differences in for instance, level, duration, subjects, practical and theoretical proportions in a program etc. create a barrier for the mutual recognition of this expert. The development of a common European radiation protection and safety culture and, based on that, the mutual recognition of radiation protection courses and the acquired competencies of radiation protection experts becomes crucial in a world of dynamic markets and increasing workers' mobilityc markets and increasing workers' mobility. A sustainable Education and Training (E and T) infrastructure is an essential component to combat the decline in expertise and to ensure the continuation of the high level of radiation protection knowledge in the future. Such infrastructure has to be built in such a way that both the initial training ('Education') and the unceasing maintenance of the level of competencies ('Training') are available. In answer to the need to develop a common European radiation protection and safety culture and, based on that, the mutual recognition for radiation protection courses and the acquired competencies of Qualified Experts, the ENETRAP project is working on a European harmonized approach of E and T programs in radiation protection. In a first phase of the ENETRAP project; a questionnaire was set up, the objective of this questionnaire being to elicit detailed information which will enable us to: assess the actual training needs in the EU Member States and Candidate States; understand the various regulatory aspects and consequently propose minimum requirements for mutual recognition of RPEs and RPOs; collate details of the various training and education activities available in the EU Member and Candidate States, and; review the content, structure and methods of these training and education activities. Hereto, an extensive list of questions was set up addressing the following topics: numbers of RPEs; identification of practices; national capabilities for education and training in radiological protection; regulatory requirements and; recognition. This questionnaire was sent out to 31 countries, i.e. the European Member States, the Candidate States, and the Associated States Norway and Switzerland. This paper will summarize the results of this questionnaire and the implementation these results into the construction of the E and T programmes, namely the European Master in Radiation Protection (EMRP - to start in September 2007) and the ENETRAP training scheme, being a revision of the Saclay based European Radiation Protection Course ERPC. A preliminary programme of both initiatives uses a modular approach and puts forward 2 parts : a common basis, and a series of specialized modules on occupational radiation protection in nuclear power plants and fuel cycle industry, the medical sector, non-nuclear industry and research laboratories, waste and disposal sites, etc. The EMRP and ENETRAP training scheme are planned to run (partly) in parallel, so that an overlap can be made between certain modules. This innovative construction allow

  4. Operational radiation protection and radiation protection training

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The radiation protection system in the German Democratic Republic (GDR) is reviewed. The competent authority (the SAAS) and its systems of licensing and supervision are described. Discussion covers the role of the Radiation Protection Officer, the types of radiation monitoring, medical surveillance programs and the classification of workers and work areas. Unusual occurrences in the GDR, 1963-1976, are presented and the occupational radiation protection problems at some specific types of workplaces are discussed. The GDR's system of training in radiation protection and nuclear safety is described. 5 figs., 18 tabs

  5. Radiation Protection in Singapore

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Article gave a brief report on the establishment of the Singapore Radiation Protection Inspectorate (RPI), its enforcement activities and radiation protection services. Some statistical data regarding the uses of radiation in Singapore were also provided

  6. Radiation effects - radiation hazards - radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since 1975, the scientific discipline 'radiation hygiene' has its own institute within the BGA (Federal Health Office). The main fields of work of this institute, the ISH, have been defined along the line of the BGA tasks, which in general are to enhance public health, reduce environmental hazards, and prevent disease, and the three main fields of activity of the ISH have been defined to cover radiation effects, radiation hazards, and radiation protection. The ISH pursues basic and applied research which frequently is combined with administrative goals. Results of work in selected subject fields have been compiled in 1986 in the Official Health Bulletin (Bundesgesundheitsblatt) as a survey presented on the occasion of the 25th anniversary of the foundation of the BGA's Department for Radiation Exposure. The present one-hundredth issue of the ISH publication series contains an overview over the work accomplished and results published in original papers. (orig./MG)

  7. Survey of radiation protection creiteria following the accident at the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After the accident at Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant, various numerical criteria relevant to radiation protection were defined. We surveyed these criteria through internet. As a result of survey, the following 13 items were identified: (1) criteria for taking stable iodine tablets, (2) criteria for the screening of surface contamination, (3) evacuation area, sheltering area, etc., (4) activity concentrations in food, drinking water,etc., (5) dose limit for radiation workers engaged in emergency work, (6) guideline levels of radioactive substances in bathing areas, (7) criteria for use of school buildings and schoolyards, (8) restriction on planting rice, (9) acceptable activity concentrations in feedstuff, (10) acceptable activity concentrations in compost, (11) criteria for export containers and ships, (12) criteria for contaminated waste, (13) standards for radiation workers engaged in decontamination work. In this report, the basis of and issues on these criteria are summarized. (author)

  8. Radiation protection programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This chapter covers all aspects of radiation protection programme with special reference to the Malaysia Radiation Protection Programme. All requirement that needed to ensure radiation protection and health to workers, general public and the environment are discussed. It address four main activities - administrative control, engineering control, monitoring and usage of personal protective equipment (PPE)

  9. On ethical issues in radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    From an ethical viewpoint the author surveys existing international radiation protection recommendations and standards. After outlining previous work on the ethics of radiation protection, professional ethics, and the ethics of human radiation experiments, the author discusses ethical thinking on seven key issues related to radiation protection and ethics. (author)

  10. Ethical problems in radiation protection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shrader-Frechette, K.; Persson, Lars

    2001-05-01

    In this report the authors survey existing international radiation-protection recommendations and standards of the ICRP, the IAEA, and the ILO. After outlining previous work on the ethics of radiation protection, professional ethics, and the ethics of human radiation experiments, the authors review ethical thinking on seven key issues related to radiation protection and ethics. They formulate each of these seven issues in terms of alternative ethical stances: (1) equity versus efficiency, (2) health versus economics, (3) individual rights versus societal benefits, (4) due process versus necessary sacrifice, (5) uniform versus double standards, (6) stake holder consent versus management decisions, and (7) environmental stewardship versus anthropocentric standards.

  11. Ethical problems in radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this report the authors survey existing international radiation-protection recommendations and standards of the ICRP, the IAEA, and the ILO. After outlining previous work on the ethics of radiation protection, professional ethics, and the ethics of human radiation experiments, the authors review ethical thinking on seven key issues related to radiation protection and ethics. They formulate each of these seven issues in terms of alternative ethical stances: (1) equity versus efficiency, (2) health versus economics, (3) individual rights versus societal benefits, (4) due process versus necessary sacrifice, (5) uniform versus double standards, (6) stake holder consent versus management decisions, and (7) environmental stewardship versus anthropocentric standards

  12. Survey and analysis of radiation safety management systems at medical institutions. Initial report. Radiation protection supervisor, radiation safety organization, and education and training

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study, a questionnaire survey was carried out to determine the actual situation of radiation safety management systems in Japanese medical institutions with nuclear medicine facilities. The questionnaire consisted of questions concerning the Radiation Protection Supervisor license, safety management organizations, and problems related to education and training in safety management. Analysis was conducted according to region, type of establishment, and number of beds. The overall response rate was 60%, and no significant difference in response rate was found among regions. Medical institutions that performed nuclear medicine practices without a radiologist participating accounted for 10% of the total. Medical institutions where nurses gave patients intravenous injections of radiopharmaceuticals as part of the nuclear medicine practices accounted for 28% of the total. Of these medical institutions, 59% provided education and training in safety management for nurses. The rate of acquisition of Radiation Protection Supervisor licenses was approximately 70% for radiological technologists and approximately 20% for physicians (regional difference, p=0.02). The rate of medical institutions with safety management organizations was 71% of the total. Among the medical institutions (n=208) without safety management organizations, approximately 56% had 300 beds or fewer. In addition, it became clear that 35% of quasi-public organizations and 44% of private organizations diations and 44% of private organizations did not provide education and training in safety management (p<0.001, according to establishment). (author)

  13. Radiation protection standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present paper deals with: Objectives and basic concepts of radiation protection, basic radiobiological considerations, the ICRP system of dose limitation and with operational radiation protection (limits, reference levels, occupational exposure). (RW)

  14. Atoms, Radiation, and Radiation Protection

    CERN Document Server

    Turner, James E

    2007-01-01

    Atoms, Radiation, and Radiation Protection offers professionals and advanced students a comprehensive coverage of the major concepts that underlie the origins and transport of ionizing radiation in matter. Understanding atomic structure and the physical mechanisms of radiation interactions is the foundation on which much of the current practice of radiological health protection is based. The work covers the detection and measurement of radiation and the statistical interpretation of the data. The procedures that are used to protect man and the environment from the potential harmful effects of

  15. Ethical issues in radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this note the authors survey existing international radiation-protection recommendations of the ICRP, the IAEA, and the ILO. After outlining previous work on the ethics of radiation protection and risk assessment/management, the authors review ethical thinking on five key issues related to radiation protection and ethics. They formulate each of these five issues in terms of alternative ethical stances: (1) Equity vs. Efficiency, (2) Health vs. Economics, (3) Individual Rights vs. Societal Benefits, (4) Due Process vs. Necessary Sacrifice, and (5) Stakeholder Consent vs. Management Decisions (authors)

  16. Radiation protection in Sudan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The regulatory framework as established by the Sudan Atomic Energy Commission (SAEC) Act, promulgated in 1996, is described in the report. Three levels of responsibility in meeting radiation protection requirements are established: the Board, the Radiation Protection Technical Committee as the competent authority in the field of radiation protection, and the SAEC Department of Radiation Protection and Environmental Monitoring as the implementing technical body. The report also refers to environmental activities, patient doses in diagnostic radiology, the management of disused sources, emergency preparedness and orphan sources, and the national training activities in the radiation protection field. (author)

  17. Radiation protection in hospitals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A book on radiation protection in hospitals has been written to cater for readers with different backgrounds, training and needs by providing an elementary radiation physics text in Part I and an advanced, comprehensive Part II relating to specific medical applications of X-rays and of radioactivity. Part I includes information on basic radiation physics, radiation risk, radiation absorption and attenuation, radiation measurement, radiation shielding and classification of radiation workers. Part II includes information on radiation protection in external beam radiotherapy, interstitial source radiotherapy, intracavitary radiotherapy, radioactive iodine-131 radiotherapy, nuclear medicine diagnostics and diagnostic radiology. (U.K.)

  18. Radiation protection research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vanmarcke, H

    2002-04-01

    The objectives of the research in the field of radiation protection research performed at the Belgian Nuclear Research Centre SCK-CEN are (1) to elaborate and to improve methods and guidelines for the evaluation of restoration options for radioactively contaminated sites; (2) to develop, test and improve biosphere models for the performance assessment of radioactive waste disposal in near-surface or geological repositories; (3) to asses the impact of releases from nuclear or industrial installations; (4) to increase capabilities in mapping and surveying sites possibly or likely contaminated with enhanced levels of natural radiation; (5) to identify non nuclear industries producing NORM waste, to make an inventory of occurring problems and to propose feasible solutions or actions when required; (6) to maintain the know-how of retrospective radon measurements in real conditions and to assess radon decay product exposure by combining these techniques. Main achievements in these areas for 2001 are summarised.

  19. Radiation protection research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objectives of the research in the field of radiation protection research performed at the Belgian Nuclear Research Centre SCK-CEN are (1) to elaborate and to improve methods and guidelines for the evaluation of restoration options for radioactively contaminated sites; (2) to develop, test and improve biosphere models for the performance assessment of radioactive waste disposal in near-surface or geological repositories; (3) to asses the impact of releases from nuclear or industrial installations; (4) to increase capabilities in mapping and surveying sites possibly or likely contaminated with enhanced levels of natural radiation; (5) to identify non nuclear industries producing NORM waste, to make an inventory of occurring problems and to propose feasible solutions or actions when required; (6) to maintain the know-how of retrospective radon measurements in real conditions and to assess radon decay product exposure by combining these techniques. Main achievements in these areas for 2001 are summarised

  20. Radiation protection forum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The National Director of the Nuclear Regulatory Authority and Radiation Protection of Uruguay in the first forum for radiation protection set out the following themes: activity of regulatory body, radiation safety, physical security, safeguards, legal framework, committed substantive program, use of radiation, risks and benefits, major sources of radiation, the national regulatory framework, national inventory of sources, inspections, licensing, import and export of sources control , radioactive transport, materials safety, agreements, information and teaching, radiological emergencies and prompt response.

  1. Radiation protection in hospitals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hospitals contain a variety of sources that may contribute to occupational and public radiation doses. Engineering design, training, administrative controls, and quality control are used to minimize doses. Changes in consensus standards and regulations have reduced the annual permissible effective dose to members of the public and the lifetime occupational dose. Hospital radiation protection and monitoring programs must take advantage of the latest developments in radiation protection and radiation monitoring techniques to keep occupational and public doses as low as reasonably achievable. This paper will describe the radiation protection program of a broad scope medical licensee, describe efforts to reduce radiation doses, and discuss trends in doses to employees and the public

  2. Protective legislation, ionizing radiation and health: a new appraisal and international survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Restrictive regulations (protective legislation) on employment conditions of female workers limiting maximum hours of work and prohibiting certain toxic exposures have existed for decades. In some countries, such as the United States, Canada and the Nordic countries, the growth of civil rights and equal opportunity legislation has led to their elimination, either in fact or in practice, and only a small number of disparate regulations for male and female workers still exist. Most other industrialized countries, as well as the International Labour Office of the United Nations, still have active restrictive rules for women's employment. However, restrictive regulation is an area of active policy debate around the world. International examples of the debate on protective legislation are given here. A specific case study of the occupational health standards governing exposure to ionizing radiation is used and its technical rationale discussed as an illustration of the basic issues. These include: overbroad categorization of all women as potential childbearers, no matter what their childbearing intentions; failure to recognize the full range of potential adverse health effects to males; disparate application of the restrictive regulations, generally to occupations or areas of employment that are traditionally held by men, while traditional female jobs with the same exposures are excluded from the regulatory restriction

  3. Optimization of radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Symposium presentations were divided into three sessions devoted to the following topics: the role of optimization of radiation protection (10 papers), application of the principle of optimization of radiation protection (26 papers), methods and techniques in the optimization of radiation protection (7 papers). An additional session was devoted to the presentation of a summary statement and to an extended discussion by a panel of senior experts on the question of whether optimization (ALARA) is meeting its objective

  4. Implantation of inspection and radiation protection plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Methods, means and procedures adopted by Petrobras engineering service to survey safety radiation protection of the companies that carry out radiographic services of PETROBRAS are showed. The systematic used in certification of personel, procedures, audits and field survey concerning radiation protection, are described. (C.M.)

  5. Radiation protection standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Topics covered include biological radiation effects, radiation protection principles, recommendations of the ICRP and the National Health and Medical Research Council, and dose limits for individuals, particularly the limit applied to the inhalation of radon daughters

  6. Radiation protection practices and related continuing professional education in dental radiography: A survey of practitioners in the North-east of England

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To establish the level of implementation of recommendations from the National Radiological Protection Board, relating to best radiation protection practice in dental radiography within general dental practices in the North-east of England. To survey the opinion of practitioners on the availability of related post-graduate courses in the region. Methods: A postal survey in the form of a self-reported questionnaire was mailed to all practices in the North-east of England in November 2000. The questionnaire, consisting of closed and open-ended questions, was to be completed where possible by the resident radiation protection supervisor. Results: Two hundred and sixteen practices responded to the questionnaire, a response rate of 53%. The survey revealed variation in the standards of application of best radiation protection practice. Some 23% of practitioners had not attended any post-graduate courses on radiation protection since qualifying. Post-graduate education provision on radiation protection in the region was considered insufficient by 51% of respondents. Conclusions: It is concluded that a significant proportion of practices were not making full use of opportunities to reduce dose to their patients. In addition, a small number of practices had untrained staff acting as the Radiation Protection Supervisor. A significant proportion of practitioners had not been updated in radiation protection practices within a 5-year period, and this may account for the fear period, and this may account for the failure to implement best radiographic practice. Over half felt that there was insufficient availability of post-graduate courses in radiation protection. The regional provision of continuing professional education in this field may need development

  7. Radiation protection to firemen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The basic Knowledge about ionizing radiation oriented for firemen, are presented. The mainly damage and effects caused by radiation exposure as well as the method of radiation protection are described in simple words. The action to be taken in case of fire involving radiation such as vehicles transporting radioactive materials are emphasized. (author)

  8. Regulations in radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    On the occasion of the twenty fifth anniversary of the Dutch Society for Radiation Protection, a symposium was held about Regulations in Radiation Protection. The program consisted of six contributions of which four are included in this publication. The posters presented are published in NVS-nieuws, 1985, vol. 11(5). (G.J.P.)

  9. Radiation Protection. Introduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Major achievements of SCK-CEN's Radiation Protection Department in 1999 are described. The main areas for R and D of the department are safeguards and physics measurements, radiation protection research, low-level radioactivity measurements and decision strategy research. Main achievements in 1999 in these domains are reported

  10. Radiation protection law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article first reviews the general radiation protection law at international and national level, with particular reference to the recommendations of the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) which, although not mandatory, are nevertheless taken into consideration by international organisations establishing basic radiation protection standards such as the UN, IAEA, NEA and Euratom, at Community level, and by national legislation. These standards are therefore remarkably harmonized. Radiation protection rule applied in France for the different activities and uses of radioactive substances are then described, and finally, a description is given of the regulations governing artificial radioisotopes and radioactive effluents. (NEA)

  11. Radiation protection infrastructure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A prerequisite for the safe use of ionizing radiation in a country is the availability of an adequate infrastructure to achieve the desired degree of protection. The extent of such an infrastructure, generally comprising regulatory mechanisms and technical capabilities for application and enforcement of regulations, has to be commensurate with the stage of technological development. The expanding application of ionizing radiation in medicine, industry and research calls for vigorous promotion of effective radiation protection efforts, not only to prevent any unsafe practices but also to assess correctly and provide authoritative information on the safety of adopted practices. Experience reveals that radiation protection practices vary considerably from one country to another. The regulatory structures and type of organization with regard to radiation protection are very different, depending on a number of factors such as the constitutional framework, the legal and administrative systems of the country concerned, the state of technical development, the status of application of radiation sources, the existence of research and associated institutions, and the technical skills and financial resources available. Radiation protection principles evolve with time as further experience is gained and as new research evidence becomes available. Regulation of radiation protection has to take account of such changes and adapt to changing conditions. Forty-eight papers from 29 Member States and two International Organizations were presented in nine scientific sessions. Topics included radiation protection regulation and licensing notification, registration, inspection and control programmes, education and training, the role of supporting institutions such as national laboratories and research institutes, the role of professional associations, the contribution of radiation protection services, and international activities. A concluding panel addressed development strategies to strengthen radiation protection infrastructure and explored how the IAEA could best assist to overcome identified shortcomings. Refs, figs and tabs

  12. Radiation protection in space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The challenge for planning radiation protection in space is to estimate the risk of events of low probability after low levels of irradiation. This work has revealed many gaps in the present state of knowledge that require further study. Despite investigations of several irradiated populations, the atomic-bomb survivors remain the primary basis for estimating the risk of ionizing radiation. Compared to previous estimates, two new independent evaluations of available information indicate a significantly greater risk of stochastic effects of radiation (cancer and genetic effects) by about a factor of three for radiation workers. This paper presents a brief historical perspective of the international effort to assure radiation protection in space

  13. Radiation protection survey of research and development activities initiated after the Chernobyl accident. Review report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The compilation of research and development activities in the various fields of radiation protection in OECD Member countries which have been undertaken or planned specifically to address open questions arising from the Chernobyl reactor accident experience shows a potential for international cooperative arrangements and/or coordination between national programmes. Both the preliminary review of the answers, which only cover a part of the relevant activities in OECD Member countries, and a computerized literature search indicate that the multidisciplinarity of the research area under consideration will call for special efforts to efficiently implement new models and new quantitative findings from the different fields of activity to provide an improved basis for emergency management and risk assessment. Further improvements could also be achieved by efforts to initiate new activities to close gaps in the programmes under way, to enhance international cooperation, and to coordinate the evaluation of the results. This preliminary review of the answers of 17 Member countries to the questionnaire on research and development activities initiated after the Chernobyl accident is not sufficient as a basis for a balanced decision on those research areas most in need for international cooperation and coordination. It may however serve as a guide for the exploration of the potential for international cooperative arrangements and/or coordination between national programmes by the CRPPH. Even at this preliminary stage, several specific activities are proposed to the NEA/OECD by Member countries. Whole body counting and the intercomparison of national data bases on the behaviour of radionuclides in the environment did attract most calls for international cooperation sponsored by the NEA

  14. Notes on radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A popular handbook for medical students describes in a concise form the most useful concepts of radiation effects in living organisms. Radiation sources, radiation doses, units and elementary calculations cover the problems of safety and protection in hospitals, radiologic labs etc. Safety regulations in Denmark and list of additional reading give some general idea about radioprotection complexities. (EG)

  15. Optimisation of radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Optimisation of radiation protection is one of the key elements in the current radiation protection philosophy. The present system of dose limitation was issued in 1977 by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) and includes, in addition to the requirements of justification of practices and limitation of individual doses, the requirement that all exposures be kept as low as is reasonably achievable, taking social and economic factors into account. This last principle is usually referred to as optimisation of radiation protection, or the ALARA principle. The NEA Committee on Radiation Protection and Public Health (CRPPH) organised an ad hoc meeting, in liaison with the NEA committees on the safety of nuclear installations and radioactive waste management. Separate abstracts were prepared for individual papers presented at the meeting

  16. Radiation protection in the dental profession

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A survey, conducted by the Health and Safety Executive (HSE), on the standard of radiation protection in the dental profession in the United Kingdom is described. The results are compared with UK advisory standards. The preliminary survey results were reported in the professional press and each participating dental practitioner received comments and advice concerning the basic requirements for radiation protection. The method of survey has been broadened to form the basis of inspection of dental radiography by the HSE. (H.K.)

  17. RADIATION PROTECTION IN IRAN

    OpenAIRE

    R. Abedinzadih; H. Parnianpour

    1980-01-01

    This paper presents the current activities on radiation protection in Iran. According to the Atomic Energy Organization Law of Iran the radiological safety is ascribed to the Atomic Energy Organization of Iran (A E O I) and the Radiation Protection Department (R P D) is the responsible organ within AEOI. R P D since it's establishment in 1975, with the aim to ensure the protection of man and his environment against any harmful effects of radiations, has embarked on a national development...

  18. Radiation protection at CERN

    OpenAIRE

    Forkel-wirth, Doris; Roesler, Stefan; Silari, Marco; Streit-bianchi, Marilena; Theis, Christian; Vincke, Heinz; Vincke, Helmut

    2013-01-01

    This paper gives a brief overview of the general principles of radiation protection legislation; explains radiological quantities and units, including some basic facts about radioactivity and the biological effects of radiation; and gives an overview of the classification of radiological areas at CERN, radiation fields at high-energy accelerators, and the radiation monitoring system used at CERN. A short section addresses the ALARA approach used at CERN.

  19. Radiation Protection Proclamation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A proclamation of the Government of Ethiopia, cited as the radiation protection proclamation number 79/1993 was prepared with the objective to establish a national radiation protection authority that formulates policies, controls and supervises activities involving all sources of radiation and lay down laws governing such activities in order to ensure public safety against associated hazards while allowing radiation related activities to be carried out for the benefit of the public . The Authority is guided by an inter-ministerial board and is accountable to the Ethiopian Science and Technology Commission

  20. Radiation Protection: introduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The abstract gives an overview and introduction to the activities of SCK-CEN's Radiation Protection department. Main strategic developments and achievements in the field of life sciences, policy supports and medical applications are summarised

  1. The workers radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This file gathers contributions and points of view from different actors of the workers radiation protection, included two foreign contributions making reference to Spanish and British practices. (N.C.)

  2. Radiation Protection Group

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    The Radioactive Waste Section of the Radiation Protection Group wishes to inform you that the Radioactive Waste Treatment Centre will be closed on the afternoon of Tuesday 19 December 2006. Thank-you for your understanding.

  3. Physics for radiation protection

    CERN Document Server

    Martin, James E

    2013-01-01

    A much-needed working resource for health physicists and other radiation protection professionals, this volume presents clear, thorough, up-to-date explanations of the basic physics necessary to address real-world problems in radiation protection. Designed for readers with limited as well as basic science backgrounds, Physics for Radiation Protection emphasizes applied concepts and carefully illustrates all topics through examples as well as practice problems. Physics for Radiation Protection draws substantially on current resource data available for health physics use, providing decay schemes and emission energies for approximately 100 of the most common radionuclides encountered by practitioners. Excerpts of the Chart of the Nuclides, activation cross sections, fission yields, fission-product chains, photon attenuation coefficients, and nuclear masses are also provided.

  4. Radiation protection textbook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This textbook of radiation protection presents the scientific bases, legal and statutory measures and technical means of implementation of the radioprotection in the medical and industrial sectors, research and nuclear installations. It collects the practical information (organization, analysis of post, prevention, evaluation and risks management, the controls, the training and the information) usually scattered and the theoretical knowledge allowing every person using ionizing radiation: To analyze jobs in controlled areas, to watch the respect for the current regulations, to participate in the training and in the information of the staffs exposed to intervene in accidental situation. This third edition is widely updated and enriched by the most recent scientific and legal data concerning, notably, the human exposure, the dosimetry, the optimization of the radiation protection and the epidemiological inquiries. The contents is as follows: physics of ionizing radiation, ionizing radiation: origin and interaction with matter, dosimetry and protection against ionizing radiation, detection and measurement of ionizing radiation, radiobiology, legal measures relative to radiation protection, human exposure of natural origin, human exposure of artificial origin, medical, dental and veterinarian radiology, radiotherapy, utilization of unsealed sources in medicine and research, electronuclear industry, non nuclear industrial and aeronautical activities exposing to ionizing raautical activities exposing to ionizing radiation, accidental exposures. (N.C.)

  5. RADIATION PROTECTION IN IRAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Abedinzadih

    1980-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the current activities on radiation protection in Iran. According to the Atomic Energy Organization Law of Iran the radiological safety is ascribed to the Atomic Energy Organization of Iran (A E O I and the Radiation Protection Department (R P D is the responsible organ within AEOI. R P D since it's establishment in 1975, with the aim to ensure the protection of man and his environment against any harmful effects of radiations, has embarked on a national development and regulatory activity. The organization and the program of the R P D with an emphasis on the problems and achievements are described in this paper. The Iranian Radiation Protection Society and it's cooperation with the R P D for the dissemination of information and support for the educational institutions to cover the radiation protection topics are presented in this paper. It can be shown that countries envisaging institutions to cover the radiation protection topics are presented in this paper. It can be shown that countries envisaging to embark on a nuclear development have to start much earlier with a major educational and training activity for the personnel in radiological safety as well as other relevant fields.

  6. Radiation protection in dentistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The X-ray Ordinance as of January 8, 1987 defines the principles to be observed in dental radiology; these are explained in the chapter, refering to radiation protection by technical and structural means, dosimetry and monitoring, and health physics to protect patients and the personnel. (DG)

  7. The use of roentgen diagnostics in chiropractor activities. Project based survey according to new regulations regarding radiation protection and use of radiation; Bruk av roentgendiagnostikk i norske kiropraktorvirksomheter. Prosjektrettet tilsyn etter ny forskrift om straalevern og bruk av straaling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raaum, Aud; Widmark, Anders

    2005-12-15

    An audit has been performed in 17 chiropractic enterprises according to new radiation protection legislation. Before the audits a survey of the use of diagnostic imaging in Norwegian chiropractic enterprises was carried out. This report summarizes the results of the survey and the findings at the audits. (Author)

  8. Radiation protective glove

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiation protection gloves for surgical and medical use which have a layer of flexible polymer containing at least 25% by volume of particulate tungsten material and a radiation absorbing capacity equivalent to that of 0.13 mm of lead. The glove preferably comprises an elastomer such as ethylene propylene diene copolymer. (author)

  9. Protection against radiation risks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Some of the ways in which the Agency and other international bodies are working to ensure fullest protection of radiation workers and the public from possible hazards of radiation have been emphasized by recent conferences. These have provided opportunities for reports, discussions and recommendations based on research and experience in many parts of the world. (author)

  10. Radiation Protection. Chapter 24

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chapter 21, in describing basic radiation biology and radiation effects, demonstrates the need to have a system of radiation protection that allows the many beneficial uses of radiation to be realized while ensuring detrimental radiation effects are either prevented or minimized. This can be achieved with the twin objectives of preventing the occurrence of deterministic effects and of limiting the probability of stochastic effects to a level that is considered acceptable. In a radiology facility, consideration needs to be given to the patient, the staff involved in performing the radiological procedures, members of the public and other staff that may be in the radiology facility, carers and comforters of patients undergoing procedures, and persons who may be undergoing a radiological procedure as part of a biomedical research project. This chapter discusses how the objectives given above are fulfilled through a system of radiation protection and how such a system should be applied practically in a radiology facility

  11. Radiation Protection Dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The contributions presented during the seminar provided clear evidence that radiation protection of the patient plays an increasingly important role for manufacturers of radiological equipment and for regulatory bodies, as well as for radiologists, doctors and assistants. The proceedings of this seminar reflect the activities and work in the field of radiation protection of the patient and initiate further action in order to harmonize dosimetric measurements and calculations, to ameliorate education and training, to improve the technical standards of the equipment and to give a push to a more effective use of ionising radiation in the medical sector

  12. Radiation protection glossary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The glossary is intended to be used as a terminology standard for IAEA documentation on radiation protection. An effort has been made to use definitions contained in internationally accepted publications such as recommendations of the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP), standards of the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) and of the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC), reports of the International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurements (ICRU), with only slight modifications in order to tailor them more closely to IAEA needs. The glossary is restricted to ionizing radiation

  13. Radiation protection in Qatar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The State of Qatar has become a Member State of IAEA since 1974. Later the Department of Industrial Development (DID) because the focal point and the competent authority regarding all aspects of the peaceful application of Nuclear Technology. Very little or no progress was made regarding improving the Radiation Protection Infrastructure during those years. In 1998, DID approached the Supreme Council, then called 'Department of Environment' to implement the model project on upgrading radiation protection infrastructure, the council agreed and work commenced immediately. In less than five years, we were able to issue the radiation protection law, draft three set of regulations, namely: Radiation Protection Regulations, Radioactive Waste Management Regulations and the Safe Transport of Radioactive Materials Regulation. A radiation Protection Section, comprising three units was established. We are providing individual exposure monitoring for most of the radiation workers in the public sector and some in the private sector. We have also started proper licensing and inspections procedures, where our inspectors are enforcing the law. (author)

  14. Education in Radiation Protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: This paper discussed the problem of the education in radiation protection. All aspects of education are included started with primary school and lasted with very specialised courses for the experts. In the last few years the lack of interest for education in radiation protection was recognised by many agencies included also IAEA and EU commission. In this paper the reasons for this situation will be presented and the way how to promote this subject again. It is not possible to prevent effects of radiation on environment and population if qualified and well educated experts do not exist. The situation in the field of education in radiation protection in Croatia will be presented, according to the new regulations in this field. (author)

  15. QA tests and radiation protection survey of diagnostic x-ray units: problems and discussion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The widespread utilization of ionising radiation in medicine, industry, agriculture and research has brought in its wake the need for exercising regulatory control to ensure safety to the user and the general public. QA tests in diagnostic radiology are carried out to ensure good quality images with optimal doses

  16. Radiation protection after Chernobyl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The conference papers deal with the situation in radiation protection as regards the revision of the X-Ray Ordinance of 1973 and the Radiation Protection Ordinance of 1976 with reference to the accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant on April 26, 1986. The introduction views radiation protection in the framework of general environmental protection. In the part 'Results' the quality factors that have been valid hitherto and play an important part in dose assessments are discussed in connection with an evaluation of radiobiological data, and proposals are made for a revision of those factors. A further important topic are the risks associated with prenatal radiation exposure with the resulting practical conclusions to be drawn by radiologists. Part 2, 'Concepts', is concerned with: Ethical, legal, and practical aspects of medical research and therapy using radioactive materials, the 'effective dose' concept with unexpected consequences after the very low limits laid down for non-stochastic effects, and the development of dose notions and measuring values. Part 3 finally points out that 'regulation' necessarily requires the acceptance of radiation hazards. This part reports on the state of discussions on the draft amendment to the Radiation Protection Ordinance, minimization of radiation by quality assurance, and known as well as new DIN Standards. Points due for revision in the X-Ray Ordinance are the classification of professionally exposed persons in their risk fessionally exposed persons in their risk categories and the required measuring values for professional radiation exposure. The last part deals with reports on skin disease due to radiation treated at the Hornheide special clinic. (TRV) With 30 figs., 27 tabs

  17. Radiation protection optimization of workers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents the contribution of CEPN (study center on protection evaluation in nuclear area) to the Days of the French Radiation Protection Society (SFRP) on optimization of workers radiation protection in electronuclear, industrial and medical areas

  18. National congress of radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The congress of radiation protection tackled different areas of radiation protection. The impact of ionizing radiations on environment coming from radioactive activities. The biological radiation effects, the dosimetry, the different ways of doing relative to radiation protection,the risks analysis and the communications with populations, information about accidents and the lessons learned from them are included in this congress. (N.C.)

  19. Project Radiation Protection - East

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Swedish Government has allocated SEK 37.1 million for cooperation projects in radiation protection with countries in Central and Eastern Europe, particularly the Baltic states (Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania) and Russia. The Swedish Radiation Protection Inst. (SSI) is in charge of this program, which is often referred to as Radiation Protection - East. The general background of this cooperation program, its objectives, practical organization of the work etc. have been presented in the following reports: SSI Report No.93-08: Projekt Straalskydd Oest - Laegesrapport (March 1993); SSI Report No.93-29: Swedish Cooperation Program for Radiation Protection in Eastern and Central Europe (November 1993). The present report summarizes the work carried out up to and including September 1994. The more than 70 cooperation projects have been divided into the following categories: Upgrading of national authorities; Emergency preparedness, early warning; Nuclear power and research reactors; Instrumentation; Decommissioning, waste, environmental control; General radiation protection; Other projects; Project management and administrative support. Project criteria and a simple program for quality assurance and follow-up are presented briefly. A status report, including an economic overview, is given for all ongoing or already finished projects, together with future plans and a suggested budget for the next fiscal year

  20. International radiation protection standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Today the recommendations of ICRP have a profound influence on radiation protection all over the world. The latest recommendations were issued as publication no 60 (ICRP 60 1991). This document elaborated a conceptual framework for radiation protection based on ethics, experimental work, and risk assessment. The justification principle prohibits practices involving additional radiation exposures unless they produce sufficient societal benefits. The three main principles of the ICRP for proposed or continuing radiation-protection practices are: 1) the justification principle; 2)the optimization principle; 3) the dose limitation principle.The optimization principle requires managers to keep radiation exposures as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA), taking into account economic and social factors. the dose-limitation principle limits exposure of individuals to radiation. The system of radiological protection recommended by CRP for intervention is based on two additional principles: the proposed intervention should do more good than harm; one should optimize the form, scale and duration of intervention. Although the ICRP does not employ the term precautionary principle it does use the concept, at least implicitly

  1. The SCPRI (Central Service of Protection against Ionizing Radiation) in France: its sampling and surveying network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The SCPRI, organism placed under tutelage of Ministers in charge of Health and Work, has the mission to practice every measurement, analysis or dosage of radioactivity or ionizing radiation in media where their presence is a risk for health. This mission involves radioactivity measurement on sampling like waters, air, vegetables, food chain. There is an important network of sampling on the whole national territory with a distribution in different climatic areas and also near the nuclear sites. It makes about 50 000 sampling by year with, for each one, different analysis and measurement

  2. Fundamentals of health physics for the radiation-protection officer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The contents of this book on health physics include chapters on properties of radioactive materials, radiation instrumentation, radiation protection programs, radiation survey programs, internal exposure, external exposure, decontamination, selection and design of radiation facilities, transportation of radioactive materials, radioactive waste management, radiation accidents and emergency preparedness, training, record keeping, quality assurance, and appraisal of radiation protection programs

  3. Fundamentals of health physics for the radiation-protection officer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murphy, B.L.; Traub, R.J.; Gilchrist, R.L.; Mann, J.C.; Munson, L.H.; Carbaugh, E.H.; Baer, J.L.

    1983-03-01

    The contents of this book on health physics include chapters on properties of radioactive materials, radiation instrumentation, radiation protection programs, radiation survey programs, internal exposure, external exposure, decontamination, selection and design of radiation facilities, transportation of radioactive materials, radioactive waste management, radiation accidents and emergency preparedness, training, record keeping, quality assurance, and appraisal of radiation protection programs. (ACR)

  4. Laser radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have presented the effects of laser radiation on human organism, with special emphasize on eye as the most sensitive organ. It was pointed-out that there are many parameters that should be taken into account when determining the level of protection from laser light. In that respect it is important to be aware of international standards that regulate this area. In addition, we have described a new material which efficiently protects human eye, by formation of microlens and carbonization.

  5. Foundations for radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text; In 1996, the IAEA published the latest edition of the International Basic Safety Standards for Protection Against Ionizing Radiation and for the Safety of Radiation Sources (Basic Safety Standards or BSS) comprising basic requirements to be filled in all activities involving radiation exposure. The standards define internationally harmonized requirements and provide practical guidance for public authorities and services, employers and workers, specialized radiation protection bodies, enterprises and health and safety communities. In the same year, the IAEA, through the technical cooperation programme, launched the Model Project on Upgrading Radiation Protection Infrastructure, a global initiative designed to help Member States establish the infrastructure needed to adhere to the BSS. To address the complexity of this task, the radiation protection team identified key elements, known as Thematic Safety Areas. These are: 1. Legislative Framework and Regulatory Infrastructure, Draft and put into effect radiation protection laws and regulations and establish and empower a national regulatory authority. 2. Occupational Exposure Control Protect the health and safety of each individual who faces the risk of radiation exposure in the workplace through individual and workplace monitoring programmes, including dose assessment, record keeping of doses and quality management. 3. Medical Exposure Control: Develop procedures and activities to control the exposure of patiactivities to control the exposure of patients undergoing diagnosis and/or treatment via diagnostic and interventional radiology, nuclear medicine or radiotherapy through staff training, provision of basic quality control equipment, and the establishment of quality assurance programmes. 4. Public and Environmental Exposure Control: Develop means to protect both the public and the environment including: a) programmes to register, inventory and provide safe storage of unused radioactive sources and material; b) procedures to control and safely manage radioactive waste; c) mechanisms to ensure that foodstuffs and other consumer goods being exported/imported comply with national safety standards; and d) tools to monitor radiation levels in the environment (i.e., in air, soil and water). 5. Emergency Preparedness and Response: Mitigate the impact of radiological and/or nuclear emergencies by developing capabilities for preparedness and response through a national emergency plan. This includes training qualified personnel, ensuring technical capabilities are in place and allocating sufficient resources to facilitate an efficient response. (IAEA)

  6. Radiation protection - thirty years after

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper is discussed some questions in the field of Radiation Protection as like: historical prologue of radiations discovery and it's systematics; radiation and radiation protection; ALARA principle and 'de minimis' approach; radiation risks and dose limits and radiation and chemicals a risk comparison (author)

  7. Radiation protection for nurses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Various aspects of radiation protection relevant to nurses are presented. The different radioisotopes used in internal radiotherapy and scintiscanning techniques and any necessary precautions which should be observed when nursing these patients are described. General information is also given on nuclear and atomic terminology, the physical half-life of radioisotopes, radiation dose as a function of distance, shielding, film badges and the maximum permissible dose. (U.K.)

  8. Radiation protective clothing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To obtain radiation protective clothings of excellent workability and durability. Constitution: Protective clothings of the present invention comprise shielding materials for the upper-half of the body having lead foils laminated on one surface and shielding materials for the lower-half of the body a resin sheet containing inorganic powders of high specific gravity. Such protective clothings have a frexibility capable of followings after the movement of the upper-half body and easily follow after the movement such as acute bending of the body near the waste in the lower-half body. (Kamimura, M.)

  9. Level of compliance with the radiation protection regulation-A survey among Norwegian hospitals and X-ray institutes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To identify the level of compliance with the new radiation protection regulation among Norwegian health care enterprises (HCEs). Totally, 41 HCEs were authorised to use advanced X-ray equipment for medical purposes during 2005-07. Follow-up inspections with 14 HCEs were carried out during 2007-09. Main topics for the inspections were those requirements identified as most challenging to implement in the authorisation process. Totally, 192 non-conformities with the regulation were revealed during the authorisation process. The inspections revealed that 93 % of the inspected HCEs had non-conformities with the regulation. Most common non-conformities dealt with skills in radiation protection, establishment of local diagnostic reference levels, access to medical physicists and performance of quality control of X-ray equipment. Inspections are an effective tool for implementation of regulation the requirements at the HCEs, thus improving radiation protection awareness. (authors)

  10. Radiation protection in Qatar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The State of Qatar has become a member State of IAEA since 1974. Later the Department of Industrial Development (DID) beam the focal point and the competent authority regarding all aspects of the peaceful application of Nuclear Technology. In July, 2000 the Supreme Council was established and charged with all matters related to environmental protection. The Supreme Council joined the IAEA Projects on upgrading protection infrastructure in West Asia region. A preliminary research was initiated to discover where radiation sources are being used, and the legal framework, if any, to regulate their use. The research indicated that radiation sources were being used in the industrial practices (well logging, industrial radiography and nuclear gauges) and in medical practices (mainly diagnostic radiology). The research also indicated that there was virtually no legal framework to regulate them. In less than five years, the State of Qatar was able to issue the radiation protection law, three sets of regulations, namely: Radiation Protection Regulations, Radioactive Waste Management Regulations and the Safe Transport of Radioactive Materials Regulations. In addition, several specific regulation work, dose limits and radiation protection officers were issued. A radiation Protection Department, comprising three sections was established. We are providing individual exposure monitoring for most of the radiation workers in the public sector and some in the private sector. We have set up a proper licensing and inspections procedures, where our inspectors are enforcing the law. More recently, we established an early warning network for nuclear of radiological emergencies, consisting of 6 transplantable stations, five mobile stations and two navigating stations. This year, the network was augmented with five fixed station and an advanced early warning centre, which provides early warning via multiple means (MMS, Fax, E-mail and audio alarms). Last year we signed a nuclear security agreement for cooperation with IAEA. Based on this agreement, the Agency assisted the state of Qatar to establish a very comprehensive boarder monitoring network, covering all land, sea and air ports. The information from all monitors is transferred in real time to two centres; one at the Ministry of Interior, while the being the early warning centre at the Supreme Council. The Supreme Council is currently considering, with the assistance of IAEA, establishing a regional training centre of excellence for radiation protection. (author)

  11. Environmental radiation protection standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The principles involved in the setting of radiological protection standards are reviewed, and the differences in procedures used by various countries in implementing them are outlined. Standards are taken here to mean the specific numerical limits relating to radiation doses to people or to amounts of radioactive material released into the environment. (author)

  12. Radiation protecting glove

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The radiation protecting gloves of the present invention comprise a neutron shielding material made of natural or synthetic rubber incorporated with neutron shielding materials. For the neutron shielding materials, those having first neutron moderating effect and those having thermal neutron absorbing effect can be used properly. As the materials having first neutron moderating effect, gadolinium oxide power, zirconium hydride powder or the like is used. Further, as the thermal neutron absorbing material, boron carbide powder or the like is used. As the natural or synthetic rubber for the substrate, neoprene rubber, butadiene rubber or hyperlon rubber may be used for instance. Thus, a radiation protection gloves having neutron protecting function can be obtained. (I.N.)

  13. Enhancing radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    When a new radiotherapy center in Gezira, Sudan, delivers its first therapeutic dose to a cancer patient, two things happen: A young man begins to regain his health and looks forward to being better able to support his family and contribute to his community; and a developing nation realizes an important step toward deriving the social and economic benefits of nuclear science. The strategic application of nuclear technology in particular fields- human health, industry, food and agriculture, energy, water resources and environmental protection - has enormous potential to help shape the future of developing countries. But past radiological incidents, several of which involved high levels of exposure or death (Bolivia, Brazil, Cost Rica, Georgia, Ghana, Morocco, Panama and Thailand), underscore the inherent and very serious risks. For this reason, the IAEA's Departments of Technical Cooperation and Nuclear Safety and Security partner closely, particularly in the area of radiation protection. They strive to consider every minute detail in the equation that brings together radiation sources, modern technologies, people and the environment. Launched in 1996, the Model Project on Upgrading Radiation Protection Infrastructure (the Model Project) aimed to help Member States: achieve capacities that underpin the safe and secure application of nuclear technologies; establish a legislative framework and regulatory infrastructure; develop exposure control mechanisms to protect workxposure control mechanisms to protect workers, medical patients, the public and the environment; and achieve preparedness and planned response to radiological emergencies. In fact, the hospital scenario above typically marks several years of intense collaboration amongst scientists, legislators, regulators, politicians and administrators from both Member States and the IAEA, orchestrated and aided by regional managers and technical experts from the IAEA. As radiation protection team members can attest, every application of nuclear technology carries special considerations and unique challenges. And each country is equally distinct in terms of needs, technical capacity, availability of financial resources and adequately trained personnel (at both regulatory and user organizations), and overall infrastructure

  14. Guidelines for radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guidelines for radiation protection originate from numerous federal, state, and local agencies. Guidelines in radiation protection can be either mandatory or advisory. Regulations by federal, state, and local governments for the use of radioactive materials define operating practices. Adherence to these regulations is required by law and there are penalties for noncompliance. Regulations generally constitute the minimum requirements for good practice and are usually supplemented by less formal recommendations from regulatory agencies and advisory groups. The regulatory guides published by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and by radiation control groups of agreement states are intended to assist the user of radioactive material in maintaining compliance with regulations. These guides recommend good practice but are not mandatory in that the user can propose alternatives to the regulatory agencies to meet the regulations. Many groups serve in an advisory capacity in formulating reports and recommendations for the safe use of radioactive material. The most prominent and influential among these are the National Council in Radiation Protection and Measurements (NCRP) and the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP). Often the recommendations of these advisory groups evolve into either regulatory guidelines or regulations for the use of radioactive materials. At the present time, the backbone of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission's regulations relatiRegulatory Commission's regulations relating to the medical use of radionuclides, Standards for Protection Against Radiation (10CFR20) and Human Use of Byproduct Material (10CFR35), are undergoing extensive review with major revisions anticipated within the very near future. These proposed changes could have a significant impact on the practice of nuclear medicine

  15. Lectures on radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    All important subjects of radiation protection are presented in concise form; the explanations may serve as lecture manuscripts. The lectures are divided into 16 to 19 teaching units. Each teaching unit is supplemented by a slide to be projected on a screen while the text is read. This method of visual teaching has already been tried with good results in medicine and medical engineering. Pictures of the slides are given in the text so that the book may also be used for self-studies. The main facts are summarized at the end of each lesson. The finished book will consist of 8 lessons; the first three of these discuss 1. Radiation effects and hazards 2. Dose definitions and units and their role in radiology and radiation protection 3. Dose limits and legal specifications. (orig.)

  16. Radiological protection survey results about radiodiagnosis protection practices in Cuba

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to identify radiation protection current situation in national X-ray diagnostic practice , the State (cuban) Supervision System for Radiation and Nuclear Safety carried out in 1992 a survey which was planned for projection of future regulatory activities in this field. Survey covers the most important aspects related to radiation protection of occupationally exposed workers, patients and general population. Surveyed sample included a total of 52 X-ray units, sited in 7 dental clinics, 2 polyclinics and 13 hospitals, from 7 provinces of the country. Results showed that the organization of radiation protection in terms of personnel specially designated to carry out surveillance and control activities and level of documentation is deficient. Survey evidenced the general lack of safety and quality culture among technologists and radiologists which is mainly reflected in non regular application of basic patient protection measures (shielding, collimation, use of proper filtration among others) and non regular execution of basic quality inspection of employed radiographic systems. (authors). 4 refs., 1 fig

  17. Radiation protection in nuclear plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The general problem of radiation protection, radiation dose, personal damage, genetic effects and natural radiation are reviewed. Radio-active material and protection of power-station personnel against radiation are discussed. The effects of atmospheric and water pollution from radiation leakage and the risks to the general public are also discussed. (H.E.G.)

  18. Radiation Protection: Introduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As a federal research Centre, SCK-CEN has the statutory assignment to give priority to research related to safety, radioactive waste management, protection of man and environment, management of fissile and other strategic materials and social implications as part of the pursuit of sustainable development and to develop and gather the necessary knowledge and spread this knowledge through formation and communication. At the Division of Radiation Protection at SCK-CEN we are therefore active to maintain and enhance knowledge and expertise in each aspect of radiation protection: we study the risk of exposure - the way that radioactive materials spread in the environment and the potential for human contact - and the risk from exposure - how radiation affects human health; we perform health physics measurements; we are involved in emergency planning and preparedness and support to risk governance and decision taking. These activities are supported by radiation specific analysis and measurement techniques. These activities are not performed in isolation but in context of national and international collaborations or demands

  19. On ethical issues in radiation protection. Radiation protection recommendations and standards seen from an ethical perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    International radiation protection recommendations and standards of the ICRP, the IAEA, the European Union and the ILO are surveyed from an ethical perspective. The authors come to the conclusion that the insights of ethical theories provide a number of ways in which current recommendations and standards for radiation protection could improve. (orig.)

  20. Radiation protection: A correction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An error in translation inadvertently distorted the sense of a paragraph in the article entitled 'Ecological Aspects of Radiation Protection', by Dr. P. Recht, which appeared in the Bulletin, Volume 14, No. 2 earlier this year. In the English text the error appears on Page 28, second paragraph, which reads, as published: 'An instance familiar to radiation protection specialists, which has since come to be regarded as a classic illustration of this approach, is the accidental release at the Windscale nuclear centre in the north of England.' In the French original of this text no reference was made, or intended, to the accidental release which took place in 1957; the reference was to the study of the critical population group exposed to routine releases from the centre, as the footnote made clear. A more correct translation of the relevant sentence reads: 'A classic example of this approach, well-known to radiation protection specialists, is that of releases from the Windscale nuclear centre, in the north of England.' A second error appeared in the footnote already referred to. In all languages, the critical population group studied in respect of the Windscale releases is named as that of Cornwall; the reference should be, of course, to that part of the population of Wales who eat laver bread. (author)

  1. The 2014 radiation protection guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This guide describes the background and objectives of radiation protection, the different sources of ionizing radiation and their different uses. It presents the various actors involved in radiation protection (actors in nuclear activities, certified laboratories and bodies, national, international and European bodies), the legal framework (international standards, European directives, French law), the different administrative regimes (for medical activities, veterinarian activities, and industrial activities), and the approach to be followed to exert a nuclear activity. It describes the practical organization of radiation protection (workers protection, patient protection, public protection, case of augmented natural radiations, management of incidental or accidental situations), addresses the issue of transport of radioactive substances (regulation and regulation applicability, material classification, parcel design, requirements and control, accompanying documents, means of transportation, required training, radiation protection measures), the issue of management of radioactive wastes and effluents (according to the type of installation), and the organization of radiation protection control, and indicates the civil and criminal liabilities

  2. Emerging radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In recent years, a number of radiation protection issues have emerged into the public forum. The perceived high risks associated with radiation exposure, and disproportionate media attention to such issues, have contributed to heightened concerns by the public and the individual occupationally exposed worker. This paper examines the new and controversial radiation risk estimates of the National Research Council's BEIR V committee, which are based on the most current atomic-bomb survivor data and a revised dosimetry model. These risk estimates are somewhat higher than past values, and may eventually impact the legal framework in the United States through the regulations of the EPA, NRC, DOE, OSHA, and other agencies that set radiation exposure standards. Additionally, present regulations and standards are often based upon differing levels of acceptable risk, which have led to conflicting exposure and effluent release criteria. Further, due to inherent boundaries in legal authority, many potentially significant sources of radiation exposure to the public remain unregulated Radiation exposure scenarios such as medical x-ray, radon, and other technology enhanced sources have no legal limits. These issues and others are examined and analyzed with respect to regulatory policy

  3. Radiation protection, optimization and justification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nine articles in the field of radiation protection relative to the medical examinations concern the new legislation in radiation protection, the optimization of this one in order to reduce the radiation doses delivered to the patients, the side effects induced by irradiation and to give an evaluation of the medical exposure of french population to ionizing radiations. (N.C.)

  4. Some perspectives on radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A brief review of the history and organizational structure of the NCRP is given. Summaries are given of a number of NCRP radiation protection guides dealing with hazards from 85Kr, radiation exposures from consumer products, basic radiation protection criteria, and doses from natural background radiation

  5. Radiation protection and monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The safety, the quality and efficiency of the radiological monitoring systems for block one and two of the NPP Mochovce, designed and delivered by the general designer, should be increased by EUCOM Siemens. Modern, accident resistant and/or more powerful monitoring systems have been designed by Siemens will be added to the existing systems. To achieve this radiation measuring units will be installed inside the hermetic zone, in the reactor hall, at the stack, at the release water system and in the environment in the vicinity of the NPP. The presentation, the storage distribution and the processing of all measuring results also will be optimised by installing a modern high-performance computer system, the so-called Central Radiological Computer System 'CRCS', featuring a high availability. The components will be installed in the relevant control rooms all over the plant. With this computer system it is easy to control the radiation level inside and outside the NPP during normal operation and during and after an accident. Special programs, developed by Siemens support the staff by interpreting the consequences of radioactive releases into the environment and by initiating protection procedures during and after an accident. All functions of the system are available for emergency protection drills and training the staff interruption of the normal control procedure. For the personal protection a digital personal dosimetry system completely considering with the requirements of ICRP 60 and several contamination monitors will be installed. (authors)

  6. Radiation protection following nuclear power accidents: a survey of putative mechanisms involved in the radioprotective actions of taurine during and after radiation exposure.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olav Christophersen

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available There are several animal experiments showing that high doses of ionizing radiation lead to strongly enhanced leakage of taurine from damaged cells into the extracellular fluid, followed by enhanced urinary excretion. This radiation-induced taurine depletion can itself have various harmful effects (as will also be the case when taurine depletion is due to other causes, such as alcohol abuse or cancer therapy with cytotoxic drugs, but taurine supplementation has been shown to have radioprotective effects apparently going beyond what might be expected just as a consequence of correcting the harmful consequences of taurine deficiency per se. The mechanisms accounting for the radioprotective effects of taurine are, however, very incompletely understood. In this article an attempt is made to survey various mechanisms that potentially might be involved as parts of the explanation for the overall beneficial effect of high levels of taurine that has been found in experiments with animals or isolated cells exposed to high doses of ionizing radiation. It is proposed that taurine may have radioprotective effects by a combination of several mechanisms: 1 during the exposure to ionizing radiation by functioning as an antioxidant, but perhaps more because it counteracts the prooxidant catalytic effect of iron rather than functioning as an important scavenger of harmful molecules itself, 2 after the ionizing radiation exposure by helping to reduce the intensity of the post-traumatic inflammatory response, and thus reducing the extent of tissue damage that develops because of severe inflammation rather than as a direct effect of the ionizing radiation per se, 3 by functioning as a growth factor helping to enhance the growth rate of leukocytes and leukocyte progenitor cells and perhaps also of other rapidly proliferating cell types, such as enterocyte progenitor cells, which may be important for immunological recovery and perhaps also for rapid repair of various damaged tissues, especially in the intestines, and 4 by functioning as an antifibrogenic agent. A detailed discussion is given of possible mechanisms involved both in the antioxidant effects of taurine, in its anti-inflammatory effects and in its role as a growth factor for leukocytes and nerve cells, which might be closely related to its role as an osmolyte important for cellular volume regulation because of the close connection between cell volume regulation and the regulation of protein synthesis as well as cellular protein degradation. While taurine supplementation alone would be expected to exert a therapeutic effect far better than negligible in patients that have been exposed to high doses of ionizing radiation, it may on theoretical grounds be expected that much better results may be obtained by using taurine as part of a multifactorial treatment strategy, where it may interact synergistically with several other nutrients, hormones or other drugs for optimizing antioxidant protection and minimizing harmful posttraumatic inflammatory reactions, while using other nutrients to optimize DNA and tissue repair processes, and using a combination of good diet, immunostimulatory hormones and perhaps other nontoxic immunostimulants (such as beta-glucans for optimizing the recovery of antiviral and antibacterial immune functions. Similar multifactorial treatment strategies may presumably be helpful in several other disease situations (including severe infectious diseases and severe asthma as well as for treatment of acute intoxications or acute injuries (both mechanical ones and severe burns where severely enhanced oxidative and/or nitrative stress and/or too much secretion of vasodilatory neuropeptides from C-fibres are important parts of the pathogenetic mechanisms that may lead to the death of the patient. Some case histories (with discussion of some of those mechanisms that may have been responsible for the observed therapeutic outcome are given for illustration of the likely validity of these concepts and their relevance both for treatment of severe infection

  7. Review of the results of routine radiation protection surveys of radiography-only diagnostic x-ray machines, February 1987-May 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The results are given of routine radiation protection surveys performed during the period February 1987-May 1991 by National Radiation Laboratory (NRL) health physicists on 432 radiography-only x-ray machines used in medical diagnosis and 92 used in chiropractic diagnosis. Compliance was high with the more explicit radiation protection requirements of the NRL codes of safe practice for the use of x-rays in diagnosis, viz, x-ray beam filtration, timer function, x-ray tube leakage, protective barrier and x-ray room shieldings. However, for those aspects of the codes dealing with x-ray machine performance there were less satisfactory results. While compliance for reproducibility of radiation output was >99%, it fell to 91% for accuracy of exposure timers, to 84% for linearity of x-ray output with adjacent mA and mAs settings, and from 70% for kilovoltage calibrations of multi-pulse x-ray machines to 54% for kilovoltage calibrations of 1- and 2- pulse machines. (author). 24 refs., 15 tabs., 5 figs

  8. Radiation protection - a perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Both the natural and manmade sources of radiation contribute to the dose received by the occupational workers and the members of public. During last century the number of manmade sources have increased considerably. Ionising radiations emitted by these sources have been put to large number of uses in the field of medicine, industry, agriculture and research. Exposure to radiation can lead to both deterministic and stochastic effects. Though it is difficult to quantify the risk due to exposure to low levels of radiation, however because of the vast data available for high exposures, it is possible to have some idea of the risk. These data have helped in deciding the dose limits for both the workers and members of public. Exposure can be both internal and external. Different methods are used to estimate internal dose and external dose. Philosophy of radiation protection as envisaged by ICRP is discussed in the paper. Various methods of protection, which will help in implementing the concept of ALARA, are outlined. Immediate biological effects of radiation depend upon the quantum of dose received. Effects at various levels of doses are given in the paper. Acute radiation syndrome is also discussed in the paper. Symptoms of low doses chronic exposure may not manifest initially but can be seen after a long latent period, in the form of cancer, though with a very low probability. As per ICRP risk/Sv for excess probability of fatal cancer for workers is 4.00 x 10-2-2 and for public is 5.00 x 10-2. A nuclear emergency may lead to exposure of persons and contamination of the area. Various types emergencies are described in the paper. In an emergency there are various pathways through which exposure can take place. A detailed emergency preparedness plan should include details of the monitoring to be followed, assessment of the situation as it develops, procedure for communication with various agencies, plans for evacuation, etc. Establishment of an emergency response center and formation of various response teams are important part of the emergency preparedness programme. (author)

  9. Survey and evaluation of the external research and development programme 1977-1983 of the Swedish Radiation Protection Institute

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A review of the external research programme of SSI is undertaken. The main research programme is in this report divided into five subprogrammes according to the main programmes of the Institute. This report covers research projects reported 1977-1983. An evaluation of the impact of the R and D programme is included in the report. The external R and D research programme of SSI has had an important impact on the radiation protection work in Sweden. The methods for evaluation of research programmes are also discussed in the report

  10. Radiation protection and quality management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The book contains the following contributions: Radiation protection: an aspect of the governmental assignment to guarantee and regulate the public safety and law and order; the regulation amendment concerning X radiation and the new radiation protection ordinance; biological radiation effects; dosimetry; modern diagnostic radiology; the vindicatory indication; experiences of applied radiation protection in X-ray diagnostics: multislice computer tomography, X-ray examination and angiography; networking imaging; vindicatory indication in radiotherapy: for malign diseases and for benign diseases; medical appointments; quality management in health care; quality management in practice and clinics; personal management in health care - a challenging assignment under the aspects of resource control and quality. Appendices: Regulation concerning X radiation protection and remarks; regulation concerning ionising radiation protection: excerpts and remarks

  11. National Sessions of Radiation Protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Radioprotection Argentine Society (SAR) was organized the National Sessions on Radiation Protection 2012 in order to continue the exchange in the radiation protection community in the country, on work areas that present a challenge to the profession. The new recommendations of the ICRP and the IAEA Safety Standards (2011), among others, includes several topics that are necessary to develop. The SAR wants to encourage different organizations from Argentina, to submit projects that are developing in order to strengthen radiation protection.

  12. Ultraviolet radiation survey instrument

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes a device designed for use as an ultraviolet radiation survey instrument. The instrument consists of an assemblage of mostly commercial components in such a manner as to result in a portable instrument that will measure ultraviolet radiations having wavelengths between 230 and 320 nanometers. The instrument responds to these radiations automatically correcting for the ACGIH photobiological response curve. This is accomplished through the use of a wide angle input optic followed by a dispersive section, a special adjustable parallel slot collimator, an array of bandpass filters and an inexpensive photomultiplier tube. It has been tested and operates satisfactorily in the conditions normally anticipated in occupational environments where very high intensity visible light is present along with ultraviolet radiations, such as from sunlight and electrical arc light sources. (author)

  13. Pregnancy and Radiation Protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Several modalities are currently utilized for diagnosis and therapy, by appropriate application of x-rays. In diagnostic radiology, interventional radiology, radiotherapy, interventional cardiology, nuclear medicine and other specialties radiation protection of a pregnant woman as a patient, as well as a member of the operating personnel, is of outmost importance. Based on radiation risk, the termination of pregnancy is not justified if foetal doses are below 100 mGy. For foetal doses between 100 and 500 mGy, a decision is reached on a case by case basis. In Diagnostic Radiology, when a pregnant patient takes an abdomen CT, then an estimation of the foetus' dose is necessary. However, it is extremely rare for the dose to be high enough to justify an abortion. Radiographs of the chest and extremities can be done at any period of pregnancy, provided that the equipment is functioning properly. Usually, the radiation risk is lower than the risk of not undergoing a radiological examination. Radiation exposure in uterus from diagnostic radiological examinations is unlikely to result in any deleterious effect on the child, but the possibility of a radiation-induced effect can not be entirely ruled out. The effects of exposure to radiation on the foetus depend on the time of exposure, the date of conception and the absorbed dose. Finally, a pregnant worker can continue working in an x-ray department, as long as there is reasonable assurance that the foetal dose can be kept beurance that the foetal dose can be kept below 1 mGy during the pregnancy. Nuclear Medicine diagnostic examinations using short-lived radionuclides can be used for pregnant patient. Irradiation of the foetus results from placental transfer and distribution of radiopharmaceuticals in the foetal tissues, as well as from external irradiation from radioactivity in the mother's organ and tissues. As a rule, a pregnant patient should not undergo therapy with radionuclide, unless it is crucial for her life. In Radiotherapy, the patient, treating oncologist, other team and family members should carefully discuss for the decision of abortion. Important factors must be considered such as the stage and aggressiveness of the tumour, the location of the tumour, the stage of pregnancy, various therapies etc.

  14. Radiation risks and radiation protection at CRNL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiation exposure is an occupational hazard at CRNL. The predicted health effects of low levels of radiation are described and compared with other hazards of living. Data related to the health of radiation workers are also considered. Special attention is given to the expected effects of radiation on the unborn child. Measures taken to protect CRNL employees against undue occupational exposure to radiation are noted

  15. Radiation protection, measurements and methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The introductory lectures discuss subjects such as radiation protection principles and appropriate measuring techniques; methods, quantities and units in radiation protection measurement; technical equipment; national and international radiation protection standards. The papers presented at the various sessions deal with: Dosimetry of external radiation (27 papers); Working environment monitoring and emission monitoring (21 contributions); Environmental monitoring (19 papers); Incorporation monitoring (9 papers); Detection limits (4 papers); Non-ionizing radiation, measurement of body dose and biological dosimetry (10 papers). All 94 contributions (lectures, compacts and posters) are retrievable as separate records. (HP)

  16. Ethical issues in radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ethical theories are relevant to the current recommendations and standards for radiation protection. Radiation protection is not only a matter for science. It is also a problem of philosophy. In order for protection regulations to be respected, it must correspond to widely accepted ethical values among those who are affected by the regulations. The workshop covered the following issues: Problems in Present Protection Policy, ICRP Protection Policy - A Historical Perspective, Radiation Risk - What we know and what we believe, Present ICRP Recommendations, Ethical Values in the Context of ICRP Recommendations, Collective Responsibility for Invisible Harm, Environmental Protection - Ethical Issues, The Global Change of Values, and Procedural justice and Radiation Protection. Six workshop contributions and a workshop summary are presented in this report

  17. Ethical issues in radiation protection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Persson, Lars (ed.)

    2000-03-15

    Ethical theories are relevant to the current recommendations and standards for radiation protection. Radiation protection is not only a matter for science. It is also a problem of philosophy. In order for protection regulations to be respected, it must correspond to widely accepted ethical values among those who are affected by the regulations. The workshop covered the following issues: Problems in Present Protection Policy, ICRP Protection Policy - A Historical Perspective, Radiation Risk - What we know and what we believe, Present ICRP Recommendations, Ethical Values in the Context of ICRP Recommendations, Collective Responsibility for Invisible Harm, Environmental Protection - Ethical Issues, The Global Change of Values, and Procedural justice and Radiation Protection. Six workshop contributions and a workshop summary are presented in this report.

  18. Radiation protection primer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This 'radiation protection primer' does not pretend to give absolute, final answers to the many questions that have been arising after the Chernobyl accident. What it is intended to supply, as a schematic overview of problems resulting from nuclear accidents, and a likewise systematic outline of possible solutions and sensible reactions to such an event. The book takes up questions such as: What has happened to the soil. Will future harvests be 'clean' again. What does radioactivity to our drinking water and other waters. What are the effects of a radioactive fallout on food. What may we eat or drink. What happens to the human body after intake of radioactive air, or - even only slightly - contaminated food or water. What can we do to protect our health, and the health of our children. Is there anything else we can do in order to avoid such a disaster in future, except from shutting-off all reactors. The book itself presents some answers and advice, along with a list of terms and explanations, and addresses to apply to for further advice and information. (orig./HP)

  19. Radiation protective clothing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present invention concerns radiation protective clothings suitable for medical protective clothings, aprons, etc. A primary sheet comprises a lead-incorporated organic polymer layer having a less frictional layer on one side and a contamination-resistant layer on the other side. A secondary sheet comprises a lead-incorporated organic polymer layer having a less frictional layer on one side and a comfortable skin-feeling layer on the other side. The less frictional layers of the primary and the secondary layer are laminated so as to be in contact with each other. Then, they are formed so that the comfortable skin-feeling layer of the secondary sheet is on the inner side, in other words, on the side of a wearer, and the contamination-resistant layer of the primary sheet is on the outer side. With such a constitution, although it involves the lead-incorporated organic polymer sheets of a large weight, it is comfortable to wear because of excellent flexibility and causes less feeling of fatigue even during wearing for a long period of time. (I.N.)

  20. Plowshare radiation protection guidance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The recommendations of the ICRP and the NCRP were developed primarily for occupational radiation exposures. They were later modified and applied to non-occupational exposures of populations. These, with appropriate interpretations, can be used to provide Plowshare radiation protection guidance. Exposures from Plowshare operations will tend to be acute, arising from radionuclides of relatively short half-life, but will have some chronic aspects due to small amounts of long-lived radionuclides generated. In addition, the neutron activation process of Plowshare technology will produce radionuclides not commonly encountered in routine nuclear energy programs. How these radionuclides contribute to personnel exposure is known for only a few situations that may not be representative of Plowshare exposure. Further complications arise from differences in radionuclide deposition and physiological sensitivity among individuals of different ages and states of health in the exposed population. All parameters necessary to evaluate such exposures are not available, even for good quantitative approximations, resulting in the need for interpretive experience. (author)

  1. Radiation Protection Training in Lithuania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiation Protection Training is an important component of Radiation Protection and serves for human radiation safety. According to the Lithuanian Law on Radiation Protection the legal persons and enterprises without the status of legal persons to conduct practices with sources or which workers work under exposure must organize at their own expenses a compulsory training and assessment of knowledge of the workers engaging in activities with the sources and radiation protection officers. Such training has been started in 1999. In Lithuania there are few institutions executing Radiation Protection training. Under requirements of legal act On Frequency and Procedure of Compulsory Training and Assessment Knowledge of the Workers Engage in Activities with the Sources of Ionising Radiation and Radiation Protection Officers these institutions have to prepare and coordinate training programs with the Radiation Protection Center. There are adopted different educating programs for Radiation Protection Training to the Workers and Radiation Protection Officers depending on character of work and danger of sources. The duration of Training is from 30 to 270 hours. The Training shall be renewed every five years passing 30 hors course. To ensure the adequate quality of training a great deal of attention is paid to qualifying the lectures. For this purpose, it was established an Evaluation commission to estimate the adequacy of lecturer's knowledge to requirements of Training programsledge to requirements of Training programs. After passing exams the lectures get the qualification confirming certificates. The main task of our days is to establish and arrange the National Training Centre on Radiation Protection Training that would satisfy requirements and recommendations of legal documents of IAEA and EU for such kind of institutions of institutions. (Author)

  2. Radiation Protection Infrastructure In Madagascar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiation sources are widely used in medicine, industry, research and education in Madagascar. Safety and security of these sources are the main statutory functions of the Regulatory Authority as defined by the regulations in Radiation Protection in Madagascar. These functions are carried out through the system of notification, authorization and inspection, inventory of radiation source and emergency preparedness. The law no 97-041 on radiation protection and radioactive waste management in Madagascar was promulgated on 2nd January 1998. It governs all activities related to the peaceful use of nuclear energy in Madagascar in order to protect the public, the environment and for the safety of radiation sources. This law complies with the International Basic Safety Standards for protection against ionising Radiation and for the Safety of Radiation Sources (BSS, IAEA Safety Series no 115). Following the promulgation of the law, four decrees have been enacted by the Malagasy Government. With an effective implementation of these decrees, the ANPSR will be the Highest Administrative Authority in the Field of Radiation Protection and Waste Management in Madagascar. This Regulatory Authority is supported by an Executive Secretariat, assisted by the OTR for Radiation Protection and the OCGDR for Managing Radioactive Waste.The paper includes an overview of the regulatory infrastructure and the organizations of radiation protection in Madagascar

  3. Mining and radiation protection law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The following radiation protection recommendations, guidelines and standards under international law must be considered: - ICRP recommendations (in particular no. 24, 26, 32); - IAEA Safety series; - Euratom standards 1980/84. Investigations of the legal position in the Federal Republic of Germany must comprise: - AtG of 1959/1976; - Radiation Protection Ordinance in its wording of 1976 which is in force; - Federal Mining Act of 1980. Since both mining law and radiation protection law are involved, the homogeneity and possible concurrence of operative legal regulations must be investigated. The following problems must be discussed: - scope of application of the Radiation Protection Ordinance and of the Federal Mining Act with respect to the search for, production of, processing and transport, import and export as well as the possession of radioactive minerals; also waste disposal; - terminology, - application of protection regulations of the Radiation Protection Ordinance for mining activities (radiation protection policies, persons responsible for radiation protection, environmental protection, physical control, medical control etc.); - government supervision. (orig./HP)

  4. Radiation protection in nuclear medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The goal of this Chapter is to give a general outline of the essential principles and procedures for radiation protection in a nuclear medicine department where radionuclides are used for diagnosis and therapy. More detailed recommendations regarding radiation protection in nuclear medicine are given in the publications of the International Commission on Radiation Protection (ICRP, publications 25, 57, 60) and in ILO/IAEA/WHO Manual on Radiation Protection in Hospitals and General Practice (Volume 2: Unsealed Sources, WHO, Geneva, 1975), on which this Chapter is based. This chapter is not intended to replace the above-mentioned international recommendations on radiation protection, as well as existing national regulations on this subject, but intended only to provide guidance for implementing these recommendations in clinical practice

  5. RA reactor and radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Routine problems that appeared during Ra reactor operation have been the basic motive for development of radiation protection methods. There has been many problems and examples, some of them are presented in this paper: tritium protection, neutron dosimetry, high resolution gamma spectrometry, and and measurement of low level gamma radiation. RA reactor shutdown caused decrease of incentive for development of new methods in the field of radiation protection. Planning and possible restart of the RA reactor would impose faster development of modern radiation protection methods as follows: implementation of ALARA principle in all phases of radiation protection, development of personal dosemeters and methods for real time control of contamination in the environment, improvement and development of neutron dosimetry methods, standardization and implementation of whole body counting and radio toxicology methods, development of bio dosimetry methods, improvement of decontamination methods, development and implementation of methods for radioactive waste treatment to the level of final disposal, solving the problem of final radioactive waste storage, etc

  6. New approaches to radiation protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosen, Eliot M; Day, Regina; Singh, Vijay K

    2014-01-01

    Radioprotectors are compounds that protect against radiation injury when given prior to radiation exposure. Mitigators can protect against radiation injury when given after exposure but before symptoms appear. Radioprotectors and mitigators can potentially improve the outcomes of radiotherapy for cancer treatment by allowing higher doses of radiation and/or reduced damage to normal tissues. Such compounds can also potentially counteract the effects of accidental exposure to radiation or deliberate exposure (e.g., nuclear reactor meltdown, dirty bomb, or nuclear bomb explosion); hence they are called radiation countermeasures. Here, we will review the general principles of radiation injury and protection and describe selected examples of radioprotectors/mitigators ranging from small-molecules to proteins to cell-based treatments. We will emphasize agents that are in more advanced stages of development. PMID:25653923

  7. Obligatory Radiation Protection Course

    CERN Multimedia

    SC Unit

    2008-01-01

    Since February 2008, participation in the radiation protection course has been a prerequisite for obtaining a CERN personal dosimeter for all Staff Members and Users. All Staff and Users holding a personal dosimeter were informed by the Bulletin and by a personal e-mail sent in February 2008 that they were required to participate in the course before the annual exchange of their dosimeter. Many people had not done so by that time and the Dosimetry Service exceptionally classified them for 2 months as short-term visitors (VCT), a category of monitored personnel to whom the training requirement does not presently apply. As all personnel concerned have since had time to participate in an RP course, this "grace period" will no longer be granted as of 1 October 2008 and the RP course must be completed before the personal dosimeter is exchanged. For newcomers to CERN, and for those returning to CERN after an absence of more than 1 year, one registration as a VCT for two months ...

  8. Ethics in radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ethics is a branch of philosophy. Its object is the study of both moral and immoral behaviour in order to make well founded judgements and to arrive at adequate recommendations. The Collins English Dictionary provides the following definitions of the word ethic: Ethic: a moral principle or set of moral values held by an individual or group; Ethics(singular): the philosophical study of the moral value of human conduct and of the rules and principles that ought to govern it; Ethics(pleural): a social, religious or civil code of behaviour considered correct, especially that of a particular group, profession or individual; Ethics(pleural): the moral fitness of a decision, course of action, etc. Ethics has a two-fold objective: Firstly it evaluates human practices by calling upon moral standards; it may give prescriptive advice on how to act morally in a specific kind of situation. This implies analysis and evaluation. Sometimes this is known as Normative ethics. The second is to provide therapeutic advice, suggesting solutions and policies. It must be based on well-informed opinions and requires a clear understanding of the vital issues. In the medical world, we are governed by the Hippocratic Oath. Essentially this requires medical practitioners (doctors) to do good, not harm. There is great interest and even furore regarding ethics in radiation protection

  9. Radiation protective clothing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An external clothing as a main portion of the radiation protective clothing of the present invention is adapted to cover substantially the entire body of a wearer, comprises a moisture permeable material partially or entirely, and has an air supply device equipped with a filter for feeding air to a head portion of the wearer in the external clothing. Cleaned air filtered by the filter is supplied to the head portion of a wearer in the external clothing. The air passes through remarkably perspiratory head, face, shoulder, chest and back portions to remove heat and sweat at sensitively important upper portions of a body, so that humidity is released to remove fatigues and improve workability. In addition, since some extent of internal pressure is exerted to the inside of the external clothing by the air supply, contaminated air does not intrude from the outside to the external clothing. Since the air supply device is attached and carried to the external clothing, there is no air line hose which disturbs operation. (I.S.)

  10. The Radiation Protection in Guatemala

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A brief account of the activities on radiation safety carried out by the General Directorate of Nuclear Energy of Guatemala in the period 1991-1992 is presented. The activities are reported under organization, activities on occupational radiation protection in medicine, industry and research, personnel monitoring, radiation metrology, regulations and international cooperation are described

  11. The history of radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper is a subjective, selective cavalcade of some events and individuals which, in the author's opinion, have greatly influenced the development of the art of radiation protection as we see it today. The presentation is divided into time periods which have so much in common that they deserve separate treatment. 'Radiation' in this presentation means ionising radiation. (author)

  12. European Radiation Protection Course - Basics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiation protection is a major challenge in the industrial applications of ionising radiation, both nuclear and non-nuclear, as well as in other areas such as the medical and research domains. The overall objective of this textbook is to participate to the development of European high-quality scheme and good practices for education and training in radiation protection (RP), coming from the new Council Directive 2013/59/Euratom laying down basic safety standards for protection against the dangers arising from exposure to ionising radiation. These ERPTS (European Radiation Protection Training Scheme) reflects the needs of the Radiation Protection Expert (RPE) and the Radiation Protection Officer (RPO), specifically with respect to the Directive 2013/59/Euratom in all sectors where ionising radiation are applied. To reflect the RPE training scheme, six chapters have been developed in this textbook: Radioactivity and nuclear physics; Interaction of ionising radiation with matter; Dosimetry; Biological effects of ionising radiation; Detection and measurement of ionising radiation; Uses of sources of ionising radiation. The result is a homogeneous textbook, dealing with the ERPTS learning outcomes suggested by ENETRAPII project (European Network on Education and Training in Radiological Protection II) from the 7. Framework Programme. A cyber-book is also part of the whole training material to develop the concept of 'learning more' (http://www.rpe-training.eu). The production of this first module 'basics' training material, in the combined form of a textbook plus a cyber-book as learning tools, will contribute to facilitate mutual recognition and enhanced mobility of these professionals across the European Union. (authors)

  13. Safety Culture on radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It can be defined radiation protection culture as the set of technical and social standards applied to the management of the operation of a nuclear facility concerning the reduction of the exposure to radiation of workers and members of the public, together with the behaviour and attitudes of the individuals from the organization towards that objective. Because the basic principles of radiation protection are self-evident and are totally justified, and the thesis drawn from the article is that no effective radiation protection culture yet exists within the organization, it must be concluded that what is wrong from the system are the attitudes and behavior of the individuals. In this article some factors and elements needed to motivate all persons within the organization towards the creation of a radiation protection culture are delineated and presented. (Author)

  14. Radiation protection education in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Education in Radiation Protection varies considerably in the different European Countries. As there is free movement of staff and services in between these European Countries one of the main objectives of the European Union is to compare the different implementations and to identify similarities. Therefore, in this paper the German and Swiss Radiation Protection Systems are explained and the relevant topics of the Revision of the European Basic Safety Standard are presented. Additionally a bilateral pilot project is described which compares the lowest level radiation protection courses in Germany and The Netherlands and possible future developments are outlined. (orig.)

  15. An introduction to radiation protection

    CERN Document Server

    Martin, Alan; Beach, Karen; Cole, Peter

    2012-01-01

    The sixth edition of this established text takes the reader through the general background to the subject, the technical principles underlying the control of radiation hazards, radiation detection and measurement and the biological effects of radiation. These are followed by a consideration of radiation protection issues in the nuclear industry, the non-nuclear sector and the medical field. Further specialised topics include risk assessment, waste management and decommissioning, radiological incidents and emergencies, relevant legislation and organizational issues.

  16. Radiation protection in an intraoperative radiation room

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An intraoperative radiation (IOR) room, which has been newly established in radiation therapy ward of Kitasato University Hospital, consists of a linac treatment room, a linac procedure room, an operation room, and a waiting room for operation. The IOR room is a specially restricted area where both radiation protection and cleanness for operation are required. Therapeutic linacs, delivering X-rays of 6 and 10 MV and electron beams of 4, 6, 9, 12, and 15 MeV, are installed in an linac room. This paper gives an outline of practical radiation protection in the IOR room, focusing on safety procedure. Radiation limits defined by radiation regulations are described. Types of radiations emitted from the linac room and the shielding of radiations are mentioned. Radiation dosimetry in the border of the restricted area revealed that dose equivalent rates ranged from 30.4 to 0.15 ?Sv/h for X-rays and from 3.16 to 2.46 ?Sv/h for neutron beams and that the maximum residual gamma dose rate immediately after irradiation was approximately 0.5 ?Sv/h. These radiation doses were below the dose limit proposed by radiation regulations. (N.K.)

  17. Radiation protection in civil defence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The brochure contains the information given to the participants of an advanced training course in civil defence, on the subject of radiation protection. The course was held by teachers of Bundesverband fuer den Selbstschutz (BVS). (orig.)

  18. Geothermal energy and radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The thermal ground waters used for geothermal energy production contain natural radionuclides. The thereby required radiation protection measures during the operation of a geothermal plant and at the disposal of the resulting radioactive residues are described. (orig.)

  19. Regulations for ionizing radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    General regulations and principles of radiation protection and safety are presented. In addition, the regulations for licensing and occupational and medical exposure as well as for safe transport of radioactive materials and wastes are given

  20. Healing Arts Radiation Protection Act

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Healing Arts Radiation Protection Act is concerned with regulating the registration, installation, operation, inspection and safety of X-ray machines. The Act provides for the establishment of the Healing Arts Radiation Protection Commission which is responsible for reporting on all the above matters to the Ontario Minister of Health. In addition the board is responsible for the continuing development of an X-ray safety code and for the submission of an annual report of their activities to the minister

  1. Radiation protection for veterinary practices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wheelton, R.; McCaffery, A. (National Radiological Protection Board, Glasgow (United Kingdom). Scottish Centre)

    1993-01-01

    This brief article discusses radiation protection for diagnostic radiography in veterinary practices. It includes aspects such as a radiation protection adviser, personal dosimetry but in particular a Veterinary Monitoring Service, developed by the NRPB, which offers veterinary practitioners the convenience of making simple but essential measurements for themselves using photographic films contained in a 'vet pack' to determine the operating condition of their X-ray machine. (U.K.).

  2. Proceedings of Asia congress on radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    203 articles were collected in the proceedings. The contents of the proceedings included the principle and practices of radiation protection, biological effects of radiation, radiation monitoring, protection in medical and other fields, radiation dosimetry, nuclear energy and the environment, natural radiation, radioactive waste management, and other radiation protection issues

  3. Chemical protection against ionizing radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maisin, J. R.

    Some of the problems related to chemical protection against ionizing radiation are discussed with emphasis on : definition, classification, degree of protection, mechanisms of action and toxicity. Results on the biological response modifyers (BRMs) and on the combination of nontoxic (i.e. low) doses of sulphydryl radioprotectors and BRMs are presented.

  4. Radiation protection, 1975. Annual EPA review of radiation protection activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The EPA, under its Federal Guidance authorities, is responsible for advising the President on all matters pertaining to radiation and, through this mechanism, to provide guidance to other Federal agencies on radiation protection matters. Highlights are presented of significant radiation protection activities of all Federal agencies which were completed in 1975, or in which noteworthy progress was made during that period, and those events affecting members of the public. State or local activities are also presented where the effects of those events may be more far-reaching. At the Federal level significant strides have been made in reducing unnecessary radiation exposure through the efforts of the responsible agencies. These efforts have resulted in the promulgation of certain standards, criteria and guides. Improved control technologies in many areas make it feasible to reduce emissions at a reasonable cost to levels below current standards and guides. This report provides information on the significant activities leading to the establishment of the necessary controls for protection of public health and the environment. Radiation protection activities have been undertaken in other areas such as medical, occupational and consumer product radiation. In the context of radiation protection, ancillary activities are included in this report in order to present a comprehensive overview of the events that took place in 1975 that could have an effect on public health, either directly or indirectly. Reports of routine or continuing radiation protection operations may be found in publications of the sponsoring Federal agencies, as can more detailed information about activities reported in this document. A list of some of these reports is included

  5. Radiation protection aspects of calibration laboratory for radiation monitoring instruments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiation sources are widely used in various fields such as Medical, Industrial and Research etc. It is inevitable that radiation exposures will be received by the users of these radiation sources while handling the sources. It is essential to keep these exposures within the prescribed dose limits by the Atomic Energy Regulatory Board (AERB) to safe guard the radiation workers from the hazardous effects of radiation. Hence, the user institutions need to measure the radiation levels in and around the radiation installations using appropriate radiation monitoring instruments. There are several hundreds of Radiation Monitoring Instruments (RMIs) such as hand held radiation survey meters (RSM), area monitors, direct reading dosimeters (DRDs), secondary standard dosimeters (SSD) are being used by radiation facilities. Properly calibrated RMIs will provide the necessary confidence to the users of radiation sources in assessing the hazard potential. Periodic calibration of RMIs is a requirement under the Atomic Energy (Radiation Protection) Rules. As the number of users and in turn RMIs has been continuously increasing, AERB has initiated several regulatory measures in ensuring safe handling of radiation sources as well as establishment of calibration facilities

  6. Protective prostheses during radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Current applications and complications in the use of radiotherapy for the treatment of oral malignancy are reviewed. Prostheses are used for decreasing radiation to vital structures not involved with the lesion but located in the field of radiation. With a program of oral hygiene and proper dental care, protective prostheses can help decrease greatly the morbidity seen with existing radiotherapy regimens

  7. Swedish Radiation Protection Goes East

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For the past 13 years the Swedish Radiation Protection Authority (SSI) has pursued bilateral assistance co-operation in the field of radiation protection to countries of Central- and Eastern Europe. Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania and Russia have been prioritized countries for SSI, with Russia to some less extent compared with the Baltic countries. Initially the co-operation was directed to assistance the Baltic countries to remedy different acute radiation problems, which the new independent states had to face when the access to resources and experts in the field of radiation protection controlled from Moscow was lost. During the years the Baltic countries have developed new legislations and well-established national radiation protection authorities. The implementation of the EU Aquis Communautaire in the field of radiation protection into national legislation and its practical applications has been important tasks in the activities. The radiological emergency planning from the Soviet era has been renewed in all three countries, with the aim to achieve a western standard. Comprehensive support has also been given during the years of co-operation to develop the radiation protection work at the Ignalina Nuclear Power Plant (INPP) in Lithuania. The Swedish experience on management, storage and disposal of radioactive waste have been provided as complementary bilateral support in connection with international projects in Baltic countries and in Russia. The ongoing Swedish proies and in Russia. The ongoing Swedish programme for co-operation with Russia comprise the federal authorities, the nuclear power plant in Sosnivy Bor and Polyarnie Zori and the specialized organisation RADON regarding two of their Solid Radioactive Waste Storage Sites. The priorities for the Swedish support in the field of radiation protection and radiological emergency planning will successively be changed to Russia with an effort also to extend the bilateral co-operation to Belarus and Ukraine. (Author)

  8. Introduction to radiation protection dosimetry

    CERN Document Server

    Sabol, Josef

    1995-01-01

    One essential characteristic of life is the exchange of matter and energy between organisms and their environment. Radiation is a form of energy that has always been around in nature and will forever be the companion of human beings throughout life. In order to assess the impact of radiation exposures properly, it is essential to introduce appropriate quantities and units which can then be used for quantification of exposures from various sources. In principle, radiation protection is mainly aimed at controlling radiation exposure, while radiation dosimetry deals primarily with the measurement

  9. Radiation protection and occupational health

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper examines trends in occupational and public health standard setting including those which apply to radiation protection practices. It is the authors' contention that while regulators, unions and employees demand higher standards of radiation protection and industry attempts to comply with tight controls of radiation exposure in the workplace, these standards are out of step with standards applied to health away from the workplace, recreational activity and other areas of industrial hygiene. The ultimate goal of an improvement in the health of the nation's workforce may no longer be visible because it has been submerged beneath the predominating concern for one aspect of health in the workplace. 35 refs., 5 tabs

  10. Radiation protection in veterinary practice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is suggested that those using radiographic equipment in veterinary practice should have a greater awareness of the hazards of radiation, the potential sources of exposure and the basic methods of radiation protection, but it is also emphasised that if the rules are observed and the potential danger appreciated, then the risks are quite acceptable. The effects of x-rays on living tissues, and the special implication of these to the veterinarian, safety aspects of x-ray machines, protective clothing and ancillary equipment requirements, suitability of premises, radiographic procedures and their supervision, monitoring of potential radiation hazards and staff training, are discussed. (U.K.)

  11. Radiation protection and health effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The use of ionizing radiation in nuclear medicine carries with it a responsibility to both patient and personnel to maximize the diagnostic and therapeutic benefit while minimizing the potential for any adverse health effects. Shortly after the discovery of the x-ray in 1895 the potential for acute health hazards of ionizing radiation became apparent. However, the risks of ionizing radiation were poorly understood and many early users did not believe that anyone could be hurt by something that could not be detected by any of the human senses. Many experiments on the biologic effects of ionizing radiation began in the early 1900s, and the first radiation protection standards were proposed by the British Roentgen Society in 1915. We now realize that these pioneers had a very limited knowledge of the potential hazards and radiation protection principles. Today more scientific data are available on the health effects of, detection of, and protection from ionizing radiation than any other physical agent or chemical known. In addition, use of many forms of ionizing radiation is heavily regulated at both national and state levels. This paper discusses how maternal contamination with radionuclides may cause irradiation of the fetus even if the radionuclide is not transferred across the placenta. This is mostly true for radionuclides that decay yielding relatively penetrating radiations

  12. Radiation protection in nuclear medicine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mattsson, Soeren [Lund Univ., Skane Univ. Hospital Malmoe (Sweden). Medical Radiation Physics; Hoeschen, Christoph (eds.) [Helmholtz Zentrum Muenchen Deutsches Forschungszentrum fuer Gesundheit und Umwelt GmbH, Neuherberg (Germany)

    2013-07-01

    Addresses all aspects of radiation protection in nuclear medicine. Covers current technologies and principles. An ideal textbook for students and a ready source of information for nuclear medicine specialists and medical physics experts. One of a series of three books on the fundamentals of modern nuclear medicine (physics, safety, and imaging). This book explains clearly and in detail all aspects of radiation protection in nuclear medicine. After an introductory chapter on the general role of radiation protection, measurement quantities and units are discussed, and detectors and dosimeters, described. Radiation biology and radiation dosimetry are then addressed, with the inclusion of a chapter specifically devoted to biology and dosimetry for the lens of the eye. Discussion of radiation doses to patients and to embryos, fetuses, and children forms a central part of the book. Phantom models, biokinetic models, calculations, and software solutions are all considered, and a further chapter focuses on quality assurance and reference levels. Occupational exposure also receives detailed attention. Exposure resulting from the production, labeling, and injection of radiopharmaceuticals and from contact with patients is discussed and shielding calculations are explained. The book closes by considering exposure of the public and summarizing the ''rules of thumb'' for radiation protection in nuclear medicine. This is an ideal textbook for students and a ready source of useful information for nuclear medicine specialists and medical physics experts.

  13. Actual global problems of radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Personal views on some actual problems in radiation protection are given in this paper. Among these problems are: evolution methodology used in radiation protection regulations; radiation protection, nuclear energy and safety, and new approaches to the process of the hazardous substances management. An interesting fact relating to the X-ray, radiation protection and Nikola Tesla are given also. (author)

  14. Radiation protection information

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    From the measurements and discussion presented in this report, the following conclusions may be drawn: The population doses from naturally occuring radiation is on average lower in Denmark and much lower in Iceland than in the other Nordic countries. In Sweden, Finland and Norway the largest contributors to the population doses from naturally occuring radiation are radon daughters in indoor air. For Denmark and Iceland, radon daughters contribute about the same to the total effective dose equivalent as the external gamma radiation. Some groups of people in the Nordic countries are highly exposed to radon daughters. In some cases, the received doses are very high (higher than the dose limit for radiation workers). From the conclusions above, the radon daughter problem should be given priority, at least in Sweden, Finland and Norway, especially regarding the search for population groups receiving the highest doses

  15. Radiation protection training and education in Europe; Strahlenschutzausbildung in Europa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boersma, Hielke Freerk [Groningen Univ. (Netherlands). Office of the Univ. Health, Safety and Environment; Ham, Ulla [GNS Gesellschaft fuer Nuklear-Service mbH, Essen (Germany); Holl, Matthias [Strahlenschutzschulung, Andernach (Germany); Jahn, Swen-Gunnar [Eidgenoessisches Nuklearsicherheitsinspektorat (ENSI), Villigen (Switzerland); Neuwirth, Johannes [Seibersdorf Laboratories (Austria); Schmitt-Hannig, Annemarie [Bundesamt fuer Strahlenschutz, Oberschleissheim (Germany). Fachbereich Strahlenschutz und Gesundheit; Schoenhacker, Stefan [Bundesministerium fuer Inneres, Traiskirchen (Austria). Abt. 1/9 - Zivilschutzschule; Vahlbruch, Jan-Willem [Leibniz Univ. Hannover (Germany). Inst. fuer Radiooekologie und Strahlenschutz (IRS)

    2013-09-01

    First, a comprehensive survey is given on the development and the present situation of radiation protection education and training, followed by exemplary reports from the individual countries Germany, Switzerland, Austria and the Netherlands. (orig.)

  16. Philosophy of radiological protection and radiation hazard protection law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The radiation protection and the human safety in radiation facilities are strictly controlled by law. There are rules on the radiation measurement, too. In the present review, philosophy of the radiological protection and the radiation hazard protection law is outlined with reference to ICRP recommendations. (J.P.N.)

  17. Radiation protection in interventional radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The radiation risks to patients and medical personnel engaged in fluoroscopy-guided interventional procedures, mainly Interventional Radiology cause a growing concern in the radiation protection community and the competent medical authorities in many countries. Fluoroscopy-guided interventional procedures (diagnostic and therapeutic) in the context of radiation protection include a variety of disciplines such as Interventional Radiology. Other medical subspecialties routinely use image guided interventional techniques; i.e. Invasive Cardiology, Gastroenterology, Endo urology. Progress in radiological equipment has incorporated more powerful x-ray sources into the standard Fluoroscopy and CT systems. Expanding use of interventional procedures carries extensive use of fluoroscopy and CT that are both associated with excessive radiation exposure to the patient and personnel. During cases of Intravenous CT Angiography (IVCTA) and direct Intra Arterial CT Angiography (IACTA), one may substitute a substantial number of diagnostic angiographies. Interventional Radiologists are leading in utilization of image-guided interventions especially in any technique that comprises ionizing radiation

  18. Semiconductor spectrometer for radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The radiation fields on aircraft board and for other radiation protection application are complexes they contain the particles with energies up to few hundreds MeV. Obviously, one distinguishes the components with low resp. high linear energy transfer (LET). Recently, we have acquired a new measuring instrument, MDU-LIULIN, an energy deposition spectrometer base on a Si-detector. The spectrometer was originally developed and largely tested onboard of cosmic vehicles, its sensitive element is a Si-diode. The spectrometer has been calibrated in photon, neutron and high-energy radiation reference fields (CERN). The energy deposited in the detector by a particle is analysed by a 256-channel spectrum analyser, it permits to distinguish the contribution of different types of radiation to integral dosimetry quantities. The spectrometer has been, since April 2000 used for some radiation protection applications, mostly on aircraft board. Results obtained are presented, discussed and analysed. Materials and methods. (authors)

  19. Biological Research for Radiation Protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The work scope of 'Biological Research for the Radiation Protection' had contained the research about ornithine decarboxylase and its controlling proteins, thioredoxin, peroxiredoxin, S-adenosymethionine decarboxylase, and glutamate decarboxylase 67KD effect on the cell death triggered ionizing radiation and H2O2(toxic agents). In this study, to elucidate the role of these proteins in the ionizing radiation (or H2O2)-induced apoptotic cell death, we utilized sensesed (or antisensed) cells, which overexpress (or down-regulate) RNAs associated with these proteins biosynthesis, and investigated the effects of these genes on the cytotoxicity caused by ionizing radiation and H2O2(or paraquat). We also investigated whether genisteine(or thiamine) may enhance the cytotoxic efficacy of tumor cells caused by ionizing radiation (may enhance the preventing effect radiation or paraquat-induced damage) because such compounds are able to potentiate the cell-killing or cell protecting effects. Based on the above result, we suggest that the express regulation of theses genes have potentially importance for sensitizing the efficiency of radiation therapy of cancer or for protecting the radiation-induced damage of normal cells

  20. Radiation protection and the public

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For many years, the Fachverband fuer Strahlenschutz strives to be seen and recognized by the public as a competent group of experts. In spite of some partial success, this goal has not been reached to the extent desired. The reasons for that do lie, according to the author, at the least with the Fachverband. They are rather to be found within two features inherent to radiation protection itself. One of them is the difficult and frequently conflicting role of a referee between benefit and risk of radiation. This role implies that the independence and integrity of radition protection is often grossly misjudged by the public. The other problem is the widely differing composition of radiation protection representatives with regard to origin, education and professional field of activity. This makes it for the public almost impossible to perceive a clear and unambiguous image of radiation protection. Therefore, a successful communication with the public cannot be achieved merely by improving the contact with the media and by better mastering its rules, as the Fachverband is trying. It furthermore requires a change of thinking with regard to the whole structure of communication. The author clarifies this further in the article. In addition to that, each radiation protection representative who takes public relations seriously as a task of this profession, must be ready to observe three rules: Sound stories, openness - particularly when dealing with controversial issues -, andn dealing with controversial issues -, and absolute personal and professional integrity. (orig.)

  1. Radiation Protection. Chapter 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Medical exposure is the largest human-made source of radiation exposure, accounting for more than 95% of radiation exposure. Furthermore, the use of radiation in medicine continues to increase worldwide — more machines are accessible to more people, the continual development of new technologies and new techniques adds to the range of procedures available in the practice of medicine, and the role of imaging is becoming increasingly important in day to day clinical practice. The introduction of hybrid imaging technologies, such as positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) and single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT)/CT, means that the boundaries between traditional nuclear medicine procedures and X ray technologies are becoming blurred. Worldwide, the total number of nuclear medicine examinations is estimated to be about 35 million per year

  2. Radiation Protection Research: Radiobiology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Desaintes, C

    2000-07-01

    The main objectives of research in the field of radiobiology and epidemiology performed at the Belgian Nuclear Research Centre SCK-CEN are (1) to study cancer mortality in nuclear workers in Belgium; to document the feasibility of retrospective cohort studies in Belgium; (2) to participate in the IARC study; (3) to elucidate the molecular basis of the effects of ionising radiation in the mammalian embryo during the early phases of its development; (4) to assess the genetic risk of maternal exposure to ionizing radiation; (5) to elucidate the cellular mechanisms leading to brain damage after prenatal irradiation; (6) to advise authorities and to provide the general population with adequate information concerning the health risk arising from radiation exposure. Progress and major achievements in these topical areas in 1999 are reported.

  3. Radiation Protection Research: Radiobiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main objectives of research in the field of radiobiology and epidemiology performed at the Belgian Nuclear Research Centre SCK-CEN are (1) to study cancer mortality in nuclear workers in Belgium; to document the feasibility of retrospective cohort studies in Belgium; (2) to participate in the IARC study; (3) to elucidate the molecular basis of the effects of ionising radiation in the mammalian embryo during the early phases of its development; (4) to assess the genetic risk of maternal exposure to ionizing radiation; (5) to elucidate the cellular mechanisms leading to brain damage after prenatal irradiation; (6) to advise authorities and to provide the general population with adequate information concerning the health risk arising from radiation exposure. Progress and major achievements in these topical areas in 1999 are reported

  4. Encouraging the radiation protection practice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The radiological protection of workers occupationally exposed to ionizing radiation (X-ray diagnoses, Nuclear Medicine, Radiotherapy and Dental) is essential to minimize the appearance of radiation effects. The ways to reduce the potential for exposure of workers are: Time, Distance , and Shielding. The most important purpose of radiation protection is to provide safe conditions for activities involving ionizing radiation, basic safety conditions that must be observed in professional practice. The professional must have full knowledge of the subject and deepen in the revision of norms and guidelines related to radiation protection establish by the Vigilancia Sanitaria - ANVISA, and Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear - CNEN, Brazil. The study was conducted in a technical school for the Technical Training Course in Radiology, where the students are invited to think deeply about the radiation protection of themselves, the patients and the environment. Developed since July 2012, with the participation of 30 students, with a leading class -three teachers assisting in the development of the project . With this project there was an awareness of both students, as instructors stage accompanying the daily lives of students and their own colleagues. Following the same objective in 2013 the project continues with more adept at radioprotection

  5. ICRP-Radiation protection principles and practice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A brief survey is given of the history of ICRP, its basic standards and recommendations and their rationale, from its foundation in 1928 to the latest major review of its recommendation in 1977. In this time the basic radiation standard for whole body irradiation of a radiation worker has dropped from the equivalent of 50 r per year (in 1934) through 15 rem per year (1954) to 5 rem per year in 1958. ICRP recommendations include maximum permissible doses for particular organs and a comprehensive list of derived limits governing the intake of radionuclides into the body, and dose limits for members of the public. Emphasis in current radiation protection practice is on avoiding all unnecessary exposures and keeping doses as far below dose limits as is reasonably achievable. The use of cost-benefit analysis to optimize protection and some of its inherent difficulties, is discussed

  6. Radiation survey meters used for environmental monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Nordic dosimetry group set up the GammaRate project to investigate how its expertise could be used to assure appropriate usage of survey meters in environmental monitoring. Considerable expertise in calibrating radiation instruments exists in the Nordic radiation protection authorities. The Swedish, Finnish, Danish and Norwegian authorities operate Secondary Standard Dosimetry Laboratories (SSDLs) that provide users with calibration traceable to internationally recognised primary standards. These authorities together with the Icelandic authorities have formally cooperated since 2002 in the field of radiation dosimetry. Dosimetry is the base for assesment of risk from ionising radiation and calibration of instruments is an imported part in dosimetry. The Nordic dosimetry group has been focused on cancer therapy. This work extends the cooperation to the dosimetry of radiation protection and environmental monitoring. This report contains the formal, theoretical and practical background for survey meter measurements. Nordic standards dosimetry laboratories have the capability to provide traceable calibration of instruments in various types of radiation. To verify and explore this further in radiation protection applications a set of survey instruments were sent between the five Nordic countries and each of the authority asked to provide a calibration coefficient for all instruments. The measurement results were within the stated uncertainties, except for some results from NRPA for the ionchamber based instrument. The comparison was shown to be a valuable tool to harmonize the calibration of radiation protection instruments in the Nordic countries. Dosimetry plays an important role in the emergency situations, and it is clear that better traceability and harmonised common guidelines will improve the emergency preparedness and health. (Author)

  7. Radiation survey meters used for environmental monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bjerke, H. (ed.) (Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority, NRPA (Norway)); Sigurdsson, T. (Icelandic Radiation Safety Authority, Geislavarnir Rikisins, GR (IS)); Meier Pedersen, K. (National Board of Health, Statens Institut for Straalebeskyttelse (SIS) (Denmark)); Grindborg, J.-E.; Persson, L. (Swedish Radiation Safety Authority, Straalsaekerhetsmyndigheten (SSM) (Sweden)); Siiskonen, T.; Hakanen, A.; Kosunen, A. (Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority, Saeteilyturvakeskus (STUK) (Finland))

    2012-01-15

    The Nordic dosimetry group set up the GammaRate project to investigate how its expertise could be used to assure appropriate usage of survey meters in environmental monitoring. Considerable expertise in calibrating radiation instruments exists in the Nordic radiation protection authorities. The Swedish, Finnish, Danish and Norwegian authorities operate Secondary Standard Dosimetry Laboratories (SSDLs) that provide users with calibration traceable to internationally recognised primary standards. These authorities together with the Icelandic authorities have formally cooperated since 2002 in the field of radiation dosimetry. Dosimetry is the base for assesment of risk from ionising radiation and calibration of instruments is an imported part in dosimetry. The Nordic dosimetry group has been focused on cancer therapy. This work extends the cooperation to the dosimetry of radiation protection and environmental monitoring. This report contains the formal, theoretical and practical background for survey meter measurements. Nordic standards dosimetry laboratories have the capability to provide traceable calibration of instruments in various types of radiation. To verify and explore this further in radiation protection applications a set of survey instruments were sent between the five Nordic countries and each of the authority asked to provide a calibration coefficient for all instruments. The measurement results were within the stated uncertainties, except for some results from NRPA for the ionchamber based instrument. The comparison was shown to be a valuable tool to harmonize the calibration of radiation protection instruments in the Nordic countries. Dosimetry plays an important role in the emergency situations, and it is clear that better traceability and harmonised common guidelines will improve the emergency preparedness and health. (Author)

  8. 10 CFR 39.67 - Radiation surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...2010-01-01 false Radiation surveys. 39...67 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION LICENSES AND RADIATION SAFETY REQUIREMENTS...the logging tool detector or by using a survey...shall conduct a radiation survey,...

  9. XXX. Days of Radiation Protection. Conference Proceedings of the 30-th Days of Radiation Protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The publication has been set up as a proceedings of the conference dealing with health protection during work with ionizing radiation for different activities which involve the handling of ionizing radiation sources. The main conference topics are focused on current problems in radiation protection and radioecology. In this proceedings totally 107 papers are published. The Conference consists of following sections: Effects of ionizing radiation; Regulation of radiation protection; Dosimetry and Metrology of ionizing radiation; Radiation protection in nuclear Power plants; Medical exposure and radiation protection in diagnostic radiology, nuclear medicine and radiation oncology; Natural radioactivity issues in radiation protection; Education, societal aspects and public involvement in radiation protection, trends and perspectives

  10. Priority issues in radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Current radiation protection is based on the recommendations presented in ICRP Publication 60 produced in 1991, which was a consolidation of several ideas that were discussed in the years prior to publication. Conceptually, ICRP Publication 60 is based on a stipulated linear, non-threshold relationship between the probability of severe harm and radiation dose at low doses, and on this basis ICRP Publication 60 develops a coherent system of protection based on controlled and accepted risk. The current system of protection presents new protection quantities, and in addition a quantity (effective dose) that can be readily converted into risk, representing the result of several tissue exposures to different types of radiation. ICRP Publication 60 has made clear that the present system of protection distinguishes between practices, which increase doses and risks, and interventions, which reduce doses and risks. In the first case the increases are subject to control, while in the second the decision to intervene is guided by the principle of doing more good than harm. The control of the introduction and the performance of a practice are subject to the principles of justification, optimization of protection and individual dose limits for single sources of radiation or for a stipulated combination of sources. While these principles are well known, there is still substantial confusion, which can be exemplified by statements such as 'this protection system forces us to spend enis protection system forces us to spend enormous amounts of money to reduce trivial risks'. This is nonsense, owing to the optimization principle. Also, there is confusion in trying to set limits in intervention situations, where there is no dose increase to control

  11. Radiation protection/shield design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiation protection/shielding design of a nuclear facility requires a coordinated effort of many engineering disciplines to meet the requirements imposed by regulations. In the following discussion, the system approach to Clinch River Breeder Reactor Plant (CRBRP) radiation protection will be described, and the program developed to implement this approach will be defined. In addition, the principal shielding design problems of LMFBR nuclear reactor systems will be discussed in realtion to LWR nuclear reactor system shielding designs. The methodology used to analyze these problems in the U.S. LMFBR program, the resultant design solutions, and the experimental verification of these designs and/or methods will be discussed. (orig.)

  12. Traceability of radiation protection instruments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiation protection instruments are used in daily measurement of dose and activities in workplaces and environments for safety management. The requirements for calibration certificates with traceability are increasing for these instruments to ensure the consistency and reliabilities of the measurement results. The present traceability scheme of radiation protection instruments for dose and activity measurements is described with related IEC/ISO requirements. Some examples of desirable future calibration systems with recent new technologies are also discussed to establish the traceability with reasonable costs and reliabilities. (authors)

  13. Teaching units in radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    These short but comprehensive texts deal with the main aspects of radiation protection; they will serve as manuscripts or notes for instructors in radiation protection. Each text is supplemented by slides to be shown in the training session. Each text requires about 20 minutes to read. Even with a further 10 minutes for questions and discussions, teaching units should not take longer than half an hour. First of all, basic knowledge is presented. Further teaching units are now being prepared on specific subjects. (orig./HP)

  14. 1993 Radiation Protection Workshop: Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-12-31

    The 1993 DOE Radiation Protection Workshop was conducted from April 13 through 15, 1993 in Las Vegas, Nevada. Over 400 Department of Energy Headquarters and Field personnel and contractors from the DOE radiological protection community attended the Workshop. Forty-nine papers were presented in eleven separate sessions: Radiological Control Manual Implementation, New Approaches to Instrumentation and Calibration, Radiological Training Programs and Initiatives, External Dosimetry, Internal Dosimetry, Radiation Exposure Reporting and Recordkeeping, Air Sampling and Monitoring Issues, Decontamination and Decommissioning of Sites, Contamination Monitoring and Control, ALARA/Radiological Engineering, and Current and Future Health Physics Research. Individual papers are indexed separately on the database.

  15. Radiation protection Ordinance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Ordinance lays down the licensing system for activities in Switzerland involving possible exposure to radiation, with the exception of nuclear installations, fuels and radioactive waste which, under the 1959 Atomic Energy Act, are subject to licensing. The Ordinance applies to the production, handling, use, storage, transport, disposal, import and export of radioactive substances and devices and articles containing them; and generally to any activity involving hazards caused by ionizing radiation. The Federal Public Health Office is the competent authority for granting licences. Provision is also made for the administrative conditions to be complied with for obtaining such licences as well as for technical measures required when engaged in work covered by the Ordinance. This consolidated version of the Ordinance contains all the successive amendments up to 26 September 1988. (NEA)

  16. Nordic society for radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The key themes of teh 12th ordinary general meeting of the Nordic Society for Radiation Protection were: RADIATION - ENVIRONMENT - INFORMATION. A number of outstanding international experts accepted to contribute on the meetings first day with invited presentations, which focussed on these themes. In all 38 oral presentations and 28 posters are included in the present Proceedings, which furthermore contains a resume of discussions from the special session on 'Controllable Dose'. (EHS)

  17. On ethical issues in radiation protection. Radiation protection recommendations and standards seen from an ethical perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corbett, R.H. [Hairmyres Hospital, Glasgow (United Kingdom). 2. Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology; Persson, L.

    2004-07-01

    International radiation protection recommendations and standards of the ICRP, the IAEA, the European Union and the ILO are surveyed from an ethical perspective. The authors come to the conclusion that the insights of ethical theories provide a number of ways in which current recommendations and standards for radiation protection could improve. (orig.) [German] Internationale Strahlenschutzstandards und Empfehlungen von ICRP, IAEA, EU und ILO werden unter Gesichtspunkten der Ethik ueberprueft. Die Autoren kommen zu dem Schluss, dass die Kenntnis von Ethik-Theorien eine Reihe von Moeglichkeiten eroeffnet, wie die gegenwaertigen Standards und Empfehlungen fuer den Strahlenschutz verbessert werden koennten. (orig.)

  18. Radiation Protection Services Division: progress report for 1992-1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report describes the work of the Radiation Protection Services Division during 1993, for implementation of radiation safety in all institutions in India using radiation sources in medical, industrial and research applications. It gives information about personnel monitoring using photographic film and TLD badges, neutron monitoring badges, advisory and licensing services, regulation, transport of radioactive materials and periodic protection survey. About 33 publications by the staff of the Division are also listed. (author). 4 tabs

  19. Some experiences of radiation protection activities in nuclear emergency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noda, Kimio; Kanamori, Masashi; Shinohara, Kunihiko

    2000-10-01

    We, the radiation control section of JNC have had two important experiences on the JCO critical accident and the JNC fire-explosion accident. Especially, at the critical accident in JCO, it was essential to take an action on the radiation protection activities for the evacuated neighboring inhabitants to the safety area. During the accident, we carried out the radiation protection activities, at the beginning of the accident, environmental monitoring of the surrounding area. Especially for the JCO accident, we took an action to terminate criticality, radiation shielding and monitoring, environmental monitoring, radiation survey of the residents, radiation monitoring of exhaust air. (author)

  20. Regulations for radiation protection in industrial radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    These Regulations specify that responsibility for applying radiation protection regulations in industrial radiography rests with the owner of the establishment who will designate a radiation protection officer to this effect. They provide for the organisation of radiation protection, including the measures to be observed, exposure limits, etc. The competent authority for these questions is the State Institute of Radiation Hygiene

  1. Radiation protection in veterinary radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Code of Practice is designed to give guidance to veterinary surgeons in ensuring that workers and members of the public are adequately protected from the hazards of ionising radiation arising from the use of x-ray equipment in veterinary practice. (author)

  2. Radiation protection in veterinary medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diagnostic radiology is an essential part of present-day veterinary practice. The need for radiation protection exists because occupational exposure to ionizing radiation can result in deleterious effects that may manifest themselves not only in exposed individuals but in their descendants as well. These are respectively called somatic and genetic effects. Somatic effects are characterized by observable changes occurring in the body organs of the exposed individual. These changes may appear from within a few hours to many years later, depending on the amount and duration of exposure of the individual. In veterinary medicine, the possibility that anyone may be exposed to enough radiation to create somatic effect is extremely remote. Genetic effects are more a cause for concern at the lower doses used in veterinary radiology. Although the radiation doses may be small and appear to cause no observable damage, the probability of chromosomal damage in the germ cells, with the consequence of mutations, does exist. These mutations may give rise to genetic defects and therefore make these doses significant when applied to a large number of individuals. There are two main aspects of the problem to be considered. First, personnel working with X-ray equipment must be protected from excessive exposure to radiation during their work. Secondly, personnel in the vicinity of veterinary X-ray facilities and the general public require adequate protection

  3. Radioprotectors and Immunomodulators for Protection against Radiation

    International Science & Technology Center (ISTC)

    Development of New Generation of Radioprotectors, Immunomodulators, and Radiation Sensitizers for Human Protection Against Ionizing Radiation and Efficiency Improvement of Radiotherapy of Malignant Cells

  4. Radiation protection organization and radiation protection education in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Education in Radiation Protection varies considerably in the different European Countries. As there is free movement of staff and services in between these European Countries one of the main objectives of the European Union is to compare the different implementations and to identify similarities. Therefore, in this paper the German and different European Systems are explained shortly and the relevant topics of the Revision of the European Basic Safety Standard are presented. (orig.)

  5. 76 FR 17933 - Infrastructure Protection Data Call Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-31

    ...No. DHS-2011-0010] Infrastructure Protection Data Call Survey AGENCY: National Protection...Directorate, Office of Infrastructure Protection. Title: Infrastructure Protection Data Call. OMB Number: 1670-NEW....

  6. Practical methods for radiation survey in nuclear installations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study is placed to those who are responsible to perform radiation survey in the nuclear installations, especially the beginners. Therefore, it gives a comprehensive view to all-important aspects related to their work starting from the structure of atoms to the practical steps for radiation survey works. So, it clarify how to perform personal monitoring, methods for monitoring surface contamination, methods for measuring radioactivity of gases and radioactive aerosols in air, monitoring radiation doses, measuring radiation influences in workplaces and finally measuring internal exposure of radiation workers in nuclear installations. Finally, The study shows some cases of breaches of radiation protection rules in some American nuclear installations and describes the final results of these breaches. The aim of this is to assure that any breach or ignore to radiation protection principles may produce bad results, and there is no leniency in implementing environmental radiation protection principles. (author)

  7. Epistemological basis of radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Regarding natural phenomena understood or not, the absolute truth must be somewhere. In fact, there is no evidence that neither nature nor the phenomena that it includes were 'created' to be understood. Except for the fact that Man appeared through the same process, with his curiosity, capacity to perceive and manipulate, his greed for power and fears. In general, the attitude towards questions for which the absolute truth has not been reached varies from ignorance/indifference to the search of knowledge through scientific methodology, and may even be based on beliefs. The fact that the interaction between ionizing radiations and living beings results in biological effect is true. That the biological effect of high doses of radiation, absorbed outside the context of medicine, is hazardous for the irradiated individuals also seems to be true. That any dose is dangerous, or not, is debatable: the available information and knowledge are not consistent enough to end the question; and so, the absolute truth remains hidden. Radiological Protection is founded on the principle that any increase of dose results in an increase in the risk of cancer, and that this risk must be kept as low as possible. It is therefore based on this 'belief' that the international organisms of radiological protection emit recommendations aiming the protection of people and the environment. What is interesting about this question is that because of restrictions imposed by regulating agencies, populations, members of the public and the environment are properly protected against harmful effects of ionizing radiations, which makes the truth no longer interesting. Radiological Protection is a requirement associated to all activities involving nuclear energy. It satisfies several interests and opposes others. The greater the opposed interests and the perception that the absolute truth can represent dialectic advantage to one of the parts, the greater the perception of the importance of its revelation. In the present study, two initiatives of search for the truth were analyzed: the initiative of the Brazilian National Congress, through the creation of a working group in charge of evaluating the radiological protection in the country; and WONUC's initiative to create a publication focused exclusively on the effect of low doses of ionizing radiation. In relation to the understanding of the biological effects of the radiations, the document underlines the difficulty of all those involved in accepting the evidence that the truth related to this question was not reached. In respect to the initiative of the WONUC, the International Journal of Low Radiation is now in its 4th volume; publishing works that oppose the official belief that any dose is harmful. (author)

  8. Radiation Protection Legislation in the Nordic Countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recent alterations in the radiation protection laws of the Nordic countries are presented. The report amends the previous SS-report 87-37 with the title Radiation Protection and Atomic Energy Legislation in the Nordic Countries. (au)

  9. Radiation protection and reactor safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Chernobyl reactor accident caused bewilderment, fear and anxiety among the population. How safe are reactors? Which precautions to protect lives and health have been taken? These questions are posed particularly in the areas of radiation protection, reactor safety, supply and waste management of nuclear power plants and other nuclear installations. For all these areas the present report contains an analysis of facts; it informs about political measures during the 11th legislative period of the German Bundestag, and shows prospects of future developments. (orig.)

  10. Radiation Protection in Paediatric Radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Over the past decade and a half, special issues have arisen regarding the protection of children undergoing radiological examinations. These issues have come to the consciousness of a gradually widening group of concerned professionals and the public, largely because of the natural instinct to protect children from unnecessary harm. Some tissues in children are more sensitive to radiation and children have a long life expectancy, during which significant pathology can emerge. The instinct to protect children has received further impetus from the level of professional and public concern articulated in the wake of media responses to certain publications in the professional literature. Many institutions have highlighted the need to pay particular attention to the special problems of protecting paediatric patients. The International Commission on Radiological Protection has noted it and the IAEA's General Safety Requirements publication, Radiation Protection and Safety of Radiation Sources: International Basic Safety Standards (BSS), requires it. This need has been endorsed implicitly in the advisory material on paediatric computed tomography scanning issued by bodies such as the US Food and Drug Administration and the National Cancer Institute in the United States of America, as well as by many initiatives taken by other national and regional radiological societies and professional bodies. A major part of patient exposure, in general, and paediatric exposure, in particuleral, and paediatric exposure, in particular, now arises from practices that barely existed two decades ago. For practitioners and regulators, it is evident that this innovation has been driven both by the imaging industry and by an ever increasing array of new applications generated and validated in the clinical environment. Regulation, industrial standardization, safety procedures and advice on best practice lag (inevitably) behind industrial and clinical innovations. This Safety Report is designed to consolidate and provide timely advice on dealing with the special problems involved. The approach adopted is developed within the IAEA framework of statutory responsibility to establish standards for the protection of people against exposure to ionizing radiation and to provide for the application of these standards. The BSS issued by the IAEA require the radiation protection of patients undergoing medical exposures through justification of the procedures involved and optimization of protection and safety. This challenge is taken up here by adding paediatric radiology to the areas dealt with in recent IAEA publications. These are specifically Safety Reports Series Nos 39 and 40 on diagnostic radiology and nuclear medicine, respectively, and Safety Reports Series Nos 58-61 and 63 on newer medical imaging techniques and other initiatives in justification of procedures and optimization of protection and safety. The advice of the IAEA is intended in particular for professionals, practitioners, and teachers and trainers in the area, as well as physicians referring children for examinations. Resource materials and training materials are available cost free on the IAEA's Radiation Protection of Patients web site (http://rpop.iaea.org).

  11. Radiation protection dosimetry and calibrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    At the SCK-CEN different specialised services are delivered for a whole range of external and internal customers in the radiation protection area. For the expertise group of radiation protection dosimetry and calibrations, these services are organized in four different laboratories: dosimetry, anthropogammametry, nuclear calibrations and non-nuclear calibrations. The services are given by a dedicated technical staff who has experience in the handling of routine and specialised cases. The scientific research that is performed by the expertise group makes sure that state-of-the-art techniques are being used, and that constant improvements and developments are implemented. Quality Assurance is an important aspect for the different services, and accreditation according national and international standards is achieved for all laboratories

  12. The new Radiation Protection Ordinance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to make a contribution towards the general and consequent application of the regulations, the author has tried not only to give a compilation of the relevant legal regulations, but also to present concrete and practice-oriented advice with regard to the main regulations. These hints will make it easier for the persons concerned to apply the regulations properly, to pay attention to prohibitions, and to utilize possible facilitations and exemptions in a permissible way. In this context, not only the complete regulations of the Radiation Protection Ordinance, but also parts of the Atomic Energy Act and the Financial Security Ordinance find mention, legal regulations which are closely connected with the Radiation Protection Ordinance. (orig./HP)

  13. Basic standards for radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The basic standards for radiation protection have been based, for many years, on the recommendations of the International Commission of Radiological Protection. The three basic standards recommended by the Commission may be summarized as ''justification, optimization of protection and adherence to dose limitations. The applications of these basic principles to different aspects of protection are briefly summarized and the particular ways in which they have been applied to waste described in more detail. The application of dose limits, both in the control of occupational exposure and in regulating routine discharges of radioactive effluents is straight forward in principle although the measurement and calculational requirements may be substantial. Secondary standards such as derived limits may be extremely useful and the principles underlying their derivation will be described. Optimization of protection is inherently a more difficult concept to apply in protection and the various techniques used will be outlined by with particular emphasis on the use of cost benefit analysis are recommended by the ICRP. A review will be given of the problems involved in extending these basic concepts of the ICRP to probabilistic analyses such as those required for assessing the consequences of accidents or disruptive events in long term repositories. The particular difficulties posed by the very long timescales involved in the assessment of waste management practices will be discussed in some detail. (orig./RW)

  14. Radiation protection enrollments and degrees, 1979 and 1980

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Public concern over the effects of low-level radiation and other aspects of the use of nuclear energy has grown in recent years, and the demand for radiation protection has continued to increase. Radiation Protection Enrollments and Degrees presents the results of the latest survey of institutions offering degree programs in this field. Students obtaining such degrees are vital to the development of industry, medicine, research, power production, construction, and agriculture. These surveys assist state and federal governments in their search for such personnel

  15. Ethical aspects of radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The conflicting interests of technology and mostly prevent technicians and scientists from orientating themselves by clearly formulated rules of ethical acting. The many attempts which have been made therefore at introducing a binding 'Hippocratic oath' failed without exception. Based on many years of experience the author tries to derive some simple ethical principles from the maxims of action which apply to radiation protection, thus contributing a new aspect to the ethics discussion. (orig.)

  16. Workstations studies and radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This day on the workstations studies for the workers follow-up, was organised by the research and health section. Devoted to the company doctors, for the competent persons in radiation protection, for the engineers of safety, it presented examples of methodologies and applications in the medical, industrial domain and the research, so contributing to a better understanding and an application of regulatory measures. The analysis of the workstation has to allow a reduction of the exposures and the risks and lead to the optimization of the medical follow-up. The agenda of this day included the different subjects as follow: evolution of the regulation in matter of demarcation of the regulated zones where the measures of workers protection are strengthened; presentation of the I.R.S.N. guide of help to the realization of a workstation study; implementation of a workstation study: case of radiology; the workstation studies in the research area; Is it necessary to impose the operational dosimetry in the services of radiodiagnostic? The experience feedback of a competent person in radiation protection (P.C.R.) in a hospital environment; radiation protection: elaboration of a good practices guide in medical field; the activities file in nuclear power plant: an evaluation tool of risks for the prevention. Methodological presentation and examples; insulated workstation study; the experience feedback of a provider; Contribution of the ergonomics to the determiners characterization in the ionizing radiation exposure situations;The workstations studies for the internal contamination in the fuel cycle facilities and the consideration of the results in the medical follow-up; R.E.L.I.R. necessity of workstation studies; the consideration of the human factor. (N.C.)

  17. Chemical radioprotectors in radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The different demands for the ways of the administration of chemical radioprotectors as a cystamine or WR-2721 (amifostine, gammaphos, Ethyol) e.g. S-containing compounds, their distribution and further pharmacological properties of protective agents in mentioned indications are discussed in presented lecture. A special attention is concerned on the practical use of chemical radioprotectors in the emergency and clean-up workers after a radiation accident or nuclear catastrophes. (author)

  18. Excellence through radiation protection practices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The nuclear generation program at Ontario Hydro was initiated in the early 1960s. Over the last two decades the program has expanded to a planned capacity of ? 14,000 MW(electric) by 1992. Each of the nuclear stations consists of four identical reactor units and they range in size from 520 to 880 MW(electric). The overall objectives of Ontario Hydro's radiation protection program are stated as follows: (1) to prevent detrimental nonstochastic health effects to employees and the public; (2) to limit detrimental stochastic health effects occurring in employees or the public to levels as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA), social and economic factors being taken into account; and (3) to provide a level of health and safety that is as good as, or better than, comparable safe industries. Although many elements of the radiation protection program are similar to those adopted by other electrical utilities around the world, there are some unique features that have played an important part in the improvements achieved. These include: management commitment, design responsibility, radiation protection training, operations control, and work planning. The issues that need to be addressed in striving for overall excellence in radiological safety over the next decade are summarized

  19. Operational radiation protection: A guide to optimization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this publication is to provide practical guidance on the application of the dose limitation system contained in the Basic Safety Standards for Radiation Protection to operational situations both in large nuclear installations and in much smaller facilities. It is anticipated that this Guide will be useful to both the management and radiation protection staff of operations in which there is a potential for occupational radiation exposures and to the competent authorities with responsibilities for providing a programme of regulatory control. Contents: Dose limitation system; Optimization and its practical application to operational radiation protection; Major elements of an effective operational radiation protection programme; Review of selected parts of the basic safety standards with special reference to operational radiation protection; Optimization of radiation protection; Techniques for the systematic appraisal of operational radiation protection programmes. Refs and figs

  20. General rules for radiation protection within the CEA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report first describes the organisation, scope of application and principles of radiation protection within the CEA. The second part proposes an overview of rules applicable to workers exposed to ionizing radiation. These rules concern the personnel classification, exposure limits, individual control, and training of workers in radiation protection. The third part addresses the technical rules for premise laying-out: protection zoning, indicators aimed at controlling the compliance of premise classification, radiological survey and control of premise classification. The fourth part addresses the modalities of access, stay and operation in regulated zone. The next part indicates and comments arrangements specific to ionizing radiation sources and to ionizing radiation emitting equipment (authorization and possession modalities, training, certification, controls, operation zoning, etc.), specific orders (radiological control of wastes, hardware, tools and equipment management), rules related to abnormal occupational situations (alarms, contamination event, radiological events), and the different studies and analysis of radiation protection implemented during the different phases of an installation lifetime

  1. New Radiation Protection training room

    CERN Multimedia

    HSE Unit

    2013-01-01

    From now on, the theory and practical components of the Radiation Protection training, developed by the RP Group and offered by the HSE Unit’s Safety Training team to people working in a Controlled Radiation Area, will take place in a dedicated teaching room, designed specifically for this kind of training.   The new room is in the Safety Training Centre on the Prévessin site and has been open since 16 October. It has an adjoining workshop that, like the room itself, can accommodate up to 12 people. It is also equipped with an interactive board as well as instruments and detectors to test for ionising radiation. This room is located near the recently inaugurated LHC tunnel mock-up where practical training exercises can be carried out in conditions almost identical to those in the real tunnel. To consult the safety training catalogue and/or sign up for Radiation Protection training, please go to: https://cta.cern.ch For further information, please contact the Safety Trainin...

  2. Magnitudes and units used in radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this article, the author summarizes the main data about the ionizing radiations and the radiation protection: magnitudes, units, radiation types, exposure conditions and protection means, natural irradiation and irradiation connected with human activities, and radiation dose limits that are recommended

  3. Radiation protection in medical applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The justification of the practices is the fundamental principle on which rests the peaceful use of ionizing radiations. They actually contain as aspirations to improve the quality of people's lives, contributing to sustainable development through environmental protection, so that the sources security and the individuals protection will be conditions which are not and should can not be operated. For medical applications is a highly illustrative example of this, since both for the diagnosis and therapy, the goal is to achieve what is sought for the white tissue, secured the least possible damage to the neighboring tissues so that in turn reduce the negative effects for the patient. As a basis for achieving the above, it is essential to have qualified personnel in all areas incidents, for example users, workers, officials and staff members. There are a variety of specialists in the field of medical applications as, nuclear chemistry, nuclear engineering, radiation protection, medical physics, radiation physics and others. Among the human resource in the country must make up the majority are medical radiologists, highlighting gaps in the number of radiotherapy and nuclear medicine but specially in the medical physics, who is in some way from a special viewpoint of the formal school, new to the country. This is true for the number of facilities which are in the country. The radiation protection responsibilities in medical applications focus primarily on two figures: the raons focus primarily on two figures: the radiology safety manager, who is primarily dedicated to the protection of occupationally exposed personnel and the public, and the medical physicist whose functions are geared towards the radiological protection of the patient. The principal legislation in the medical applications area has been enacted and is monitored by the Health Secretary and National Commission on Nuclear Safety and Safeguards, entities that have reached agreements to avoid overlap and over-regulation. Medical applications in the country wish to fulfill the commitment to meet the current needs in medicine, with a favorable balance of benefits and achieving excellence in harnessing of the atom energy. (Author)

  4. Radiation protection in hospitals of Equatorial Guinea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With a population of four hundred thousand (400.000) inhabitants and distributed in a territory of 28 thousand (28.000) km2, the use of ionizing radiations for medical practice in Equatorial Guinea is few and decreasing. It is used for diagnostic practices in the main hospitals of the country, where the work burden is not over 20 patients per day. The political, social and economical embryonic development of the country until recently had a negative influence on indicators and health organisations, so that even now the country does not have any radiological protection law, this shortness, in addition with the old architectural structure that x ray tools is lodging, as well as dosimetrical lack of employed staff, put this staff under risk of electromagnetic energy. This is to show the present survey of medical activities with ionizing radiation and to request technical support for implementing suitably the basic standards of radiation protection which will help us as basis for the elaboration outline law, on radiological protection in accordance with the new guidelines of the International Atomic Energy Agency. (author)

  5. An introduction to radiation protection principles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of the document is to outline the fundamentals of radiation protection, to describe methods that enable employees to work safely with radiation and to aquaint employees with CRNL's radiation and industrial safety organization

  6. Radiation protection problems with dental radiological equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With the advent of the EC Patient Directive, the importance of surveying and optimising patient exposure for diagnostic imaging procedures is paramount. In the field of dentistry there has been a heightened interest in areas of equipment performance and patient exposure. This interest, coupled with a number of dental radiation safety incidents investigated by our department, and the issuing of a Code of Practice for Radiological Protection in Dentistry by the Department of Health, led to the establishment in our department, of an evaluation protocol for the performance and operation of dental X ray equipment. The protocol was used to perform a survey on over 100 dental X ray units in use in the Public Sector in Ireland. This presentation will report on the radiation incidents mentioned above. It will detail the protocol and furnish the results and conclusions of the survey. The survey has made it possible to establish clearly the necessary steps required to ensure compliance with requirements. In addition, the corrective steps taken by the dental authorities will be presented and the overall impact of the regulations and the programme consequent on them will be reviewed. (Author)

  7. The status of the radiation protection expert in the EU Member States and applicant countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper describes a survey of the present situation of radiation protection experts (RPEs) in the Member States of the European Union and the Applicant Countries. In addition to that, the plans to establish a European Radiation Protection Education and Training Platform to allow for a better harmonization of education, training and recognition requirements in the different areas of radiation protection are addressed. (author)

  8. Assessment of radiation protection practices among radiographers in Lagos, Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eze, Cletus Uche; Abonyi, Livinus Chibuzo; Njoku, Jerome; Irurhe, Nicholas Kayode; Olowu, Oluwabola

    2013-01-01

    Background: Use of ionising radiation in diagnostic radiography could lead to hazards such as somatic and genetic damages. Compliance to safe work and radiation protection practices could mitigate such risks. The aim of the study was to assess the knowledge and radiation protection practices among radiographers in Lagos, Nigeria. Materials and Methods: The study was a prospective cross sectional survey. Convenience sampling technique was used to select four x-ray diagnostic centres in four tertiary hospitals in Lagos metropolis. Data were analysed with Epi- info software, version 3.5.1. Results: Average score on assessment of knowledge was 73%. Most modern radiation protection instruments were lacking in all the centres studied. Application of shielding devices such as gonad shield for protection was neglected mostly in government hospitals. Most x-ray machines were quite old and evidence of quality assurance tests performed on such machines were lacking. Conclusion: Radiographers within Lagos metropolis showed an excellent knowledge of radiation protection within the study period. Adherence to radiation protection practices among radiographers in Lagos metropolis during the period studied was, however, poor. Radiographers in Lagos, Nigeria should embrace current trends in radiation protection and make more concerted efforts to apply their knowledge in protecting themselves and patients from harmful effects of ionising radiation. PMID:24665152

  9. Amendments to ordinances in Radiation Protection Law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The last major reform of the German Radiation Protection Ordinance took place on July 26, 2001. The 'First Ordinance Amending Ordinances in Radiation Protection Law' now proposed is to cover primarily the necessary changes and supplements resulting from experience in the execution of the ordinances. They mainly relate to these issues: (1) the scope of application of the Radiation Protection Ordinance and of the x-ray Ordinance in medical research (2) the scope of application of the Radiation Protection Ordinance and the -ray Ordinance in unjustified types of activities (3) electronic communication ('e-government') (4) changes in the provisions about permits and announcements in the Radiation Protection Ordinance (5) new clearance levels in the Radiation Protection Ordinance (6) cross-border transports of 'NORM' materials (7) other changes in the scope of application of the Radiation Protection Ordinance (8) other changes in the x-ray area. (orig.)

  10. SSDL for radiation protection of Thailand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In Thailand, the Atomic Energy for Peace Act was enacted by the King in 1961, and Office of Atomic Energy for Peace was established to serve as the secretariat of the Atomic Energy for Peace Commission of Thailand. The import and export of radioactive materials, and the owners and users of radioactive materials must be licensed by the OAEP. The program for establishing the SSDL to calibrate radiation protection instruments started in 1981, and was completed in 1990. The calibration of survey meters and direct reading personnel dosimeters has been provided since 1986. The average number of the devices calibrated by the SSDL per month is shown. The categories of radiation utilization in Thailand are nucleonic gauging and control, nondestructive testing, oil and coal logging, radiation technology and research. The capability of the SSDL and the calibrated radiation measuring instruments for respective categories of utilization are reported. The number of the instruments used for radiography was 217, followed by 171 for nucleonic gauging and control. With the increasing use of radioactive materials, the work of radiation safety must be improved. Together with the license authority, the SSDL must expand its activity to assure the safe handling of radiation sources. (K.I.)

  11. Australasian Radiation Protection Society [electronic resource].

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Features the Australasian Radiation Protection Society, a professional society of over 250 members engaged in one or more aspects of radiation protection for a wide variety of applications, in medicine, pure and applied science, industry and mining. Website contains information about the society, its members, conferences, news, contact information. Links to a Radiation Safety Products and Services Database, also to abstracts of articles in the journal "Radiation Protection in Australasia".

  12. New instruments for radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Though a century old, the radiation protection is actual by its purpose: a dose as low as reasonable achievable is to be received either by involved professionals or population. This threshold is dependent on the technical progress. Some major developments like surface mounted device technology, consumer almost ideal operational amplifiers, microcontrollers and the news signal digital processing techniques, offer the opportunity to design improved instruments for radioprotection. To put in a light portable instrument both the whole measuring system and the 'intelligence' - a microcontroller and the associated software - are the main ideas applied by the authors. The result is presented: a family of eight members, at least, based on two parents. (authors)

  13. The radiation protection officer in medicine and engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Subjects: Function and tasks of the radiation protection officers; Behaviour in radiation protection areas; Radiation protection in practice; Staff training and motivation; Measuring equipment; Radiation protection plans - structural, apparative and staff-related; Explanations of radiation protection legislation. This practical guide makes the many requirements on radiation protection easier and more transparent. (orig.)

  14. Radiation protection of non-human species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effects of radiation on non-human species, both animals and plants, have long been investigated. In the disposal of radioactive wastes, the protection of non-human species has been investigated. Yet no radiation protection standard for exposure of animals and plants per se has been agreed. The International Commission on Radiological Protection has long taken the view that, if human beings are properly protected from radiation, other species will thereby be protected to the extent necessary for their preservation. However, the International Atomic Energy Agency has found it necessary to investigate the protection of non-human species where radioactivity is released to an environment unpopulated by human beings. It is proposed that the basis of such protection, and the knowledge of radiation effects on non-human species on which it is based, suggest a practical radiation protection standard for non-human species. (1 tab.)

  15. Evolution of the radiation protection system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The evolution of the system of radiological protection: justification for new ICRP recommendations, thoughts of the SFRP work group about the evolution of the system of radiation protection proposed by the ICRP, protection of environment against ionizing radiations seen by the ICRP are the three parts of this chapter. (N.C.)

  16. XXVII. Days of Radiation Protection. Conference Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The publication has been set up as a proceedings of the conference dealing with health protection during work with ionizing radiation for different activities which involve the handling of ionizing radiation sources. The main conference topics are focused on current problems in radiation protection and radioecology. In this proceedings totally 83 papers are published

  17. XXX. Days of Radiation Protection. Presentations of the 30-th Days of Radiation Protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The publication was presented only on the Internet as proceedings of presentations presented on the conference dealing with health protection during work with ionizing radiation for different activities which involve the handling of ionizing radiation sources. The main conference topics are focused on current problems in radiation protection and radioecology. In this proceedings totally 97 presentations are published. The Conference consists of the following sections: Effects of ionizing radiation; Regulation of radiation protection; Dosimetry and Metrology of ionizing radiation; Radiation protection in nuclear Power plants; Medical exposure and radiation protection in diagnostic radiology, nuclear medicine and radiation oncology; Natural radioactivity issues in radiation protection; Education, societal aspects and public involvement in radiation protection, trends and perspectives

  18. Radiation protection programme progress report 1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The progress report of the radiation protection programme outlines the research work carried out in 1988 under contracts between the Commission of the European Communities and research groups in the Member States. Results of more than 350 projects are reported. They are grouped into six sectors: Radiation dosimetry and its interpretation; Behaviour and control of radionuclides in the environment; Nonstochastic effects of ionizing radiation; Radiation carcinogenesis; Genetic effects of ionizing radiation; Evaluation of radiation risks and optimization of protection. Within the framework programme, the aim of this scientific research is to improve the conditions of life with respect to work and protection of man and his environment and to assure a safe production of energy, i.e.: (i) to improve methods necessary to protect workers and the population by updating the scientific basis for appropriate standards; (ii) to prevent and counteract harmful effects of radiation; (iii) to assess radiation risks and provide methods to cope with the consequences of radiation accidents

  19. Radiation protection issues for EPR reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As part of the EPR (European Pressurized Reactor) project being deployed at Flamanville, EDF has pro actively made the decision to focus on radiation protection Radiation Protection aspects right from the start of the design phase, as it has done with nuclear safety. The approach adopted for managing Radiation Protection-significant activities has been to include all involved stakeholders - designers, licensee and contractor companies - in the three successive phases, starting with a survey among workers and designers, followed by a proposal review, and finally ending with the decision-making phase entrusted to an ALARA committee. The Radiation Protection target set by EDF for this new reactor is to engage in an effort of continuous improvement and optimisation, through benchmarking with the best performing plants of the fleet. The collective dose target is currently set at 0.35 Man Sv/year per unit. In addition to other aspects, efforts will focus on shortening the duration of the highest-dose jobs, with a new challenge being set for work performed in the reactor building during normal operations, the aim being to improve plant availability. The plan is for work to be performed 7 days prior to shutting down the reactor and 3 days afterwards, in order to make logistical arrangements for forthcoming jobs. Without this reduction, the estimated drop is currently 4.5% of annual dose. For this purpose, two areas have been set up in the E.P.R.'s reactor building: one no-go the E.P.R.'s reactor building: one no-go area for containing leaks from the primary circuit, and one accessible area for normal operations, separated from the no-go area by purpose-built ventilation equipment and facilities. To offer protection against radioactive flux (neutrons and high energy), Radiation Protection studies have resulted in the installation of a concrete floor and of nuclear shielding at the outlets of primary circuit pipes. Steam generator bunkers and pumps have also been reinforced. All these measures will ensure that the accessible area can be posted as a green area (dose rate < 25 ?Sv/h), with a neutron dose rate of less than 2.5 ?Sv/h. In order to optimise radiation exposure on the EPR, efforts have focused on two parameters factored into dose calculation: dose rate and work volume exposed to radiation. The main R.P. design upgrades are improvements upon the most recent N4 plant series. In order to ensure radiological cleanliness, contamination must be contained as close to the source as possible on working units. This type of zoning is essentially aimed at enabling the plant to generate conventional waste from the radiologically controlled area in order to reduce the quantity of nuclear waste produced, to reduce nuclear waste volumes during the dismantling phase and to reduce the number of areas with a contamination risk, thereby preventing the transfer of contamination to areas outside the plant. In total, this optimisation effort has resulted in a saving of 21% when comparing the reference dose with the optimised EPR dose. A strategic priority for the EDF Group, radiation protection is gradually becoming less and less confined to the happy few, and is becoming a cross-functional area where multi-disciplinary team work is of paramount importance from the very start of the design phase. (authors)

  20. A Model for Protective Behavior against the Harmful Effects of Radiation based on Medical Institution Classifications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study surveyed a total of 1,322 radiation technologist in health care institutions throughout Korea. This is a comparative study conducted on the levels of protective behavior against the harmful effects of radiation in heath care institutions which indicated that university hospitals and general hospitals showed higher level of protective behavior than for medical practitioners. This study found university hospitals have the following 7 characteristics to manage protective behavior against the harmful effects of radiation, protective environment, self-efficacy by distinction of task , self-efficacy, expectation of the protective behavior, the number of patients, level of the education related to the protection of the harmful effects of radiation and protective attitude. While general hospitals have the following 3 characteristics protective environment, expectation of the protective behavior and protective attitude. Hospitals have the following 4 characteristics protective environment, expectation of the protective behavior, protective attitude and self-efficacy and medical clinics have characteristics protective environment

  1. Radiation protection in nuclear energy. V.1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The conference was convened to provide a forum for the exchange of international views on the principles of radiation protection for regulators and practitioners, to highlight issues of current importance, to examine the problems encountered in applying the principles of radiation protection, and, where possible, to identify generic solutions. A special session entitled ''The dose-response relationship: implications for nuclear energy'', and a panel on ''Radiation protection education and training'' were included in the conference programme. Refs, figs and tabs

  2. Radiation protection in a university TRIGA reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiation protection in a university institute operating a research reactor and other installations has different constraints as a larger facility. This is because the legal requirements apply in full, but the potential of exposure is low, and accesses has to be made available for students, but also for temporary workers. Some of the problems in practical radiation protection are addressed and solutions are discussed. In addition, experience with national radiation protection legislation recently to be issued is addressed and discussed. (author)

  3. Manual on radiation protection in hospitals and general practice. Basic protection requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The manual as a whole deals with the radiation protection of patients, occupationally exposed persons, and the public. Volume 1, on basic protection requirements, is a general review common to all medical applications of ionizing radiation and radionuclides. Radiation protection is required for patients and staff, and with regard to medical research and chemical trials of new methods; radiation equipment and operating procedures are discussed in connection with diagnostic x-ray installations, x-ray beam therapy, gamma-ray installations for teletherapy, brachytherapy, unsealed sources for therapeutic use, and the diagnostic use of unsealed sources in nuclear medicine. In planning of radiation facilities, attention is paid to levels at which medical care is given, the centralization and decentralization of radiation facilities, diagnostic x-ray facilities and therapy facilities, and nuclear medicine and therapy with unsealed sources. Shielding design is discussed applicable to diagnostic radiology, radiotherapy, nuclear medicine and the therapeutic use of radionuclides. Assignment of responsibilities, legal responsibilities, safety checks, refresher courses and symposia are discussed in the context of organizing radiation protection. Radiation surveys are necessary, and such surveys are described for x-ray and gamma-ray beams, sealed radioactive sources and nuclear medicine. A whole section is devoted to personnel monitoring and health surveillance. An annex gives a lis health surveillance. An annex gives a list of commonly used radionuclides, another deals with the design of protective shielding

  4. Radiation protection activities and status in Asia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The status of radiation protection practices in Asian countries is monitored by different means, e.g. the IAEA technical cooperation activities, by an overall assessment of conditions in a country by RAPAT missions, and on the basis of data collected through various regional activities. The radiation protection situation in Asia is very heterogeneous. There is a group of countries with very well developed radiation protection practices and advanced in the application of the Basic Safety Standards, but the majority of Asian member states still need improvement, several lacking the necessary fundamental infrastructure for radiation protection

  5. The Radiation Protection Service in Asuncion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report details the activities of radiation protection services concerning radioisotopes, personal monitoring and film dosimetry service. Historical, organizational and regulatory aspects are also covered. (author)

  6. Radiation protection in the Brazilian universities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A research covering 91 institutions was undertaken in order to elucidate how radiation protection were indeed fulfilled. A questionary including technical administrative and legal subjects was sent by mail and 36% of which were answered propitiating substantial data for analysis. Only in few cases universities have knowledge of basic procedures in radiation protection, claiming for the elaboration of a plan that could guide supervisors and workers in radiation protection in these institution. Based on the tree analysis technique proposed by IAEA, a Reference Radiation protection Program has been elaborated and proposed for Brazilian universities. (author). 14 refs, 1 figs

  7. Nevada Test Site Radiation Protection Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Radiological Control Managers' Council, Nevada Test Site

    2007-08-09

    Title 10 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) 835, 'Occupational Radiation Protection', establishes radiation protection standards, limits, and program requirements for protecting individuals from ionizing radiation resulting from the conduct of U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) activities. 10 CFR 835.101(a) mandates that DOE activities be conducted in compliance with a documented Radiation Protection Program (RPP) as approved by DOE. This document promulgates the RPP for the Nevada Test Site (NTS), related (onsite or offsite) DOE National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO) operations, and environmental restoration offsite projects.

  8. 33. Days of Radiation Protection. Presentations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The publication has been set up as presentations of the conference dealing with health protection during work with ionizing radiation for different activities which involve the handling of ionizing radiation sources. The main conference topics are focused on the current problems in radiation protection and radioecology. On the web-page totally 103 presentations or posters are published. The Conference consists of the following sections: (I) Effects of ionizing radiation (radiology, health effects, risk factors); (II) General aspects of radiation protection (recommendations and legislative in radiation protection); (III): Dosimetry and metrology of ionizing radiation (metrology, instrumentation, use of computational methods); (IV) Radiation protection in nuclear power industry (working environment in the nuclear industry, the impact on the environment, nuclear power shutdown management); (V) Emergency management (emergencies, accidents, waste); (VI) Radiation load and protection in diagnostics, nuclear medicine and radiation oncology (burden on patients, staff, size of population exposure from medical sources of ionizing radiation, security, and quality control, optimization); (VII) Natural sources of radiation in workplaces and the environment (radon and other radionuclides, the risk estimation, optimization); (VIII) Education (new trends in education of radiation experts, medical physicists and stake-holders).

  9. New general radiation protection training course

    CERN Multimedia

    2008-01-01

    Some members of CERN personnel, users included, may have to work in supervised or controlled radiation areas, or may be concerned with activities involving the use of radioactive sources. According to CERN Safety rules all persons whose work may encounter ionising radiation risk must be adequately trained. This training must ensure that workers are informed about the potential health risks which could result from radiation exposure, about the basic principles of radiation protection and of the relevant radiation protection regulations as well as about safe working methods and techniques in radiation zones. Therefore the Organization organises mandatory general and work-specific radiation protection (RP) courses addressed to its personnel. These courses are also open to contractors’ personnel, in addition to the RP training they must receive from their employers. Based on the results of a pilot project, an improved general radiation protection course has been prepared. This...

  10. New general radiation protection training course

    CERN Multimedia

    2008-01-01

    Some members of CERN personnel, including users, may have to work in supervised or controlled radiation areas, or may be involved in activities involving the use of radioactive sources. According to CERN Safety Rules all persons whose work may be associated with ionising radiation risk must be adequately trained. This training must ensure that workers are informed about the potential health risks which could result from radiation exposure, the basic principles of radiation protection and the relevant radiation protection regulations as well as safe working methods and techniques in radiation zones. Therefore the Organization organises mandatory general and work-specific radiation protection (RP) courses for its personnel. These courses are also open to contractors’ personnel, in addition to the RP training they must receive from their employers. Based on the results of a pilot project, an improved general radiation protection course has been prepared. This new ½ day cours...

  11. Quantities and units in radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This lecture contains a short review of quantities and units used in radiation protection as well as units used in describing of nuclear reactions, LET values, and radiation length of the particles. The simulations of some radioactive decays are included

  12. Current radiation protection activities in Vietnam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper presents the current radiation protection activities in Vietnam, particularly personal radiation dosimetry. The dose calibration in term of new ICRU's operational quality such as Hp(10) for personal dose is discussed. (author)

  13. Basic principles of radiation protection in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The major goal of radiation protection in Canada is to ensure that individuals are adequately protected against the harm that might arise from unwarranted exposure to ionizing radiation. This report deals with the basic principles and organizations involved in protection against ionizing radiation. Three basic principles of radiation protection are: 1) that no practice shall be adopted unless its introduction produces a positive net benefit for society, 2) that all exposures shall be kept as low as reasonably achievable, relevant economic and social factors being taken into account, and 3) that doses to individuals should not exceed specified annual limits. The limit for radiation workers is currently 50 mSv per year, and exposures of the general public should not exceed a small fraction of that of radiation workers. Other specific areas in radiation protection which have received considerable attention in Canada include limitations on collective dose (the sum of the individual doses for all exposed individuals), exemption rules for extremely small radiation doses or amounts of radioactive materials, occupational hazards in uranium mining, and special rules for protection of the foetus in pregnant female radiation workers. Implementation of radiation protection principles in Canada devolves upon the Atomic Energy Control Board, the Department of National Health and Welfare, provincial authorities, licensees and radiation workers. A brief description is given of the roles of each of these groups

  14. 100 years of ionizing radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The development of radiation protection from the end of 19. century and evolution of opinion about injurious effect of ionizing radiation were presented. Observations of undesirable effects of ionizing radiation exposition, progress of radiobiology and dosimetry directed efforts toward radiation protection. These activities covered, at the beginning, limited number of persons and were subsequently extended to whole population. The current means, goals and regulations of radiological control have been discussed

  15. Radiation Protection Group annual report (1998)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Annual Report of the Radiation Protection Group is intended to inform the Host State Authorities, as well as the CERN Management and staff, about the radiological situation at CERN during the year 1998. The structure of the present report follows that of previous years and has five sections. It presents the results of environmental radiation monitoring, gives information about the radiation control on the sites of the Organization, describes the radiation protection activities around the CERN accelerators, reports on personnel dosimetry, calibration and instrumentation, and briefly comments on the non-routine activities of the Radiation Protection Group

  16. Radiation Protection Group annual report (1997)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Annual Report of the Radiation Protection Group is intended to inform the Host State Authorities, as well as the CERN Management and staff, about the radiological situation at CERN during the year 1997. The structure of the present report follows that of previous years and has five sections. It presents the results of environmental radiation monitoring, gives information about the radiation control on the sites of the Organization, describes the radiation protection activities around the CERN accelerators, reports on personnel dosimetry, calibration and instrumentation, and briefly comments on the non-routine activities of the Radiation Protection Group

  17. Radiation Protection Group annual report (1996)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Annual Report of the Radiation Protection Group is intended to inform the Host State Authorities, as well as the CERN Management and staff, about the radiological situation at CERN during the year 1996. The structure of the present report follows that of previous years and has five sections. It presents the results of environmental radiation monitoring, gives information about the radiation control on the sites of the Organization, describes the radiation protection activities around the CERN accelerators, reports on personnel dosimetry, calibration and instrumentation, and briefly comments on the non-routine activities of the Radiation Protection Group

  18. Application of microprocessors to radiation protection measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In radiation protection measurements signals from radiation detectors or dosemeters have to be transformed into quantities relevant to radiation protection. In most cases this can only be done by taking into account various parameters (e.g. the quality factor). Moreover, the characteristics of the statistical laws of nuclear radiation emission have to be considered. These problems can properly be solved by microprocessors. After reviewing the main properties of microprocessors, some typical examples of applying them to problems of radiation protection measurement are given. (author)

  19. Radiation Protection Group annual report (1995)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Annual Report of the Radiation Protection Group is intended to inform the Host State Authorities, as well as the CERN Management and staff, about the radiological situation at CERN during the year 1995. The structure of the present report follows that of previous years and has five sections. It presents the results of environmental radiation monitoring, gives information about the radiation control on the sites of the Organization, describes the radiation protection activities around the CERN accelerators, reports on personnel dosimetry, calibration and instrumentation, and briefly comments on the non-routine activities of the Radiation Protection Group

  20. Computer applications in radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Computer applications in general and diagnostic radiology in particular are becoming more widespread. Their application to the field of radiation protection in medical imaging, including quality control initiatives, is similarly becoming more widespread. Advances in computer technology have enabled departments of diagnostic radiology to have access to powerful yet affordable personal computers. The application of databases, expert systems and computer-based learning is under way. The executive information systems for the management of dose and QA data that are under way at IRS are discussed. An important consideration in developing these pragmatic software tools has been the range of computer literacy within the end user group. Using interfaces have been specifically designed to reflect the requirements of many end users who will have little or no computer knowledge. (Author)

  1. Computer applications in radiation protection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cole, P.R.; Moores, B.M. [Integrated Radiological Services Ltd., Liverpool (United Kingdom)

    1995-12-31

    Computer applications in general and diagnostic radiology in particular are becoming more widespread. Their application to the field of radiation protection in medical imaging, including quality control initiatives, is similarly becoming more widespread. Advances in computer technology have enabled departments of diagnostic radiology to have access to powerful yet affordable personal computers. The application of databases, expert systems and computer-based learning is under way. The executive information systems for the management of dose and QA data that are under way at IRS are discussed. An important consideration in developing these pragmatic software tools has been the range of computer literacy within the end user group. Using interfaces have been specifically designed to reflect the requirements of many end users who will have little or no computer knowledge. (Author).

  2. Principles of radiation protection in medical thinking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors consider the issue of principles of radiation protection in medicine as being of great interest for the following reasons: health care practitioners exposed to ionizing radiation represent 75% of all world-wide radiation exposed workers; they are also the ones who, by their radiological practice lead to medical exposure of the population (which represents the largest part among artificial exposure to ionizing radiation of the public - about 11%); the superior medical staff are the advisors and prescribers for radiological investigations and treatments. The authors' experience shows that training in radiation protection system is weak, leading sometimes to abusive use of ionizing radiation in both diagnostic and treatment. Medical staff's perception on the importance and role of radiation protection principles is sometimes distorted by unskilled backgrounds in the field. There are recommendations and regulations on radiation protection principles in the relevant legislation, but there are situations in which they are formally considered, or they are regarded as an obligation and not as a form of personal and patient protection. At a national level, the expansion of informing the public about the principles of radiation protection and its role is required by introducing a corresponding training since elementary school. A beneficial aspect that has developed recently is the introduction of radiation protection courses within university and postgraduate traini within university and postgraduate training. They are important for a correct and updated training on the principles of radiation protection, a field in which there are permanent updates and changes, and new concepts are set, such as the 'culture of radiation protection'. Medical thinking and medical research have had a contribution on developing and upgrading the radiation protection principles. (authors)

  3. Sense and purpose of radiation protection training

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Training in radiation protection is of great significance in connection with the activities of the executive, the federal army and emergency organizations in emergency operations for the protection of the population in the case of large-scale radioactive contamination due to diverse causes. The presently valid legal situation of radiation protection training is presented in connection with the expected modification in the amendment to the SSVO. The special situation of radiation protection training for the executive, the federal army and emergency organizations is described and discussed in connection with the new aspects outlined in the draft of the new radiation protection regulation. In conclusion, problems arising in the conveyance of basic knowledge in radiation protection are illustrated by means of a concrete example. (author)

  4. Advanced training in radiation protection for radiation protection specialists and administrative officers of medical establishments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Topics dealt with in training courses for radiation protection specialists (radiation protection officers, medical officers responsible for medical surveillance of occupationally exposed medical personnel) and administrative officers of medical establishments are presented. Radiation protection specialists have to attend theoretical and practical training courses whereas administrative officers receive a two-days training. At the end of all training measures the knowledge in radiation protection is examined. Successful participation is confirmed by governmental certificates. (author)

  5. Personal radiation protection in nuclear industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Specific peculiarities of organization of personal radiation protection at various nuclear industry enterprises when dealing with radioactive and other toxic substances are illuminated. Effect of heatin.g and cooling microclimate is discussed. Medical and technical requirements for personal protection means and tasks of personal protection in the field of nuclear industry are considered in short along with some peculiarities of application of different kinds of personal protection means and psychological aspects of personnel protection

  6. Biological research for radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The work scope of Biological research for the radiation protection had contained the search of biological microanalytic methods for assessing the health effect by ?-radiation and toxic agents, the standardization of human T-lymphocyte cell culture and polymerase chain reaction, T-cell clonal assay, and the quantification of mutation frequency in the hypoxanthine (guanine) phosphoribosyl transferase (HPRT) gene locus by single exposure or combined exposure. Especially, the polymerase chain reaction methods using reverse transcriptase has been developed to analyze the mutant gene induced by ?-radiation and chemical (pentachlorophenol) agent exposure, and to investigate the point mutations in the HPRT gene locus of T-lymphocytes. The HPRT T-cell clonal assay revealed that it could not differentiate ?-irradiation from pentachlorophenol, because the frequency of somatic mutations induced by both damaging agents increased in a dose-dependent manner. The analysis of DNA sequence alterations of HPRT mutant clones clearly showed that both damaging agents induced different mutational spectra in the HPRT locus of T-cells. The large deletions, which account for 75 percent of the analyzed mutants, are characteristic mutations induced by ?-irradiation. By contrast, point mutations such as base substitutions and insertion, come up to 97 percent in the case of pentachlorophenol-treated cells. The point mutation frequencies at 190 base pair and 444 base pair positions are 3-6 folds as high as in those at other mutation positions. It may be that these mutation sites are hot spots induced by pentachlorophenol. These results suggest that the HPRT mutation spectrum can be used as a potential bio marker for assessing a specific environmental risk. (author)

  7. 75 FR 41213 - National Protection and Programs Directorate; Infrastructure Protection Data Call Survey; Correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-15

    ...HOMELAND SECURITY [Docket No. DHS-2008-0077] National Protection and Programs Directorate; Infrastructure Protection Data Call Survey; Correction AGENCY: National Protection and Programs Directorate, DHS. ACTION: Notice;...

  8. New radiation protection calibration facility at CERN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The CERN radiation protection group has designed a new state-of-the-art calibration laboratory to replace the present facility, which is >20 y old. The new laboratory, presently under construction, will be equipped with neutron and gamma sources, as well as an X-ray generator and a beta irradiator. The present work describes the project to design the facility, including the facility placement criteria, the 'point-zero' measurements and the shielding study performed via FLUKA Monte Carlo simulations. This paper describes the project, the shielding study and the background measurements performed for the new CERN RP calibration facility. The neutron measurements show that the chosen location is well suited for the laboratory. The shielding study and the design met the RP area classification requirements as well as the calibration needs. The neutron and gamma irradiator configuration will also allow the gamma sensitivity of neutron survey meters to be tested in a mixed field. (authors)

  9. Summary of radiation protection in exploitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document proposes a large and detailed overview of notions and practices regarding radiation protection in relationship with an NPP exploitation framework. It presents the main notions: matter structure, radioactivity, interactions between matter and radiations, types of ionizing radiation, magnitudes and measurement units, exposure modes, main principles of radiation protection, means of protection against internal and external exposures. The second part proposes an overview of the origin of radiological risks in a nuclear power plant. This origin can be found in fission products, activation products, actinides, designed protections, or circuit contaminations. These radiological risks are more precisely identified and described in terms of detection and prevention (internal exposure risk, contamination risk, iodine-related risk, alpha radiation-related risk, access to the reactor building). The next part addresses the medical and radiological follow-up of exposed workers by a special medical control, by an individual exposure control, by a specific control of female personnel, and by attention to exceptional exposures. Measurement means are presented (detection principles, installation continuous control, workspaces control, personnel contamination control, follow-up of individual dose) as well as collective and individual protection means. The management of radiation protection is addressed through a presentation of decision and management structures for radiation protection, and of EDF objectives and ambitions in this domain. The organization of radiation protection during exploitation is described: responsibilities for radiation protection in a nuclear power station, requirements for workers, preparation of interventions in controlled zone, work execution in controlled zone, zone controls and radiological cleanness of installations. The two last chapters address issues and practices of radiation protection in the case of deconstruction or dismantling, and in the case of transportation of radioactive materials and objects. Appendices contain information of biological effects of ionizing radiations, main regulatory texts, and involved international and French bodies

  10. Benchmarking in radiation protection in pharmaceutical industries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A benchmarking on radiation protection in seven pharmaceutical companies in Germany and Switzerland was carried out. As the result relevant parameters describing the performance and costs of radiation protection were acquired and compiled and subsequently depicted in figures in order to make these data comparable. (orig.)

  11. Problems and solutions in radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This manual consists of a collection of 74 worked problems in the general fields of health protection from ionizing radiation. The problems, presented together with their solutions, are grouped into 17 major areas of radiation protection, which cover both fundamental and practical situations

  12. Radiation protection laws in the Nordic countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sweden has since 1988 a totally revised radiation protection law and Finland has recently enacted a new law. The legal situation of the Nordic countries in the radiation protection field is reviewed with the main emphasis on the Swedish law. (author)

  13. The radiation protection infrastructure in Madagascar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madagascar is participating in the Model Project RAF/9/024 on 'Upgrading Radiation Protection Infrastructure'. Its radiation protection legislation is based on the BSS. The efforts being made to upgrade the country's regulatory infrastructure and the problems encountered are described below, as is the national information and training programme for the authorities, the public, workers and students. (author)

  14. Educational system in the radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A general characteristic of the existing university plans and programs is a partial approach to radiation protection without a unique frame on the basis of which, certain colleges could adjust their distinctive characteristics and could analyze this multidisciplinary field which is present in our contemporary lives. We must seriously take into account the consequences of our 'ignorance' towards this field. The present 'disorganized state' in the educational system concerning radiation protection, when many professions are 'fighting' for leading roles and 'exclusive rights' in applying measures for radiation protection: physicians, chemists, doctors and others, must be regulated on international and national scales by applying powerful authority of international organizations. The key to solving this problem is found in defining minimal common bases of educational plans and programs from the field of radiation protection that would be unique for all colleges that are directly or indirectly connected to this domain. The following step could be made towards organizing specialist and graduate studies at university levels for all schools that have incorporated basis for radiation protection into their plans and programs. Lastly, as special form of continuous education in the field of radiation protection , multidisciplinary basic and specialized courses should be organized internationally intended to solve specific problems of utilization of ionising radiation sources and ization of ionising radiation sources and integral radiation protection. (author)

  15. Regional radiation protection initiatives by Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Australia both through the auspices of the IAEA and from Government Aid Grants has contributed to the improvement of radiation protection throughout the Asia/Pacific region. The assistance has been in the form of training and improvement to radiation protection infrastructures. The presentation describes the objectives, scope and diversity of the radiation protection infrastructure program and the benefits to the large number of persons included in the program. An outline of the current IAEA program is also discussed together with an explanation of how the program will assist national regulators in the education of radiation workers, in hazardous operations such as industrial radiography

  16. Preparing the radiation protection worker to meet multiple needs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    At the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) the radiation protection worker aids in protecting personnel and their surrounding environment from the hazards of radiation. These individuals use their technical knowledge, skills, and abilities to survey and monitor various project-related activities. They must also provide guidance in project design, development, and implementation. These combined efforts assure that protective measures are taken in accordance with applicable standards. The ORNL performance-based training program enhances the skills of the worker. The program incorporates job specific information on the diverse facilities and activities monitored with basic fundamentals of radiation protection. Successful completion of this program includes passing both a qualification exam and an on-the-job skills review. This paper details the structure of such a program and explains the strategies taken to reach the program's goals. 4 refs., 2 tabs

  17. An introduction to radiation protection principles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The fundamentals of radiation hazards and their control are outlined. This report is for use by all radiation workers at CRNL and copies are available for all who want one. The purposes of the document are to outline the fundamentals of radiation protection, to describe methods that enable employees to work safely with radiation and to acquaint employees with the CRNL radiation and industrial safety organization

  18. Radiation protection for physicians. 2. rev. ed.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The book is focussed on the advanced training of physicians with respect to radiation protection in the context of modern radiological techniques and nuclear medicine. The book is structured in the following chapters: physics of radiation, X-ray diagnostics and quality of an X-ray image, X--ray devices and methods, radiation dosimetry, quality control, natural and man-made radiation exposures, organizational and legal measures, biological radiation effects, practical experiences, comments concerning regulations

  19. 75 FR 31458 - Infrastructure Protection Data Call Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-03

    ...DHS), National Protection and Programs Directorate...of Infrastructure Protection (IP), Infrastructure...Paperwork Reduction Act of 1995 (Pub...The National Protection and Programs Directorate...Infrastructure Protection Data Call Survey. DHS...including any personal information...

  20. Occupational radiation protection. IAEA functions and policies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper describes the functions and polices of the IAEA with regard to occupational radiation protection, which in fact reflect the international approach of the United Nations family to this problem. An international regime on occupational radiation protection has been growing on the bases of international legally binding conventions, international standards and international provisions for the application of these standards. The IAEA has been instrumental in establishing a corpus of occupational radiation protection standards that has a long and fructiferous history. The corpus now comprises one set of basic policy fundamentals on radiation protection, one basic international requirement, the International Basic Safety Standards for Protection against Ionizing Radiation and for the Safety of Radiation Sources, one basic guide on general occupational radiation protection, and several supporting guides establishing procedures, inter alia, for monitoring for external radiation and for internal contamination. The United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation provides the global scientific estimates of the biological effects attributable to radiation exposure and the International Commission on Radiological Protection the basic recommendations on radiation protection that are taken into account in the formulation of the international standards. The International Labour Organization (ILO) harmonizes the interests of governments, workers and emplinterests of governments, workers and employers and provides this essential input into the standards. The IAEA establishes the international standards in co-operation with the ILO and other specialized United Nations organizations. The paper finally describes a number of controversial occupational protection issues which are still being discussed internationally and the author considers that the Conference presents an ideal forum in which to tackle these issues and search for a consensual approach to their solution. (author)

  1. Radiation protection in X-ray therapy. Recommendations of the Radiation Protection Commission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The recommendations of the Radiation Protection Commission on ''Radiation Protection in X-ray therapy'' is intended for physicians who perform radiation therapy with X-ray equipment and in particular those who do so in their own practice (including dermatologists and specialists in internal medicine). They describe from the viewpoint of the Radiation Protection Commission how radiation protection during the therapeutic use of X-ray radiation should be performed according to the X-ray Ordinance (RoeV). Also included is a description of the state of the art of this application area

  2. The surveying of radiation environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A number of conceptual frameworks have been suggested for relating the results of an environmental survey to personal dose. Environmental parameters such as exposure, MADE and dose index have been defined by international committees, others such as maximum permissible fluence and dose ceiling have been suggested in the open literature. These approaches can be shown to fall into two groups. In one group the survey parameters are additive, accurately measurable, but not directly related to peak dose equivalent in the body, whereas in the other they are neither measurable nor additive but are directly related to peak dose equivalent. The advantages and disadvantages of the two approaches are discussed and contrasted. In application to a specific radiation environment it can be shown that one type of approach can (and frequently does in practice) lead to significant over-estimation of personal dose

  3. Environmental radiation protection - a brief history

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effects of ionising radiation on man has been studied intensely for decades, and the system of radiation protection for man has been continually refined in the light of those studies. That system assumes that if man is protected, non-human biota at the species level will also be adequately protected. However, an increasing recognition of the need to protect the environment, and international agreements signed in 1992, have resulted in that paradigm being questioned, with the onus shifting slowly towards demonstrating that the environment is protected. Further, radiation protection agencies and environmental protection agencies around the world have now started considering the issue of developing a system of radiation protection for the environment. The International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) and the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) are also active in this area. The purpose of this paper is to briefly outline some of the issues confronting environmental and radiation protection specialists, and to mention some of the initiatives being taken by the international community to resolve those issues

  4. Comments to the German society's for radiation protection (Gesellschaft fur Strahlenschutz) proposed principles for radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The German Society for Radiation Protection (in German Gesellschaft fur Strahlenschutz) is a separate society for radiation protection in Germany in addition to the leading society named Association of German and Swiss Radiation Protection Specialists (in German Fachverband fur Strahlenschutz). The Society is an international professional society. There are several hundreds members of the German Society for Radiation Protection. The German Society for Radiation Protection is not a member of IRPA (the International Radiation Protection Society). The IRPA member is the Association of German and Swiss Radiation Protection Specialists. According to information given on the web site of the Society for Radiation Protection (www.gfstrahlenschutz.de) the Society was founded in 1990 because in the opinion of the founding members the older professional societies and associations have not adequately considered and implemented the present knowledge of radiation risks and radiation protection. In accordance with its statutes the society pursues besides other aims the best possible protection of humans and the environment from the detrimental action of ionising and non-ionising radiation. The dealing with ionising and non-ionising radiation can according to the Society only be justified on the basis of biological and medical state of the art knowledge

  5. Protection and measurement in radiation therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutlief, Steven G

    2015-02-01

    In radiation therapy, unlike most other applications involving radiation, the intention is to deliver high doses of radiation to diseased tissue, constrained by the effects of radiation to healthy tissue. With regard to patient exposure, the radiation protection framework of justification, optimization, and limitation is a direct part of the prescription process of radiation therapy. Staff and public exposures are typically far below occupational maximum permissible exposures. However, a number of other issues arise in radiation therapy that fall into the category of radiation protection. After an historical review, this paper discusses several contemporary and emerging concerns within radiation therapy, including fetal dose, secondary malignancies, and dose to implantable devices, all of which involve accurate dose assessment outside the intended treatment volume. Other concerns include quality and safety, molecularly based disease assessment and treatment, and other novel treatment strategies. The paper ends with a discussion of the interplay between best practices and regulatory oversight. PMID:25551506

  6. Concepts and units in radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After a brief general introduction to ionising radiation and its effect on human tissues a detailed treatment of the physics and biology determining the acceptable dose levels is provided. Finally radiation protection regulations and radiation environments are discussed. (J.H.)

  7. Rules and regulations of radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The finality of this legislative text is to guarantee the radiation protection of the exposed personnel, of the people in general and the environment against the ionizing radiations risks. Its scope includes all the natural and juridical persons that work with ionizing radiation sources into the peruvian territory

  8. Using of ionizing radiation in environment protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, there is given the review of application of the radiation chemistry techniques in the environment protection . Using of sources of ionization radiation in underground water, drinking water and waste waters as well as in exhaust gases radiation processing and treatment are reviewed

  9. The revised German radiation protection ordinance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since August 2001, German radiation protection law is governed by a new Radiation Protection Ordinance, implementing two new Euratom Directives and taking into account new scientific developments, which provides a comprehensive basis for the protection of man and the environment. The Ordinance has been completely restructured; however, it is still a very complex piece of legislation comprising 118 provisions and 14 annexes, some of them highly technical. Reduced dose limits for occupationally exposed persons and members of the public, a detailed provision on clearance of radioactive substances, a new part aiming at the protection of man and the environment against ionising radiation emanating from natural sources, and regulations dealing with the protection of consumers in connection with the addition of radioactive substances to consumer goods are some of the centre pieces of the new legislation which shall contribute significantly to the further prevention or at least minimisation of the adverse effects of radiation exposure. (orig.)

  10. From regulations towards radiation protection culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Compliance with the technical standards and specifications is a necessary but not sufficient condition for quality in radiation protection. Reaching this quality objective is not a matter of forcing improvements by a regulatory policy of reducing dose limits, but of promoting a real radiation protection culture. The spread of such a radiological protection culture encourages the deliberate adoption in everyday practice of behaviour likely to reduce exposure to ionizing radiation as loser as reasonably achievable. The aim of this paper is to demonstrate that the need to diffuse a radiological protection culture is inspired by the philosophy behind the system recommended by ICPR Publication 60 on the management of residual radiological risk and, in particular by the behavioural and incentive approach implied by the optimization principle. Special attention will be given to the fundamentals likely to contribute in a definition of radiation protection culture. (author)

  11. The state of radiation protection in Iran

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Historically, radiation protection in Iran can be related to when the first x-ray machine was applied for medical diagnosis. However, organized activities were started with the establishment of the Tehran University Nuclear Center (TUNC) in 1959, and within a broader scope when AEOI research reactor went into operation in 1967. In 1974, the Atomic Energy Organization Law of Iran was ascribed the responsibility for radiological safety and protection to the AEOI. Then this responsibility was assigned by AEOI to the Radiation Protection Department (RPD), as the national authority. The RPD's organization and functions have been divided into three main RPD divisions: Radiation Protection Control; Radiation Dosimetry Research and Development and Services; and Radiological Protection of the Environment

  12. Radiation effects and radiation protection in case of nuclear disasters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The author thinks that realistic information given to large groups of the population is an important first step in reducing the instinctive fear of radiation effects which is caused by ignorance. His analysis includes not only the radiation effects of tactical nuclear weapons but also radiation damage to living cells, radiation effects on tissues, and radiation protection in case of a nuclear disaster. In his judgment he does not forget the political aspects of such a topic. (orig.)

  13. Guideline for radiation protection in medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Four years after the Radiation Protection Ordinance, the BMI has published the 'Guideline for radiation protection in medicine'. The guideline has been compiled by more than 30 official authorities, committees, and experts' associations, including the Federal Health Office and the Central Association of the Electrical Industry. The sparse legal regulations are explained, and much valuable information is given so that everyone responsible for radiation protection ought to refer to it although it is addressed primarily to the responsible Laender authorities. There is much information beyond the fields of radiology and nuclear medicine. In addition, the guideline informs on what knowledge is required to become a radiation protection expert and obtain a license to handle radioactive materials. This is of great importance to medical students and physicians in training as they are enabled to make early provisions for using radioactive materials and ionizing radiation in their future medical practice. (orig./HK)

  14. Environmental radiation protection. The new ICRP concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Protection of the environment regarding radiation protection was so far reduced to the concept: if man is protected the environment is protected well enough. This was derived from the radiosensitivity curve, according to which highly developed organisms are more sensible to radiation than less highly developed. ICRP publication 103 put this simple concept in question. Even before, ICRP set up a committee to discuss this theme. End of 2012 ICRP released a new concept of environmental protection regarding different exposure situations and brought it up for discussion in the internet. This concept is based on Reference Animals and Plants (RAPs) and analogous to the concept of the protection for man. The exposure for representative organisms regarding ionizing radiation shall be estimated and compared with Derived Consideration Reference Levels (DCRLs). If the DCRLs are reached or exceeded there is a need to react. This concept raises several questions. (orig.)

  15. Challenges to the system of radiation protection – role and activities of the International Radiation Protection Association

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The vision of IRPA as the International Radiation Protection Association of individual radiation protection practitioners organized through national or regional societies is to be recognized by its members, stakeholders and the public as the international voice of the radiation protection profession in the enhancement of radiation protection culture and practice worldwide. It is a key challenge of IRPA to make this vision a reality.The global acceptance of radiation protection principles, in particular in the medical area, is a real challenge. Ensuring that medical procedures are justified and optimized is vital, not least for CT and hybrid imaging examinations and in pediatric medicine. There is a strong responsibility of medical physicists and radiation protection experts to ensure safe and secure application of ionizing radiation. A Technical Agreement with the IOMP (International Organization for Medical Physics) provides the way for a joint approach to enhance radiation safety in the medical field. IRPA started an initiative on Ethics in Radiation Protection and currently IRPA is working closely with ICRP on the development of guidance on Ethical Dimensions of the Radiation Protection System.To encourage and support the Associate Societies in the development of effective means of enhancing public understanding of radiation risk through the sharing of good practice, ideas and resource material, IRPA has established a Task Group on Public Understanding of Radiation Risk. The ultimate goal is to develop and promote a library of good practice activities on public understanding of radiation risk through the sharing of experience across the Associate Societies

  16. Blended learning specialists in radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, we present a blended learning Radiation Protection Technician through an approved degree from the Polytechnic University of Valencia, which covers the knowledge and skills of functions relating to operators and supervisors in various areas and skilled workers to be to perform their work in technical units or Radiation Protection Radiation Protection Services. The benefits of this work are those related to achieving quality training flexible and adapted to follow the check off the person conducting the course, adapted to internal and external training of the applicant companies.

  17. Improving patient radiation protection in medical practices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A number of severe radiation protection accidents have occurred in France in recent months in radiotherapy departments, resulting in serious pathologies among the exposed patients and the death of one person. These accidents, allied to the fact that use of ionizing radiation for medical purposes is the leading source of human exposure, justify the priority the A.S.N. gives to radiation protection of patients and its supervision. This file gathers four parts in relation with radiation protection in the medical field. he first one concerns the radiation accidents and the lessons learned from them. The second part is devoted to the point of view of medical actors. The third part is in relation with the challenges of new techniques. The last part concerns the exposures and the radiation doses. (N.C.)

  18. Occupational radiation protection legislation in Israel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A committee of experts appointed by the Minister of Labour and Social Affairs has proposed a comprehensive draft regulation, concerning the legal aspects of occupational radiation protection in Israel. The first section of the proposed regulation sets forth guidelines for control in facilities where workers handle radioactive materials or radiation equipment. This includes the duties of the managers of such places to ensure adequate radiation protection and also the maximum recommended doses (whole body and individual organs) for radiation workers. The second section deals with the monitoring regulations for radiation workers who may be exposed to doses in excess of 500 mRem/y. The third section outlines the nature of the mechanical supervision required, i.e. routine and special examinations. Finally the committee also proposed six miscellaneous recommendations for radiation protection. (UK)

  19. Ecological aspects of radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For the ecologists of the 1960s, the presence in the biosphere of fission products originating from nuclear explosions provided a wealth of opportunity for observation and experiment, for they were able to trace the paths of numerous radioactive substances in the atmosphere, immediate environment and eco-systems, and to determine the way in which these substances were metabolized in living organisms. Moreover, nuclear techniques such as the use of radioactive tracers, autoradiography and neutron activation afforded a means of determining the mechanisms by which the biologically significant radionuclides take effect and the processes by which they are transferred. Because of the comprehensive information that it can provide for analysis, radioecology has risen above its status as a pure science and has become an integral part in the planning of monitoring programmes for nuclear sites- Radioecology is thereby able to make an essential contribution to the attainment of one of the basic objectives of radiation protection, namely the elimination or control of the hazards that human beings and their environment are likely to be face through the peaceful applications of nuclear energy. The headway made in radioecological studies and research has been great; knowledge is being amassed by leaps and bounds despite the difficulties faced and the intricacy of the problems involved. As a consequence, radioactive contamination of the environment is certainly one of the best understnment is certainly one of the best understood types of pollution, and probably one that it has so far been possible to anticipate and control under optimum conditions and with the most gratifying results

  20. Radiation protection training of radiation safety officers in Finland in 2008

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority (STUK) carried out a survey on the radiation protection training of radiation safety officers (RSO) in Finland in 2008. The aim of the survey was to obtain information on the conformity and uniformity of the training provided in different training organisations. A previous survey concerning radiation protection training was carried out in 2003. That survey determined the training needs of radiation users and radiation safety officers as well the radiation protection training included in vocational training and supplementary training. This report presents the execution and results of the survey in 2008. According to the responses, the total amount of RSO training fulfilled the requirements presented in Guide ST 1.8 in the most fields of competence. The emphasis of the RSO training differed between organisations, even for training in the same field of competence. Certain issues in Guide ST 1.8 were dealt quite superficially or even not at all in some training programmes. In some fields of competence, certain matters were entirely left to individual study. No practical training with radiation equipment or sources was included in the RSO training programme of some organisations. Practical training also varied considerably between organisations, even within the same field of competence. The duties in the use of radiation were often considered as practical training with radiation equipment and sources. Practical training from the pand sources. Practical training from the point of view of a radiation safety officer was brought up in the responses of only one organisation. The number of questions and criteria for passing RSO exams also varied between organisations. Trainers who provided RSO training for the use of radiation in health care sectors had reached a higher vocational training level and received more supplementary training in radiation protection in the previous 5 years than trainers who provided RSO training for the use of radiation in industry, research, and education and training. Those trainers who had received no supplementary training or whose supplementary training was not known were more involved in training for the industrial, research, and education and training sectors than for the health care sectors. Experiences with and feedback on Guide ST 1.8 and its applicability were also collected in this survey. The results of the survey and feedback will be used when Guide ST 1.8 is revised. (orig.)

  1. Radiation protection and the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ICRP was founded in 1928, and within a few years it issued quantitative recommendations for the limitation of dose received by radiation workers. These served as the basis for radiation protection until 1950. During subsequent years the Commission has emphasised that unnecessary exposure should be avoided, and that all doses should be kept as low as possible (1950): practicable (1958): readily achievable (1965): reasonably achievable (1973). ICRP today sees its role as that of considering the fundamental principles upon which radiation protection measures can be based, while leaving the detailed application to national authorities. To help it perform its work, ICRP has invited a hundred or so individual experts to participate in its committee and task group activities. In addition, the Commission maintains close working relationships with a number of international and regional organisations that are concerned with radiation protection. (author)

  2. Strengthening the radiation protection culture: a priority of EDF radiation protection policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text of publication follows: In order to improve the management of radiation protection at EDF nuclear power plants, the Human Factors Group of the Research and Development Division of EDF has performed some studies on the appropriation process of the radiation protection requirements. These studies have notably shown that an efficient application of the radiation protection requirements lies on a comprehension by all workers of the meaning of these requirements. Furthermore, they should not be applied under the constraint or because of the fear of a sanction, but the workers need to perceive and understand the benefits in terms of protection associated with the radiation protection requirements. The strengthening of the radiation protection culture is therefore a key element of the radiation protection policy developed by EDF. This culture lies on an awareness of the health risks potentially associated with low levels of ionising radiations, as well as on the knowledge of tools, techniques and good practices developed to control the level of exposures and improve the radiation protection. Various type of actions have been undertaken to reinforce among the relevant players (exposed and non-exposed workers, contractors, all levels of management,... ) an awareness of radiation protection in order to integrate it in their day to day work: elaboration of a 'radiation protection system of reference' explaining how the radiation protection regulatory requirements are an protection regulatory requirements are applied at EDF, publication of a 'radiation protection handbook' available for all workers (including contractors), training sessions, creation of networks of specialists from the various nuclear power plants on specific radiation protection issues, organisation of feed-back experience forum, etc. Beyond these specific actions, i t is also important to ensure a support and an assistance on the field by dedicated specialists. In this perspective, the health physicists have to play a key role in order to foster the appropriation of the radiation protection culture. For this reason, the structure and the skills of the health physics departments was reinforced and their presence on the field increased. The improvement of radiation protection performances at EDF nuclear power plants is strongly relying on a commitment of all the players involved. Their motivation and vigilance have to be sustained so that their involvement is not merely occasional, but fits into a continuous process. The sharing of a common radiation protection culture is essential as it develops individual and collective behaviours oriented towards a common objective: improving radiation protection and maintaining the levels of exposure as low as reasonably achievable. (author)

  3. Radiation protection day - Book of abstracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document brings together the abstracts of all presentations given at the Radiation protection day organised in May 2000 by the French association for radiation protection techniques and sciences (ATSR) on the topic of the new European and French radiation protection regulations and their conditions of application in hospitals. Content: 1 - Presentation of the Office of Protection against Ionizing Radiations (O.P.R.I.), status of texts and evolution, practical implementation of operational dosimetry (Alain Valero, O.P.R.I.); 2 - Presentation of the Radiation Protection Service of the Army (S.P.R.A.) and its role in French army's hospitals (Jean-Baptiste Fleutot, S.P.R.A.); 3 - 96/29 European directive and water quality - transposition in French law (Daniel Robeau, I.P.S.N. Fontenay-Aux-Roses); 4 - Presentation of an automatized active dosimetry system (Michel Deron, G.E.M. System); 5 - Euratom 97/43 Directive from June 30, 1997 - assessment of the existing framework for patients protection in medical environment (Pierre Muglioni, APAVE Nord Ouest); 6 - Specificities of the ionising radiations risk in medical environment - presentation of a ionising radiations risk assessment grid (Marie-Christine Soula, Labour regional direction Ile de France); 7 - Low dose effects (B. Le Guen, E.D.F. G.D.F.); 8 - Operational dosimetry in the medical domain - the Saphydose dosemeter (Frederico Felix - Saphymo); 9 - Positrons and radiation protection (Luc Cinotti - C.E.R.M.E.P.); 10 - Workplace studies in medical environment - areas and personnel classification (Jean-Claude Houy, Sandrine Laugle, Eugene Marquis Cancer Centre Rennes); 11 - Experience feedback after 4 years of active dosimetry in a nuclear medicine service (Albert Lisbona, Centre Rene Gauducheau Nantes/Saint-Herblain); 12 - Operational dosimetry as it is performed today in CNRS laboratories (Helene Dossier - C.N.R.S. Orsay); 13 - Radiation protection in submarine naval forces (Pierre Laroche, Army's health service - S.S.A)

  4. Protection of outside workers against ionising radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This HSE information sheet is aimed at employers of outside workers, managers of contractors, health physics staff, appointed safety representatives, radiation protection advisers (RPA) and radiation protection supervisors (RIPS), employers in control of controlled areas which outside workers may enter, and outside workers themselves. This guidance supplements that in the Approved Code of Practice (ACOP) supporting the Ionising Radiations Regulations 1999 (IRR99) available from HSE Books, ISBN 0 7176 1746 7. IRR99 include provisions for outside workers that were previously required under the Ionising Radiations (Outside Workers) Regulations 1993 (OWR), which were revoked when IRR99 came into effect

  5. Radiation protection at reactors RA and RB

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiation protection activities at the RA and RB reactors are imposed by the existing legal regulations and international recommendations in this field. This annual report contains five parts which cover the following topics: Radiation safety, dosimetry control and technical radiation protection at reactors RA and RB; Handling of radioactive waste, actions and decontamination; Control of the environment (surroundings of RA and RB reactors) and meteorological measurements; Control of internal contamination and internal exposure; Health control od personnel exposed to radiation. Personnel as well as financial data are part of this report

  6. Radiation exposure and protection during angiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors describe the radiological techniques during angiography examinations in their hospital. For every technique they measured the radiation exposure and dose to the staff of doctors, assistants and nurses in their standard positions in the room and the radiation dose at various points on their bodies. The results are critically discussed and alternative protection devices are analysed, since there are many difficulties concerning the employ of usual radiation protection systems. Cardiologists, above all, are given some recomandations to reduce radiation exposure without prejudicing the exam results

  7. Radiation protection in occupational health

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The document is a training manual for physicians entering the field of occupational medicine for radiation workers. Part 1 contains the general principles for the practice of occupational health, namely health surveillance and the role of the occupational physician in the workplace, and Part 2 provides the essential facts necessary to understand the basic principles of radiation physics, radiobiology, dosimetry and radiation effects which form the basis for occupational radiation health

  8. Nuclear instrumentation for radiation protection [Paper No.:N1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Instrumentation for radiation protection surveillance should be primarily geared to generate and process a complete set of data on the radiological status in and around the nuclear installations for controlling the internal and external exposure of workers and to ensure that the dose to members of the public are kept below the mandatory limits. The paper reviews the status of development of radiation protection instruments in the national context and projects the requirements. The various category of instruments discussed in the paper cover survey instruments, installed monitors, personal monitoring devices, neutron monitors, air monitoring instruments, environmental dose logging systems and detectors. The development efforts need to be translated into regular production with proper quality assurance for meeting the growing demands of the radiation protection profession in the country. (author). 30 refs

  9. Effective dose: a radiation protection quantity

    CERN Document Server

    Menzel, H G

    2012-01-01

    Modern radiation protection is based on the principles of justification, limitation, and optimisation. Assessment of radiation risks for individuals or groups of individuals is, however, not a primary objective of radiological protection. The implementation of the principles of limitation and optimisation requires an appropriate quantification of radiation exposure. The International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) has introduced effective dose as the principal radiological protection quantity to be used for setting and controlling dose limits for stochastic effects in the regulatory context, and for the practical implementation of the optimisation principle. Effective dose is the tissue weighted sum of radiation weighted organ and tissue doses of a reference person from exposure to external irradiations and internal emitters. The specific normalised values of tissue weighting factors are defined by ICRP for individual tissues, and used as an approximate age- and sex-averaged representation of th...

  10. Radiation Protection of Children of Belarus

    International Science & Technology Center (ISTC)

    Radiation Protection of Children of Belarus. Development of Recommendations on the Basis of the Research of the Effectiveness of Effects of Radioprotectors on Children from Radiocontaminated Regions of Belarus

  11. National radiation protection programme for occupational exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiation Protection in Ecuador, as an important part of the whole context of protection against occupational health damage, since 1979 has become a relevant aspect in our government's concerns and policy. Programs have been developed in order to register machines, sources, activities and ionizing radiation users in all fields throughout the country. Plans have been implemented to improve workers safety from occupational exposure: personal thermoluminescense dosimetry, training courses, technical studies to get the best protection in working places, coordination with health institutions to make tests and evaluations to control occupational health, personal and institutional licensing and others. We also have supplied advice on Radiation Protection in the use of radiodiagnosis and radiotherapy, nuclear medicine, radionmunoassay and in industrial, educational and research applications, mainly in matters of shielding, technical meetings, and design of personal protections and safety procedures. (author)

  12. Qualification criteria for persons responsible for radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A survey of the qualification criteria included in the German atomic law (Atomic Energy Act, Radiological Protection Ordinance and X-ray Protection Ordinance) for persons responsible for radiation protection is given. Especially the various activities for which a health physics officer is required, the range of qualification in each case and the way the qualification has to be proved, are pointed out. Also the different guides that are issued to complete the legal requirements are mentioned. The definitions of the term qualification for health physics given in the different guides are cited and it is shown, that the qualification of a healt physics officer has to be based on the three criteria (I) vocational training. (II) professional experience and (III) the necessary knowledge in radiation protection. (orig./HP)

  13. Protective effects in radiation modification of elastomers

    Science.gov (United States)

    G?uszewski, Wojciech; Zagórski, Zbigniew P.; Rajkiewicz, Maria

    2014-12-01

    Saturated character of ethylene/octene thermoplastic elastomers demands an application of nonconventional methods of crosslinking connections between chains of molecules. These are organic peroxides, usually in the presence of coagents or an application of ionizing radiation. Several approaches (radiation, peroxide, peroxide/plus radiation and radiation/plus peroxide) were applied in crosslinking of elastomere Engage 8200. Attention was directed to the protection effects by aromatic peroxides and by photo- and thermostabilizers on radiolysis of elastomers. Role of dose of radiation, dose rate of radiation as well as the role of composition of elastomere on the radiation yield of hydrogen and absorbtion of oxygen was investigated. DRS method was used to follow postirradiation degradation. Influence of crosslinking methods on properties of elastomers is described. Results were interpreted from the point of view of protective actions of aromatic compounds.

  14. Radiation protection standards and radiation risks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Although the dangers of radiation are well-known, there are also many risk-free benefits from radiation that are now commonly used to advance knowledge and culture. The use of activation analysis in which materials are bombarded with neutrons is now used to identify and measure various elements. Archeologists use radiation to estimate the period and probable place where an object was made. It is also used to diagnose problems in forensic medicine, crime detection and mineral exploration. In biochemistry scientists tag and follow molecules in complex interactions. Activation analysis is also used in sterilization and plant breeding. These are only a few of the beneficial uses of radiational processes that are routinely used in our current technological oriented society

  15. Development of post accident radiation survey instrument

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Based on the existing reactor safety study scenarios, associated source term releases and the three nuclear accidents that occurred in the past (Windscale, TMI and Chernobyl), 131I and 137Cs have been identified as the radionuclides of major concern with respect to potential dose. Rapid measurement techniques, that use indigenous instruments for assessing deposited activity during an accidental release, have been evolved to facilitate quick decisions on subsequent protective measures. However, conventional radiation survey instruments give only the gross activity/dose rate without any energy, discrimination possible. It would be more appropriate and meaningful while planning the counter-measures, if the contributions due to 131I and 137Cs can separately be measured. With this objective in mind, a novel portable radiation survey instrument has been developed for the first time in India with the additional features such as inclusion of energy discrimination. This paper reports the development of such an instrument. The instrument uses conventional PM tube along with low power hybrid circuits based miniature discriminator. The versatility of the post accident monitor has further been improved by providing five ranges of energy discrimination possible. With this instrument, it is possible to measure gross activity below and above 500 keV as well as individual discriminator widows for 131I, 137Cs and 60p>131I, 137Cs and 60Co. The system has a simple analog meter display. The use of miniature electronics has ensured low power consumption while enhancing the reliability of the system. (author)

  16. Radiation protection program for assistance of victims of radiation accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The principles aspects of a radiological protection program for hospitals in case of medical assistance to external and internal contaminated persons are showed. It is based on the experience obtained at Centro Medico Naval Marcilio Dias during the assistance to the victims of Goiania accident in 1987. This paper describes the basic infrastructure of a nursery and the radiation protection procedures for the access control of people and materials, area and personal monitoring, decontamination and the support activities such as calibration of radiation monitors and waste management. Is is also estimated the necessary radiation protection materials and the daily quantity of waste generated. (author)

  17. The radiation protection officer in medicine and engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The directory covers the duties and responsibilities of the radiation protection officer in medicine and engineering, the fundamentals of radiation protection (German radiation protection law, limiting values, fundamental physics, biological radiation effects of ionizing radiation, radon at the working place, radiation protection for neutron handling), the accomplishment of radiation protection (radiation protection in case of open radioactive source handling, application of encapsulated radioactive materials, operation of facilities generating ionizing radiation, employment in foreign facilities or institutions, technical X-ray facilities or interfering radiation, X-ray facility in medicine, quality assurance in nuclear medicine)

  18. ALARA in the radiation protection training

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This part treats especially the question of the training in radiation protection. The electro nuclear sector has given an ALARA principle culture and succeeded to sensitize each level of hierarchy, but for small industry, the research and the medical world the same method appears more difficult to use. It seems better to reinforce the importance of the competent person and to include a training in radiation protection on the initial formation in numerous professional categories. (N.C.)

  19. Nuclear data in radiation protection dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear data plays an important role for studies of radiation protection dosimetry. Accurate nuclear data lead us to reliable results on dosimetric calculations. In this paper, the application of nuclear data to radiation protection dosimetry is demonstrated with the calculation of dose conversion coefficients for radionuclides in the environment. A problem in reproduction of forward neutron spectra for proton incidence with high-energy nuclear data is also discussed. (author)

  20. Knowledge plus Attitude in Radiation Protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since the introduction of the Basic Safety Standards recommendations, the scope of the radiation protection was broadening. On behalf of the incorporation of radiation protection of the patient in medical exposures, the different groups of professionals involved: physicians, medical physicists, radiation protection officers, regulators, etc., have to work together. The objective of radiation protection, that is, to reduces doses from practices, to prevent potential exposures, to detect its occurrence as well as to evaluate and spread such abnormal situations, will be obtained only if it were possible to joint two basic conditions: knowledge and attitude. It should be well known the differences between the backgrounds needed to be for example, a medical physicist or an R.P.O., However, their attitude to solve an eventual problem involving radiation protection should be the same; as well as the behavior of the specialized physician and regulators, in order to add towards common goals. In this work, we show as an example the curricula contents about radiation protection of the cancer of medical physics in the Universidad Nacional de San Martin (UNSAM), and the corresponding module on medical exposures from the Post-Graduate course on Radiation Protection and Nuclear Safety, held since the 80s in Buenos Aires by the National Commission of Atomic Energy, ARN, IAEA, and the Universidad de Buenos Aires. On the other hand, we describe different attitudes which leads or could different attitudes which leads or could start major radiological accidents, regardless the level of knowledge in radiation protection. We conclude that the larger numbers of accidents are due to problems in the attitude than in the level of knowledge of the person involved. Consequently; we suggest emphasizing the discussion on how to generate positive attitudes in every professional involucrated, independently of its cognitive profile or level. (Author) 2 refs

  1. Current situation of radiation protection in Vietnam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vietnam was one of the earliest countries, who applied ionizing radiation in medicine, since 1923, Dr. Marie Curie had supplied radium sources to Hanoi cancer hospital for radiotherapy. However, we did not give sufficient attention to radiation protection involving, e.g. technology, legislation, until 1980s. Recently with the strong support from International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and Vietnam government nuclear technology has been strongly and widely developed in different branches and radiation protection situation in Vietnam has been improved step by step. Strategy for Peaceful Utilization of Atomic Energy up to 2020 approved by the prime minister on January 3th, 2006 confirms that nuclear power plant will be put in operation by 2020. To ensure the implementation of the strategy, the first priority should be given to radiation protection and nuclear safety. This paper presents shortly some activities of radiation safety in Vietnam. The requirements for developing this field in Vietnam are also discussed. (author)

  2. Federal radiation protection regulations: An industry viewpoint

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Regulations and standards to protect the public and workers from ionizing radiation have been in transition for a number of years, although most of the basic limits in use have remained essentially unchanged over the past 25 years or so. Legislation, political changes, new scientific data, advances in scientific concepts, and finally, public perception and resulting pressures have all been factors in the modifications that have been implemented or considered for radiation protection regulations in recent years. During this period, radiation exposures to both the public and the work force have been reduced through program management and improved technology. Based on activities of the AIF Subcommittee on Radiation Protection, this paper reviews pertinent NRC and EPA regulations, standards and guidance as well as NCRP recommendations and provide some analyses of these in terms of their potential effect on nuclear industry operations. Comments include suggestions where minor changes in Federal agency approaches to radiation regulation might be made for the public benefit

  3. Radiation protection for industrial radiography in the aerospace industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Boeing Company employs 80 industrial radiographers, operates 90 radiation sources, and takes 10,000 exposures per month. This paper describes the major components of Boeing's radiation protection program: hazard analysis, facilities and equipment design, program administration, and evaluation. In the hazard analysis, each source of radiation is analyzed to determine its hazard and relationship to both man and the environment around it. Once the degree of the hazard is known, facilities and equipment are designed to contain the hazard. This can be anything from a four foot concrete shielded room for an industrial radiographic accelerator, to a piece of rope that isolates an Iridium-192 source during a field radiographic inspection on an aircraft. The administrative functions provide the necessary records, command media, and a radiation source certification program. This certification authorizes the source of radiation to be used under specific conditions agreed upon by both the Radiation Protection Organization and Industrial Radiography Management. The radiation protection program is evaluated through medical exams, personnel monitoring, and area radiation surveys. (H.K.)

  4. Radiation protection principles observance in Iranian dental schools

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In recent decades many guidelines has been conducted by radiation protection organizations about radiation protection in dentistry. This study aimed to evaluate the observance of these guidelines in educational clinics of all dental schools in Iran. Material and Methods: In this cross-sectional study a self-administered questionnaire, based on National Radiation Protection Board and European Commission guidelines, was conducted. The radiology departments of all dental school (18 schools) were surveyed in this study. The questionnaire was consisted of 3 sections including intraoral radiography, extra oral radiography and implementation of quality control programs. Results: In the case of the existence of radiation protection facilities (such as lead apron, thyroid shield and lead impacted walls) the use of high speed films and existence of automatic processor in dental schools, there was a proper condition. The main problem was related to lack of regular quality control and quality assurance programs. Digital radiography systems were employed in none of the schools and it was occasionally used for research purposes at some of them. Conclusions: This study has emphasized on the need for further consideration of radiation protection principles in dental schools, especially on the field of quality control and quality assurance programs.

  5. Research on radiation effect and radiation protection at JAEA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Researches on radiation effect and radiation protection at JAEA have been carried out in different sections. In recent years, the organizations were rearranged to attain better research circumstances, and new research programs started. At present, radiation effect studies focus on radiation effect mechanisms at atomic, molecular and cellular levels including simulation studies, and protection studies focus on dosimetry for conditions difficult to cover with currently used methods and data as well as the related basic studies. The outlines of the whole studies and also some descriptions on selected subjects will be given in this paper. (author)

  6. Proceedings of the Tenth Radiation Physics and Protection Conference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The publication has been set up as proceedings of the Radiation Physics and Protection Conference.. The conference consists Natural Radiation Sources; Radiation Detection and Measurements; Applied Radiation Physics; Radiation Medical Physics and Biophysics; Radiation Dosimetry; Operational Radiation Protection; Radiation Shielding; Transport of Radioactive Materials; Nuclear and Radiation Physics; Medical Physics and Public Protection Against Radiological Attack. This conference consists of 402 p., figs., tabs., refs.

  7. Radiation protection and the laws and regulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In hospitals and clinics, when cobalt remote irradiation apparatuses, betatrons and linear accelerators are installed, the provisions of medical and radiation injury prevention laws and other related laws and regulations must be observed. The following matters are described: the laws and regulations concerning the prevention of radiation injuries, the definitions of the therapeutical equipments, the radiation protection standards for such facilities, radiation exposure dose and permissible dose, the procedures concerning the application before usage, the responsibilities of hospitals and clinics for radiation measurement and management, and shielding and shield calculations. (J.P.N.)

  8. Radiation protection in Baden-Wuerttemberg

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The tasks of radiation protection and nuclear safety to be looked after by the land Baden-Wuerttemberg consist essentially in licensing and control activities carried out by the Federal Government. With regard to radiation protection the focal points of the second medium-term programme of the Laender Government Baden-Wuerttemberg are: 1. the technical development plan 'power plant sites', 2. construction of nuclear power plants in the borderline areas of neighbouring foreign countries, 3. disposal of radioactive waste, 4. pollution protection measures against nuclear power plants, 5. safety measures when dealing with radioactive materials outside nuclear power plants. (GL)

  9. RADIATION BIOLOGY: CONCEPTS FOR RADIATION PROTECTION

    Science.gov (United States)

    ABSTRACT The opportunity to write a historical review of the field of radiation biology allows for the viewing of the development and maturity of a field of study, thereby being able to provide the appropriate context for the earlier years of research and its findings. The...

  10. IAEA project on radiation protection: Indonesia experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Indonesia has been involved in the IAEA/RCA project on radiation protection infrastructure (RAS/9/018) since its inception in 1987. When in 2000 IAEA established two new model projects, i.e. Strengthening the effectiveness of the regulatory framework and national programme for occupational radiation protection (RAS/9/026) and Development of technical capabilities for sustainable radiation and waste safety infrastructure (RAS/9/027), Indonesia also participated. This paper presents the view of the author as National Project Coordinator for RAS/9/018 during 1997-2001 before handing over his responsibility to National Focal Person as required by the Agency. (author)

  11. Report on radiation protection in Croatia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Ministry of Health in the Republic of Croatia is in charge of radiation protection, and the new Ionizing Radiation Protection Act defines the responsibilities of the different organizations and institutions. The report explains the existing national system of notification and registration in Croatia and some of the main provisions of the above referred Act. Reference is made to the national provisions for the management of disused sources, recovery or control of orphan sources, and to the national inventory of radiation sources in the country with the data collected during 1998 and 1999. (author)

  12. The South African Forum for Radiation Protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The use of ionising radiation in South Africa since the turn of the century was initially limited to x-rays and radium, with predominant applications in medicine for diagnosis and therapy. Since 1948 artificial radio-isotopes have been increasingly available and such applications have been widely extended to industry, agriculture and science. Initially, the Council for Scientific and Industrial Research developed radiation protection in South Africa. It was later recommended that an independent forum, the South African Forum for Radiation Protection, be established. The activities of the Forum are described

  13. Bases and trends in radiation protection policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of radiation protection is to prevent detrimental non-stochastic effects and to limit the probability of stochastic effects to levels deemed to be acceptable. For this purpose, the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) has suggested the three principles of justification of practice, optimization of protection, and individual dose limitation. The ICRP dose limits are individual-related, but the practical limitation of dose contributions from specified sources is source-related, as is that of collective dose. This may be needed in optimization analyses if proportionality between radiation health detriment and collective dose can be assumed. Limitation of the collective dose commitment per unit of practice may be an useful method for control of the highest future per caput dose. These bases of current radiation protection policy are reviewed, together with some indications of trends, including probabilistic approaches

  14. The conceptual basis for neutron radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The conceptual basis for neutron radiation protection has specific neutron aspect and general radiation protection aspects. As to the first, the rationale of q(L), q(Esub(n)) and finally the risk factors used in the definition of the effective dose equivalent, Hsub(E), are discussed. Using an approach developed by Rossi, an alternative q(L) is assumed and q(Esub(n)) and finally Hsub(E) calculated. General radiation protection aspects concern the definition, introduction and application of operational quantities, which are intended to replace in practice the primary and secondary limited ones. Neutron dose equivalent is not directly measurable, although efforts are now being made to utilize TE-proportional counters, and so at present all quantities have to be defined via calculated fluence-to-dose equivalent conversion functions. Extensive radiation transport calculations have been performed in the past in both anthropoid and regular body phantoms to determine fluence conversion factors for the whole hierarchy of primary limited and operational quantities. Quantities defined in the ICRU-sphere are of special interest. Revised data sets for all relevant quantities will be shown and intercompared. One of the recurrent problems in radiation protection is the difficulty in establishing a unique concept for environmental and individual monitoring. The planned concept of ICRU is critically reviewed in this respect. Finally the implications of the new proposals on the uncertainty in assessing limited quantities under certain exposure conditions in radiation protection practice will be discussed

  15. Management information system on radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Considering the flux complexity and the multi source information of all radiation protection activities on nuclear organizations, an effective management information system based on technology, information and people is necessary to improve the safety on all processes and operations subjected to radiation risks. An effective management information system is an essential tool to highlight the strengths and weaknesses and identify behaviors and trends on the activities requiring radiation protection programs. Such kind of distinct knowledge is useful to reach an effective management and support the human decision-making on nuclear organization. This paper presents a management information system based on Brazilian directives and regulations on radiation protection. Due to its generic characteristics, this radiation protection control system can be implemented on any nuclear organization by reediting the non restricted parameters which could differ considering all facilities and laboratories expected on-site with diverse technologies applications. This system can be considered as a powerful tool applied on the continuous management of radiation protection activities on nuclear organizations and research institutes as well as for long term planning, not only indicating how the safety activities are going, but why they are not going as well as planned where that is the case. (author)

  16. Radiation protection in medical and biomedical research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The human exposure to ionizing radiation in the context of medical and biomedical research raises specific ethical challenges whose resolution approaches should be based on scientific, legal and procedural matters. Joint Resolution MINSAP CITMA-Regulation 'Basic Standards of Radiation Safety' of 30 November 2001 (hereafter NBS) provides for the first time in Cuba legislation specifically designed to protect patients and healthy people who participate in research programs medical and biomedical and exposed to radiation. The objective of this paper is to demonstrate the need to develop specific requirements for radiation protection in medical and biomedical research, as well as to identify all the institutions involved in this in order to establish the necessary cooperation to ensure the protection of persons participating in the investigation

  17. Stomatological radiodiagnostics - radiation exposure and radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For the equipment of working places in dental radiology 4 types of apparatuses are available: (1) 'Minident 55' (technical parameters: 50-60 kV, 5-10 mA), (2) 'Stomax 100' (60-90 kV, 10-20 mA) both stomatological X-ray apparatuses for diagnostic purposes, (3) 'Cranex DC', a panoramic X-ray diagnostic device working on the layer principle, and (4) a 6-pulse radiodiagnostic device with horizontal table and auxiliary tomographic equipment. On the average one dental film per year and patient is taken in the GDR; the radiation exposure (12 mGy skin surface dose; 0.001 mGy gonad dose) is neither a somatic nor a genetic risk. Due to their small part in the total number of radiographs, extra-oral and panoramic X-ray examinations are of minor importance in the radiation exposure to the population

  18. Development of radiation protection and measurement technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Si Young; Lee, T. Y.; Kim, J. L.; Kim, B. H.; Lee, B. J.; Chung, K. K.; Lee, K. C.; Chung, R. I.; Han, Y. D.; Kim, J. S.; Lee, H. S.; Kim, C. K.; Yoon, K. S.; Jeong, D. Y.; Yoon, S. C.; Yoon, Y. C.; Lee, S. Y.; Kim, J. S.; Seo, K. W. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, J. K.; Lee, J. K. [Hanyang Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-07-01

    Reference X-, gamma, beta and neutron radiation fields complying with the ISO and ANSI standards have been established and evaluated to provide a basic technical support in national radiation protection dosimetry program and to provide calibration measurement devices. Personal dose evaluation algorithm has been developed with these reference radiation fields, which comply well with both domestic and the new ANSI N13.11, to evaluate accurate personal dose equivalents. A personal internal dosimetry algorithm which can estimate the intakes of radionuclides from the results of in vivo bioassay and the resulting internal doses has been developed and verified its performance. It was also evaluated to be equality excellent compared with those being used in foreign countries and used to make a computer code for internal dose evaluation which can be run with PC under the Windows environment. A BOMAB phantom for precise calibration of in vivo system has been also designed, fabricated and test-evaluated. Based on the ALARA concept of the optimization principle of radiation protection, a method for estimating the cost for radiation protection has been studied and an objective monetary cost of detriment due to radiation exposure, called {alpha} value ($/man-Sv) has been derived and proposed based on the Korean socio-economic situation and human risk factors to provide basic data for the radiation protection optimization study in Korea. (author). 100 refs., 104 tabs., 69 figs.

  19. Development of radiation protection and measurement technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reference X-, gamma, beta and neutron radiation fields complying with the ISO and ANSI standards have been established and evaluated to provide a basic technical support in national radiation protection dosimetry program and to provide calibration measurement devices. Personal dose evaluation algorithm has been developed with these reference radiation fields, which comply well with both domestic and the new ANSI N13.11, to evaluate accurate personal dose equivalents. A personal internal dosimetry algorithm which can estimate the intakes of radionuclides from the results of in vivo bioassay and the resulting internal doses has been developed and verified its performance. It was also evaluated to be equality excellent compared with those being used in foreign countries and used to make a computer code for internal dose evaluation which can be run with PC under the Windows environment. A BOMAB phantom for precise calibration of in vivo system has been also designed, fabricated and test-evaluated. Based on the ALARA concept of the optimization principle of radiation protection, a method for estimating the cost for radiation protection has been studied and an objective monetary cost of detriment due to radiation exposure, called ? value ($/man-Sv) has been derived and proposed based on the Korean socio-economic situation and human risk factors to provide basic data for the radiation protection optimization study in Korea. (author). 100 refs., 104 tabs., 69 figs

  20. Research of radiation protection monitoring on radiotherapy site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiotherapy is an effective way for cancer treatment and radiation protection monitoring is indispensable for it. The radiation protection monitoring is realized using the radiation protection monitoring instruments. The authors introduce the necessity, programs and deployments of radiation protection monitoring on radiotherapy site, as well as the suitable instruments

  1. Radiation protection in dental practice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This guide provides the dentist and dental support personnel with basic information on the safe use of x-rays in dental radiography. Included in this CODE are specific recommendations for eliminating unnecessary radiation exposure of both patients and staff

  2. Proposal of a survey of radiation protection procedures during breast feeding;Proposta de um levantamento do estado da arte da radioprotecao para lactantes submetidas a procedimento com radiofarmacos e respectivos bebes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Liliane dos; Oliveira, Silvia M. Velasques de [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Servico de Monitoracao Individual Interna

    2009-07-01

    Contamination can occur by breast milk ingestion involving mothers subjected to diagnostic procedures or treatment with radiopharmaceuticals, which can reach high concentrations in milk causing significant absorbed doses to the children organs. Besides internal dose, close contact between the baby and his mother give rise to external exposures. In Brazil, 7% of diagnostic procedures use {sup 131}I or {sup 123}I for thyroid imaging and 84% of these were hold by women. For {sup 131}I, {sup 67}Ga and {sup 201}Tl, is recommended breast feeding cessation. The present work proposes a survey of the state of the art of radiation protection to breast feeding infants. It was planned interviews with nuclear medicine staff applying a questionnaire in order to assess specific procedures to women in reproductive age. This is 'on progress work'. (author)

  3. Radiation protection by superoxide dismutase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Protection of X-irradiated mice by bovine superoxide dismutase is enhanced when the enzyme is given intravenously both before and after the exposure. With the combined treatment, the LDsub(50(30)) dose is increased from 734 +- 8 to 1144 +- 15 rad for a dose reduction factor of 1.56 +- 0.04. This protection occurs in a dose range where haematological damage is an important contributor to animal lethality. The proliferative capacity of bone marrow stem cells, X-irradiated in air, is protected by exogenous superoxide dismutase. The enzyme increased the D0 from 105 +- 6 to 290 +- 34 rad, an increase that represents 83% of the oxygen enhancement ratio of 3.3. In N2 and N20, the D0 of the stem cells is 348 +- 50 and 327 +- 55 rad, respectively, and the enzyme does not significantly change these values. (author)

  4. Radiation protection and the safety of radiation sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    These Safety Fundamentals cover the protection of human beings against ionizing radiation (gamma and X rays and alpha, beta and other particles that can induce ionization as they interact with biological materials), referred to herein subsequently as radiation, and the safety of sources that produce ionizing radiation. The Fundamentals do not apply to non-ionizing radiation such as microwave, ultraviolet, visible and infrared radiation. They do not apply either to the control of non-radiological aspects of health and safety. They are, however, part of the overall framework of health and safety

  5. Current Radiation Protection Practices in Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of the present study is to report in going activities in Egypt during 2010-2011. Such activities are controlled by Egyptian Law no 59 (1960). Where activities controlled by ministry of Health are x-rays machines accelerators and sealed sources. While activities controlled by Atomic Energy Authority are unsealed sources and reactors. Radiation protection practices include radiation monitoring at sites external and internal personnel dosimetry of radiation workers. It covers sites such as Hospitals companies, research reactors and research institutes and others. Detailed summary of the radiation protection practices shall be covered in the present study. Attention shall be paid to the new Ionizing radiation law I which was issued in 2011. The new law shall be implemented as soon as its executive regulation is issued. Upon its implementation. The duties of the controlling authorities shall be redistributed between ministry of health and a new controlling authority. The new authority shall control nuclear and radiological activities

  6. Radiation protection activities around the CERN accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The staff of the Survey Section of Radiation Protection (RP) working around the CERN accelerators were as usual very busy. The LEP2 programme is now fully on its way, with the installation of additional superconducting RF cavities carried out during both the winter and summer shutdowns. The LEP energy per beam was thus increased to 80.5 GeV in summer and to 86 GeV in autumn. ACOL and LEAR ended their operational life on 19 December producing, for the last time, antiprotons for the experiments in the South Hall; all experiments will be dismantled in 1997. This programme will be partly replaced by the future Antiproton Decelerator, which was approved by the Research Board in November. Several experiments also came to their end in the North and West Experimental Areas of the SPS. NA44 (in EHN1) and NA47 (in EHN2) ended this year. All experiments installed in beam lines HI, H3, XI and X3 in the West Area also terminated, as these beam lines will be dismantled in the course of 1997 to make room for test facilities for the LHC. Several modifications in the West and North Experimental Areas have already been undertaken at the end of the year and will be continued in 1997. Some equipment installed in the West Area will be moved to the North Area. In addition to routine work, several measurements of synchrotron radiation were made in LEP for the two new energy levels reached in 1996. A number of dedicated measurements were also undertaken in EHN1 (North Area) at the end of the year, during the lead-ion run which closed the physics period. A detailed assessment of releases of radioactivity from the ISOLDE facility was also made

  7. Viewing radiation protection in the framework of general environmental protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The author of the introductory contribution places the tasks of radiation protection within the framework of general environmental protection. He presents joint concepts - for instance, large-area measuring plans for radon in living-space and formaldehyde in building materials, and, for instance, protection of waters with corresponding recommendations for the chemicals industry - and sets out the political principles of the Federal German Government for the improvement of the environmental situation and, especially, for the protection of human health. He points out each citizen's own responsibility for his health, and the consumer's responsibility as regards his own consumer behaviour. As regards the protection of the population and the environment against ionizing radiation hazards, especially with regard to German nuclear power plants, the valid principle is 'safety first', and this includes the tasks with which radiologists are confronted in the event of nuclear accidents to assure transfrontier, preventive medical care. The Association of German Radiologists is requested to make special efforts to assess the radiation exposure of man. (TRV)

  8. National congress of radiation protection; Congres national de radioprotection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    The congress of radiation protection tackled different areas of radiation protection. The impact of ionizing radiations on environment coming from radioactive activities. The biological radiation effects, the dosimetry, the different ways of doing relative to radiation protection,the risks analysis and the communications with populations, information about accidents and the lessons learned from them are included in this congress. (N.C.)

  9. Radiation protection in nuclear energy. V.2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The conference was convened to provide a forum for the exchange of international views on the principles of radiation protection for regulators and practitioners, to highlight issues of current importance, to examine the problems encountered in applying the principles of radiation protection, and, where possible, to identify generic solutions. The highlights of the conference were the sessions on the interface between nuclear safety and radiation protection, the evolution of radiation protection principles, exemption rules and accident experiences. The special session on the practical implications of the linear dose-response relationships also provoked particular interest. Although the session on optimization and decision aiding did not reveal any new developments, it did indicate an increasing emphasis on the optimization of radiation protection. A clear trend towards attaining lower collective doses per unit practice over a given time period, despite the increase in nuclear power plant capacity, is also apparent, although very few data on job-related worker doses have been published to date in the open literature. From the regulators' viewpoint, a very strong desire was expressed for a move towards regulatory strategies that exempt practices and sources causing insignificant individual and collective doses. Refs, figs and tabs

  10. Public understanding of radiation protection concepts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Chernobyl accident in April 1986 clearly showed that communication with the public was one of the areas where there was a strong need for improvement, particularly concerning the nature and extent of the information provided by national authorities. The countermeasures adopted by public health authorities also raised difficulties in terms of public understanding and acceptance due, in part, to the perception of discrepancies in national, regional or local response to the accident, but also to a more basic lack of comprehension of the complex radiation protection considerations involved. In an attempt to help improve the situation, the NEA Committee on Radiation Protection and Public Health decided to organise a Workshop on public communication in the event of a nuclear accident, centered on radiation protection issues. The purpose of this Workshop was to analyse appropriate methods and language to be used when explaining to the public the scientific concepts underlying radiation risks and radiation protection, and the technical rationale for the choice of protective actions in an emergency. Separate abstracts were prepared for individual papers presented at the meeting

  11. Radiation protection problems with sealed Pu radiation sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A brief outline of the production methods and most important properties of Pu-238 and Pu-239 is given, followed by an overview of possibilities for utilizing the different types of radiation emitted, a description of problems involved in the safe handling of Pu radiation sources, and an assessment of the design principles for Pu-containing alpha, photon, neutron and energy sources from the radiation protection point of view. (author)

  12. A European handbook for teachers on radiation and radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Commission of the European Communities (Directorate General XI) has taken several initiatives to assist Member States, one of them being the development of a handbook for teachers on radiation and radiation protection, in order to give teachers a clear, scientifically valid and objective set of materials to enable those who so wish to includes courses on radiation protection in their teaching programmes. The draft handbook has been tested in five countries and is to be published in English and French in 1993. Translations in all Community languages are envisaged

  13. Regulatory System of Radiation Protection in Taiwan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After the radioactive contaminated buildings incident occurred in Taiwan in 1993, the competent authority for radiation protection the Atomic Energy Council (AEC) started to review the structured problem of radiation protection regulatory system. Through several years' investigation and study, the AEC has improved two important tools in radiation protection regulatory system, i.e., control regulations and actual practice, and made them more rigorous and efficient. This paper will make a brief introduction of the efforts that Taiwan has made in this respect. Taiwan's radiation protection control was based on the Atomic Energy Law promulgated in 1968, but the control idea and authorization scope were not sufficient to appropriately respond to the highly developed economy and democracy in Taiwan. After several years' legislative process, the Ionizing Radiation Protection Law (IRP Law) was promulgated and entered into force on February 1, 2003. This IRP Law specifically emphasizes categorized risk management of radiation sources, establishment of personnel licenses and training system, enhancement of public safety control, and implementation of quality assurance program for medical exposure. The Legislative Yuan (Congress) fully authorized the competent authority to establish various technological control regulations according to control necessity without prior review by the Legislative Yuan in advance. As to the penalties of the violations of the IRP Law, the AEC adopts violations of the IRP Law, the AEC adopts high-rated administrative fines and applies the Criminal Law to those who seriously contaminate the environment. In actual practice, the AEC has constructed a Radiation Protection Control Information System compatible with the IRP Law that fully combines the functions of computers and Internet. The information of facility operators who own radiation sources, radiation protection specialists, and operating personnel are entered into this system, starting from the submission of application of the radiation sources until the discard of the radiation sources such that the competent authority can efficiently control. In order to control the moving status of high-activity sources, the AEC requires the owners of high-activity sources shall report the conditions of variation to the competent authority through Internet every month. According to the IRP Law the records of penalties shall also enter this system for statistical analysis so as to be used for regulatory reference. (Author)

  14. Basic manual for radiation protection. 2. rev. ed.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Based on his vast practical experience, the author succeeded in presenting a concise and systematic survey of the special knowledge required in the field of radiation protection. Starting with explaining the elementary physical processes of the interaction between matter and radiation, the terms used are defined, principles and mechanisms are discussed, and mathematical models are given whenever necessary. Among the great variety of aspects dealt with, radiation dosimetry is a main topic, including the calculation of dose rates of beta, gamma and neutron rays, as well as design, operating mode and use of the radiation measuring and monitoring equipment required to assess and assure sufficient radiological protection. Although the design of shieldings remains the domain of the specialist having access to the electronic computers required for this purpose, this book illustrates the design and effects of radiation shields. The natural radiation background and the radiation dose to the environment emanating from technical and other installations are discussed along with the biological effects of ionizing radiation on plants, animals and man. Another important issue dealt with is the incorporation of radioactive substances and appropriate therapeutical measures. The legal aspect has also been taken into account, with the relevant laws and regulations and ordinances forming the administrative basis of efficient radiological protection being presented; large space has been don being presented; large space has been devoted to practical radiation protection: A collection of new radiological SI units, interpreted in terms of the units hitherto used, a great number of figures and a comprehensive subject index and bibliography will no doubt be of help to the reader. (orig./HP)

  15. Radiation protection training for users of ionizing radiation in Hungary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    According to the current and previous regulation related to the safety use of ionizing radiation, the personnel involved must obtain special qualification in radiation protection. In Hungary the radiation protection training are performed by appropriately certified training centers on basic, advanced and comprehensive levels. Certification of the training centers is given by the competent radiological health/radiation protection authority. The office of the Chief Medical Officer is the certifying authority for advanced and comprehensive levels training, as well as competent Regional Radiological Health Authority is responsible for basic level courses. The content and length of courses are specified in the regulation for all three levels of industrial, laboratory and medical users, in general. Some of the universities, technical and medical oriented are certified for advanced training for students as gradual course. Recently in Hungary there are 47 certified training centers for advanced and comprehensive courses, where the trainers should have a five years job experience in radiation protection and successful completion of comprehensive level course in radiation protection. (authors)

  16. Radiation protection of the environment - new trends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recent trends in the radiation protection of the environment focusing on basic changes of the protection philosophy from the egocentric to ecocentric approach are presented and discussed. The globalization of the economy is accompanied by global contamination of the environment that requires changes in the attitude of the protection of the total environment, i.e. protection of humans, fauna and flora, all ecosystems and the Earth in general, as well as the cosmic space. This complex approach is illustrated on the radiation protection of the environment that has always been in the forefront in developing protection philosophy, methodology and standards, which later has also been applied to the protection of the environment caused by non-radioactive contaminants, such as heavy metals and organic compounds. High radiation doses delivered to biota are illustrated on shellfish and fish collected in the Mururoa and Fangataufa lagoons (affected by series of nuclear weapons tests), and on fish in Novaya Zemlya bays (affected by dumping of nuclear reactors and radioactive wastes). On the methodological site an example is discussed focusing on the in situ sea-bed radionuclide mapping and seawater monitoring using submersible gamma-ray spectrometers operating with NaI(Tl) and HPGe detectors which has proved to be important pre-requisite for estimation of the spatial distribution of radionuclides in the water column and on the sea floor, as well as for optimisation of sediment sampling for studying the radionuclide distribution with depth

  17. IAEA occupational radiation protection programme: current status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As stated in Art.III.A.6 of its Statute, the International Atomic Energy Agency (commonly referred to as the Agency) is authorized to establish or adopt, in consultation and, where appropriate, in collaboration with the competent organs of the United Nations and with the specialized agencies concerned, standards of safety for protection of health and minimization of danger to life and property (including such standards for labour conditions), and to provide for the application of these standards to its own operation as well as to the operations making use of materials, services, equipment, facilities, and information made available by the Agency or at its request or under its control or supervision. The Agency s Occupational Radiation Protection Programme aims at harmonizing infrastructures for the control of radiation exposure of workers and for optimizing radiation protection in situation s of exposures due to external radiation and intakes of radionuclides from both artificial and natural sources of radiation. Under its regular and technical cooperation programmes, the Agency has been assigning high priority to both the establishment of safety standards for labour conditions and for the application of these standards through, Interalia, direct assistance under its technical cooperation (TC) programme, the rendering of services, the promotion of education and training, the fostering of information exchange and the coordination of research and development. The purpose of this paper is to present the current status and future IAEA activities in support of occupational radiation protection. (authors)

  18. Radiation protection in the application of ionizing radiation in industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There is a substantial increase in the use of ionizing radiation in industry throughout the country especially in the last five years or so. With this growth in the number of users and activity of sources used, and together with the introduction of the new Atomic Energy Licensing Act (AELA) in 1984, the question of radiation safety and protection of workers and members of the public in general, can no longer be taken lightly. It has to be dealt with effectively. In this paper, a general discussion and clarification on certain practical aspects of radiation protection as recommended by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) is presented. Amongst the topics chosen are those on area monitoring, personnel monitoring, leak testing of sealed sources and training of personnel. Also presented in the paper is a brief discussion about UTN's experience in giving out radiation protection services to various agencies throughout the country. (author)

  19. Research priorities for occupational radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Subpanel on Occupational Radiation Protection Research concludes that the most urgently needed research is that leading to the resolution of the potential effects of low-level ionizing radiation. This is the primary driving force in setting appropriate radiation protection standards and in directing the emphasis of radiation protection efforts. Much has already been done in collecting data that represents a compendium of knowledge that should be fully reviewed and understood. It is imperative that health physics researchers more effectively use that data and apply the findings to enhance understanding of the potential health effects of low-level ionizing radiation and improve the risk estimates upon which current occupational radiation protection procedures and requirements depend. Research must be focused to best serve needs in the immediate years ahead. Only then will we get the most out of what is accomplished. Beyond the above fundamental need, a number of applied research areas also have been identified as national priority issues. If effective governmental focus is achieved on several of the most important national priority issues, important occupational radiation protection research will be enhanced, more effectively coordinated, and more quickly applied to the work environment. Response in the near term will be enhanced and costs will be reduced by: developing microprocessor-aided open-quotes smartclose quotes instruments to simplify the use and processing of radiation data; developing more sensitive, energy-independent, and tissue-equivalent dosimeters to more accurately quantify personnel dose; and developing an improved risk assessment technology base. This can lead to savings of millions of dollars in current efforts needed to ensure personnel safety and to meet new, more stringent occupational guidelines

  20. Results of environmental radiation monitoring during radioactive waste disposal at central radiation protection station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Results of environmental radiation monitoring during radioactive waste processing and disposal are presented. It is carried out at the central radiation protection station (CRPS) using up-to-date dosemeters, radiometers and electron-physical equipment. As a rule the personnel external radiation dose is shown to exceed 0.01 J/kg per year. The radioactive fallout density is (4-6)x106 Bq/(km2xday) within the zone under monitoring. Radionuclide composition and specific activity of surface waters, soils and plants are given. Radiometric survey shows much difference in background values of ?-radiation dose rate only in some regions. Aerial gamma spectrometric survey shows high background gamma radiation just over CRPS

  1. Radiation protection in neighbouring countries in Central Europe. Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This proceeding is published in 3 volumes. Volume 1 covers the topics: (1) Environmental protection, and (2) Radiation Dosimetry. Volume 2 covers the topics: (3) Radiation Protection in Medical Exposures, (4) Radiation Protection in Applications of Radioisotopes and Nuclear Technology, (5) Radioactive Waste Management and Decommissioning, (6) Radiation Monitoring, and (7) Emergency Planning and Preparedness. Volume 3 covers the topics: (8) Operational Radiation Protection, (9) Non Ionising Radiation, (10) Radiation Protection Principles and Policies, (11) Natural Radiation, (12) Radiation Exposure Control: Methods and Means, and (13) Public Education and Information. (blahsl)

  2. Ionizing radiation, genetic risks and radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With one method of risk estimation, designed as the doubling dose method, the estimates of total genetic risk (i.e., over all generation) for a population continuously exposed at a rate of 0.01 Gy/generation of low LET irradiation are about 120 cases of Mendelian and chromosomal diseases/106 live births and about the same number of cases for multifactorial diseases (i.e., a total of 240 cases/106). These estimates provide the basis for risk coefficients for genetic effects estimated by ICRP (1991) in its Publication 60. These are: 1.0%/Sv for the general population (which is 40% of 240/106/0.01 Gy), and 0.6%/Sv for radiation workers (which is 60% of that for the general population). The results of genetic studies carried out on the Japanese survivors of A-bombs have shown no significant adverse effects attributable to parental radiation exposures. The studies of Gardner and colleagues suggest that the risk of leukaemia in children born to male workers in the nuclear reprocessing facility in Sellafield, U.K., may be increased. However, this finding is at variance with the results from the Japanese studies and at present, does not lend itself to a simple interpretation based on radiobiological principles. In the light of recent advances in the molecular biology of naturally-occurring human Mendelian diseases and what we presently know about multifactorial diseases, arguments are advanced to support the thesis that (i) current risk estimates for Mendelian diseases may be conservative and (ii) an overall doubling dose for all adverse genetic effects may be higher than the 1 Gy currently used (i.e., the relative risks are probably lower). (author)

  3. Radiation protection program of PETROBRAS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A broad and systemic program is presented aiming the control of ionizing radiation usage in activities such as measurement of operational variables, industrial radiography and well logging. Main aspects of this program are: control of radioactive sources utilization; personnel back up training in order to spread knowledge at the operation level, and standardization of procedures. (author)

  4. Radiation protection 1/87

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There is a paper on medical first aid after radiation accidents and another on positive effects of low-dose irradiation which are treated separately. In addition there are four contributions on question of conventional X-ray diagnosis. (G.Q.)

  5. HSE's Safety Assessment Principles for radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Health and Safety Executive (HSE) published its revised Safety Assessment Principles for Nuclear Facilities (SAPs) in December 2006. The SAPs are primarily intended for use by HSE's inspectors when judging the adequacy of safety cases for nuclear facilities. The revised SAPs refer in part to HSE's expectations relating to the technical discipline of radiation protection. The purpose of this paper is to describe for the benefit of a wider audience HSE's reasoning behind the final published SAPs and to set out the purpose of each specific radiation protection (RP) principle. The paper also discusses principles in other sections of the SAPs which are relevant to radiation protection. The paper notes that the SAPs should be viewed as a reflection of good practice in relation to nuclear facilities in the context of interpreting relevant parts of primary legislation such as the Nuclear Installations Act 1965. (memorandum)

  6. Evolution of Radiation Protection System in Kenya

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Promulgation of radiation protection legislation in Kenya dates back to 1982, was revised in 1985 and became operational in 1986. This law, the Radiation Protection Act, establishes the Radiation Protection Board as the National Regulatory Authority, with an executive Inspectorate headed by the Secretary to the Board. Subsidiary legislation on radiological practices and standards were subsequently published. The Inspectorate carries out the National programme for notification, authorization, inspection and enforcement. Nuclear applications for peaceful purposes in Kenya are on the increase in all major fields of socio-economic development. Provision of regulatory services, guidance and enforcement procedures, has had a net growth over the last fifteen years. However, staff retention has been declining over the years in a market where job opportunities, with relatively high incentives, are high either inside or outside the country. Human and equipment resource development has therefore not kept pace and this has hampered effective and efficient provision of services. The poor status of the economy has had its impact on delivery of quality, effective and efficient radiation protection services. Provision of radiation services and acquisition of radiation detection and measurement equipment in the country has been generally lacking dating as far back as 1995. During the period 1989 to present, Kenya's Regulatory Authority, the Radiation Protection Board, undertook to prodiation Protection Board, undertook to provide personal monitoring, quality assurance, radioanalysis, and equipment calibration. Over the years these services have stalled due to outdated equipment most of which have broken down. A maintenance and calibration service for nuclear equipment is an expensive cross-boarder issue. Budgetary constraints, insufficient human and equipment resources, and a perennial 'brain drain' has placed limitations to the effectiveness and efficiency of implementation of the National programmes and slowed the attainment of the objectives of the National policy on radiation protection and waste safety. The current Radiation Protection Act is limited in scope, regulatory independence and empowerment. A new draft of the revised Act was submitted to the IAEA for review and comments. The revised version is aimed, inter alia, at meeting the principal requirements of the International Basic Safety Standards and incorporating aspects of non-ionizing radiation. The revised draft is now under discussion with stakeholders for their input before enactment. Development of a sustainable national infrastructure requires years of national effort and government commitment. Over the last two years, there has been sufficient government commitment and there have been solid achievements. Kenya has placed the issue of human resource development high on her development agenda and has provided support for expanding technical staffing of the Regulatory Authority with an initial recruitment of ten (10) Radiation Protection Officers. Other factors impacting on quality, effectiveness and efficiency of radiation protection programmes, are being appropriately addressed in order to realize a fully sustainable radiation protection infrastructure. (Author)

  7. Radiation protection at workplaces with increased natural radiation exposure in Greece: recording, monitoring and protection measures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greek Atomic Energy Commission (GAEC) is the regulatory, advisory and competent authority on radiation protection matters. It is the authority responsible for the introduction of Radiation Protection regulations and monitoring of their implementation. In 1997, within the frame of its responsibilities the Board of the GAEC appointed a task group of experts to revise and bring the present Radiation Protection Regulations into line with the Basic Safety Standards (BSS) 96/29/Euratom Directive and the 97/43/Euratom Directive (on health protection of individuals against the dangers of ionising radiation in relation to medical exposure). Concerning the Title 7. of the new European BSS Directive, which refers to the Radiation Protection at work places with increased levels of natural radiation exposure, the Radiation Protection Regulations provides that the authority responsible for recording, monitoring and introducing protection measures at these places is the GAEC. Practices where effective doses to the workers due to increased natural radiation levels, may exceed 1mSv/y, have to be specified and authorised by the GAEC. The identification procedure is ongoing

  8. RCA - a regional approach to radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Regional Cooperative Agreement (RCA) for Asia and Oceania is the oldest of four International Atomic Energy Agency Member State regional programs. Organized in 1972, 17 countries are now members of RCA - Australia, Bangladesh, Peoples Republic of China, India, Indonesia, Japan, Republic of Korea, Malaysia, Mongolia, Myanmar, New Zealand, Pakistan, Philippines, Singapore, Sri Lanka, Thailand, and Viet Nam. A number of projects related to the application of a wide range of nuclear technologies are conducted through RCA. The program is established by national coordinators for each project area, in consultation with IAEA technical officers. Most of the funding comes directly from RCA regional donor countries, with about one third supplied through the IAEA Technical Cooperation program. In 1986, following the Chernobyl accident, national coordinators and the IAEA staff recognized the value of establishing an RCA project aimed at strengthening regional radiation protection programs. The potential importance of RCA involvement in radiation protection is underscored by the fact that its member states comprise more than half of the world's population. The regional approach to addressing radiation protection issues allows member states to take advantage of regional resources to solve common regional problems. RCA provides the opportunity for specialists who may have few professional colleagues in their country to develop valuable contacts with regional radiation protection ntacts with regional radiation protection experts. In a very real way, specialists can network with their neighbours, often establishing bilateral programs outside of the RCA auspices. The current five year RCA Project to strengthen radiation protection infrastructure, with the IAEA designation - RAS/9/006, will be completed at the end of 1997. The project was developed to address five mayor areas of activity: Off-site emergency response; individual monitoring, internal and external; characterization of the physical, anatomical, physiological and metabolic characteristics of the Asian populations; regulations, with emphasis on implementation of the new international basic safety standards; and training and education. (author)

  9. Application of radioprotectors in radiation protection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kljajic, R.R.; Masic, Z.S. [Scientific Veterinary Inst., Novi Sad (Yugoslavia)

    2000-05-01

    Application of the ionizing radiation in almost all the fields of human activities enlarged the knowledge of their harming influence on the living beings. At the same time there have been many investigations of different chemical means that could successfully be used in protection from radiation. Until today several hundreds of different chemical compounds have been considered to be a potential chemical radioprotector. Analyzing the results of investigating great number of potential radioprotective compounds, it can be said that those containing sulfur provide the most effective protection. That are aminothiols, aminodisulphides, derivatives of thiourea, thiosulphuric and thiophosphate acid, dithiocarbamates, thiazolines, some of biogen amines and their derivates. Among the investigated compounds there is a certain number that, under some circumstances, has shown a protective effect on the experimental animals. In the work comparative investigation of the protective effect of cistaphosa (WR-638) and gamaphosa (WR-2721) have been researched on the big experimental animals, radiated with a high level of X-radiation. Well protective influence of both radioprotectors has been proven but gamafos showed higher efficiency. (author)

  10. Application of radioprotectors in radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Application of the ionizing radiation in almost all the fields of human activities enlarged the knowledge of their harming influence on the living beings. At the same time there have been many investigations of different chemical means that could successfully be used in protection from radiation. Until today several hundreds of different chemical compounds have been considered to be a potential chemical radioprotector. Analyzing the results of investigating great number of potential radioprotective compounds, it can be said that those containing sulfur provide the most effective protection. That are aminothiols, aminodisulphides, derivatives of thiourea, thiosulphuric and thiophosphate acid, dithiocarbamates, thiazolines, some of biogen amines and their derivates. Among the investigated compounds there is a certain number that, under some circumstances, has shown a protective effect on the experimental animals. In the work comparative investigation of the protective effect of cistaphosa (WR-638) and gamaphosa (WR-2721) have been researched on the big experimental animals, radiated with a high level of X-radiation. Well protective influence of both radioprotectors has been proven but gamafos showed higher efficiency. (author)

  11. Radiation protection supervisors certification in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to accomplish its legal assignments CNEN certifies the qualification of radiation protection supervisors. The current certification process is presented and discussed in this paper. This paper discusses the main points of the certification process including: knowledge tests, stake holder's communication, standards, supervisor responsibilities and profiles. The importance of safety certification of nuclear facilities and radiation protection of public individuals and workers are also discussed. Taking into account the characteristics of the Brazilian Nuclear program, the future improvements and goals in the certification process is also presented. (author)

  12. Third conference on radiation protection and dosimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-01-01

    This conference has been designed with the objectives of promoting communication among applied, research, regulatory, and standards personnel involved in radiation protection and providing them with sufficient information to evaluate their programs. To partly fulfill these objectives, a technical program consisting of more than 75 invited and contributed oral presentations encompassing all aspects of radiation protection has been prepared. General topics include external dosimetry, internal dosimetry, instruments, regulations and standards, accreditation and test programs, research advances, and applied program experience. This publication provides a summary of the technical program and a collection of abstracts of the oral presentations.

  13. Radiation protection measurement. Philosophy and implementation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A selection from the proceedings of the International Symposium held by the U.K. Society for radiological protection in June 1974 was presented. The central theme was the philosophy of radiation protection measurement and its interpretation although some specific areas of good health physics practice were included. The 28 papers selected were chosen to be either representative of the central theme or of wider interest. The papers have been grouped in 6 main sections: philosophy of measurements; interpretation of measurements; implementation by legislation and monitoring; radiation exposure and control; reactor safety and siting; accidents

  14. Third conference on radiation protection and dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This conference has been designed with the objectives of promoting communication among applied, research, regulatory, and standards personnel involved in radiation protection and providing them with sufficient information to evaluate their programs. To partly fulfill these objectives, a technical program consisting of more than 75 invited and contributed oral presentations encompassing all aspects of radiation protection has been prepared. General topics include external dosimetry, internal dosimetry, instruments, regulations and standards, accreditation and test programs, research advances, and applied program experience. This publication provides a summary of the technical program and a collection of abstracts of the oral presentations

  15. Radiation protection and fuzzy set theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In radiation protection we encounter a variety of sources of uncertainties which are due to fuzziness in our cognition or perception of objects. For systematic treatment of this type of uncertainty, the concepts of fuzzy sets or fuzzy measures could be applied to construct system models, which may take into consideration both subjective or intrinsic fuzziness and objective or extrinsic fuzziness. The theory of fuzzy sets and fuzzy measures is still in a developing stage, but its concept may be applied to various problems of subjective perception of risk, nuclear safety, radiation protection and also to the problems of man-machine interface and human factor engineering or ergonomic

  16. Policy support on Radiation Protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of SCK-CEN's R and D programme on decision strategy research are: (1) to support and advise the Belgian authorities on specific problems concerning existing and potential hazards from exposure to ionising radiation, both in normal and emergency situations; (2) to improve and support nuclear emergency response decisions in industrial areas from an economic point of view. Main achievements in this area in 1997 are described

  17. Current Challenges in Radiation Protection in Medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiation protection professionals in medical facilities and practices are being challenged by new imaging technologies that use x-rays or radioactive materials. These include faster computerized tomography (CT) scanners, new interventional techniques that use extended fluoroscopy time, increased use of positron emission tomography (PET), and digital imaging techniques. More frequently these technologies are being fused into a single procedure, such as combined CT and PET scanning. Radiation Protection professionals are challenged to (1) be aware of developing technologies and clinical techniques, (2) analyze the potential radiation risks to patients and staff, (3) initiate necessary radiation safety training for medical staff, and (4) be involved in planning, dose measurement and optimization of the procedure to achieve appropriate dose control and ALARA

  18. Radiation protection training programmes Spanish approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiation Protection Programmes are being considered the best way to promote safety culture and to spread and propagate European basic safety standards. It is widely accepted that training is an important tool to upgrade competence for radiation exposed workers. The Spanish Radiation Protection Education and Training Programmes provide a solid and integrated educational model, which takes into account the variety of applied fields, the different levels of responsibilities, the technological and methodological advances, as well as the international tendencies. The needs for a specialised training on Radiation Protection (RP) for exposed workers appears into the Spanish regulation in 1964. National initial training programmes are well established since 1972. Individual certifications, based on personal licences are required for exposed workers. The Spanish regulation also includes continuous and on the job RP training. The educational programmes are being continuously updating and improving. CIEMAT plays an important role in RP Spanish training, improving and modifying the previous RP courses and developing new programmes in order to complete the RP training levels. To achieve Radiation Protection objectives, new technological media for educational methods and material are taking into account. Nevertheless, Spanish RP education and training model has to be improved in some aspects. The purpose of this paper is to analyse the situation and the future needs to be considered in order to complete the RP training processes

  19. Radiation protection, public policies and education

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this paper is to inform about the aspects of radiation protection public policies concerning the public spheres and the ordinary population. It is known that information has been considered a very important good in several knowledge areas. However, the efficiency of their transmission mechanisms should be periodically evaluated, checking existing critical and stagnation points. Nuclear area can be mentioned as a historically typical case, where the public policies assume relevant importance as tool for promotion, control and education of the population in general. Considering the polemic nature of such subject, it is clear that there is a need for conducting the construction of educational contents taking in account the educator training necessities. The addressing of radiation protection aspects applied to nuclear techniques conducts, for example, to the awareness on the benefits of radiation and its industrial and medical applications, which are established considering the worldwide adopted basic principles of radiation protection. Such questions, concerned with (or related to) public policies, establish a link between radiation protection and education, themes explored in this article to provide a better view of the current Brazilian scenario. (author)

  20. Radiation protection standards in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Standards to protect workers and members of the general public against any harmful effects of ionizing radiation are numerous and complex in the United States. Many federal agencies have protection responsibilities, Congress limits the discretionary authority given to these agencies in providing for this protection, and courts appear at times to render judgments that are illogical to our sense of the degree of radiological protection required. To many, U.S. standards appear to be over-protective in that they have, at best, marginal health benefits and without question are costly to implement. Government agencies, the Congress, industry, professional organizations, and others have expressed such concerns. It is against this background that the Committee on Interagency Radiation Research and Policy Coordination (CIRRPC) undertook a project to enhance its knowledge and understanding of the principal standards in the United States that limit and control radiation exposures. Review of the fact sheets shows no clear intent to be consistent in either the statutory language or the explicit or implicit protection objective of the standard. A more detailed evaluation of U.S. standards seems warranted, especially since the trend is toward lower standards and more restrictive regulations

  1. National congress of radiation protection - SFRP 2005

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The nine tutorial sessions are: first one, the new recommendations of the ICRP; second one, effects on health of ionizing radiations with the following subjects ( the dose-response relationship and the estimation of carcinogen effects of ionizing radiation low doses; effect of dose rate on the induction and repair of radioinduced DNA double strand break; interest of global approach in radiation protection; molecular signature of the radioinduction in the thyroid tumors: example of radioinduced thyroid tumors after radiotherapy; incidence of child leukemia near the nuclear facilities: results of a multi sites study in France; genome instability and mutations induction after ionizing irradiation: consequences for the progeny; D.T.P.A encapsulation, an efficient strategy for the plutonium decorporation among the rat); the third one, non-ionizing radiation with the following subjects (can the exposure to a magnetic field of 100 ? T at 50 Hz be detected in the human physiological shiver; evaluation of the population exposure to the magnetic fields of 50 Hz: what indicators to choose; experimental study of the immunity of implantable defibrillators to the low frequencies electro-magnetic perturbations; DNA damages induced by the Ar F laser; dosimetry with a phantom in gel of human head); fourth session concerns the regulatory aspects; the fifth one presents the radiation protection and the radioactive waste management; the sixth session concerns the public and patients radiation protection; the seventh one treats the radiation protection in professional area with the following subjects ( optimization of radiation protection in the underground uranium mine of Cominak in Niger; revealing by multi parameters capillaroscopy, of micro vascular alterations of fingers among interventional radiologists; use of radioactive and chemical probes in biological research; uncertainties on doses and D.P.U.I.; monitoring of work areas. Evaluation of workers exposure towards a particular contamination; C.H.A.V.I.R., an interactive simulator for radiation protection; an ALARA engineering commune to the operating reactors; evolution of the radiological zoning and monitoring rules associated on the Cogema la Hague facility; an ambitious project for the nuclear park of EDF power plants : the purification project and its implementation for the Chinon B2 reactor - 2004); the eighth session concerns the environmental exposures and their consequences with the following presentations ( the concept of radioecological sensitivity and its interest in the risk management; phenomenal and analytical interpretation of the rain-deposit relationship used for the building of cesium 137 deposits in France consecutively to the Chernobyl accident; study of radioactivity source terms and transfer from medical origin in the purification network of the town of Toulouse; natural and artificial radioactivity in some marine species in manche. Case of polonium and plutonium alpha emitters. Synthesis of data acquired in the north Cotentin since 1990. elements of comparison; the role of local commissions of information (C.L.I.) in the follow up of release and monitoring of nuclear facilities); the ninth session concerns the dosimetry; the tenth session is divided in two parts radiation protection in accidental situations and radiation protection in post accidental situations with their respective presentations as follow ( evaluation of the dispersion of an aero contaminant in a ventilated area in field near an accidental source of emissions; study of the containment efficiency by gloveboxes in functioning accidental situations; the radiation protection and health; study by R.P.E. of the response of different materials in mixed field ( gamma, neutrons), application to the dosimetry reconstruction of an accident; nuclear or radiological events: organisation of medical intervention; and rehabilitation of life conditions in the contaminated territories: the contribution of radiation protection; management of post accidental situations: lessons from crisis exercises of Pierrelat

  2. Protective properties of radiation-modified polyethylene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mass transfer of aggressive liquids and gases through polyethylene films modified with radiation surface grafting was investigated. Nonstabilized grade A film with a grafted adhesive-active layer on the basis of polymethacrylic acid was used for the investigation. It is shown that radiation modification considerably increases polyethylene adhesion with respect to metals without deterioration of physicomechanical polymer properties which permits to use it as a protective coating for equipment operating in corrosive media

  3. Radiation protection optimization and work management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The influence quantification of bound factors to work management, and the obtained results when you apply the dosimetric economical evaluation model of the radiation protection experiments, prove that ALARA principle application musn't bound to actions on the radiation sources, but that you can find a wide act field in the irradiation work volume management topics. 53 refs., 5 tabs., 10 figs., 4 appendixes

  4. Radiation Protection and Civil defence Department

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This conference involves subjects of radiation protection, programming of civil defence, on the implementation of 1990 ICRP recommendation, thermoluminescence properties of bone equivalent calcium phosphate ceramics, potassium body burdens in occupational users of egyptian nuclear research centre, transport of radionuclides in fresh water stream, water treatment process for nuclear reactor, research activities related to internal contamination and bioassay and experience and environmental radiation monitoring in inshass. it contains of figures and tables

  5. The optimization (ALARA) principle of radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doses resulting from sources and activities involving exposure to ionizing radiation or to radioactive substances should be restricted by a system of dose limitation which shall include the regulation of the corresponding activity, optimization of radiation protection and annual dose equivalent limits. All exposures should be kept as low as reasonably achievable, economic and social factors being taken into account. The ways of implementation of these elements in nuclear practice in our country are presented in this report. (Author)

  6. [Radiation protection agents to provide the radiation safety of astronauts].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ushakov, I B; Ivanov, A A

    2013-01-01

    Taking into consideration the complexity of radiation factors and stressogenic factors of non-radiation nature in cosmic flights and prognostic difficulties of radiation situation, the authors propose to distinguish several stages of pharmacological protection for cosmonauts. The preparatory stage is realized on the Earth. The next stage is monitoring and correction of radioresistance during a flight. A possible stage consists of treatment of the radiation damage using a traditional protocol. The permanent stage includes pharmacological prevention of the distant consequences of irradiation. PMID:25434174

  7. Radiation protection: Radiation dose units and fundamentals. Correct use of radiation dose units, measurements, risk assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiation protection intends to prevent radiation damage by appropriate staff-related and technical measures in accordance with the specifications of the German X-Ray Ordinance (R and V) and Radiation Protection Ordinance (StrlSchV) and in agreement with the ICRLP (International Commission on Radiological Protection). They require that radiation use must be justified, exposure conditions must be optimised, and exposure times must be limited to the shortest time necessary. In practical use, this requires considerable practical and theoretical knowledge from the user concerning the physical properties of radiation sources, interactions with tissue and matter of different types of radiation, and biological effects of radiation. National and international organizations and committees have specified the knowledge which a user must have as follows: Physical fundamentals of radiation protection; Measuring quantities and specified standard units; Organisational and constructional radiation protection; Legal knowledge. (orig.)

  8. Patients radiation protection in medical imaging. Conference proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document brings together the available presentations given at the conference organised by the French society of radiation protection about patients radiation protection in medical imaging. Twelve presentations (slides) are compiled in this document and deal with: 1 - Medical exposure of the French population: methodology and results (Bernard Aubert, IRSN); 2 - What indicators for the medical exposure? (Cecile Etard, IRSN); 3 - Guidebook of correct usage of medical imaging examination (Philippe Grenier, Pitie-Salpetriere hospital); 4 - Radiation protection optimization in pediatric imaging (Hubert Ducou-Le-Pointe, Aurelien Bouette (Armand-Trousseau children hospital); 5 - Children's exposure to image scanners: epidemiological survey (Marie-Odile Bernier, IRSN); 6 - Management of patient's irradiation: from image quality to good practice (Thierry Solaire, General Electric); 7 - Dose optimization in radiology (Cecile Salvat (Lariboisiere hospital); 8 - Cancer detection in the breast cancer planned screening program - 2004-2009 era (Agnes Rogel, InVS); 9 - Mammographic exposures - radiobiological effects - radio-induced DNA damages (Catherine Colin, Lyon Sud hospital); 10 - Breast cancer screening program - importance of non-irradiating techniques (Anne Tardivon, Institut Curie); 11 - Radiation protection justification for the medical imaging of patients over the age of 50 (Michel Bourguignon, ASN); 12 - Search for a molecular imprint for the discrimination between radio-induced and sporadic tumors (Sylvie Chevillard, CEA)

  9. University based radiation protection: a combination of theory and practice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In modern times, Universities are expected to act as regional and national centres for providing information on radiation protection and University based Radiological Protection Services are therefore a natural development. The typical workload of a University service on campus is concerned two-thirds with unsealed sources, of which soft ?'s and iodine-125 predominate, and one-third with sealed radioisotope and neutron sources and X-ray emitters. Non-ionising radiation protection is frequently included in the Service's terms of reference. A wide variety of instrumentation to satisfy the campus' needs is thus available at short notice for use in industrial and public authority radiation surveys. In addition, laboratory facilities for radio-chemistry, spectrometry, and radioactive counting are already manned by experienced technical staff. Industry thus finds in the Universities a ready willingness and competence to assist in occupational radiation protection, and public authorities can turn to the Universities in relation to their problems of radioactivity in public health. (author)

  10. Management in the protection from ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There are numerous types and forms of endangering working and living environment, ranging from natural disasters to nuclear accidents. Challenges of the New Age determined that most of the countries reviewed its strategic decisions in the system of protection from ionizing radiation and nuclear safety and defined in a new way the threats, which could considerably imperil health of the population and national interests as well. Excessive radiation of the population became a serious and actual problem in the era of increasingly mass application of ionizing radiation, especially in medicine. The goal of this work is to reduce the risk through using knowledge and existing experiences, in particular when it comes to ionizing radiation in medicine. Optimization of the protection in radiology actually means an effort to find the compromise between quality information provided by diagnostics procedure and quality effects of therapy procedure on one side and dose of radiation received by patients on the other. Criteria for the quality management in the protection from ionizing radiation used in diagnostic radiology was given by the European Commission: European Guidelines on Quality Criteria for Diagnostic Radiographic Images, EUR, 16260. (author)

  11. Radiation protection training and information for workers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The meeting reported in these proceedings was organized to discuss the specific problems of providing information and training on radiation protection to workers exposed to radiation, intervention staff and workers likely to be affected by an activity involving ionizing radiation. Particular emphasis was placed on the need to harmonize basic training on radiation protection in the context of 1992. It seemed advisable for technical training on radiation protection to be introduced into secondary education. To this end, the Commission was asked to draw up a guide for apprentices and students. In view of the growing diversification of activities involving the use of radioactive substances, the Commission was called upon to intensify its efforts in order to ensure that relevant information and training was provided in all firms to workers exposed to ionizing radiation, and to produce guides for specific categories of workers, such as those responsible for the transport of radioactive materials or those likely to be involved in organizing measures in the event of a radiological emergency

  12. Radiation protection guidelines for space missions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The current radiation protection guidelines of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) were recommended in 1970. The career limit was set at 4.0 Sv (400 rem). Using the same approach as in 1970 but current risk estimates, a considerably lower career limit would obtain today. Also, there is now much more information about the radiation environments that will be experienced in different missions. Furthermore, since 1970 women have joined the ranks of the astronauts. For these and other reasons, it was considered necessary to re-examine the radiation protection guidelines. This task has been undertaken by the National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements Scientific Committee 75. Within the magnetosphere, the radiation environment varies with altitude and inclination of the orbit. In outer space missions, galactic cosmic rays, with the small but important heavy-ion component, determine the radiation environment. The new recommendations for career dose limits, based on lifetime excess risk of cancer mortality, take into account age at first exposure and sex. The career limits range from 1.0 Sv (100 rem) for a 24-y-old female up to 4.0 Sv (400 rem) for a 55-y-old male, compared with the previous single limit of 4.0 Sv (400 rem). The career limit for the lens of the eye has been reduced from 6.0 Sv (600 rem) to 4.0 Sv (400 rem)

  13. Seventh meeting of radiation protection skilled persons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document gathers the slides of the available presentations given during these conference days. Twenty-three presentations out of 25 are assembled in the document and deal with: 1 - the evolution of workers' international protection rules against ionizing radiation risks (C. Bardelay); 2 - presentation of the report of the working group on radiation protection (P. Barbey); 3 - position of the French nuclear safety authority and of the labor general direction about the position of permanent expert groups in radiation protection concerning the expected evolutions in the occupation and training of radioprotection skilled persons (RSP), (T. Lahaye); 4 - experience feedback: RSP in surgery operating theater - a sometimes delicate intervention (S. Balduyck); 5 - workplace analysis in dental surgery: constraints and specificities (D. Le Denmat); 6 - workplace analysis: tritium atmospheric contamination (S. Rigaud); 7 - revision of the NFC 15-160 standard relative to radiology facilities (J.L. Rehel); 8 - example of area tele-dosimetry usage - the Pitie Salpetriere hospital experiment (C. Chatellier and C. Barret); 9 - contribution of radio-attenuation lead gloves in interventional radiology (J. Guersen); 10 - zoning in the medical domain: encountered problems typology and evaluation of possible solutions (Degrange, J.P.); 11 - management of used sealed sources distributed by the CEA and CISBIO (B. Sevestre); 12 - how to perform a measurement in radiation protection - how about measurement uncertainty (M. Ammerich); 13 - national campaign of control about the application of workers radiation protection rules (T. Lahaye); 14 - transparency and inspection approach in local nuclear applications: gamma-graphy, research, nuclear medicine, interventional radiography and radiotherapy (S. Rodde and C. Marchal); 15 - local/regional networks of RSPs and radiation protection actors: 2008 audit results and recent evolutions (C. Lefaure); 16 - role and missions of the external RSP in dental surgery (H. Bouk'Il); 17 - status of radiation protection inspections at Paris social services and state-owned hospitals authority (D.J. Gambini); 18 - registered organisation and RSP: relations and exchanges (B. Auboiroux and P. Martel); 19 - interactions between EdF's RSP and contractor's RSP (A. Riedel); 20 - 2009 national status of workers' exposure (J. Feuardent); 21 - IRSN's Siseri system: relations with users (P. Scanff); 22 - communication as an integral part of RSP's role (M. Bof); 23 - the expected consequences of the publication no. 103 of the international commission of radiological protection (CIPR), (J. Lochard). (J.S.)

  14. A new career path in radiation protection training. Certified power plant shift supervisor. Radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Apart from theoretical knowledge, effective day-to-day radiation protection operations also require a certain measure of practical experience. Therefore, the professional degree of 'Certified Radiation Worker', issued by the Chamber of Industry and Commerce (CIC) Aachen, Germany, established at an early stage. In order to provide experienced radiation protection specialists with an attractive career path, POWERTECH TRAINING CENTER e.V., in co-operation with VGB PowerTech. e.V., the Paul Scherrer Institute (Switzerland) and the Swiss Atomic Energy Agency (ENSI), has devised a new power plant shift supervisor training course specialising in radiation protection. The vocational training degree called 'Certified Power Plant Shift Supervisor - Radiation Protection' is awarded after successful completion of the advanced training examination conducted by the CIC in Essen, Germany. (orig.)

  15. Training for Radiation Protection in Interventional Radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Program in radiological equipment has incorporated more powerful x-ray sources into the standard Fluoroscopy and CT systems. Expanding use of interventional procedures carries extensive use of fluoroscopy and CT which are both associated with excessive radiation exposure to the patient and personnel. During cases of Intravenous CT Angiography and direct Intraarterial CT Angiography, one may substitute a substantial number of diagnostic angiography checks. Basic training in interventional radiology hardly includes some of the fundamentals of radiation protection. Radiation Protection in Interventional Radiology must be implemented in daily practice and become an integral part of procedure planning strategy in each and every case. Interventional radiological most master all modern imaging modalities in order to choose the most effective, but least hazardous one. In addition, one must be able to use various imaging techniques (Fluoroscopy, CTA, MM and US) as a stand-alone method, as well as combine two techniques or more. Training programs for fellows: K-based simulation of procedures and radiation protection. Special attention should be taken in the training institutions and a basic training in radiation protection is advised before the trainee is involved in the practical work. Amendment of techniques for balloon and stent deployment with minimal use of fluoroscopy. Attention to the differences between radiation protection in cardiovascular and nonvascular radiology with special measures that must be taken for each one of them (i.e., peripheral angiography vs. stenting, Endo luminal Aortic Stent Graft, or nonvascular procedures such as biliary or endo urological stenting or biliary intervention). A special emphasis should be put on the training techniques of Interventional Radiologists, both beginners and experienced. Patient dose monitoring by maintaining records of fluoroscopic time is better with non-reset timer, but is optional. Lee of automated systems that record Dose-Area Product (DAP) or total skin dose are more reliable. Any new fluoroscopy equipment should integrate a DAP-meter with K-based automatic recording of procedural dose per radiologist and cumulative dose par patient. A person in charge of radiation protection will review on the monthly basis readings of DAP-meter for each radiologist and take measures if excessive exposures have been used. Basic principles of radiation protection in Interventional CT will be presented

  16. Operational radiation protection for European astronauts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since the early times of human spaceflight radiation has been, besides the influence of microgravity on the human body, recognized as a main health concern to the astro- and cosmonauts. The radiation environment that the crew experiences during a space flight differs significantly to that found on earth due to particles of greater potential for biological damage. High-energetic charged particles, such as protons, helium nuclei ('alpha particles') and heavier ions up to iron, originating from several sources, such as galactic cosmic radiation (GCR), energetic solar particle events (SPE) as well as protons and electrons trapped in the earth radiation belts, are the main contributors. The exposure that the crew receives during a space flight significantly exceeds exposures routinely received by terrestrial radiation workers. The European Space Agency's (ESA) Astronaut Center (EAC) in Cologne, Germany, is home of the European Astronaut Corps. Part of the EAC is the Crew Medical Support Office (CMSO or HSF-AM) responsible for ensuring the health and well being of the European Astronauts. A sequence of activities is conducted to protect astro- and cosmonauts health, including those targeting to mitigate adverse effects of space radiation. All health related activities are part of a multinational Medical Operations (MedOps) concept, which is executed by the different Space Agencies participating in the human spaceflight program to the International Space Station (ISS). This e International Space Station (ISS). This article will give an introduction of the current measures for radiation monitoring and protection of astro- and cosmonauts. The operational guidelines that shall ensure proper implementation and execution of those radiation protection measures will be addressed. Operational hardware for passive and active radiation monitoring and for personal dosimetry, as well as operational procedures that are applied, will be described. (author)

  17. Workplace analysis and radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document gathers the slides of the available presentations given during this conference day. Fifteen presentations out of 16 are assembled in the document and deal with: 1 - the evolution of doses received by workers (J. Feuardent); 2 - evaluation of extremities dosimetry among interventional radiology practitioners (L. Donadille); 3 - practical guide for the realisation of workplace dosimetry studies presenting a ionizing radiation exposure risk: and example in nuclear medicine (J.L. Rehel); 4 - workplace studies in radiotherapy-curietherapy (D. Donnarieix); 5 - from dosimetry to physical intensity: the case of heat insulation activities (A. Garrigou and C. Piccadaci); 6 - the consideration of human factor during facility modifications (V. Gauthereau); 7 - how to carry out a workplace analysis in gamma-graphy? (F. Truchi); 8 - workplace studies in the framework of dismantling activities (J. Chardin); 9 - team synergy (F. Debouck); 10 - adaptation of individual dosimetry to the workplace: the case of external exposure (I. Clairand); 11 - technical aspects of the evaluation of ionizing radiations exposure induced by a new interventional radiology procedure (J.C. Amabile); 12 - the point of view of a radioprotection skilled person in a nuclear medicine service (J.M. Vrigneaud); 13 - workplace studies for the unique document (F. Roussille); 14 - occupational exposure to manufactured nano-particles: issues and knowledge status (O. Witschger); 15 - toxicological risk of nano-particles: 'health impact'? (S. Chevillard). (J.S.)

  18. Proceedings of the Ninth Radiation Physics and Protection Conference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The publication has been set up as proceedings of the Radiation Physics and Protection conference, the conference contains of the following subjects: Radiation Sources and Radioactive Waste; Theoretical Radiation Physics; Experimental Radiation Physics; Radiation and Nuclear Emergency; Non Ionizing Radiation; Medical Physics; Environment; Natural Radioactivity; Radiation Effect; Dosimetry; Elemental Analysis; Radiation Instruments. This conference consists of one volume and 459 pages., figs., tabs., refs

  19. Type testing of radiation protection monitoring instruments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiation Protection Monitoring Instruments detect and quantify ionizing radiation, thus facilitating radiation safety. It is essential to test these instruments for validating the manufacturers claim and thus helping the users in choosing appropriate instruments for the specific requirement. These instruments are indigenously manufactured as well as imported. Many imported instruments undergo tests based on the recommendations of international agencies like International Organization for Standardization (ISO) and International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) however the indigenously manufactured instruments are rarely subjected to these requirements. The present work is aimed at creating the awareness among the manufacturers and users about the Type Test of these instruments apart from periodic calibration

  20. The Law on Precautionary Radiation Protection prevents public health protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    On the occasion of the discussion by the German Bundesrat of the bill on Precautionary Radiation Protection, the Hessian Minister of Social Affairs denied his approval of the bill on the grounds that there are serious and numerous flaws. He considered the bill to be a more dummy put up for election propaganda, as he could not find any substantive provisions in it. The Minister in his speech explained this opinion, saying that the bill does not provide for the protection of public health, nor create the necessary conditions for an effective and coordinated emergency control in case of a radiation accident. He declared the bill to be just an instrument of warding off danger that in essence curtails important rights of participation of the Laender. (HSCH)

  1. Cost-benefit analysis and radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cost-benefit analysis is a tool to find the best way of allocating resources. The International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP), in its publication No. 26, recommends this method in justifying radiation exposure practices and in keeping exposures as low as is reasonably achievable, economic and social considerations being taken into account. (author)

  2. Radiation Protection Section (SC/SL/RP)

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    We should like to inform you that the Radiation Protection Section (SC/SL/RP) located on the Prévessin site has moved from Building 865 (ground floor) to new premises in Wing A of Building 892 (second floor). Telephone numbers remain the same. SC/SL/RP section

  3. The responsibility of the radiation protection expert

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After having recalled the two main different types of responsibility in the French law system (civil liability and criminal responsibility), and how criminal law has been gradually introduced in companies, the author analyzes and describes how the radiation protection expert's responsibility is tightly related to that of his employer, and how both can be committed on a disciplinary and criminal level

  4. Radiation protection: Philosophy, recommendations and practice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The philosophy developed by the International Commission on Radiological Protection for the control of human radiation exposure will be described. The application of the ICRP recommendations to the authorization and control of the disposal of radioactive wastes to the sea will be discussed in the context of the practice in the United Kingdom. (author)

  5. Conditions for radiation protection in industrial radiography

    CERN Document Server

    1999-01-01

    The leaflet specifies radiation protection requirements for industrial radiography in Norway. The regulations are directed towards companies using or distributing sealed radioactive sources, x-ray equipment or accelerators in non-destructive material testing (NDT). Technical requirements to the equipment, as well as administrative requirements for use, licensing, qualifications, handling of accidents etc. are given. (Author)

  6. Implication on future priorities in radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As a result of the consequences of the Chernobyl accident, the aspects of health effects from radiation as well as the protection norms are reviewed. In particular the radioprotection of the workers and the population, the emergency planning and the information of the public at national and international levels are discussed. (A.F.)

  7. Uncertainties of measurements in radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    On September 1st, 2001, the Austrian standard OENORM S 5255-1 with the title 'Uncertainties of measurements and limiting values in radiation protection - Part 1: Basics' was published. A part 2 of the standard with the subtitle 'Assessment of measurements with regard to limiting values' was published on April 1st, 2002. Part 1 of the standard is a consequent application of the 'Guide to the expression of uncertainty in measurement' (GUM) for measurements in radiation protection. It contains a summary of the most important definitions and mathematical methods, which are relevant for measurements in radiation protection. An important prerequisite is the standardisation of the coverage factor k=1 for measurements in radiation protection. Finally, the use of the standard is demonstrated by a detailed example there (dose rate meter). First, the uncertainty of a dose rate meter is stated, using only information on tolerances available e.g. from instrument specifications. Additionally, the strategies to reduce the uncertainty and the necessary detailed knowledge of the dose rate meter are demonstrated. Part 2 of the standard gives a simple concept for interpretation of limits using the uncertainties calculated based on part 1 of the standard. (orig.)

  8. Chile 2000: Radiation protection status and trends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The current Chilean radiation protection infrastructure is quite complex because firstly, the laws, regulations and standards in force are based on former ICRP26 recommendations;and secondly, the designation of multiple competent authorities, i.e. the Chilean Nuclear Energy Commission, the Ministry of Mining, and some divisions of the Ministry of Health, complicates the harmonization of radiation protection criteria. Furthermore, some departments of these competent authorities are operators of nuclear or radioactive facilities and none of them has the competence to ratify either first or second order regulations. Consequently, the Chilean Nuclear Energy Commission is presently developing a programme to review all current national regulations to submit to the Government for consideration. The main objectives of the revision are to: update the legal framework; include safety commitments taken on by subscription to international treaties, conventions and agreements; improve the regulations with the BSS and ICRP based new recommendations on radiation protection; work towards the establishment of a single, independent national regulatory authority. This paper presents the current Chilean status of radiation protection status and suggests how to update it. (author)

  9. An introduction to radiation protection. 3. ed.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A book has been written on the nature of the hazards presented by ionizing radiation and the methods of radiation protection. The book provides an introductory text for a wide range of readers involved with radiation in connection with nuclear power, nuclear medicine or more generally in research, teaching and industry. The early chapters deal with basic physical principles, the nature of the hazard arising from the interaction of ionizing radiation with biological systems and the levels of radiation which are regarded as acceptable. Later chapters deal with the methods of measurement and control which are applied to attain these levels. In the second half of the book, there are individual chapters on the more specialized topics of nuclear reactor health physics, problems associated with X-rays and radiography, health physics in medicine, the disposal of radioactive waste and radiological emergencies. Chapters are also presented on legislation and on the organization of health physics. (UK)

  10. 76 FR 50487 - Protected Critical Infrastructure Information (PCII) Stakeholder Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-15

    ...Infrastructure Information (PCII) Stakeholder Survey AGENCY: National Protection...Infrastructure Information (PCII) Stakeholder Survey. DHS previously published this...PCII Program oversees a community of stakeholders, including submitters of CII,...

  11. Radiation protection in today's world: towards sustainability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The science and application of radiological protection have continually evolved since the beginning of the 20 century when the health effects of radiation first began to be discovered. Given these changes, notably over the past 10 to 15 years, and considering the recent evolution of social values and judgements, the NEA Committee on Radiation Protection and Public Health (CRPPH) felt that it would be worthwhile to identify possible emerging challenges as well as ongoing challenges that will require new approaches to reach sustainable decisions. This report concisely describes the CRPPH views of the most significant challenges to radiological protection policy, regulation and application that are likely to emerge or are already emerging. While not proposing solutions to these issues, the report characterizes key aspects and pressures, taking into account the evolution of science, society and experience, such that governments can better foresee these challenges and be prepared to address them appropriately. (author)

  12. Research report on radiation protection 1981

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this research report on radiation protection the results achieved in 1981 of the research and development projects assisted by the Federal Minister of the Interior are made accessible above all to the scientists and engineers participating in this research program as well as to the research institutions on the field of radiation protection, to the members of the commission on radiological protection and of the commission for reactor safety and to the supervising and licensing authorities. The report is a compilation of individual reports, which are composed by the consignees respectively the recipients of the allowances themselves as a documentation of the progress of their works. Each individual report contains informations concerning the objectives of the project, works carried out, results achieved and further work planned. (orig.)

  13. Radiation protection and dosimetry: basis. 9. ed.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A revised book 'Radiation Protection and Dosimetry: Fundamentals, prepared to meet the training courses offered by the Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria - IRD, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil and people interested in the subject, is presented. Concepts have been updated, especially the chapter on Radiological Magnitudes, due to upgrade of Standard CNEN-NN-3.01-Basic Guidelines on Radiological Protection, published in the Diario Oficial da Uniao on September 1, 2011. A chapter related to Waste Management, another on the Transport of Radioactive Materials and three annexes on: Standards of CNEN, Ionizing Radiation and Personnel Legislation and Determination of shields in Radiotherapy were included. Were also added several tables for use in radiological protection, to facilitate consultation

  14. Radiation protection problems by nonionizing electromagnetic radiation in Austria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since about one year an interdisciplinary study group has been established to investigate possible radiation protection problems caused by nonionizing electromagnetic radiation in this country. The aim of this project is to identify major fields of concern, to establish appropriate techniques of measurement and control and eventually develop a sound basis for future legislation. The paper gives a summary on the present results of this study. (Author)

  15. Radiation protection in exploitation of uranium ores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The results are analyzed of the study of the radiation conditions in uranium mines, design and testing of protection means, improvement of methods and equipment for the dosimetric control in different countries since 1968 to 1975. There are outlined radiation hazards and their role in the formation of the radiation situation in mines, dispersive composition of aerosols of short-living daughter products of Rn(DPR) in the mine atmosphere. Among means of the radiation protection the following are dealt with: ventilation including the calculation of air requirements, design of ventilation systems, ventilation practices in working mines; lowering of the release of radon into the mine atmosphere by isolating non-exploited pits, application of gas-proof covers to cofferdams in faces of jointing zones, intensification of mining works in dangerous zones. Methods of air cleaning to remove Rn are suggested in brief. Apparatus are described for the individual control of the level of latent energy in the zone of miners' respiration: track dosimeters, thermoluminescent crystalls (TLC), photographic films, semiconductor systems and biophysical methods of the control for uranium mines. The efficient use of existing protection means provides the normal radiation situation in mines without significant additional investments

  16. Protective role of plants against harmful radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The rapid technological advancement has increased human exposure to ionizing radiations enormously. Ionizing radiations produces deleterious effects in the living organisms. Widespread use of radiation in diagnosis therapy, industry, energy sector and inadvertent exposure during air and space travel, nuclear accidents and nuclear terror attacks requires safeguard against human exposures. Lead shielding and other physical measures can be used in such situations but with difficulty to manage; thus pharmacological intervention could be the most prudent strategy to protect humans against the harmful effect of ionizing radiations. These pharmacological agents are radioprotectives; The development of radioprotective agents has been the subject of intense research in view of their potential for use within a radiation environment. However, no ideal, safe synthetic radio protectors are available to date, so the search for alternative sources including plants has been ongoing. In Ayurveda, the traditional Indian system of medicine, several plants have been used to treat free radical-mediated ailments and, therefore, it is logical to expect that such plants may also render some protection against radiation damage. This all is due to antioxidant enzymes, nitroxides, and melatonin, antiemetic, anti-inflammatory. haemopoitic and immunostimulant compounds. Some of the plants which are found to be radioprotective are Centella asiatica, Ginkgo biloba, Hippophae rhamnoides, Ocimum sanc biloba, Hippophae rhamnoides, Ocimum sanctum, Podophyllurn hexandrum, Tinospora cordifolia, Emblica officinalis, Phyllanthus amarus, etc. So there is an urgent need to identify and characterize the many of the plants in relation to the radioprotection. Besides these medicinal plants there are also some fruits and vegetables which are having good response against harmful radiations such as Kiwifruit Actinidia deliciosa (Actinidaceae), Cape Gooseberry Physalis peruviana (Solanaceae). They protect against the radiation-induced damage by scavenging of free radicals and increasing antioxidant status. Fractionation guided evaluation may result in the development of ideal radio protectors in the near future. (author)

  17. Radiation protection in industrial radiography in Hungary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper gives an overview of the state of radiation protection of industrial radiographers in Hungary, outlining the key rules regulating this activity. Information are disloced on the system of radiation training of employers, the implementation of personal dosimetry and some typical dosimetric data. Having reviewed the main factors playing a key role in radiation protection of industrial radiographers, the work of experts employed in non-destructive tests of this kind can be considered safe. The best proofs of this safety are achievements in the field of personal dosimetry, which are clear indications that the new and more rigorous dose limits to be introduced in accordance with ICRP Publication No. 60 would not necessitate fundamental modifications of the rules currently in effect. (author)

  18. Workers radiation protection. A necessary constant improvement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After an overview of the French situation in terms of workers radiation protection, of its progress and remaining weaknesses (some indicators are given: number of monitored workers, average individual dosed, year limit excess), the different intervention levels are presented: prevention (legal and regulatory framework, visits and inspections, regulatory files, workstation studies, reference documents and education), monitoring (external and internal dosimetry), follow-up (the SISERI information system, individual medical follow-up cards), anomalies and crisis. The change of veterinary practices is outlined (this profession is exposed to radiation and compliance with radiation protection regulations modified their professional practices). The role of the IRSN in the elaboration of French and international standards is presented

  19. Special radiation protection aspects of medical accelerators

    CERN Document Server

    Silari, Marco

    2001-01-01

    Radiation protection aspects relevant to medical accelerators are discussed. An overview is first given of general safety requirements. Next. shielding and labyrinth design are discussed in some detail for the various types of accelerators, devoting more attention to hadron machines as they are far less conventional than electron linear accelerators. Some specific aspects related to patient protection are also addressed. Finally, induced radioactivity in accelerator components and shielding walls is briefly discussed. Three classes of machines are considered: (1) medical electron linacs for 'conventional' radiation therapy. (2) low energy cyclotrons for production of radionuclides mainly for medical diagnostics and (3) medium energy cyclotrons and synchrotrons for advanced radiation therapy with protons or light ion beams (hadron therapy). (51 refs).

  20. Radiation risks : the ethics of health protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since the inception of commercial uses of nuclear technology, radiation protection standards established by regulatory agencies have reflected moral concerns based on two assumptions: (1) that the linear, zero-threshold hypothesis derives from scientific data in radiobiology which are virtually conclusive; (2) it is morally better for public health protection to assume that any radiation exposure, no matter how small, has some harmful effect which can and ought to be prevented. In the past few years these beliefs and related assumptions have received closer scrutiny, revealing hidden reasons for regulatory selection of radiation risks as objects of paramount ethical concern, with the result that greater risks to health have escaped comparison and mitigation. Based on this scrutiny this brief paper explores two questions: Are presupposed assumptions ethically justified on grounds of scientific evidence and ethical consistency? and should moral objections claiming to invalidate comparative risk assessments be accepted or rejected?

  1. Photon Monte Carlo transport in radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    When the human body is exposed to ionizing radiation, its tissues are traversed by charged particles such as, for example, secondary electrons in the case of photon radiation, or heavy ions in the case of neutron radiation. This may lead to a variety of biological effects as a consequence of energy transfer to the human cells by physical radiation interactions. Prevention of detrimental non-stochastic effects and limitation of the probability of stochastic effects to health to levels considered acceptable are now the main objectives of radiation protection. To attain these objectives, it is necessary to specify the degree of irradiation in numerical terms, firstly, to define authorized levels and regulatory limits, and secondly, to have the possibility of supervising them. This means that it is necessary to look for a suitable quantity which is proportional to radiation induced detrimental effects to health, and to define a measuring procedure applicable in practical radiation fields. As radiation effects are caused by energy deposited by charged particles, it is possible to choose the absorbed dose, D, as a relevant quantity. But since different types of radiation differ in their biological effectiveness per unit absorbed dose, it is necessary to weight D by a quality factor, Q, equal to 1 for a reference radiation (conventionally , ? radiation or hard x-rays with an energy ? 30 keV) and up to 25 for neutrons, protons and other heavier particles. The product H = Qer heavier particles. The product H = QD is called the dose equivalent, and is equal to the absorbed dose of the reference radiation which causes the same biological effect as the radiation under consideration

  2. Occupational radiation protection: Protecting workers against exposure to ionizing radiation. Contributed papers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Occupational exposure to ionizing radiation can occur in a range of industries, mining and milling; medical institutions, educational and research establishments and nuclear fuel cycle facilities. The term 'occupational exposure' refers to the radiation exposure incurred by a worker, which is attributable to the worker's occupation and committed during a period of work. According to the latest (2000) Report of the United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR), an estimated 11 million workers are monitored for exposure to ionizing radiation. They incur radiation doses attributable to their occupation, which range from a small fraction of the global average background exposure to natural radiation up to several times that value. It should be noted that the UNSCEAR 2000 Report describes a downward trend in the exposure of several groups of workers, but it also indicates that occupational exposure is affecting an increasingly large group of people worldwide. The International Basic Safety Standards for Protection against Ionizing Radiation and for the Safety of Radiation Sources (BSS), which are co-sponsored by, inter alia, the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), the International Labour Organization (ILO), the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) and the World Health Organization (WHO), establish a system of radiation protection which includes radiation dose limits for occupational exposure. Guidance supporting the requirements of the BSS for occupational protection is provided in three interrelated Safety Guides, jointly sponsored by the IAEA and the ILO. These Guides describe, for example, the implications for employers in discharging their main responsibilities (such as setting up appropriate radiation protection programmes) and similarly for workers (such as properly using the radiation monitoring devices provided to them). The IAEA i organized its first International Conference on Occupational Radiation Protection. The objective of the Conference was to foster the exchange of information on current issues related to the exposure of workers to ionizing radiation in the course of their work and to formulate recommendations, as appropriate, regarding measures to strengthen international co-operation in occupational radiation protection. The Conference addressed the issue of establishing occupational radiation protection standards and providing for their application. It will focus on a number of specific problems, inter alia, the complex issue of controlling occupational exposure to natural sources of radiation. This document contain contributed papers to the Conference

  3. Fact-finding Survey in Response to the Manipulation of Personal Alarm Dosimeter Collection Efficiency: Lessons Learned About Post-Emergency Radiation Protection from the TEPCO Fukushima Daiichi APP Accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasui, Shojiro

    2015-06-01

    During emergency work at TEPCO Fukushima Daiichi Atomic Power Plant on December 1, 2011 a subcontractor demanded that its contracted workers cover their personal alarm dosimeters (PAD) with 3-cm-thick lead plates to lower dosimeter readings. As a response, the Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare (MHLW) conducted a fact-finding survey to identify similar cases and devise measures to prevent a recurrence of this incident. To screen the suspected cases, the MHLW extracted: a) cases in which a PAD reading was at least 15% higher than the reading obtained from a radio-photolumine-scence dosimeter (RPD), where the dose was greater than 5 mSv in a month (1813 data points), and b) dose data in which PAD readings were less than 50% of the expected dose, where exposure dose may exceed 1 mSv in a day (56 workers, 17,148 data points). From these screenings, the MHLW identified 50 instances from TEPCO and nine primary contractors, including four general contractors, two plant manufacturers, and three plant maintenance companies as the subjects of the due diligence study of exposure data, including interviews. The results of the survey provide lessons that can also be applied to transition from emergency radiation protection to normal operation, as the application of emergency dose limits had ceased on December 16, 2011, in the affected plant. Based on the results of the survey, the MHLW provided administrative guidance documents to TEPCO and 37 primary contractors. The major points of these documents include: a) identification of recorded dose values by comparison of PAD readings to RPD readings, b) storage and management of RPDs and control badges, c) circulation management of PADs and access control to the affected plant, d) estimation of planned doses and setting of alarm values of PADs, e) actions to be taken by contractors if worker dose limits are reached, and f) physical measures to prevent recurrence of the incident. PMID:25617063

  4. Radiation protection standards in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Standards to protect workers and members of the general public against any harmful effects of ionizing radiation are numerous and complex in the United States. Many Federal agencies have protection responsibilities, our Congress limits the discretionary authority given to these agencies in providing for this protection, and our court system appears at times to render judgments that are illogical to our sense of the degree of radiological protection required. To many our standards appear to be overprotective in that they have, at best, marginal health benefits and without question are costly to implement. Government agencies, the Congress, industry, professional organizations, and others have expressed their concerns and interests regarding standards in a variety of ways

  5. Individual radiation hypersensitivity and radiological protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Individuals with radiation hypersensitivity represent a challenge in terms of radiological protection. ICRP has acknowledged the importance of this issue by publishing Annual No.79 on genetic susceptibility to cancer in 1998. This paper gives a comprehensive overview on the problem. Progress in molecular genetics of cancer have enlarged our knowledge on individual susceptibility to cancer and in relation to this on individual radiation sensitivity. Until now there are some clear defined inherited disorders with evidence for increased risk by high (therapeutic) doses of ionising radiation. As there is rapidly growing knowledge and understanding of the mechanism of disease, the radiation protection society should become more and more acquainted with this special question. Our paper gives a basic introduction to the principles of the mechanisms of individual radiation sensitivity in hereditary disorders. Based on demonstration of disabled tumorsupressor genes in retinoblastoma as a simple example the possible role of environmental factors in cancer development is shown. Epidemiologic data of retinoblastoma cases provide evidence for the role of ionising radiation as an environmental factor increasing the risk for secondary cancer of such patients. Consequences for radiotherapeutic and occupational medicine are highlighted. There are some fundamental rules to be observed by physicians treating patients with radiotherapy. To identify high risk patients genetic testing may fy high risk patients genetic testing may be necessary, which is possible know for some hereditary disorders. Problems involving genetic testing are outlined. (author)

  6. Discussion on several problems in evolution of radiation protection system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As viewed from the standpoint of radiation protection practice, it is necessary that the current system of radiological protection should be made more simple and coherent. The human-based protective measures alone are far from having met the requirements of environmental protection in many circumstances. Protecting the environment from ionising radiation would be implicated in radiation protection. Collective dose is an useful indicator, of which applicable extent should be defined. Using such an quantity could help improve radiation protection level, but applicable conditions should be indicated, temporal or spatial. Natural radiation is the largest contributor to the radiation exposure of human. Occupational exposure from natural radiation should be controlled, for occupations such as underground miners and air crew. Controlling both man-made and natural radiation exposure of pregnant women and children needs to be enhanced, especially radiological diagnosis and treatment. China radiation protection community, as a whole, is paying considerable attention to the ICRP's new Recommendations. Prof. Clarke's article 'A Report on Progress towards New Recommendations', a communication from the International Commission on Radiological Protection, has been translated into Chinese and published on Radiation Protection, the Official Journal of China Radiation Protection Society with a view of intensifying awareness of the new Recommendations within more radiation protection woations within more radiation protection workers and people concerned. In addition, a special meeting was convened in early 2002 to address the comments on the new Recommendations. (author)

  7. Radiation protection in the dental profession

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A synopsis is presented of the results of a Health and Safety Executive Survey begun in 1977. The aim of the survey was to fulfil the need of the HSE to meet its enforcement duties concerning equipment and procedures, to devise a basis for regulatory requirements, and to evaluate the dental postal pack provided by the NRPB. Dentists were chosen at random from a list of practitioners offering treatment within the N.H.S. Significant differences were noted in results obtained from the first (585 practitioners) and second groups, the latter being surveyed subsequent to additional guidance being offered. The survey included questions on location and maintenance of equipment, beam diameter and filtration, film processing techniques, timer accuracy, the level of instruction and supervision given to dental staff, diagnostic procedures, personal radiation doses and dose per exposure. (U.K.)

  8. Safety and radiation protection in mining and milling facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Federal Legislation in Brazil establishes that the Brazilian Nuclear Energy Commission - CNEN - is responsible for the surveillance of the industrialization of nuclear ores and the production and commerce of nuclear materials in such way that activities such as buying, selling, import and export, are subject to previous licensing and surveillance. Regulation CNEN-NN-4.01 on Safety and Radiation Protection in Mining and Milling Facilities of conventional ores containing naturally occurring radioactive materials, NORM, was issued in 2004 establishing both a methodology for classification of these facilities into three Categories, taking into account both the contents of uranium and thorium in the ores and the applicable radiation and safety requirements based on a graded approach. Although the lack of a licensing process in the above mentioned Regulation made its implementation a difficult task, CNEN, by means of an initial survey, identified ca. 30 mining and milling industries of conventional ores containing uranium and thorium with concentrations above 10 Bq/g. More recently, a new juridical understanding of the legislation concluded that CNEN must issue licences and authorizations for the possession and storage of all ores with uranium and thorium concentrations above exemption levels. A proper surveillance programme encompassing 13 of these mining facilities was then put forward aiming at the improvement of their safety and radiation protection. This article presents an overview of NORM exploitation in Brazil and put forward suggestions for achieving viable solutions for the protection of workers, general public and environment from the effects of ionizing radiation. (author)

  9. Radiation protection optimization. Advances in practical implementation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Within the Community, protection against the dangers of ionizing radiation is regulated in conformity with the provisions of two Council Directives. One is of general application for all activities involving a hazard arising from ionizing radiation and lays down the basic safety standards for the health protection of the general public and workers against the dangers of ionizing radiation. The other is derived from the abovementioned one and lays down the basic measures for the radiation protection of persons undergoing medical examination or treatment. The Commission, in collaboration with the Spanish Ministerio de Sanidad y Consumo, the Consejo de Seguridad Nuclear and the Centro de Investigaciones Energeticas, Medioambientales y Tecnologicas, organized on 12, 13 and 14 September 1988 in Madrid, the third scientific seminar on the optimization principle (Alara) which is a key element of the two abovementioned Council Directives. The seminar allowed an analysis of the progress made since the previous seminars of 1979 and 1983, in the practical implementation of the optimization principle, in relation to the design and operation of nuclear and industrial installations, natural radioactivity, medical practices and countermeasures. The report contains the 20 original contributions presented and some general considerations on the results of the seminar

  10. The healing arts radiation protection guidelines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of these guidelines is to help the health professional render the risks associated with diagnostic radiation as low as reasonably achievable. The guidelines contain advice and recommendations, but no mandatory requirements. They assist radiation protection officers in establishing and maintaining a Quality Assurance Program and in carrying out other duties required by the Healing Arts Radiation Protection Act; assist staff to comply with the X-ray Safety Code in a way that will raise the standards of x-ray diagnosis and patient safety; address the relationship between the radiation exposure of the patient and the quality of the image; address the problem of protecting the patient in x-ray examinations; summarize x-ray safety problems from the point of view of the operator and other staff; indicate what remedial measures can be taken; define the quality assurance needs of x-ray users; and encourage the users of x-rays for diagnostic purposes to go beyond the scope of the Act and comply with the ALARA principle

  11. Days of Radiation Protection 2001. Conference Proceedings of the 24th Days of Radiation Protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Already the 24th annual international conference 'Days of Protection from Radiation' was taking place in Jan Sverma Hotel in Demaenova dolina on 26-29 November 2001. More than 180 participants from the Slovak Republic and the Czech Republic participated in the meetings of experts on protection from radiation. Representative of IAEA Division for Protection from Radiation and the representatives of several European companies securing the project, advisory and supplier's activities in dosimetry of ionising radiation also participated in the conference. The participants discussed in 7 expert panels the issue of protection from radiation in the legislative field, in the nuclear facilities operation and in medicine. The expert part of the other panels concerned the issues of ionising radiation impact on the environment and working environment, natural radio-nuclides, including radon and biologic impacts of radiation. One separate panel was dedicated to device techniques and methods of dosimetry of ionising radiation. More than 45 expert lectures and more than 40 poster presentations were presented at the conference during 3 days. The exhibition and presentation of measuring technique products and devices and of materials used in the area of radiation protection and nuclear medicine was prepared during the course of the conference. Participation in the conference showed that a great interest in problems of protection from radiation persists. This was proved by rich lecturing activity and wide discussions on the floor and during the poster presentations. Participants were satisfied since the organisers of the event prepared a worthy event with the rich expert themes at a good organisational and social level in a beautiful environment of Low Tatras

  12. Radiation protection programme for uranium mining

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Radiation Protection Programme (RPP) was developed to ensure that measures are in place for the occupational protection and safety in uranium mining facility. This work has established a number of protective measures that should be taken by the individual miners, licensee and all staff. It is not known whether Kayerekera Uranium mine has the technical and administrative capability for an effective radiation protection programme. The key in the mining facility is the control of dust through various means to prevent the escape of radon gas. Personal hygiene and local operating rules have been discovered to be very important for the protection and safety of the workers. The following components have also been discovered to be vital in ensuring safety culture in the mining facility: classification of working areas, monitoring of individuals and workplace, assignment of responsibilities, emergency preparedness, education and training and health surveillance. The regulatory body (Environmental Affairs Department of Malawi) should examine the major areas outlined in the RPP for Kayerekera uranium mine to find out the effectiveness of the RPP that is in place. (au)

  13. International Society of Radiology and Radiation Protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of the International Society of Radiology (ISR), as being the global organization of radiologists, is to promote and help co-ordinate the progress of radiology throughout the world. In this capacity and as a co-operating organization of the IAEA, the ISR has a specific responsibility in the global radiological protection of patients. Globally, there are many users of medical radiation, and radiology may be practised in the most awkward circumstances. The individuals performing X ray studies as well as those interpreting them may be well trained, as in industrialized parts of the world, but also less knowledgeable, as in developing areas. The problems of radiological protection, both of patients and of radiation workers, still exist, and radiation equipment is largely diffused throughout the world. That is why a conference like this is today as important as ever. Radiation protection is achieved through education, on the one hand, and legislation, on the other. Legislation and regulation are the instruments of national authorities. The means of the ISR are education and information. Good radiological practice is something that can be taught. The ISR is doing this mainly through the biannual International Congress of Radiology (ICR), now arranged in an area of radiological need; the three previous ICRs were in China, in India and in South America; the next one is going to be in Mexico in 2002. The goal of the ICR is mainly to be an instructive and educationamainly to be an instructive and educational event, especially designed for the needs of its surrounding region. The ISR is aiming at producing educational material. The International Commission on Radiological Education (ICRE), as part of the ISR, is launching the production of a series of educational booklets, which also include radiation protection. The ICRE is actively involved in shaping and organizing the educational and scientific programme of the ICRs

  14. Performance of radiation survey meters in X- and gamma-radiation fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this work was to investigate the different types of radiation detectors commonly used for radiation protection purposes as survey meters. The study was performed on survey meters that use different detectors as ionisation chamber, Geiger Mueller (GM) counter and scintillation detector. For each survey meter, energy dependence and angular response in X- and gamma-radiation fields was tested. The following commercially available survey meters were investigated: ionisation chambers Victoreen 451P, Babyline 31 and VA-J-15A, Geiger counter MRK-M87, 6150 AD6 and FAG FH 40F2 and scintillation counter 6150 ADB. As a source of gamma radiation, 137Cs and 60Co were used whereas X-ray radiation fields were generated using an X-ray unit. The radiation characteristics of the survey meters were mostly in compliance with references estimated by standard IEC 1017-2. However, some of them showed larger deviation at lower energies. GM counters exhibit strong energy dependence for low-energy photons. (authors)

  15. White book of radiation protection. Radiation protection at EDF: trends and objectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After a presentation of organization of radioprotection at EDF (Electricity of France), different parts of this radioprotection will be evoked: first, the question of radiobiology related to radiation effects, and associated medical questions. Then, different aspects of radioprotection all life long of nuclear power plants to ensure workers protection, public protection and environment protection. Finally the information and training themes, to end by emergency cases

  16. Radiation protection and radiation recovery with essential metalloelement chelates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This review presents the roles of some essential metalloelement-dependent enzymes in tissue maintenance and function, and their responses to radiation injury in accounting for radiation protection and recovery effects observed for nontoxic doses of essential metalloelement compounds. Effects of biochemicals including water undergoing bond radiolysis and the effects of free radicals derived from diatomic oxygen account for the acute and chronic aspects of radiation injury. Copper chelates have radiation protection and radiation recovery activities and cause rapid recovery of immunocompetency and recovery from radiation-induced histopathology. Mice treated with Cu(II)2(3,5-disopropylsalicy-late)4[Cu(II)2(3,5-DIPS)4] had increased survival and corresponding increases in numbers of myeloid and multipotential progenitor cells early after irradiation and earlier recovery of immune reactivity. Examination of radiation-induced histopathology in spleen, bone marrow, thymus, and small intestine also revealed Cu(II)2(3,5-DIPS)4-mediated rapid recovery of radiation-induced histopathology. Most recently, Fe, Mn, and Zn complexes have also been found to prevent death in lethally irradiated mice. These pharmacological effects of essential metalloelement chelates can be understood as due to facilitation of de novo synthesis of essential metalloelement-dependent enzymes which have roles in preventing the accumulation ofve roles in preventing the accumulation of pathological concentrations of oxygen radicals or repairing biochemical damage caused by radiation-induced bond homolysis. Essential metalloelement chelates offer a physiological approach to prevention and/or treatment of radiation injury. 97 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab

  17. Radiation protection glossary. English-Estonian and Estonian-English

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The dictionary contains more than 300 entries in the field of radiation protection and also useful information about special measurement units for quantities of interest in radiation protection (SI units and the previously used units) with their conversion factors

  18. Practical guide radionuclides and radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This guide presents more than two hundred cards treating the most encountered radionuclides. These data will help the user in order to help him to quantify the risk of internal or external exposure linked to handling; in order to optimize the detection, the means of protection as well the equipment and working stations. This new edition is established from the last international recommends and use recent French and European legislations. This work is part of the special numbers of the radiation protection journal. (N.C.)

  19. Radiation and environmental protection - applications and research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This contribution is a report about the activity in the radiation protection domain carried out in the frame of the Environmental and Civil Radiation Protection Laboratory of IRN Pitesti. In the field of radioprotection the following issues are addressed: operational radioprotection of exposed professionals (radiation monitoring by dose and dose rate measurements for the working places and personnel); gamma spectrometry and radiation field analysis; surveillance of the professional activities with open radiation sources; monitoring methodologies; dose calculations and models; operational exposure management. Concerning the open source operation, alpha, beta and gamma measurements on air and surface samples are performed in order to evaluate the contamination as well as to determine the uranium, tritium and carbon - 14 concentration in water, air, urine, etc. The environmental protection is approached by: - determining the concentration of natural uranium in environmental samples of soil, water, vegetation, etc.; - determining the concentration of the gamma emitting radionuclides of different samples as soil, water, air, vegetation, milk, fish, etc.; - 'in situ' gamma spectrometry for radionuclide concentration measurements for soil; - gross beta radioactivity measurements for different soil samples. Concerning the management of the releases in environment, procedures for monitoring the release of different radioactive effluents were established as well as a program ofs were established as well as a program of surveillance of radioactivity in the neighbourhood of nuclear facilities. The civil protection program includes annual exercises (accident scenarios implying the TRIGA reactor and other nuclear installations, monitoring and quarterly exercises with operation teams, planning and emergency measures, monitoring radioactivity in emergency situation, data base creation for specific data (meteorological, agricultural, demographic, etc.) to be used in the evaluation of nuclear accident radiological consequences. A research and development program entitled Environmental Protection was launched having the following objectives: 1. Radioecological studies to evaluate the impact of nuclear activities upon the environment; 2. The effects of radiations upon human organisms (biological dosimetry); 3. Development of radiation measurement methods with application in radioprotection; 4. Mathematical modelling of radionuclide dispersion in environment. Computing the release limits for radioactive effluents from nuclear installations; 4. Developing the scientific methodological and practical basis for intervention in case of nuclear accident; 5. Informing the public about the advantages of developing the nuclear power

  20. Technical evaluation of the capability of present instrumentation to meet the draft ANSI standard on performance specifications for radiation protection survey instrumentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Existing standards and guides were reviewed. A survey of commercially available instruments determined information on types of instruments available and the manufacturers specifications. Users provided information regarding instrument preference and desired capability. Based on the above information and statistical criteria, procurement of 56 representative instrumentation was initiated. Instrument test and evaluation procedures are being developed that follow the existing, proposed, or draft standards and guides

  1. Radiation Protection Using Carbon Nanotube Derivatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conyers, Jodie L., Jr.; Moore, Valerie C.; Casscells, S. Ward

    2010-01-01

    BHA and BHT are well-known food preservatives that are excellent radical scavengers. These compounds, attached to single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs), could serve as excellent radical traps. The amino-BHT groups can be associated with SWNTs that have carbolyxic acid groups via acid-base association or via covalent association. The material can be used as a means of radiation protection or cellular stress mitigation via a sequence of quenching radical species using nano-engineered scaffolds of SWNTs and their derivatives. It works by reducing the number of free radicals within or nearby a cell, tissue, organ, or living organism. This reduces the risk of damage to DNA and other cellular components that can lead to chronic and/or acute pathologies, including (but not limited to) cancer, cardiovascular disease, immuno-suppression, and disorders of the central nervous system. These derivatives can show an unusually high scavenging ability, which could prove efficacious in protecting living systems from radical-induced decay. This technique could be used to protect healthy cells in a living biological system from the effects of radiation therapy. It could also be used as a prophylactic or antidote for radiation exposure due to accidental, terrorist, or wartime use of radiation- containing weapons; high-altitude or space travel (where radiation exposure is generally higher than desired); or in any scenario where exposure to radiation is expected or anticipated. This invention s ultimate use will be dependent on the utility in an overall biological system where many levels of toxicity have to be evaluated. This can only be assessed at a later stage. In vitro toxicity will first be assessed, followed by in vivo non-mammalian screening in zebra fish for toxicity and therapeutic efficacy.

  2. The purpose of radiation protection monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the early period (1942-1960) of nuclear energy programmes with which I was associated, most radiation protection standards seem to have been formulated on the assumption that there is a threshold dose of ionizing radiation below which no radiation damage is expected to result in the lifetime of the exposed individual. It was in this climate of opinion that health physics began as a profession, and levels of maximum permissible exposure (MPE) to external sources of radiation, maximum permissible concentrations in air, water and food, and maximum permissible body burdens of radionuclides inside the human body were set and enforced. Some of the levels of MPE were quite high in comparison with present standards but, fortunately, the health physicists at the national laboratories in which most radiation workers were employed were very conservative; in most cases the average annual exposures were less than 10% of the MPE levels. However, there was not much concern with the man-rem concept, as exemplified by rather high levels of radioactive waste discharged from the plants or placed in temporary holding facilities - where there was a likely possibility of seepage into the environment. This situation was understandable and justifiable at a time when the purpose of radiation protection monitoring was simply to prevent individuals from exceeding a threshold dose. The period of the recent past up to the present time (1978) has been one in which there has been a gradual change from the concept of a threshold dose hypothesis to the linear hypothesis. In this period the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) and the national standards setting bodies have pointed out that the levels they have selected are based on the linear hypothesis, but in most respects they leave us with the impression that this is most probably a conservative assumption, subject to revision when better data become available. Also, during this period, the concept of exposure As Low As Reasonably Achievable (ALARA) was developed

  3. Biological research for the radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The work scope of 'Biological Research for the Radiation Protection' had contained the research about polyamine effect on cell death triggered ionizing radiation, H2O2 and toxic agents. In this paper, to elucidate the role of polyamines as mediator in lysosomal damage and stress(H2O2)- induced apoptosis, we utilized ?-DiFluoroMethylOrnithine (DFMO), which inhibited ornithine decarboxylase and depleted intracellular putrescine, and investigated the effects of polyamine on the apoptosis caused by H2O2, ionizing radiation and paraquat. We also showed that MGBG, inhibitor of polyamine biosynthesis, treatment affected intracellular redox steady states, intracellular ROS levels and protein oxidation. Thereafter we also investigated whether MGBG may enhance the cytotoxic efficacy of tumor cells caused by ionizing radiation or H2O2 because such compounds are able to potentiate the cell-killing effects. In addition, ceruloplasmin and thioredoxin, possible antioxidant proteins, were shown to have protective effect on radiation- or H2O2(or chemicals)-induced macromolecular damage or cell death

  4. Recommendations for a knowledge sharing in radiation protection. Expertise in radiation protection. Extract from ' propositions for a better protection of persons against the radiation risk'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The group of priorities in radiation protection proposes the following recommendations: to carry on the researches in France to better know the radiation effects on man health and particularly the effects in relation with low doses; to create a national network of researchers working in the field of radiobiology; to create a plan of a scientific lookout; to strengthen the expertise in the field of action principles of radiation protection; to help the development of an organization allowing an interaction between each actor of radiation protection; to organize the production of notes on radiation protection for professionals. (N.C.)

  5. 2009 Canadian Radiation Oncology Resident Survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: Statistics from the Canadian post-MD education registry show that numbers of Canadian radiation oncology (RO) trainees have risen from 62 in 1999 to approximately 150 per year between 2003 and 2009, contributing to the current perceived downturn in employment opportunities for radiation oncologists in Canada. When last surveyed in 2003, Canadian RO residents identified job availability as their main concern. Our objective was to survey current Canadian RO residents on their training and career plans. Methods and Materials: Trainees from the 13 Canadian residency programs using the national matching service were sought. Potential respondents were identified through individual program directors or chief resident and were e-mailed a secure link to an online survey. Descriptive statistics were used to report responses. Results: The eligible response rate was 53% (83/156). Similar to the 2003 survey, respondents generally expressed high satisfaction with their programs and specialty. The most frequently expressed perceived weakness in their training differed from 2003, with 46.5% of current respondents feeling unprepared to enter the job market. 72% plan on pursuing a postresidency fellowship. Most respondents intend to practice in Canada. Fewer than 20% of respondents believe that there is a strong demand for radiation oncologists in Canada. Conclusions: Respondents to the current survey expressed significant satisfaction with their career choice and training pro with their career choice and training program. However, differences exist compared with the 2003 survey, including the current perceived lack of demand for radiation oncologists in Canada.

  6. The gender problem in radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gender is a range of characteristics used to distinguish between males and females, particularly in the cases of men and women and the masculine and feminine attributes assigned to them. While the social sciences sometimes approach gender as a social construct, and some gender studies particularly do, research in the natural and medical sciences investigates whether biological differences in males and females influence the development of gender in humans. Radiation protection regulations also take into account the possibly different radiation risks of males and females. The following contribution investigates how far this is justified, and what are the consequences. (orig.)

  7. Thermoluminescence Dosimetry Applied to Radiation Protection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Poul; BØtter-Jensen, Lars

    1982-01-01

    This is a general review of the present state of the development and application of thermoluminescence dosimetry (TLD) for radiation protection purposes. A description is given of commonly used thermoluminescent dosimeters and their main dosimetric properties, e.g. energy response, dose range, fading, and LET dependence. The applications of thermoluminescence dosimetry in routine personnel monitoring, accident dosimetry, u.v. radiation dosimetry, and environmental monitoring are discussed with particular emphasis on current problems in routine personnel monitoring. Finally, the present state of the development of TL readout instrumentation is discussed and some future trends are indicated.

  8. Thermoluminescence dosimetry applied to radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This is a general review of the present state of the development and application of thermoluminescence dosimetry (TLD) for radiation protection purposes. A description is given of commonly used thermoluminescent dosimeters and their main dosimetric properties, e.g. energy response, dose range, fading, and LET dependence. The applications of thermoluminescence dosimetry in routine personnel monitoring, accident dosimetry, u.v. radiation dosimetry, and environmental monitoring are discussed with particular emphasis on current problems in routine personnel monitoring. Finally, the present state of the development of TL readout instrumentation is discussed and some future trends are indicated. (author)

  9. The gender problem in radiation protection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Persson, Lars [Nobel Inst. of Physics, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2012-07-01

    Gender is a range of characteristics used to distinguish between males and females, particularly in the cases of men and women and the masculine and feminine attributes assigned to them. While the social sciences sometimes approach gender as a social construct, and some gender studies particularly do, research in the natural and medical sciences investigates whether biological differences in males and females influence the development of gender in humans. Radiation protection regulations also take into account the possibly different radiation risks of males and females. The following contribution investigates how far this is justified, and what are the consequences. (orig.)

  10. Radiation safety and protection in US dental hygiene programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A survey of radiation safety and protection measures used by programs teaching dental hygiene indicated some areas for concern. No barriers or radiation shieldings were used between operator and patient in four programs. Radiation monitoring devices were not worn by faculty operators in 16% of the programs. Fewer than half of the programs used thyroid shields for patients on a routine basis. Insufficient filtration for the kilovolt peak employed was used by 14% of the programs, and for 19% more the filtration was unknown or unspecified. Three programs used closed cones. Rectangular collimation was not used at all by 63% of the programs, and only 20% used E speed film routinely. Quality assurance for equipment maintenance and for film processing were in place at only 54% and 49% of the programs, respectively

  11. Chemical protection against ionizing radiation. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Livesey, J.C.; Reed, D.J.; Adamson, L.F.

    1984-08-01

    The scientific literature on radiation-protective drugs is reviewed. Emphasis is placed on the mechanisms involved in determining the sensitivity of biological material to ionizing radiation and mechanisms of chemical radioprotection. In Section I, the types of radiation are described and the effects of ionizing radiation on biological systems are reviewed. The effects of ionizing radiation are briefly contrasted with the effects of non-ionizing radiation. Section II reviews the contributions of various natural factors which influence the inherent radiosensitivity of biological systems. Inlcuded in the list of these factors are water, oxygen, thiols, vitamins and antioxidants. Brief attention is given to the model describing competition between oxygen and natural radioprotective substances (principally, thiols) in determining the net cellular radiosensitivity. Several theories of the mechanism(s) of action of radioprotective drugs are described in Section III. These mechanisms include the production of hypoxia, detoxication of radiochemical reactive species, stabilization of the radiobiological target and the enhancement of damage repair processes. Section IV describes the current strategies for the treatment of radiation injury. Likely areas in which fruitful research might be performed are described in Section V. 495 references.

  12. Chemical protection against ionizing radiation. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The scientific literature on radiation-protective drugs is reviewed. Emphasis is placed on the mechanisms involved in determining the sensitivity of biological material to ionizing radiation and mechanisms of chemical radioprotection. In Section I, the types of radiation are described and the effects of ionizing radiation on biological systems are reviewed. The effects of ionizing radiation are briefly contrasted with the effects of non-ionizing radiation. Section II reviews the contributions of various natural factors which influence the inherent radiosensitivity of biological systems. Inlcuded in the list of these factors are water, oxygen, thiols, vitamins and antioxidants. Brief attention is given to the model describing competition between oxygen and natural radioprotective substances (principally, thiols) in determining the net cellular radiosensitivity. Several theories of the mechanism(s) of action of radioprotective drugs are described in Section III. These mechanisms include the production of hypoxia, detoxication of radiochemical reactive species, stabilization of the radiobiological target and the enhancement of damage repair processes. Section IV describes the current strategies for the treatment of radiation injury. Likely areas in which fruitful research might be performed are described in Section V. 495 references

  13. Radiation protection at V-2 nuclear power plant - operation of radiation protection systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The project is evaluated of radiation protection at the V-2 nuclear power plant in Jaslovske Bohunice, the instrumentation, its purpose and in-service use. Also presented is the evaluation of the results of in-service and long term measurements of the radiation situation at the V-2 plant. The organization is described of dosimetric services provided during the overhaul and refueling, namely measures taken within the system of personnel thermoluminescence dosimetry. The questions are discussed of the reliability of the system of in-service radiation protection. (B.S.)

  14. Monthly radiation protection training of workers: An evaluation of two years operational practice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiation protection training and education is important in stimulating safety culture of occupationally exposed workers. Taking into account the mandatory requirements in relation to education and training a digital training tool was introduced for communication of personal dose results and regular information on radiation protection. This tool enables that personal dose reports are monthly sent to the individual mailbox of workers together with short comprehensive slideshows on radiation protection topics. After two years of operational practice a survey was organised to evaluate the training tool. The results show that the majority (92%) of the occupationally exposed workers are aware of the communication of personal dose results through e-mail. Furthermore, 81% of these workers are also aware of their monthly and cumulated dose level. The monthly information on radiation protection topics is however less consulted. Around 40% of the workers that noticed the link are indifferent to the monthly information. The interest in radiation protection issues increases however with the education level.

  15. New radiation protection calibration facility at CERN

    CERN Document Server

    Brugger, Markus; Pozzi, Fabio; Silari, Marco; Vincke, Helmut

    2014-01-01

    The CERN radiation protection group has designed a new state-of-the-art calibration laboratory to replace the present facility, which is >20 y old. The new laboratory, presently under construction, will be equipped with neutron and gamma sources, as well as an X-ray generator and a beta irradiator. The present work describes the project to design the facility, including the facility placement criteria, the ‘point-zero’ measurements and the shielding study performed via FLUKA Monte Carlo simulations.

  16. Calculation of radiation protection for graphite piles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After having recalled the protection problems related to CO2 cooled graphite reactors (damages created by fast neutrons, coolant activation by neutrons, material heating due to gamma radiation, steel structure activation), the authors present the principle of the calculation method (it is mainly based on a scattering-based propagation of fast neutrons and the quick establishment of an asymptotic spectrum), and discuss its practical application. They describe the determination of constants: calculation of equivalent fission flows, calculation of the equivalent thermal flow

  17. Evaluation of surgical gloves for radiation protection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antolin, E.; Rot, M.J.; Ordonez, J.; Arranz, L.; Sastre, J.M.; Ferrer, N.; Andres, J.C. de [Hospital Ramon y Ca jal, Servicio de Radiofisica y Proteccion Radiologica, Madrid (Spain)

    2006-07-01

    Full text of publication follows: Accumulated doses in hands during interventionist cardiology and radiological procedures can reach high values, and even go beyond legal limits for exposed professionals after years of work, unless they use specific radiation protection methods. An important protection mean for hands is the use of surgical gloves that attenuate the radiation while maintaining the tactile sensitivity demanded by physicians.There is a wide variety of commercialized gloves for radiation protection, with different advantages and disadvantages for various uses. In this paper nine different models of gloves have been evaluated for testing its attenuation capacity for several voltages, the maintenance of tactile sensitivity, its resistance to elongation, and the apparition of pores after successive sterilizing processes. It is very important that they do not lose its initial characteristics after processes of sterilization in order to optimize the product effective cost. The attenuation values have been measured under the voltages of 60, 70, 80 and 90 KVp obtaining very different values at each voltage with different gloves. The values measured range between 34 % before any supplementary sterilization with one model of glove (for 90 KVp), and 57 % after four sterilization processes with another glove (for 60 KVp). Some gloves lose its attenuation capacity after successive sterilizations, having not been found an y significant relation with their composition. The tactile sensitivity, a decisive factor for its users, decreases as its attenuation capacity increases, and remains mostly constant after being sterilized. The tests performed allow to conclude a set of fi nal results that can facilitate the choice of the most suitable gloves according to the practical applications (the priorities being the radiation protection and the tactile sensitivity)

  18. The historical development of radiation protection limits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present internationally largely corresponding radiation protection limits are based on recommendations given by the ICRP in 1965. In order to better understand the underlying concepts, a historical sketch of the development is presented including actual discussions of trends to be excepted. Although exposure of healthy individuals by man-made sources up to these maximum levels is legally permissible, it should be emphasized again and again that any unavoidable exposure must be justified by the need for its associated cause. (author)

  19. Nevada National Security Site Radiation Protection Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2013-04-30

    Title 10 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) Part 835, “Occupational Radiation Protection,” establishes radiation protection standards, limits, and program requirements for protecting individuals from ionizing radiation resulting from the conduct of U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) activities. 10 CFR 835.101(a) mandates that DOE activities be conducted in compliance with a documented Radiation Protection Program (RPP) as approved by DOE. This document promulgates the RPP for the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS), related (on-site or off-site) U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Field Office (NNSA/NFO) operations, and environmental restoration off-site projects. This RPP section consists of general statements that are applicable to the NNSS as a whole. The RPP also includes a series of appendices which provide supporting detail for the associated NNSS Tennant Organizations (TOs). Appendix H, “Compliance Demonstration Table,” contains a cross-walk for the implementation of 10 CFR 835 requirements. This RPP does not contain any exemptions from the established 10 CFR 835 requirements. The RSPC and TOs are fully compliant with 10 CFR 835 and no additional funding is required in order to meet RPP commitments. No new programs or activities are needed to meet 10 CFR 835 requirements and there are no anticipated impacts to programs or activities that are not included in the RPP. There are no known constraints to implementing the RPP. No guides or technical standards are adopted in this RPP as a means to meet the requirements of 10 CFR 835.

  20. Proceedings: 2003 Radiation Protection Technology Conference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Health physics professionals within the nuclear industry are continually upgrading their programs with new methods and technologies. The Third Annual EPRI Radiation Protection Technology Conference facilitated this effort by communicating technical developments, program improvements, and experience throughout the nuclear power industry. When viewed from the perspective of shorter outages, diminishing numbers of contract RP technicians and demanding emergent work, this information flow is critical for the industry

  1. Radiation Protection Institute Annual Report for 2012

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The report covers the activities of the Radiation Protection Institute (RPI) of the Ghana Atomic Energy Commission for the year 2012. It is grouped under the following topics: vision and mission; personnel, major activities, research projects, IAEA Technical Cooperation and AFRA projects; ongoing research projects and programs. Also included are income and expenditure statements, physical and human resource development; IAEA training courses, national and IAEA training courses and meetings hosted; and publications. (A. B.)

  2. Radiation protection aspects in importing metallic scraps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The meeting deals with radiation protection problems caused by the possibility that radioactive metal scraps or radioactive sources hidden in the scraps, may arrive in a foundry. The importance of this issue and of rational and systematic solutions is showed by several accidents, happened in the past in numerous countries, by many signals in Italy and by some papers published in international scientific journals or reports issued by authorities and institutions in different countries

  3. Radiation Protection Institute Annual Report for 2013

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The report covers the activities of the Radiation Protection Institute (RPI) of the Ghana Atomic Energy Commission for the year 2013. The report is grouped under the following headings: establishment, vision and mission; personnel and organization; major activities and research projects; IAEA, Technical Cooperation and AFRA projects; ongoing research projects and programs; income and expenditure statements, physical development and human resource development, training courses, meetings and conferences. (A. B.)

  4. Radiation protection by diethyldithiocarbamate. Protection of membrane and DNA in vitro and in vivo against ?-radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diethyldithiocarbamate (DDTC) is studied for its antioxidant and radioprotective abilities. DDTC at a concentration of 0.5 mM reduced DPPH radical. DDTC reduced the damage to deoxyribose resulting from hydroxyl radicals generated by Fenton reaction, indicating that the radioprotective abilities of this compound could be due to the free radical scavenging. DDTC protected rat liver microsomal membranes in vitro from peroxidative damage in lipids (measured as TBARS) resulting from 50 Gy ?-radiation. It also protected plasmid pBR322 DNA from radiation-induced strand breaks. An oral administration of DDTC to mice before whole body ?-radiation exposure (4 Gy) resulted in a reduction of radiation-induced lipid peroxides in the liver homogenates. An administration of DDTC to mice before ?-radiation reduced the radiation-induced DNA damage as studied by single cell gel-electrophoresis (comet assay). The comet parameters such as tail length, tail moment, and percent of DNA in tail were found to increase in the blood leukocytes of mice exposed to 4 Gy ?-radiation. When DDTC was administered to mice before the radiation exposure, the increase in the comet parameters as a result of radiation was prevented, indicating a protection of cellular DNA. The present study has implication for the potential use of DDTC as a radioprotector. (author)

  5. Radiation protection in medical centers : teletherapy service

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The General Regulation of Radiation Safety, it clearly provides the classification, requirements and obligations of the various figures relating to a radiation protection system, i.e., the occupationally exposed personnel, the radiation safety responsible, the legal representative, the type of installation, etc. For new installations, the shieldings calculation should be contained in the analytical report with due consideration of factors, such as those surrounding the areas classification based on the occupation type, the work load of the equipment and others. The operation license involves requirements such as the Report and the Radiation Safety Handbook, the Emergencies Plan, the establishment of register levels, investigation and intervention, the way it is carried out medical surveillance of the occupationally exposed personnel, and the description of the protection mechanisms and detection instrumentation and radiation measurement. Deserves mention the case when high readings are recorded in the personal dosimeters, which must submit to an interrogation to the employee, you must determine if it is an incorrect reading to the service provider, you must perform a medical exam blood cell count with relevant to the dose determination, may eventually can lead to a cytogenetic study and the determination to do if confirmed an unexpectedly high dose. Moreover, the technology evolution also implies the development of adaptation measures. For example, the Intensity Modulmeasures. For example, the Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy, which is an advanced high-precision radiotherapy that uses X-ray accelerators for computer-controlled radiation doses precisely to a malignant tumor or specific areas within the tumor, taking into account requires regard to equipment, and space and shielding, time and staff hours for treatment, personnel training, materials for making images (such as two-dimensional arrangements of integrated circuits or diodes, films or portal images), the attention given by the engineers of service, the validation of the treatment plan and quality control of the planning system and dosimetry parameters and mechanics. (Author)

  6. IRPA Regional Congress on Radiation Protection in Central Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Congress proceedings included 93 papers. The IRPA Congress materials deals with progress the various IRPA initiatives to implement new radiation protection concepts. In accordance to this actual trends the main topics of the congress are 'Clearance levels and material release' and 'Environmental impact assessment of workplaces resp. facilities with radiation sources'. Papers and posters in all traditional radiation protection subjects (general aspects, biological effects of radiation, radiation protection in medicine, dosimetry, instrumentation, quality assurance)

  7. Chemical radioprotectors in the radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Some chemical compounds showed high efficiency in protection of people and animals against harmful effects of ionizing radiation. A review of current situation was given and possible directions of further investigations in the field of chemical radioprotection were pointed out. From great number of chemical radioprotectors, the group of aminothiol, derivatives of cysteamine, that showed the greatest efficiency in previous investigations, was particularly described. According to newer literature data and our own results, WR-2721 (gamafos, ethiofos) deserves special attention because of high efficiency, comparatively good bearing and low protection of tumor tissue, what is of particular importance for radiotherapy of malignant diseases. In recent times, investigations in this field goes in the direction of discovering new substances and suitable combinations of two or more radioprotectors, which would lead to the maximal protection level with minimal unwanted effects. (author)

  8. Radiation protection guidelines for the skin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With the exception of the function of cells in the skin associated with immunocompetence nonstochastic effects have been well characterized and threshold doses are known with a precision appropriate for setting radiation protection standards. A dose limitation of 0.5 Sv per year and a working lifetime dose limit of 20 Sv should protect the worker population adequately and therefore, the current protection standards are quite adequate. The risk estimate for skin cancer is very dependent on the selection of the projection model and on the mortality rate assumed. Based on the relative risk model, a mortality rate of 0.2% and summing risks for both UVR exposed and shielded skin the risk is about twice (1.94/10-4 Sv-1) that which ICRP derived in 1977. With the absolute model the risk is considerably less, about 0.5/10-4 Sv-1. 47 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab

  9. University courses on radiation protection in Estonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A brief overview is given on the educational courses containing topics in the field of radiation protection in the Tallinn Technical University and in the University of Tartu, Estonia. It follows from the analysis that at present there is no complete system for education or training of experts in the field. At the same time a significant deficit in specialists and experts is one of the major barriers in the development of an efficient radiation protection infrastructure in this country. A comparison of the course topics to the syllabus for the training of qualified experts recommended by EC and by IAEA demonstrates the items, which need a further development and an expanded coverage in the existing or in future courses. These items involve, e.g., operational radiation protection and its organisation, waste management, transport, quality assurance, etc. Upgrading of courses for the missing theoretical items is not difficult, but it is not sufficient. The largest void lies in the weakness / absence of an adequate basis for practical work or exercises for students. The examples of co-operation and help provided for the existing courses, especially by the Nordic countries, are encouraging. (au)

  10. Ionizing radiation protection regulation in Canada: the role of the Federal Provincial Territorial Radiation Protection Committee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Canada has one of the broadest and most mature nuclear industries in the world, and is a world leader in uranium mining, and in the production of medical radioisotopes. The Canadian nuclear industry also includes: uranium milling, refining, and fuel fabrication facilities; nuclear generating stations; research reactors and related facilities; waste management facilities; and the use of radioactive materials in medicine and industry. Regulation of this broad and dynamic industry is a complex and challenging task. Canada has a cooperative system for the regulation of ionizing radiation protection covering federal, provincial, territorial, and military jurisdictions. A Federal/Provincial/Territorial Radiation Protection Committee (FPTRPC) exists to aid in cooperation between the various agencies. Their mandate encompasses regulation and guidance on all aspects of radiation protection: federal and provincial; NORM and anthropogenic; ionizing and non-ionizing. The Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission (CNSC) is the federal nuclear regulator whose mandate includes radiation protection regulation of most occupational and public exposures. The CNSC does not regulate medical (patient) exposures, some aspects of NORM, or military applications. Provincial authorities are the primary regulators with respect to doses to patients and occupational doses arising from X-rays. Health Canada plays a role in X-ray device certification, development of national guidance (e.g. on radon) and direct regulation of certain federal facilities. NORM is regulated provincially, with varying regulatory mechanisms across the provinces and territories. Radiation protection regulation for National Defence and the Canadian Armed Forces is performed by the Director General Nuclear Safety. This paper gives an overview of the structure of the regulation of ionizing radiation protection in Canada, and shares lessons learned, particularly with respect to the usefulness of the FPTRPC in helping coordinate and harmonize radiation protection regulation nationally. (author)

  11. Organization of radiation protection in German nuclear power stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Using the operating handbooks of the nuclear power stations in West Germany, an examination was carried out of how far the existing organisational structure for radiation protection fulfils the requirements for protection and whether a standardisation of the organisation would provide improvements for the protection of the personnel and for the practicability of the radiation protection organisation. In particular, the parts 'Personnel operating organisation', 'Radiation protection order' and 'Maintenance order' of the operating handbook were evaluated and an audit was made of the radiation protection organisation. In general, the result of the assessment is that the organisation of radiation protection does not contradict the orders, guidelines and regulations in any of the nuclear power stations examined. Corresponding to the possibilities of regulating details of the radiation protection organisation within the undertaking, the target of 'protection of the personnel against radioactive irradiation' is achieved by the various organisation structures which are largely equal to the given example. (orig./HP)

  12. Melatonin protection from chronic, low-level ionizing radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiter, Russel J; Korkmaz, Ahmet; Ma, Shuran; Rosales-Corral, Sergio; Tan, Dun-Xian

    2011-12-15

    In the current survey, we summarize the published literature which supports the use of melatonin, an endogenously produced molecule, as a protective agent against chronic, low-level ionizing radiation. Under in vitro conditions, melatonin uniformly was found to protect cellular DNA and plasmid super coiled DNA from ionizing radiation damage due to Cs(137) or X-radiation exposure. Likewise, in an in vivo/in vitro study in which humans were given melatonin orally and then their blood lymphocytes were collected and exposed to Cs(137) ionizing radiation, nuclear DNA from the cells of those individuals who consumed melatonin (and had elevated blood levels) was less damaged than that from control individuals. In in vivo studies as well, melatonin given to animals prevented DNA and lipid damage (including limiting membrane rigidity) and reduced the percentage of animals that died when they had been exposed to Cs(137) or Co(60) radiation. Melatonin's ability to protect macromolecules from the damage inflicted by ionizing radiation likely stems from its high efficacy as a direct free radical scavenger and possibly also due to its ability to stimulate antioxidative enzymes. Melatonin is readily absorbed when taken orally or via any other route. Melatonin's ease of self administration and its virtual absence of toxicity or side effects, even when consumed over very long periods of time, are essential when large populations are exposed to lingering radioactive contamination such as occurs as a result of an inadvertent nuclear accident, an intentional nuclear explosion or the detonation of a radiological dispersion device, i.e., a "dirty" bomb. PMID:22185900

  13. From scientific evidence to radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The long-term effects on health from radiation at low dose rates depend on so many biological variables that simple generalizations are unlikely to be valid for any specific individual at any specific time. Increased incidence of cancers can be observed from moderate doses at high dose rates. At lower doses and lower dose rates evidence is less clear. Advances in molecular biology in the last decade are enabling striking progress to be made in understanding the cellular mechanisms that determine the responses to radiation and their underlying genetic control. Enough is known now to conclude that any response will depend on an individual's genetic makeup and may be varied in time for a given individual, depending, inter alia on the pattern of dose in time. Faced with this uncertainty, the pragmatic approach for protection remains that of basing the level of protection simply on the magnitude of the radiation dose, albeit not with the underlying idea that with every radiation event there is a fixed probability of causing cancer. (author)

  14. Radiation survey instruments: the power reactor perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study was initiated to evaluate the current state-of-the-art of radiation survey instruments in the power reactor environment and to compare today's user's comments to a similar study conducted in 1977. In addition, user input was solicited as to the impact of the proposed ANSI Standard N42.17 on the quality of radiation survey instruments. The limited response (19 of 93) received to date, however, yields a study with limited value. The information contained in this study reflects the input of the respondents and does not necessarily reflect the views of GPU Nuclear Corporation or the author

  15. Data for radiation protection and nuclear data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Various conversion coefficients have been used in external and internal dosimetry in radiation protection practices. Radiation doses in the human body cannot be directly measured in general situation and the conversion coefficient has been used to correlate the human body dose with physical quantities such as radioactivity, particle fluence and other dosimetric quantities to be used to describe the radiation field. Fluence-to-organ dose conversion coefficients have been calculated using Monte Carlo radiation transport codes in conjunction with an anthropomorphic mathematical phantom. Neutron and photon interaction cross-section libraries are indispensable for these calculations. ICRP Publication 74 gives tables of conversion coefficients for estimation of organ doses and effective dose for photons, neutrons and electrons. Based on these results, shielding calculation parameters have been prepared for simple and easy dose estimation in radiation facilities. Dose factors, organ doses and effective dose per unit intake of radionuclide, have been also calculated for internal dosimetry purpose. ICRP Publications 68 and 72 give tables of dose factors for a variety of radionuclides. Revision of radiation data library has been made to reflect updated information on radionuclides to internal dosimetry. (author)

  16. Radiation protection study of radiology medical workers in radiodiagnosis area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aspects related to radiological safety and its organization in radiodiagnosis were evaluated by means of scanning carried out in 18 hospitals of Mexico City, divided in 11 public institutions and 7 private ones. The population being studied was: hospital personnel that works in radiodiagnosis. The survey was made with 31 dichotomic variables, being obtained 132 surveys. The personnel characteristics are 83% works in public institutions, 49% works in radiodiagnosis, 3% has an academic degree, 13% is member of a hospital professional association, 13% has updated information on radiological protection, 36% was trained, 45% works for more than 2 years, 52% uses personal dosemeter, less than the 20% knows about the fundamentals of the radiological protection and 24% states to suffer from biological radiation effects, due to the exposure to x-rays. As result of the study, it was found that the main problems that the radiological protection has, are: lack of training programs in radiological protection and supervision, medical surveillance and the few number of persons that takes part in clinical meetings and professional associations. (authors). 7 refs., 3 tabs

  17. Neutron measuring instruments for radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present report deals with selected topics from the field of neutron dosimetry for radiation protection connected with the work of the subcommittee 6802 in the Standards Committee on Radiology (NAR) of the German Standards Institute (DIN). It is a sort of material collection. The topics are: 1. Measurement of the absorbed-energy dose by a) ionization chambers in fields of mixed radiation and b) recoil-proton proportional counting tubes. 2. Measurement of the equivalent dose, neutron monitors, combination methods by a) rem-meters, b) recoil-proton counting tubes, c) recombination method, tissue-equivalent proportional counters, activation methods for high energies in fields of mixed radiation, d) personnel dosimetry by means of ionization chambers and counting tubes, e) dosimetry by means of activation methods, nuclear track films, nonphotographic nuclear track detectors and solid-state dosimeters. (orig./HP)

  18. Quantitative risk in radiation protection standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Although the overall aim of radiobiology is to understand the biological effects of radiation, it also has the implied practical purpose of developing rational measures for the control of radiation exposure in man. The emphasis in this presentation is to show that the enormous effort expended over the years to develop quantitative dose-effect relationships in biochemical and cellular systems, animals, and human beings now seems to be paying off. The pieces appear to be falling into place, and a framework is evolving to utilize these data. Specifically, quantitative risk assessments will be discussed in terms of the cellular, animal, and human data on which they are based; their use in the development of radiation protection standards; and their present and potential impact and meaning in relation to the quantity dose equivalent and its special unit, the rem

  19. Antihistamine provides sex-specific radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rats suffer an early transient performance decrement immediately after a sufficiently large dose of ionizing radiation. However, it has been shown that males experience a more severe incapacitation than females. This sex difference has been attributed to the low estrogen levels in the male. In support of this notion, supplemental estrogens in castrated male rats have produced less-severe performance decrements post-irradiation. Antihistamines have also previously been shown to alleviate radiation's effect on behavior. The present study revealed that antihistamines are only effective in altering the behavioral incapacitation of sexually intact male subjects. This contrasts with previous work which indicates that estrogens can only benefit gonadectomized rats. These findings suggest that different mechanisms may underlie antihistamine and estrogen radiation protection

  20. Antihistamine provides sex-specific radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rats suffer an early transient performance decrement immediately after a sufficiently large dose of ionizing radiation. However, it has been shown that males experience a more severe incapacitation than females. This sex difference has been attributed to the low estrogen levels in the male. In support of this notion, supplemental estrogens in castrated male rats have produced less-severe performance decrements post-irradiation. Antihistamines have also previously been shown to alleviate radiation's effect on behavior. The present study revealed that antihistamines are only effective in altering the behavioral incapacitation of sexually intact male subjects. This contrasts with previous work which indicates that estrogens can only benefit gonadectomized rats. These findings suggest that different mechanisms may underly antihistamine and estrogen radiation protection

  1. New dose units in radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 'Normenausschuss Radiologie' (German Standards Committee on Radiology, NAR) and the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB) have recommended the introduction of new quantities in the field of radiation protection measurements for external exposure in Germany as of January 1995. The present report serves as a support for this recommendation. It describes the present, radiation type related system of quantities and the new quantities as proposed by the ICRU which are the same for all types of radiation. The implications of the introduction of the new quantities in individual and area monitoring are described. In particular, changes of calibration procedures are considered, and numerical values needed for these procedures are given. Two chapters deal with special problems connected with instrument testing and verification and with provisional arrangements. (orig./HP)

  2. Radiation protection, optimization and justification; Radioprotection, optimisation et justification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cordoliani, Y.S.; Brisse, H.; Foucart, J.M. [75 - Paris (France); Clement, J.P.; Ribeiro, A.; Gomes, H.; Marcus, C. [51 - Reims (France); Rehel, J.L.; Talbot, A.; Aubert, B.; Scanff, P. [92 - Fontenay aux Roses (France); Roudier, C.; Donadieu, J.; Pirard, P. [Saint Maurice (France); Bar, O. [37 - Tours (France); Maccia, C.; Benedittini, M. [92 - Bourg la Reine (France); Bouziane, T. [Tournai (Belgium); Brat, H. [Hornuy (Belgium); Bricoult, M [Bruxelles (Belgium); Heuga, O.; Hauger, O.; Bonnefoy, O.; Diard, F.; Chateil, J.F. [33 - Bordeaux (France); Schramm, R. [Forcheim (Germany); Reisman, J. [Princeton (United States); Aubert, B

    2005-10-15

    Nine articles in the field of radiation protection relative to the medical examinations concern the new legislation in radiation protection, the optimization of this one in order to reduce the radiation doses delivered to the patients, the side effects induced by irradiation and to give an evaluation of the medical exposure of french population to ionizing radiations. (N.C.)

  3. Symposium on radiation protection in the Federal Armed Forces. Contributions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The symposium discussed current problems, e.g. ammunition containing depleted uranium, dosimetry of ionizing and X-ray radiation in radar equipment, radiation protection law, effects of the new Radiation Protection Ordinance, medical treatment in case of radiation accidents, monitoring and supervision, etc

  4. Proceedings of the symposium on molecular biology and radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The symposium on molecular biology and radiation protection was organized in sessions with the following titles: Radiation protection and the human genome; Molecular changes in DNA induced by radiation; Incidence of genetic changes - pre-existing, spontaneous and radiation-induced; Research directions and ethical implications. The ten papers in the symposium have been abstracted individually

  5. Radiation protection during operation of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Guide describes a Radiation Protection Programme for nuclear power plants. It includes: (1) An outline of the basic principles as well as practical aspects of the programme; (2) A description of the responsibilities of the operating organization to establish an effective programme based upon these principles; (3) A description of the administrative and technical measures to establish and implement the programme. This Guide also deals with the operational aspects to be considered by the operating organization in reviewing design in order to facilitate implementation of the Radiation Protection Programme. This Guide covers the requirements for a Radiation Protection Programme for all operational states of the nuclear power plant. It also includes guidelines for handling planned special exposures and for coping with unplanned exposures and contamination of personnel, areas, and equipment. Additional information concerning emergency situations involving releases of radioactive materials is given in Safety Guides 50-SG-O6, ''Preparedness of the Operating Organization (Licensee) for Emergencies at Nuclear Power Plants'', and 50-SG-G6, ''Preparedness of Public Authorities for Emergencies at Nuclear Power Plants''. This Guide covers the principles of dose limitation to site personnel and to the public, but it does not include detailed instructions on the techniques used for the actual measurement and evaluation of the exposures. This Guide does not include detailed instructions on environmental surveys, but it does mention principal steps in environmental monitoring which may be required for confirmation of the acceptability of radioactive discharges

  6. Radiation protection and practical aspect of radionuclide handling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radionuclides are now widely used in industry but outside nuclear centers radiation protection is sometimes difficult to handle. Radiation risks are appreciated and summed up in tables for installation classification, radiation monitoring, shielding, ventilation, storage and waste disposal

  7. Stakeholders and Radiation Protection in Today's World

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In looking forward the C.R.P.P.H.(Nea 's Committee on radiation protection and public health) identified three influences that will condition the way we address emerging issues, and will alter how we address ongoing issues. These are the involvement of stakeholders in decision making processes, the evolution of radiological protection science and its changing place in risk assessment and management, and the experience gained in implementing the current system of radiological protection. First among there is the growing importance of stakeholder involvement in radiation protection decision making. This has affected the way that the principles of justification, optimization and limitation are viewed, the way the role of the radiation protection professional in risk assessment and management is viewed, and the relative importance of case specific circumstances in relation to harmonized, internationally accepted criteria. In the wake of this change, the international system of radiological protection is being updated by the ICRP, and discussions of the most appropriate direction to take are nearing their end. Second, radiological protection science continues to identify specific aspects that do not fit the conventional linear non threshold model, and which us to consider that, at the very least, the risks from different exposures and exposure situations may not be as simply and universally comparable assumed. This will affect the way that risks are managed, and all relevant stakeholder involvement processes. In addition, decisions relating to public, worker and environmental health and safety are increasingly seen as judgement social choices. Although such choices must be guided by an understanding of state-of-the-art scientific and its uncertainties, the final, choice will generally be made by society, not scientists. Third, since the issuance of ICRP Publication 60 in 1990, and the International Basic Safety Standards in 1996, extensive experience has been amassed in implementing the principles and approaches described in these documents, and several areas have been shown to present significant implemental issues, broadly resulting from the involvement of stakeholders in decision-making processes. Two particular problem areas stick out, these being the segregation of situations into Practices and Interventions, and the application of the concepts of Exclusion and Exemption. Taking these three aspects together, it is clear that stakeholder involvement has had, and will continue to have a profound impact on the identification and management of radiological risks

  8. Radiation Protection During Cyclotron Production of Radiopharmaceuticals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Positron emission tomography (PET) is a radiological diagnostic procedure very suitable for follow up of many oncologic diseases, but can also be efficiently used in diagnostic and follow up of some cardiologic and neurologic diseases too. The most often used radiopharmaceutical, fludeoxyglucose F-18, is produced in the 18 MeV cyclotron in RudJer Medikol Cyclotron d.o.o. (RMC) by the proton bombardment of enriched water H218O. During the whole production cycle the operatives in charge of producing FDG-RMC are, however, exposed to potentially harmful ?-radiation generated either by the operation of cyclotron (proton induced primary, and neutron induced secondary), or to the decay of generated radioisotope 18F, and for their full protection we have implemented the ALARA concept systematically. We have divided the cyclotron operators in three categories depending on the type of activities and the length of potential radiation exposure, and paid special attention to distribute their tasks in such a manner that the overall accumulated dose is approximately equal for all of them. Prior to full operation we have estimated the annual accumulated dose for each operator on the basis of maximum produced activity of 370 GBq (10 Ci) 18F, and dose rate measurements performed by the approved service for radiation protection and radiation monitoring - EKOTEH dosimetry d.o.o. (Thermo Radiameter FH 40-L10, Ser. No. 20268). In this work we report the actual measurements for the period of first three months of regular production (1.11.2010.-31.1.2011.) done by thermoluminescent LiF:Mg,Ti dosimeters Harshaw (TLD-100, type: BG0110). The readings have been done by two automatic personal dosimeter readers Harshaw 6600 by the Rudjer Boskovic Institute licensed service. The measured values were for the observed period much lower than the maximum estimated values, confirming our theoretical model and radiation protection scheme. We have also estimated the rise of absorbed doses due to probable increase in size of production, and concluded that the absorbed doses in these cases will also be within acceptable limits. Therefore, we conclude that the radiation protection at RMC is systematically kept well under legally allowed limits, and ALARA concept is fully implemented. (author)

  9. Radiation protection safety in Uganda -- Experience and prospects of the National Radiation Protection Service

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Uganda National Radiation Protection Service (NRPS) is a technical body under the Atomic Energy Control Board, established by Law - the Atomic Energy Decree of 1972, Decree No. 12, to oversee and enforce safety of radiation sources, practices and workers; and to protect the patients, members of the public and the environment from the dangers of ionizing radiation and radioactive wastes. The Ionizing Radiation Regulations (Standards) - Statutory Instruments Supplement No. 21 of 1996 -- back up the Law. The Law requires all users, importers and operators of radiation sources and radioactive materials to notify the NRPS for registration and licensing. The NRPS is responsible for licensing and for the regulatory enforcement of compliance to the requirements for the safety of radiation sources and practices. There are about 200 diagnostic X-ray units, two radiotherapy centres, one nuclear medicine unit, several neutron probes, about three level gauges and two non-destructive testing sources and a number of small sealed sources in teaching and research institutions. About 50% of these sources have been entered in our inventory using the RAIS software provided by the IAEA. There are about 500 radiation workers and 250 underground miners. The NRPS covers about 50% of the radiation workers. It is planned that by June 2001, all occupational workers will be monitored, bringing coverage to 100%. The Government of Uganda is making the necessary legal, administrative and technical arrangements aimed at establishing the National Radiation Protection Commission as an autonomous regulatory authority. The Atomic Energy Decree of 1972 and Regulations of 1996 are being revised to provide for the National Radiation Protection Commission and to make it comply with the requirements of the International Basic Safety Standards Safety Series No. 115. (author)

  10. Program of radiation protection of patients (Argentina)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After an initial period of conviction for installing an active discussion on Radiation Protection of Patients inside the medical community, there were organized 'working groups' in Radiodiagnosis, Radiotherapy, Nuclear Medicine and on radiation protection of pregnant women. These groups began systematical activities, which received a strong institutional support of the Argentine Society of Radiology, toward the implementation of a 'Program of RPP' that is being put nowadays into practice. The rapid advances which are present in medicine today, both in equipment and work protocol, determine that 'norms and regulations never arrive on time' which is why it is paramount that health services have 'systems of dynamic quality' and 'continual improvement' that can be adapted quickly to changes. This program has 6 principal aims and a series of targets to be fulfilled in successive stages: Basic aims and short term targets: 1) To guarantee the Justification. First goal: Development of the 'Prescription Guide' (achieved); 2) To optimize the radioprotection: First goal: Development of a 'Manual of Procedures' (In process); 3) To prevent potential exposures. First goal: Design of a 'Basic Quality System' in Health (achieved); 4) To achieve a qualification of the professionals by means of a process of certification and re-certification (In process); 5) To spread PRP's criteria by means of chats, meetings and the use of the media and graphical means. (Partially fulfilled); 6) To establish criteria for the protection of patient and operators in Interventional Radiology by creating a referral service. Strategies to cope with different interests within society are described. Main problems, failures and difficulties are also described. The effective participation of the professional and technicians' associations in the development of the program for radiation protection of the patient is a key aspect for the success of the whole national programme. (author)

  11. Code of practice of radiation protection in fixed nuclear gauges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present work aims at developing and updating a code of practice of radiation protection in fixed nuclear gauges that comply with current international recommendations. The work also intended to evaluate the current radiation protection situation in two selected companies using nuclear gauges in Sudan. A draft of the code is proposed which includes the basic principle of protection such as source construction and gauges radiation monitoring, storage maintenance and leak testing as well as specific issues related to nuclear gauges. The practical part of this study included investigation of radiation protection in the comparisons using nuclear gauges for level detection, to evaluate the level of radiation protection and the compliance to the regulatory authority regulations. The result revealed that the two companies do not have an effective radiation protection program and that can lead to exposure of workers to unnecessary doses. Some recommendations were stated, if implemented they could improve the status of radiation protection in those companies. (Author)

  12. Production of multimedia textbook: ionizing radiation and radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In our contribution we want to outline our plan of actions to be carried out for the creation of the first multimedia internet textbook in Slovakia in the field of ionizing radiation and radiation protection. In particular we want to describe first steps that have been performed at its realisation. This textbook would be applicable to the full-time study as well as to distance learning at traditional universities and technical universities. It will also be usable for various forms of in-service training by e-learning. Our objective is to create a modem internet textbook in radiation protection, of which production will be co- ordinated with other European Union countries. The output of our project -the multimedia textbook -will be available to all students at our university's servers and other users will have CDs at their disposal. We propose the use of this multimedia didactic means also in various forms of the distance e-learning. The main motivation for the implementation of distance courses is the necessity to update knowledge, skills and qualification in our contemporary rapidly developing world. The distance e-learning form of education can solve also the problem with the acquisition of the professional qualifications for the work with ionizing radiation. This is the reason for usage of the mentioned textbook not only as the fundamental and unified textbook for the students of universities, but also as the study material for the civil servants responsible for radiation protection, for in-service workers and providers of the professional training. (authors)

  13. Radiation protection measures inside angiography room

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A radiation safety study was conducted in the Angiography Unit of Health Insurance Hospital, Nasr City, Cairo - Egypt. Scatter of ionizing radiation around the bed area during cardiac catheterization procedures using X-rays was measured. Sensitive Kodak monitoring films were used to determine periodically individual effective doses, the safe distance for the staff to minimize radiation exposure and the effectiveness of shields and used leaded aprons. The results showed that the minimum annual collective effective dose was 11.5 person-mSv averaged over all monitored nurses inside the room area and 30.7 person-mSv considering only cardiology staff. The scattered radiations are detectable up to two meters from the bed at different directions. Hence, within these areas cumulative exposures over one year is possible to exceed the annual effective dose limits. The effectiveness of used 0.5 lead equivalent type aprons for X-rays indicated that there is a need for increasing the lead equivalent of the apron used. Measurements for the effectiveness of the shielding used were performed during a period of one and half months of patient examinations. It is concluded that it is necessary to carry out monthly dosimetry measures, to conduct training courses to increase staff, technicians and nurses' awareness of radiation protection precautions during angiographic X-ray and cardiac catheterization procedures. (author)

  14. Radioactivity under supervision and other notions in radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This bibliographical note presents a book which aims at describing the work of professionals in radiation protection and at a better understanding of radioactivity without fear. The author addresses the various definitions, values and units in radiation protection, the effects of radiation on the human being, the detection and measurement of radiation, the history of radiation protection and its objectives (protection of workers, of population and of the environment), the protection against extreme radiation, the protection against contamination, the notions in relationship with regulation, the natural radiation sources, the first artificial radiation sources (radium), the artificial sources of medical origin, the industrial radioactive sources, the radioactive sources of nuclear origin, and the radioactive wastes

  15. Deviating measurements in radiation protection. Legal assessment of deviations in radiation protection measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study investigates how, from a legal point of view, deviations in radiation protection measurements should be treated in comparisons between measured results and limits stipulated by nuclear legislation or goods transport regulations. A case-by-case distinction is proposed which is based on the legal concequences of the respective measurement. Commentaries on nuclear law contain no references to the legal assessment of deviating measurements in radiation protection. The examples quoted in legal commentaries on civil and criminal proceedings of the way in which errors made in measurements for speed control and determinations of the alcohol content in the blood are to be taken into account, and a commentary on ozone legislation, are examined for analogies with radiation protection measurements. Leading cases in the nuclear field are evaluated in the light of the requirements applying in case of deviations in measurements. The final section summarizes the most important findings and conclusions. (orig.)

  16. Radiation protection issues of Auger electron emitters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radionuclides that emit Auger electrons are widely used in nuclear medicine and biomedical research. If the radionuclide is part of a chemical compound which binds to DNA or preferentially enters the cell nucleus, the biological effects of the Auger electrons can be as severe as from high LET alpha particles. Neither the recommendations of the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) in Publication 60, nor the International Basic Safety Standards for Protection against Ionizing Radiation and for the Safety of Radiation Sources provide any detailed guidance on how to calculate the equivalent dose for these radionuclides. Recently, however, a Task Group of the American Association of Physicists in Medicine (AAPM) has proposed that the component of dose from the Auger electrons for radionuclides bound to DNA should be given a preliminary radiation weighting factor of 10 for deterministic effects and 20 for stochastic effects. The dose equivalent calculated with these weighting factors must be modulated by experimentally determined subcellular distributions of the Auger electron emitters. (author)

  17. Mechanism for selenium protection against radiation carcinogenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recently the authors have been investigating the effects of selenium on chemical- and radiation-induced transformation. Selenium was found to inhibit transformation by benzo-(a)-pyrene, pyrolysate Try-P-2, or radiation. One possible mechanism for the protection afforded cells by selenium would be the induction of enzymes such as glutathione peroxidase, known to utilize selenium as a cofactor. Therefore, the authors have measured glutathione-S-transferase in C3H and 10T1/2 cells. They found that cells grown with 1 ?M selenium in the growth medium have 2-3 times the amount of glutathione peroxidase and 2-3 times the amount of catalase over control cells. There is no increase in glutathione-S-transferase, an enzyme that can reduce hydroperoxides. In addition, there was no increase in GSH levels in selenium treated cells. The results suggest that protection against chemical and radiation carcinogenesis may be related to cellular content of catalase and glutathione peroxidase

  18. The evolution of radiation protection criteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The development of sound criteria for efficient radiation protection has depended upon three initial steps being achieved: the early recognition of the variety and types of harmful effects which could be caused by undue exposure; the establishment of consistent and reliable methods of dosimetry and dose estimation; and the progressive evaluation, even if only approximately, of the quantitative levels of risk or safety resulting from exposure of the human body and of its individual organs at different absorbed doses or dose rates. It is a measure of the massive and prolonged studies in epidemiology, in genetics, and in radiobiology generally that quantitative estimates can now be given on which appropriate national control of radiation exposure can be based, in respect both of occupational and public safety. A review of the way in which radiation protection criteria have been developed and can now be applied is of potential relevance to the assessment and control of other mutagenic and carcinogenic agents that may be present in the working or the public environment. (author)

  19. Chernobyl accident: lessons learned for radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The long-term nature of the consequences of the accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant, which was a major technological catastrophe in terms of its scope and complexity and created humanitarian, environmental, social, economic and health consequences. After more than twenty years we can conclude that Chernobyl accident was requested the big efforts of the national governments and international organisations for improvement new approaches to radiation safety, radiation protection, health care, emergency preparedness and response. During first years after accident some response actions did more harm than good because not based on international radiation protection principles, based on criteria developed during emergency and associated with mistrust, emotions, political pressure. As a result was inappropriate government reaction: unjustified relocation and decontamination - loss jobs, homes, billions of $ cost; unjustified compensation (high portion of annual national budgets). Non-radiological (e.g. detrimental economic, social and psychological) consequences was worse than direct radiological consequences. Psychological effects do not correlate with real exposure but with perception of risk. The affected people believe in threat to their health, doubt what has been reported about accident and resulted doses, got modification in life style, have somatic complains, got substance abuse (alcohol, tranquilizers, sleeping pills). The lack of accurate information and misperception of real radiation risk is believed also to have lead to change in behavior of some affected people. Possible long-term health effect due to the accidental exposure remains an issue. There is no doubt that excess thyroid cancer incidence results from exposure to radioactive iodines, mainly by iodine-131. Radiation induced thyroid cancer could easily be prevented by timely warning, effective thyroid blocking, timely restriction of consumption for contaminated food. The implementation of good known effective countermeasures at early stage could have substantially reduced the number of thyroid cancer cases after accident. U N Chernobyl Forum recommended long-term activity for mitigation Chernobyl's consequences - A Strategy for Recovery. For improvement this strategy must be create the modern system of the radiation protection based on the new international and national recommendations. The key issues of the Belarusian experience is discussed. (author)

  20. The IHS diagnostic X-ray equipment radiation protection program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Indian Health Service (IHS) operates or contracts with Tribal groups to operate 50 hospitals and approximately 165 primary ambulatory care centers. These facilities contain approximately 275 medical and 800 dental diagnostic x-ray machines. IHS environmental health personnel in collaboration with the Food and Drug Administration's (FDA) Center for Devices and Radiological Health (CDRH) developed a diagnostic x-ray protection program including standard survey procedures and menu-driven calculations software. Important features of the program include the evaluation of equipment performance collection of average patient entrance skin exposure (ESE) measurements for selected procedures, and quality assurance. The ESE data, collected using the National Evaluation of X-ray Trends (NEXT) protocol, will be presented. The IHS Diagnostic X-ray Radiation Protection Program is dynamic and is adapting to changes in technology and workload

  1. Educational programme on radiation protection for veterinary medicine specialists

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Djuric, G.; Popovic, D. [School of Veterinary Medicine, Dept. of Radiology and Radiation Hygiene and Dept. of Physics, Belgrade (Yugoslavia)

    1992-07-01

    The education of radiation protection for veterinary medicine specialists on the University of Belgrade is integrated both in regular graduate studies and in postgraduate studies. Within the graduate studies, students attend courses in physics and biophysics and in radiation hygiene. During postgraduate or specialistic veterinary medicine studies, veterinary medicine specialists expand their knowledge in radiation protection through a number of courses on radiation biophysics, radioecology, nuclear instrumentation and environmental protection. (author)

  2. Educational programme on radiation protection for veterinary medicine specialists

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The education of radiation protection for veterinary medicine specialists on the University of Belgrade is integrated both in regular graduate studies and in postgraduate studies. Within the graduate studies, students attend courses in physics and biophysics and in radiation hygiene. During postgraduate or specialistic veterinary medicine studies, veterinary medicine specialists expand their knowledge in radiation protection through a number of courses on radiation biophysics, radioecology, nuclear instrumentation and environmental protection. (author)

  3. The role of IRPA in the advancement of radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Associate Societies of IRPA are learned societies and make up the most extensive network of radiation protection professionals in the world. An increasing number of Societies have professional committees and are prepared to comment on standards and react to international recommendations. The recommendations of the ICRP are of great importance to our profession and IRPA maintains formal links with ICRP and has coordinated a questionnaire on the drafts of ICRP Publication 60. A recent survey has examined the actions being taken by the Associate Societies in response to these recommendations. A number of Societies encourage members to seek professional qualifications and so a survey on the certification of members will be reported at the International Congress in Montreal in 1992. (author)

  4. Views of the radiation protection professionals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 'as low as reasonably achievable' (ALARA) principle is the cornerstone of modern radiation protection. Beyond the limitation principle, which ensures basic protection of individuals, ALARA is a pragmatic process of applying, in a responsible way, the precautionary principle which logically ensues from the no threshold assumption for low doses. What is the present situation as far as the practical implementation of ALARA is concerned? It is everywhere recognized that the important improvement in the protection of workers that can be observed over the last twenty years has largely resulted from the generalization of the ALARA culture in most organizations. Whether the implemented ALARA processes were highly formalized or more reliant on common sense is a secondary aspect. The key lesson of the last decade is that it is less difficult to start with an ALARA approach in an organization than it is to maintain its effectiveness over a long period of time. How to ensure a continuous improvement in protection, taking into account the prevailing circumstances? This is where the present challenge lies and this is also where the so-called 'stakeholder involvement' approach can play a key role

  5. The competent person in radiation protection: practical radiation protection for industry and research - unsealed sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The mission of the competent person in radiation protection has been broadly developed these last years to take an essential function in firm:study of working place, delimitation of regulated areas, monitoring of exposure, relations with authorities. The competent person in radiation protection must follow a training, defined by decree and shared in two parts: a theoretical part used as compulsory subjects and a practical part specific to the different sectors of activity (research, industry, medical centers, nuclear facilities) as well as the radiation use type. This volume corresponds to the practical module devoted to the industrial and research facilities concerned by the possession of management of sealed or unsealed sources. In accordance with the regulations stipulating that this module must allow to apply the theoretical knowledge to concrete situations in work. It includes eight chapters as following: radiation protection in industrial and research facilities, use of sources and associated risks, fitting out professional premises, evaluation of exposure, control of radiation protection; use of detection equipment and radioactive contamination and exposure measurement equipment, associated to methods and calculation tools; radioactive waste management; accidental or damaged situations management; methodology of working place analysis completed by the application to practical cases found in laboratories. (N.C.)

  6. Survey of international personnel radiation dosimetry programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In September of 1983, a mail survey was conducted to determine the status of external personnel gamma and neutron radiation dosimetry programs at international agencies. A total of 130 agencies participated in this study including military, regulatory, university, hospital, laboratory, and utility facilities. Information concerning basic dosimeter types, calibration sources, calibration phantoms, corrections to dosimeter responses, evaluating agencies, dose equivalent reporting conventions, ranges of typical or expected dose equivalents, and degree of satisfaction with existing systems was obtained for the gamma and neutron personnel monitoring programs at responding agencies. Results of this survey indicate that to provide the best possible occupational radiation monitoring programs and to improve dosimetry accuracy in performance studies, facility dosimetrists, regulatory and standards agencies, and research laboratories must act within their areas of responsibility to become familiar with their radiation monitoring systems, establish common reporting guidelines and performance standards, and provide opportunities for dosimetry testing and evaluation. 14 references, 10 tables

  7. Survey of Canadian hospitals radiation emergency plans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report documents the findings of a survey of Canadian hospitals conducted by Social Data Research Ltd. during the Spring and Summer, 1995. The main objective of the survey was to determine the state of readiness of Canadian hospitals in respect of radiation emergency planning. In addition, the AECB was interested in knowing the extent to which a report by the Group of Medical Advisors, 'GMA-3: Guidelines on Hospital Emergency Plans for the Management of Minor Radiation Accidents', which was sponsored and distributed in 1993, was received and was useful to hospital administrators and emergency personnel. A self-administered questionnaire was distributed to 598 acute care hospitals, and 274 responses were received. The main conclusion of this study is that, with the exception of a few large institutions, hospitals generally do not have specific action plans to handle minor radiation accidents. (author)

  8. Fundamentals of radiation protection measuring technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stationary radiation protection measuring systems (local dose rate systems) are widely distributed. Since January 1sup(st), 1983 a number of these systems must be calibrated by a gauging office if they are used on the basis of legal regulations. The design type requirements made by the PTB in connection with the calibration duty as well as the transitional regulations for local dose rate systems already in operation have been prepared by a working committee including members of users, suppliers, gange supervising authorities, Technische Ueberwachungs-Vereine and the PTB. (orig./DG)

  9. Information on radiation protection: an anthropological approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is necessary to prepare the messages on radiation protection before a nuclear accident arises, i.e. in a normal radiological situation. The approach discussed in this paper is based on hypothesis that any communication is a relationship between different actors (such as a transmitter and a receiver) whose semantic frames of reference, mainly defined by social and cultural determinants of knowledge, cannot be completely identical. To work out messages correctly intended for a given receiver, one has consequently to bring out the common semantic references to both the transmitter and the receiver. (author)

  10. Optimization of radiation protection in digital mammography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Digital technologies in radiology have widely expanded and became common part of medical diagnostic process. About 10% of Slovakian radiological sites are currently using digital mammographic devices and their number is rapidly increasing. We can find the most advanced digital technologies applying CR (computer radiography) and DR displaying systems (FFDM) designed by world known manufacturers in common practice. We are expecting from new technologies not only simpler and faster diagnostics but also higher quality of diagnostic information followed by more effective treatment. In this paper optimization of radiation protection in digital mammography is discussed. (authors)

  11. Value of some estimations in radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Many problems in radiation protection require the use of sophisticated techniques for their solution. However, a large class of problems, particularly in the area of operations, can be addressed with suitable accuracy using approximate techniques. Approximate methods and extrapolation of empirical data can serve to scope the magnitude of a variety of problems. In fact, the authors believe that these approaches should be a necessary first step in determining what additional, more sophisticated analyses are required. Elimination of detail allows one the time to make a number of similar calculations varying the parameters to form an envelope of possible solutions. The advent of microcomputers has helped make engineering approximations even more valuable in both radiation shielding and dose projection calculations. Some examples of approximations and a list of useful references are provided in this paper

  12. Information as a part of radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The increasing range of application of ionizing radiation in many different areas requires the needs for further education and training. Unfortunately, some aspects of application of ionizing radiation are not planed and announced for all involved personnel-like in military conflicts, when radiation and radioactivity are used as a new kind of ammunition. In that situation there is no time for formal and planned education. During the NATO strikes on Serbia and Montenegro in 1999. depleted uranium (D.U.) ammunition was used. Before that, it was used in Gulf War in 1991. for the first time. Faced with the health consequences of Gulf War for the soldiers of both sides, which were mainly attributed to D.U., Military Medical Service in the Army of Serbia and Montenegro, prepared educational material for the soldiers who could be employed in the area of the D.U. contamination. Considering the information/knowledge as very important part of radiation protection, booklet was prepared and distributed before the NATO strikes on Serbia and Montenegro. In this paper we present the booklet prepared for the military personnel. In the simplified way the nature of D.U. is explained. Some practical aspects of protection and prevention in D.U. contaminated area-how to avoid and minimize radiological hazard of D.U. in the battlefield, as well as how to avoid long-term hazards of D.U., are presented. It is also explained when to ask for medical care and what kind of examination would be necessary in the case of D.U. contamination. 5AUTHORS

  13. Radiation protection activities around the CERN accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 1995 several operational circumstances required careful watching by the Radiation Protection Group. Most of these were linked with new or recently started CERN activities: for instance the increasing importance assumed by ISOLDE operation and the breakdowns encountered which have given rise to contamination of the target region and to activity releases. In the SPS ring, several difficulties were brought about by a toilsome installation of a new interlock system, while lead ion operation marked the end of the year, as usual, with higher radiation levels in the SPS experimental areas, despite the fact that existing shielding had been improved. Also at the end of the year, the increase of LEP beam energy to 68 GeV caused a rise of dose rate levels from synchrotron radiation. This was expected, but studies are still needed to assess the full implications for different aspects of radiation protection. On the other hand, the ageing of magnet coils and other equipment (insulators, cables, flexible pipes), aggravated by the high proton beam intensities, has resulted in an increasing frequency of failures (mainly water leaks) both at the PS and at the SPS. If the apparent trend is confirmed, difficulties could be expected in the future for two reasons: the shortage of specialized staff, some of them approaching the CERN dose limit of 15 mSv annually, who can be assigned to repair work; and the lack of spare parts to replace the damaged items. Luckily, the long cooling times following high intensity proton runs provided by the operation with heavy-ions and by the winter shutdown mitigate this situation

  14. Antioxidant Protection in Blood against Ionising Radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The quantities of the antioxidants in the human blood are important indicators of health status. The routine determinations of activities/capacities of antioxidant compounds would be of great importance in assessing individual sensitivities against oxidative effects. We have investigated the sensitivities of those antioxidant elements against various doses of ionising radiation tested by the RANDOX assays. Our results show dose-dependent decreases of antioxidant activities caused by the different doses. The total antioxidant status value linearly decreased up to 1 Gy, but further increase of dose (2 Gy) did not influence the respective values although the test system still indicated their presence. It means that the human blood retains 60-70% of its total antioxidant capacity. Radiation induced alterations of the antioxidant enzymes: glutathione peroxidase and superoxide dismutase have been also investigated. The activities of glutathione peroxidase and superoxide dismutase decreased linearly upon the effects of various doses of ionising radiation till 1 Gy. Between 1 and 2 Gy only further mild decreases could be detected. In this case the human blood retained 40-60% of these two antioxidant enzymes. These observations suggest either the limited response of antioxidant system against ionising radiation, or the existence of protection system of various reactabilities. (author)

  15. Swedish Radiation Protection Institute: information activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of SSI's Information and PR Service is to broaden public awareness of radiation and radiation risks as well as to fulfill other performance goals. SSI achieves this through its advisory, educational and informative activities. SSI publishes two external magazines, Stralskyddsnytt and SSI News. Stralskyddsnytt - which is available in Swedish only - has a circulation of 2,000 and is published four times a year. SSI News - which is in English - is published twice a year and has a circulation of about 1,800. Another important channel of communication is the web site (www.ssi.se). Taking advantage of PUSH technology, SSI also distributes, by e-mail, press releases and other important information on radiation to radiation protection professionals in Sweden. SSI continuously monitors news by subscribing to a press clipping service. SSI Training is a commercial unit within the Information and PR Service. A policy for mass media contacts exists as well as a policy for internal communication. SSI has a graphic profile. SSI has a specialized research library. (author)

  16. Swedish radiation protection institute. Information activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of SSI's information and PR Service is to broaden public awareness of radiation and radiation risks as well as to fulfil other performance goals. SSI achieves this through its advisory, educational and informative activities. SSI publishes two external magazines, Straalskyddsnytt and SSI News. Straalskyddsnytt - which is available in Swedish only - has a circulation of 2,400 and is published four times a year. SSI News - which is in English - is published twice a year and has a circulation of about 1,500. Another important channel of communication is the web site (www.ssi.se). Taking advantage of PUSH technology, SSi also distributes, by e-mail, press releases and other important information of radiation to radiation protection professionals in Sweden. SSI continuously monitors news by subscribing to a press clipping service. SSI Training is a commercial unit within the Information and PR Service. A policy for mass media contacts exists as well as a policy for internal communication. SSI has a graphic profile. SSI has a specialised research library. (au)

  17. Requirements for gamma radiation survey meter calibration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This guide describes the minimum requirements for calibrating a portable analog gamma radiation survey meter by means of a beam calibrator, with a known calibration source. If an alternative method of calibration is to be used the licensee should make a written request to the Atomic Energy Control Board that describes the calibration method to be used, and request the Board's permission to use that method in place of the requirements contained in this guide. This guide explains: the responsibility for survey meter calibration if licensees calibrate their own survey meters, use the services of a Canadian calibration agency, and use the services of a non-Canadian calibration agency; the requirements for survey meter calibration and the supporting documentation; the requirements for record-keeping; and, a calibration certificate, a calibration sticker, and a notification of failure to calibrate form, with examples

  18. Radiation protection infrastructure in the Great Libyan Arab Jamahiriya

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The protection of human beings, their progeny and the environment against the harmful effects of ionizing radiation requires the enforcement of rules, regulations and standards by a national competent authority on radiation protection. In connection with the introduction of nuclear research reactor technology and the rapid increase in the use of ionizing radiation sources for various purposes, the Law No.2 for the year 1982 was passed by the supreme legislative body of the country. The paper describes in some detail the infrastructure of the radiation protection, the regulatory mechanisms, enforcement and the organization of radiation protection in Libya. (author)

  19. Overview of radiation protection at the Superconducting Super Collider Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The radiation protection program at the Superconducting Super Collider Laboratory is described. After establishing a set of stringent design guidelines for radiation protection, both normal and accidental beam losses for each accelerator were estimated. From these parameters, shielding requirements were specified using Monte-Carlo radiation transport codes. A groundwater activation model was developed to demonstrate compliance with federal drinking water standards. Finally, the environmental radiation monitoring program was implemented to determine the effect of the facility operation on the radiation environment

  20. 76 FR 17935 - Protected Critical Infrastructure Information (PCII) Stakeholder Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-31

    ...Infrastructure Information (PCII) Stakeholder Survey AGENCY: National Protection...PCII Program oversees a community of stakeholders, including submitters of CII, authorized...the PCII Program attractive to its stakeholders will allow the PCII Program to...