WorldWideScience
 
 
1

Survey of radiation protection programmes for transport  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The survey of radiation protection programmes for transport has been jointly performed by three scientific organisations I.P.S.N. (France), G.R.S. ( Germany), and N.R.P.B. (United kingdom) on behalf of the European Commission and the pertaining documentation summarises the findings and conclusions of the work that was undertaken with the principal objectives to provide guidance on the establishment, implementation and application of radiation protection programmes for the transport of radioactive materials by operators and the assessment and evaluation of such programmes by the competent authority and to review currently existing radiation protection programmes for the transport of radioactive materials. (N.C.)

2

Chemical protection against ionizing radiation: a survey of possible mechanisms  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A comparative survey is given of the hypotheses which have been proposed to explain the protecting and sensitizing action of chemical substances towards ionizing radiation such as gamma radiation or x radiation

3

Regulations concerning radiation protection and survey  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The many and always increasing applications of Atomic Energy for peaceful uses set many safety and security problems relatively to the workers, populations, and locating of the sites in general. A comparative study of the radiation hazards to which the people working in the 'Commissariat a l'energie atomique' installations were exposed during 1957 and the results obtained concerning individual and collective safety and security were extremely satisfactory owing to a continuous control and supervision. 2. However a few contamination and irradiation incidents - exposed subsequently as well as the way they were dealt with - show the necessity of a circumstantial regulation inside of an atomic center to establish the responsibility of the service in charge of the control of the radiation and the responsibility of the services using radioactive products with regard to contamination by radioactive materials. 3. Abstract of the different practical safety and security regulations concerning holding, manipulation, transport and stocking of radioactive materials. Pursuant to the recommendations of the International Commission on Radiologic Protection, the radioelements are classified according to the danger that can occur from them in comparison with the Pu with regard to: - radioactive noxiousness; specific activity per unit of mass; contamination hazards. 4. The service in charge of radiation protection plays the important part of a technical adviser for the construction of specialized laboratories and sees to the keeping of protection regulations. 5. Data essential to radiation protection are given to the people using radioactive materials; particularly: - a table of the radioisotopes and the hazards occurring from them; - radiation hazards regarding ? ray emitted by irradiated Pu; - radiation hazards regarding ? ray emitted by irradiated Th. 6. As the hazards occasioned by irradiated uranium have already been studied, the case of a low and total irradiation will only be considered with regard to recuperation of uranium after simple machining. (author)

4

A survey of research programs in radiation protection in Canada  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A survey of research programs in Canada concerned with radiation protection was conducted in 1991-92 by the Joint Subcommittee on Regulatory Research (JSCRR) of the Atomic Energy Control Board (AECB) Advisory Committees on Radiological Protection and on Nuclear Safety. The purpose of this survey was to determine the current state of funding for this type of research in Canada. Funding for health-related radiation research in Canada is critical to establishing and maintaining a supply of trained professionals who can provide competent advice on health-related problems in radiation protection. The present report is an analysis of the information received in this survey. This survey concludes with the recommendation that the organization and definition of subprograms for the AECB Regulatory Research and Support Program should be completed as soon as possible. In this report the JSCRR should assist AECB staff in preparing a report in which priorities for research related to radiation protection are indicated. The sources of information noted at the end of the Discussion section of this report should be considered for this purpose. (author). 15 refs., 3 tabs

5

A knowledge and awareness level survey of radiation protection among the radiation workers in Henan Province  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text: Objective: To reveal the knowledge and awareness level of radiation protection among radiation workers in Henan province and to explore the methods to improve it. Methods: A questionnaire survey was carried out among 208 radiation workers. Results: The correct rate of the answer to radiation protection knowledge from radiation workers in Henan province is 53.78%. Most of them (88.9%) realized that it is important to protect patients and their companions. They adhere to the principles of justification of medial exposure and optimization of radiation protection and follow the management system of radiation protection. However, a few workers didn't follow the principles strictly. Sometime, during the radio diagnosis and radiotherapy services, the patients and their companions were not well protected from the radiation, and some patients were given unnecessary X-ray examine. Even worse, some workers did not attach importance to the regulations of radiation protection and disobey them frequently. Again, some hospital leaders disregard the regulation of radiation protection and didn't follow the regulation of health surveillance and radiation protection monitoring properly. And those behaviors and attitude, in fact, influence some workers' attitude to radiation protection. Conclusion: The level of radiation protection knowledge and awareness among the radiation workers in Henan province needs to be improved. It is necessary to strengthen radiation protection knowledge by strengthening training, and to improve safety awareness among the radiation staff, and, more important, the hospital leaders as well. (author)

6

Survey of Radiation Protection Awareness among Radiation Workers in Shiraz Hospitals  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Introduction: Ionizing radiations are the hazardous agents in the workplace and all forms of ionizing radiation produce some type of injuries. Awareness of application of protection guidelines and knowledge of the principles of radiation protection can play an important role in health of employees. Survey of radiation employee’s levels of awareness and practical behavior is essential and should be standardized. Methods: The hospitals were visited to determine the number of radiation employe...

Amirzadeh, F.; Tabatabaie, S. H. R.

2005-01-01

7

Survey of Radiation Protection Education and Training in Finland in 2003  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The current state and need for radiation protection training in Finland have been surveyed by the Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority STUK. The survey sought to determine whether the current requirements for radiation protection training had been met, and to promote radiation protection training. Details of the scope and quality of present radiation protection training were requested from all educational institutes and organizations providing radiation protection training. The survey covered both basic and further training, special training of radiation safety officers, and supplementary training. The questionnaire was sent to 77 educational organization units, 66 per cent of which responded. Radiation workers and radiation safety officers were asked about radiation protection knowledge and needs for additional training. The questionnaire was sent to 880 radiation users and 170 radiation safety officers, 70 per cent of whom responded. The survey covered all professional groups and fields of the use of ionizing radiation except nuclear energy. The amount of radiation protection training in basic and further (specialization) training in the same vocational or academic degree varied remarkably by educational organization. The average amounts of radiation protection included in most professional degrees met the requirements. 32 per cent of workers considered their radiation protection training inadequate for their duties, and 48 per cent had completed no supplementary 8 per cent had completed no supplementary training in radiation protection over the last five years. Nurses working in public sector hospitals and physicians working in health centres had the greatest need for radiation protection training. 78 per cent of radiation workers in industry felt that they had sufficient radiation protection training. Co-operation between educational organizations is necessary to harmonize radiation protection training. Guidance of the Ministry of Education (the competent authority for education) is needed in this area, and the Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority STUK should also be involved. (Author)

8

On the awareness of radiation protection. A questionnaire survey of junior college students of radiological technology  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A questionnaire survey on the awareness of radiation protection was conducted to improve our curriculum of radiation protection education, which seems to be important for the safe administrative control systems and handling techniques of radiation. A total of 426 students answered our questionnaire during the period of 1994 to 1999. They were 80 first-year, 114 second-year and 232 third-year students. The facility values of 4 questions on the influence of radiation to a human body were 50.2%, 30.3%, 28.9% and 7.0%. There was no statistically significant difference among different age groups. The facility values of 3 questions on the dose limitation of occupation exposure were 50.5% (on the effective dose equivalent), 36.4% (on the tissue dose equivalent to skin), and 40.9% (on the crystalline lens). On safe handling of radiation, only 35.7% of students correctly answered that they use a plastic board to protect themselves from ?-ray, while 77.0% correctly answered the question on the decontamination method of radioactive substance from the skin. The results show the students' lack of knowledge on radiation protection. Those involved in basic science education and radiation protection education, therefore, need to clarify their teaching content and offer explicit explanations on the proper dose of radiation, effects to exposure dose, interaction between different materials and radiation. (author)

9

Radiation protection  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This work define procedures and controls about ionizing radiations. Between some definitions it found the following topics: radiation dose, risk, biological effects, international radioprotection bodies, workers exposure, accidental exposure, emergencies and radiation protection

10

Knowledge in Radiation Protection: a Survey of Professionals in Medical Imaging, Radiation Therapy and Nuclear Medicine Units in Yaounde  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Medical use of ionizing radiation is now the most common radiation source of the population at the global level. The knowledge and practices of health professionals working with X-rays determine the level and quality of implementation of internationally and nationally recommended measures for radiation protection of patients and workers. The level of implementation and enforcement of international recommendations in African countries is an issue of concern due to weak laws and regulations and regulatory bodies. We report the results of a cross-sectional survey of health professionals working with ionizing radiation in Yaounde, the capital city of Cameroon. More than 50% of these professionals have a moderate level of knowledge of the norms and principles of radiation protection and more than 80% have never attended a continuing professional development workshop on radiation protection. (authors)

11

Radiation Protection  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Major achievements of SCK-CEN's Radiation Protection Department in 2001 are described. The main areas for R and D of the department are enviromnental remediation, emergency planning, radiation protection research, low-level radioactvity measurements, safeguards and physics measurements, decision strategy research and policy support and social sciences in nuclear research. Main achievements for 2001 in these areas are reported

12

Radiation protection  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A NRPB leaflet in the 'At-a-Glance' series explains in a simple but scientifically accurate way what radiation is, the biological effects and the relative sensitivity of different parts of the human body. The leaflet then discusses radiation protection principles, radiation protection in the UK and finally the effectiveness of this radiation protection as judged by a breakdown of the total dose received by an average person in the UK, a heavy consumer of Cumbrian seafood, an average nuclear industry worker and an average person in Cornwall. (UK)

13

Radiation Protection Basics  

Science.gov (United States)

Radiation Protection Basics Health Effects Ionizing & Non-Ionizing Radiation Understanding Radiation: Radiation Protection Basics Radiation Protection Basics Main Page History of Radiation Protection Radiation Warning Symbols Radiation Warning Sign Gallery Three ...

14

Radiation Protection  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Major achievements of SCK-CEN's Radiation Protection Department in 2000 are described. The main areas for R and D of the department remain neutron dosimetry and neutron activation analysis, safeguards information handling and non-destructive assay techniques. Further activities include low-level radioactivity measurements in environmental and biological samples and radiation protection research. Finally, achievements in decision strategy research and social sciences in nuclear research are reported

15

Radiation protection  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The aim of radiation protection is to protect individuals, their descendants, and the entire human race, while, at the same time, permitting the practice of activities which are necessary but may bring about exposure to radiation. In the nuclear industry, one must distinguish: (a) radioprotection, which concerns human health, whether of the general public or of workers in the industry, on the basis of the competence of medical specialists; and safety, which is concerned with the reliability of the machines (reactors or others), as a function of the competence of the engineers in charge of their design, construction, and maintenance. The existence of risks springing from the utilization of ionizing radiations and the need for radioprotection was appreciated from the beginning of the twentieth century, but it was not until 1928, during the 2nd International Congress of Radiology, held in Stockholm, that an International Commission of Protection against X-rays and radium was created. The Commission, reconstituted in 1950 under its present title of the International Commission for Radiological Protection, is composed of its president and 13 members. The purposes of the ICRP are to study the fundamental principles of radioprotection and their practical applications, and to publish recommendations

16

Survey of radiation protection programmes for transport; Etude des programmes de radioprotection pour les transports de matieres radioactives  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The survey of radiation protection programmes for transport has been jointly performed by three scientific organisations I.P.S.N. (France), G.R.S. ( Germany), and N.R.P.B. (United kingdom) on behalf of the European Commission and the pertaining documentation summarises the findings and conclusions of the work that was undertaken with the principal objectives to provide guidance on the establishment, implementation and application of radiation protection programmes for the transport of radioactive materials by operators and the assessment and evaluation of such programmes by the competent authority and to review currently existing radiation protection programmes for the transport of radioactive materials. (N.C.)

Lizot, M.T.; Perrin, M.L.; Sert, G. [CEA Fontenay-aux-Roses, Inst. de Protection et de Surete Nucleaire, Dept. de Protection et de Surete Nucleaire, 92 (France); Lange, F.; Schwarz, G.; Feet, H.J.; Christ, R. [Gesellschaft fur Anlagen-und Reaktorsicherheit, GRS, mbH, Cologne (Germany); Shaw, K.B.; Hughes, J.S.; Gelder, R. [National Radiological Protection Board (NRPB), Oxon, OX (United Kingdom)

2001-07-01

17

Radiation protection in Hesse  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A survey is given on the tasks of the administration of Land Hesse in the field of radiation protection. The responsible authorities are the Social Ministry and its subordinate agencies, in particular the Industrial Control Office and the Inspection Office for Industrial Administration. The measures taken by the authorities are subject to the Atomic Energy Act and its executive regulations such as the 1st Radiation Protection Ordinance governing the use of radioactive materials and radiation protection in nuclear facilities, the 2nd Radiation Protection Ordinance for the use of radioactive materials and X-ray equipment in schools, and the X-ray Ordinance for the use of X-ray installations and stray radiation. The competence for licensing and control of nuclear reactors and other applications of nuclear fuels is in the hands of the Ministry of Economy and Technology. The licences are granted in accordance with the Social Ministry and the Ministry of the Interior. (ORU/AK)

18

The use of roentgen diagnostics in chiropractor activities. Project based survey according to new regulations regarding radiation protection and use of radiation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An audit has been performed in 17 chiropractic enterprises according to new radiation protection legislation. Before the audits a survey of the use of diagnostic imaging in Norwegian chiropractic enterprises was carried out. This report summarizes the results of the survey and the findings at the audits. (Author)

19

Survey and analysis of radiation safety management systems at medical institutions. Second report. Radiation measurement, calibration of radiation survey meters, and periodic check of installations, equipment, and protection instruments  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We carried out a questionnaire survey to determine the actual situation of radiation safety management measures in all medical institutions in Japan that had nuclear medicine facilities. The questionnaire consisted of questions concerning the evaluation of shielding capacity; radiation measurement; periodic checks of installations, equipment, and protection instruments; and the calibration of radiation survey meters. The analysis was undertaken according to region, type of establishment, and number of beds. The overall response rate was 60 percent. For the evaluation of shielding capacity, the outsourcing rate was 53 percent of the total. For the radiation measurements of ''leakage radiation dose and radioactive contamination'' and contamination of radioactive substances in the air'', the outsourcing rates were 28 percent and 35 percent of the total, respectively (p<0.001, according to region and establishment). For the periodic check of radiation protection instruments, the implementation rate was 98 percent, and the outsourcing rate was 32 percent for radiation survey meters and 47 percent for lead aprons. The non-implemented rate for calibration of radiation survey meters was 25 percent of the total (p<0.001, according to region and establishment). The outsourcing rate for calibration of radiation survey meters accounted for 87 percent of the total, and of these medical institutions, 72 percent undertook annual calibration. The implementation rate for patient expos The implementation rate for patient exposure measurement was 20 percent of the total (p<0.001, according to number of beds), and of these medical institutions 46 percent recorded measurement outcome. (author)

20

Radiation protection of the population by legal provisions concerning radioactive releases - a comparative survey on the current legislation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The legal provisions on radioactive releases to the environment belong to the basic rules of radiation protection law. The survey of the most important sources of international law is followed by the internal legal provisions of some States with comments on current legislative problems. (orig.)

 
 
 
 
21

Assessment of radiation protection training needs and capabilities in Europe: Results of the ENETRAP survey  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text: Maintaining a high level of competencies in the field of radiation protection is crucial for the future safe application of ionising radiation and to ensure the protection of workers, the public and the environment. Although working with a variety of responsibilities and specific professional aims, practitioners dealing with applications of ionizing radiation have three common needs with regard to radiological protection: basic education and training providing the required level of understanding of artificial and natural radiation; a standard for the recognition of skills and experience; and an opportunity to fine-tune and test acquired knowledge on a regular basis. The wide variety of the national approaches of the E and T programs in radiological protection in Europe hampers a common European methodology concerning these issues. This is particularly true for the Qualified Expert. Although, in this specific case, the fundamentals of the E and T programs are given by a European directive, the national differences in for instance, level, duration, subjects, practical and theoretical proportions in a program etc. create a barrier for the mutual recognition of this expert. The development of a common European radiation protection and safety culture and, based on that, the mutual recognition of radiation protection courses and the acquired competencies of radiation protection experts becomes crucial in a world of dynamic markets and increasing workers' mobilityc markets and increasing workers' mobility. A sustainable Education and Training (E and T) infrastructure is an essential component to combat the decline in expertise and to ensure the continuation of the high level of radiation protection knowledge in the future. Such infrastructure has to be built in such a way that both the initial training ('Education') and the unceasing maintenance of the level of competencies ('Training') are available. In answer to the need to develop a common European radiation protection and safety culture and, based on that, the mutual recognition for radiation protection courses and the acquired competencies of Qualified Experts, the ENETRAP project is working on a European harmonized approach of E and T programs in radiation protection. In a first phase of the ENETRAP project; a questionnaire was set up, the objective of this questionnaire being to elicit detailed information which will enable us to: assess the actual training needs in the EU Member States and Candidate States; understand the various regulatory aspects and consequently propose minimum requirements for mutual recognition of RPEs and RPOs; collate details of the various training and education activities available in the EU Member and Candidate States, and; review the content, structure and methods of these training and education activities. Hereto, an extensive list of questions was set up addressing the following topics: numbers of RPEs; identification of practices; national capabilities for education and training in radiological protection; regulatory requirements and; recognition. This questionnaire was sent out to 31 countries, i.e. the European Member States, the Candidate States, and the Associated States Norway and Switzerland. This paper will summarize the results of this questionnaire and the implementation these results into the construction of the E and T programmes, namely the European Master in Radiation Protection (EMRP - to start in September 2007) and the ENETRAP training scheme, being a revision of the Saclay based European Radiation Protection Course ERPC. A preliminary programme of both initiatives uses a modular approach and puts forward 2 parts : a common basis, and a series of specialized modules on occupational radiation protection in nuclear power plants and fuel cycle industry, the medical sector, non-nuclear industry and research laboratories, waste and disposal sites, etc. The EMRP and ENETRAP training scheme are planned to run (partly) in parallel, so that an overlap can be made between certain modules. This innovative construction allow

22

Radiation protection of nuclear medicine workers in the Czech Republic in 2003 -some results of SONS and questionnaire survey II  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Our paper presents the most. important data concerning an equipment of 45 nuclear medicine departments (depts.) with radiation protection facilities and aids. The results of the questionnaire survey mentioned in our previous paper are briefly summarized here. A relatively low radiation burden of nuclear medicine staff suggests the standard of radiation protection measures to be relatively good in our country. However, our survey shows some shortcomings, especially the following ones: (1) some depts. need equipment for the preparation and dispensing of radiopharmaceuticals; (2) syringe shields for injection of beta-emitters such as 90Y are missing Iargely; (3) at some depts. shielding of staff from the patient containing a radiopharmaceutical is either missing or insufficient. Some deficiencies, including those not mentioned here, cannot be considered too significant. If syringe shields for beta-emitters are not available, Pb shields can be provisionally used. It would be desirable to replace the Pb shields by tungsten ones having the same effectiveness as Pb shields but smaller dimensions enabling a more comfortable injections (of course, tungsten syringe shields were available at four depts. which administered 18F-FDG in 2003). An acquaintance of depts. with the results of our survey is believed to stimulate nuclear medicine workers to improve further radiation protection in compliance with legislative r

23

Radiation protection in nuclear reactors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text: People are exposed to ionizing radiation in many different forms: cosmic rays that penetrate earth atmosphere or radiation from soil and mineral resources are natural forms of ionizing radiation. Other forms are produced artificially using radioactive materials for various beneficial applications in medicine, industry and other fields. The greatest concerns about ionizing radiation are tied to its potential health effects and a system of radiation protection has been developed to protect people from harmful radiation. The promotion of radiation protection is one of the International Atomic Energy Agency main activities. Radiation protection concerns the protection of workers, members of public, and patients undergoing diagnosis and therapy against the harmful effects of ionizing radiation. The report covers the responsibility of radiation protection officer in Egypt Second Research Reactor (ETRR-2) in Inshas - Egypt, also presents the protection against ionizing radiation from external sources, including types of radiation, sources of radiation (natural - artificial), and measuring units of dose equivalent rate. Also covers the biological effects of ionizing radiation, personal monitoring and radiation survey instruments and safe transport of radioactive materials. The report describes the Egypt Second Research Reactor (ETRR-2), the survey instruments used, also presents the results obtained and gave a relations between different categories of data. (author)

24

Survey of radiation protection creiteria following the accident at the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

After the accident at Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant, various numerical criteria relevant to radiation protection were defined. We surveyed these criteria through internet. As a result of survey, the following 13 items were identified: (1) criteria for taking stable iodine tablets, (2) criteria for the screening of surface contamination, (3) evacuation area, sheltering area, etc., (4) activity concentrations in food, drinking water,etc., (5) dose limit for radiation workers engaged in emergency work, (6) guideline levels of radioactive substances in bathing areas, (7) criteria for use of school buildings and schoolyards, (8) restriction on planting rice, (9) acceptable activity concentrations in feedstuff, (10) acceptable activity concentrations in compost, (11) criteria for export containers and ships, (12) criteria for contaminated waste, (13) standards for radiation workers engaged in decontamination work. In this report, the basis of and issues on these criteria are summarized. (author)

25

Radiation protection calibration activities  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Philippines has two Secondary Standard Dosimetry Laboratories (SSDL), both of which are the members of IAEA/WHO network of SSDLs. The Radiation Health Service of the Department of Health and the Philippines Nuclear Research Institute of the Department of Science and Technology signed the agreement to avoid overlapping activities and to ensure complimentary development work programs. The Radiation Health Service was founded in 1974, and it is charged with the responsibility of regulating the production, import, export and use of the apparatuses emitting electrically produced radiation, the energy of which does not reach the threshold value, and non-ionizing radiation devices. The RHS SSDL performs two major activities, that is, the calibration of therapy level and protection level radiation detection and measuring instruments and personnel monitoring service. Those activities and the available facilities are reported. The calibration procedures for survey meters and thermoluminescent dosimeters are explained, and the specific problems are pointed out. (K.I.)

26

Preventive Radiation Protection Act  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The commentary is intended to contribute to protection of the population by a practice-oriented discussion and explanation of questions arising in connection with the Preventive Radiation Protection Act. Leaving aside discussions about abandonment of nuclear power, or criticism from any legal point of view, the commentary adopts the practical approach that accepts, and tries to help implementing, the act as it is. It is a guide for readers who are not experts in the law and gives a line of orientation by means of explanations and sometimes by citations from other acts (in footnotes). The commentary also presents the EURATOM Directive No. 3954/87 dated 22 December 1987, the EC Directive No. 3955/87 dated 22 December 1987, and the EC Directive No. 1983/88 dated 5 July 1988. A tabular survey shows the system of duties and competences defined by the Preventive Radiation Protection Act. (RST)

27

Radiation Protection in Singapore  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Article gave a brief report on the establishment of the Singapore Radiation Protection Inspectorate (RPI), its enforcement activities and radiation protection services. Some statistical data regarding the uses of radiation in Singapore were also provided

28

Survey and analysis of radiation safety management systems at medical institutions. Initial report. Radiation protection supervisor, radiation safety organization, and education and training  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this study, a questionnaire survey was carried out to determine the actual situation of radiation safety management systems in Japanese medical institutions with nuclear medicine facilities. The questionnaire consisted of questions concerning the Radiation Protection Supervisor license, safety management organizations, and problems related to education and training in safety management. Analysis was conducted according to region, type of establishment, and number of beds. The overall response rate was 60%, and no significant difference in response rate was found among regions. Medical institutions that performed nuclear medicine practices without a radiologist participating accounted for 10% of the total. Medical institutions where nurses gave patients intravenous injections of radiopharmaceuticals as part of the nuclear medicine practices accounted for 28% of the total. Of these medical institutions, 59% provided education and training in safety management for nurses. The rate of acquisition of Radiation Protection Supervisor licenses was approximately 70% for radiological technologists and approximately 20% for physicians (regional difference, p=0.02). The rate of medical institutions with safety management organizations was 71% of the total. Among the medical institutions (n=208) without safety management organizations, approximately 56% had 300 beds or fewer. In addition, it became clear that 35% of quasi-public organizations and 44% of private organizations diations and 44% of private organizations did not provide education and training in safety management (p<0.001, according to establishment). (author)

29

On ethical issues in radiation protection  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

From an ethical viewpoint the author surveys existing international radiation protection recommendations and standards. After outlining previous work on the ethics of radiation protection, professional ethics, and the ethics of human radiation experiments, the author discusses ethical thinking on seven key issues related to radiation protection and ethics. (author)

30

Ethical problems in radiation protection  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this report the authors survey existing international radiation-protection recommendations and standards of the ICRP, the IAEA, and the ILO. After outlining previous work on the ethics of radiation protection, professional ethics, and the ethics of human radiation experiments, the authors review ethical thinking on seven key issues related to radiation protection and ethics. They formulate each of these seven issues in terms of alternative ethical stances: (1) equity versus efficiency, (2) health versus economics, (3) individual rights versus societal benefits, (4) due process versus necessary sacrifice, (5) uniform versus double standards, (6) stake holder consent versus management decisions, and (7) environmental stewardship versus anthropocentric standards

31

Ethical problems in radiation protection  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In this report the authors survey existing international radiation-protection recommendations and standards of the ICRP, the IAEA, and the ILO. After outlining previous work on the ethics of radiation protection, professional ethics, and the ethics of human radiation experiments, the authors review ethical thinking on seven key issues related to radiation protection and ethics. They formulate each of these seven issues in terms of alternative ethical stances: (1) equity versus efficiency, (2) health versus economics, (3) individual rights versus societal benefits, (4) due process versus necessary sacrifice, (5) uniform versus double standards, (6) stake holder consent versus management decisions, and (7) environmental stewardship versus anthropocentric standards.

Shrader-Frechette, K.; Persson, Lars

2001-05-01

32

Radiation protection standards  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The present paper deals with: Objectives and basic concepts of radiation protection, basic radiobiological considerations, the ICRP system of dose limitation and with operational radiation protection (limits, reference levels, occupational exposure). (RW)

33

Atoms, Radiation, and Radiation Protection  

CERN Document Server

Atoms, Radiation, and Radiation Protection offers professionals and advanced students a comprehensive coverage of the major concepts that underlie the origins and transport of ionizing radiation in matter. Understanding atomic structure and the physical mechanisms of radiation interactions is the foundation on which much of the current practice of radiological health protection is based. The work covers the detection and measurement of radiation and the statistical interpretation of the data. The procedures that are used to protect man and the environment from the potential harmful effects of

Turner, James E

2007-01-01

34

Radiation protection seminar  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Radiation Protection Seminar, was organized by the Argentina Association of Biology and Nuclear Medicine, and Bacon Laboratory, the 20 june 2012, in the Buenos Aires city of Argentina. In this event were presented some papers on the following topics: methods of decontamination, radiation protection of patients; concepts of radiation protection and dosimetry.

35

Radiation protection of female patients of reproductive capacity: A survey of policy and practice in Norway  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The implementation of various policies related to female patients of reproductive capacity was investigated using a structured telephone interview of radiological departments in Norway. The findings suggest that 60% (n = 35/58) of radiological departments have written guidelines regarding female patients of reproductive capacity. The 10-day rule is implemented for a range of examinations in 12% (n = 7/58) of the radiological departments questioned, and in another 9% (n = 5/58) it is only implemented for hysterosalpingography. Forty percent (n = 23/58) of departments are familiar with rapid urine pregnancy tests and use them in certain circumstances. In conclusion, a lack of standardisation of approaches to radiation protection is apparent, and this raises concerns as national and international recommendations are not being correctly implemented. This may lead to confusion amongst patients and staff, and may have adverse consequences such as the accidental irradiation of the unborn child

36

Argentine radiation protection society  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Argentine Radiation Protection Society (SAR) is a non profit society, member of IRPA. It was originally launched in 1987 and a formal constitution was adopted in 1983. Presently, SAR has 220 active members, professionals and technicians dedicated to a variety of disciplines related to different radiation protection aspects: medicine, industry, research and teaching. The basic SAR objectives are: to promote research and knowledge exchange on radiation protection topics and related disciplines; to promote the comprehension of radiation protection criteria with regard to existence and handling of radioactive and fissile materials and any other radiation sources; to foster the conception of radiation protection as a professional discipline and to contribute to its permanent improvement; to promote the diffusion of the information related to all radiation protection and nuclear safety aspects, and radiation protection standards and recommendations, not only within the scientific, technical and academic areas, but also to general public

37

Protective legislation, ionizing radiation and health: a new appraisal and international survey  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Restrictive regulations (protective legislation) on employment conditions of female workers limiting maximum hours of work and prohibiting certain toxic exposures have existed for decades. In some countries, such as the United States, Canada and the Nordic countries, the growth of civil rights and equal opportunity legislation has led to their elimination, either in fact or in practice, and only a small number of disparate regulations for male and female workers still exist. Most other industrialized countries, as well as the International Labour Office of the United Nations, still have active restrictive rules for women's employment. However, restrictive regulation is an area of active policy debate around the world. International examples of the debate on protective legislation are given here. A specific case study of the occupational health standards governing exposure to ionizing radiation is used and its technical rationale discussed as an illustration of the basic issues. These include: overbroad categorization of all women as potential childbearers, no matter what their childbearing intentions; failure to recognize the full range of potential adverse health effects to males; disparate application of the restrictive regulations, generally to occupations or areas of employment that are traditionally held by men, while traditional female jobs with the same exposures are excluded from the regulatory restriction

38

Ethical issues in radiation protection  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this note the authors survey existing international radiation-protection recommendations of the ICRP, the IAEA, and the ILO. After outlining previous work on the ethics of radiation protection and risk assessment/management, the authors review ethical thinking on five key issues related to radiation protection and ethics. They formulate each of these five issues in terms of alternative ethical stances: (1) Equity vs. Efficiency, (2) Health vs. Economics, (3) Individual Rights vs. Societal Benefits, (4) Due Process vs. Necessary Sacrifice, and (5) Stakeholder Consent vs. Management Decisions (authors)

39

Radiation protection in Bolivia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Radiation protection in Bolivia has gone through a number of stages. Initially, in the 1970s, the focus was mainly on the analysis of environmental sources resulting from the nuclear tests carried out by France in the Pacific Ocean. Subsequently, the focus switched somewhat to radiation protection in connection with the mining of uranium and in the area of public health. During the third stage, radiation protection in other areas became important as the use of radiation sources was introduced. Finally, during the present -- fourth -- stage, radiation protection regulations are being introduced and mechanisms for the control of radiation sources are being established. (author)

40

Radiation protection in hospitals  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A book on radiation protection in hospitals has been written to cater for readers with different backgrounds, training and needs by providing an elementary radiation physics text in Part I and an advanced, comprehensive Part II relating to specific medical applications of X-rays and of radioactivity. Part I includes information on basic radiation physics, radiation risk, radiation absorption and attenuation, radiation measurement, radiation shielding and classification of radiation workers. Part II includes information on radiation protection in external beam radiotherapy, interstitial source radiotherapy, intracavitary radiotherapy, radioactive iodine-131 radiotherapy, nuclear medicine diagnostics and diagnostic radiology. (U.K.)

 
 
 
 
41

Radiation protection during space flight  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The problem of ensuring space flight safety arises from conditions inherent to space flights and outer space and from the existing weight limitations of spacecraft. In estimating radiation hazard during space flights, three natural sources are considered: the Earth's radiation belt, solar radiation, and galactic radiation. This survey first describes the major sources of radiation hazard in outer space with emphasis on those source parameters directly related to shielding manned spacecraft. Then, the current status of the safety criteria used in the shielding calculations is discussed. The rest of the survey is devoted to the rationale for spacecraft radiation shielding calculations. The recently completed long-term space flights indicate the reliability of the radiation safety measures used for the near-Earth space exploration. While planning long-term interplanetary flights, it is necessary to solve a number of complicated technological problems related to the radiation protection of the crew

42

Radiation protection forum  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The National Director of the Nuclear Regulatory Authority and Radiation Protection of Uruguay in the first forum for radiation protection set out the following themes: activity of regulatory body, radiation safety, physical security, safeguards, legal framework, committed substantive program, use of radiation, risks and benefits, major sources of radiation, the national regulatory framework, national inventory of sources, inspections, licensing, import and export of sources control , radioactive transport, materials safety, agreements, information and teaching, radiological emergencies and prompt response.

43

Radiation protection survey of research and development activities initiated after the Chernobyl accident. Review report  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The compilation of research and development activities in the various fields of radiation protection in OECD Member countries which have been undertaken or planned specifically to address open questions arising from the Chernobyl reactor accident experience shows a potential for international cooperative arrangements and/or coordination between national programmes. Both the preliminary review of the answers, which only cover a part of the relevant activities in OECD Member countries, and a computerized literature search indicate that the multidisciplinarity of the research area under consideration will call for special efforts to efficiently implement new models and new quantitative findings from the different fields of activity to provide an improved basis for emergency management and risk assessment. Further improvements could also be achieved by efforts to initiate new activities to close gaps in the programmes under way, to enhance international cooperation, and to coordinate the evaluation of the results. This preliminary review of the answers of 17 Member countries to the questionnaire on research and development activities initiated after the Chernobyl accident is not sufficient as a basis for a balanced decision on those research areas most in need for international cooperation and coordination. It may however serve as a guide for the exploration of the potential for international cooperative arrangements and/or coordination between national programmes by the CRPPH. Even at this preliminary stage, several specific activities are proposed to the NEA/OECD by Member countries. Whole body counting and the intercomparison of national data bases on the behaviour of radionuclides in the environment did attract most calls for international cooperation sponsored by the NEA

44

Radiation protection practical handbook  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The use in medicine and in industry of radioactive sealed and unsealed sources, of x-ray generators, particles accelerators has to be done under the surveillance of a person in radiation protection. This handbook corresponds to the programme of the formation in radiation protection. D.J. Gambini and R. Granier, responsible for eight years, of a training in radiation protection have collected the theoretical and practical knowledge allowing to the competent person to: analyze the work modes in controlled areas, in normal and accidental situations; watch over the respect of radiation protection norms; participate to the formation and information to exposed personnel. (N.C.)

45

Radiation protection standards  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Topics covered include biological radiation effects, radiation protection principles, recommendations of the ICRP and the National Health and Medical Research Council, and dose limits for individuals, particularly the limit applied to the inhalation of radon daughters

46

Manual of Radiation Protection  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This manual explains the principles and practice of radiation protection for those whose work in research, in the field of medicine or in the industry requires the use of radiation sources. It provides the information radiation users need to protect themselves and others and to understand and comply with international recommendations, regulations and legislation regarding the use of radionuclides and radiation machines. It is designed to teach a wide audience of doctors, biologists, research scientists, technicians, engineers, students and others

47

Radiation protection to firemen  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The basic Knowledge about ionizing radiation oriented for firemen, are presented. The mainly damage and effects caused by radiation exposure as well as the method of radiation protection are described in simple words. The action to be taken in case of fire involving radiation such as vehicles transporting radioactive materials are emphasized. (author)

48

Radiation protection products  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The basic terms of radiation protection means, these means and their parts are defined. Radiation protection products are classified into nine groups and their outer appearance and design are described. The standard also gives equivalent terms in Czech, Russian, Polish, Hungarian, German, Bulgarian and Romanian. (E.S.)

49

Regulations in radiation protection  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

On the occasion of the twenty fifth anniversary of the Dutch Society for Radiation Protection, a symposium was held about Regulations in Radiation Protection. The program consisted of six contributions of which four are included in this publication. The posters presented are published in NVS-nieuws, 1985, vol. 11(5). (G.J.P.)

50

Radiation protection infrastructure  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A prerequisite for the safe use of ionizing radiation in a country is the availability of an adequate infrastructure to achieve the desired degree of protection. The extent of such an infrastructure, generally comprising regulatory mechanisms and technical capabilities for application and enforcement of regulations, has to be commensurate with the stage of technological development. The expanding application of ionizing radiation in medicine, industry and research calls for vigorous promotion of effective radiation protection efforts, not only to prevent any unsafe practices but also to assess correctly and provide authoritative information on the safety of adopted practices. Experience reveals that radiation protection practices vary considerably from one country to another. The regulatory structures and type of organization with regard to radiation protection are very different, depending on a number of factors such as the constitutional framework, the legal and administrative systems of the country concerned, the state of technical development, the status of application of radiation sources, the existence of research and associated institutions, and the technical skills and financial resources available. Radiation protection principles evolve with time as further experience is gained and as new research evidence becomes available. Regulation of radiation protection has to take account of such changes and adapt to changing conditions. Forty-eight papers from 29 Member States and two International Organizations were presented in nine scientific sessions. Topics included radiation protection regulation and licensing notification, registration, inspection and control programmes, education and training, the role of supporting institutions such as national laboratories and research institutes, the role of professional associations, the contribution of radiation protection services, and international activities. A concluding panel addressed development strategies to strengthen radiation protection infrastructure and explored how the IAEA could best assist to overcome identified shortcomings. Refs, figs and tabs

51

Radiation protection in space  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The challenge for planning radiation protection in space is to estimate the risk of events of low probability after low levels of irradiation. This work has revealed many gaps in the present state of knowledge that require further study. Despite investigations of several irradiated populations, the atomic-bomb survivors remain the primary basis for estimating the risk of ionizing radiation. Compared to previous estimates, two new independent evaluations of available information indicate a significantly greater risk of stochastic effects of radiation (cancer and genetic effects) by about a factor of three for radiation workers. This paper presents a brief historical perspective of the international effort to assure radiation protection in space.

Blakely, E.A. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States); Fry, R.J.M. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

1995-02-01

52

Radiation protection in space  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The challenge for planning radiation protection in space is to estimate the risk of events of low probability after low levels of irradiation. This work has revealed many gaps in the present state of knowledge that require further study. Despite investigations of several irradiated populations, the atomic-bomb survivors remain the primary basis for estimating the risk of ionizing radiation. Compared to previous estimates, two new independent evaluations of available information indicate a significantly greater risk of stochastic effects of radiation (cancer and genetic effects) by about a factor of three for radiation workers. This paper presents a brief historical perspective of the international effort to assure radiation protection in space

53

Optimisation of radiation protection  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Optimisation of radiation protection is one of the key elements in the current radiation protection philosophy. The present system of dose limitation was issued in 1977 by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) and includes, in addition to the requirements of justification of practices and limitation of individual doses, the requirement that all exposures be kept as low as is reasonably achievable, taking social and economic factors into account. This last principle is usually referred to as optimisation of radiation protection, or the ALARA principle. The NEA Committee on Radiation Protection and Public Health (CRPPH) organised an ad hoc meeting, in liaison with the NEA committees on the safety of nuclear installations and radioactive waste management. Separate abstracts were prepared for individual papers presented at the meeting

54

RADIATION PROTECTION IN IRAN  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper presents the current activities on radiation protection in Iran. According to the Atomic Energy Organization Law of Iran the radiological safety is ascribed to the Atomic Energy Organization of Iran (A E O I) and the Radiation Protection Department (R P D) is the responsible organ within AEOI. R P D since it's establishment in 1975, with the aim to ensure the protection of man and his environment against any harmful effects of radiations, has embarked on a national development...

Abedinzadih, R.; Parnianpour, H.

1980-01-01

55

Ethics and radiation protection  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Some of the major problems in radiation protection are closely connected to issues that have a long, independent tradition in moral philosophy. This contribution focuses on two of these issues. One is the relationship between the protection of individuals and optimisation on the collective level, and the other is the relative valuation of future versus immediate damage. Some of the intellectual tools that have been developed by philosophers can be useful in radiation protection. On the other hand, philosophers have much to learn from radiation protectors, not least when it comes to finding pragmatic solutions to problems that may be intractable in principle

56

Radiation protection at CERN  

CERN Document Server

This paper gives a brief overview of the general principles of radiation protection legislation; explains radiological quantities and units, including some basic facts about radioactivity and the biological effects of radiation; and gives an overview of the classification of radiological areas at CERN, radiation fields at high-energy accelerators, and the radiation monitoring system used at CERN. A short section addresses the ALARA approach used at CERN.

Forkel-Wirth, Doris; Silari, Marco; Streit-Bianchi, Marilena; Theis, Christian; Vincke, Heinz; Vincke, Helmut

2013-01-01

57

The use of roentgen diagnostics in chiropractor activities. Project based survey according to new regulations regarding radiation protection and use of radiation; Bruk av roentgendiagnostikk i norske kiropraktorvirksomheter. Prosjektrettet tilsyn etter ny forskrift om straalevern og bruk av straaling  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

An audit has been performed in 17 chiropractic enterprises according to new radiation protection legislation. Before the audits a survey of the use of diagnostic imaging in Norwegian chiropractic enterprises was carried out. This report summarizes the results of the survey and the findings at the audits. (Author)

Raaum, Aud; Widmark, Anders

2005-12-15

58

The SCPRI (Central Service of Protection against Ionizing Radiation) in France: its sampling and surveying network  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The SCPRI, organism placed under tutelage of Ministers in charge of Health and Work, has the mission to practice every measurement, analysis or dosage of radioactivity or ionizing radiation in media where their presence is a risk for health. This mission involves radioactivity measurement on sampling like waters, air, vegetables, food chain. There is an important network of sampling on the whole national territory with a distribution in different climatic areas and also near the nuclear sites. It makes about 50 000 sampling by year with, for each one, different analysis and measurement

59

Physics for radiation protection  

CERN Document Server

A much-needed working resource for health physicists and other radiation protection professionals, this volume presents clear, thorough, up-to-date explanations of the basic physics necessary to address real-world problems in radiation protection. Designed for readers with limited as well as basic science backgrounds, Physics for Radiation Protection emphasizes applied concepts and carefully illustrates all topics through examples as well as practice problems. Physics for Radiation Protection draws substantially on current resource data available for health physics use, providing decay schemes and emission energies for approximately 100 of the most common radionuclides encountered by practitioners. Excerpts of the Chart of the Nuclides, activation cross sections, fission yields, fission-product chains, photon attenuation coefficients, and nuclear masses are also provided.

Martin, James E

2013-01-01

60

Radiation protection and monitoring  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The present paper deals with the following topics: - Radiological quantities and units - Principles of radiological protection - Limits of doses and activity uptake - Activity discharges and monitoring - Radiation exposure and its calculation - Environmental monitoring - Personnel dosimetry. (orig./RW)

 
 
 
 
61

Software for radiation protection  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The software products presented are universally usable programs for radiation protection. The systems were designed in order to establish a comprehensive database specific to radiation protection and, on this basis, model in programs subjects of radiation protection. Development initially focused on the creation of the database. Each software product was to access the same nuclide-specific data; input errors and differences in spelling were to be excluded from the outset. This makes the products more compatible with each other and able to exchange data among each other. The software products are modular in design. Functions recurring in radiation protection are always treated the same way in different programs, and also represented the same way on the program surface. The recognition effect makes it easy for users to familiarize with the products quickly. All software products are written in German and are tailored to the administrative needs and codes and regulations in Germany and in Switzerland. (orig.)

62

Radiation Protection: introduction  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The abstract gives an overview and introduction to the activities of SCK-CEN's Radiation Protection department. Main strategic developments and achievements in the field of life sciences, policy supports and medical applications are summarised

63

Radiation protection textbook  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This textbook of radiation protection presents the scientific bases, legal and statutory measures and technical means of implementation of the radioprotection in the medical and industrial sectors, research and nuclear installations. It collects the practical information (organization, analysis of post, prevention, evaluation and risks management, the controls, the training and the information) usually scattered and the theoretical knowledge allowing every person using ionizing radiation: To analyze jobs in controlled areas, to watch the respect for the current regulations, to participate in the training and in the information of the staffs exposed to intervene in accidental situation. This third edition is widely updated and enriched by the most recent scientific and legal data concerning, notably, the human exposure, the dosimetry, the optimization of the radiation protection and the epidemiological inquiries. The contents is as follows: physics of ionizing radiation, ionizing radiation: origin and interaction with matter, dosimetry and protection against ionizing radiation, detection and measurement of ionizing radiation, radiobiology, legal measures relative to radiation protection, human exposure of natural origin, human exposure of artificial origin, medical, dental and veterinarian radiology, radiotherapy, utilization of unsealed sources in medicine and research, electronuclear industry, non nuclear industrial and aeronautical activities exposing to ionizing radiation, accidental exposures. (N.C.)

64

Radiation protecting clothing materials  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Purpose: To provide radiation protecting clothing materials excellent in mechanical strength, corrosion resistance, flexibility and flexing strength. Constitution: The radiation protecting clothing materials according to this invention has pure lead sheets comprising a thin pure lead foil of 50 to 150 ?m and radiation resistant organic materials, for example, polyethylene with high neutron shielding effect disposed to one or both surfaces thereof. The material are excellent in the repeating bending fatigue and mechanical strength, corrosion resistance and flexibility and, accordingly, radiation protecting clothings prepared by using them along or laminating them also possess these excellent characteristics. Further, they are excellent in the handlability, particularly, durability to the repeated holding and extension, as well as are preferable in the physical movability and feeling upon putting. The clothing materials may be cut into an appropriate size, or stitched into clothings made by radiation-resistant materials. In this case, pure lead sheets are used in lamination. (Horiuchi, T.)

65

RADIATION PROTECTION IN IRAN  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper presents the current activities on radiation protection in Iran. According to the Atomic Energy Organization Law of Iran the radiological safety is ascribed to the Atomic Energy Organization of Iran (A E O I and the Radiation Protection Department (R P D is the responsible organ within AEOI. R P D since it's establishment in 1975, with the aim to ensure the protection of man and his environment against any harmful effects of radiations, has embarked on a national development and regulatory activity. The organization and the program of the R P D with an emphasis on the problems and achievements are described in this paper. The Iranian Radiation Protection Society and it's cooperation with the R P D for the dissemination of information and support for the educational institutions to cover the radiation protection topics are presented in this paper. It can be shown that countries envisaging institutions to cover the radiation protection topics are presented in this paper. It can be shown that countries envisaging to embark on a nuclear development have to start much earlier with a major educational and training activity for the personnel in radiological safety as well as other relevant fields.

R. Abedinzadih

1980-08-01

66

Radiation Protection Dosimetry  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The contributions presented during the seminar provided clear evidence that radiation protection of the patient plays an increasingly important role for manufacturers of radiological equipment and for regulatory bodies, as well as for radiologists, doctors and assistants. The proceedings of this seminar reflect the activities and work in the field of radiation protection of the patient and initiate further action in order to harmonize dosimetric measurements and calculations, to ameliorate education and training, to improve the technical standards of the equipment and to give a push to a more effective use of ionising radiation in the medical sector

67

Radiation protection type testing  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In the GDR, radiation protection type tests (type tests from the radiation protection point of view) are prescribed by law for the following groups of products: sealed sources; equipment containing sealed sources (such as teletherapy apparatus and flaw detectors); equipment in which charged particles are accelerated (such as x-ray machines and neutron generators); equipment in which ionizing radiation arises as an unwanted byproduct (such as television sets and electron microscopes). Based on the practical experience gained during the past seven years, several problems associated with type testing and licensing are discussed in detail. (author)

68

Radiation protection glossary  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The glossary is intended to be used as a terminology standard for IAEA documentation on radiation protection. An effort has been made to use definitions contained in internationally accepted publications such as recommendations of the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP), standards of the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) and of the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC), reports of the International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurements (ICRU), with only slight modifications in order to tailor them more closely to IAEA needs. The glossary is restricted to ionizing radiation

69

Level of compliance with the radiation protection regulation-A survey among Norwegian hospitals and X-ray institutes  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

To identify the level of compliance with the new radiation protection regulation among Norwegian health care enterprises (HCEs). Totally, 41 HCEs were authorised to use advanced X-ray equipment for medical purposes during 2005-07. Follow-up inspections with 14 HCEs were carried out during 2007-09. Main topics for the inspections were those requirements identified as most challenging to implement in the authorisation process. Totally, 192 non-conformities with the regulation were revealed during the authorisation process. The inspections revealed that 93 % of the inspected HCEs had non-conformities with the regulation. Most common non-conformities dealt with skills in radiation protection, establishment of local diagnostic reference levels, access to medical physicists and performance of quality control of X-ray equipment. Inspections are an effective tool for implementation of regulation the requirements at the HCEs, thus improving radiation protection awareness. (authors)

70

Concepts in radiation protection  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This monograph provides basic notions and principles in dosimetry and radiation protection in compliance with two fundamental works: IAEA Safety Series No.115 - International Basic Safety Standards for Protection against Ionizing Radiation and for the Safety of Radiation Sources - and Publication no. 60 of International Commission on Radiological Protection. After the review of quantities and units necessary in radiation protection, the book presents the new values of dose limits as well as the values of 'radiation weighting factor', 'tissue weighting factor' and 'conversion factor intake-dose' (committed effective dose per unit intake) by ingestion and inhalation for 30 most important radionuclides. The new values of dose limits, lower than the old values, are a challenge for the radiation protection, especially of the 'public' where the dose limit diminished by a factor of five relative to the earlier edition. The new value of dose limit for public, 1 mSv per year (obviously over the natural exposure of 2.4 mSv per year), imposes new action ways and levels in radiation protection, especially in some cases of exacerbated natural radioactivity. The book provides the calculus of external exposure with the Gamma constant expressed in adequate units, to make the calculation easier. In the calculus of protection shield for gamma sources one uses a method, which while approximate helps save time. The calculus of internal exposure is made using the conversion factor intake-dose. Finally, the 'dosimetric watch' of the natural and artificial radioactivity of the atmosphere, hydrosphere and biosphere is intended to comply with the International Basic Safety Standards. Each chapter ends with a set of illustrative problems which enhances the reader's understanding of underlying concepts and current methods used in the field

71

Radiation protection after Chernobyl  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The conference papers deal with the situation in radiation protection as regards the revision of the X-Ray Ordinance of 1973 and the Radiation Protection Ordinance of 1976 with reference to the accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant on April 26, 1986. The introduction views radiation protection in the framework of general environmental protection. In the part 'Results' the quality factors that have been valid hitherto and play an important part in dose assessments are discussed in connection with an evaluation of radiobiological data, and proposals are made for a revision of those factors. A further important topic are the risks associated with prenatal radiation exposure with the resulting practical conclusions to be drawn by radiologists. Part 2, 'Concepts', is concerned with: Ethical, legal, and practical aspects of medical research and therapy using radioactive materials, the 'effective dose' concept with unexpected consequences after the very low limits laid down for non-stochastic effects, and the development of dose notions and measuring values. Part 3 finally points out that 'regulation' necessarily requires the acceptance of radiation hazards. This part reports on the state of discussions on the draft amendment to the Radiation Protection Ordinance, minimization of radiation by quality assurance, and known as well as new DIN Standards. Points due for revision in the X-Ray Ordinance are the classification of professionally exposed persons in their risk categories and the required measuring values for professional radiation exposure. The last part deals with reports on skin disease due to radiation treated at the Hornheide special clinic. (TRV) With 30 figs., 27 tabs

72

Project Radiation Protection - East  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Swedish Government has allocated SEK 37.1 million for cooperation projects in radiation protection with countries in Central and Eastern Europe, particularly the Baltic states (Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania) and Russia. The Swedish Radiation Protection Inst. (SSI) is in charge of this program, which is often referred to as Radiation Protection - East. The general background of this cooperation program, its objectives, practical organization of the work etc. have been presented in the following reports: SSI Report No.93-08: Projekt Straalskydd Oest - Laegesrapport (March 1993); SSI Report No.93-29: Swedish Cooperation Program for Radiation Protection in Eastern and Central Europe (November 1993). The present report summarizes the work carried out up to and including September 1994. The more than 70 cooperation projects have been divided into the following categories: Upgrading of national authorities; Emergency preparedness, early warning; Nuclear power and research reactors; Instrumentation; Decommissioning, waste, environmental control; General radiation protection; Other projects; Project management and administrative support. Project criteria and a simple program for quality assurance and follow-up are presented briefly. A status report, including an economic overview, is given for all ongoing or already finished projects, together with future plans and a suggested budget for the next fiscal year

73

National congress of radiation protection  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The congress of radiation protection tackled different areas of radiation protection. The impact of ionizing radiations on environment coming from radioactive activities. The biological radiation effects, the dosimetry, the different ways of doing relative to radiation protection,the risks analysis and the communications with populations, information about accidents and the lessons learned from them are included in this congress. (N.C.)

74

Radiation protection optimization of workers  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report presents the contribution of CEPN (study center on protection evaluation in nuclear area) to the Days of the French Radiation Protection Society (SFRP) on optimization of workers radiation protection in electronuclear, industrial and medical areas

75

Principles of radiation protection  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In the rapidly developing areas of occupational and public health devoted to the protection of people from both immediate and delayed harmful (and sometimes Irreversible) effects of radiation exposure, industrial hygienists, radiological physicists and radiologists must now assume the additional responsibility of protection against radiation. Everyone during his life will have had one or more X-rays taken for diagnostic purposes. The doses received, depending upon the site, are not harmful to the individual, from the genetic aspect, however, the increasing use of X-ray examinations does present a danger,since almost the whole population is involved. Rapid progress in the development of nuclear energy and the practical extension of its use in medicine, agriculture and industry are steadily increasing the potential danger of large groups of the population being exposed to radiation, and radiation hazards are becoming an important aspect of industrial and public hygiene. WHO is concerned with the overall evaluation of population exposure from peaceful uses of atomic energy and through medical practice, the evaluation of radiation risks,and the control of medical radiation exposure. WHO stimulates and provides technical assistance for the development of appropriate programs of radiation protection with respect to the agricultural, industrial and medical applications of radioisotopes. X-rays and radium. (author)

76

The principles of radiation protection  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The aim of radiation protection is to avoid or to reduce the risks linked to ionizing radiation. In order to reduce these risks, the radiation protection uses three great principles: justification, optimization and limitation of radiation doses. to apply these principles, the radiation protection has regulatory and technical means adapted to three different categories of people: public, patients and workers. The nuclear safety authority elaborates the regulation, and carries out monitoring of the reliable application of radiation protection system. (N.C.)

77

Laser radiation protection  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We have presented the effects of laser radiation on human organism, with special emphasize on eye as the most sensitive organ. It was pointed-out that there are many parameters that should be taken into account when determining the level of protection from laser light. In that respect it is important to be aware of international standards that regulate this area. In addition, we have described a new material which efficiently protects human eye, by formation of microlens and carbonization.

78

Radiation protection for nurses  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Various aspects of radiation protection relevant to nurses are presented. The different radioisotopes used in internal radiotherapy and scintiscanning techniques and any necessary precautions which should be observed when nursing these patients are described. General information is also given on nuclear and atomic terminology, the physical half-life of radioisotopes, radiation dose as a function of distance, shielding, film badges and the maximum permissible dose. (U.K.)

79

Fundamentals of health physics for the radiation-protection officer  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The contents of this book on health physics include chapters on properties of radioactive materials, radiation instrumentation, radiation protection programs, radiation survey programs, internal exposure, external exposure, decontamination, selection and design of radiation facilities, transportation of radioactive materials, radioactive waste management, radiation accidents and emergency preparedness, training, record keeping, quality assurance, and appraisal of radiation protection programs

80

Fundamentals of health physics for the radiation-protection officer  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The contents of this book on health physics include chapters on properties of radioactive materials, radiation instrumentation, radiation protection programs, radiation survey programs, internal exposure, external exposure, decontamination, selection and design of radiation facilities, transportation of radioactive materials, radioactive waste management, radiation accidents and emergency preparedness, training, record keeping, quality assurance, and appraisal of radiation protection programs. (ACR)

Murphy, B.L.; Traub, R.J.; Gilchrist, R.L.; Mann, J.C.; Munson, L.H.; Carbaugh, E.H.; Baer, J.L.

1983-03-01

 
 
 
 
81

Environmental radiation protection standards  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The principles involved in the setting of radiological protection standards are reviewed, and the differences in procedures used by various countries in implementing them are outlined. Standards are taken here to mean the specific numerical limits relating to radiation doses to people or to amounts of radioactive material released into the environment. (author)

82

Radiation protecting glove  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The radiation protecting gloves of the present invention comprise a neutron shielding material made of natural or synthetic rubber incorporated with neutron shielding materials. For the neutron shielding materials, those having first neutron moderating effect and those having thermal neutron absorbing effect can be used properly. As the materials having first neutron moderating effect, gadolinium oxide power, zirconium hydride powder or the like is used. Further, as the thermal neutron absorbing material, boron carbide powder or the like is used. As the natural or synthetic rubber for the substrate, neoprene rubber, butadiene rubber or hyperlon rubber may be used for instance. Thus, a radiation protection gloves having neutron protecting function can be obtained. (I.N.)

83

Lectures on radiation protection  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

All important subjects of radiation protection are presented in concise form; the explanations may serve as lecture manuscripts. The lectures are divided into 16 to 19 teaching units. Each teaching unit is supplemented by a slide to be projected on a screen while the text is read. This method of visual teaching has already been tried with good results in medicine and medical engineering. Pictures of the slides are given in the text so that the book may also be used for self-studies. The main facts are summarized at the end of each lesson. The finished book will consist of 8 lessons; the first three of these discuss 1. Radiation effects and hazards 2. Dose definitions and units and their role in radiology and radiation protection 3. Dose limits and legal specifications. (orig.)

84

Guidelines for radiation protection  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Guidelines for radiation protection originate from numerous federal, state, and local agencies. Guidelines in radiation protection can be either mandatory or advisory. Regulations by federal, state, and local governments for the use of radioactive materials define operating practices. Adherence to these regulations is required by law and there are penalties for noncompliance. Regulations generally constitute the minimum requirements for good practice and are usually supplemented by less formal recommendations from regulatory agencies and advisory groups. The regulatory guides published by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and by radiation control groups of agreement states are intended to assist the user of radioactive material in maintaining compliance with regulations. These guides recommend good practice but are not mandatory in that the user can propose alternatives to the regulatory agencies to meet the regulations. Many groups serve in an advisory capacity in formulating reports and recommendations for the safe use of radioactive material. The most prominent and influential among these are the National Council in Radiation Protection and Measurements (NCRP) and the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP). Often the recommendations of these advisory groups evolve into either regulatory guidelines or regulations for the use of radioactive materials. At the present time, the backbone of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission's regulations relatiRegulatory Commission's regulations relating to the medical use of radionuclides, Standards for Protection Against Radiation (10CFR20) and Human Use of Byproduct Material (10CFR35), are undergoing extensive review with major revisions anticipated within the very near future. These proposed changes could have a significant impact on the practice of nuclear medicine

85

Enhancing radiation protection  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

When a new radiotherapy center in Gezira, Sudan, delivers its first therapeutic dose to a cancer patient, two things happen: A young man begins to regain his health and looks forward to being better able to support his family and contribute to his community; and a developing nation realizes an important step toward deriving the social and economic benefits of nuclear science. The strategic application of nuclear technology in particular fields- human health, industry, food and agriculture, energy, water resources and environmental protection - has enormous potential to help shape the future of developing countries. But past radiological incidents, several of which involved high levels of exposure or death (Bolivia, Brazil, Cost Rica, Georgia, Ghana, Morocco, Panama and Thailand), underscore the inherent and very serious risks. For this reason, the IAEA's Departments of Technical Cooperation and Nuclear Safety and Security partner closely, particularly in the area of radiation protection. They strive to consider every minute detail in the equation that brings together radiation sources, modern technologies, people and the environment. Launched in 1996, the Model Project on Upgrading Radiation Protection Infrastructure (the Model Project) aimed to help Member States: achieve capacities that underpin the safe and secure application of nuclear technologies; establish a legislative framework and regulatory infrastructure; develop exposure control mechanisms to protect workxposure control mechanisms to protect workers, medical patients, the public and the environment; and achieve preparedness and planned response to radiological emergencies. In fact, the hospital scenario above typically marks several years of intense collaboration amongst scientists, legislators, regulators, politicians and administrators from both Member States and the IAEA, orchestrated and aided by regional managers and technical experts from the IAEA. As radiation protection team members can attest, every application of nuclear technology carries special considerations and unique challenges. And each country is equally distinct in terms of needs, technical capacity, availability of financial resources and adequately trained personnel (at both regulatory and user organizations), and overall infrastructure

86

Radiation Protection: Introduction  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

As a federal research Centre, SCK-CEN has the statutory assignment to give priority to research related to safety, radioactive waste management, protection of man and environment, management of fissile and other strategic materials and social implications as part of the pursuit of sustainable development and to develop and gather the necessary knowledge and spread this knowledge through formation and communication. At the Division of Radiation Protection at SCK-CEN we are therefore active to maintain and enhance knowledge and expertise in each aspect of radiation protection: we study the risk of exposure - the way that radioactive materials spread in the environment and the potential for human contact - and the risk from exposure - how radiation affects human health; we perform health physics measurements; we are involved in emergency planning and preparedness and support to risk governance and decision taking. These activities are supported by radiation specific analysis and measurement techniques. These activities are not performed in isolation but in context of national and international collaborations or demands

87

Review of the results of routine radiation protection surveys of radiography-only diagnostic x-ray machines, February 1987-May 1991  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The results are given of routine radiation protection surveys performed during the period February 1987-May 1991 by National Radiation Laboratory (NRL) health physicists on 432 radiography-only x-ray machines used in medical diagnosis and 92 used in chiropractic diagnosis. Compliance was high with the more explicit radiation protection requirements of the NRL codes of safe practice for the use of x-rays in diagnosis, viz, x-ray beam filtration, timer function, x-ray tube leakage, protective barrier and x-ray room shieldings. However, for those aspects of the codes dealing with x-ray machine performance there were less satisfactory results. While compliance for reproducibility of radiation output was >99%, it fell to 91% for accuracy of exposure timers, to 84% for linearity of x-ray output with adjacent mA and mAs settings, and from 70% for kilovoltage calibrations of multi-pulse x-ray machines to 54% for kilovoltage calibrations of 1- and 2- pulse machines. (author). 24 refs., 15 tabs., 5 figs

88

Radiation protection: A correction  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An error in translation inadvertently distorted the sense of a paragraph in the article entitled 'Ecological Aspects of Radiation Protection', by Dr. P. Recht, which appeared in the Bulletin, Volume 14, No. 2 earlier this year. In the English text the error appears on Page 28, second paragraph, which reads, as published: 'An instance familiar to radiation protection specialists, which has since come to be regarded as a classic illustration of this approach, is the accidental release at the Windscale nuclear centre in the north of England.' In the French original of this text no reference was made, or intended, to the accidental release which took place in 1957; the reference was to the study of the critical population group exposed to routine releases from the centre, as the footnote made clear. A more correct translation of the relevant sentence reads: 'A classic example of this approach, well-known to radiation protection specialists, is that of releases from the Windscale nuclear centre, in the north of England.' A second error appeared in the footnote already referred to. In all languages, the critical population group studied in respect of the Windscale releases is named as that of Cornwall; the reference should be, of course, to that part of the population of Wales who eat laver bread. (author)

89

Emerging radiation protection  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In recent years, a number of radiation protection issues have emerged into the public forum. The perceived high risks associated with radiation exposure, and disproportionate media attention to such issues, have contributed to heightened concerns by the public and the individual occupationally exposed worker. This paper examines the new and controversial radiation risk estimates of the National Research Council's BEIR V committee, which are based on the most current atomic-bomb survivor data and a revised dosimetry model. These risk estimates are somewhat higher than past values, and may eventually impact the legal framework in the United States through the regulations of the EPA, NRC, DOE, OSHA, and other agencies that set radiation exposure standards. Additionally, present regulations and standards are often based upon differing levels of acceptable risk, which have led to conflicting exposure and effluent release criteria. Further, due to inherent boundaries in legal authority, many potentially significant sources of radiation exposure to the public remain unregulated Radiation exposure scenarios such as medical x-ray, radon, and other technology enhanced sources have no legal limits. These issues and others are examined and analyzed with respect to regulatory policy

90

The 2014 radiation protection guide  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This guide describes the background and objectives of radiation protection, the different sources of ionizing radiation and their different uses. It presents the various actors involved in radiation protection (actors in nuclear activities, certified laboratories and bodies, national, international and European bodies), the legal framework (international standards, European directives, French law), the different administrative regimes (for medical activities, veterinarian activities, and industrial activities), and the approach to be followed to exert a nuclear activity. It describes the practical organization of radiation protection (workers protection, patient protection, public protection, case of augmented natural radiations, management of incidental or accidental situations), addresses the issue of transport of radioactive substances (regulation and regulation applicability, material classification, parcel design, requirements and control, accompanying documents, means of transportation, required training, radiation protection measures), the issue of management of radioactive wastes and effluents (according to the type of installation), and the organization of radiation protection control, and indicates the civil and criminal liabilities

91

Radiation protection infrastructure in Iran  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The protection of human beings, their progeny and their environment against harmful effects of radiation requires the enforcement of rules, regulations and standards by a national competent authority on radiation protection. In the Islamic Republic of Iran, the Radiation Protection Act of 1989 has empowered the Atomic Energy Organization of Iran and in turn its National Radiation Protection Department as a competent authority to regulate and to control the entire range of radiation source applications. The Act has evolved from the radiation protection infrastructure in the country and it has filled the gaps in the Act of 1974. The paper presents and discusses the state of the radiation protection infrastructure in Iran, including regulatory provisions, the organizational structure, licensing and inspection, responsibilities, education and training, as well as some highlights of research, development, services and experiences gained in the development of the radiation protection infrastructure and organization. (author). 25 refs, 2 figs

92

The national radiation protection infrastructure  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The state system of radiation protection is still being created after Lithuania regained its independancy and in connection with recommendations laid in the ICRP-60 publication and requirements of legislation of European Community. A new regulation institutions was established and a number of laws and regulations related to radiation protection was prepared. The Radiation Protection Centre of Ministry of Health is the regulatory authority responsible for radiation protection of public and of workers using sources of ionizing radiation in Lithuania. A new Radiation Protection Law, Nuclear Energy Law, Radioactive Waste Management Law and different regulations was approved. Preparation of legislation, creation of state system of radiation protection and its upgrading allow to presume that the necessary level of radiation protection is to be achieved. (au)

93

Radiation protection, optimization and justification  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Nine articles in the field of radiation protection relative to the medical examinations concern the new legislation in radiation protection, the optimization of this one in order to reduce the radiation doses delivered to the patients, the side effects induced by irradiation and to give an evaluation of the medical exposure of french population to ionizing radiations. (N.C.)

94

Some perspectives on radiation protection  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A brief review of the history and organizational structure of the NCRP is given. Summaries are given of a number of NCRP radiation protection guides dealing with hazards from 85Kr, radiation exposures from consumer products, basic radiation protection criteria, and doses from natural background radiation

95

Radiation protection training in Switzerland  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An increasing number of radiation protection experts and of professionally exposed workers is temporarily or permanently working in a country other than the one where they received their radiation protection education or training. They all face the problem and the difficulties of recognition of radiation protection training programs by other countries. For this reason the German-Swiss Radiation Protection Association (Fachverband fuer Strahlenschutz; FS) made a proposal to IRPA for an action on the mutual recognition of radiation protection education in Europe. In a first step contacts were made with two other European Associations of France and UK in order to establish a joint working group. (orig.)

96

Applied radiobiology and radiation protection  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Based on data from the international literature, the following physical, biological and medical principles used in radiobiology and radiation protection are reviewed: physical aspects of the interaction between matter and ionizing radiations and operating mode of particle detectors, dosimetry; biological effects of ionizing radiations on human body and radiation protection methods used against external and internal irradiation; reasons and consequences of radiation exposure of man to natural and artificial sources, applied radiobiology, human accidents related to the use of radiation sources

97

Protection against enhanced radiation weapons  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

By means of the code ANISN extensive calculations of radiation protection against the neutron and gamma radiation of 'Enhanced Radiation Weapons' (Neutron Bombs) were performed. The shielding materials considered are: The air layer between the explosion centre and the earth surface, water, dry and wet earth, steel plates, normal concrete and concrete with boron and iron. The result is that tank crews can hardly be protected but for civil protection a two meter thick, rather wet layer of earth is a sufficient protection for men against the radiation of the Enhanced Radiation Weapon. (orig.)

98

Radiation protection and society  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The radiological protection of population, living on the contaminated territories, is actual 10 years after the Chernobyl accident. Eventually, the whole system of countermeasures application is aimed to protect society as a complex community of individuals . The variety of levels of society, i.e. family, settlement on the whole, can be considered as certain harmonic systems differing in their public consciousness levels and lifestyles, this explain the difference in their 'behaviour' in terms of radiation protection and attitude to the information obtained. Each level of society possesses a certain degree of liberty of choice, that finally influence the magnitude and the character of dose distribution within certain population groups. In general, the dose distribution in the settlement can be explained only on the bases of 'family' analysis. This concerns the rural settlement as a society too. All rural settlement can be divided into two or three classes: with low, high and intermediate social features. Small settlements (< 100 persons), where the advanced in age persons with low material income and high degree of natural economy are applied to the first class. This results in higher doses (2-3 fold), than in the settlements with higher social level. The analysis shows that in socially 'waning' settlements the countermeasures are less efficient and the term of their action is shorter. (this class is the largest, About 50% among all the rural settlements). Due to the deterioration of the economic situation in the Republic of Belarus after 1991-1992 resulted in the increase of doses mainly in the habitants first of all of this class of settlements. It seems problematic to increase countermeasures efficiency in this class of settlements without the refuse of the accustomed lifestyle and radical improvement of social-demographic and economic conditions. The present material shows the necessity of the differential approach based on 'society-analysis' in the determination of the strategy and tactics of radiological protection of the rural population. (authors)

99

Radiation protection and quality management  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The book contains the following contributions: Radiation protection: an aspect of the governmental assignment to guarantee and regulate the public safety and law and order; the regulation amendment concerning X radiation and the new radiation protection ordinance; biological radiation effects; dosimetry; modern diagnostic radiology; the vindicatory indication; experiences of applied radiation protection in X-ray diagnostics: multislice computer tomography, X-ray examination and angiography; networking imaging; vindicatory indication in radiotherapy: for malign diseases and for benign diseases; medical appointments; quality management in health care; quality management in practice and clinics; personal management in health care - a challenging assignment under the aspects of resource control and quality. Appendices: Regulation concerning X radiation protection and remarks; regulation concerning ionising radiation protection: excerpts and remarks

100

National Sessions of Radiation Protection  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Radioprotection Argentine Society (SAR) was organized the National Sessions on Radiation Protection 2012 in order to continue the exchange in the radiation protection community in the country, on work areas that present a challenge to the profession. The new recommendations of the ICRP and the IAEA Safety Standards (2011), among others, includes several topics that are necessary to develop. The SAR wants to encourage different organizations from Argentina, to submit projects that are developing in order to strengthen radiation protection.

 
 
 
 
101

Pregnancy and Radiation Protection  

Science.gov (United States)

Several modalities are currently utilized for diagnosis and therapy, by appropriate application of x-rays. In diagnostic radiology, interventional radiology, radiotherapy, interventional cardiology, nuclear medicine and other specialties radiation protection of a pregnant woman as a patient, as well as a member of the operating personnel, is of outmost importance. Based on radiation risk, the termination of pregnancy is not justified if foetal doses are below 100 mGy. For foetal doses between 100 and 500 mGy, a decision is reached on a case by case basis. In Diagnostic Radiology, when a pregnant patient takes an abdomen CT, then an estimation of the foetus' dose is necessary. However, it is extremely rare for the dose to be high enough to justify an abortion. Radiographs of the chest and extremities can be done at any period of pregnancy, provided that the equipment is functioning properly. Usually, the radiation risk is lower than the risk of not undergoing a radiological examination. Radiation exposure in uterus from diagnostic radiological examinations is unlikely to result in any deleterious effect on the child, but the possibility of a radiation-induced effect can not be entirely ruled out. The effects of exposure to radiation on the foetus depend on the time of exposure, the date of conception and the absorbed dose. Finally, a pregnant worker can continue working in an x-ray department, as long as there is reasonable assurance that the foetal dose can be kept below 1 mGy during the pregnancy. Nuclear Medicine diagnostic examinations using short-lived radionuclides can be used for pregnant patient. Irradiation of the foetus results from placental transfer and distribution of radiopharmaceuticals in the foetal tissues, as well as from external irradiation from radioactivity in the mother's organ and tissues. As a rule, a pregnant patient should not undergo therapy with radionuclide, unless it is crucial for her life. In Radiotherapy, the patient, treating oncologist, other team and family members should carefully discuss for the decision of abortion. Important factors must be considered such as the stage and aggressiveness of the tumour, the location of the tumour, the stage of pregnancy, various therapies etc.

Gerogiannis, J.; Stefanoyiannis, A. P.

2010-01-01

102

Radiation dosimetry and radiation protection in JINR  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The review of the investigations in the field of the radiation dosimetry and radiation protection performed in the JINR Radiation Safety and Radiation Research Department from 1964 to 1979 is presented. The investigations in the field of the radiation protection included the measurements of the parameter of nucleon fluence and radiation doses attenuation function for various energetic groups, development of the phenomenological and analytical radiation shielding calculation methods. The calculation methods have been checked at the Dubna synchrocyclotron. Study on the component and energy composition of the radiation outside of shielding of the synchrocyclotron, synchrophasotron, heavy ions cyclotron and reactor indicates that fast neutrons dominate the radiation environment. Results of research of radiation situation in the environment evidence that the JINR nuclear installations operation does not influence upon the contamination of environment. Average doses of exposure of personnel and population are lower by more than an order than permissible values

103

Applied radiation biology and protection  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This book grew out of a series of courses in radiobiology and radiation protection which were given to students in schools for radiology technicians, radiation safety officers and to medical students. Topics covered include the sources of ionizing radiation and their interactions with matter; the detection and measurement of ionizing radiation; dosimetry; the biological effects of ionizing radiation; the effects of ionizing radiation on the human body; natural radioexposure; medical radio-exposure; industrial radioexposure of electronuclear origin; radioexposure due to experimental nuclear explosions; radiation protection; and accidents with external and/or internal radio-exposure. (UK)

104

Radiation risks and radiation protection at CRNL  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Radiation exposure is an occupational hazard at CRNL. The predicted health effects of low levels of radiation are described and compared with other hazards of living. Data related to the health of radiation workers are also considered. Special attention is given to the expected effects of radiation on the unborn child. Measures taken to protect CRNL employees against undue occupational exposure to radiation are noted

105

Plowshare radiation protection guidance  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The recommendations of the ICRP and the NCRP were developed primarily for occupational radiation exposures. They were later modified and applied to non-occupational exposures of populations. These, with appropriate interpretations, can be used to provide Plowshare radiation protection guidance. Exposures from Plowshare operations will tend to be acute, arising from radionuclides of relatively short half-life, but will have some chronic aspects due to small amounts of long-lived radionuclides generated. In addition, the neutron activation process of Plowshare technology will produce radionuclides not commonly encountered in routine nuclear energy programs. How these radionuclides contribute to personnel exposure is known for only a few situations that may not be representative of Plowshare exposure. Further complications arise from differences in radionuclide deposition and physiological sensitivity among individuals of different ages and states of health in the exposed population. All parameters necessary to evaluate such exposures are not available, even for good quantitative approximations, resulting in the need for interpretive experience. (author)

106

Ethical issues in radiation protection  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Ethical theories are relevant to the current recommendations and standards for radiation protection. Radiation protection is not only a matter for science. It is also a problem of philosophy. In order for protection regulations to be respected, it must correspond to widely accepted ethical values among those who are affected by the regulations. The workshop covered the following issues: Problems in Present Protection Policy, ICRP Protection Policy - A Historical Perspective, Radiation Risk - What we know and what we believe, Present ICRP Recommendations, Ethical Values in the Context of ICRP Recommendations, Collective Responsibility for Invisible Harm, Environmental Protection - Ethical Issues, The Global Change of Values, and Procedural justice and Radiation Protection. Six workshop contributions and a workshop summary are presented in this report

107

Ethical issues in radiation protection  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Ethical theories are relevant to the current recommendations and standards for radiation protection. Radiation protection is not only a matter for science. It is also a problem of philosophy. In order for protection regulations to be respected, it must correspond to widely accepted ethical values among those who are affected by the regulations. The workshop covered the following issues: Problems in Present Protection Policy, ICRP Protection Policy - A Historical Perspective, Radiation Risk - What we know and what we believe, Present ICRP Recommendations, Ethical Values in the Context of ICRP Recommendations, Collective Responsibility for Invisible Harm, Environmental Protection - Ethical Issues, The Global Change of Values, and Procedural justice and Radiation Protection. Six workshop contributions and a workshop summary are presented in this report.

Persson, Lars (ed.)

2000-03-15

108

Mining and radiation protection law  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The following radiation protection recommendations, guidelines and standards under international law must be considered: - ICRP recommendations (in particular no. 24, 26, 32); - IAEA Safety series; - Euratom standards 1980/84. Investigations of the legal position in the Federal Republic of Germany must comprise: - AtG of 1959/1976; - Radiation Protection Ordinance in its wording of 1976 which is in force; - Federal Mining Act of 1980. Since both mining law and radiation protection law are involved, the homogeneity and possible concurrence of operative legal regulations must be investigated. The following problems must be discussed: - scope of application of the Radiation Protection Ordinance and of the Federal Mining Act with respect to the search for, production of, processing and transport, import and export as well as the possession of radioactive minerals; also waste disposal; - terminology, - application of protection regulations of the Radiation Protection Ordinance for mining activities (radiation protection policies, persons responsible for radiation protection, environmental protection, physical control, medical control etc.); - government supervision. (orig./HP)

109

Radiation protection - quality and metrology  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The radiation protection gathers three occupations: radiation protection agents; environment agents ( control and monitoring); metrology agents ( activities measurement and calibration). The quality and the metrology constitute a contribution in the technique competence and the guarantee of the service quality. This article, after a historical aspect of quality and metrology in France explains the advantages of such a policy. (N.C.)

110

Bioassay programs for radiation protection  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report discusses the rationale for the establishment of bioassay programs as a means of protection for radiation workers in the nuclear industry. The bioassay program of the Radiation Protection Bureau is described for the years 1966-1978 and plans for future changes are outlined. (auth)

111

Occupational safety meets radiation protection  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The cooperation circle ''Synergies in operational Security'' is a joint working group of the Association of German Safety Engineers (VDSI) and the German-Swiss Professional Association for Radiation Protection (FS). The tasks of the KKSyS are arising from the written agreement of the two associations. This includes work on technical issues. In this regard, the KKSyS currently is dealing with the description of the interface Occupational Safety / Radiation Protection. ''Ignorance is no defense'' - the KKSyS creates a brochure with the working title ''Occupational Safety meets radiation protection - practical guides for assessing the hazards of ionizing radiation.'' The target groups are entrepreneurs and by them instructed persons to carry out the hazard assessment. Our aim is to create practical guides, simple to understand. The practical guides should assist those, who have to decide, whether an existing hazard potential through ionizing radiation requires special radiation protection measures or whether the usual measures of occupational safety are sufficient. (orig.)

112

Ethics in radiation protection  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Ethics is a branch of philosophy. Its object is the study of both moral and immoral behaviour in order to make well founded judgements and to arrive at adequate recommendations. The Collins English Dictionary provides the following definitions of the word ethic: Ethic: a moral principle or set of moral values held by an individual or group; Ethics(singular): the philosophical study of the moral value of human conduct and of the rules and principles that ought to govern it; Ethics(pleural): a social, religious or civil code of behaviour considered correct, especially that of a particular group, profession or individual; Ethics(pleural): the moral fitness of a decision, course of action, etc. Ethics has a two-fold objective: Firstly it evaluates human practices by calling upon moral standards; it may give prescriptive advice on how to act morally in a specific kind of situation. This implies analysis and evaluation. Sometimes this is known as Normative ethics. The second is to provide therapeutic advice, suggesting solutions and policies. It must be based on well-informed opinions and requires a clear understanding of the vital issues. In the medical world, we are governed by the Hippocratic Oath. Essentially this requires medical practitioners (doctors) to do good, not harm. There is great interest and even furore regarding ethics in radiation protection

113

Radiation protection guidelines for radiation emergencies  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The system of dose limitation and present guidance for emergency workers and guidance for intervention on behalf of the public are discussed. There are three elements for the system of dose limitation: justification, optimization and dose limits. The first element is basically a political process in this country. Justification is based on a risk-benefit analysis, and justification of the use of radioactive materials or radiation is generally not within the authority of radiation protection managers. Radiation protection managers typically assess detriments or harm caused by radiation exposure and have very little expertise in assessing the benefits of a particular practice involving nuclear material

114

Radiation protection and radiation fear  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Some data are cited from Japanese statistics analyzing the genetic injuries stemming from the nuclear explosion in Hiroshima. It is shown that neither the number of the unsuccesful pregnancies nor the mortality of the born offsprings increased in those cases there the mother or the father had been exposed to 1-100 rad radiation. There was no significant difference in the chromosomal aberrations amoung the children of irradiated and control parents. (L.E.)

115

Applied radiation biology and protection  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This book is a translation from a version revised in 1989 of the original French edition first published in 1985. The following topics are included in twelve chapters: Sources of ionizing radiation and their interactions with matter; Detection and measurement of ionizing radiation; Dosimetry; Biological effects of ionizing radiation (mechanism of action); Effects of ionizing radiation on the human body; Natural radiation exposure; Medical radiation exposure; Exposure to ionizing radiation from nuclear power plants and their associated installations; Radiation exposure to the general public from industrial sources other then power plants and medical uses; Radiation exposure due to experimental nuclear explosions; Radiation protection; and Accidents and incidents with external and/or internal radiation exposure.

Granier, R.; Gambini, D.J.

1990-01-01

116

Safety Culture on radiation protection  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

It can be defined radiation protection culture as the set of technical and social standards applied to the management of the operation of a nuclear facility concerning the reduction of the exposure to radiation of workers and members of the public, together with the behaviour and attitudes of the individuals from the organization towards that objective. Because the basic principles of radiation protection are self-evident and are totally justified, and the thesis drawn from the article is that no effective radiation protection culture yet exists within the organization, it must be concluded that what is wrong from the system are the attitudes and behavior of the individuals. In this article some factors and elements needed to motivate all persons within the organization towards the creation of a radiation protection culture are delineated and presented. (Author)

117

Radiation control area protection clothes database program  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Radiation protection personnel sets have been classified into a recycle and a disposal by the process of rad-survey and laundry. Most of all, a large number of protection clothes have been accompanied with some difficulties in making an inventory. To improve the problem, we have a plan to employ a database program to keep track of those information such as contamination, inventories, daily logs ets.. We could expect the program to make the process simple as well as promote the radiation safety management work in more effective way

118

Radiation protection education in Europe  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Education in Radiation Protection varies considerably in the different European Countries. As there is free movement of staff and services in between these European Countries one of the main objectives of the European Union is to compare the different implementations and to identify similarities. Therefore, in this paper the German and Swiss Radiation Protection Systems are explained and the relevant topics of the Revision of the European Basic Safety Standard are presented. Additionally a bilateral pilot project is described which compares the lowest level radiation protection courses in Germany and The Netherlands and possible future developments are outlined. (orig.)

119

Optimization of radiation protection in diagnostic radiology  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

rtain examinations has been tested with some success in so-called 'investigational surveys'. So far, only dental X ray units, full size chest units and mammography screening units have been surveyed, but further work is planned. Although the surveys often give information about national collective patient dose, this is not the primary purpose. Instead, the width of the interval observed for a certain parameter indicates its priority in radiation protection. Additionally, the position of an individual value in the interval is useful in the planning of local quality assurance activities. (author). 12 refs, 2 figs, 2 tabs

120

10 CFR 39.67 - Radiation surveys.  

Science.gov (United States)

...2010-01-01 false Radiation surveys. 39...67 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION LICENSES AND RADIATION SAFETY REQUIREMENTS...the logging tool detector or by using a survey...shall conduct a radiation survey,...

2010-01-01

 
 
 
 
121

Radiation protection in civil defence  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The brochure contains the information given to the participants of an advanced training course in civil defence, on the subject of radiation protection. The course was held by teachers of Bundesverband fuer den Selbstschutz (BVS). (orig.)

122

An evaluation of radiation protection in Norway  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A survey of radiation protection in Norway is presented. Statens Institutt for Straalehygiene is the organization which performs the radiation protection functions on a national basis, and the laws upon which its activities are based are cited. The relevant parts of the ILO Convention nr.115 are also cited. The tasks of the institute are divided in the following programmes:- (i)radiation protection regulations and inspection, (ii) training and information (iii) emergency planning and provisions (iv) development of methods and, (v) administration. These programmes are defined and briefly described. The organisational structure and tasks are described. Analysis in tabular form of the status of the tasks leads to the conclusion that, while the institute's laboratories and equipment are satisfactory shortage of personnel restricts the adequate performance of its tasks. (JIW)

123

Radiation survey meters used for environmental monitoring  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Nordic dosimetry group set up the GammaRate project to investigate how its expertise could be used to assure appropriate usage of survey meters in environmental monitoring. Considerable expertise in calibrating radiation instruments exists in the Nordic radiation protection authorities. The Swedish, Finnish, Danish and Norwegian authorities operate Secondary Standard Dosimetry Laboratories (SSDLs) that provide users with calibration traceable to internationally recognised primary standards. These authorities together with the Icelandic authorities have formally cooperated since 2002 in the field of radiation dosimetry. Dosimetry is the base for assesment of risk from ionising radiation and calibration of instruments is an imported part in dosimetry. The Nordic dosimetry group has been focused on cancer therapy. This work extends the cooperation to the dosimetry of radiation protection and environmental monitoring. This report contains the formal, theoretical and practical background for survey meter measurements. Nordic standards dosimetry laboratories have the capability to provide traceable calibration of instruments in various types of radiation. To verify and explore this further in radiation protection applications a set of survey instruments were sent between the five Nordic countries and each of the authority asked to provide a calibration coefficient for all instruments. The measurement results were within the stated uncertainties, except for some results from NRPA for the ionchamber based instrument. The comparison was shown to be a valuable tool to harmonize the calibration of radiation protection instruments in the Nordic countries. Dosimetry plays an important role in the emergency situations, and it is clear that better traceability and harmonised common guidelines will improve the emergency preparedness and health. (Author)

Bjerke, H. (ed.) (Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority, NRPA (Norway)); Sigurdsson, T. (Icelandic Radiation Safety Authority, Geislavarnir Rikisins, GR (IS)); Meier Pedersen, K. (National Board of Health, Statens Institut for Straalebeskyttelse (SIS) (Denmark)); Grindborg, J.-E.; Persson, L. (Swedish Radiation Safety Authority, Straalsaekerhetsmyndigheten (SSM) (Sweden)); Siiskonen, T.; Hakanen, A.; Kosunen, A. (Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority, Saeteilyturvakeskus (STUK) (Finland))

2012-01-15

124

Quality management in radiation protection  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Quality Management in Radiation Protection Quality management (QM) in the field of Radiation Protection was discussed in a previous issue (2/97) using the example of QMS at the Paul Scherrer Institut (PSI). The present article describes the major features involved in the establishment of a functional QMS. Establishment of the QMS lead to a deeper understanding of administrative and operational aspects of the working methods involved. (orig.)

125

Healing Arts Radiation Protection Act  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Healing Arts Radiation Protection Act is concerned with regulating the registration, installation, operation, inspection and safety of X-ray machines. The Act provides for the establishment of the Healing Arts Radiation Protection Commission which is responsible for reporting on all the above matters to the Ontario Minister of Health. In addition the board is responsible for the continuing development of an X-ray safety code and for the submission of an annual report of their activities to the minister

126

Dose limits for radiation protection  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Section 45 of the Radiation Protection Ordinance aims at keeping the radiation dose due to specified normal operation so low that radiation doses do not add to the natural radiation exposure. Therefore the minimization order is applicable already far below the dose value defined as the limit upon which preventive radiation protection measures have to be taken to protect from health hazards. The minimization order is not restricted to the plant for which an operating licence is applied for. Radioactive effluents from specified normal operation of other installations are to be taken into account as well, however not radioactive effluents resulting from incidents or accidents. BVerwG, decision of May 23, 1991 - 7 C 34.90 - (OVG Lueneburg). (orig./HSCH)

127

Radiation protection in medical applications  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text: The goal of this paper is to identify the areas in which radiation protection is actually needed and the relative importance of protection measures. A correlation between the different medical applications of the ionizing radiations and the associated risks, mainly due to ignorance, has been a constant throughout the history of mankind. At the beginning, the accidents were originated in research nuclear laboratories working on the atomic bomb, while the incidents occurred in medical areas because of virtual ignorance of the harmful effects on humans. The 60's were characterized by the oil fever, which produced innumerable accidents due to the practice of industrial radiography; in the 70's the use of radiations on medical applications was intensified, to such and extent that a new type of victim appeared: the patient. Unfortunately, during 80's and 90's the number of accidents in different medical practices has increased, projecting the occurred in Zaragoza (Spain) on 1990 with a linear accelerator for radiotherapy treatments. In some developed countries, foreseeing the probability of producing biological effects as a result of different radiology practices, more strict security rules are adopted to guarantee the application of the three principles of the radioprotection: justification, optimization and limitation of individual dose. In this way, in the U.S.A., the Joint Commission on Accreditation of Health Care Organization (JCAHO), favors a vigilance politics in the different departments of Radiodiagnostic and Nuclear Medicine to secure an effective management in security, communications and quality control, in which the medical physicists play an important role. One of the requirements for example is to attach the value of entrance exposition dose in the radiological diagnostic report. So, the doses in the different organs are compared with the tabulated doses. Basically, a quality control programme is designed to minimize the risks for patients, workers and the public in general, maximizing the quality of the diagnostic information. To achieve this goal, external advise on quality control, radioprotection training, personal monitoring, environmental survey and technical supports must be added to the physician staff. In diagnostic areas, using radiography and computed tomography, the doses of the operators are 2 mSv/yr on average; in mammography and odontology they do not exceed 0.5 mSv/yr; in fluoroscopy they vary between 2 and 4 mSv/yr; in the services of radiotherapy and brachytherapy they vary between 1 and 2 mSv/yr, in spite of the high dose rates present, and finally in nuclear medicine the average doses are 1 mSv/yr. Bearing in mind, that the annual permissible weighed dose is 20 mSv/yr, the value of the dose absorbed by the professional that work in the areas, is optimal. The weak point of radiation protection philosophy in medical applications is in the work of interventional physicians who take part in a lot of angiography procedures for about half and hour with each patient. This staff, have no full time dedication like the radiologist physicians and therefore haven't enough knowledge about the radiations and besides they are outside the personal dosimetry systems. Actually they are the highest risk group among physicians who use ionizing radiations in routine work and to whom the efforts in radio sanitary policies must be directed. (author)

128

Radiation protection, 1975. Annual EPA review of radiation protection activities  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The EPA, under its Federal Guidance authorities, is responsible for advising the President on all matters pertaining to radiation and, through this mechanism, to provide guidance to other Federal agencies on radiation protection matters. Highlights are presented of significant radiation protection activities of all Federal agencies which were completed in 1975, or in which noteworthy progress was made during that period, and those events affecting members of the public. State or local activities are also presented where the effects of those events may be more far-reaching. At the Federal level significant strides have been made in reducing unnecessary radiation exposure through the efforts of the responsible agencies. These efforts have resulted in the promulgation of certain standards, criteria and guides. Improved control technologies in many areas make it feasible to reduce emissions at a reasonable cost to levels below current standards and guides. This report provides information on the significant activities leading to the establishment of the necessary controls for protection of public health and the environment. Radiation protection activities have been undertaken in other areas such as medical, occupational and consumer product radiation. In the context of radiation protection, ancillary activities are included in this report in order to present a comprehensive overview of the events that took place in 1975 that could have an effect on public health, either directly or indirectly. Reports of routine or continuing radiation protection operations may be found in publications of the sponsoring Federal agencies, as can more detailed information about activities reported in this document. A list of some of these reports is included

129

Policy support on radiation protection  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The objectives of activities related to policy support on radiation protection is: (1) to support and advise the Belgian authorities on specific problems concerning existing and potential hazards from exposure to ionizing radiation in normal and accidental situations,;(2) to improve and support nuclear emergency-response decisions in industrial areas from an economical point of view. The main achievements for 1997 are described

130

Protective prostheses during radiation therapy  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Current applications and complications in the use of radiotherapy for the treatment of oral malignancy are reviewed. Prostheses are used for decreasing radiation to vital structures not involved with the lesion but located in the field of radiation. With a program of oral hygiene and proper dental care, protective prostheses can help decrease greatly the morbidity seen with existing radiotherapy regimens

131

Introduction to radiation protection dosimetry  

CERN Document Server

One essential characteristic of life is the exchange of matter and energy between organisms and their environment. Radiation is a form of energy that has always been around in nature and will forever be the companion of human beings throughout life. In order to assess the impact of radiation exposures properly, it is essential to introduce appropriate quantities and units which can then be used for quantification of exposures from various sources. In principle, radiation protection is mainly aimed at controlling radiation exposure, while radiation dosimetry deals primarily with the measurement

Sabol, Josef

1995-01-01

132

Personal computing in radiation protection programs  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In the fall of 1986, Radiation Protection Management surveyed its Correspondents (radiation protection professionals at utilities, universities, national laboratories, consulting firms, and government agencies) on their use of personal computers (PCs). This article presents the results of the survey with profiles of the PC user, the PC equipment, the software, and the work environment. The average PC user is proficient with more than one type of software, is self taught, knows at least one programing language, and uses his/her PC every day. The standard radiation protection PC is an IBM PC/XT/AT or compatible, fully-loaded with 640K of RAM, a hard disk, a modem, etc. Radiation protection professionals use their PCs mainly for word processing and specialty (technical) applications -- their favorite programs are Lotus 1-2-3, Ashton-Tate's dBase series, and MicroPro's WordStar series. Most PCs are shared by several persons, but one of them often uses the PC more than all of the others combined

133

Radiation protection in thorium industry  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The evaluation of radiation doses in a monazite processing plant (thorium production cycle) aiming to getting information on the exposure levels to beta and gamma radiation, is discussed. It is observed that, excluding places where monazite is stored,or during transportation, or in silos, or waste deposits, or in places where high activity materials are stored or treated, the externa exposure stay below the maximum pemissible limit. Some recommendations are made based on the results found and according to radiation protection standards

134

Concepts of radiation protection; Nocoes de protecao radiologica  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This seventh chapter presents the concepts and principles of safety and radiation protection, emergency situations; NORM and TENORM; radiation protection care; radiation protection plan; activities of the radiation protection service; practical rules of radiation protection and the radiation symbol.

NONE

2013-11-15

135

Radiation protection information  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

From the measurements and discussion presented in this report, the following conclusions may be drawn: The population doses from naturally occuring radiation is on average lower in Denmark and much lower in Iceland than in the other Nordic countries. In Sweden, Finland and Norway the largest contributors to the population doses from naturally occuring radiation are radon daughters in indoor air. For Denmark and Iceland, radon daughters contribute about the same to the total effective dose equivalent as the external gamma radiation. Some groups of people in the Nordic countries are highly exposed to radon daughters. In some cases, the received doses are very high (higher than the dose limit for radiation workers). From the conclusions above, the radon daughter problem should be given priority, at least in Sweden, Finland and Norway, especially regarding the search for population groups receiving the highest doses

136

Radiation protection and health effects  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The use of ionizing radiation in nuclear medicine carries with it a responsibility to both patient and personnel to maximize the diagnostic and therapeutic benefit while minimizing the potential for any adverse health effects. Shortly after the discovery of the x-ray in 1895 the potential for acute health hazards of ionizing radiation became apparent. However, the risks of ionizing radiation were poorly understood and many early users did not believe that anyone could be hurt by something that could not be detected by any of the human senses. Many experiments on the biologic effects of ionizing radiation began in the early 1900s, and the first radiation protection standards were proposed by the British Roentgen Society in 1915. We now realize that these pioneers had a very limited knowledge of the potential hazards and radiation protection principles. Today more scientific data are available on the health effects of, detection of, and protection from ionizing radiation than any other physical agent or chemical known. In addition, use of many forms of ionizing radiation is heavily regulated at both national and state levels. This paper discusses how maternal contamination with radionuclides may cause irradiation of the fetus even if the radionuclide is not transferred across the placenta. This is mostly true for radionuclides that decay yielding relatively penetrating radiations

137

New trends in radiation protection  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The introduction of new concepts such as the effective dose equivalent, the collective dose and the dose commitment, and the application of the basic principles of justification, optimization and individual dose limitation has had a major impact on the planning and implementation of radiation protection during the last few years. The basic principles are summarized in ICRP Publication 26. It is a chalenge to research in radiobiology, genetics and health physics to explore the scientific foundation of the current principles of radiation protection. The most interesting trend to-day, however, is the observation that the principles applied in radiation protection have now been generally recognized and accepted to the extent that they become utilized in the protection of man against non-radioactive carcinogenic substances and environmental pollutants. (author)

138

Research programs 1992/93 radiation protection  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Radiation protection research programs are summarized. The main fields are: ionizing and non-ionizing radiation, radioactive wastes, radiation accidents, dosimetry, epidemiology, radiobiology and radioecology

139

Radiation protection in nuclear medicine  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Addresses all aspects of radiation protection in nuclear medicine. Covers current technologies and principles. An ideal textbook for students and a ready source of information for nuclear medicine specialists and medical physics experts. One of a series of three books on the fundamentals of modern nuclear medicine (physics, safety, and imaging). This book explains clearly and in detail all aspects of radiation protection in nuclear medicine. After an introductory chapter on the general role of radiation protection, measurement quantities and units are discussed, and detectors and dosimeters, described. Radiation biology and radiation dosimetry are then addressed, with the inclusion of a chapter specifically devoted to biology and dosimetry for the lens of the eye. Discussion of radiation doses to patients and to embryos, fetuses, and children forms a central part of the book. Phantom models, biokinetic models, calculations, and software solutions are all considered, and a further chapter focuses on quality assurance and reference levels. Occupational exposure also receives detailed attention. Exposure resulting from the production, labeling, and injection of radiopharmaceuticals and from contact with patients is discussed and shielding calculations are explained. The book closes by considering exposure of the public and summarizing the ''rules of thumb'' for radiation protection in nuclear medicine. This is an ideal textbook for students and a ready source of useful information for nuclear medicine specialists and medical physics experts.

Mattsson, Soeren [Lund Univ., Skane Univ. Hospital Malmoe (Sweden). Medical Radiation Physics; Hoeschen, Christoph (eds.) [Helmholtz Zentrum Muenchen Deutsches Forschungszentrum fuer Gesundheit und Umwelt GmbH, Neuherberg (Germany)

2013-07-01

140

Evolving radiation protection challenges  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Radiological protection policy, regulation and application are based on science and on social judgement. Both of these aspects have evolved significantly over the past years, and will continue to do so for the coming years. This evolution has been marked by certain 'step-change' events, such as the 1986 Chernobyl accident and the 2011 Fukushima accident. The evolution of thinking with regard to radiological risks and benefits will certainly continue and will certainly result in changes in the way that we develop and implement radiological protection. This evolution can be characterized in many different ways, but can conveniently be described as having scientific and socially driven aspects, which may well pose challenges to radiological protection policy, regulation and application in the future. This paper will present a view of these evolving challenges. (orig.)

Lazo, Ted [OECD Nuclear Energy Agency, Issy-les-Moulineaux (France). Div. of Radiation Protection and Radioactive Waste Management

2012-07-01

 
 
 
 
141

A practical course in radiation protection physics  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The book deals with the fundamentals of radiation measurement techniques, the interactions of radiation with matter, the sources of ionizing radiations and their radiation fields, and the fundamentals and applications of radiation protection measurement techniques. An appendix contains constants and radiation units and the rules for ensuring radiation protection in conducting the course

142

Radiation Protection Research: Radiobiology  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The main objectives of research in the field of radiobiology and epidemiology performed at the Belgian Nuclear Research Centre SCK-CEN are (1) to study cancer mortality in nuclear workers in Belgium; to document the feasibility of retrospective cohort studies in Belgium; (2) to participate in the IARC study; (3) to elucidate the molecular basis of the effects of ionising radiation in the mammalian embryo during the early phases of its development; (4) to assess the genetic risk of maternal exposure to ionizing radiation; (5) to elucidate the cellular mechanisms leading to brain damage after prenatal irradiation; (6) to advise authorities and to provide the general population with adequate information concerning the health risk arising from radiation exposure. Progress and major achievements in these topical areas in 1999 are reported.

Desaintes, C

2000-07-01

143

Radiation Protection Research: Radiobiology  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The main objectives of research in the field of radiobiology and epidemiology performed at the Belgian Nuclear Research Centre SCK-CEN are (1) to study cancer mortality in nuclear workers in Belgium; to document the feasibility of retrospective cohort studies in Belgium; (2) to participate in the IARC study; (3) to elucidate the molecular basis of the effects of ionising radiation in the mammalian embryo during the early phases of its development; (4) to assess the genetic risk of maternal exposure to ionizing radiation; (5) to elucidate the cellular mechanisms leading to brain damage after prenatal irradiation; (6) to advise authorities and to provide the general population with adequate information concerning the health risk arising from radiation exposure. Progress and major achievements in these topical areas in 1999 are reported

144

Semiconductor spectrometer for radiation protection  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The radiation fields on aircraft board and for other radiation protection application are complexes they contain the particles with energies up to few hundreds MeV. Obviously, one distinguishes the components with low resp. high linear energy transfer (LET). Recently, we have acquired a new measuring instrument, MDU-LIULIN, an energy deposition spectrometer base on a Si-detector. The spectrometer was originally developed and largely tested onboard of cosmic vehicles, its sensitive element is a Si-diode. The spectrometer has been calibrated in photon, neutron and high-energy radiation reference fields (CERN). The energy deposited in the detector by a particle is analysed by a 256-channel spectrum analyser, it permits to distinguish the contribution of different types of radiation to integral dosimetry quantities. The spectrometer has been, since April 2000 used for some radiation protection applications, mostly on aircraft board. Results obtained are presented, discussed and analysed. Materials and methods. (authors)

145

Biological Research for Radiation Protection  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The work scope of 'Biological Research for the Radiation Protection' had contained the research about ornithine decarboxylase and its controlling proteins, thioredoxin, peroxiredoxin, S-adenosymethionine decarboxylase, and glutamate decarboxylase 67KD effect on the cell death triggered ionizing radiation and H{sub 2}O{sub 2}(toxic agents). In this study, to elucidate the role of these proteins in the ionizing radiation (or H{sub 2}O{sub 2})-induced apoptotic cell death, we utilized sensesed (or antisensed) cells, which overexpress (or down-regulate) RNAs associated with these proteins biosynthesis, and investigated the effects of these genes on the cytotoxicity caused by ionizing radiation and H{sub 2}O{sub 2}(or paraquat). We also investigated whether genisteine(or thiamine) may enhance the cytotoxic efficacy of tumor cells caused by ionizing radiation (may enhance the preventing effect radiation or paraquat-induced damage) because such compounds are able to potentiate the cell-killing or cell protecting effects. Based on the above result, we suggest that the express regulation of theses genes have potentially importance for sensitizing the efficiency of radiation therapy of cancer or for protecting the radiation-induced damage of normal cells.

Kim, In Gyu; Kim, Kug Chan; Jung, Il Lae; Choi, Yong Ho; Kim, Jin Sik; Moon, Myung Sook; Byun, Hee Sun; Phyo, Ki Heon; Kim, Sung Keun

2005-04-15

146

Biological Research for Radiation Protection  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The work scope of 'Biological Research for the Radiation Protection' had contained the research about ornithine decarboxylase and its controlling proteins, thioredoxin, peroxiredoxin, S-adenosymethionine decarboxylase, and glutamate decarboxylase 67KD effect on the cell death triggered ionizing radiation and H2O2(toxic agents). In this study, to elucidate the role of these proteins in the ionizing radiation (or H2O2)-induced apoptotic cell death, we utilized sensesed (or antisensed) cells, which overexpress (or down-regulate) RNAs associated with these proteins biosynthesis, and investigated the effects of these genes on the cytotoxicity caused by ionizing radiation and H2O2(or paraquat). We also investigated whether genisteine(or thiamine) may enhance the cytotoxic efficacy of tumor cells caused by ionizing radiation (may enhance the preventing effect radiation or paraquat-induced damage) because such compounds are able to potentiate the cell-killing or cell protecting effects. Based on the above result, we suggest that the express regulation of theses genes have potentially importance for sensitizing the efficiency of radiation therapy of cancer or for protecting the radiation-induced damage of normal cells

147

Actual global problems of radiation protection  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Personal views on some actual problems in radiation protection are given in this paper. Among these problems are: evolution methodology used in radiation protection regulations; radiation protection, nuclear energy and safety, and new approaches to the process of the hazardous substances management. An interesting fact relating to the X-ray, radiation protection and Nikola Tesla are given also. (author)

148

Radiation protection - the unions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A brief report is given of a paper presented at the symposium on 'Radiation and the Worker - where do we go from here' in London 1983. The paper concerned trade union viewpoints on the draft of the proposed Ionising Radiations Regulations in the Health and Safety Commission Consultative Document. The main contentious issue was that the 5 rem dose limit might have been lower if ICRP had agreed to involve employers and the trade union movement in their considerations. However, it was concluded that, on balance, the trade union movement would welcome the proposed Regulations. (U.K.)

149

Radiation protection authorized persons (RPA) in Germany  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The radiation protection authorized person (RPA) is playing an important role in the fields of organization, realization and checking the radiation protection in Germany, first of all in big institutions like research centers, facilities and medical centers. The paper deals with the legal status of the RPA especially the clear dividing line between his tasks and the tasks of the radiation protection supervisor and the radiation protection commissioner. The paper shows that the embodiment of the RPA in the radiation protection law has advantages also in coordinating the tasks of radiation protection officer and radiation protection expert recommended by the European Union. (orig.)

150

Deficiencies in radiation protection record systems  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Radiation protection records are a fundamental part of any program for protecting radiation workers. Records are essential to epidemiological studies of radiation workers and are becoming increasingly important as the number of radiation exposure litigation cases increases. Ready retrievability of comprehensive records is also essential to the adequate defense of a radiation protection program. Appraisals of numerous radiation protection programs have revealed that few record-keeping systems comply with American National Standards Institute, Standard Practice N13.6-1972. Record-keeping requirements and types of deficiencies in radiation protection records systems are presented in this paper, followed by general recommendations for implementing a comprehensive radiation protection records system. 8 refs

151

Deficiencies in radiation protection record systems  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Radiation protection records are a fundamental part of any program for protecting radiation workers. Records are essential to epidemiological studies of radiation workers and are becoming increasingly important as the number of radiation exposure litigation cases increases. Ready retrievability of comprehensive records is also essential to the adequate defense of a radiation protection program. Appraisals of numerous radiation protection programs have revealed that few record-keeping systems comply with American National Standards Institute, Standard Practice N13.6-1972. Record-keeping requirements and types of deficiencies in radiation protection records systems are presented in this paper, followed by general recommendations for implementing a comprehensive radiation protection records system

152

ICRP-Radiation protection principles and practice  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A brief survey is given of the history of ICRP, its basic standards and recommendations and their rationale, from its foundation in 1928 to the latest major review of its recommendation in 1977. In this time the basic radiation standard for whole body irradiation of a radiation worker has dropped from the equivalent of 50 r per year (in 1934) through 15 rem per year (1954) to 5 rem per year in 1958. ICRP recommendations include maximum permissible doses for particular organs and a comprehensive list of derived limits governing the intake of radionuclides into the body, and dose limits for members of the public. Emphasis in current radiation protection practice is on avoiding all unnecessary exposures and keeping doses as far below dose limits as is reasonably achievable. The use of cost-benefit analysis to optimize protection and some of its inherent difficulties, is discussed

153

Radiation protection in pediatric radiology  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Because of the high growth rate of cell systems in phases of radiation exposure radiological investigations on children should not be considered unless there is a strong indication. The National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements has worked out recommendations on radiation protection which have been published as an NCRP report. This report is most important even outside the USA. The present translation is aimed to contribute to better understanding of the bases and aims of radiation protection during radiological investigations on children. It addresses not only those physicians who carry out radiological investigations on children themselves but also all physicians requiring such investigations. For these physicians, but also for parents who are worried about the radiation risk to their children the report should be a useful source of information and decision aid ensuring, on the one hand, that necessary radiological investigations are not shunned for unjustified fear of radiation and that, on the other hand, all unnecessary exposure of children to radiation is avoided. Thus, it is to be hoped, the quality of pediatric radiological diagnostics will be improved. (orig./MG)

154

Activities of Radiation Protection Centre in 2000  

CERN Document Server

Description of the activities of Radiation Protection Centre in 2000 is presented. Radiation Protection Centre is responsible for radiation protection issues. Currently there are six departments at Radiation Protection Centre: two in Vilnius - Department of Radiation Protection Supervision and Control and Department of Programs and Expertise, and four in the districts. Brief information on subject controlled by each departments is provided focusing on main achievements and events.

Radiat. Prot. Cent. Vilnius

2001-01-01

155

Radiation protection Ordinance  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This Ordinance lays down the licensing system for activities in Switzerland involving possible exposure to radiation, with the exception of nuclear installations, fuels and radioactive waste which, under the 1959 Atomic Energy Act, are subject to licensing. The Ordinance applies to the production, handling, use, storage, transport, disposal, import and export of radioactive substances and devices and articles containing them; and generally to any activity involving hazards caused by ionizing radiation. The Federal Public Health Office is the competent authority for granting licences. Provision is also made for the administrative conditions to be complied with for obtaining such licences as well as for technical measures required when engaged in work covered by the Ordinance. This consolidated version of the Ordinance contains all the successive amendments up to 26 September 1988. (NEA)

156

Problems of radiation protection  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A brief review is presented on the dose-dependent radiation injuries and possibilities of the classical chemical radioprotectors. Data are given on different substances of biological origin, including some natural for the body admixtures with a confirmed radioprotective action: biogenic amines (serotonin, mexamine), adenylic nucleotides, amino acids, polyamines, immunomodulators (bacterial endotoxines), prostaglandins, leucotrienes, antioxidants, vitamines (A, E, B2, B6, P, biotin, flavenoids), natural fats, plant oils and unsaturated fat acids, extracts from green seaweeds and adaptogens. 81 refs

157

Radiation protection calibration activities in Pakistan  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The calibration of radiation protection instruments is carried out in the Secondary Standard Dosimetry Laboratory (SSDL). This SSDL was established in Health Physics Division of Pakistan Institute of Nuclear Science and Technology (PINSTECH) in 1981. First, only therapy dose level calibration services were carried out, but later on, the calibration of radiation protection instruments was started in 1991. During about three years, 92 types of radiation survey instruments were calibrated. Film badge dosimeters, thermoluminescent dosimeters and pocket dosimeters are used. The calibration certificates containing all the details are issued. At present, calibration service is provided free of charge. The protection level secondary standard dosimetry system available with the laboratory, gamma ray irradiation facilities and X-ray irradiation facility, and the instruments for measuring pressure, temperature, humidity, distance and so on are described. The calibration of radiation survey instruments, the problems and experiences of calibration and ICRU operational quantities are reported. The minor repair of instruments is done at the SSDL, though it is not responsibility. (K.I.)

158

Protection against solar ultraviolet radiation.  

Science.gov (United States)

Interest in protection against solar ultraviolet radiation (UVR) among the general public in Australia has been increasing steadily as a result of the 'SunSmart' campaigns run by the various state cancer councils. This increasing awareness is due in part to the requirements for occupational protection of outdoor workers and to provision of UVR protection for the recreational market. Behaviour outdoors can significantly affect exposure to solar UVR and use of items of personal protection can provide a substantial reduction in the UVR dose received. The protective properties of sunscreens, sunglasses, hats and clothing against UVR have been the subject of considerable research for some time, and over the last few years interest has extended to the provision of shade structures and the UVR protection provided by various commonly used materials. These materials include shadecloth, plastics, glass, windscreens and applicable tints. Australia has rigorous standards covering protection and UVR, in particular for sunscreens [Standards Australia/Standards New Zealand, Sunscreen products-evaluation and classification, Report No. AS 2604, Sydney/Wellington, 1993.], sunglasses [Standards Australia, Sunglasses and fashion spectacles-nonprescription types, Report No. AS 1067.1, Sydney, 1990.], protective eyewear [Standards Australia/Standards New Zealand, Eye protectors for industrial applications, Report No. AS/NZS 1337, Sydney/Wellington, 1992.] and shadecloth [Standards Australia, Synthetic shadecloth, Report No. AS 4174, Sydney, 1994.]. Compliance with the sunglass standard became mandatory in 1988 and UVR protection provided by sunglasses has increased substantially since then. In July 1996 a standard on 'sun protective textiles' [Standards Australia/Standards New Zealand, Sun protective clothing-evaluation and classification, Report No. AS/NZS 4399, Sydney, 1996.] incorporating ultraviolet protection factors (UPFs) and a rating scheme with protection categories, was introduced; this was the first of its kind in the world. Australian Radiation Laboratory (ARL) UPF swing tags with UVR protection advice from the Australian Cancer Society on the reverse side are used to denote the amount of protection against solar UVR provided by clothing. To date in excess of 5 million ARL swing tags have been issued. Work on the various standards is continuing. The maximum allowed 'sun protection factor' (SPF) limit for sunscreens may be increased to SPF 30 + in the near future, and additions to the sun protective textiles standard are also planned. This paper discusses measurement methods, results, the rationale used in formulating the Australian Standards and the current state of UVR protection in Australia. PMID:9920424

Gies, P H; Roy, C R; Toomey, S; McLennan, A

1998-11-01

159

Designing radiation protection signs  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Entry into hazardous areas without the proper protective equipment is extremely dangerous and must be prevented whenever possible. Current postings of radiological hazards at the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (RFETS) do not incorporate recent findings concerning effective warning presentation. Warning information should be highly visible, quickly, and easily understood. While continuing to comply with industry standards (e.g., Department of Energy (DOE) guidelines), these findings can be incorporated into existing radiological sign design, making them more effective in terms of usability and compliance. Suggestions are provided for designing more effective postings within stated guidelines

160

Teaching units in radiation protection  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

These short but comprehensive texts deal with the main aspects of radiation protection; they will serve as manuscripts or notes for instructors in radiation protection. Each text is supplemented by slides to be shown in the training session. Each text requires about 20 minutes to read. Even with a further 10 minutes for questions and discussions, teaching units should not take longer than half an hour. First of all, basic knowledge is presented. Further teaching units are now being prepared on specific subjects. (orig./HP)

 
 
 
 
161

Radiation protection training in Germany  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Verifying the possibilities for harmonization of the radiation protection education one has to define the aims and the present status. The aims are an education system, effective in contents and economy, complying with the national and European legal regulations, which is well accepted by the persons concerned. The German-Swiss Radiation Protection Association (FS) has already pointed at the special meaning of this topic repeatedly. In the following the FS-working group 'education; describes the present training situation and challenge in Germany. (orig.)

162

Flexibility in radiation protection legislation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The UK approach to radiation protection legislation is described in detail. The advantages are outlined of a flexible approach whereby the objectives of the legislation are clearly identified but the means of achieving these are left open or qualified by terms such as 'where reasonably practicable'. The roles and viewpoints of management and unions in such an approach are discussed especially with respect to legislation such as the Health and Safety at Work Act. Specific topics include requirements for notification of use, criteria for controlled areas and the tasks of the radiation protection adviser. (UK)

163

Radiation protection/shield design  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Radiation protection/shielding design of a nuclear facility requires a coordinated effort of many engineering disciplines to meet the requirements imposed by regulations. In the following discussion, the system approach to Clinch River Breeder Reactor Plant (CRBRP) radiation protection will be described, and the program developed to implement this approach will be defined. In addition, the principal shielding design problems of LMFBR nuclear reactor systems will be discussed in realtion to LWR nuclear reactor system shielding designs. The methodology used to analyze these problems in the U.S. LMFBR program, the resultant design solutions, and the experimental verification of these designs and/or methods will be discussed. (orig.)

164

1993 Radiation Protection Workshop: Proceedings  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The 1993 DOE Radiation Protection Workshop was conducted from April 13 through 15, 1993 in Las Vegas, Nevada. Over 400 Department of Energy Headquarters and Field personnel and contractors from the DOE radiological protection community attended the Workshop. Forty-nine papers were presented in eleven separate sessions: Radiological Control Manual Implementation, New Approaches to Instrumentation and Calibration, Radiological Training Programs and Initiatives, External Dosimetry, Internal Dosimetry, Radiation Exposure Reporting and Recordkeeping, Air Sampling and Monitoring Issues, Decontamination and Decommissioning of Sites, Contamination Monitoring and Control, ALARA/Radiological Engineering, and Current and Future Health Physics Research. Individual papers are indexed separately on the database.

1993-12-31

165

XXX. Days of Radiation Protection. Conference Proceedings of the 30-th Days of Radiation Protection  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The publication has been set up as a proceedings of the conference dealing with health protection during work with ionizing radiation for different activities which involve the handling of ionizing radiation sources. The main conference topics are focused on current problems in radiation protection and radioecology. In this proceedings totally 107 papers are published. The Conference consists of following sections: Effects of ionizing radiation; Regulation of radiation protection; Dosimetry and Metrology of ionizing radiation; Radiation protection in nuclear Power plants; Medical exposure and radiation protection in diagnostic radiology, nuclear medicine and radiation oncology; Natural radioactivity issues in radiation protection; Education, societal aspects and public involvement in radiation protection, trends and perspectives

166

Radiation protection material  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The material, capable of being cast into the shape and thickness desired, is resistant to radiation (300 x 106 rad and 1 x 1017 n/cm2 while retaining its H2 content). It is composed of a silicon elastomer base material to which particles from BC, boric acid and/or boron oxide are homogeneously admixed with a volume percentage between 5 and 75. For each purpose the particles are of constant size respectively. The sizes lie between 0.18 mm (80 mesh) and 0.05 mm (300 mesh). (DG)

167

Nordic society for radiation protection  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The key themes of teh 12th ordinary general meeting of the Nordic Society for Radiation Protection were: RADIATION - ENVIRONMENT - INFORMATION. A number of outstanding international experts accepted to contribute on the meetings first day with invited presentations, which focussed on these themes. In all 38 oral presentations and 28 posters are included in the present Proceedings, which furthermore contains a resume of discussions from the special session on 'Controllable Dose'. (EHS)

168

Radiation protecting sheet  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

As protection sheets used in radioactivity administration areas, a thermoplastic polyurethane composition sheet with a thickness of less 0.5 mm, solid content (ash) of less than 5% and a shore D hardness of less than 60 is used. A composite sheet with thickness of less than 0.5 mm laminated or coated with such a thermoplastic polyurethane composition as a surface layer and the thermoplastic polyurethane composition sheet applied with secondary fabrication are used. This can satisfy all of the required properties, such as draping property, abrasion resistance, high breaking strength, necking resistance, endurance strength, as well as chemical resistance and easy burnability in burning furnace. Further, by forming uneveness on the surface by means of embossing, etc. safety problems such as slippage during operation and walking can be overcome. (T.M.)

169

Radiation Protection Services Division: progress report for 1992-1993  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report describes the work of the Radiation Protection Services Division during 1993, for implementation of radiation safety in all institutions in India using radiation sources in medical, industrial and research applications. It gives information about personnel monitoring using photographic film and TLD badges, neutron monitoring badges, advisory and licensing services, regulation, transport of radioactive materials and periodic protection survey. About 33 publications by the staff of the Division are also listed. (author). 4 tabs

170

Radiation protection in technical radiography  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In on-site inspections, e.g. double-plate radiography of circumferential pipe welds Ir-192 is most frequently used. Methods, controlled area, possible personnel doses, and radiation protection measures for the inspection and construction personnel are briefly discussed. (HP)

171

Radiation protection in veterinary radiology  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This Code of Practice is designed to give guidance to veterinary surgeons in ensuring that workers and members of the public are adequately protected from the hazards of ionising radiation arising from the use of x-ray equipment in veterinary practice. (author)

172

Environmental damage valuation as radiation protection tool  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Environmental radiation protection procedures do not have global consensus. Aiming the development of consensus mechanisms to guide environmental radiation protection procedures, it appears that the approaches used by non-radioactive environmental protection are very promising. Among these approaches, environmental valuation procedures are commonly employed, and are very proper for environmental radiation protection. (author)

173

Radiation protection of medical staff  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The continuing increase in the worldwide use of X-ray imaging has implications for radiation protection of medical staff. Much of the increased usage could be viewed as simply a workload issue with no particular new challenges. However, advances in technology and developments in techniques have seen an increase in the number of X-ray procedures in which medical personnel need to maintain close physical contact with the patient during radiation exposures. The complexity of many procedures means the potential for significant occupational exposure is high, and appropriate steps must be taken to ensure that actual occupational exposures are as low as reasonably achievable. Further attention to eye protection may be necessitated if a lowering of the dose limit for the lens of the eye is implemented in the near future. Education and training in radiation protection as it applies to specific situations, established working procedures, availability and use of appropriate protective tools, and an effective monitoring programme are all essential elements in ensuring that medical personnel in X-ray imaging are adequately and acceptably protected.

Le Heron, John, E-mail: J.Le.Heron@iaea.or [Radiation Safety and Monitoring Section, Division of Radiation, Transport and Waste Safety, International Atomic Energy Agency, Wagramer Strasse 5, P.O. Box 100, 1400 Vienna (Austria); Padovani, Renato, E-mail: padovani.renato@aoud.sanita.fvg.i [Medical Physics Department, University Hospital, Udine (Italy); Smith, Ian, E-mail: Ian.Smith@uchealth.com.a [St Andrew' s Medical Institute, St Andrew' s War Memorial Hospital, Brisbane (Australia); Czarwinski, Renate, E-mail: R.Czarwinski@iaea.or [Radiation Safety and Monitoring Section, Division of Radiation, Transport and Waste Safety, International Atomic Energy Agency, Wagramer Strasse 5, P.O. Box 100, 1400 Vienna (Austria)

2010-10-15

174

Radiation protection of medical staff  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The continuing increase in the worldwide use of X-ray imaging has implications for radiation protection of medical staff. Much of the increased usage could be viewed as simply a workload issue with no particular new challenges. However, advances in technology and developments in techniques have seen an increase in the number of X-ray procedures in which medical personnel need to maintain close physical contact with the patient during radiation exposures. The complexity of many procedures means the potential for significant occupational exposure is high, and appropriate steps must be taken to ensure that actual occupational exposures are as low as reasonably achievable. Further attention to eye protection may be necessitated if a lowering of the dose limit for the lens of the eye is implemented in the near future. Education and training in radiation protection as it applies to specific situations, established working procedures, availability and use of appropriate protective tools, and an effective monitoring programme are all essential elements in ensuring that medical personnel in X-ray imaging are adequately and acceptably protected.

175

Radiation survey ship banned  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Nuclear Free local authorities in Scotland have set up an environmental pollution survey to determine the radioactivity levels in parts of coastal Britain. The monitoring was to be carried out by a Russian research ship, the 'Akademik Boris Petrov'. However, because the ship is Russian and memories of the cold war die hard, the ship was banned from entering British waters. The ship is capable of detecting the presence of military warheads and nuclear reactions and so could be considered as a spying threat. (UK)

176

Radiation survey ship banned  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Nuclear Free local authorities in Scotland have set up an environmental pollution survey to determine the radioactivity levels in parts of coastal Britain. The monitoring was to be carried out by a Russian research ship, the 'Akademik Boris Petrov'. However, because the ship is Russian and memories of the cold war die hard, the ship was banned from entering British waters. The ship is capable of detecting the presence of military warheads and nuclear reactions and so could be considered as a spying threat. (UK).

Martin, S. (Nuclear Free Zones Scotland, Glasgow (United Kingdom))

177

Radiation protection in developing countries  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Radiation protection in developing countries has to be seen as a small fraction of the larger socio-economic aspects of the North-South problem. There are excessive radiation protection efforts in a few countries, adequate efforts in about 10%, and almost 90% of all countries (with about three quarters of the world population) in which radiation protection is totally insufficient or non-existent, despite a large number of radiation sources and radiation workers, in particular in medicine. Despite all differences, these countries have some problems in common: Determination of priorities and organisational structures, lack of funds, qualified experts, and infratructure, brain drain, climatic factors, etc. Some possibilities are pointed out, how external help (bilateral or through IAEA) can be useful, provided certain minimal conditions can be met by a country. Examples would be assistance in establishing and implementing of meaningful regulations and control structures, adequate training and consulting, selection of simple and rugged instrumentation, exchange of experiences, and international quality assurance tests. (orig.)

178

Radiation protection in veterinary medicine  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Diagnostic radiology is an essential part of present-day veterinary practice. The need for radiation protection exists because occupational exposure to ionizing radiation can result in deleterious effects that may manifest themselves not only in exposed individuals but in their descendants as well. These are respectively called somatic and genetic effects. Somatic effects are characterized by observable changes occurring in the body organs of the exposed individual. These changes may appear from within a few hours to many years later, depending on the amount and duration of exposure of the individual. In veterinary medicine, the possibility that anyone may be exposed to enough radiation to create somatic effect is extremely remote. Genetic effects are more a cause for concern at the lower doses used in veterinary radiology. Although the radiation doses may be small and appear to cause no observable damage, the probability of chromosomal damage in the germ cells, with the consequence of mutations, does exist. These mutations may give rise to genetic defects and therefore make these doses significant when applied to a large number of individuals. There are two main aspects of the problem to be considered. First, personnel working with X-ray equipment must be protected from excessive exposure to radiation during their work. Secondly, personnel in the vicinity of veterinary X-ray facilities and the general public require adequate protection

179

Protection against radiation (biological, pharmacological, chemical, physical)  

Science.gov (United States)

Physical, chemical, and biological protection for astronauts from penetrating radiation on long-term space flights is discussed. The status of pharmacochemical protection, development of protective substances, medical use of protective substances, protection for spacecraft ecologic systems, adaptogens and physical conditioning, bone marrow transplants and local protection are discussed. Combined use of local protection and pharmacochemical substances is also briefly considered.

Saksonov, P. P.

1975-01-01

180

The international radiation protection: the international actors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The International commission on radiation units and measurements, (ICRU) and UNSCEAR represent the basic knowledge from science. For the international recommendations in radiation protection we find ICRP, the radiological safety standards of IAEA, the Committee of radiation protection and public health of the nuclear energy agency (Nea), the role and recent activities of the ilo concerning the radiation protection of workers and the Who role in radiation protection. About the regulation elaboration for the international standardization in radiation protection we have the international standard organisation (ISO), the alimentarius Codex and the radiation protection, at the European level, the European commission and the directives lay down the basic standards in radiation protection, the scientific and technical committee of the EURATOM treaty (S.T.C.). How to use the regulation is explained trough the international radiation protection association (IRPA), the European ALARA network (E.A.N.) the international cooperation on N.R.B.C. malevolent risk. (N.C.)

 
 
 
 
181

Radiation protection practices and related continuing professional education in dental radiography: A survey of practitioners in the North-east of England  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

ear period, and this may account for the failure to implement best radiographic practice. Over half felt that there was insufficient availability of post-graduate courses in radiation protection. The regional provision of continuing professional education in this field may need development

182

Radiation protection. Radioactivity and radiation measurement  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The text is aimed at environmental protection engineers, at people with an interest, be it vocationally or privately, in radioactivity and its measurement and at all teachers. The aim is an understandable and professional illustration of the themes radioactivity and radiation measurement, from a geophysicist approach. The common properties of the three ioniying radiation sources -radiographic, nuclear and cosmic radiation were highlighted. The physical, technical, metrological and geophysical aspects were dealt with more fundamentally than chemical and biological, as outlined in the detailed table of contents. In chapters 6, 7, and 8, as well as in the main volume, years of observations using, all measurement methods in practical radiometry are shown. Radon and radon detection are handled in detail. (orig./HP)

183

Radiation protection organization and radiation protection education in Europe  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Education in Radiation Protection varies considerably in the different European Countries. As there is free movement of staff and services in between these European Countries one of the main objectives of the European Union is to compare the different implementations and to identify similarities. Therefore, in this paper the German and different European Systems are explained shortly and the relevant topics of the Revision of the European Basic Safety Standard are presented. (orig.)

184

Radioprotectors and Immunomodulators for Protection against Radiation  

International Science & Technology Center (ISTC)

Development of New Generation of Radioprotectors, Immunomodulators, and Radiation Sensitizers for Human Protection Against Ionizing Radiation and Efficiency Improvement of Radiotherapy of Malignant Cells

185

Applied radiation biology and protection  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Written by two eminent expects in the field with many years of teaching experience between them, this book presents a concise coverage of the physical and biological basics of radiation biology and protection. The book begins with a description of the methods of particle detection and dosimetric evaluation. The effects of ionizing radiation on man are treated from the initial physico-chemical phase of interaction to their conceivable pathological consequences. Regulations, limits and safeguards on nuclear power plants, radioisotope installations and medical centers which make use of ionizing radiation are given and the risks of exposure to natural, industrial and scientific radiation sources evaluated. The final chapter takes a look at some of the more important nuclear accidents, including Windscale, Three Mile Island, and Chernobyl, and describes basic procedures to be carried out in the eventuality of a nuclear emergency. Twelve chapters have been processed separately for inclusion in the appropriate data bases

186

Applied radiation biology and protection  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Written by two eminent expects in the field with many years of teaching experience between them, this book presents a concise coverage of the physical and biological basics of radiation biology and protection. The book begins with a description of the methods of particle detection and dosimetric evaluation. The effects of ionizing radiation on man are treated from the initial physico-chemical phase of interaction to their conceivable pathological consequences. Regulations, limits and safeguards on nuclear power plants, radioisotope installations and medical centers which make use of ionizing radiation are given and the risks of exposure to natural, industrial and scientific radiation sources evaluated. The final chapter takes a look at some of the more important nuclear accidents, including Windscale, Three Mile Island, and Chernobyl, and describes basic procedures to be carried out in the eventuality of a nuclear emergency. Twelve chapters have been processed separately for inclusion in the appropriate data bases.

Granier, R.; Gambini, D.J.

1990-01-01

187

Epistemological basis of radiation protection  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text: Regarding natural phenomena understood or not, the absolute truth must be somewhere. In fact, there is no evidence that neither nature nor the phenomena that it includes were 'created' to be understood. Except for the fact that Man appeared through the same process, with his curiosity, capacity to perceive and manipulate, his greed for power and fears. In general, the attitude towards questions for which the absolute truth has not been reached varies from ignorance/indifference to the search of knowledge through scientific methodology, and may even be based on beliefs. The fact that the interaction between ionizing radiations and living beings results in biological effect is true. That the biological effect of high doses of radiation, absorbed outside the context of medicine, is hazardous for the irradiated individuals also seems to be true. That any dose is dangerous, or not, is debatable: the available information and knowledge are not consistent enough to end the question; and so, the absolute truth remains hidden. Radiological Protection is founded on the principle that any increase of dose results in an increase in the risk of cancer, and that this risk must be kept as low as possible. It is therefore based on this 'belief' that the international organisms of radiological protection emit recommendations aiming the protection of people and the environment. What is interesting about this question is that because of restrictions imposed by regulating agencies, populations, members of the public and the environment are properly protected against harmful effects of ionizing radiations, which makes the truth no longer interesting. Radiological Protection is a requirement associated to all activities involving nuclear energy. It satisfies several interests and opposes others. The greater the opposed interests and the perception that the absolute truth can represent dialectic advantage to one of the parts, the greater the perception of the importance of its revelation. In the present study, two initiatives of search for the truth were analyzed: the initiative of the Brazilian National Congress, through the creation of a working group in charge of evaluating the radiological protection in the country; and WONUC's initiative to create a publication focused exclusively on the effect of low doses of ionizing radiation. In relation to the understanding of the biological effects of the radiations, the document underlines the difficulty of all those involved in accepting the evidence that the truth related to this question was not reached. In respect to the initiative of the WONUC, the International Journal of Low Radiation is now in its 4th volume; publishing works that oppose the official belief that any dose is harmful. (author)

188

Report to the government of Zambia. Radiation protection  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

At the request of the Government of the Republic of Zambia, the International Atomic Energy Agency set up a technical assistance project to supply an expert plus some equipment, commencing 1 October 1971 and of one year's duration. The project was to expand Zambia's radiation protection service through monitoring of radiation doses, radiation sources, and premises, and provide advise related to the safe handling of sources of ionizing radiation. Upon arrival the expert found that some of these activities had been initiated. The key measures therefore were to establish channels of communication and authority, survey the state of radiation safety and protective measures, and coordination of protective and control measures. On these lines the Ionising Radiation Act is stated to show how its establishment and organizational structure could assist in the implementation of radiation protection measures. maps

189

Radiation Protection in Paediatric Radiology  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Over the past decade and a half, special issues have arisen regarding the protection of children undergoing radiological examinations. These issues have come to the consciousness of a gradually widening group of concerned professionals and the public, largely because of the natural instinct to protect children from unnecessary harm. Some tissues in children are more sensitive to radiation and children have a long life expectancy, during which significant pathology can emerge. The instinct to protect children has received further impetus from the level of professional and public concern articulated in the wake of media responses to certain publications in the professional literature. Many institutions have highlighted the need to pay particular attention to the special problems of protecting paediatric patients. The International Commission on Radiological Protection has noted it and the IAEA's General Safety Requirements publication, Radiation Protection and Safety of Radiation Sources: International Basic Safety Standards (BSS), requires it. This need has been endorsed implicitly in the advisory material on paediatric computed tomography scanning issued by bodies such as the US Food and Drug Administration and the National Cancer Institute in the United States of America, as well as by many initiatives taken by other national and regional radiological societies and professional bodies. A major part of patient exposure, in general, and paediatric exposure, in particular, now arises from practices that barely existed two decades ago. For practitioners and regulators, it is evident that this innovation has been driven both by the imaging industry and by an ever increasing array of new applications generated and validated in the clinical environment. Regulation, industrial standardization, safety procedures and advice on best practice lag (inevitably) behind industrial and clinical innovations. This Safety Report is designed to consolidate and provide timely advice on dealing with the special problems involved. The approach adopted is developed within the IAEA framework of statutory responsibility to establish standards for the protection of people against exposure to ionizing radiation and to provide for the application of these standards. The BSS issued by the IAEA require the radiation protection of patients undergoing medical exposures through justification of the procedures involved and optimization of protection and safety. This challenge is taken up here by adding paediatric radiology to the areas dealt with in recent IAEA publications. These are specifically Safety Reports Series Nos 39 and 40 on diagnostic radiology and nuclear medicine, respectively, and Safety Reports Series Nos 58-61 and 63 on newer medical imaging techniques and other initiatives in justification of procedures and optimization of protection and safety. The advice of the IAEA is intended in particular for professionals, practitioners, and teachers and trainers in the area, as well as physicians referring children for examinations. Resource materials and training materials are available cost free on the IAEA's Radiation Protection of Patients web site (http://rpop.iaea.org).

190

Apoptosis signaling and radiation protection  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Radiation protection by apoptosis control is the suppression of cell death in highly radiosensitive tissues. This paper describes the outline of radiation-induced apoptosis framework, apoptosis-concerned target molecules possibly related to apoptosis by radiation and their inhibitors. Although there are intrinsic (via mitochondria) and extrinsic (via death receptor) pathways in apoptosis, this review mainly mentions the former which is more important in radiation-induced apoptosis. Those molecules known at present in the apoptosis are caspase, Bcl-2 family and p53. Caspase, a group of cystein proteases, initiates apoptosis but its inhibition is known not always to result in apoptosis suppression, suggesting the existence of caspase-independent pathways. Bcl-2 family involves apoptosis-suppressing (possessing BH domains) and -promoting (lacking BH domains or possessing BH3 domain alone/BH3-only protein) groups. Two p53-transcription-dependent and one -independent pathways in p53-induced apoptosis are known and p53 can be a most possible target molecule since it positions at the start of apoptosis. Authors have found a vanadate inactivates p53. Inhibitors affecting upstream molecules of apoptosis will be the most useful candidate for apoptosis suppression/radiation protection. (S.I.) 106 refs

191

Radiation protection of employees safeguarded  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Commission on Radiation Protection issues a statement on the state of matters in personal dosimetry of professionally exposed persons. The safety of that group pf persons is safeguarded by a cluster of measures completing one another. These include measurements at the place of work and measurement of the radiation exposure of each person employed by gauged personnel dosemeters, by whole-body counters, measurement of bodily excreta, and measurement of clothing for contamination. The measuring methods used are suited to establish with sufficient accuracy the exposure of individual persons. Eight figures indicate the results of comparative measurements with personnel dosemeters from 1986. (HSCH)

192

The upside down radiation protection  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Today, the radiation protection is in an illogical situation: even the greatest efforts to pass on a message that the actual ionizing radiations levels are without sanitary risks for the workers and the population will never convince the nuclear opponents, while the majority of population stays silent. The atmosphere relative to these questions is generally unhealthy because the words like radioactive, contamination or cancer create a subliminal feeling of fear for the public. A strong advantage in the information work is the openness. with this card one can remain on good terms with the public but one should never forget they must be well looked after. (N.C.)

193

Protection against cosmic radiation exposure  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Aircraft crew and astronauts are exposed to elevated levels of cosmic-ray particles, that is, galactic-or solar-origin particles and their secondary radiation. The average dose level of aircraft crew is generally higher than that of radiation workers at nuclear facilities. The International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) has thus recommended in 1990 (Publ. 60) that cosmic radiation exposure of crew involved in operation of jet aircraft and space flight should be part of occupational exposure. This view is maintained in the 2007 recommendations (Publ. 103). About 10 years late from the EU directive, the Radiation Council of the Japanese government has established a guideline on April 2006 for the management of cosmic radiation exposure of aircraft crew. The guideline requests the domestic airlines to keep the annual crew doses below 5 mSv and also gives some advice and policies relating to this issue. The voluntary management by airlines started on-8-the 2007 fiscal year and has continued so far. NIRS has supported this task, particularly in regard to cosmic radiation dosimetry using an originally developed software called ''JISCARD''. Regarding radiation exposure in space, guidelines have been issued in each country or by each agency. For Japanese astronauts, the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) is voluntarily carrying out the management on the basis of the own guidelines including dose limitation values. (author)

194

The new Radiation Protection Ordinance  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In order to make a contribution towards the general and consequent application of the regulations, the author has tried not only to give a compilation of the relevant legal regulations, but also to present concrete and practice-oriented advice with regard to the main regulations. These hints will make it easier for the persons concerned to apply the regulations properly, to pay attention to prohibitions, and to utilize possible facilitations and exemptions in a permissible way. In this context, not only the complete regulations of the Radiation Protection Ordinance, but also parts of the Atomic Energy Act and the Financial Security Ordinance find mention, legal regulations which are closely connected with the Radiation Protection Ordinance. (orig./HP)

195

Basic standards for radiation protection  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The basic standards for radiation protection have been based, for many years, on the recommendations of the International Commission of Radiological Protection. The three basic standards recommended by the Commission may be summarized as ''justification, optimization of protection and adherence to dose limitations. The applications of these basic principles to different aspects of protection are briefly summarized and the particular ways in which they have been applied to waste described in more detail. The application of dose limits, both in the control of occupational exposure and in regulating routine discharges of radioactive effluents is straight forward in principle although the measurement and calculational requirements may be substantial. Secondary standards such as derived limits may be extremely useful and the principles underlying their derivation will be described. Optimization of protection is inherently a more difficult concept to apply in protection and the various techniques used will be outlined by with particular emphasis on the use of cost benefit analysis are recommended by the ICRP. A review will be given of the problems involved in extending these basic concepts of the ICRP to probabilistic analyses such as those required for assessing the consequences of accidents or disruptive events in long term repositories. The particular difficulties posed by the very long timescales involved in the assessment of waste management practices will be discussed in some detail. (orig./RW)

196

Workstations studies and radiation protection  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This day on the workstations studies for the workers follow-up, was organised by the research and health section. Devoted to the company doctors, for the competent persons in radiation protection, for the engineers of safety, it presented examples of methodologies and applications in the medical, industrial domain and the research, so contributing to a better understanding and an application of regulatory measures. The analysis of the workstation has to allow a reduction of the exposures and the risks and lead to the optimization of the medical follow-up. The agenda of this day included the different subjects as follow: evolution of the regulation in matter of demarcation of the regulated zones where the measures of workers protection are strengthened; presentation of the I.R.S.N. guide of help to the realization of a workstation study; implementation of a workstation study: case of radiology; the workstation studies in the research area; Is it necessary to impose the operational dosimetry in the services of radiodiagnostic? The experience feedback of a competent person in radiation protection (P.C.R.) in a hospital environment; radiation protection: elaboration of a good practices guide in medical field; the activities file in nuclear power plant: an evaluation tool of risks for the prevention. Methodological presentation and examples; insulated workstation study; the experience feedback of a provider; Contribution of the ergonomics to the determiners characterization in the ionizing radiation exposure situations;The workstations studies for the internal contamination in the fuel cycle facilities and the consideration of the results in the medical follow-up; R.E.L.I.R. necessity of workstation studies; the consideration of the human factor. (N.C.)

197

Chemical radioprotectors in radiation protection  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The different demands for the ways of the administration of chemical radioprotectors as a cystamine or WR-2721 (amifostine, gammaphos, Ethyol) e.g. S-containing compounds, their distribution and further pharmacological properties of protective agents in mentioned indications are discussed in presented lecture. A special attention is concerned on the practical use of chemical radioprotectors in the emergency and clean-up workers after a radiation accident or nuclear catastrophes. (author)

198

State Radiation Protection Supervision and Control  

CERN Document Server

Radiation Protection Centre is carrying state supervision and control of radiation protection. The main objective of state supervision and control of radiation protection is assessing how licensees comply with requirements of the appropriate legislation and enforcement. Summary of inspections conducted in 2002 is presented.

2002-01-01

199

State Supervision and Control of Radiation Protection  

CERN Document Server

Radiation Protection Centre is carrying state supervision and control of radiation protection. The main objective of state supervision and control of radiation protection is assessing how licensees comply with requirements of the appropriate legislation and enforcement. Summary of inspections conducted in 1999-2001 is presented.

2001-01-01

200

Radiation protection enrollments and degrees, 1979 and 1980  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Public concern over the effects of low-level radiation and other aspects of the use of nuclear energy has grown in recent years, and the demand for radiation protection has continued to increase. Radiation Protection Enrollments and Degrees presents the results of the latest survey of institutions offering degree programs in this field. Students obtaining such degrees are vital to the development of industry, medicine, research, power production, construction, and agriculture. These surveys assist state and federal governments in their search for such personnel

 
 
 
 
201

Quality factor in radiation protection  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Because of sever limitations in the knowledge of high-LET radiation effects on humans, the values assigned to Q had to be based on general findings in experimental radiobiology and, to some extent, on theoretical considerations. In a report by an earlier ICRP-ICRU group, it was stressed that for most protection purposes, RBE values observed at the lowest absorbed doses should guide the selection of the values of Q. It was noted that in some experiments RBE values had been found that are substantially larger than the corresponding values of Q, but no changes in the latter were deemed necessary at the time. Later, an ICRP Committee reporting on mutagenesis induced by high-LET irradiation noted high values for RBE in many systems at low doses. Although our knowledge of RBE at low doses is still unsatisfactory, there have been significant improvements. The evidence, which is considered in this document, indicates that the ratio of absorbed doses from low- and high-LET radiations that produce the same effect at low doses is, in many cases, greater than presently adopted Q values. Estimates of radiation risks are mostly based on experiences with low-LET radiation; thus, present dose-equivalent limits for high-LET radiation could imply risks that are greater than those which have been assumed for low-LET radiation

202

Units for radiation protection work  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

ICRU has defined special measurable (operational) quantities for radiation protection. A consequence of using the operational quantities is that hand-held and personal dosemeters can give different measuring results in the same radiation situation. The differences vary and are caused by the geometry of the radiation field. The units have well documented relations to e.g. the ICRP effective dose and equivalent dose to an organ or tissue. Therefore, it is possible to estimate these doses from a measured value of e.g. the ambient dose equivalent. ICRU and ICRP have recently reviewed these relations in two important commonly issued reports (Report 57 and Publication 74). This report tries to show the value of understanding these units and their relations and is primarily meant to be used for educational purposes. 11 refs

203

Radiation protection for human spaceflight  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Cosmic radiation exposure is one of the most significant risks associated with human space exploration. Except for the principles of justification and optimization (ALARA), the concepts of terrestrial radiation protection are of limited applicability to human spaceflight, as until now only few experimentally verified data on the biological effectiveness of heavy ions and the dose distribution within the human body exist. Instead of applying the annual dose limits for workers on ground also to astronauts, whose careers are of comparatively short duration, the overall lifetime risk is used as a measure. For long-term missions outside Earth's magnetic field, the acceptable level of risk has not yet been defined, since there is not enough information available to estimate the risk of effects to the central nervous system and of potential non-cancer radiation health hazards. (orig.)

204

Radiation protection in medical applications  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The justification of the practices is the fundamental principle on which rests the peaceful use of ionizing radiations. They actually contain as aspirations to improve the quality of people's lives, contributing to sustainable development through environmental protection, so that the sources security and the individuals protection will be conditions which are not and should can not be operated. For medical applications is a highly illustrative example of this, since both for the diagnosis and therapy, the goal is to achieve what is sought for the white tissue, secured the least possible damage to the neighboring tissues so that in turn reduce the negative effects for the patient. As a basis for achieving the above, it is essential to have qualified personnel in all areas incidents, for example users, workers, officials and staff members. There are a variety of specialists in the field of medical applications as, nuclear chemistry, nuclear engineering, radiation protection, medical physics, radiation physics and others. Among the human resource in the country must make up the majority are medical radiologists, highlighting gaps in the number of radiotherapy and nuclear medicine but specially in the medical physics, who is in some way from a special viewpoint of the formal school, new to the country. This is true for the number of facilities which are in the country. The radiation protection responsibilities in medical applications focus primarily on two figures: the radiology safety manager, who is primarily dedicated to the protection of occupationally exposed personnel and the public, and the medical physicist whose functions are geared towards the radiological protection of the patient. The principal legislation in the medical applications area has been enacted and is monitored by the Health Secretary and National Commission on Nuclear Safety and Safeguards, entities that have reached agreements to avoid overlap and over-regulation. Medical applications in the country wish to fulfill the commitment to meet the current needs in medicine, with a favorable balance of benefits and achieving excellence in harnessing of the atom energy. (Author)

205

Operational radiation protection: A guide to optimization  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The purpose of this publication is to provide practical guidance on the application of the dose limitation system contained in the Basic Safety Standards for Radiation Protection to operational situations both in large nuclear installations and in much smaller facilities. It is anticipated that this Guide will be useful to both the management and radiation protection staff of operations in which there is a potential for occupational radiation exposures and to the competent authorities with responsibilities for providing a programme of regulatory control. Contents: Dose limitation system; Optimization and its practical application to operational radiation protection; Major elements of an effective operational radiation protection programme; Review of selected parts of the basic safety standards with special reference to operational radiation protection; Optimization of radiation protection; Techniques for the systematic appraisal of operational radiation protection programmes. Refs and figs

206

General rules for radiation protection within the CEA  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report first describes the organisation, scope of application and principles of radiation protection within the CEA. The second part proposes an overview of rules applicable to workers exposed to ionizing radiation. These rules concern the personnel classification, exposure limits, individual control, and training of workers in radiation protection. The third part addresses the technical rules for premise laying-out: protection zoning, indicators aimed at controlling the compliance of premise classification, radiological survey and control of premise classification. The fourth part addresses the modalities of access, stay and operation in regulated zone. The next part indicates and comments arrangements specific to ionizing radiation sources and to ionizing radiation emitting equipment (authorization and possession modalities, training, certification, controls, operation zoning, etc.), specific orders (radiological control of wastes, hardware, tools and equipment management), rules related to abnormal occupational situations (alarms, contamination event, radiological events), and the different studies and analysis of radiation protection implemented during the different phases of an installation lifetime

207

An introduction to radiation protection principles  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The purpose of the document is to outline the fundamentals of radiation protection, to describe methods that enable employees to work safely with radiation and to aquaint employees with CRNL's radiation and industrial safety organization

208

Radiation protection research in the Department of Radiation Safety and R R JINR  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A survey and results of the radiation protection research in the Department of radiation safety, JINR for the 1979-1989 decade are presented. The characteristics of JINR basic nuclear installations as radiation sources and radiation environmental situation near them are discussed. Neutron fluence and dose energy distributions are presented. Methodical and instrumentational progress is illustrated in measurement of radiation fields dosimetric parameters. 59 refs.; 4 figs.; 1 tab

209

The development of radiation protection in Hungary  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This book contains the short history, development and present status of radiation protection and health physics in Hungary. The first chapter discusses the radiation protection standards and practices used in scientific, technical and medical radiology in this country, with their development history. The next chapter is devoted to the radiation protection techniques applied for medical uses of radioisotopes and accelerators including the organizational and management problems. The last chapter presents a review on radiation protection and health physics aspects of the Hungarian industry and agriculture, on radiation protection research and management, on instruments and dosimeters. A national bibliography on the subject up to 1979 is included. (Sz.J.)

210

Radiation protection -Radiological safety and control-  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report describes the annual results of radiological safety and control program of 1996. This program consists of working area monitoring including HANARO, personnel radiation monitoring, education for radiation protection calibration of the radiation monitoring instruments. As a result, the objectives of radiation protection have been achieved satisfactorily through the activities mentioned above. Also, the calibration services were provided to insure accurate radiation measurement in the radiation working places. (author). 41 tabs., 14 figs., 5 refs

211

[Radiation protection in radiation oncology. Yesterday, today, and tomorrow].  

Science.gov (United States)

Publications about radiation protection issues are not very frequent in the 100-year-old history of Strahlentherapie und Onkologie. While at the beginning of the last century the problems of radiation protection were determined by the technical development of radiation therapy, the importance of radiation protection measures and knowledge about radiation protection by the persons involved has clearly increased. A new challenge is treating patients according to radiation safety issues to avoid the risk of stochastic late effects, such as radiation-induced secondary tumors. PMID:22907582

Herrmann, Th; Müller, R

2012-11-01

212

SSDL for radiation protection of Thailand  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In Thailand, the Atomic Energy for Peace Act was enacted by the King in 1961, and Office of Atomic Energy for Peace was established to serve as the secretariat of the Atomic Energy for Peace Commission of Thailand. The import and export of radioactive materials, and the owners and users of radioactive materials must be licensed by the OAEP. The program for establishing the SSDL to calibrate radiation protection instruments started in 1981, and was completed in 1990. The calibration of survey meters and direct reading personnel dosimeters has been provided since 1986. The average number of the devices calibrated by the SSDL per month is shown. The categories of radiation utilization in Thailand are nucleonic gauging and control, nondestructive testing, oil and coal logging, radiation technology and research. The capability of the SSDL and the calibrated radiation measuring instruments for respective categories of utilization are reported. The number of the instruments used for radiography was 217, followed by 171 for nucleonic gauging and control. With the increasing use of radioactive materials, the work of radiation safety must be improved. Together with the license authority, the SSDL must expand its activity to assure the safe handling of radiation sources. (K.I.)

213

Radiation protection, dosimetry and archaeometry  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The activities performed by the radiation protection, dosimetry and archeometry group of the Atomic Institute of the Austrian Universities during 1999-2001 are briefly described, they include: internal radiation protection (a pilot project based on select x-ray diagnostics investigations where the surface dose was measured and compared against the EU standards), dose rates for patients and personnel during radiological check up, environmental monitoring. In the field of dosimetry, a new dosimeter material (CaF2:Tm was investigated), an active and a passive Bonner-Kugel-spectrometer to measure the neutron spectrum and their dose at high altitudes was built. In the project phantom during 600 days the energy distribution and equivalent dose in a human phantom was measured. Dosimetry and spectrometry (neutrons) on high mountains and airplanes were performed. Earlier cells apoptosis after irradiation with 60Co gamma radiation and neutrons was investigated and age estimation was performed on samples from middle Neolithic period, Bronze age an Roman empire. (nevyjel)

214

Radiation protection in radioiodine therapy  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Clinic of Nuclear Medicine and Endocrinology of the Motol City Hospital has had continuous tradition of I-131 treatment for almost 50 years. Nowadays the therapeutic part of the Clinic focuses on differentiated follicular and papillary thyroid cancers, rarely neuroendocrine tumors (neuroblastoma, pheochromocytoma, etc.). There is absolute necessity to comply with the rules of radiation protection which is especially important in the case when high activities are administered. This affects not only personnel but also other visitors (maintenance engineers, students, inspectors of the regulatory authorities). Radioiodine laboratory employees, who process and administer 131 1 are the most exposed group with the possibly highest radiation exposure. The investigation reference level for extemal exposure has been set 1 mSv , while the intervention level 20 mSv .During the last ten years, when the clinic has been located in the new building of Motol Hospital, the intervention level had not been reached, investigation level had been exceeded mostly by workers from the referred most exposed group by maximally 20 %. The extemal exposure of radioiodine laboratory workers is minimized by personal protective equipment and by using a special PC controlled pi petting device for preparing 1311 treatment activities. Every exposed ward worker undergoes according to official directives (Section 77 paragraph 6 of Regulation No. 307 /2002 Coll. implementing the Reg. No. 499/2005 Coll. and SUJB Requirements for thyroid radioiodine therapy) regular measuring of possible thyroid contamination. The investigation reference level of internal contamination is set to 1 kBq, the intervention level is 3 kBq. The investigation level was exceeded several times in the period from 1998. The intervention level was exceeded once (3,2 kBq) and concerned nurse was sent to the National Radiation Protection Institute (SURO). The committed effective dose was in this case determined to be E(50)=0.64 mSv. (authors)

215

Radiation Worker Protection by Exposure Scheduling  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The discovery of the protective adaptive response of cells to a low dose of radiation suggests applications to radiation worker/first responder protection. Its use in cancer radiotherapy has been discussed in a separate publication. This paper describes simple changes in scheduling that can make use of these beneficial adaptive effects for protection. No increase in total exposure is necessary, only a simple change in the timing of radiation exposure. A low dose of radiation at a sufficient d...

Blankenbecler, Richard

2011-01-01

216

Operational radiation protection in high-energy physics accelerators.  

Science.gov (United States)

An overview of operational radiation protection (RP) policies and practices at high-energy electron and proton accelerators used for physics research is presented. The different radiation fields and hazards typical of these facilities are described, as well as access control and radiation control systems. The implementation of an operational RP programme is illustrated, covering area and personnel classification and monitoring, radiation surveys, radiological environmental protection, management of induced radioactivity, radiological work planning and control, management of radioactive materials and wastes, facility dismantling and decommissioning, instrumentation and training. PMID:19812129

Rokni, S H; Fassò, A; Liu, J C

2009-11-01

217

Operational Radiation Protection in High-Energy Physics Accelerators  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An overview of operational radiation protection (RP) policies and practices at high-energy electron and proton accelerators used for physics research is presented. The different radiation fields and hazards typical of these facilities are described, as well as access control and radiation control systems. The implementation of an operational RP programme is illustrated, covering area and personnel classification and monitoring, radiation surveys, radiological environmental protection, management of induced radioactivity, radiological work planning and control, management of radioactive materials and wastes, facility dismantling and decommissioning, instrumentation and training.

218

Distributed radiation protection console system  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Radiation exposure control is one of the most important aspects in any nuclear facility . It encompasses continuous monitoring of the various areas of the facility to detect any increase in the radiation level and/or the air activity level beyond preset limits and alarm the O and M personnel working in these areas. Detection and measurement of radiation level and the air activity level is carried out by a number of monitors installed in the areas. These monitors include Area Gamma Monitors, Continuous Air Monitors, Pu-In-Air Monitors, Criticality Monitors etc. Traditionally, these measurements are displayed and recorded on a Central Radiation Protection Console(CRPC), which is located in the central control room of the facility. This methodology suffers from the shortcoming that any worker required to enter a work area will have to inquire about the radiation status of the area either from the CRPC or will get to know the same directly from the installed only after entering the area. This shortcoming can lead to avoidable delays in attending to the work or to unwanted exposure. The authors have designed and developed a system called Distributed Radiation Protection Console (DRPC) to overcome this shortcoming. A DRPC is a console which is located outside the entrance of a given area and displays the radiation status of the area. It presents to health physicist and the plant operators a graphic over-view of the radiation and air activity levels in the particular area of the plant. It also provides audio visual annunciation of the alarm status. Each radioactive area in a nuclear facility will have its own DRPC, which will receive as its inputs the analog and digital signals from radiation monitoring instruments installed in the area and would not only show those readings on its video graphic screen but will also provide warning messages and instructions to the personnel entering the active areas. The various DRPCs can be integrated into a Local Area Network, where the host computer can receive and process the data from all the DRPCs to form an alternative or additional Central Radiation Protection Console. The DRPC is essentially a small Computerized Data Acquisition System(CDAS) built around a panel PC. The panel PC serves as the host while an I/O system comprising a processor and I/O modules serves as the slave data acquisition system. The panel is a LCD Video monitor, which serves as the Graphical User Interface. The application software is developed on a Visual Basic 6.0 and MS Windows platform. The DRPC also includes a relay based alarm annunciation system, which provides redundancy to ensure availability of alarm status in the event of non-availability of the CDAS. (author)

219

Radiation protection in dental radiography  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In considering the special provisions required in dental radiography, investigations were conducted in Iran. Radiation dose levels in dental radiography were found to be high. Patient exposure from intraoral radiographic examination was calculated, using 50kV X-ray. Thermoluminescent dosimeters were fastened to the nasion, eyes, lip, philtrum, thyroid, gonads and to the right and left of the supra-orbital, infra-orbital temporomandibular joints of live patients. The highest exposure value was for the lower lip. Recommendations concerning educational training and protection of staff and patients were included

220

Reactors and radiation protection physics  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The basic problems of nuclear power subject to the immediate solution are discussed. A special status is held by neutron-physical models and calculations of nuclear reactors. The fundamental problem is put - to process on a modern level all saved up information creating databases of descriptions and models of all executed experiments with their errors. One of the important scientific and technical tasks when developing new nuclear power installations is the creation of reliable radiation protection. Highly effective materials with increased thermal and radiation stability are created. They include materials produced on the basis of titanium and zirconium hydrides and also a polymeric material of lowered combustibility on the basis of polyethylene with boron

 
 
 
 
221

Radiation protection - an overview of the concept for radiation protection at work and the concept for environmental radiation protection  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This book gives an overview of the entire field of radiation protection with the subject areas radioactivity, X-rays, UV radiation, laser beams and high-frequency electromagnetic fields. It deals graphically with the most important physical notions, the incidence, origin, properties and biological effects of types of radiation, administrative and practical protection measures and the code of rules governing them. Apart from fundamentals of radiation protection the emphasis on the following: natural radiation exposure, radiation exposure to radon, disaster relief plans in the environment of nuclear plant, the precautionary radiation protection system evolved after Chernobyl, radiation exposure through UV radiation devices, radio, RF communication, radar, microwave ovens and high-voltage transmission lines as well as computer work-places. (orig.)

222

Radiation protection of non-human species  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The effects of radiation on non-human species, both animals and plants, have long been investigated. In the disposal of radioactive wastes, the protection of non-human species has been investigated. Yet no radiation protection standard for exposure of animals and plants per se has been agreed. The International Commission on Radiological Protection has long taken the view that, if human beings are properly protected from radiation, other species will thereby be protected to the extent necessary for their preservation. However, the International Atomic Energy Agency has found it necessary to investigate the protection of non-human species where radioactivity is released to an environment unpopulated by human beings. It is proposed that the basis of such protection, and the knowledge of radiation effects on non-human species on which it is based, suggest a practical radiation protection standard for non-human species. (1 tab.)

223

Radiation protection planning and management during revision  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

During the operation of nuclear power plants it is normally possible for the in-house personnel to take care of arising radiation protection problems. However, in the comparatively short revision phases, the duties of radiation protection become much more varied. Additional trained radiation protection crews are needed at short notice. This is also the time in which the largest contributions are made to the annual cumulated doses of the personnel. Recent guidelines and rules trying to reduce the radiation exposure of personnel concentrate on this very point. The article outlines the radiation protection activities performed by the service personnel in the course of a steam generator check. (orig.)

224

Evolution of the radiation protection system  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The evolution of the system of radiological protection: justification for new ICRP recommendations, thoughts of the SFRP work group about the evolution of the system of radiation protection proposed by the ICRP, protection of environment against ionizing radiations seen by the ICRP are the three parts of this chapter. (N.C.)

225

The radiation protection officer in medicine and engineering  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Subjects: Function and tasks of the radiation protection officers; Behaviour in radiation protection areas; Radiation protection in practice; Staff training and motivation; Measuring equipment; Radiation protection plans - structural, apparative and staff-related; Explanations of radiation protection legislation. This practical guide makes the many requirements on radiation protection easier and more transparent. (orig.)

226

XXVII. Days of Radiation Protection. Conference Proceedings  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The publication has been set up as a proceedings of the conference dealing with health protection during work with ionizing radiation for different activities which involve the handling of ionizing radiation sources. The main conference topics are focused on current problems in radiation protection and radioecology. In this proceedings totally 83 papers are published

227

XXX. Days of Radiation Protection. Presentations of the 30-th Days of Radiation Protection  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The publication was presented only on the Internet as proceedings of presentations presented on the conference dealing with health protection during work with ionizing radiation for different activities which involve the handling of ionizing radiation sources. The main conference topics are focused on current problems in radiation protection and radioecology. In this proceedings totally 97 presentations are published. The Conference consists of the following sections: Effects of ionizing radiation; Regulation of radiation protection; Dosimetry and Metrology of ionizing radiation; Radiation protection in nuclear Power plants; Medical exposure and radiation protection in diagnostic radiology, nuclear medicine and radiation oncology; Natural radioactivity issues in radiation protection; Education, societal aspects and public involvement in radiation protection, trends and perspectives

228

Occupational radiation protection legislation in Israel  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Various governmental agencies, including the Ministry of Health, the Ministry of Labor and the Israel AEC are responsible for the control of the use of radioactive materials and medical X-ray machines in Israel. Present legislation deals mainly with the legal aspects of the purchase, transport and possession of radioactive materials and the purchase and operation of medical X-ray machines. No legislation refers explicitly to the protection of the worker from ionizing (and non-ionizing) radiation. A special group of experts appointed by the Minister of Labor recently worked out a comprehensive draft law concerning all legal aspects of occupational radiation protection in Israel. Among the main chapters of the draft are: general radiation protection principles, national radiation protection standards, medical supervision of radiation workers, personal monitoring requirements. The present situation with regard to radiation hazard control in Israel and details of the proposed radiation protection law is discussed. (Author)

229

Medical Ethics and Protection from Excessive Radiation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Among artificial sources of ionic radiation people are most often exposed to those emanating from X-ray diagnostic equipment. However, responsible usage of X-ray diagnostic methods may considerably reduce the general exposure to radiation. A research on rational access to X-ray diagnostic methods conducted at the X-ray Cabinet of the Tresnjevka Health Center was followed by a control survey eight years later of the rational methods applied, which showed that the number of unnecessary diagnostic examining was reduced for 34 % and the diagnostic indications were 10-40 $ more precise. The results therefore proved that radiation problems were reduced accordingly. The measures applied consisted of additional training organized for health care workers and a better education of the population. The basic element was then the awareness of both health care workers and the patients that excessive radiation should be avoided. The condition for achieving this lies in the moral responsibility of protecting the patients' health. A radiologist, being the person that promotes and carries out this moral responsibility, should organize and hold continual additional training of medical doctors, as well as education for the patients, and apply modern equipment. The basis of such an approach should be established by implementing medical ethics at all medical schools and faculties, together with the promotion of a wider intellectual and moral integrity of each medical doctor. (author)

230

From radiation protection to information control over radiation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The article deals with new Law on Preventive Radiation Protection of 1986. According to section 6 I No. 3 only the Federal Ministry of Environment is competent to evaluate radiation and to inform about standards. The authors assess the order of minimization, procedures of calculating, the monopoly of the Radiation Protection Commission, and questions of liability. (CW)

231

Radiation protection in the Brazilian universities  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A research covering 91 institutions was undertaken in order to elucidate how radiation protection were indeed fulfilled. A questionary including technical administrative and legal subjects was sent by mail and 36% of which were answered propitiating substantial data for analysis. Only in few cases universities have knowledge of basic procedures in radiation protection, claiming for the elaboration of a plan that could guide supervisors and workers in radiation protection in these institution. Based on the tree analysis technique proposed by IAEA, a Reference Radiation protection Program has been elaborated and proposed for Brazilian universities. (author). 14 refs, 1 figs

232

Nevada Test Site Radiation Protection Program  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Title 10 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) 835, 'Occupational Radiation Protection', establishes radiation protection standards, limits, and program requirements for protecting individuals from ionizing radiation resulting from the conduct of U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) activities. 10 CFR 835.101(a) mandates that DOE activities be conducted in compliance with a documented Radiation Protection Program (RPP) as approved by DOE. This document promulgates the RPP for the Nevada Test Site (NTS), related (onsite or offsite) DOE National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO) operations, and environmental restoration offsite projects.

Radiological Control Managers' Council, Nevada Test Site

2007-08-09

233

Radiation protection activities and status in Asia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The status of radiation protection practices in Asian countries is monitored by different means, e.g. the IAEA technical cooperation activities, by an overall assessment of conditions in a country by RAPAT missions, and on the basis of data collected through various regional activities. The radiation protection situation in Asia is very heterogeneous. There is a group of countries with very well developed radiation protection practices and advanced in the application of the Basic Safety Standards, but the majority of Asian member states still need improvement, several lacking the necessary fundamental infrastructure for radiation protection

234

New general radiation protection training course  

CERN Multimedia

Some members of CERN personnel, users included, may have to work in supervised or controlled radiation areas, or may be concerned with activities involving the use of radioactive sources. According to CERN Safety rules all persons whose work may encounter ionising radiation risk must be adequately trained. This training must ensure that workers are informed about the potential health risks which could result from radiation exposure, about the basic principles of radiation protection and of the relevant radiation protection regulations as well as about safe working methods and techniques in radiation zones. Therefore the Organization organises mandatory general and work-specific radiation protection (RP) courses addressed to its personnel. These courses are also open to contractors’ personnel, in addition to the RP training they must receive from their employers. Based on the results of a pilot project, an improved general radiation protection course has been prepared. This...

2008-01-01

235

New general radiation protection training course  

CERN Document Server

Some members of CERN personnel, including users, may have to work in supervised or controlled radiation areas, or may be involved in activities involving the use of radioactive sources. According to CERN Safety Rules all persons whose work may be associated with ionising radiation risk must be adequately trained. This training must ensure that workers are informed about the potential health risks which could result from radiation exposure, the basic principles of radiation protection and the relevant radiation protection regulations as well as safe working methods and techniques in radiation zones. Therefore the Organization organises mandatory general and work-specific radiation protection (RP) courses for its personnel. These courses are also open to contractors’ personnel, in addition to the RP training they must receive from their employers. Based on the results of a pilot project, an improved general radiation protection course has been prepared. This new ½ day cours...

2008-01-01

236

Computer applications in radiation protection  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Computer applications in general and diagnostic radiology in particular are becoming more widespread. Their application to the field of radiation protection in medical imaging, including quality control initiatives, is similarly becoming more widespread. Advances in computer technology have enabled departments of diagnostic radiology to have access to powerful yet affordable personal computers. The application of databases, expert systems and computer-based learning is under way. The executive information systems for the management of dose and QA data that are under way at IRS are discussed. An important consideration in developing these pragmatic software tools has been the range of computer literacy within the end user group. Using interfaces have been specifically designed to reflect the requirements of many end users who will have little or no computer knowledge. (Author)

237

Basic principles of radiation protection in Canada  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The major goal of radiation protection in Canada is to ensure that individuals are adequately protected against the harm that might arise from unwarranted exposure to ionizing radiation. This report deals with the basic principles and organizations involved in protection against ionizing radiation. Three basic principles of radiation protection are: 1) that no practice shall be adopted unless its introduction produces a positive net benefit for society, 2) that all exposures shall be kept as low as reasonably achievable, relevant economic and social factors being taken into account, and 3) that doses to individuals should not exceed specified annual limits. The limit for radiation workers is currently 50 mSv per year, and exposures of the general public should not exceed a small fraction of that of radiation workers. Other specific areas in radiation protection which have received considerable attention in Canada include limitations on collective dose (the sum of the individual doses for all exposed individuals), exemption rules for extremely small radiation doses or amounts of radioactive materials, occupational hazards in uranium mining, and special rules for protection of the foetus in pregnant female radiation workers. Implementation of radiation protection principles in Canada devolves upon the Atomic Energy Control Board, the Department of National Health and Welfare, provincial authorities, licensees and radiation workers. A brief description is given of the roles of each of these groups

238

Radiation Protection Group annual report (1997)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Annual Report of the Radiation Protection Group is intended to inform the Host State Authorities, as well as the CERN Management and staff, about the radiological situation at CERN during the year 1997. The structure of the present report follows that of previous years and has five sections. It presents the results of environmental radiation monitoring, gives information about the radiation control on the sites of the Organization, describes the radiation protection activities around the CERN accelerators, reports on personnel dosimetry, calibration and instrumentation, and briefly comments on the non-routine activities of the Radiation Protection Group

239

Radiation Protection Group annual report (1995)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Annual Report of the Radiation Protection Group is intended to inform the Host State Authorities, as well as the CERN Management and staff, about the radiological situation at CERN during the year 1995. The structure of the present report follows that of previous years and has five sections. It presents the results of environmental radiation monitoring, gives information about the radiation control on the sites of the Organization, describes the radiation protection activities around the CERN accelerators, reports on personnel dosimetry, calibration and instrumentation, and briefly comments on the non-routine activities of the Radiation Protection Group

240

Radiation Protection Group annual report (1998)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Annual Report of the Radiation Protection Group is intended to inform the Host State Authorities, as well as the CERN Management and staff, about the radiological situation at CERN during the year 1998. The structure of the present report follows that of previous years and has five sections. It presents the results of environmental radiation monitoring, gives information about the radiation control on the sites of the Organization, describes the radiation protection activities around the CERN accelerators, reports on personnel dosimetry, calibration and instrumentation, and briefly comments on the non-routine activities of the Radiation Protection Group

 
 
 
 
241

Radiation Protection Group annual report (1996)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Annual Report of the Radiation Protection Group is intended to inform the Host State Authorities, as well as the CERN Management and staff, about the radiological situation at CERN during the year 1996. The structure of the present report follows that of previous years and has five sections. It presents the results of environmental radiation monitoring, gives information about the radiation control on the sites of the Organization, describes the radiation protection activities around the CERN accelerators, reports on personnel dosimetry, calibration and instrumentation, and briefly comments on the non-routine activities of the Radiation Protection Group

242

Principles of radiation protection in medical thinking  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The authors consider the issue of principles of radiation protection in medicine as being of great interest for the following reasons: health care practitioners exposed to ionizing radiation represent 75% of all world-wide radiation exposed workers; they are also the ones who, by their radiological practice lead to medical exposure of the population (which represents the largest part among artificial exposure to ionizing radiation of the public - about 11%); the superior medical staff are the advisors and prescribers for radiological investigations and treatments. The authors' experience shows that training in radiation protection system is weak, leading sometimes to abusive use of ionizing radiation in both diagnostic and treatment. Medical staff's perception on the importance and role of radiation protection principles is sometimes distorted by unskilled backgrounds in the field. There are recommendations and regulations on radiation protection principles in the relevant legislation, but there are situations in which they are formally considered, or they are regarded as an obligation and not as a form of personal and patient protection. At a national level, the expansion of informing the public about the principles of radiation protection and its role is required by introducing a corresponding training since elementary school. A beneficial aspect that has developed recently is the introduction of radiation protection courses within university and postgraduate training. They are important for a correct and updated training on the principles of radiation protection, a field in which there are permanent updates and changes, and new concepts are set, such as the 'culture of radiation protection'. Medical thinking and medical research have had a contribution on developing and upgrading the radiation protection principles. (authors)

243

Radiation protection. 2. rev. ed.  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This direction specifies how to perform the Radiation Protection Ordinance-StrlSchV of October 13th, 1976 with respect to the state of science and technique in the field of medicine. In order to answer to the special organizing conditions in hospitals and doctor's consulting rooms this direction is disposed as follows: 1) Handling with unsealed radioactive material for diagnostic and therapy purposes in the field of nuclear medicine. 2) Handling with sealed radioactive material for interstitial and intra-cavitary therapy as well as for contact therapy and implantation. 3) Operation of plants for ionizing radiation production in radiotherapy (electron accelerators and other accelerators used in medicine. 4) Handling with sealed radioactive material in irradiation devices with radioactive sources for radiotherapy. This direction also concerns the handling with unsealed radioactive material in laboratory diagnostic including clinical chemistry for detecting and quantifying human disease as far as diagnostic at patients is effected (in-vivo-diagnostic). It also concerns the planning of devices considered for the above mentioned handling or operation, respectively. (orig./HP)

244

Biological research for radiation protection  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The work scope of Biological research for the radiation protection had contained the search of biological microanalytic methods for assessing the health effect by ?-radiation and toxic agents, the standardization of human T-lymphocyte cell culture and polymerase chain reaction, T-cell clonal assay, and the quantification of mutation frequency in the hypoxanthine (guanine) phosphoribosyl transferase (HPRT) gene locus by single exposure or combined exposure. Especially, the polymerase chain reaction methods using reverse transcriptase has been developed to analyze the mutant gene induced by ?-radiation and chemical (pentachlorophenol) agent exposure, and to investigate the point mutations in the HPRT gene locus of T-lymphocytes. The HPRT T-cell clonal assay revealed that it could not differentiate ?-irradiation from pentachlorophenol, because the frequency of somatic mutations induced by both damaging agents increased in a dose-dependent manner. The analysis of DNA sequence alterations of HPRT mutant clones clearly showed that both damaging agents induced different mutational spectra in the HPRT locus of T-cells. The large deletions, which account for 75 percent of the analyzed mutants, are characteristic mutations induced by ?-irradiation. By contrast, point mutations such as base substitutions and insertion, come up to 97 percent in the case of pentachlorophenol-treated cells. The point mutation frequencies at 190 base pair and 444 base pair positions are 3-6 folds as high as in those at other mutation positions. It may be that these mutation sites are hot spots induced by pentachlorophenol. These results suggest that the HPRT mutation spectrum can be used as a potential bio marker for assessing a specific environmental risk. (author)

245

Biological research for radiation protection  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The work scope of Biological research for the radiation protection had contained the search of biological microanalytic methods for assessing the health effect by {gamma}-radiation and toxic agents, the standardization of human T-lymphocyte cell culture and polymerase chain reaction, T-cell clonal assay, and the quantification of mutation frequency in the hypoxanthine (guanine) phosphoribosyl transferase (HPRT) gene locus by single exposure or combined exposure. Especially, the polymerase chain reaction methods using reverse transcriptase has been developed to analyze the mutant gene induced by {gamma}-radiation and chemical (pentachlorophenol) agent exposure, and to investigate the point mutations in the HPRT gene locus of T-lymphocytes. The HPRT T-cell clonal assay revealed that it could not differentiate {gamma}-irradiation from pentachlorophenol, because the frequency of somatic mutations induced by both damaging agents increased in a dose-dependent manner. The analysis of DNA sequence alterations of HPRT mutant clones clearly showed that both damaging agents induced different mutational spectra in the HPRT locus of T-cells. The large deletions, which account for 75 percent of the analyzed mutants, are characteristic mutations induced by {gamma}-irradiation. By contrast, point mutations such as base substitutions and insertion, come up to 97 percent in the case of pentachlorophenol-treated cells. The point mutation frequencies at 190 base pair and 444 base pair positions are 3-6 folds as high as in those at other mutation positions. It may be that these mutation sites are hot spots induced by pentachlorophenol. These results suggest that the HPRT mutation spectrum can be used as a potential bio marker for assessing a specific environmental risk. (author)

Kim, In Gyu; Kim, Kug Chan; Shim, Hae Won; Oh, Tae Jeong; Park, Seon Young; Lee, Kang Suk

2000-04-01

246

New Croatian Act on Ionizing Radiation Protection  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

According to the new Croatian Act on ionizing radiation protection which is in a final stage of genesis, Ministry of Health of the Republic of Croatia is the governmental body responsible for all aspects relating sources of ionizing radiation in Croatia: practices, licenses, users, transport, in medicine and industry as well, workers with sources of ionizing radiation, emergency preparedness in radiological accidents, storage of radioactive wastes, x-ray machines and other machines producing ionizing radiation and radioactive materials in the environment. Ministry of Health is responsible to the Government of the Republic of Croatia, closely collaborating with the Croatian Radiation Protection Institute, health institution for the performance of scientific and investigation activities in the field of radiation protection. Ministry of Health is also working together with the Croatian Institute for the Occupational Health. More emphasis has been laid on recent discussion among the world leading radiation protection experts on justification of the last recommendations of the ICRP 60 publication. (author)

247

Radiation protection enrollments and degrees, 1979 and 1980  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A compilation of data from the ninth and tenth annual surveys of radiation protection enrollments and degrees is presented. These surveys were completed for the 1978-79 and 1979-80 academic years. Each year the survey is sent to institutions offering degrees in radiation protection and in other closely related fields (health physics, radiation health, radiological physics, radiobiology, and similar programs) whose graduates would be prepared to conduct, coordinate, direct, or plan a program for the evaluation and control of radiation hazards in various settings. The number of institutions that are surveyed changes from year to year as new programs are identified and other programs are discontinued. The 1979 survey revealed four institutions with inactive programs and one institution whose program was closed; however, this program was reopened in 1980. The 1980 survey revealed only three institutions with inactive programs (two of which were inactive in 1979). Appendix B-1 lists the addresses of institutions with active programs reported in the 1980 survey. Appendix B-2 lists the institutions with inactive and discontinued programs in 1979 and 1980

248

Radiation protection and environment protection research and applications  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The recognition by society of the radiation associated risks is commonly conditioned by the fair gain that everybody can get by using nuclear technologies and/or radioactive materials. As far as nuclear technologies penetrated areas vital for the development of human civilization, such as energy or health, the issue of protecting people and environment became more and more meaningful. The research performed and the experience acquired to date brought up the materialization of a general radiation protection precept, whose principles and rules are applied by all users of radioactive materials or radiation facilities, regardless of the type of radiation or activity. The success in operating a nuclear facility depends on several factors, among which an important one is the settlement and maintenance of efficient radiation protective measures. In this respect, the INR approached two primary objectives: ensuring the radiation and environment protection for its own nuclear facilities, and sustaining an R and D program destined to increase proficiency in human and environment protection against radiation-associated risks. To achieve these two goals the INR created a department endowed with appropriate personnel and assets. This is the Laboratory for Radiation, Environment and Civil Protection

249

Radiation protection in radio-oncology. Yesterday, today, tomorrow  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Shortly after the discovery of ionizing radiation the damage potential of this new radiation was observed besides obvious positive effects. The contribution reviews the historical development of radiation protection, covering the following issues: the history of the practical radiation protection in radiotherapy; the development of radiation protection legislation; radiation protection in Germany - from reaction to action; publications with radiation protection relevant content in the journal radiotherapy; radiation protection in today's radio-oncology.

250

Summary of radiation protection in exploitation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This document proposes a large and detailed overview of notions and practices regarding radiation protection in relationship with an NPP exploitation framework. It presents the main notions: matter structure, radioactivity, interactions between matter and radiations, types of ionizing radiation, magnitudes and measurement units, exposure modes, main principles of radiation protection, means of protection against internal and external exposures. The second part proposes an overview of the origin of radiological risks in a nuclear power plant. This origin can be found in fission products, activation products, actinides, designed protections, or circuit contaminations. These radiological risks are more precisely identified and described in terms of detection and prevention (internal exposure risk, contamination risk, iodine-related risk, alpha radiation-related risk, access to the reactor building). The next part addresses the medical and radiological follow-up of exposed workers by a special medical control, by an individual exposure control, by a specific control of female personnel, and by attention to exceptional exposures. Measurement means are presented (detection principles, installation continuous control, workspaces control, personnel contamination control, follow-up of individual dose) as well as collective and individual protection means. The management of radiation protection is addressed through a presentation of decision and management structures for radiation protection, and of EDF objectives and ambitions in this domain. The organization of radiation protection during exploitation is described: responsibilities for radiation protection in a nuclear power station, requirements for workers, preparation of interventions in controlled zone, work execution in controlled zone, zone controls and radiological cleanness of installations. The two last chapters address issues and practices of radiation protection in the case of deconstruction or dismantling, and in the case of transportation of radioactive materials and objects. Appendices contain information of biological effects of ionizing radiations, main regulatory texts, and involved international and French bodies

251

Radiation protection laws in the Nordic countries  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Sweden has since 1988 a totally revised radiation protection law and Finland has recently enacted a new law. The legal situation of the Nordic countries in the radiation protection field is reviewed with the main emphasis on the Swedish law. (author)

252

Protection during work with ionizing radiation sources  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The publication has been set up as a textbook for training courses dealing with health protection during work with ionizing radiation, designed for supervisory staff and persons directly responsible for activities which involve the handling of ionizing radiation sources. The book consists of a preface and the following chapters: (1) Fundamentals of ionizing radiation physics; (2) Quantities and units used in ionizing radiation protection; (3) Principles of ionizing radiation dosimetry; (4) Biological effects of ionizing radiation; (5) An overview of sources of public irradiation; (6) Principles and methods of health protection against ionizing radiation; (7) Examples of technical applications of sources of ionizing radiation; (8) Personnel and working environment monitoring; (9) Documentation maintained at sites with ionizing radiation sources; (10) Methods of personnel protection against external irradiation and internal radionuclide contamination; (11) Radiation incidents and accidents; (12) Health care of personnel exposed to the ionizing radiation risk; (12) Additional radiation protection requirements in handling radioactive substances other than sealed sources; (13) Measurement and metrology. (P.A.)

253

Safety survey report EBR-II safety survey, ANL-west health protection, industrial safety and fire protection survey  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A safety survey covering the disciplines of Reactor Safety, Nuclear Criticality Safety, Health Protection and Industrial Safety and Fire Protection was conducted at the ANL-West EBR-II FEF Complex during the period January 10-18, 1972. In addition, the entire ANL-West site was surveyed for Health Protection and Industrial Safety and Fire Protection. The survey was conducted by members of the AEC Chicago Operations Office, a member of RDT-HQ and a member of the RDT-ID site office. Eighteen recommendations resulted from the survey, eleven in the area of Industrial Safety and Fire Protection, five in the area of Reactor Safety and two in the area of Nuclear Criticality Safety.

Dunbar, K.A.

1972-01-10

254

Development of post accident radiation survey instrument  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Based on the existing reactor safety study scenarios, associated source term releases and the three nuclear accidents that occurred in the past (Windscale, TMI and Chernobyl), 131I and 137Cs have been identified as the radionuclides of major concern with respect to potential dose. Rapid measurement techniques, that use indigenous instruments for assessing deposited activity during an accidental release, have been evolved to facilitate quick decisions on subsequent protective measures. However, conventional radiation survey instruments give only the gross activity/dose rate without any energy, discrimination possible. It would be more appropriate and meaningful while planning the counter-measures, if the contributions due to 131I and 137Cs can separately be measured. With this objective in mind, a novel portable radiation survey instrument has been developed for the first time in India with the additional features such as inclusion of energy discrimination. This paper reports the development of such an instrument. The instrument uses conventional PM tube along with low power hybrid circuits based miniature discriminator. The versatility of the post accident monitor has further been improved by providing five ranges of energy discrimination possible. With this instrument, it is possible to measure gross activity below and above 500 keV as well as individual discriminator widows for 131I, 137Cs and 60Co. The system has a simple analog meter display. The use of miniature electronics has ensured low power consumption while enhancing the reliability of the system. (author)

255

Regional radiation protection initiatives by Australia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Australia both through the auspices of the IAEA and from Government Aid Grants has contributed to the improvement of radiation protection throughout the Asia/Pacific region. The assistance has been in the form of training and improvement to radiation protection infrastructures. The presentation describes the objectives, scope and diversity of the radiation protection infrastructure program and the benefits to the large number of persons included in the program. An outline of the current IAEA program is also discussed together with an explanation of how the program will assist national regulators in the education of radiation workers, in hazardous operations such as industrial radiography

256

Radiation protection guidelines for space missions  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The original recommendations for radiation protection guidelines were made by the National Academy of Sciences in 1970. Since that time the US crews have become more diverse in their makeup and much has been learned about both radiation-induced cancer and other late effects. While far from adequate there is now some understanding of the risks that high-Z and -energy (HZE) particles pose. For these reasons it was time to reconsider the radiation protection guidelines for space workers. This task was undertaken recently by National Council on Radiation Protection (NCRP). 42 refs., 2 figs., 9 tabs.

Fry, R.J.M.

1987-01-01

257

Radiation protection: Measurement, modelling, documentation. Proceedings  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The focus of this conference is on the practical aspects of radiation protection and embraces a ''core business'' of radiation protection, namely: measuring, modeling, documentation, and all the activities and good professional practices in this context. The radiation protection experts and the radiation safety officers who contributed papers to this conference are ''practitioners'' in their fields. To round up the subject matter, there are papers dealing with legal aspects, elaborating on recent regulatory provisions and requirements, and papers dicsussing new approaches in designing and disseminating information to the public. (orig./CB)

258

INES rating of radiation protection related events  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this presentation, based on the draft Manual, a short review of the use of the INES rating of events concerning radiation protection is given, based on a new INES User's Manual edition. The presentation comprises a brief history of the scale development, general description of the scale and the main principles of the INES rating. Several examples of the use of the scale for radiation protection related events are mentioned. In the presentation, the term 'radiation protection related events' is used for radiation source and transport related events outside the nuclear installations. (authors)

259

Radiation protection guidelines for space missions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The original recommendations for radiation protection guidelines were made by the National Academy of Sciences in 1970. Since that time the US crews have become more diverse in their makeup and much has been learned about both radiation-induced cancer and other late effects. While far from adequate there is now some understanding of the risks that high-Z and -energy (HZE) particles pose. For these reasons it was time to reconsider the radiation protection guidelines for space workers. This task was undertaken recently by National Council on Radiation Protection (NCRP). 42 refs., 2 figs., 9 tabs

260

Radiation protection for nurses. Regulations and guidelines  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Rules and regulations of federal agencies and state radiation protection programs provide the bases for hospital policy regarding radiation safety for nurses. Nursing administrators should work with the radiation safety officer at their institutions to ensure that radiation exposures to staff nurses will be as low as reasonably achievable and that special consideration will be given to pregnant nurses. Nurses' fears about their exposure to radiation can be greatly reduced through education

 
 
 
 
261

The aims of the Federal Government in the fields of radiation protection and environmental protection  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Following a short survey on the development of radiation protection and environmental protection in the Federal Republic of Germany, the problems posed by the increasing use of nuclear energy for energy supply are outlined. The measures provided by the 4th Atomic Energy Programme in the field of radiation protection are mainly concerned with the reduction of the emission of fission products from nuclear reactors, with the development of suitable concepts for accidents, and with a comprehensive control of emission and immission. Also envisaged are general investigations for the assessment of radiation risks. Subsequent to this survey, the basic theses of the environmental programme are cited, the aims for the realization of a high standard of safety are presented, and points of main effort for the nearest future are given. (ORU/AK)

262

Preparing the radiation protection worker to meet multiple needs  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

At the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) the radiation protection worker aids in protecting personnel and their surrounding environment from the hazards of radiation. These individuals use their technical knowledge, skills, and abilities to survey and monitor various project-related activities. They must also provide guidance in project design, development, and implementation. These combined efforts assure that protective measures are taken in accordance with applicable standards. The ORNL performance-based training program enhances the skills of the worker. The program incorporates job specific information on the diverse facilities and activities monitored with basic fundamentals of radiation protection. Successful completion of this program includes passing both a qualification exam and an on-the-job skills review. This paper details the structure of such a program and explains the strategies taken to reach the program's goals. 4 refs., 2 tabs

263

Justification and optimization in radiation protection  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Two requirements of the system recommended by the ICRP for radiation protection are discussed: 1) justification of practices involving radiation exposures and 2) optimization of the level of protection for such practices. The ICRP recommended the use of cost-benefit analysis in justification and optimization. The application of cost-benefit analysis and the quantification of the radiation detriment are also discussed. (H.K.)

264

Educational system in the radiation protection  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A general characteristic of the existing university plans and programs is a partial approach to radiation protection without a unique frame on the basis of which, certain colleges could adjust their distinctive characteristics and could analyze this multidisciplinary field which is present in our contemporary lives. We must seriously take into account the consequences of our 'ignorance' towards this field. The present 'disorganized state' in the educational system concerning radiation protection, when many professions are 'fighting' for leading roles and 'exclusive rights' in applying measures for radiation protection: physicians, chemists, doctors and others, must be regulated on international and national scales by applying powerful authority of international organizations. The key to solving this problem is found in defining minimal common bases of educational plans and programs from the field of radiation protection that would be unique for all colleges that are directly or indirectly connected to this domain. The following step could be made towards organizing specialist and graduate studies at university levels for all schools that have incorporated basis for radiation protection into their plans and programs. Lastly, as special form of continuous education in the field of radiation protection , multidisciplinary basic and specialized courses should be organized internationally intended to solve specific problems of utilization of ionising radiation sources and integral radiation protection. (author)

265

AVIS-STS - a PC program for practical radiation protection  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Practical radiation protection at Siemens implies the protection of approximately 500 employees exposed to radiation. 400 radiation protection commissioners have been recording numerous data such as dose limits and radiation protection passports for employees in off-site areas. The recording of the data on radiation protection is noticeably simplified with the help of the data processing system AVIS-STS. (DG)

266

Radiation protection in a nuclear power station  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

For the personnel that is occupied with operation, monitoring, maintenance and repair work, working in a nuclear power station inevitably means spending a certain amount of time in areas exposed to radiation and handling radio-active materials. Effective radiation protection of these persons starts with the planning and designing the nuclear power station. The most important aspects of radiation protection in a nuclear power station are thorough preparation of the work, that is connected with exposure to radiation, appropriate and effective application of technical and administrative measures during the work, reliable and complete determination of the existing radiation level. The main objective in this respect is to keep the radiation level as low as possible, while using all reasonable means. This summary gives a description of radiation protection in the nuclear power plant and the experiences and results of the 10-year operation of the Gemeinschaftskernkraftwerk Neckar (GKN). (orig.)

267

Comments to the German society's for radiation protection (Gesellschaft fur Strahlenschutz) proposed principles for radiation protection  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The German Society for Radiation Protection (in German Gesellschaft fur Strahlenschutz) is a separate society for radiation protection in Germany in addition to the leading society named Association of German and Swiss Radiation Protection Specialists (in German Fachverband fur Strahlenschutz). The Society is an international professional society. There are several hundreds members of the German Society for Radiation Protection. The German Society for Radiation Protection is not a member of IRPA (the International Radiation Protection Society). The IRPA member is the Association of German and Swiss Radiation Protection Specialists. According to information given on the web site of the Society for Radiation Protection (www.gfstrahlenschutz.de) the Society was founded in 1990 because in the opinion of the founding members the older professional societies and associations have not adequately considered and implemented the present knowledge of radiation risks and radiation protection. In accordance with its statutes the society pursues besides other aims the best possible protection of humans and the environment from the detrimental action of ionising and non-ionising radiation. The dealing with ionising and non-ionising radiation can according to the Society only be justified on the basis of biological and medical state of the art knowledge

268

From regulations towards radiation protection culture  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Compliance with the technical standards and specifications is a necessary but not sufficient condition for quality in radiation protection. Reaching this quality objective is not a matter of forcing improvements by a regulatory policy of reducing dose limits, but of promoting a real radiation protection culture. The spread of such a radiological protection culture encourages the deliberate adoption in everyday practice of behaviour likely to reduce exposure to ionizing radiation as loser as reasonably achievable. The aim of this paper is to demonstrate that the need to diffuse a radiological protection culture is inspired by the philosophy behind the system recommended by ICPR Publication 60 on the management of residual radiological risk and, in particular by the behavioural and incentive approach implied by the optimization principle. Special attention will be given to the fundamentals likely to contribute in a definition of radiation protection culture. (author)

269

Environmental radiation protection. The new ICRP concept  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Protection of the environment regarding radiation protection was so far reduced to the concept: if man is protected the environment is protected well enough. This was derived from the radiosensitivity curve, according to which highly developed organisms are more sensible to radiation than less highly developed. ICRP publication 103 put this simple concept in question. Even before, ICRP set up a committee to discuss this theme. End of 2012 ICRP released a new concept of environmental protection regarding different exposure situations and brought it up for discussion in the internet. This concept is based on Reference Animals and Plants (RAPs) and analogous to the concept of the protection for man. The exposure for representative organisms regarding ionizing radiation shall be estimated and compared with Derived Consideration Reference Levels (DCRLs). If the DCRLs are reached or exceeded there is a need to react. This concept raises several questions. (orig.)

270

Importance of natural radiation sources in radiation protection  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The paper deals with the principles for inclusion of natural radiation sources into the system of radiation protection. Examples for the application of these principles are given. The approach to natural sources differs in principle from that one for artificial sources and the reasons for that are discussed. The influence of the acceptance of natural sources on previous and future regulations in radiation protection is explained. (orig.)

271

Challenges to the system of radiation protection – role and activities of the International Radiation Protection Association  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The vision of IRPA as the International Radiation Protection Association of individual radiation protection practitioners organized through national or regional societies is to be recognized by its members, stakeholders and the public as the international voice of the radiation protection profession in the enhancement of radiation protection culture and practice worldwide. It is a key challenge of IRPA to make this vision a reality.The global acceptance of radiation protection principles, in particular in the medical area, is a real challenge. Ensuring that medical procedures are justified and optimized is vital, not least for CT and hybrid imaging examinations and in pediatric medicine. There is a strong responsibility of medical physicists and radiation protection experts to ensure safe and secure application of ionizing radiation. A Technical Agreement with the IOMP (International Organization for Medical Physics) provides the way for a joint approach to enhance radiation safety in the medical field. IRPA started an initiative on Ethics in Radiation Protection and currently IRPA is working closely with ICRP on the development of guidance on Ethical Dimensions of the Radiation Protection System.To encourage and support the Associate Societies in the development of effective means of enhancing public understanding of radiation risk through the sharing of good practice, ideas and resource material, IRPA has established a Task Group on Public Understanding of Radiation Risk. The ultimate goal is to develop and promote a library of good practice activities on public understanding of radiation risk through the sharing of experience across the Associate Societies

272

Radiation Protection at Light Water Reactors  

CERN Document Server

This book is aimed at Health Physicists wishing to gain a better understanding of the principles and practices associated with a light water reactor (LWR) radiation protection program. The role of key program elements is presented in sufficient detail to assist practicing radiation protection professionals in improving and strengthening their current program. Details related to daily operation and discipline areas vital to maintaining an effective LWR radiation protection program are presented. Programmatic areas and functions important in preventing, responding to, and minimizing radiological incidents and the importance of performing effective incident evaluations and investigations are described. Elements that are integral in ensuring continuous program improvements are emphasized throughout the text.

Prince, Robert

2012-01-01

273

Improving patient radiation protection in medical practices  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A number of severe radiation protection accidents have occurred in France in recent months in radiotherapy departments, resulting in serious pathologies among the exposed patients and the death of one person. These accidents, allied to the fact that use of ionizing radiation for medical purposes is the leading source of human exposure, justify the priority the A.S.N. gives to radiation protection of patients and its supervision. This file gathers four parts in relation with radiation protection in the medical field. he first one concerns the radiation accidents and the lessons learned from them. The second part is devoted to the point of view of medical actors. The third part is in relation with the challenges of new techniques. The last part concerns the exposures and the radiation doses. (N.C.)

274

10 CFR 20.2102 - Records of radiation protection programs.  

Science.gov (United States)

... Records of radiation protection programs. 20.2102 Section 20.2102 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION STANDARDS FOR PROTECTION AGAINST RADIATION Records § 20.2102 Records of radiation protection programs....

2010-01-01

275

Radiation protection in occupational health  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The document is a training manual for physicians entering the field of occupational medicine for radiation workers. Part 1 contains the general principles for the practice of occupational health, namely health surveillance and the role of the occupational physician in the workplace, and Part 2 provides the essential facts necessary to understand the basic principles of radiation physics, radiobiology, dosimetry and radiation effects which form the basis for occupational radiation health

276

Radiation protection and the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

ICRP was founded in 1928, and within a few years it issued quantitative recommendations for the limitation of dose received by radiation workers. These served as the basis for radiation protection until 1950. During subsequent years the Commission has emphasised that unnecessary exposure should be avoided, and that all doses should be kept as low as possible (1950): practicable (1958): readily achievable (1965): reasonably achievable (1973). ICRP today sees its role as that of considering the fundamental principles upon which radiation protection measures can be based, while leaving the detailed application to national authorities. To help it perform its work, ICRP has invited a hundred or so individual experts to participate in its committee and task group activities. In addition, the Commission maintains close working relationships with a number of international and regional organisations that are concerned with radiation protection. (author)

277

Radiation protection training of radiation safety officers in Finland in 2008  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority (STUK) carried out a survey on the radiation protection training of radiation safety officers (RSO) in Finland in 2008. The aim of the survey was to obtain information on the conformity and uniformity of the training provided in different training organisations. A previous survey concerning radiation protection training was carried out in 2003. That survey determined the training needs of radiation users and radiation safety officers as well the radiation protection training included in vocational training and supplementary training. This report presents the execution and results of the survey in 2008. According to the responses, the total amount of RSO training fulfilled the requirements presented in Guide ST 1.8 in the most fields of competence. The emphasis of the RSO training differed between organisations, even for training in the same field of competence. Certain issues in Guide ST 1.8 were dealt quite superficially or even not at all in some training programmes. In some fields of competence, certain matters were entirely left to individual study. No practical training with radiation equipment or sources was included in the RSO training programme of some organisations. Practical training also varied considerably between organisations, even within the same field of competence. The duties in the use of radiation were often considered as practical training with radiation equipment and sources. Practical training from the pand sources. Practical training from the point of view of a radiation safety officer was brought up in the responses of only one organisation. The number of questions and criteria for passing RSO exams also varied between organisations. Trainers who provided RSO training for the use of radiation in health care sectors had reached a higher vocational training level and received more supplementary training in radiation protection in the previous 5 years than trainers who provided RSO training for the use of radiation in industry, research, and education and training. Those trainers who had received no supplementary training or whose supplementary training was not known were more involved in training for the industrial, research, and education and training sectors than for the health care sectors. Experiences with and feedback on Guide ST 1.8 and its applicability were also collected in this survey. The results of the survey and feedback will be used when Guide ST 1.8 is revised. (orig.)

278

Radiation protection in the hospital environment  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The hospital environment contains numerous sources of ionizing radiation that may contribute to public and occupational radiation exposure. Radiation exposure from x rays is minimized through engineering design, administrative controls, and quality control. Exposure from patients that contain therapeutic quantities is minimized by isolation in appropriately controlled private rooms. Administrative controls are relied on for controlling radiation exposure from diagnostic nuclear medicine patients. Hospital radiation installations must be planned and periodically reviewed to take advantage of the latest developments in radiation protection and to keep public and occupational exposure as low as reasonably achievable

279

Radiation exposure and protection during angiography  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The authors describe the radiological techniques during angiography examinations in their hospital. For every technique they measured the radiation exposure and dose to the staff of doctors, assistants and nurses in their standard positions in the room and the radiation dose at various points on their bodies. The results are critically discussed and alternative protection devices are analysed, since there are many difficulties concerning the employ of usual radiation protection systems. Cardiologists, above all, are given some recomandations to reduce radiation exposure without prejudicing the exam results

280

Radiation protection at reactors RA and RB  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Radiation protection activities at the RA and RB reactors are imposed by the existing legal regulations and international recommendations in this field. This annual report contains five parts which cover the following topics: Radiation safety, dosimetry control and technical radiation protection at reactors RA and RB; Handling of radioactive waste, actions and decontamination; Control of the environment (surroundings of RA and RB reactors) and meteorological measurements; Control of internal contamination and internal exposure; Health control od personnel exposed to radiation. Personnel as well as financial data are part of this report

 
 
 
 
281

Protective effects in radiation modification of elastomers  

Science.gov (United States)

Saturated character of ethylene/octene thermoplastic elastomers demands an application of nonconventional methods of crosslinking connections between chains of molecules. These are organic peroxides, usually in the presence of coagents or an application of ionizing radiation. Several approaches (radiation, peroxide, peroxide/plus radiation and radiation/plus peroxide) were applied in crosslinking of elastomere Engage 8200. Attention was directed to the protection effects by aromatic peroxides and by photo- and thermostabilizers on radiolysis of elastomers. Role of dose of radiation, dose rate of radiation as well as the role of composition of elastomere on the radiation yield of hydrogen and absorbtion of oxygen was investigated. DRS method was used to follow postirradiation degradation. Influence of crosslinking methods on properties of elastomers is described. Results were interpreted from the point of view of protective actions of aromatic compounds.

G?uszewski, Wojciech; Zagórski, Zbigniew P.; Rajkiewicz, Maria

2014-12-01

282

Uncertainties of measurements in radiation protection  

CERN Document Server

On September 1st, 2001, the Austrian standard OENORM S 5255-1 with the title 'Uncertainties of measurements and limiting values in radiation protection - Part 1: Basics' was published. A part 2 of the standard with the subtitle 'Assessment of measurements with regard to limiting values' was published on April 1st, 2002. Part 1 of the standard is a consequent application of the 'Guide to the expression of uncertainty in measurement' (GUM) for measurements in radiation protection. It contains a summary of the most important definitions and mathematical methods, which are relevant for measurements in radiation protection. An important prerequisite is the standardisation of the coverage factor k=1 for measurements in radiation protection. Finally, the use of the standard is demonstrated by a detailed example there (dose rate meter). First, the uncertainty of a dose rate meter is stated, using only information on tolerances available e.g. from instrument specifications. Additionally, the strategies to reduce the u...

Steurer, A; Gruen, K

2003-01-01

283

Radiation Protection of Children of Belarus  

International Science & Technology Center (ISTC)

Radiation Protection of Children of Belarus. Development of Recommendations on the Basis of the Research of the Effectiveness of Effects of Radioprotectors on Children from Radiocontaminated Regions of Belarus

284

Radiation protection regulatory authority in Lithuania  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The purpose of this presentation is to present the legislation system and radiation protection regulatory authority in Lithuania, its responsibilities and tasks, development, principles and priorities, experiences and etc

285

Nuclear instrumentation for radiation protection [Paper No.:N1  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Instrumentation for radiation protection surveillance should be primarily geared to generate and process a complete set of data on the radiological status in and around the nuclear installations for controlling the internal and external exposure of workers and to ensure that the dose to members of the public are kept below the mandatory limits. The paper reviews the status of development of radiation protection instruments in the national context and projects the requirements. The various category of instruments discussed in the paper cover survey instruments, installed monitors, personal monitoring devices, neutron monitors, air monitoring instruments, environmental dose logging systems and detectors. The development efforts need to be translated into regular production with proper quality assurance for meeting the growing demands of the radiation protection profession in the country. (author). 30 refs

286

The new German radiation protection ordinance 2001  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

On 1 August 2001, the new German Radiation Protection Ordinance entered into force, thereby replacing the former Ordinance of the same name (see Nuclear Law Bulletin No. 16, 18, 19, 28, 44, 52 and 59). Implementing two new Council Directives - the Euratom Basic Safety Standards and Directive 97/43/Euratom on health protection of individuals in relation to medical exposure (see Nuclear Law Bulletin No. 60), and taking into account new scientific developments, the new Ordinance provides a comprehensive basis for the protection of man and the environment. Under German law, the legal basis for radiation protection is the 1959 Atomic Energy Act (the consolidated text of this Act including amendments up to 1985 was published in the Supplement to Nuclear Law Bulletin No. 36). This Act governs the two comprehensive ordinances covering radiation protection: the 1989 Radiation Protection Ordinance and the 1987 X-ray Ordinance (see Nuclear Law Bulletin No. 39, 47 and 59). Both ordinances had to be revised in order to harmonize them with the new Euratom directives. The revision of the X-ray Ordinance is expected to be accomplished in early 2002, and only then will the implementation of the said Euratom directives be complete. To permit full implementation of the European requirements, the main legal basis for the Ordinance, the Atomic Energy Act, had to be amended. Compared to the Radiation Protection Ordinance of 1989, the new Ordinance has been completely re-structured to enhance its clarity and implementation. It is still, however, a very complex, technical piece of legislation, comprising 118 provisions and 14 annexes. As a result of this new Ordinance, a whole range of other ordinances needs to be harmonized with the new radiation protection provisions. Due to the scientific and legal complexity of the underlying questions, it took five years to revise the Ordinance. Thus, the European deadline for implementation of the directives was - as in other Member states of the European Union - not met. During the negotiating process, however, a sound basis for a comprehensive revision of the Ordinance was formed. The German Radiation Protection Commission discussed the draft Ordinance and issued two recommendations which were taken into account during drafting of the Ordinance. As Germany is a federal State, the constituencies (Laender) took part in the discussion from the very beginning. Moreover, opinions of other Federal ministries concerned had to be taken into account, and trade unions, other institutions, scientists and individuals competent in the field of radiation protection were heard. Not only scientific and technical aspects of radiation protection were taken into account but also pragmatic approaches, legal issues and the experience of the constituencies in implementing radiation protection legislation. (author)

287

3. International symposium 'Radiation protection'. Radioactively contaminated sites - environmental radioactivity  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

National and international experts lecture on their national programs for the registration and clean-up of sites contaminated by uranium mining. A survey of the situations in the USA, Canada and Germany is given. The new collimated in-situ gamma spectrometry measurement technique intended to be used for registration of contaminated surfaces is presented. Natural and artificial radioactivity as well as the radioactivity of anthropogenically changed materials are considered. The dose relevance of these radiation sources is discussed. The state of the much discussed consideration of natural radiation sources in legislation on radiation protection is presented. (DG)

288

Proposal of a survey of radiation protection procedures during breast feeding;Proposta de um levantamento do estado da arte da radioprotecao para lactantes submetidas a procedimento com radiofarmacos e respectivos bebes  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Contamination can occur by breast milk ingestion involving mothers subjected to diagnostic procedures or treatment with radiopharmaceuticals, which can reach high concentrations in milk causing significant absorbed doses to the children organs. Besides internal dose, close contact between the baby and his mother give rise to external exposures. In Brazil, 7% of diagnostic procedures use {sup 131}I or {sup 123}I for thyroid imaging and 84% of these were hold by women. For {sup 131}I, {sup 67}Ga and {sup 201}Tl, is recommended breast feeding cessation. The present work proposes a survey of the state of the art of radiation protection to breast feeding infants. It was planned interviews with nuclear medicine staff applying a questionnaire in order to assess specific procedures to women in reproductive age. This is 'on progress work'. (author)

Santos, Liliane dos; Oliveira, Silvia M. Velasques de [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Servico de Monitoracao Individual Interna

2009-07-01

289

Protection against Ionizing Radiation, No. 1420  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This publication is a compilation of national legislative and regulatory provisions on radiation protection in force on 15 November 1978. In addition to the in extenso texts on the subject, only the relevant provisions in laws and regulations with a more general scope have been reproduced. This comprehensive compilation expands and updates a previous collection by the Official Gazette of the French Republic which covered only decrees and orders on the protection of workers against the hazards of ionizing radiation. (NEA)

290

ALARA in the radiation protection training  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This part treats especially the question of the training in radiation protection. The electro nuclear sector has given an ALARA principle culture and succeeded to sensitize each level of hierarchy, but for small industry, the research and the medical world the same method appears more difficult to use. It seems better to reinforce the importance of the competent person and to include a training in radiation protection on the initial formation in numerous professional categories. (N.C.)

291

Radiation protection experience in the Kernkraftwerk Stade  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The organization of radiation protection in the Kernkraftwerk Stade having been described, the extent of work during the period of revision is portrayed. The personnel dose rates, for own as well as foreign staff members, show a static tendency with annual doses between 300 and 400 rem per man. The lecture concludes with radiation protection measures during diving activities in 1973 when the core grid was exchanged in the flooded reactor pressure vessel. (orig.)

292

Knowledge plus Attitude in Radiation Protection  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Since the introduction of the Basic Safety Standards recommendations, the scope of the radiation protection was broadening. On behalf of the incorporation of radiation protection of the patient in medical exposures, the different groups of professionals involved: physicians, medical physicists, radiation protection officers, regulators, etc., have to work together. The objective of radiation protection, that is, to reduces doses from practices, to prevent potential exposures, to detect its occurrence as well as to evaluate and spread such abnormal situations, will be obtained only if it were possible to joint two basic conditions: knowledge and attitude. It should be well known the differences between the backgrounds needed to be for example, a medical physicist or an R.P.O., However, their attitude to solve an eventual problem involving radiation protection should be the same; as well as the behavior of the specialized physician and regulators, in order to add towards common goals. In this work, we show as an example the curricula contents about radiation protection of the cancer of medical physics in the Universidad Nacional de San Martin (UNSAM), and the corresponding module on medical exposures from the Post-Graduate course on Radiation Protection and Nuclear Safety, held since the 80s in Buenos Aires by the National Commission of Atomic Energy, ARN, IAEA, and the Universidad de Buenos Aires. On the other hand, we describe different attitudes which leads or could start major radiological accidents, regardless the level of knowledge in radiation protection. We conclude that the larger numbers of accidents are due to problems in the attitude than in the level of knowledge of the person involved. Consequently; we suggest emphasizing the discussion on how to generate positive attitudes in every professional involucrated, independently of its cognitive profile or level. (Author) 2 refs

293

Radiation protection program for assistance of victims of radiation accidents  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The principles aspects of a radiological protection program for hospitals in case of medical assistance to external and internal contaminated persons are showed. It is based on the experience obtained at Centro Medico Naval Marcilio Dias during the assistance to the victims of Goiania accident in 1987. This paper describes the basic infrastructure of a nursery and the radiation protection procedures for the access control of people and materials, area and personal monitoring, decontamination and the support activities such as calibration of radiation monitors and waste management. Is is also estimated the necessary radiation protection materials and the daily quantity of waste generated. (author)

294

Radiation protection monitoring in the decontamination department  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Rebuilding work in the plants of the Decontamination Department with ongoing waste handling and processing for the Karlsruhe Nuclear Research Center (KNRC) and the Karlsruhe Reprocessing Plant necessitated intensive radiation protection monitoring also in 1977. Since 1975 the data collected with radiation protection control in this area have been compiled in special reports. These reports serve as a comprehensive documentation of the measured results in personnel dosimetry and in plant monitoring which during the rebuilding phase in the plant and to indicate the success of these efforts from the point of view of radiation protection. The documentation of radiation protection data constitutes a data base which allows quick assessment of the plant for purposes of radiation protection. While rebuilding of the liquid effluent decontamination plant (building 545) has shown the first positive effects on the doses received by the workers of the KNRC and the action staff since 1977, the limits set for the work without respiration equipment and for the contamination of floor and room air have not been reached in that plant. The considerable decrease of incorporations by the workers of the KNRC and the action staff is probably due to improved discipline in observing radiation protection measures. (orig.) 891 HP

295

Evolution of Radiation Protection System in Kenya  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

diation Protection Board, undertook to provide personal monitoring, quality assurance, radioanalysis, and equipment calibration. Over the years these services have stalled due to outdated equipment most of which have broken down. A maintenance and calibration service for nuclear equipment is an expensive cross-boarder issue. Budgetary constraints, insufficient human and equipment resources, and a perennial 'brain drain' has placed limitations to the effectiveness and efficiency of implementation of the National programmes and slowed the attainment of the objectives of the National policy on radiation protection and waste safety. The current Radiation Protection Act is limited in scope, regulatory independence and empowerment. A new draft of the revised Act was submitted to the IAEA for review and comments. The revised version is aimed, inter alia, at meeting the principal requirements of the International Basic Safety Standards and incorporating aspects of non-ionizing radiation. The revised draft is now under discussion with stakeholders for their input before enactment. Development of a sustainable national infrastructure requires years of national effort and government commitment. Over the last two years, there has been sufficient government commitment and there have been solid achievements. Kenya has placed the issue of human resource development high on her development agenda and has provided support for expanding technical staffing of the Regulatory Authority with an initial recruitment of ten (10) Radiation Protection Officers. Other factors impacting on quality, effectiveness and efficiency of radiation protection programmes, are being appropriately addressed in order to realize a fully sustainable radiation protection infrastructure. (Author)

296

The radiation protection officer in medicine and engineering  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The directory covers the duties and responsibilities of the radiation protection officer in medicine and engineering, the fundamentals of radiation protection (German radiation protection law, limiting values, fundamental physics, biological radiation effects of ionizing radiation, radon at the working place, radiation protection for neutron handling), the accomplishment of radiation protection (radiation protection in case of open radioactive source handling, application of encapsulated radioactive materials, operation of facilities generating ionizing radiation, employment in foreign facilities or institutions, technical X-ray facilities or interfering radiation, X-ray facility in medicine, quality assurance in nuclear medicine)

297

Radiation protection for industrial radiography in the aerospace industry  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Boeing Company employs 80 industrial radiographers, operates 90 radiation sources, and takes 10,000 exposures per month. This paper describes the major components of Boeing's radiation protection program: hazard analysis, facilities and equipment design, program administration, and evaluation. In the hazard analysis, each source of radiation is analyzed to determine its hazard and relationship to both man and the environment around it. Once the degree of the hazard is known, facilities and equipment are designed to contain the hazard. This can be anything from a four foot concrete shielded room for an industrial radiographic accelerator, to a piece of rope that isolates an Iridium-192 source during a field radiographic inspection on an aircraft. The administrative functions provide the necessary records, command media, and a radiation source certification program. This certification authorizes the source of radiation to be used under specific conditions agreed upon by both the Radiation Protection Organization and Industrial Radiography Management. The radiation protection program is evaluated through medical exams, personnel monitoring, and area radiation surveys. (H.K.)

298

RADIATION BIOLOGY: CONCEPTS FOR RADIATION PROTECTION  

Science.gov (United States)

ABSTRACT The opportunity to write a historical review of the field of radiation biology allows for the viewing of the development and maturity of a field of study, thereby being able to provide the appropriate context for the earlier years of research and its findings. The...

299

The new radiation protection regulation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This dossier deals with the new regulation on radiological protection resulting from a Recommendation of the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) issued in 1990. The Recommendation, as per the EURATOM Treaty, lead to a Directive prescribing that the member states of the European Union should adopt new standards for radiological protection. Following a presentation of the main principles which underlie the ICRP 'philosophy', the implementation of the reform in the European Union and in France is described and analyzed in a series of articles. Other articles on the same subject will be published later on. (author)

300

Research on radiation effect and radiation protection at JAEA  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Researches on radiation effect and radiation protection at JAEA have been carried out in different sections. In recent years, the organizations were rearranged to attain better research circumstances, and new research programs started. At present, radiation effect studies focus on radiation effect mechanisms at atomic, molecular and cellular levels including simulation studies, and protection studies focus on dosimetry for conditions difficult to cover with currently used methods and data as well as the related basic studies. The outlines of the whole studies and also some descriptions on selected subjects will be given in this paper. (author)

 
 
 
 
301

Radiation Protection Ordinance. Preventive Radiation Protection Act. 3. rev. and enlarged ed.  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This 3rd edition presents the official explanations of the legislative intent behind the Radiation Protection Ordinance of 1976 and the 2nd amending ordinance, and the commentaries which as usual refer to the legal aspects and the related medical, scientific, and technical aspects. As a consequence of the reactor accident at Chernobyl, the existing radiation protection law has been extended by the Act for Preventive Measures for Pretection of the Population Against the Hazards of Ionizing Radiation (Preventive Radiation Protection Act), establishing preventive legal provisions and measures, so that this new edition has likewise been extended by commentaries on the Protective Radiation Protection Act and an introduction to the new area of law. The material also includes the Act for Establishment of a Federal Office for Radiation Protection, of October 9, 1989, which amended the Atomic Energy Act and the Preventive Radiation Protection Act. The correction of the Radiation Protection Ordinance of October 16, 1989 (BGBl. I p. 1926) has been incorporated into the text of the amended version of the Radiation Protection Ordinance. Court decisions and literature referred to cover material published up to the first months of 1989. (orig.)

302

What are the purposes of radiation protection?  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this paper author deals with principles of radiation protection, cancer risk, lowest doses of radiation associated with cancer, the question of threshold, repair of damage, probability distribution of the risk coefficient per 1 Sv and other problems. (J.K.)

303

25 years of medical radiation protection  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This volume contains 25 conference papers dealing with the following topics: yesterday's and today's radiation research; review of and prospects for radiation protection in radiology, in the working environment and in international recommendations; fundamentals and hazards of nuclear magnetic resonance. Papers were entered separately into the data base. (HP)

304

Radiation protection: the french regulation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The French legislation concerning workmen, population and environment protection against the harm ful consequences of irradiation originated from nuclear power plant activities is presented. (A.L.S.L.)

305

Quantities and units in radiation protection dosimetry  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A new report, entitled Quantities and Units in Radiation Protection Dosimetry, has recently been published by the international Commission on Radiation Units and Measurements. That report (No. 51) aims to provide a coherent system of quantities and units for purposes of measurement and calculation in the assessment of compliance with dose limitations. The present paper provides an extended summary of that report, including references to the operational quantities needed for area and individual monitoring of external radiations. ((orig.))

306

Proceedings of the Tenth Radiation Physics and Protection Conference  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The publication has been set up as proceedings of the Radiation Physics and Protection Conference.. The conference consists Natural Radiation Sources; Radiation Detection and Measurements; Applied Radiation Physics; Radiation Medical Physics and Biophysics; Radiation Dosimetry; Operational Radiation Protection; Radiation Shielding; Transport of Radioactive Materials; Nuclear and Radiation Physics; Medical Physics and Public Protection Against Radiological Attack. This conference consists of 402 p., figs., tabs., refs.

307

The South African Forum for Radiation Protection  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The use of ionising radiation in South Africa since the turn of the century was initially limited to x-rays and radium, with predominant applications in medicine for diagnosis and therapy. Since 1948 artificial radio-isotopes have been increasingly available and such applications have been widely extended to industry, agriculture and science. Initially, the Council for Scientific and Industrial Research developed radiation protection in South Africa. It was later recommended that an independent forum, the South African Forum for Radiation Protection, be established. The activities of the Forum are described

308

Report on radiation protection in Croatia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Ministry of Health in the Republic of Croatia is in charge of radiation protection, and the new Ionizing Radiation Protection Act defines the responsibilities of the different organizations and institutions. The report explains the existing national system of notification and registration in Croatia and some of the main provisions of the above referred Act. Reference is made to the national provisions for the management of disused sources, recovery or control of orphan sources, and to the national inventory of radiation sources in the country with the data collected during 1998 and 1999. (author)

309

Radiation protection. Basic concepts of ICRP  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The title subject is easily explained. Main international organizations for radiation protection are United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR), International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) and International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). The UNSCEAR objectively summarizes and publishes scientific findings; ICRP, an NGO, takes part in recommending the radiological protection from the expertized aspect; and IAEA, a UN autonomy, aims at peaceful usage of atomic power. These organizations support the legal regulation and standard of nations. The purpose of the ICRP recommendation (Pub. 103, 2007) is to contribute to the appropriate protection of radiation hazardous effects, which are assumed to be linearly proportional (the model of linear no-threshold, LNT) that radiation risk exists even at the lowest dose. When a change in the single cell results in hazardous alteration, the causative effects are called stochastic effects, which include the mutation leading to cancer formation and genetic effect in offspring (not observed in man). ICRP says the validity of LNT for the stochastic effects essentially from the protective aspect, although epidemiological data support it at >100 mSv exposure. The deterministic effects are caused by loss of cell itself or of its function, where the threshold is defined to be the dose causing >1% of disorder or death. Radiation protective system against exposure is on the situation (programmed, emergent and natural), category (occupational, public and medical) and 3 principles of justification, optimization and application of dose limit. (T.T.)

310

Measurement quantities in radiation protection  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

After an introduction of the dose equivalent different types of dose equivalents are presented. In this connection stochastic and deterministic radiation effects are considered. Then stationary dose and personnel dose are discussed. Finally the different weighting factors are considered. (HSI)

311

Radiation protection in dental practice  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This guide provides the dentist and dental support personnel with basic information on the safe use of x-rays in dental radiography. Included in this CODE are specific recommendations for eliminating unnecessary radiation exposure of both patients and staff

312

Management information system on radiation protection  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Considering the flux complexity and the multi source information of all radiation protection activities on nuclear organizations, an effective management information system based on technology, information and people is necessary to improve the safety on all processes and operations subjected to radiation risks. An effective management information system is an essential tool to highlight the strengths and weaknesses and identify behaviors and trends on the activities requiring radiation protection programs. Such kind of distinct knowledge is useful to reach an effective management and support the human decision-making on nuclear organization. This paper presents a management information system based on Brazilian directives and regulations on radiation protection. Due to its generic characteristics, this radiation protection control system can be implemented on any nuclear organization by reediting the non restricted parameters which could differ considering all facilities and laboratories expected on-site with diverse technologies applications. This system can be considered as a powerful tool applied on the continuous management of radiation protection activities on nuclear organizations and research institutes as well as for long term planning, not only indicating how the safety activities are going, but why they are not going as well as planned where that is the case. (author)

313

Management information system on radiation protection  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Considering the flux complexity and the multi source information of all radiation protection activities on nuclear organizations, an effective management information system based on technology, information and people is necessary to improve the safety on all processes and operations subjected to radiation risks. An effective management information system is an essential tool to highlight the strengths and weaknesses and identify behaviors and trends on the activities requiring radiation protection programs. Such kind of distinct knowledge is useful to reach an effective management and support the human decision-making on nuclear organization. This paper presents a management information system based on Brazilian directives and regulations on radiation protection. Due to its generic characteristics, this radiation protection control system can be implemented on any nuclear organization by reediting the non restricted parameters which could differ considering all facilities and laboratories expected on-site with diverse technologies applications. This system can be considered as a powerful tool applied on the continuous management of radiation protection activities on nuclear organizations and research institutes as well as for long term planning, not only indicating how the safety activities are going, but why they are not going as well as planned where that is the case. (author)

Grossi, Pablo Andrade; Souza, Leonardo Soares de; Figueiredo, Geraldo Magela, E-mail: pabloag@cdtn.b, E-mail: lss@cdtn.b, E-mail: gmf@cdtn.b [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

2011-07-01

314

Radiation protection program of Petrobras  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Risks present in oil industry require specific control programs, specialy when using radioactive sources. Main uses of ionizing radiation in oil industry are in process control systems, industrial radiography and oilwell logging. A comprehensive and sistemic program is presented in order to assure the safe use of ionizing radiation in these activities. Principal subjects of this program are the control of radioactive sources, personel training in order to difuse knowledge at operations level and procedures standardization. (author)

315

Radiation protection in medical and biomedical research  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The human exposure to ionizing radiation in the context of medical and biomedical research raises specific ethical challenges whose resolution approaches should be based on scientific, legal and procedural matters. Joint Resolution MINSAP CITMA-Regulation 'Basic Standards of Radiation Safety' of 30 November 2001 (hereafter NBS) provides for the first time in Cuba legislation specifically designed to protect patients and healthy people who participate in research programs medical and biomedical and exposed to radiation. The objective of this paper is to demonstrate the need to develop specific requirements for radiation protection in medical and biomedical research, as well as to identify all the institutions involved in this in order to establish the necessary cooperation to ensure the protection of persons participating in the investigation

316

Development of radiation protection and measurement technology  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Reference X-, gamma, beta and neutron radiation fields complying with the ISO and ANSI standards have been established and evaluated to provide a basic technical support in national radiation protection dosimetry program and to provide calibration measurement devices. Personal dose evaluation algorithm has been developed with these reference radiation fields, which comply well with both domestic and the new ANSI N13.11, to evaluate accurate personal dose equivalents. A personal internal dosimetry algorithm which can estimate the intakes of radionuclides from the results of in vivo bioassay and the resulting internal doses has been developed and verified its performance. It was also evaluated to be equality excellent compared with those being used in foreign countries and used to make a computer code for internal dose evaluation which can be run with PC under the Windows environment. A BOMAB phantom for precise calibration of in vivo system has been also designed, fabricated and test-evaluated. Based on the ALARA concept of the optimization principle of radiation protection, a method for estimating the cost for radiation protection has been studied and an objective monetary cost of detriment due to radiation exposure, called ? value ($/man-Sv) has been derived and proposed based on the Korean socio-economic situation and human risk factors to provide basic data for the radiation protection optimization study in Korea. (author). 100 refs., 104 tabs., 69 figs

317

Radiation survey of the nuclear submarine Kursk  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Results of the radiation survey of the accidentally submerged nuclear submarine Kursk conducted in 2000 - 2001 provided with nuclear and radiation safety of works are presented. Obtained results demonstrated that reactors were shutdown and radionuclide migration to sea medium was absent

318

Radiation protection by medicinal plants  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The development of effective non-toxic radioprotective agents is of considerable interest in the improvement of radiotherapy of cancer and protection against unplanned exposures. The synthetic drugs developed in post-world war II have had serious constrains in clinical applicable due to their toxicity at the optimal protective dose. Search for non-toxic protectors from natural sources have indicated that some of the commonly used medicinal plants and the poly herbal formulation could prove to be valuable sources of clinically useful radioprotectors as their ratio of effective dose to toxic dose is very high

319

Radiation protection during space flight  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The evaluation of space radiation hazards and shielding requirements is discussed. The proton and electron exposures encountered in earth orbit from the earth radiation belts and solar-flare activity are calculated as functions of orbital altitude and inclination, and the probabilities of exceeding a given dose equivalent are given in tables for missions of varying duration. The Galactic space radiation is characterized and shown to be significant only beyond the earth's vicinity. The Radiation Shielding Design Criteria approved by the USSR Ministry of Health are discussed, and the need for a more heavily shielded shelter module to be used whenever solar-flare activity is detected is indicated. The shielding of interplanetary spacecraft is considered, and it is shown that much heavier shielding is needed for missions longer than about 2 yrs during solar minimum or 3 yrs during solar maximum, or for spacecraft with nuclear energy installations (NEI). A typical shielding thickness requirement is 20 g/sq cm for the radiation shelter of a spacecraft powered by liquid propellant or by a nuclear rocket engine (but without an NEI) on a 600-d interplanetary flight. 7 references

320

Radiation Protection Elephants in the Room  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

As our system of radiological protection evolves, several significant issues loom within radiation protection discussions and publications. These issues influence the nature of epidemiological and radiobiological research and the establishment of radiation protection recommendations, standards, and regulations. These issues are like the proverbial elephants in the room. They are large, and it is unwise to ignore them. This paper discusses the impact of three young elephants as they make their presence increasingly obvious: increased cancer susceptibility from early-life exposure to radiation, terrorism and fear of radiation, and patient safety. Increased cancer susceptibility from early-life exposure to radiation is emerging as a discussion topic related to the safety of computed tomography (CT) and other medical modalities. Shortly after publication of CT dose data, manufacturers were helping to reduce doses to children by increasing flexibility for adjustment of technique factors. Also, radiation epidemiological data are being used in the development of guidance on exposure to chemical carcinogens during early life. Re-emergence of public fear of radiation has been fueled by threats of radiological dispersion devises and confusing messages about personal decontamination, emergency room acceptance or rejection of contaminated victims, and environmental clean-up. Finally, several professional publications have characterized risk of medical radiation exposure in terms of patient deaths even though epidemiological data do not support such conclusions. All three of these elephants require excellent science and sophisticated data analysis to coax them from the room. Anecdotal communications that confuse the public should be avoided. These are not the only elephants in the room, but these three are making their presence increasingly obvious. This paper discusses the need for radiation protection professionals to rely on good science in the evolution of the system of radiological protection. (Author) 32 refs

 
 
 
 
321

Radiation protection activities around the CERN accelerators  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The staff of the Survey Section of Radiation Protection (RP) working around the CERN accelerators were as usual very busy. The LEP2 programme is now fully on its way, with the installation of additional superconducting RF cavities carried out during both the winter and summer shutdowns. The LEP energy per beam was thus increased to 80.5 GeV in summer and to 86 GeV in autumn. ACOL and LEAR ended their operational life on 19 December producing, for the last time, antiprotons for the experiments in the South Hall; all experiments will be dismantled in 1997. This programme will be partly replaced by the future Antiproton Decelerator, which was approved by the Research Board in November. Several experiments also came to their end in the North and West Experimental Areas of the SPS. NA44 (in EHN1) and NA47 (in EHN2) ended this year. All experiments installed in beam lines HI, H3, XI and X3 in the West Area also terminated, as these beam lines will be dismantled in the course of 1997 to make room for test facilities for the LHC. Several modifications in the West and North Experimental Areas have already been undertaken at the end of the year and will be continued in 1997. Some equipment installed in the West Area will be moved to the North Area. In addition to routine work, several measurements of synchrotron radiation were made in LEP for the two new energy levels reached in 1996. A number of dedicated measurements were also undertaken in EHN1 (North Area) at the end of the year, during the lead-ion run which closed the physics period. A detailed assessment of releases of radioactivity from the ISOLDE facility was also made

322

Radiation protection and the safety of radiation sources  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

These Safety Fundamentals cover the protection of human beings against ionizing radiation (gamma and X rays and alpha, beta and other particles that can induce ionization as they interact with biological materials), referred to herein subsequently as radiation, and the safety of sources that produce ionizing radiation. The Fundamentals do not apply to non-ionizing radiation such as microwave, ultraviolet, visible and infrared radiation. They do not apply either to the control of non-radiological aspects of health and safety. They are, however, part of the overall framework of health and safety

323

Abstracts of 20. International Symposium Radiation Protection Physics  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

51 papers are presented as titles with abstracts which are processed individually for the INIS data base. They deal with general aspects of radiation protection physics, international activities in radiation protection, solid state dosimetry, models and calculation methods in radiation protection, and measuring techniques in radiation protection

324

Radiation protection problems with sealed Pu radiation sources  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A brief outline of the production methods and most important properties of Pu-238 and Pu-239 is given, followed by an overview of possibilities for utilizing the different types of radiation emitted, a description of problems involved in the safe handling of Pu radiation sources, and an assessment of the design principles for Pu-containing alpha, photon, neutron and energy sources from the radiation protection point of view. (author)

325

Public understanding of radiation protection concepts  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Chernobyl accident in April 1986 clearly showed that communication with the public was one of the areas where there was a strong need for improvement, particularly concerning the nature and extent of the information provided by national authorities. The countermeasures adopted by public health authorities also raised difficulties in terms of public understanding and acceptance due, in part, to the perception of discrepancies in national, regional or local response to the accident, but also to a more basic lack of comprehension of the complex radiation protection considerations involved. In an attempt to help improve the situation, the NEA Committee on Radiation Protection and Public Health decided to organise a Workshop on public communication in the event of a nuclear accident, centered on radiation protection issues. The purpose of this Workshop was to analyse appropriate methods and language to be used when explaining to the public the scientific concepts underlying radiation risks and radiation protection, and the technical rationale for the choice of protective actions in an emergency. Separate abstracts were prepared for individual papers presented at the meeting

326

Radiation protection course for physicians. Pt. 2  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The material presented is intended as a teaching aid for courses of advanced professional training in radiotherapy, specifically for the subject of radiation protection. It will further be of help as a manual for physicians specializing in radiotherapy, and also for radiological personnel, who will be glad to have at hand a systematic and comprehensive guide to radiation protection measures in radiotherapy. The material has been revised so as to offer the current state of the art, and has been improved by adding illustrations of practical value and a subject index. The material has been restricted to explaining the legal basis of radiation protection in medical therapy as far as covered by the subjects of the training course. This offered the possibility of presenting a comprehensive view of the legal provisions governing radiation protection, which originally are given in two different statutory orders, the X-ray Ordinance and the Radiation Protection Ordinance. The latest recommendations of the ICRP and related comments, rules and standards have been taken into account. (orig.)

327

Ionizing radiation, genetic risks and radiation protection  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

With one method of risk estimation, designed as the doubling dose method, the estimates of total genetic risk (i.e., over all generation) for a population continuously exposed at a rate of 0.01 Gy/generation of low LET irradiation are about 120 cases of Mendelian and chromosomal diseases/106 live births and about the same number of cases for multifactorial diseases (i.e., a total of 240 cases/106). These estimates provide the basis for risk coefficients for genetic effects estimated by ICRP (1991) in its Publication 60. These are: 1.0%/Sv for the general population (which is 40% of 240/106/0.01 Gy), and 0.6%/Sv for radiation workers (which is 60% of that for the general population). The results of genetic studies carried out on the Japanese survivors of A-bombs have shown no significant adverse effects attributable to parental radiation exposures. The studies of Gardner and colleagues suggest that the risk of leukaemia in children born to male workers in the nuclear reprocessing facility in Sellafield, U.K., may be increased. However, this finding is at variance with the results from the Japanese studies and at present, does not lend itself to a simple interpretation based on radiobiological principles. In the light of recent advances in the molecular biology of naturally-occurring human Mendelian diseases and what we presently know about multifactorial diseases, arguments are advanced to support the thesis that (i) current risk estimates for Mendelian diseases may be conservative and (ii) an overall doubling dose for all adverse genetic effects may be higher than the 1 Gy currently used (i.e., the relative risks are probably lower). (author)

328

Consequences of the new Slovenian legislation on radiation protection and nuclear safety for radiation protection training  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The paper presents brief description of the old Slovenian regulations and an overview of the new, harmonised regulations in the field of radiation protection training. The most important novelties were pointed out with possible consequences for the implementation of radiation protection training. Some suggestions on how to overcome transitional problems and how to improve training were also given. (author)

329

IAEA occupational radiation protection programme: current status  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

As stated in Art.III.A.6 of its Statute, the International Atomic Energy Agency (commonly referred to as the Agency) is authorized to establish or adopt, in consultation and, where appropriate, in collaboration with the competent organs of the United Nations and with the specialized agencies concerned, standards of safety for protection of health and minimization of danger to life and property (including such standards for labour conditions), and to provide for the application of these standards to its own operation as well as to the operations making use of materials, services, equipment, facilities, and information made available by the Agency or at its request or under its control or supervision. The Agency s Occupational Radiation Protection Programme aims at harmonizing infrastructures for the control of radiation exposure of workers and for optimizing radiation protection in situation s of exposures due to external radiation and intakes of radionuclides from both artificial and natural sources of radiation. Under its regular and technical cooperation programmes, the Agency has been assigning high priority to both the establishment of safety standards for labour conditions and for the application of these standards through, Interalia, direct assistance under its technical cooperation (TC) programme, the rendering of services, the promotion of education and training, the fostering of information exchange and the coordination of research and development. The purpose of this paper is to present the current status and future IAEA activities in support of occupational radiation protection. (authors)

330

Radiation protection training for users of ionizing radiation in Hungary  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

According to the current and previous regulation related to the safety use of ionizing radiation, the personnel involved must obtain special qualification in radiation protection. In Hungary the radiation protection training are performed by appropriately certified training centers on basic, advanced and comprehensive levels. Certification of the training centers is given by the competent radiological health/radiation protection authority. The office of the Chief Medical Officer is the certifying authority for advanced and comprehensive levels training, as well as competent Regional Radiological Health Authority is responsible for basic level courses. The content and length of courses are specified in the regulation for all three levels of industrial, laboratory and medical users, in general. Some of the universities, technical and medical oriented are certified for advanced training for students as gradual course. Recently in Hungary there are 47 certified training centers for advanced and comprehensive courses, where the trainers should have a five years job experience in radiation protection and successful completion of comprehensive level course in radiation protection. (authors)

331

National congress of radiation protection; Congres national de radioprotection  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The congress of radiation protection tackled different areas of radiation protection. The impact of ionizing radiations on environment coming from radioactive activities. The biological radiation effects, the dosimetry, the different ways of doing relative to radiation protection,the risks analysis and the communications with populations, information about accidents and the lessons learned from them are included in this congress. (N.C.)

NONE

2001-07-01

332

Research priorities for occupational radiation protection  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Subpanel on Occupational Radiation Protection Research concludes that the most urgently needed research is that leading to the resolution of the potential effects of low-level ionizing radiation. This is the primary driving force in setting appropriate radiation protection standards and in directing the emphasis of radiation protection efforts. Much has already been done in collecting data that represents a compendium of knowledge that should be fully reviewed and understood. It is imperative that health physics researchers more effectively use that data and apply the findings to enhance understanding of the potential health effects of low-level ionizing radiation and improve the risk estimates upon which current occupational radiation protection procedures and requirements depend. Research must be focused to best serve needs in the immediate years ahead. Only then will we get the most out of what is accomplished. Beyond the above fundamental need, a number of applied research areas also have been identified as national priority issues. If effective governmental focus is achieved on several of the most important national priority issues, important occupational radiation protection research will be enhanced, more effectively coordinated, and more quickly applied to the work environment. Response in the near term will be enhanced and costs will be reduced by: developing microprocessor-aided {open_quotes}smart{close_quotes} instruments to simplify the use and processing of radiation data; developing more sensitive, energy-independent, and tissue-equivalent dosimeters to more accurately quantify personnel dose; and developing an improved risk assessment technology base. This can lead to savings of millions of dollars in current efforts needed to ensure personnel safety and to meet new, more stringent occupational guidelines.

1994-02-01

333

Research priorities for occupational radiation protection  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Subpanel on Occupational Radiation Protection Research concludes that the most urgently needed research is that leading to the resolution of the potential effects of low-level ionizing radiation. This is the primary driving force in setting appropriate radiation protection standards and in directing the emphasis of radiation protection efforts. Much has already been done in collecting data that represents a compendium of knowledge that should be fully reviewed and understood. It is imperative that health physics researchers more effectively use that data and apply the findings to enhance understanding of the potential health effects of low-level ionizing radiation and improve the risk estimates upon which current occupational radiation protection procedures and requirements depend. Research must be focused to best serve needs in the immediate years ahead. Only then will we get the most out of what is accomplished. Beyond the above fundamental need, a number of applied research areas also have been identified as national priority issues. If effective governmental focus is achieved on several of the most important national priority issues, important occupational radiation protection research will be enhanced, more effectively coordinated, and more quickly applied to the work environment. Response in the near term will be enhanced and costs will be reduced by: developing microprocessor-aided open-quotes smartclose quotes instruments to simplify the use and processing of radiation data; developing more sensitive, energy-independent, and tissue-equivalent dosimeters to more accurately quantify personnel dose; and developing an improved risk assessment technology base. This can lead to savings of millions of dollars in current efforts needed to ensure personnel safety and to meet new, more stringent occupational guidelines

334

Radiation protection of the environment - new trends  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Recent trends in the radiation protection of the environment focusing on basic changes of the protection philosophy from the egocentric to ecocentric approach are presented and discussed. The globalization of the economy is accompanied by global contamination of the environment that requires changes in the attitude of the protection of the total environment, i.e. protection of humans, fauna and flora, all ecosystems and the Earth in general, as well as the cosmic space. This complex approach is illustrated on the radiation protection of the environment that has always been in the forefront in developing protection philosophy, methodology and standards, which later has also been applied to the protection of the environment caused by non-radioactive contaminants, such as heavy metals and organic compounds. High radiation doses delivered to biota are illustrated on shellfish and fish collected in the Mururoa and Fangataufa lagoons (affected by series of nuclear weapons tests), and on fish in Novaya Zemlya bays (affected by dumping of nuclear reactors and radioactive wastes). On the methodological site an example is discussed focusing on the in situ sea-bed radionuclide mapping and seawater monitoring using submersible gamma-ray spectrometers operating with NaI(Tl) and HPGe detectors which has proved to be important pre-requisite for estimation of the spatial distribution of radionuclides in the water column and on the sea floor, as well as for optimisation of sediment sampling for studying the radionuclide distribution with depth

335

Radiation protection in the installation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A KTA Safety Standard should be prepared that takes into account and integrates in one standard all existing documents for radiological protection in nuclear power plants ( e.g. KTA standards, BMI/U standards). Care should be taken to consistently work in latest research results and knowledge. This may lead to problems in the licensing procedure for the backfitting of older installations, but solutions can be found then by adopting plant-specific standards. (orig./HP)

336

Radiation protection in the application of ionizing radiation in industry  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

There is a substantial increase in the use of ionizing radiation in industry throughout the country especially in the last five years or so. With this growth in the number of users and activity of sources used, and together with the introduction of the new Atomic Energy Licensing Act (AELA) in 1984, the question of radiation safety and protection of workers and members of the public in general, can no longer be taken lightly. It has to be dealt with effectively. In this paper, a general discussion and clarification on certain practical aspects of radiation protection as recommended by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) is presented. Amongst the topics chosen are those on area monitoring, personnel monitoring, leak testing of sealed sources and training of personnel. Also presented in the paper is a brief discussion about UTN's experience in giving out radiation protection services to various agencies throughout the country. (author)

337

Abstracts of 21. International Symposium Radiation Protection Physics  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

45 papers are presented as titles with abstracts which are processed individually for the INIS data base. They deal with general aspects of radiation protection physics, chiefly problems of radiation detection and measuring techniques in radiation protection

338

Chemical radiation protection in mammals and humans  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The development and the present situation in experimental research with animals as well as in clinical application in the field of chemical radioprotection are described. The efficacy of radioprotective substances in the case of acute radiation death, of radiation-induced changes in various tissues and organs as well as in late effects are reported. The mechanisms of actions are discussed. By comparison of radiation reactions in protected and unprotected animals radioprotective factors can be determined. Such factors depend, among other parameters, on the kind of the radioprotective agent and its dose, on the radiation reaction, on the quality of radiation as well as on the radiation dose. Up to now thiophosphate WR 2721 proved to be the most efficient substance. It was observed that the application of this compound yielded a protection factor of up to 2.7 for the acute radiation death in mice. The disadvantage of radioprotective agents must be seen in their side effects. Despite this behaviour thiophosphate, amongst others, is being tested in clinical radiotherapy. In order to apply radioprotective substances in foreseen emergency or catastrophic situations a number of demands were postulated. As yet, none of the tested radioprotectors meet these demands. Therefore, NATO has refrained from keeping radioprotective agents in reserve up to now. On the other hand, the USSR has included the radioprotective agent cystamine in their civil defence protection kit. (orig.)

339

Questions concerning radiation protection in the field of radiometry  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Based on legal regulations, guidelines, and standards valid in the German Democratic Republic 105 questions concerning radiation protection are answered covering subjects indicated by the following key words and headings: radiometric gages, radiation protection measures, working within protected areas, legal provisions, responsible staff member, radiation protection officer, operating personnel, radiation protection instructions, safe keeping of radiation sources, leak testing, unusual occurrence, transport of radioactive materials, and ceasing of operation

340

Policy support on Radiation Protection  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The objective of SCK-CEN's R and D programme on decision strategy research are: (1) to support and advise the Belgian authorities on specific problems concerning existing and potential hazards from exposure to ionising radiation, both in normal and emergency situations; (2) to improve and support nuclear emergency response decisions in industrial areas from an economic point of view. Main achievements in this area in 1997 are described.

Hardeman, F

1998-07-01

 
 
 
 
341

Policy support on Radiation Protection  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The objective of SCK-CEN's R and D programme on decision strategy research are: (1) to support and advise the Belgian authorities on specific problems concerning existing and potential hazards from exposure to ionising radiation, both in normal and emergency situations; (2) to improve and support nuclear emergency response decisions in industrial areas from an economic point of view. Main achievements in this area in 1997 are described

342

Radiation protection in neighbouring countries in Central Europe. Proceedings  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This proceeding is published in 3 volumes. Volume 1 covers the topics: (1) Environmental protection, and (2) Radiation Dosimetry. Volume 2 covers the topics: (3) Radiation Protection in Medical Exposures, (4) Radiation Protection in Applications of Radioisotopes and Nuclear Technology, (5) Radioactive Waste Management and Decommissioning, (6) Radiation Monitoring, and (7) Emergency Planning and Preparedness. Volume 3 covers the topics: (8) Operational Radiation Protection, (9) Non Ionising Radiation, (10) Radiation Protection Principles and Policies, (11) Natural Radiation, (12) Radiation Exposure Control: Methods and Means, and (13) Public Education and Information. (blahsl)

343

Understanding of radiation protection in medicine. Pt. 2. Occupational exposure and system of radiation protection  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Using a questionnaire we investigated whether radiation protection is correctly understood by medical doctors (n=140) and nurses (n=496). Although medical exposure is usually understood by medical doctors and dentists, their knowledge was found to be insufficient. Sixty-eight percent of medical doctors and 50% of dentists did not know about the system of radiation protection. Dose monitoring was not correctly carried out by approximately 20% of medical staff members, and medical personnel generally complained of anxiety about occupational exposure rather than medical exposure. They did not receive sufficient education on radiation exposure and protection in school. In conclusion, the results of this questionnaire suggested that they do not have adequate knowledge about radiation exposure and protection. The lack of knowledge about protection results in anxiety about exposure. To protect oneself from occupational exposure, individual radiation doses must be monitored, and medical practice should be reconsidered based on the results of monitoring. To eliminate unnecessary medical and occupational exposure and to justify practices such as radiological examinations, radiation protection should be well understood and appropriately carried out by medical doctors and dentists. Therefore, the education of medical students on the subject of radiation protection is required as is postgraduate education for medical doctors, dentists and nurses. (author)nurses. (author)

344

Radiation protection at workplaces with increased natural radiation exposure in Greece: recording, monitoring and protection measures  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Greek Atomic Energy Commission (GAEC) is the regulatory, advisory and competent authority on radiation protection matters. It is the authority responsible for the introduction of Radiation Protection regulations and monitoring of their implementation. In 1997, within the frame of its responsibilities the Board of the GAEC appointed a task group of experts to revise and bring the present Radiation Protection Regulations into line with the Basic Safety Standards (BSS) 96/29/Euratom Directive and the 97/43/Euratom Directive (on health protection of individuals against the dangers of ionising radiation in relation to medical exposure). Concerning the Title 7. of the new European BSS Directive, which refers to the Radiation Protection at work places with increased levels of natural radiation exposure, the Radiation Protection Regulations provides that the authority responsible for recording, monitoring and introducing protection measures at these places is the GAEC. Practices where effective doses to the workers due to increased natural radiation levels, may exceed 1mSv/y, have to be specified and authorised by the GAEC. The identification procedure is ongoing

345

2009 Canadian Radiation Oncology Resident Survey  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Purpose: Statistics from the Canadian post-MD education registry show that numbers of Canadian radiation oncology (RO) trainees have risen from 62 in 1999 to approximately 150 per year between 2003 and 2009, contributing to the current perceived downturn in employment opportunities for radiation oncologists in Canada. When last surveyed in 2003, Canadian RO residents identified job availability as their main concern. Our objective was to survey current Canadian RO residents on their training and career plans. Methods and Materials: Trainees from the 13 Canadian residency programs using the national matching service were sought. Potential respondents were identified through individual program directors or chief resident and were e-mailed a secure link to an online survey. Descriptive statistics were used to report responses. Results: The eligible response rate was 53% (83/156). Similar to the 2003 survey, respondents generally expressed high satisfaction with their programs and specialty. The most frequently expressed perceived weakness in their training differed from 2003, with 46.5% of current respondents feeling unprepared to enter the job market. 72% plan on pursuing a postresidency fellowship. Most respondents intend to practice in Canada. Fewer than 20% of respondents believe that there is a strong demand for radiation oncologists in Canada. Conclusions: Respondents to the current survey expressed significant satisfaction with their career choice and training program. However, differences exist compared with the 2003 survey, including the current perceived lack of demand for radiation oncologists in Canada.

346

2009 Canadian Radiation Oncology Resident Survey  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Purpose: Statistics from the Canadian post-MD education registry show that numbers of Canadian radiation oncology (RO) trainees have risen from 62 in 1999 to approximately 150 per year between 2003 and 2009, contributing to the current perceived downturn in employment opportunities for radiation oncologists in Canada. When last surveyed in 2003, Canadian RO residents identified job availability as their main concern. Our objective was to survey current Canadian RO residents on their training and career plans. Methods and Materials: Trainees from the 13 Canadian residency programs using the national matching service were sought. Potential respondents were identified through individual program directors or chief resident and were e-mailed a secure link to an online survey. Descriptive statistics were used to report responses. Results: The eligible response rate was 53% (83/156). Similar to the 2003 survey, respondents generally expressed high satisfaction with their programs and specialty. The most frequently expressed perceived weakness in their training differed from 2003, with 46.5% of current respondents feeling unprepared to enter the job market. 72% plan on pursuing a postresidency fellowship. Most respondents intend to practice in Canada. Fewer than 20% of respondents believe that there is a strong demand for radiation oncologists in Canada. Conclusions: Respondents to the current survey expressed significant satisfaction with their career choice and training program. However, differences exist compared with the 2003 survey, including the current perceived lack of demand for radiation oncologists in Canada.

Debenham, Brock, E-mail: debenham@ualberta.net [Department of Radiation Oncology, Cross Cancer Institute, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta (Canada); Banerjee, Robyn [Department of Radiation Oncology, Tom Baker Cancer Centre, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta (Canada); Fairchild, Alysa; Dundas, George [Department of Radiation Oncology, Cross Cancer Institute, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta (Canada); Trotter, Theresa [Department of Radiation Oncology, Tom Baker Cancer Centre, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta (Canada); Yee, Don [Department of Radiation Oncology, Cross Cancer Institute, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta (Canada)

2012-03-15

347

New radiobiological, radiation risk and radiation protection paradigms  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The long-standing conventional paradigm for radiobiology has formed a logical basis for the standard paradigm for radiation risk of cancer and heritable effects and, from these paradigms, has developed the internationally applied system for radiation protection, but with many simplifications, assumptions and generalizations. A variety of additional radiobiological phenomena that do not conform to the standard paradigm for radiobiology may have potential implications for radiation risk and radiation protection. It is suggested, however, that the current state of knowledge is still insufficient for these phenomena, individually or collectively, to be formulated systematically into a new paradigm for radiobiology. Additionally, there is at present lack of direct evidence of their relevance to risk for human health, despite attractive hypotheses as to how they might be involved. Finally, it remains to be shown how incorporation of such phenomena into the paradigm for radiation protection would provide sufficient added value to offset disruption to the present widely applied system. Further research should aim for better mechanistic understanding of processes such as radiation-induced genomic instability (for all radiation types) and bystander effects (particularly for low-fluence high-LET particles) and also priority should be given to confirmation, or negation, of the relevance of the processes to human health risks from radiation.n.

348

New radiobiological, radiation risk and radiation protection paradigms  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The long-standing conventional paradigm for radiobiology has formed a logical basis for the standard paradigm for radiation risk of cancer and heritable effects and, from these paradigms, has developed the internationally applied system for radiation protection, but with many simplifications, assumptions and generalizations. A variety of additional radiobiological phenomena that do not conform to the standard paradigm for radiobiology may have potential implications for radiation risk and radiation protection. It is suggested, however, that the current state of knowledge is still insufficient for these phenomena, individually or collectively, to be formulated systematically into a new paradigm for radiobiology. Additionally, there is at present lack of direct evidence of their relevance to risk for human health, despite attractive hypotheses as to how they might be involved. Finally, it remains to be shown how incorporation of such phenomena into the paradigm for radiation protection would provide sufficient added value to offset disruption to the present widely applied system. Further research should aim for better mechanistic understanding of processes such as radiation-induced genomic instability (for all radiation types) and bystander effects (particularly for low-fluence high-LET particles) and also priority should be given to confirmation, or negation, of the relevance of the processes to human health risks from radiation.

Goodhead, Dudley T., E-mail: d.goodhead@har.mrc.ac.uk [c/o Medical Research Council, Harwell, Didcot OX11 0RD (United Kingdom)

2010-05-01

349

Updating radiation protection regulations in Egypt  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The aim of this treatise is to present -the rational steps taken in the process of updating the Radiation Protection Regulations in Egypt. The contents of the review will include a historical synopsis, and the current state of art regarding competent authorities. Furthermore, the various committees formed with responsibilities for specific issues are indicated, including the role of the Ministry of Health (MOH), and that of the Atomic Energy Authority (AEA). Finally, the efforts made towards updating the radiation Protection Regulations in Egypt are highlighted. (author)

350

Radiation protection supervisors certification in Brazil  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In order to accomplish its legal assignments CNEN certifies the qualification of radiation protection supervisors. The current certification process is presented and discussed in this paper. This paper discusses the main points of the certification process including: knowledge tests, stake holder's communication, standards, supervisor responsibilities and profiles. The importance of safety certification of nuclear facilities and radiation protection of public individuals and workers are also discussed. Taking into account the characteristics of the Brazilian Nuclear program, the future improvements and goals in the certification process is also presented. (author)

351

Third conference on radiation protection and dosimetry  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This conference has been designed with the objectives of promoting communication among applied, research, regulatory, and standards personnel involved in radiation protection and providing them with sufficient information to evaluate their programs. To partly fulfill these objectives, a technical program consisting of more than 75 invited and contributed oral presentations encompassing all aspects of radiation protection has been prepared. General topics include external dosimetry, internal dosimetry, instruments, regulations and standards, accreditation and test programs, research advances, and applied program experience. This publication provides a summary of the technical program and a collection of abstracts of the oral presentations.

1991-01-01

352

Inspections by the Swedish Radiation Protection Authority  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Swedish Radiation Protection Authority, SSI, is the regulatory and supervisory authority in Sweden that is responsible for radiation protection on a national level. SSI employs 110 professionals with a broad and varied expertise; engineers, physicists, chemists, legal experts and press officers and is headed by a government-appointed director general. The budget is about 10 million Euro per year and is financed by taxes and fees. SSI is divided in to five different departments. This paper describes mainly the inspection activities performed by the Department of Occupational and Medical Exposures at SSI

353

Radiation protection measurement. Philosophy and implementation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A selection from the proceedings of the International Symposium held by the U.K. Society for radiological protection in June 1974 was presented. The central theme was the philosophy of radiation protection measurement and its interpretation although some specific areas of good health physics practice were included. The 28 papers selected were chosen to be either representative of the central theme or of wider interest. The papers have been grouped in 6 main sections: philosophy of measurements; interpretation of measurements; implementation by legislation and monitoring; radiation exposure and control; reactor safety and siting; accidents

354

Radiation protection and fuzzy set theory  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In radiation protection we encounter a variety of sources of uncertainties which are due to fuzziness in our cognition or perception of objects. For systematic treatment of this type of uncertainty, the concepts of fuzzy sets or fuzzy measures could be applied to construct system models, which may take into consideration both subjective or intrinsic fuzziness and objective or extrinsic fuzziness. The theory of fuzzy sets and fuzzy measures is still in a developing stage, but its concept may be applied to various problems of subjective perception of risk, nuclear safety, radiation protection and also to the problems of man-machine interface and human factor engineering or ergonomic

355

Neutron spectrometry for radiation protection purposes  

CERN Document Server

Determination of the dose equivalent is required for radiation protection purposes, however such a determination is quite difficult for neutron radiation. In order to perform accurate dosimetric determinations, it is advantageous to acquire information about the neutron fluence spectrum in the workplace as well as the reference radiations used to calibrate dosimetric instruments. This information can then be used to select the appropriate dosimetric instrument, the optimum calibration condition or to establish correction factors that account for the differences in calibration and workplace conditions. For quite some time, neutron spectrometry has been used for these purposes. A brief review of the applications of spectrometers in radiation protection and some recommendations for further development are given here.

McDonald, J C; Alberts, W G

2002-01-01

356

Radiation protection, public policies and education  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The objective of this paper is to inform about the aspects of radiation protection public policies concerning the public spheres and the ordinary population. It is known that information has been considered a very important good in several knowledge areas. However, the efficiency of their transmission mechanisms should be periodically evaluated, checking existing critical and stagnation points. Nuclear area can be mentioned as a historically typical case, where the public policies assume relevant importance as tool for promotion, control and education of the population in general. Considering the polemic nature of such subject, it is clear that there is a need for conducting the construction of educational contents taking in account the educator training necessities. The addressing of radiation protection aspects applied to nuclear techniques conducts, for example, to the awareness on the benefits of radiation and its industrial and medical applications, which are established considering the worldwide adopted basic principles of radiation protection. Such questions, concerned with (or related to) public policies, establish a link between radiation protection and education, themes explored in this article to provide a better view of the current Brazilian scenario. (author)

357

Radiation protection training programmes Spanish approach  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Radiation Protection Programmes are being considered the best way to promote safety culture and to spread and propagate European basic safety standards. It is widely accepted that training is an important tool to upgrade competence for radiation exposed workers. The Spanish Radiation Protection Education and Training Programmes provide a solid and integrated educational model, which takes into account the variety of applied fields, the different levels of responsibilities, the technological and methodological advances, as well as the international tendencies. The needs for a specialised training on Radiation Protection (RP) for exposed workers appears into the Spanish regulation in 1964. National initial training programmes are well established since 1972. Individual certifications, based on personal licences are required for exposed workers. The Spanish regulation also includes continuous and on the job RP training. The educational programmes are being continuously updating and improving. CIEMAT plays an important role in RP Spanish training, improving and modifying the previous RP courses and developing new programmes in order to complete the RP training levels. To achieve Radiation Protection objectives, new technological media for educational methods and material are taking into account. Nevertheless, Spanish RP education and training model has to be improved in some aspects. The purpose of this paper is to analyse the situation and the future needs to be considered in order to complete the RP training processes

358

National congress of radiation protection - SFRP 2005  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The nine tutorial sessions are: first one, the new recommendations of the ICRP; second one, effects on health of ionizing radiations with the following subjects ( the dose-response relationship and the estimation of carcinogen effects of ionizing radiation low doses; effect of dose rate on the induction and repair of radioinduced DNA double strand break; interest of global approach in radiation protection; molecular signature of the radioinduction in the thyroid tumors: example of radioinduced thyroid tumors after radiotherapy; incidence of child leukemia near the nuclear facilities: results of a multi sites study in France; genome instability and mutations induction after ionizing irradiation: consequences for the progeny; D.T.P.A encapsulation, an efficient strategy for the plutonium decorporation among the rat); the third one, non-ionizing radiation with the following subjects (can the exposure to a magnetic field of 100 ? T at 50 Hz be detected in the human physiological shiver; evaluation of the population exposure to the magnetic fields of 50 Hz: what indicators to choose; experimental study of the immunity of implantable defibrillators to the low frequencies electro-magnetic perturbations; DNA damages induced by the Ar F laser; dosimetry with a phantom in gel of human head); fourth session concerns the regulatory aspects; the fifth one presents the radiation protection and the radioactive waste management; the sixth session concerns the public and patients radiation protection; the seventh one treats the radiation protection in professional area with the following subjects ( optimization of radiation protection in the underground uranium mine of Cominak in Niger; revealing by multi parameters capillaroscopy, of micro vascular alterations of fingers among interventional radiologists; use of radioactive and chemical probes in biological research; uncertainties on doses and D.P.U.I.; monitoring of work areas. Evaluation of workers exposure towards a particular contamination; C.H.A.V.I.R., an interactive simulator for radiation protection; an ALARA engineering commune to the operating reactors; evolution of the radiological zoning and monitoring rules associated on the Cogema la Hague facility; an ambitious project for the nuclear park of EDF power plants : the purification project and its implementation for the Chinon B2 reactor - 2004); the eighth session concerns the environmental exposures and their consequences with the following presentations ( the concept of radioecological sensitivity and its interest in the risk management; phenomenal and analytical interpretation of the rain-deposit relationship used for the building of cesium 137 deposits in France consecutively to the Chernobyl accident; study of radioactivity source terms and transfer from medical origin in the purification network of the town of Toulouse; natural and artificial radioactivity in some marine species in manche. Case of polonium and plutonium alpha emitters. Synthesis of data acquired in the north Cotentin since 1990. elements of comparison; the role of local commissions of information (C.L.I.) in the follow up of release and monitoring of nuclear facilities); the ninth session concerns the dosimetry; the tenth session is divided in two parts radiation protection in accidental situations and radiation protection in post accidental situations with their respective presentations as follow ( evaluation of the dispersion of an aero contaminant in a ventilated area in field near an accidental source of emissions; study of the containment efficiency by gloveboxes in functioning accidental situations; the radiation protection and health; study by R.P.E. of the response of different materials in mixed field ( gamma, neutrons), application to the dosimetry reconstruction of an accident; nuclear or radiological events: organisation of medical intervention; and rehabilitation of life conditions in the contaminated territories: the contribution of radiation protection; management of post accidental situations: lessons from crisis exercises of Pierrelat

359

Radiation protection standards in the United States  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Standards to protect workers and members of the general public against any harmful effects of ionizing radiation are numerous and complex in the United States. Many federal agencies have protection responsibilities, Congress limits the discretionary authority given to these agencies in providing for this protection, and courts appear at times to render judgments that are illogical to our sense of the degree of radiological protection required. To many, U.S. standards appear to be over-protective in that they have, at best, marginal health benefits and without question are costly to implement. Government agencies, the Congress, industry, professional organizations, and others have expressed such concerns. It is against this background that the Committee on Interagency Radiation Research and Policy Coordination (CIRRPC) undertook a project to enhance its knowledge and understanding of the principal standards in the United States that limit and control radiation exposures. Review of the fact sheets shows no clear intent to be consistent in either the statutory language or the explicit or implicit protection objective of the standard. A more detailed evaluation of U.S. standards seems warranted, especially since the trend is toward lower standards and more restrictive regulations

360

Protecting superconducting qubits from radiation  

Science.gov (United States)

We characterize a superconducting qubit before and after embedding it along with its package in an absorptive medium. We observe a drastic improvement in the effective qubit temperature and over a tenfold improvement in the relaxation time up to 5.7 ?s. Our results suggest the presence of external radiation inside the cryogenic apparatus can be a limiting factor for both qubit initialization and coherence. Calculations support the hypothesis that the relaxation is not limited by direct coupling of thermal photons to the qubit prior to embedding, but by dissipation arising from quasiparticle generation.

Córcoles, Antonio D.; Chow, Jerry M.; Gambetta, Jay M.; Rigetti, Chad; Rozen, J. R.; Keefe, George A.; Beth Rothwell, Mary; Ketchen, Mark B.; Steffen, M.

2011-10-01

 
 
 
 
361

Radiation protection in pediatric radiology  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The purpose of this report is to make available a source of practical information regarding the manner in which radiologic examinations in children should be conducted to reduce the radiation dose to these patients and those responsible for thier care. The report is mainly for the use of pediatricians, radiologists, radiologic technicians, and other personnel who order or use radiological methods in examining children, Appendices contain methods for estimating doses to various organs, and doses from various examinations in pediatric radiology. The Council has adopted some units of the SI system of nomenclature. A glossary of terms is included

362

Radiation protection optimization and work management  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The influence quantification of bound factors to work management, and the obtained results when you apply the dosimetric economical evaluation model of the radiation protection experiments, prove that ALARA principle application musn't bound to actions on the radiation sources, but that you can find a wide act field in the irradiation work volume management topics. 53 refs., 5 tabs., 10 figs., 4 appendixes

363

Radiation Protection and Civil defence Department  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This conference involves subjects of radiation protection, programming of civil defence, on the implementation of 1990 ICRP recommendation, thermoluminescence properties of bone equivalent calcium phosphate ceramics, potassium body burdens in occupational users of egyptian nuclear research centre, transport of radionuclides in fresh water stream, water treatment process for nuclear reactor, research activities related to internal contamination and bioassay and experience and environmental radiation monitoring in inshass. it contains of figures and tables

364

Technical evaluation of the capability of present instrumentation to meet the draft ANSI standard on performance specifications for radiation protection survey instrumentation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Existing standards and guides were reviewed. A survey of commercially available instruments determined information on types of instruments available and the manufacturers specifications. Users provided information regarding instrument preference and desired capability. Based on the above information and statistical criteria, procurement of 56 representative instrumentation was initiated. Instrument test and evaluation procedures are being developed that follow the existing, proposed, or draft standards and guides

365

Proceedings of the workshop on 'radiation protection in LINACs'  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The proceedings contain seven reports on electron and proton accelerators currently used in Japan. The first report describes the 'Present Condition of Linac Facilities in Japan -- Questionnaire Survey'. It summarizes results of a questionnaire survey on 400 facilities where accelerators are used for research, industrial or medical applications. The second one deals with 'Radiation Protection at Nuclear Physics Research Institute of Tohoku University'. Safety measures taken in the institute are described. The third report outlines 'Radiation Protection at Linac Facility in Tokai Laboratory of Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, focusing on equipment, radiation management, and safety measures. The fourth report, titled 'Proton Linac at High Energy Physics Research Institute', outlines major features of the facilities in the institute, radiation safety measures, etc. The fifth one describes the 'Safety Management at Electrotechnical Laboratory', centering on the equipment used, radiation management, and safety measures. The sixth one outlines major features of 'Electron Linac at Industrial Science Research Institute of Osaka University'. The seventh report describes the 'Present Condition of Neutron Generator (KURRI-LINAC)'. (N.K.)

366

Workplace analysis and radiation protection  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This document gathers the slides of the available presentations given during this conference day. Fifteen presentations out of 16 are assembled in the document and deal with: 1 - the evolution of doses received by workers (J. Feuardent); 2 - evaluation of extremities dosimetry among interventional radiology practitioners (L. Donadille); 3 - practical guide for the realisation of workplace dosimetry studies presenting a ionizing radiation exposure risk: and example in nuclear medicine (J.L. Rehel); 4 - workplace studies in radiotherapy-curietherapy (D. Donnarieix); 5 - from dosimetry to physical intensity: the case of heat insulation activities (A. Garrigou and C. Piccadaci); 6 - the consideration of human factor during facility modifications (V. Gauthereau); 7 - how to carry out a workplace analysis in gamma-graphy? (F. Truchi); 8 - workplace studies in the framework of dismantling activities (J. Chardin); 9 - team synergy (F. Debouck); 10 - adaptation of individual dosimetry to the workplace: the case of external exposure (I. Clairand); 11 - technical aspects of the evaluation of ionizing radiations exposure induced by a new interventional radiology procedure (J.C. Amabile); 12 - the point of view of a radioprotection skilled person in a nuclear medicine service (J.M. Vrigneaud); 13 - workplace studies for the unique document (F. Roussille); 14 - occupational exposure to manufactured nano-particles: issues and knowledge status (O. Witschger); 15 - toxicological risk of nano-particles: 'health impact'? (S. Chevillard). (J.S.)

367

Beta emitters and radiation protection  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Beta emitters, such as 90Y, are increasingly being used for cancer treatment. However, beta emitters demand other precautions than gamma emitters during preparation and administration, especially concerning shielding. Aim. To discuss practical precautions for handling beta emitters in general, and specifically determine proper shielding for 90Y, while comparing to 177Lu and 131I. The aim is achieved through the application of physical principles combined with results from practical experience. Material and methods. Typical and maximal electron ranges were calculated for 131I, 177Lu, and 90Y, using data from a freely available database. Bremsstrahlung yields were calculated for 90Y shielded by lead, aluminium, or perspex. Bremsstrahlung spectrum from 90Y shielded by perspex was measured, and attenuation of spectrum by lead was calculated. Whole-body and finger doses to persons preparing 90Y-Zevalin were measured. Conclusions. Good laboratory practice is important to keep radiation doses low. To reduce Bremsstrahlung, 90Y should not be shielded by lead but instead perspex (10 mm) or aluminium (5 mm). Bremsstrahlung radiation can be further reduced by adding a millimetre of lead on the outside of the primary shielding material. If suitable shielding is used and larger numbers of handlings are divided among several persons, then handling of beta emitters can be a safe procedure

Joedal, Lars (Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, Aalborg Hospital, Aarhus Univ. Hospital (Denmark))

2009-02-15

368

Beta emitters and radiation protection  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Beta emitters, such as 90Y, are increasingly being used for cancer treatment. However, beta emitters demand other precautions than gamma emitters during preparation and administration, especially concerning shielding. Aim. To discuss practical precautions for handling beta emitters in general, and specifically determine proper shielding for 90Y, while comparing to 177Lu and 131I. The aim is achieved through the application of physical principles combined with results from practical experience. Material and methods. Typical and maximal electron ranges were calculated for 131I, 177Lu, and 90Y, using data from a freely available database. Bremsstrahlung yields were calculated for 90Y shielded by lead, aluminium, or perspex. Bremsstrahlung spectrum from 90Y shielded by perspex was measured, and attenuation of spectrum by lead was calculated. Whole-body and finger doses to persons preparing 90Y-Zevalin were measured. Conclusions. Good laboratory practice is important to keep radiation doses low. To reduce Bremsstrahlung, 90Y should not be shielded by lead but instead perspex (10 mm) or aluminium (5 mm). Bremsstrahlung radiation can be further reduced by adding a millimetre of lead on the outside of the primary shielding material. If suitable shielding is used and larger numbers of handlings are divided among several persons, then handling of beta emitters can be a safe procedure

369

Radiation protection training and information for workers  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The meeting reported in these proceedings was organized to discuss the specific problems of providing information and training on radiation protection to workers exposed to radiation, intervention staff and workers likely to be affected by an activity involving ionizing radiation. Particular emphasis was placed on the need to harmonize basic training on radiation protection in the context of 1992. It seemed advisable for technical training on radiation protection to be introduced into secondary education. To this end, the Commission was asked to draw up a guide for apprentices and students. In view of the growing diversification of activities involving the use of radioactive substances, the Commission was called upon to intensify its efforts in order to ensure that relevant information and training was provided in all firms to workers exposed to ionizing radiation, and to produce guides for specific categories of workers, such as those responsible for the transport of radioactive materials or those likely to be involved in organizing measures in the event of a radiological emergency

370

Management in the protection from ionizing radiation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

There are numerous types and forms of endangering working and living environment, ranging from natural disasters to nuclear accidents. Challenges of the New Age determined that most of the countries reviewed its strategic decisions in the system of protection from ionizing radiation and nuclear safety and defined in a new way the threats, which could considerably imperil health of the population and national interests as well. Excessive radiation of the population became a serious and actual problem in the era of increasingly mass application of ionizing radiation, especially in medicine. The goal of this work is to reduce the risk through using knowledge and existing experiences, in particular when it comes to ionizing radiation in medicine. Optimization of the protection in radiology actually means an effort to find the compromise between quality information provided by diagnostics procedure and quality effects of therapy procedure on one side and dose of radiation received by patients on the other. Criteria for the quality management in the protection from ionizing radiation used in diagnostic radiology was given by the European Commission: European Guidelines on Quality Criteria for Diagnostic Radiographic Images, EUR, 16260. (author)

371

Radiation survey of aircraft and heavy machinery scrap  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This study was conducted primarily to survey aircraft and heavy machinery at 30 locations within Khartoum State using handheld radiation survey meters to detect and identify any radiation sources that might be present and to estimate radiation dose levels. The survey has resulted in detection of 16 sealed sources of 90Sr and one of 226Ra in aircraft scrap. Of course, 90Sr sources are used in military aircraft as temperature sensors while 226Ra is used for indicating fuel levels. These sources were found intact without spreading radioactivity contamination; however, none was detected in heavy machine scrap. The levels of radiation dose measured at 0.1 m from the source fall within the range of 25.1–40.2 ?Sv/h with an average value of 33.52±4.06 ?Sv/h. These orphan sources have been separated from the scrap, tested for possible leakage, conditioned and stored in waste management facility. The result of this study has revealed without doubt that the scrap constitute a serious source of public exposure and highlights the importance of legislation making radiation monitoring of scrap in the country mandatory before it is sold to metal industry for reprocessing. - Highlights: ? Sealed radioactive sources (90Sr and 226Ra) were detected in aircraft scrap. ? No source was detected in heavy machine scrap. ? Radiation dose measured at 0.1 m from the source can be used to estimate exposure to public. ? Monitoring of scrap was found to be useful for protection (from orphan sources).

372

Seventh meeting of radiation protection skilled persons  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This document gathers the slides of the available presentations given during these conference days. Twenty-three presentations out of 25 are assembled in the document and deal with: 1 - the evolution of workers' international protection rules against ionizing radiation risks (C. Bardelay); 2 - presentation of the report of the working group on radiation protection (P. Barbey); 3 - position of the French nuclear safety authority and of the labor general direction about the position of permanent expert groups in radiation protection concerning the expected evolutions in the occupation and training of radioprotection skilled persons (RSP), (T. Lahaye); 4 - experience feedback: RSP in surgery operating theater - a sometimes delicate intervention (S. Balduyck); 5 - workplace analysis in dental surgery: constraints and specificities (D. Le Denmat); 6 - workplace analysis: tritium atmospheric contamination (S. Rigaud); 7 - revision of the NFC 15-160 standard relative to radiology facilities (J.L. Rehel); 8 - example of area tele-dosimetry usage - the Pitie Salpetriere hospital experiment (C. Chatellier and C. Barret); 9 - contribution of radio-attenuation lead gloves in interventional radiology (J. Guersen); 10 - zoning in the medical domain: encountered problems typology and evaluation of possible solutions (Degrange, J.P.); 11 - management of used sealed sources distributed by the CEA and CISBIO (B. Sevestre); 12 - how to perform a measurement in radiation protection - how about measurement uncertainty (M. Ammerich); 13 - national campaign of control about the application of workers radiation protection rules (T. Lahaye); 14 - transparency and inspection approach in local nuclear applications: gamma-graphy, research, nuclear medicine, interventional radiography and radiotherapy (S. Rodde and C. Marchal); 15 - local/regional networks of RSPs and radiation protection actors: 2008 audit results and recent evolutions (C. Lefaure); 16 - role and missions of the external RSP in dental surgery (H. Bouk'Il); 17 - status of radiation protection inspections at Paris social services and state-owned hospitals authority (D.J. Gambini); 18 - registered organisation and RSP: relations and exchanges (B. Auboiroux and P. Martel); 19 - interactions between EdF's RSP and contractor's RSP (A. Riedel); 20 - 2009 national status of workers' exposure (J. Feuardent); 21 - IRSN's Siseri system: relations with users (P. Scanff); 22 - communication as an integral part of RSP's role (M. Bof); 23 - the expected consequences of the publication no. 103 of the international commission of radiological protection (CIPR), (J. Lochard). (J.S.)

373

Operational radiation protection for European astronauts  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Since the early times of human spaceflight radiation has been, besides the influence of microgravity on the human body, recognized as a main health concern to the astro- and cosmonauts. The radiation environment that the crew experiences during a space flight differs significantly to that found on earth due to particles of greater potential for biological damage. High-energetic charged particles, such as protons, helium nuclei ('alpha particles') and heavier ions up to iron, originating from several sources, such as galactic cosmic radiation (GCR), energetic solar particle events (SPE) as well as protons and electrons trapped in the earth radiation belts, are the main contributors. The exposure that the crew receives during a space flight significantly exceeds exposures routinely received by terrestrial radiation workers. The European Space Agency's (ESA) Astronaut Center (EAC) in Cologne, Germany, is home of the European Astronaut Corps. Part of the EAC is the Crew Medical Support Office (CMSO or HSF-AM) responsible for ensuring the health and well being of the European Astronauts. A sequence of activities is conducted to protect astro- and cosmonauts health, including those targeting to mitigate adverse effects of space radiation. All health related activities are part of a multinational Medical Operations (MedOps) concept, which is executed by the different Space Agencies participating in the human spaceflight program to the International Space Station (ISS). This article will give an introduction of the current measures for radiation monitoring and protection of astro- and cosmonauts. The operational guidelines that shall ensure proper implementation and execution of those radiation protection measures will be addressed. Operational hardware for passive and active radiation monitoring and for personal dosimetry, as well as operational procedures that are applied, will be described. (author)

374

Radiation protection: Radiation dose units and fundamentals. Correct use of radiation dose units, measurements, risk assessment  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Radiation protection intends to prevent radiation damage by appropriate staff-related and technical measures in accordance with the specifications of the German X-Ray Ordinance (R and V) and Radiation Protection Ordinance (StrlSchV) and in agreement with the ICRLP (International Commission on Radiological Protection). They require that radiation use must be justified, exposure conditions must be optimised, and exposure times must be limited to the shortest time necessary. In practical use, this requires considerable practical and theoretical knowledge from the user concerning the physical properties of radiation sources, interactions with tissue and matter of different types of radiation, and biological effects of radiation. National and international organizations and committees have specified the knowledge which a user must have as follows: Physical fundamentals of radiation protection; Measuring quantities and specified standard units; Organisational and constructional radiation protection; Legal knowledge. (orig.)

375

University based radiation protection: a combination of theory and practice  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In modern times, Universities are expected to act as regional and national centres for providing information on radiation protection and University based Radiological Protection Services are therefore a natural development. The typical workload of a University service on campus is concerned two-thirds with unsealed sources, of which soft ?'s and iodine-125 predominate, and one-third with sealed radioisotope and neutron sources and X-ray emitters. Non-ionising radiation protection is frequently included in the Service's terms of reference. A wide variety of instrumentation to satisfy the campus' needs is thus available at short notice for use in industrial and public authority radiation surveys. In addition, laboratory facilities for radio-chemistry, spectrometry, and radioactive counting are already manned by experienced technical staff. Industry thus finds in the Universities a ready willingness and competence to assist in occupational radiation protection, and public authorities can turn to the Universities in relation to their problems of radioactivity in public health. (author)

376

Patients radiation protection in medical imaging. Conference proceedings  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This document brings together the available presentations given at the conference organised by the French society of radiation protection about patients radiation protection in medical imaging. Twelve presentations (slides) are compiled in this document and deal with: 1 - Medical exposure of the French population: methodology and results (Bernard Aubert, IRSN); 2 - What indicators for the medical exposure? (Cecile Etard, IRSN); 3 - Guidebook of correct usage of medical imaging examination (Philippe Grenier, Pitie-Salpetriere hospital); 4 - Radiation protection optimization in pediatric imaging (Hubert Ducou-Le-Pointe, Aurelien Bouette (Armand-Trousseau children hospital); 5 - Children's exposure to image scanners: epidemiological survey (Marie-Odile Bernier, IRSN); 6 - Management of patient's irradiation: from image quality to good practice (Thierry Solaire, General Electric); 7 - Dose optimization in radiology (Cecile Salvat (Lariboisiere hospital); 8 - Cancer detection in the breast cancer planned screening program - 2004-2009 era (Agnes Rogel, InVS); 9 - Mammographic exposures - radiobiological effects - radio-induced DNA damages (Catherine Colin, Lyon Sud hospital); 10 - Breast cancer screening program - importance of non-irradiating techniques (Anne Tardivon, Institut Curie); 11 - Radiation protection justification for the medical imaging of patients over the age of 50 (Michel Bourguignon, ASN); 12 - Search for a molecular imprint for the discrimination between radio-induced and sporadic tumors (Sylvie Chevillard, CEA)

377

A new career path in radiation protection training. Certified power plant shift supervisor. Radiation protection  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Apart from theoretical knowledge, effective day-to-day radiation protection operations also require a certain measure of practical experience. Therefore, the professional degree of 'Certified Radiation Worker', issued by the Chamber of Industry and Commerce (CIC) Aachen, Germany, established at an early stage. In order to provide experienced radiation protection specialists with an attractive career path, POWERTECH TRAINING CENTER e.V., in co-operation with VGB PowerTech. e.V., the Paul Scherrer Institute (Switzerland) and the Swiss Atomic Energy Agency (ENSI), has devised a new power plant shift supervisor training course specialising in radiation protection. The vocational training degree called 'Certified Power Plant Shift Supervisor - Radiation Protection' is awarded after successful completion of the advanced training examination conducted by the CIC in Essen, Germany. (orig.)

378

Applying radiation health effects data to radiation protection policies  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

ls to cost-effectively assure public health and safety. An assessment of the proposed revisions to ICRP radiation protection policies is provided that associates the basis for administrative limits with the previous proposal of the US NRC for a 'Below Regulatory Concern' (BRC) policy. This proposal ignores the context of the fact that very low levels of radiation exposure are far within the variations of natural radiation exposures, and therefore can have no gross net consequences. The equivalent failure of the BRC proposal resulted in quick political rejection of the proposed policy. It was seen as stating that, while very small radiation doses would in fact cause 'small' adverse health consequences (seen by the public and their political leaders as 'cancer deaths'), such consequences are seen as found 'acceptable' by the radiation protection authorities. Such implied but non-existent consequences are NOT seen as acceptable to the public and its political leaders. No explanation of 'context' or providing public education' can reasonably be expected to overcome the perception provided by the proposal that such trivial radiation produce 'a few deaths' that, because they are 'lost in cancer statistics' are perceived as accepted' by the radiation protection policy-makers, which results in the permanent loss of public acceptance and credibility of these organizations and individuals. This proposal considers the lack of adverse health effects from data at, e.g., variations in natural background, confirmed by medical and biological data, establish that radiation at low levels can have no relevant net adverse consequences. Such a basis can provide public assurance that appropriate radiation protection limits produce no residual public health and safety consequences. (author)

379

Radiation protection in BNCT patients  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text: Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) is a technique that selectively targets cancer cells while sparing normal tissues by virtue of the differential uptake of a 10B carrier compound in tumor. The National Atomic Energy Commission (CNEA) and the Oncology Institute 'Angel H. Roffo' (IOAR) began a BNCT programme in 2003 for treating cutaneous skin melanomas in extremities. The neutron beam used is the hyperthermal one developed at the RA-6 Reactor of the Bariloche Atomic Centre (CAB). The prescribed dose is delivered in one fraction and therefore patient positioning and knowledge of the dose received by normal tissue are crucial. 10 irradiations have been done since 2003, all of them in legs and feet and the dose prescription was determined by the maximum tolerable skin dose. Due to the characteristics of this treatment the patient body might be exposed not only to the primary beam but also to the secondary photon beam produced by neutron capture at the target itself. Thus a patient radiation-monitoring plan was implemented in order to evaluate the gamma dose delivered to sensible organs of each patient. An acrylic water-filled whole body phantom was used for preliminary gamma dose and thermal neutron flux measurements at positions related to patient's body sensible organs considering tentative patient positions. The beam port shielding was, in this way, optimized. TLD-700 and Manganese foils were used for gamma and thermal neutron detection. The TLD-700 thermal neutron response was previously evaluated by using the in-phantom beam dosimetry characterization. In-vivo dosimetry with TLD is routinely implemented in order to evaluate gamma dose to sensible organs of each patient. These organs are chosen depending on its distance from the zone to be irradiated and its radio-sensibility. All TLDs have been positioned well outside the irradiation field. Maximum gamma dose received outside the radiation field in healthy tissues was well below tolerance dose for the compromised organs. (author)

380

Radiation survey instruments: the power reactor perspective  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This study was initiated to evaluate the current state-of-the-art of radiation survey instruments in the power reactor environment and to compare today's user's comments to a similar study conducted in 1977. In addition, user input was solicited as to the impact of the proposed ANSI Standard N42.17 on the quality of radiation survey instruments. The limited response (19 of 93) received to date, however, yields a study with limited value. The information contained in this study reflects the input of the respondents and does not necessarily reflect the views of GPU Nuclear Corporation or the author

 
 
 
 
381

Proceedings of the Ninth Radiation Physics and Protection Conference  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The publication has been set up as proceedings of the Radiation Physics and Protection conference, the conference contains of the following subjects: Radiation Sources and Radioactive Waste; Theoretical Radiation Physics; Experimental Radiation Physics; Radiation and Nuclear Emergency; Non Ionizing Radiation; Medical Physics; Environment; Natural Radioactivity; Radiation Effect; Dosimetry; Elemental Analysis; Radiation Instruments. This conference consists of one volume and 459 pages., figs., tabs., refs

382

Modernization and consolidation of the European radiation protection legislation. The new EURATOM radiation protection basic norm  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The European Commission has established a modernization and consolidation of the European radiation protection legislation by the development of basic safety standards for ionizing radiation protection. The new guideline offers with a single coherent document the basic standards considering according to the state-of-the-art for all relevant radiation sources, including natural sources, and allows the protection of workers, public, patients and environment for all exposure situations, planned, existing or in case of emergence. The evaluation of numerical data will be harmonized with international standards.

383

Course on radiation protection, autumn 1988  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report contains the elaboration of problems and exercises which form part of lecture notes treating a number of concepts from atomic-and nuclear physics, which could belong to the ready knowledge of a radiation-protection specialist. (H.W.). 6 figs.; 2 tabs

384

Modern accelerators - a challenge for radiation protection  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Taking BESSY, FAIR, HIT, SLS, SINQ and PROSCAN as examples, the tasks and problems of radiation protection around modern accelerator installations producing high-energy particles are discribed, and ways to their solutions are shown. This includes shielding and methods to calculate it, access controlling, measuring techniques and dosimetry, and finally the surveillance of radioactivity in exhaust air and water. (orig.)

385

Implication on future priorities in radiation protection  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

As a result of the consequences of the Chernobyl accident, the aspects of health effects from radiation as well as the protection norms are reviewed. In particular the radioprotection of the workers and the population, the emergency planning and the information of the public at national and international levels are discussed. (A.F.)

386

Radiation protection: Philosophy, recommendations and practice  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The philosophy developed by the International Commission on Radiological Protection for the control of human radiation exposure will be described. The application of the ICRP recommendations to the authorization and control of the disposal of radioactive wastes to the sea will be discussed in the context of the practice in the United Kingdom. (author)

387

Radiation Protection Section (SC/SL/RP)  

CERN Multimedia

We should like to inform you that the Radiation Protection Section (SC/SL/RP) located on the Prévessin site has moved from Building 865 (ground floor) to new premises in Wing A of Building 892 (second floor). Telephone numbers remain the same. SC/SL/RP section

2006-01-01

388

Conditions for radiation protection in industrial radiography  

CERN Document Server

The leaflet specifies radiation protection requirements for industrial radiography in Norway. The regulations are directed towards companies using or distributing sealed radioactive sources, x-ray equipment or accelerators in non-destructive material testing (NDT). Technical requirements to the equipment, as well as administrative requirements for use, licensing, qualifications, handling of accidents etc. are given. (Author)

1999-01-01

389

Radiation protection, its beginnings and development  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The background, beginnings and course of development of the radiation protection profession are outlined. Emphasis is on developments in the Western world, particularly the USA. It is shown that this profession has played a major role in producing a level of safety that would have been unbelievable a few decades ago. (author)

390

Work report 2002 of the Safety and Radiation Protection Department  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The tasks of the Department for Safety and Radiation Protection, the organization, and the work in the year under review are described. Headings of work were as follows: licensing and safety, operational radiation protection, environmental monitoring, measuring technology, industrial safety, and physical protection. Research and development work was done on environmental monitoring and on radiation protection. (MG)

391

Work report 2001 of the Safety and Radiation Protection Department  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The tasks of the Department for Safety and Radiation Protection, the organization, and the work in the year under review are described. Headings of work were as follows: licensing and safety, operational radiation protection, environmental monitoring, measuring technology, industrial safety, and physical protection. Research and development work was done on environmental monitoring and on radiation protection. (MG)

392

An introduction to radiation protection. 3. ed.  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A book has been written on the nature of the hazards presented by ionizing radiation and the methods of radiation protection. The book provides an introductory text for a wide range of readers involved with radiation in connection with nuclear power, nuclear medicine or more generally in research, teaching and industry. The early chapters deal with basic physical principles, the nature of the hazard arising from the interaction of ionizing radiation with biological systems and the levels of radiation which are regarded as acceptable. Later chapters deal with the methods of measurement and control which are applied to attain these levels. In the second half of the book, there are individual chapters on the more specialized topics of nuclear reactor health physics, problems associated with X-rays and radiography, health physics in medicine, the disposal of radioactive waste and radiological emergencies. Chapters are also presented on legislation and on the organization of health physics. (UK)

393

Radiation protection and dosimetry: basis. 9. ed.  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A revised book 'Radiation Protection and Dosimetry: Fundamentals, prepared to meet the training courses offered by the Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria - IRD, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil and people interested in the subject, is presented. Concepts have been updated, especially the chapter on Radiological Magnitudes, due to upgrade of Standard CNEN-NN-3.01-Basic Guidelines on Radiological Protection, published in the Diario Oficial da Uniao on September 1, 2011. A chapter related to Waste Management, another on the Transport of Radioactive Materials and three annexes on: Standards of CNEN, Ionizing Radiation and Personnel Legislation and Determination of shields in Radiotherapy were included. Were also added several tables for use in radiological protection, to facilitate consultation

394

Radiation protection in today's world: towards sustainability  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The science and application of radiological protection have continually evolved since the beginning of the 20 century when the health effects of radiation first began to be discovered. Given these changes, notably over the past 10 to 15 years, and considering the recent evolution of social values and judgements, the NEA Committee on Radiation Protection and Public Health (CRPPH) felt that it would be worthwhile to identify possible emerging challenges as well as ongoing challenges that will require new approaches to reach sustainable decisions. This report concisely describes the CRPPH views of the most significant challenges to radiological protection policy, regulation and application that are likely to emerge or are already emerging. While not proposing solutions to these issues, the report characterizes key aspects and pressures, taking into account the evolution of science, society and experience, such that governments can better foresee these challenges and be prepared to address them appropriately. (author)

395

Special radiation protection aspects of medical accelerators  

CERN Document Server

Radiation protection aspects relevant to medical accelerators are discussed. An overview is first given of general safety requirements. Next. shielding and labyrinth design are discussed in some detail for the various types of accelerators, devoting more attention to hadron machines as they are far less conventional than electron linear accelerators. Some specific aspects related to patient protection are also addressed. Finally, induced radioactivity in accelerator components and shielding walls is briefly discussed. Three classes of machines are considered: (1) medical electron linacs for 'conventional' radiation therapy. (2) low energy cyclotrons for production of radionuclides mainly for medical diagnostics and (3) medium energy cyclotrons and synchrotrons for advanced radiation therapy with protons or light ion beams (hadron therapy). (51 refs).

Silari, Marco

2001-01-01

396

Radiation risks : the ethics of health protection  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Since the inception of commercial uses of nuclear technology, radiation protection standards established by regulatory agencies have reflected moral concerns based on two assumptions: (1) that the linear, zero-threshold hypothesis derives from scientific data in radiobiology which are virtually conclusive; (2) it is morally better for public health protection to assume that any radiation exposure, no matter how small, has some harmful effect which can and ought to be prevented. In the past few years these beliefs and related assumptions have received closer scrutiny, revealing hidden reasons for regulatory selection of radiation risks as objects of paramount ethical concern, with the result that greater risks to health have escaped comparison and mitigation. Based on this scrutiny this brief paper explores two questions: Are presupposed assumptions ethically justified on grounds of scientific evidence and ethical consistency? and should moral objections claiming to invalidate comparative risk assessments be accepted or rejected?

397

Workers radiation protection. A necessary constant improvement  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

After an overview of the French situation in terms of workers radiation protection, of its progress and remaining weaknesses (some indicators are given: number of monitored workers, average individual dosed, year limit excess), the different intervention levels are presented: prevention (legal and regulatory framework, visits and inspections, regulatory files, workstation studies, reference documents and education), monitoring (external and internal dosimetry), follow-up (the SISERI information system, individual medical follow-up cards), anomalies and crisis. The change of veterinary practices is outlined (this profession is exposed to radiation and compliance with radiation protection regulations modified their professional practices). The role of the IRSN in the elaboration of French and international standards is presented

398

The current state and prospects of radiation protection in CSSR  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The tasks and the role of radiation protection in the overall nuclear medicine and radiation hygiene system in Czechoslovakia is briefly described. The history of hygiene service and its place in the system of radiation protection is outlined and the mission of radiation protection is shown, namely, care of healthy living conditions vis-a-vis radiation exposure of population and health protection from the effects of the nuclear fuel cycle. (L.O.)

399

Strengthening the radiation protection culture: a priority of EDF radiation protection policy  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

n protection regulatory requirements are applied at EDF, publication of a 'radiation protection handbook' available for all workers (including contractors), training sessions, creation of networks of specialists from the various nuclear power plants on specific radiation protection issues, organisation of feed-back experience forum, etc. Beyond these specific actions, i t is also important to ensure a support and an assistance on the field by dedicated specialists. In this perspective, the health physicists have to play a key role in order to foster the appropriation of the radiation protection culture. For this reason, the structure and the skills of the health physics departments was reinforced and their presence on the field increased. The improvement of radiation protection performances at EDF nuclear power plants is strongly relying on a commitment of all the players involved. Their motivation and vigilance have to be sustained so that their involvement is not merely occasional, but fits into a continuous process. The sharing of a common radiation protection culture is essential as it develops individual and collective behaviours oriented towards a common objective: improving radiation protection and maintaining the levels of exposure as low as reasonably achievable. (author)

400

Individual radiation hypersensitivity and radiological protection  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Individuals with radiation hypersensitivity represent a challenge in terms of radiological protection. ICRP has acknowledged the importance of this issue by publishing Annual No.79 on genetic susceptibility to cancer in 1998. This paper gives a comprehensive overview on the problem. Progress in molecular genetics of cancer have enlarged our knowledge on individual susceptibility to cancer and in relation to this on individual radiation sensitivity. Until now there are some clear defined inherited disorders with evidence for increased risk by high (therapeutic) doses of ionising radiation. As there is rapidly growing knowledge and understanding of the mechanism of disease, the radiation protection society should become more and more acquainted with this special question. Our paper gives a basic introduction to the principles of the mechanisms of individual radiation sensitivity in hereditary disorders. Based on demonstration of disabled tumorsupressor genes in retinoblastoma as a simple example the possible role of environmental factors in cancer development is shown. Epidemiologic data of retinoblastoma cases provide evidence for the role of ionising radiation as an environmental factor increasing the risk for secondary cancer of such patients. Consequences for radiotherapeutic and occupational medicine are highlighted. There are some fundamental rules to be observed by physicians treating patients with radiotherapy. To identify high risk patients genetic testing may be necessary, which is possible know for some hereditary disorders. Problems involving genetic testing are outlined. (author)

 
 
 
 
401

Manual on radiation protection in hospitals and general practice. Radiation protection in dentistry  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The booklet deals with all aspects of the use of X rays in dentistry. The recommendations made are designed to reduce unnecessary exposure of the patient, will result in the production of superior radiographs and assist in eliminating unnecessary exposure of the operator himself. Separate chapters deal with the following topics: the need for radiation protection, delegation of responsibility, radiographic equipment, radiographic film, radiographic techniques, film processing and handling, patient doses (adults and children), general radiation protection and monitoring, educational standards

402

Intervention and sustainability in radiation protection  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The book includes two parts: (A): Intervention and sustainability in radiation protection; summary and assessment of the conference of the German radiation protection commission (Strahlenschutzkommission) in November 2008. (B): lectures: The question of sustainability in connection with long-living radionuclides. Principles for protecting individuals in a context of rehabilitation of living conditions in contaminated territories. The application of the basic principles of radiation protection in case of Wismut recultivation. Situation concerning radon and reduction of radon-induced exposure in Schlema and Schneeberg. International experiences in recultivation projects: Lermontov (Russia), Mailuu (Kirgistan), Kitwe (Zambia). Radiological burden of the past in Germany. Radiological industrial wastes: situation, intervention, sustainability. Radiological burden of the past in Switzerland. Recultivation and clearing procedure in the former fuel production plant NUKEM-A. Justification of the strong sustainability concept. Recultivation strategies for the areas contaminated through the Chernobyl accident. Traces of plutonium production in the Jenissei river. Results and assessment of the active storage for residues (ALfR) in Rheinsberg. Large-scale changes of environmental radioactivity: atmospheric radioactivity. Long-living radionuclides in the hydrosphere: the case of iodine-129. Long-term retention and behavior of radioactivity in the soils. Assessment of long-term behavior of recultivation areas and old environmental contamination. Long-term safety and sustainability for the final repository of radioactive waste. Assessment of the long-term behavior of radiological contaminated uranium mining sites in France - The GEP (Groupe d'expertise pluraliste) approach.

403

The healing arts radiation protection guidelines  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The objective of these guidelines is to help the health professional render the risks associated with diagnostic radiation as low as reasonably achievable. The guidelines contain advice and recommendations, but no mandatory requirements. They assist radiation protection officers in establishing and maintaining a Quality Assurance Program and in carrying out other duties required by the Healing Arts Radiation Protection Act; assist staff to comply with the X-ray Safety Code in a way that will raise the standards of x-ray diagnosis and patient safety; address the relationship between the radiation exposure of the patient and the quality of the image; address the problem of protecting the patient in x-ray examinations; summarize x-ray safety problems from the point of view of the operator and other staff; indicate what remedial measures can be taken; define the quality assurance needs of x-ray users; and encourage the users of x-rays for diagnostic purposes to go beyond the scope of the Act and comply with the ALARA principle

404

Radiation protection optimization. Advances in practical implementation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Within the Community, protection against the dangers of ionizing radiation is regulated in conformity with the provisions of two Council Directives. One is of general application for all activities involving a hazard arising from ionizing radiation and lays down the basic safety standards for the health protection of the general public and workers against the dangers of ionizing radiation. The other is derived from the abovementioned one and lays down the basic measures for the radiation protection of persons undergoing medical examination or treatment. The Commission, in collaboration with the Spanish Ministerio de Sanidad y Consumo, the Consejo de Seguridad Nuclear and the Centro de Investigaciones Energeticas, Medioambientales y Tecnologicas, organized on 12, 13 and 14 September 1988 in Madrid, the third scientific seminar on the optimization principle (Alara) which is a key element of the two abovementioned Council Directives. The seminar allowed an analysis of the progress made since the previous seminars of 1979 and 1983, in the practical implementation of the optimization principle, in relation to the design and operation of nuclear and industrial installations, natural radioactivity, medical practices and countermeasures. The report contains the 20 original contributions presented and some general considerations on the results of the seminar

405

Survey of Canadian hospitals radiation emergency plans  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report documents the findings of a survey of Canadian hospitals conducted by Social Data Research Ltd. during the Spring and Summer, 1995. The main objective of the survey was to determine the state of readiness of Canadian hospitals in respect of radiation emergency planning. In addition, the AECB was interested in knowing the extent to which a report by the Group of Medical Advisors, 'GMA-3: Guidelines on Hospital Emergency Plans for the Management of Minor Radiation Accidents', which was sponsored and distributed in 1993, was received and was useful to hospital administrators and emergency personnel. A self-administered questionnaire was distributed to 598 acute care hospitals, and 274 responses were received. The main conclusion of this study is that, with the exception of a few large institutions, hospitals generally do not have specific action plans to handle minor radiation accidents. (author)

406

Survey of international personnel radiation dosimetry programs  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In September of 1983, a mail survey was conducted to determine the status of external personnel gamma and neutron radiation dosimetry programs at international agencies. A total of 130 agencies participated in this study including military, regulatory, university, hospital, laboratory, and utility facilities. Information concerning basic dosimeter types, calibration sources, calibration phantoms, corrections to dosimeter responses, evaluating agencies, dose equivalent reporting conventions, ranges of typical or expected dose equivalents, and degree of satisfaction with existing systems was obtained for the gamma and neutron personnel monitoring programs at responding agencies. Results of this survey indicate that to provide the best possible occupational radiation monitoring programs and to improve dosimetry accuracy in performance studies, facility dosimetrists, regulatory and standards agencies, and research laboratories must act within their areas of responsibility to become familiar with their radiation monitoring systems, establish common reporting guidelines and performance standards, and provide opportunities for dosimetry testing and evaluation. 14 references, 10 tables

407

Occupational radiation protection: Protecting workers against exposure to ionizing radiation. Proceedings of an international conference  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Occupational exposure to ionizing radiation can occur in a range of industries, in mining and milling, in medical institutions, in educational and research establishments and in nuclear fuel cycle facilities. The term 'occupational exposure' refers to the radiation exposure incurred by a worker which is attributable to the worker's occupation and received or committed during a period of work. According to the latest (2000) Report of the United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR), an estimated 11 million workers worldwide are monitored for exposure to ionizing radiation. They incur radiation doses which range from a small fraction of the global average background exposure to natural radiation up to several times that value. The International Basic Safety Standards for Protection against Ionizing Radiation and for the Safety of Radiation Sources (BSS), which are co-sponsored by, amongst others, the IAEA, the International Labour Organization (ILO), the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency (OECD/NEA) and the World Health Organization (WHO), establish a system of radiation protection of which the provisions for occupational exposure are a substantial component. Guidance supporting the requirements of the BSS for occupational protection is provided in three Safety Guides, jointly sponsored by the IAEA and the ILO, and describing, for example, the implications for employers in discharging their main responsibilities (such as setting up appropriate radiation protection programmes) and similarly for workers (such as properly using the radiation monitoring devices provided to them). It should be noted, however, that radiation protection is only one factor that must be addressed in order to protect the worker's overall health and safety. The occupational radiation protection programme should be established and managed in co-ordination with other health and safety disciplines. Less than half of the occupationally exposed workers are exposed to artificial radiation sources. The majority of occupationally exposed workers are exposed to elevated levels of natural radionuclides. Notably, those workers comprising this latter group receive a higher average annual dose than do those workers exposed to artificial sources. The principal natural sources of radiation exposure, other than the mining and processing of uranium ores, are radon in buildings, non-uranium or thorium ores that contain significant traces of natural radionuclides, other underground workplaces and cosmic rays at aircraft altitudes. The BSS provide for the exclusion of exposures, the magnitude or likelihood of which is essentially unamenable to control. In order to address these issues the first International Conference on Occupational Radiation Protection, hosted by the Government of Switzerland, was organized by the IAEA and convened jointly with the ILO. It was co-sponsored by the European Commission (EC) and held in co-operation with the WHO and the OECD/NEA and also with UNSCEAR, the International Commission on Radiological Protection, the International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurements, the International Electrotechnical Commission, the International Radiation Protection Association and the International Society of Radiology. It was held at the Headquarters of the ILO, Geneva, from 26 to 30 August 2002, and attended by 328 participants from 72 countries and 12 organizations. Through the strong support of the IAEA's Technical Co-operation Department, and also from the EC, almost half of the participants were representing developing countries. The Conference is the first international conference to cover the whole area of occupational radiation protection, including infrastructure development, radiation monitoring, stakeholder involvement, and the probability of causation of occupational harm attributable to radiation exposure. The Proceedings contain all the presentations and discussions as well as summaries of each session and the findings and recommendations of the Conference

408

Medical radiation protection in next decade  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Interest in medical radiation protection today is the same as what it would have been almost a century ago. After many decades of relatively safe application of radiation in medicine, the recent spurt in over exposures, over-use of imaging and accidental exposures has created the need for stakeholders to join hands and contribute towards increasing radiation safety levels. Whether it be the need for technological developments to achieve sub-mSv CT scans, tracking of patient exposure history, accounting for repeated exposures of the same patient, specific consideration of requests for radiological examinations that deliver few mSv of dose, or utilization of regulatory approaches, radiological equipment will need to alert users whenever the radiation dose to the patient is above a defined value. The current decade will focus increasingly on carcinogenic effects in patients. (authors)

409

International Society of Radiology and Radiation Protection  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The purpose of the International Society of Radiology (ISR), as being the global organization of radiologists, is to promote and help co-ordinate the progress of radiology throughout the world. In this capacity and as a co-operating organization of the IAEA, the ISR has a specific responsibility in the global radiological protection of patients. Globally, there are many users of medical radiation, and radiology may be practised in the most awkward circumstances. The individuals performing X ray studies as well as those interpreting them may be well trained, as in industrialized parts of the world, but also less knowledgeable, as in developing areas. The problems of radiological protection, both of patients and of radiation workers, still exist, and radiation equipment is largely diffused throughout the world. That is why a conference like this is today as important as ever. Radiation protection is achieved through education, on the one hand, and legislation, on the other. Legislation and regulation are the instruments of national authorities. The means of the ISR are education and information. Good radiological practice is something that can be taught. The ISR is doing this mainly through the biannual International Congress of Radiology (ICR), now arranged in an area of radiological need; the three previous ICRs were in China, in India and in South America; the next one is going to be in Mexico in 2002. The goal of the ICR is mainly to be an instructive and educational event, especially designed for the needs of its surrounding region. The ISR is aiming at producing educational material. The International Commission on Radiological Education (ICRE), as part of the ISR, is launching the production of a series of educational booklets, which also include radiation protection. The ICRE is actively involved in shaping and organizing the educational and scientific programme of the ICRs

410

Days of Radiation Protection 2001. Conference Proceedings of the 24th Days of Radiation Protection  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Already the 24th annual international conference 'Days of Protection from Radiation' was taking place in Jan Sverma Hotel in Demaenova dolina on 26-29 November 2001. More than 180 participants from the Slovak Republic and the Czech Republic participated in the meetings of experts on protection from radiation. Representative of IAEA Division for Protection from Radiation and the representatives of several European companies securing the project, advisory and supplier's activities in dosimetry of ionising radiation also participated in the conference. The participants discussed in 7 expert panels the issue of protection from radiation in the legislative field, in the nuclear facilities operation and in medicine. The expert part of the other panels concerned the issues of ionising radiation impact on the environment and working environment, natural radio-nuclides, including radon and biologic impacts of radiation. One separate panel was dedicated to device techniques and methods of dosimetry of ionising radiation. More than 45 expert lectures and more than 40 poster presentations were presented at the conference during 3 days. The exhibition and presentation of measuring technique products and devices and of materials used in the area of radiation protection and nuclear medicine was prepared during the course of the conference. Participation in the conference showed that a great interest in problems of protection from radiation persists. This was proved by rich lecturing activity and wide discussions on the floor and during the poster presentations. Participants were satisfied since the organisers of the event prepared a worthy event with the rich expert themes at a good organisational and social level in a beautiful environment of Low Tatras

411

radiation protection services and Norm procedures at Guoco-Rsh  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

coordinated service programs of radiation protection and NORM handling procedures are implemented at Gupco-Rsh according to a bilateral agreement between the gulf of suez petroleum company (Gupco) and the atomic energy authority (AEA) since august 1995. the services included under the domain of the agreement are carried out by an expert group during periodic visits to Gupco-Rsh site. the activities performed serving the purpose of the programs implemented are extensive. essentially aiming at instituting an integrated radiation protection services in petroleum industry, and procedures for safe handling of NORM and NORM- contaminated items; the safety of industrial sealed sources is also seriously addressed.the AEA expert group adopt the international recommendations for protection of workers and environmental preservation for all procedures implemented . however. modifications are made to harmonize the implementation to accord with current egyptian regulations.The main features of the programmes instituted include targeted training addressed to selected groups; radiological mapping surveys of Rsh area with periodic monitoring of selected onshore and offshore sites.Measurements of personnel radiation exposure, and medical surveillance of radiation workers is periodically carried out

412

Decommissioning an uranium and thorium facility: a radiation protection approach  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Decommissioning means actions taken at the end of the useful life of a facility in retiring it from service with adequate regard for the health and safety of workers and members of the public. In the present work, we introduce a radiation protection approach for the removal of radioactive material to the extent that the facility or site becomes available for use without restriction. The facility to be decommissioned is a fuel cycle pilot plant that operated with natural uranium and thorium for almost two decades and then, kept inactive for about 10 years at the Nuclear and Energy Research Institute - IPEN. Even after this long period of inactivity, it has presented significant levels of radiation and contamination spread over the floor, walls, windows, doors and ceiling. The fuel cycle pilot plant was completely dismantled, remaining only the walls and the concrete structures. In this work we present the job done to restore the area. According to each step of dis